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1

Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total

Iuliana Spiridon; Svetlana Colceru; Narcis Anghel; Carmen Alice Teaca; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Alice Armatu

2011-01-01

2

Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.  

PubMed

The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides. PMID:21707233

Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

2011-10-01

3

Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

2014-01-01

4

Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiacae).  

PubMed

Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils obtained from the same individual (of the same genotype) of Lavandula angustifolia cultivated in Belgrade were determined by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole (7.1-48.4%), linalool (0.1-38.7%), bomeol (10.9-27.7%), beta-phellandrene (0.5-21.2%) and camphor (1.5-15.8%). Cluster analysis showed that the 21 samples collected each month during the vegetation cycle were separable into three main clades with different compositions of essential oils. In the shoots with flowers, inflorescences and fruits of clade I, linalool is dominant, in the young leaves before flowering and old leaves of clade II, 1,8-cineole is dominant. In the young and incompletely developed leaves of clade III, beta-phellandrene is dominant. The composition of the essential oils of lavender depended on the plant part and the stage of development. PMID:25115100

Lakusi?, Branislava; Lakusi?, Dmitar; Risti?, Mihailo; Marceti?, Mirjana; Slavkovska, Violeta

2014-06-01

5

Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill  

PubMed Central

Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.—a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties—since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health. PMID:24971151

Emiliani, Giovanni; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

2014-01-01

6

Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.-a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties-since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health. PMID:24971151

Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

2014-01-01

7

The antimutagenic activity of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil in the bacterial reverse mutation assay.  

PubMed

Essential oils from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree oil) and Lavandula angustifolia (lavender oil) are commonly used to treat minor health problems. Tea-tree oil possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and is increasingly used for skin problems. Lavender oil, traditionally used as an antiseptic agent, is now predominantly used as a relaxant, carminative, and sedative in aromatherapy. Despite their growing use no data are available on their mutagenic potential. In this study, after determining the chemical composition of tea-tree oil and lavender oil, by gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry, we investigated their mutagenic and antimutagenic activities by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain, with and without an extrinsic metabolic activation system. Neither essential oil had mutagenic activity on the two tested Salmonella strains or on E. coli, with or without the metabolic activation system. Conversely, lavender oil exerted strong antimutagenic activity, reducing mutant colonies in the TA98 strain exposed to the direct mutagen 2-nitrofluorene. Antimutagenicity was concentration-dependent: the maximal concentration (0.80 mg/plate) reduced the number of histidine-independent revertant colonies by 66.4%. Lavender oil (0.80 mg/plate) also showed moderate antimutagenicity against the TA98 strain exposed to the direct mutagen 1-nitropyrene. Its antimutagenic property makes lavender oil a promising candidate for new applications in human healthcare. PMID:15907354

Evandri, M G; Battinelli, L; Daniele, C; Mastrangelo, S; Bolle, P; Mazzanti, G

2005-09-01

8

Antifungal activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil against Candida albicans yeast and mycelial form.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender oil) and its main components, linalool and linalyl acetate, was investigated against 50 clinical isolates of Candida albicans (28 oropharyngeal strains, 22 vaginal strains) and C. albicans ATCC 3153. Growth inhibition, killing time and inhibition of germ tube formation were evaluated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Lavender oil inhibited C. albicans growth: mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.69% (vol./vol.) (vaginal strains) and 1.04% (oropharyngeal strains); mean MFC of 1.1% (vaginal strains) and 1.8% (oropharyngeal strains). Linalool was more effective than essential oil: mean MIC of 0.09% (vaginal strains) and 0.29% (oropharyngeal strains); mean MFC of 0.1% (vaginal strains) and 0.3% (oropharyngeal strains). Linalyl acetate was almost ineffective. Lavender oil (2%) killed 100% of the C. albicans ATCC 3153 cells within 15 min; linalool (0.5%) killed 100% of the cells within 30 s. The essential oil inhibited germ tube formation (mean MIC of 0.09%), as did the main components (MIC of 0.11% for linalool and 0.08% for linalyl acetate). Both the essential oil and its main components inhibited hyphal elongation of C. albicans ATCC 3153 (about 50% inhibition at 0.016% with each substance). Lavender oil shows both fungistatic and fungicidal activity against C. albicans strains. At lower concentrations, it inhibits germ tube formation and hyphal elongation, indicating that it is effective against C. albicans dimorphism and may thus reduce fungal progression and the spread of infection in host tissues. PMID:16178366

D'Auria, F D; Tecca, M; Strippoli, V; Salvatore, G; Battinelli, L; Mazzanti, G

2005-08-01

9

Protein Drug Targets of Lavandula angustifolia on treatment of Rat Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Different treatment strategies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are being studied for treating or slowing the progression of AD. Many pharmaceutically important regulation systems operate through proteins as drug targets. Here, we investigate the drug target proteins in beta-amyloid (A?) injected rat hippocampus treated with Lavandula angustifolia (LA) by proteomics techniques. The reported study showed that lavender extract (LE) improves the spatial performance in AD animal model by diminishing A? production in histopathology of hippocampus, so in this study neuroprotective proteins expressed in A? injected rats treated with LE were scrutinized. Rats were divided into three groups including normal, A? injected, and A? injected that was treated with LE. Protein expression profiles of hippocampus tissue were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) method and dysregulated proteins such as Snca, NF-L, Hspa5, Prdx2, Apoa1, and Atp5a1were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. KEGG pathway and gene ontology (GO) categories were used by searching DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. All detected protein spots were used to determine predictedinteractions with other proteins in STRING online database. Different isoforms of important protein, Snca that exhibited neuroprotective effects by anti-apoptotic properties were expressed. NF-L involved in the maintenance of neuronal caliber. Hspa5 likewise Prdx2 displays as anti-apoptotic protein that Prdx2 also involved in the neurotrophic effects. Apoa1 has anti-inflammatory activity and Atp5a1, produces ATP from ADP. To sum up, these proteins as potential drug targets were expressed in hippocampus in response to effective components in LA may have therapeutic properties for the treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Zali, Hakimeh; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Akbar-zadeh Baghban, Alireza

2015-01-01

10

Protein Drug Targets of Lavandula angustifolia on treatment of Rat Alzheimer's Disease.  

PubMed

Different treatment strategies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are being studied for treating or slowing the progression of AD. Many pharmaceutically important regulation systems operate through proteins as drug targets. Here, we investigate the drug target proteins in beta-amyloid (A?) injected rat hippocampus treated with Lavandula angustifolia (LA) by proteomics techniques. The reported study showed that lavender extract (LE) improves the spatial performance in AD animal model by diminishing A? production in histopathology of hippocampus, so in this study neuroprotective proteins expressed in A? injected rats treated with LE were scrutinized. Rats were divided into three groups including normal, A? injected, and A? injected that was treated with LE. Protein expression profiles of hippocampus tissue were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) method and dysregulated proteins such as Snca, NF-L, Hspa5, Prdx2, Apoa1, and Atp5a1were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. KEGG pathway and gene ontology (GO) categories were used by searching DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. All detected protein spots were used to determine predictedinteractions with other proteins in STRING online database. Different isoforms of important protein, Snca that exhibited neuroprotective effects by anti-apoptotic properties were expressed. NF-L involved in the maintenance of neuronal caliber. Hspa5 likewise Prdx2 displays as anti-apoptotic protein that Prdx2 also involved in the neurotrophic effects. Apoa1 has anti-inflammatory activity and Atp5a1, produces ATP from ADP. To sum up, these proteins as potential drug targets were expressed in hippocampus in response to effective components in LA may have therapeutic properties for the treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25561935

Zali, Hakimeh; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Akbar-Zadeh Baghban, Alireza

2015-01-01

11

Cardioprotective Effects of Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia on Isoproterenol-induced Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rat.  

PubMed

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common presentation of the ischemic heart disease. Lavandula angustifolia is an herbaceous plant with antioxidative effects. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of lavandula angustifolia essential oil against isoproterenol-induced MI in rats. The dried sample was subjected to hydrodistillation by using a Clevenger and the oils were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of control, sham, isoproterenol and treatment with 5, 10, 20 mg/Kg of the essential oil. MI was induced by subcutaneous injection of Isoproterenol (100 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days at an interval of 24 h. The essential oil was given intraperitoneally every 24 h started at MI induction. Following anesthesia, hemodynamic parameters were measured. After sacrificing the animals, the hearts were removed to measure the heart to body weight ratio and histopathological examination. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in heart tissues for evaluating the activity of neutrophils and lipid peroxidation, respectively. The essential oil amended ECG pattern by suppressing ST-segment elevation and increasing R-amplitude. 10 mg/Kg of the essential oil significantly decreased heart to body weight ratio (P<0.001) and the elevation of MDA and MPO in myocardium, it also increased dp/dtmax from 2793 ± 210 to 4488 ± 253 mmHg/sec (P<0.001), and 20 mg/Kg of it significantly lowered LVEDP from 14 ± 3.43 to 4.3 ± 0.83 mmHg (P<0.001).The results demonstrated that L. angustifolia protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced MI that it could be related to its antioxidant properties. PMID:25561934

Ziaee, Mojtaba; Khorrami, Arash; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Nourafcan, Hassan; Amiraslanzadeh, Masoumeh; Rameshrad, Maryam; Garjani, Mehraveh; Garjani, Alireza

2015-01-01

12

Cardioprotective Effects of Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia on Isoproterenol-induced Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rat  

PubMed Central

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common presentation of the ischemic heart disease. Lavandula angustifolia is an herbaceous plant with antioxidative effects. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of lavandula angustifolia essential oil against isoproterenol-induced MI in rats. The dried sample was subjected to hydrodistillation by using a Clevenger and the oils were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of control, sham, isoproterenol and treatment with 5, 10, 20 mg/Kg of the essential oil. MI was induced by subcutaneous injection of Isoproterenol (100 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days at an interval of 24 h. The essential oil was given intraperitoneally every 24 h started at MI induction. Following anesthesia, hemodynamic parameters were measured. After sacrificing the animals, the hearts were removed to measure the heart to body weight ratio and histopathological examination. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in heart tissues for evaluating the activity of neutrophils and lipid peroxidation, respectively. The essential oil amended ECG pattern by suppressing ST-segment elevation and increasing R-amplitude. 10 mg/Kg of the essential oil significantly decreased heart to body weight ratio (P<0.001) and the elevation of MDA and MPO in myocardium, it also increased dp/dtmax from 2793 ± 210 to 4488 ± 253 mmHg/sec (P<0.001), and 20 mg/Kg of it significantly lowered LVEDP from 14 ± 3.43 to 4.3 ± 0.83 mmHg (P<0.001).The results demonstrated that L. angustifolia protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced MI that it could be related to its antioxidant properties. PMID:25561934

Ziaee, Mojtaba; Khorrami, Arash; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Nourafcan, Hassan; Amiraslanzadeh, Masoumeh; Rameshrad, Maryam; Garjani, Mehraveh; Garjani, Alireza

2015-01-01

13

The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (?FIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1?:?1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1?:?1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro; van Vuuren, Sandy

2013-01-01

14

The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (?FIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1?:?1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1?:?1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro

2013-01-01

15

The Effects of Lavandula Angustifolia Mill Infusion on Depression in Patients Using Citalopram: A comparison Study  

PubMed Central

Background Many herbs have been used to treat psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression in traditional medicine. Objectives This study was carried out to determine the effect of using Lavandula angustifilia infusion on depression in patients taking Citalopram. Patients and Methods Among all patients referred to the Hajar Hospital psychiatric clinic, Shahrekord, Iran, 80 patients who met the criteria of major depression according to the structured interviews and the Hamilton questionnaire for Depression were included in the study. They were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental treatment group and standard treatment group at this study. In standard treatment group, the patients were given Citalopram 20 mg. In experimental treatment group, the patients took 2 cups of the infusion of 5 g dried Lavandula angustifilia in addition to tablet Citalopram 20 mg twice a day. The patients were followed up for four and eight weeks of the study onset using Hamilton Scale questionnaire and treatment side effects form. Data were analyzed using student t-test, pair t-test and chi square. Results After four weeks of the trial onset, the mean depression score according to the Hamilton Scale for Depression was 17.5 ± 3.5 in the standard treatment group and 15.2 ± 3.6 in the experimental treatment group (P < 0.05). After eight weeks, it was 16.8±4.6 and 14.8±4 respectively (P < 0.01). In addition, the most commonly observed adverse effects were nausea (12.8 %) and confusion (10%). In terms of side effects, there were no significant differences between two groups. Conclusions Considering the results of this study, Lavandula angustifilia infusion has some positive therapeutic effects on depressed patients most importantly decreases mean depression score and might be used alone or as an adjunct to other anti-depressant drugs. PMID:24578844

Nikfarjam, Masoud; Parvin, Neda; Assarzadegan, Naziheh; Asghari, Shabnam

2013-01-01

16

Biochemical composition and antioxidant properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil are shielded by propolis against UV radiations.  

PubMed

UV radiations are principal causes of skin cancer and aging. Suntan creams were developed to protect epidermis and derma layers against photodegradation and photooxidation. The addition of antioxidant plant extracts (i.e. essential oil) to sunscreens is habitually performed, to increase their UV protective effects and to contrast pro-radical and cytotoxic compounds present in these solutions. According to these observations, in the present work, the alteration of chemical composition and bioactive properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil, exposed to UV light, was investigated. UV induced a significant deterioration of lavender oil biochemical profile. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of this solution, in in vitro tests and directly on B16-F10 melanoma cells, greatly decreased after UV treatment. Our results also showed that essential oil was shielded from UV stress by propolis addition. Even after UV treatment, bee glue highly protected lavender oil secondary metabolites from degradation and also preserved their antiradical properties, both in in vitro antioxidant assays and in cell oxidative damage evaluations. This research proposed propolis as highly efficient UV protective and antiradical additive for sunscreens, cosmetics and alimentary or pharmaceutical products containing plant extracts. PMID:24372191

Gismondi, Angelo; Angelo, Gismondi; Canuti, Lorena; Lorena, Canuti; Grispo, Marta; Marta, Grispo; Canini, Antonella; Antonella, Canini

2014-01-01

17

Comparative studies of cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of different extracts and the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia on malignant and normal cells.  

PubMed

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is a bush-like shrub from Lamiaceae. The herb has been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the mechanisms of cell death induced by 3 different extracts of aerial parts and the essential oil of L. angustifolia were compared in normal and cancerous human cells. Malignant (HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines) and nonmalignant (human fibroblasts) cells were incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts. Cell viability was quantified by MTS assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The molecules as apoptotic signal translation, including Bax and cleaved PARP, were identified by Western blot. Ethanol and n-hexane extracts and essential oil exhibited significant cytotoxicity to malignant cells but marginal cytotoxicity to human fibroblasts in vitro and induced a sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to the control. Western blot analysis demonstrated that EtOH and n-hexane extracts upregulated Bax expression, also it induced cleavage of PARP in HeLa cells compared to the control. In conclusion, L. angustifolia has cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, and apoptosis is proposed as the possible mechanism of action. PMID:24571090

Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Amiri, Atefeh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

2014-01-01

18

Silexan, an essential oil from flowers of Lavandula angustifolia, is not recognized as benzodiazepine-like in rats trained to discriminate a diazepam cue.  

PubMed

Recently, an essential oil of selected quality produced from the flowering tops of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. by steam distillation (Silexan) has been approved in Germany for the treatment of restlessness in case of anxious mood. Based on the observed clinical effects, it has been speculated that lavender oil may exert benzodiazepine-like action including the known dependence and abuse potential of this class of drugs. Although no evidence for such an activity was generated during the long-standing medicinal use of lavender oil, further preclinical investigations were now conducted to evaluate this potential side effect in more detail. Twelve adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate the benzodiazepine drug diazepam (2 mg/kg i.p.) from saline using a two-lever operant procedure. After approximately 40 training sessions the majority of rats learned the discrimination and pre-treatment with ascending doses of diazepam (0.3-2 mg/kg i.p.) produced a dose related generalization to the diazepam cue. In these same animals Silexan was administered to see if animals recognized the drug as "diazepam-like" i.e. generalized to diazepam or "saline-like". Silexan tested at doses 3-30 mg/kg i.p. produced almost exclusively (>90%) saline-like responding. Also there was no effect of Silexan on response rate, i.e. rate of lever pressing, at any dose suggesting that the test article is well tolerated and does not exert a sedating effect. In sum, Silexan has no diazepam-like interoceptive property in adult, male rats. This suggests that Silexan does not share the potential of benzodiazepines to induce the development of tolerance, dependence and addiction. PMID:23207249

Silenieks, Leo B; Koch, Egon; Higgins, Guy A

2013-01-15

19

Randomized Controlled Trial for Salvia sclarea or Lavandula angustifolia: Differential Effects on Blood Pressure in Female Patients with Urinary Incontinence Undergoing Urodynamic Examination  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inhalation of Salvia sclarea (clary sage; clary) or Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil vapors on autonomic nervous system activity in female patients with urinary incontinence undergoing urodynamic assessment. Study design, location, and subjects This study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial carried out in 34 female patients with urinary incontinence. Outcome measure The subjects were randomized to inhale lavender, clary, or almond (control) oil at concentrations of 5% (vol/vol) each. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and salivary cortisol were measured before and after inhalation of these odors for 60 minutes. Results The clary oil group experienced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure compared with the control (p=0.048) and lavender oil (p=0.026) groups, a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure compared with the lavender oil group (p=0.034) and a significant decrease in respiratory rate compared with the control group (p<0.001). In contrast, the lavender oil group tended to increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the control group. Compared with the control group, inhalation of lavender oil (p=0.045) and clary oil (p<0.001) resulted in statistically significant reductions in respiratory rate. Conclusions These results suggest that lavender oil inhalation may be inappropriate in lowering stress during urodynamic examinations, despite its antistress effects, while clary oil inhalation may be useful in inducing relaxation in female urinary incontinence patients undergoing urodynamic assessments. PMID:23360656

Lee, Yun Hee; Kang, Purum; You, Ji Hye; Park, Mira; Min, Sun Seek

2013-01-01

20

Anxiolytic-like effect of inhalation of essential oil from Lavandula officinalis: investigation of changes in 5-HT turnover and involvement of olfactory stimulation.  

PubMed

Essential oil extracted from Lavandula officinalis (LvEO) has a long history of usage in anxiety alleviation with good evidence to support its use. However, findings and information regarding the exact pathway involved and mechanism of action remain inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to (1) reveal the influence of olfactory stimulation, and (2) determine whether the serotonergic system is involved in the anxiolytic effect of LvEO when it is inhaled. To this end, we first compared the anxiety-related behaviors of normosmic and anosmic mice. LvEO inhalation caused notable elevation in anxiety-related parameters with or without olfactory perception, indicating that olfactory stimulation is not necessarily required for LvEO to be effective. Neurochemical analysis of the serotonin (5-HT) turnover rate, accompanied by EPM testing, was then performed. LvEO significantly increased the striatal and hippocampal levels of 5-HT and decreased turnover rates in accordance with the anxiolytic behavioral changes. These results, together with previous findings, support the hypothesis that serotonergic neurotransmission plays a certain role in the anxiolytic properties of LvEO. PMID:25230519

Takahashi, Mizuho; Yamanaka, Ayako; Asanuma, Chihiro; Asano, Hiroko; Satou, Tadaaki; Koike, Kazuo

2014-07-01

21

Protective Effect of Lavandula stoechas and Rosmarinus officinalis Essential Oils Against Reproductive Damage and Oxidative Stress in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

Abstract The authors aimed in the present study to assess the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (ROEO) and Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Essential oil samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Rats were divided into four groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy+ROEO (H+ROEO), healthy+LSEO (H+LSEO), diabetic+ROEO (D+ROEO), and diabetic+LSEO (D+LSEO). The use of GC-MS allowed to the identification of 15 and 22 compounds in ROEO and LSEO, respectively. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test showed that ROEO and LSEO had an important antioxidant capacity. In vivo, we initially found that ROEO and LSEO treatment protected against the decrease in alloxan-induced body weight gain, relative reproductive organ weights, testosterone level, as well as sperm quality decline. On the other hand, we showed that alloxan administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testis, epididymis, and sperm. More importantly, ROEO and LSEO treatment significantly protected against oxidative damage of the male reproductive organ systems in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggested that ROEO and LSEO exerted a potential protective effect against alloxan-induced reproductive function damage and oxidative stress in male rat. The beneficial effect of ROEO and LSEO might be related, in part, to their antioxidant properties. PMID:25105335

Sebai, Hichem; Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Gharbi, Najoua; Sakly, Mohsen

2014-08-01

22

Micropropagation of Lavandula spp.  

PubMed

Lavandula species are some of the most popular ornamental and medicinal plants with great economic values. These species are vegetative propagated by stem cuttings. However, the poor rooting ability and vulnerability of plantlets to contamination are major limiting factors for propagation. In vitro culture methods are suitable to overcome these limitations. This chapter describes protocols for in vitro propagation of Lavandula viridis L'Hér and Lavandula vera DC. Nodal shoot proliferation of L. viridis and plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus of L. vera by an "open culture system" are highlighted. PMID:23179699

Gonçalves, Sandra; Romano, Anabela

2013-01-01

23

Necrodane monoterpenoids from Lavandula luisieri.  

PubMed

Four new irregular monoterpenoids were identified in the essential oil of Lavandula luisieri (Rozeira) Riv. Mart., a Labiatae endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. By means of spectroscopic and chemical methods, they were characterised as 3,5-dimethylene-1,4,4-trimethylcyclopentene, 5-methylene-2,3,4,4-tetramethylcyclopent-2-enone, 3,4,5,5-tetramethylcyclopenta-1,3-dienecarboxaldehyde and 3,4,5,5-tetramethylcyclopenta-1,3-dienecarboxylic acid. L. luisieri essential oil and extract showed a good activity against Candida albicans and gram positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and S. pyogenes. PMID:15953623

Baldovini, Nicolas; Lavoine-Hanneguelle, Sophie; Ferrando, Georges; Dusart, Ghislaine; Lizzani-Cuvelier, Louisette

2005-07-01

24

The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of 10 plant species from interior Portugal were analyzed for their activity towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and their antioxidant activity. Of these, Melissa officinalis, Paronychia argentea, Sanguisorba minor, Hypericum undulatum and Malva silvestris are used in herbal medicine, Laurus nobilis and Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata also

A. Ferreira; C. Proença; M. L. M. Serralheiro; M. E. M. Araújo

2006-01-01

25

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

26

Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional Romanian herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;

Iuliana Spiridon; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Carmen-Alice Teaca

2011-01-01

27

Diterpenes from Arnica angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

From flowerheads of Arnica angustifolia ssp. attenuata the labdane diterpenes labd-13(Z)-ene-8?,15-diol (main component) and (13R,14R)8,13-epoxylabdane-14,15-diol were isolated and their structures established by extensive NMR and MS measurements. Both compounds are reported as natural products for the first time. Oxidative degradation of the main component was observed and the oxidation products 8?-hydroxylabd-13(Z)-ene-15-al, 8?-hydroxylabd-13(E)-ene-15-al and 8,13-epoxylabdane-15-al were identified. Additionally, the tetranorlabdanolide norambreinolide,

Thomas J. Schmidt; Claus M. Passreiter; Detlef Wendisch; Günter Willuhn

1995-01-01

28

Isolation and functional characterization of a ?-cadinol synthase, a new sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula angustifolia.  

PubMed

In this paper we characterize three sTPSs: a germacrene D (LaGERDS), a (E)-?-caryophyllene (LaCARS) and a ?-cadinol synthase (LaCADS). ?-cadinol synthase is reported here for the first time and its activity was studied in several biological models including transiently or stably transformed tobacco species. Three dimensional structure models of LaCADS and Ocimum basilicum ?-cadinene synthase were built by homology modeling using the template structure of Gossypium arboreum ?-cadinene synthase. The depiction of their active site organization provides evidence of the global influence of the enzymes on the formation of ?-cadinol: instead of a unique amino-acid, the electrostatic properties and solvent accessibility of the whole active site in LaCADS may explain the stabilization of the cadinyl cation intermediate. Quantitative PCR performed from leaves and inflorescences showed two patterns of expression. LaGERDS and LaCARS were mainly expressed during early stages of flower development and, at these stages, transcript levels paralleled the accumulation of the corresponding terpene products (germacrene D and (E)-?-caryophyllene). By contrast, the expression level of LaCADS was constant in leaves and flowers. Phylogenetic analysis provided informative results on potential duplication process leading to sTPS diversification in lavender. PMID:24078339

Jullien, Frédéric; Moja, Sandrine; Bony, Aurélie; Legrand, Sylvain; Petit, Cécile; Benabdelkader, Tarek; Poirot, Kévin; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Guitton, Yann; Nicolè, Florence; Baudino, Sylvie; Magnard, Jean-Louis

2014-01-01

29

Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature.  

PubMed

The essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia L. and Mentha piperita L. were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major constituents were linalool (22.35%), linalyl acetate (21.80%), trans-ocimene (6.16%) and 4-terpineol (5.19%) for L. angustifolia and menthol (33.28%), menthone (22.03%), and menthyl acetate (6.40%) for M. piperita. In vitro antibacterial activity of both EOs against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus CECT 4459 showed high inhibition against S. aureus. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained with L. angustifolia (0.25 ?L/mL) against S. aureus; M. piperita exhibited a MIC of 0.50 ?L/mL against both microorganisms. Both EOs caused a significant decrease of bacterial growth in minced beef (p<0.05) stored at 9±1 °C. Minced beef treated with EOs showed the lowest TBARS values (lipid oxidation). Moreover, the results showed that the addition of EOs significantly extended fresh meat odor even at abuse temperature. PMID:22789458

Djenane, Djamel; Aïder, Mohammed; Yangüela, Javier; Idir, Lamia; Gómez, Diego; Roncalés, Pedro

2012-12-01

30

Effect of lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia) on cerebral edema and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke.  

PubMed

Lavender belongs to the family Labiatae and has a variety of cosmetic uses as well as therapeutic purposes in herbal medicine. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of lavender oil against brain edema and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke. Under Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1h in rats. Lavender oil (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg ip (and/or vehicle was injected at the onset of ischemia. Infarct size, cerebral edema, functional outcome, and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated using standard methods. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression of VEGF, Bax, and Bcl-2. Treatment with lavender oil at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly diminished infarct size, brain edema, and improved functional outcome after cerebral ischemia (P<0.001). Lavender oil (200 mg/kg) also reduced the content of malondialdehyde and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity (P<0.001). Although lavender oil enhanced VEGF expression (P=0.026), it could not decrease the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio (pro- to anti-apoptotic proteins) in the rat brain (P>0.05). The results indicated that lavender oil has neuroprotective activity against cerebral ischemia and alleviated neurological function in rats, and the mechanism may be related to augmentation in endogenous antioxidant defense, inhibiting oxidative stress, and increasing VEGF expression in the rat brain. However, lavender oil could not suppress the apoptosis pathway. PMID:24384140

Vakili, Abedin; Sharifat, Shaghayegh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza

2014-02-22

31

Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.  

PubMed

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. PMID:20657443

de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

2010-06-01

32

Bioaccumulation of metals from tannery sludge by Typha angustifolia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metal bioaccumulation capability of a common anchored hydrophyte, Typha angustifolia L. was studied in a green house trial. The plants could absorb significant amounts of the heavy metals like chromium, copper and zinc from tannery sludge. Different concentrations of tannery sludge were prepared in water and plants of T. angustifolia were exposed to the sludge for 30, 60 and

Sheza Khilji

2008-01-01

33

Allelopathic potential of Echinacea angustifolia D.C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia D.C., the common purple coneflower of the western Great Plains, has been shown to produce many biologically active compounds. The allelopathic potential of water soluble and volatile compounds from E. angustifolia plants from three separate populations was examined. Lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa), the common allelopathy bioassay system, as well as seeds from two native species, Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

A. L. Viles; R. N. Reese

1996-01-01

34

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas, belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae). It exhibits several medicinal properties. The plant is subjected to chemical investigation and during this investigation one fatty acid, four triterpenes and one glycoside have been isolated. Their structures have been elucidated by modern spectroscopic techniques.

M. Suhail Anwer; M. Mohtasheem; Iqbal Azhar; S. W. Ahmed; H. Bano

35

Lavandula species as accompanying plants in Cupressus replanting strategies: Effect on plant growth, mycorrhizal soil infectivity and soil microbial catabolic diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general objective of this study was to measure the mycorrhizal dependencies of Cupressus and Lavandula species, to assess the contribution of Lavandula species to the mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI) and to determine the main effects of the association between a Lavandula species (L. multifida) and Cupressus arizonica on the soil microbial activities, on the growth and the mycorrhizal status

Lahcen Ouahmane; Mohamed Hafidi; Christian Plenchette; Marija Kisa; Ali Boumezzough; Jean Thioulouse; Robin Duponnois

2006-01-01

36

Elaeagnus angustifolia Elevates Soil Inorganic Nitrogen Pools in Riparian Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaeagnus angustifolia L., a nonnative N2-fixer, has established within riparian corridors of the interior western United States and is now the fourth most frequently\\u000a occurring woody riparian plant in this region. We examined whether E. angustifolia alters pools and fluxes of soil inorganic N at eight sites dominated by Populus deltoides ssp. wislizeni along the Rio Grande in New Mexico

J. J. Follstad Shah; M. J. Harner; T. M. Tibbets

2010-01-01

37

The Biosynthetic Origin of Irregular Monoterpenes in Lavandula  

PubMed Central

Lavender essential oils are constituted predominantly of regular monoterpenes, for example linalool, 1,8-cineole, and camphor. However, they also contain irregular monoterpenes including lavandulol and lavandulyl acetate. Although the majority of genes responsible for the production of regular monoterpenes in lavenders are now known, enzymes (including lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS)) catalyzing the biosynthesis of irregular monoterpenes in these plants have not been described. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase cDNA, termed Lavandula x intermedia lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LiLPPS), through a homology-based cloning strategy. The LiLPPS ORF, encoding for a 305-amino acid long protein, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The approximately 34.5-kDa bacterially produced protein specifically catalyzed the head-to-middle condensation of two dimethylallyl diphosphate units to LPP in vitro with apparent Km and kcat values of 208 ± 12 ?m and 0.1 s?1, respectively. LiLPPS is a homodimeric enzyme with a sigmoidal saturation curve and Hill coefficient of 2.7, suggesting a positive co-operative interaction among its catalytic sites. LiLPPS could be used to modulate the production of lavandulol and its derivatives in plants through metabolic engineering. PMID:23306202

Demissie, Zerihun A.; Erland, Lauren A. E.; Rheault, Mark R.; Mahmoud, Soheil S.

2013-01-01

38

Lavandula luisieri essential oil as a source of antifungal drugs.  

PubMed

This work reports the antifungal activity of Lavandula luisieri essential oils against yeast, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains responsible for human infections and food contamination. The oil's cytotoxicity and its effect on the yeast-mycelium transition in Candida albicans, an important virulence factor, were also evaluated. Analyses by GC and GC/MS showed a peculiar composition of irregular monoterpenes. Significant differences between the samples occurred in the amounts of 1,8-cineole, fenchone and trans-?-necrodyl acetate. The oil with higher amounts of irregular monoterpenes was the most effective. The influence of the oils on the dimorphic transition in C. albicans was also studied through the germ tube inhibition assay. Filamentation was completely inhibited at concentrations sixteen times lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration. The results support the use of L. luiseiri essential oils in the development of new phytopharmaceuticals and food preservatives and emphasise its antifungal properties at concentrations not cytotoxic or with very low detrimental effects on mammalian cells. PMID:22953886

Zuzarte, M; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Cavaleiro, C; Canhoto, J; Vaz, S; Pinto, E; Salgueiro, L

2012-12-01

39

Long-term competitive displacement of Typha latifolia by Typha angustifolia in a eutrophic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study follows the outcome of long-term competition between a broad-leaved and a narrowleaved Typha species, T. latifolia and T. angustifolia respectively, in a eutrophic lake. The lake was bordered by a zone of T. latifolia, at one location interrupted by a T. angustifolia stand. Distributional changes of the T. angustifolia stand and the adjacent zone of T. latifolia were

Stefan E. B. Weiner

1993-01-01

40

Sesquiterpene lactone and flavonoid variability of the Arnica angustifolia aggregate (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In flowerheads of Arnica angustifolia Vahl subsp. attenuata (Greene) Maguire, 26 flavonoid aglycones (4 flavanones, 9 flavones, 13 flavonols) were identified by means of GC\\/MS and TLC analyses. Four of these, naringenin, rhamnazin, rhamnocitrin and eupalitin have not previously been reported as constituents of the genus Arnica. Comparative analysis of different populations of A. angustifolia subsp. attenuata, angustifolia and tomentosa

Thomas J Schmidt; Günter Willuhn

2000-01-01

41

Comparison of antioxidant activity of clove ( Eugenia caryophylata Thunb) buds and lavender ( Lavandula stoechas L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of water and ethanol extracts of clove (Eugenia carophyllata) buds and lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) was studied. The antioxidant properties of both extracts of clove and lavender were evaluated using different antioxidant tests; reductive potential, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. The both extracts of clove and lavender exhibited strong total antioxidant

Ìlhami Gülçin; ?. Güngör ?at; ?ükrü Beydemir; Mahfuz Elmasta?; Ö. ?rfan Küfrevio?lu

2004-01-01

42

The chemical constituents and biological activity of essential oil of Lavandula stoechas ssp. stoechas.  

PubMed

The composition of essential oil of the leaves of Lavandula stoechas ssp. stoechas, was analyzed by means of capillary GC-MS. The main components of L. stoechas ssp. stoechas oil were pulegone (40.4%), menthol (18.1%), menthone (12.6%). The essential oil of the plant was evaluated for antibacterial and a panel cytotoxic activities. PMID:12440714

Gören, Ahmet; Topçu, Gülaçti; Bilsel, Gökhan; Bilsel, Mine; Aydo?mu?, Zeynep; Pezzuto, John M

2002-01-01

43

Chemical compounds and essential oil release through decomposition process from Lavandula stoechas in Mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

All aromatic plants emit volatile substances into the environment either during their life or during the decomposition process. During decomposition, these volatile constituents affect the top soil microflora and the nutrients recycle process. Lavandula stoechas is a perennial aromatic shrub, rich in aromatic substances which can be found abundant across the Mediterranean. The aim of the present study was to

Christos N. Hassiotis

2010-01-01

44

Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils and methanol extracts of three wild Lavandula L. species.  

PubMed

A comparative study of essential oil composition, polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of Lavandula coronopifolia, Lavandula multifida and Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas were reported. Qualitative and quantitative variations in the composition of oils according to species were shown. Lavandula coronopifolia's oil was characterised by high proportions of trans-?-ocimene (26.9%), carvacrol (18.5%), ?-bisabolene (13.1%) and myrcene (7.5%). The main components of L. multifida oil are carvacrol (65.1%) and ?-bisabolene (24.7%). Lavandula stoechas oil is rich in fenchone (34.3%) and comphor (27.4%). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents also significantly varied among species. Lavandula coronopifolia exhibits the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (31.3?mg GAE?g(-1) and 16.3?mg RE?g(-1), respectively), followed by L. multifida (30.8?mg GAE?g(-1) and 12.3?mg RE?g(-1)). Methanolic extracts and essential oils displayed significant antioxidant activities. The level of antioxidant capacity varied according to extracts and species. PMID:22117129

Messaoud, C; Chograni, H; Boussaid, M

2012-11-01

45

Two new nonacosanetriols from the pollen of Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical investigation of the pollen of Typha angustifolia Linn. has led to the isolation of two new nonacosanetriols, 7,8,10-nonacosanetriol (1) and 7,9,10-nonacosanetriol (2). Their structures were elucidated by chemical reaction and spectral analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited weak activity of antiplatelet aggregation in vitro.

Wei Wei Tao; Nian Yun Yang; Jin Ao Duan; De Kang Wu; Er Xin Shang; Da Wei Qian; Yu Ping Tang

2010-01-01

46

1H NMR analysis of sporopollenin from Typha Angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first analysis of sporopollenin using 1H NMR-techniques revealed the presence of four phenolic compounds in different amounts. The phenolic compounds are tri- or tetrasubstituted. The sporopollenin was isolated and purified from Typha angustifolia by an enzymatic procedure, followed by extraction with organic solvents.

Friedhelm Ahlers; Ina Thom; Jörg Lambert; Rüdiger Kuckuk; Rolf Wiermann

1999-01-01

47

Mechanisms of cadmium detoxification in cattail ( Typha angustifolia L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread heavy metal pollutant and environmental and human health hazard, which may be partially resolved using green and cost-effective phytoremediation techniques. However, the efficiency of phytoremediation is often limited by the small biomass of Cd-hyperaccumulator plants. Although cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) is tolerant of heavy metals and has a high biomass, there is little information available

Weifeng Xu; Weiming Shi; Feng Yan; Biao Zhang; Jiansheng Liang

2011-01-01

48

Nutrient Cycling in a Natural Stand of Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied nutrient cycling within a natural monospecific stand of Typha angustifolia along the shoreline of Lake Teganuma, a shallow eutrophic lake northeast of Tokyo. Seasonal patterns of biomass and nutrient concentrations in the above- and belowground plant parts were observed over a period of two years, and nutrients released from the dead plants into the water environment were estimated

Pratima Sharma; Takashi Asaeda; Jagath Manatunge; Takeshi Fujino

2006-01-01

49

Desiccation tolerance during different desiccation strategies in A. angustifolia embryos  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is native to the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil and is an endangered species. The mature seeds are recalcitrant and have large embryos (about 2.5 cm in length) that contain more than 1 g H2O.g dry mass (dm)-1. Successful cryopreservation requires reduction of ...

50

Self-incompatibility of Zinnia angustifolia HBK (compositae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible light and UV epifluorescence microscopy were used to assess self-incompatibility (SI) in Zinnia angustifolia clones. Pistils were fixed 24 h after pollination and stained either with aniline blue in lactophenol (visible light microscopy) or decolorized aniline blue (fluorescence microscopy). Percentage of florets with embryos 21 days following pollination (% embryo set) was used as a control. Embryo set following

R. R. Samaha; T. H. Boyle; D. L. Mulcahy

1989-01-01

51

An Evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in Experimental Rhinovirus Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Echinacea has been widely used as an herbal remedy for the common cold, but efficacy studies have produced conflicting results, and there are a variety of echinacea products on the market with different phytochemical compositions. We evaluated the effect of chemically defined extracts from Echinacea angustifolia roots on rhinovirus infection. Methods Three preparations of echinacea, with distinct phytochemical profiles,

Ronald B. Turner; Rudolf Bauer; Karin Woelkart; Thomas C. Hulsey; J. David Gangemi

2005-01-01

52

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON THE LEAVES OF DODONAEA VISCOSA var. ANGUSTIFOLIA.  

E-print Network

??The petroleum ether extract of the leaves of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia afforded a diterpene 5-(2-(furan-3-yl)ethyl)-3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-8 hydroxy-5,6,8a-trimethylnaphthalene-1-carboxylic acid (compound Dc-8B) whereas the chloroform extract gave… (more)

Dessalegn, Bekele

2009-01-01

53

Micropropagation of Lavandula latifolia through nodal bud culture of mature plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultures of Lavandula latifolia Medicus were established from axillary buds of mature field-grown plants. Explants were initially cultured on media with two different macronutrient combinations and benzyladenine or kinetin added either individually or with naphthaleneacetic acid. Subsequently, explants were subcultured in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 20% coconut milk, 0.57 µM indoleacetic acid and 8.88 µM benzyladenine. Shoot proliferation

Miguel Carlos Sánchez-Gras; Maria del Carmen Calvo

1996-01-01

54

A randomized, controlled cross-over trial of dermally-applied lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) oil as a treatment of agitated behaviour in dementia  

PubMed Central

Background Lavender essential oil shows evidence of sedative properties in neurophysiological and animal studies but clinical trials of its effectiveness as a treatment of agitation in people with dementia have shown mixed results. Study methods have varied widely, however, making comparisons hazardous. To help remedy previous methodological shortcomings, we delivered high grade lavender oil in specified amounts to nursing home residents whose agitated behaviours were recorded objectively. Methods 64 nursing home residents with frequent physically agitated behaviours were entered into a randomized, single-blind cross-over trial of dermally-applied, neurophysiologically active, high purity 30% lavender oil versus an inactive control oil. A blinded observer counted the presence or absence of target behaviours and rated participants’ predominant affect during each minute for 30 minutes prior to exposure and for 60 minutes afterwards. Results Lavender oil did not prove superior to the control oil in reducing the frequency of physically agitated behaviours or in improving participants’ affect. Conclusions Studies of essential oils are constrained by their variable formulations and uncertain pharmacokinetics and so optimal dosing and delivery regimens remain speculative. Notwithstanding this, topically delivered, high strength, pure lavender oil had no discernible effect on affect and behaviour in a well-defined clinical sample. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12609000569202) PMID:24219098

2013-01-01

55

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of borneol dehydrogenase from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia.  

PubMed

Several varieties of Lavandula x intermedia (lavandins) are cultivated for their essential oils (EOs) for use in cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. These EOs are mainly constituted of monoterpenes including camphor, which contributes an off odor reducing the olfactory appeal of the oil. We have recently constructed a cDNA library from the glandular trichomes (the sites of EO synthesis) of L. x intermedia plants. Here, we describe the cloning of a borneol dehydrogenase cDNA (LiBDH) from this library. The 780 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encoded a 259 amino acid short chain alcohol dehydrogenase with a predicted molecular mass of ca. 27.5 kDa. The recombinant LiBDH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The bacterially produced enzyme specifically converted borneol to camphor as the only product with K(m) and k(cat) values of 53 ?M and 4.0 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The LiBDH transcripts were specifically expressed in glandular trichomes of mature flowers indicating that like other Lavandula monoterpene synthases the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The cloning of LiBDH has far reaching implications in improving the quality of Lavandula EOs through metabolic engineering. PMID:23058847

Sarker, Lukman S; Galata, Mariana; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

2012-12-15

56

Foliar phenolic glycosides from Populus fremontii, Populus angustifolia, and their hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicortin (1) and HCH-salicortin (2) were isolated and identified from the foliage of Populus fremontii and its F1 hybrids with Populus angustifolia. Salicortin, but not HCH-salicortin, also occurred in P. angustifolia and complex backcrosses to angustifolia. Concentrations ranged from 0 to 17.5% dry weight for salicortin and 0 to 5.9% dry weight for HCH-salicortin. HCH-salicortin may possess potent anti-herbivore activity

Brian Rehill; Allen Clauss; Lindsay Wieczorek; Thomas Whitham; Richard Lindroth

2005-01-01

57

Effects of Melilotus officinalis on acute inflammation.  

PubMed

Our study investigated the effects of Melilotus officinalis L. extract, containing 0.25% coumarin, on acute inflammation induced with oil of turpentine in male rabbits. The results were compared with those from a group treated with hydrocortisone sodium hemisuccinate and one injected with coumarin before inflammation was induced. The effects were evaluated by measuring serum citrulline, a test of in vitro phagocytosis, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count expressed as a percentage. M. officinalis had antiinflammatory effects because it reduced the activation of circulating phagocytes and lowered citrulline production. These properties were similar to those of hydrocortisone sodium hemisuccinate and coumarin. In the bone marrow acute phase response, M. officinalis had an inhibitory action that was lower than that of hydrocortisone sodium hemisuccinate and similar to coumarin. PMID:12112285

Ple?ca-Manea, Lumini?a; Pârvu, Alina Elena; Pârvu, M; Ta?ma?, M; Buia, R; Puia, M

2002-06-01

58

Removal of Lead from Contaminated Soils by Typha Angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was demonstrated for removal of lead (Pb) from contaminated soil by the narrow — leaved cattail, Typha angustifolia. The plants were grown in sandy loam soil containing various concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 (53.3, 106.7, 160, 213.3, and 266.7 mg Pb kg-1 soil). Most lead was accumulated in roots and then transported to leaves. In soil contaminated with 266.7

T. Panich-Pat; P. Pokethitiyook; M. Kruatrachue; E. S. Upatham; P. Srinives; G. R. Lanza

2004-01-01

59

Microsatellite markers for Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia; Elaeagnaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the plant species Elaeagnus angustifolia to assist in future investigations of genetic variability in its native and invasive ranges and the precise origins of the United States/Canada invasion. • Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles observed for each locus ranged from three to 11. • Conclusions: These microsatellites have sufficient potential variability to define population structure and origins of the Russian olive invasion. PMID:25202584

Gaskin, John F.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.

2013-01-01

60

A micropropagation protocol for Cassia angustifolia Vahl. from root explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop a new micropropagation system for Cassia angustifolia Vahl., an important medicinal legume using root explant as starting material. Root explants taken from 30-day-old aseptic\\u000a seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different plant growth regulators: 6-benzyladenine\\u000a (BA), kinetin (Kn), and thidiazuron (TDZ). Organogenic nodular calli obtained on MS + TDZ

Shahina Parveen; Anwar Shahzad

2011-01-01

61

Sesquiterpene lactones and inositol esters from Arnica angustifolia.  

PubMed

From flowerheads of Arnica angustifolia ssp. attenuata nine helenanolides, two 1,5- trans-guaianolides, and a mixture of inositol-tetraesters were isolated. Five of the helenanolides are described for the first time. One of them, 4- O-tigloylarnicalpin, is the first 7(12),6-trans-lactonized pseudoguaianolide isolated from a natural source. The occurrence of inositol esters within the genus Arnica has not been reported before. PMID:17238108

Schmidt, T J; Willuhn, G; Steigel, A; Wendisch, D

1995-12-01

62

Interference between perennial grassland and Lavandula stoechas subsp. pedunculata seedlings: a case of spatial segregation cause by competition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyses the relationship between Lavandula stoechas subsp. pedunculata, a common Mediterranean scrub species in central Iberia, and perennial grasslands. While Lavandula gives rise to almost monospecific formations in intermediate and upper hill zones, perennial grasses occupy the low areas. The proposed explanatory hypothesis for this spatial distribution is that the scrub is unable to establish itself in grasslands with heavy spatial occupation. We designed two experiments to test this hypothesis, one which analysed the effect of perennial grass cover on Lavandula establishment, and another which focused on its influence on previously implanted seedling survival and growth, distinguishing the effect of shoot and root interference. The results show negative interference during establishment and later in the use of light and nutrients. This results in a very low overall survival probability, with only 1.4% of seedlings surviving the first growth period. This low success rate explains the existence of a clear spatial segregation between scrub patches and perennial-dominated grasslands.

Sánchez, Ana M.; Peco, Begoña

2004-07-01

63

Carboxymethylation of Cassia angustifolia seed gum: Synthesis and rheological study.  

PubMed

The seeds of Cassia angustifolia are a rich source of galactomannan gum. The seed gums possess a wide variety of industrial applications. To utilize C. angustifolia seed gum for broader industrial applications, the carboxymethyl-Cassia angustifolia seed gum (CM-CAG) was synthesized. The gum was etherified with sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) in a methanol-water system in presence of alkali (NaOH) at different reaction conditions. The variables studied includes alkali concentration, SMCA concentration, methanol:water ratio, liquor:gum ratio, reaction temperature and time. The extent of carboxymethylation was determined as degree of substitution (DS). The optimum conditions for preparing CM-CAG (DS=0.474) comprised 0.100mol of NaOH, 0.05mol of SMCA, 80% of methanol:water ratio (as % methanol) and liquor:gum ratio (v/w) of 10:1 at 75°C for 60min using 0.03mol (as AGU) of CAG. Rheological studies showed CM-CAG to exhibit non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour, relatively high viscosity, cold water solubility and solution stability. PMID:25498663

Rajput, Gaurav; Pandey, I P; Joshi, Gyanesh

2015-03-01

64

Soyasapogenols B and E from Melilotus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the aerial parts ofMelilotus officinalis (Leguminosae) soyasapogenols B, mp 259–260°, and E, mp 246–247°, were isolated along with coumarin and kaempferol. This is\\u000a the first report of the isolation of soyasapogenols from the genus Melilotus.

Sam Sik Kang; Chae-Hyun Lira; Sook Yeon Lee

1987-01-01

65

Enzymatic variability in the cattail ( Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia, Typhaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic spectra ofTypha angustifolia, T. latifolia and their hybrids were examined by disc electrophoresis for three enzymatic systems: esterases, alcohol deshydrogenase, and glutamate deshydrogenase. The intermediate position of the hybrids is confirmed. The study of alcohol deshydrogenase reveales the existence of an intraspecific variability inT. angustifolia between individuals from the Massif Armoricain in France and Dellys in Algeria.

Marie-Andrée Esnault; André Huon

1985-01-01

66

Typha angustifolia stress tolerance to wastewater with different levels of chemical oxygen demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress tolerance of wetland plants is important to their potential use in wastewater treatment. In the present study, we investigated the physiological response of Typha angustifolia (T. angustifolia) to wastewater with different chemical oxygen demands (CODs) by bucket experiments. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. The content of total

Jingtao Xu; Cong Li; Fang Yang; Zhong Dong; Jian Zhang; Yingcan Zhao; Pengyu Qi; Zhen Hu

2011-01-01

67

[Selection of optimal ultrasonic extraction process of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. by uniform design].  

PubMed

The influences of ultrasonic frequency, ultrasonic time and solvent content on the extraction rate of fat oil in Elaeagnus angustifolia L. were studied. The optimum extraction condition was obtained. The results showed that the ultrasonic extraction method of fat oil in Elaeagnus angustifolia L. could save time, improve extraction rate and need not be hot compared with traditional extraction method. PMID:11917851

Jiang, F; Xie, J; Dan, J; Liu, J; Wang, H

2001-12-01

68

Can Kalmia angustifolia interference to black spruce (Picea mariana) be explained by allelopathy?  

E-print Network

Can Kalmia angustifolia interference to black spruce (Picea mariana) be explained by allelopathy of Kalmia angustifolia (Ericaceae) to the growth and establishment of black spruce (Picea mariana) has been to its colonization. The questions addressed in this paper are (i) Is Kalmia interference to black spruce

Mallik, Azim U.

69

Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.  

PubMed

The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated. PMID:23918183

Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

2013-11-01

70

Two new cerebrosides from the pollen of Typha angustifolia.  

PubMed

Two new cerebrosides, 1-O-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-(2S,3S,4R,8Z)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxytricosanoylamino]-8-nonadecene-3,4-diol (1) and 1-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-(2S,3R,4E,8Z)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxynonadecanoylamino]-4,13-nonadecene-3-diol (2), were isolated from the pollen of Typha angustifolia. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral means. This is the first report on the occurrence of cerebroside in Typha (Typhaceae). Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited effect on the proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs) induced by fatal bovine serum (FBS). PMID:19720118

Tao, Wei-Wei; Yang, Nian-Yun; Liu, Li; Duan, Jin-Ao; Wu, De-Kang; Qian, Da-Wei; Tang, Yu-Ping

2010-04-01

71

Two new cerebrosides from the pollen of Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new cerebrosides, 1-O-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-(2S,3S,4R,8Z)-2-[(2?R)-2?-hydroxytricosanoylamino]-8-nonadecene-3,4-diol (1) and 1-O-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-(2S,3R,4E,8Z)-2-[(2?R)-2?-hydroxynonadecanoylamino]-4,13-nonadecene-3-diol (2), were isolated from the pollen of Typha angustifolia. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral means. This is the first report on the occurrence of cerebroside in Typha (Typhaceae). Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited effect on the proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs) induced by fatal bovine serum (FBS).

Wei-Wei Tao; Nian-Yun Yang; Li Liu; Jin-Ao Duan; De-Kang Wu; Da-Wei Qian; Yu-Ping Tang

2010-01-01

72

Neuroprotective and Neurological Properties of Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective\\u000a effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase\\u000a enzymes and affinity to the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor). The results suggest that the plant has a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect on

Víctor López; Sara Martín; Maria Pilar Gómez-Serranillos; Maria Emilia Carretero; Anna K. Jäger; Maria Isabel Calvo

2009-01-01

73

Genetic and clonal diversity of two cattail species, Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia (Typhaceae), from Ukraine.  

PubMed

Genetic and clonal diversity vary between two closely related cattail species (Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia) from Ukraine. This diversity was calculated from microsatellite data. Forty-eight percent of the total variation was partitioned between species, which formed distinct clusters in a dendrogram with no indication of hybrid populations. Typha angustifolia had higher heterozygosity at the species (H(es) = 0.66) and population (H(ep) = 0.49) levels than did T. latifolia (H(es) = 0.37 and H(ep) = 0.29, respectively). The higher number of alleles in T. angustifolia may be indicative of larger effective population sizes due to its higher seed production. Clonal diversity of T. angustifolia was lower than that of T. latifolia (N(g)/N(r) = 0.40 and 0.61, Simpson's D = 0.82 and 0.94, respectively). Correlations between clonal and genetic diversity were higher for T. latifolia than T. angustifolia, suggesting that the importance of factors and their interactions affecting this relationship are different for the two species. Latitudinal and longitudinal trends were not observed in either species despite the large sampling area. Population differentiation was relatively high with F(ST) of 0.24 and 0.29 for T. angustifolia and T. latifolia, respectively. Weak isolation by distance was observed for T. latifolia but not for T. angustifolia. PMID:21646138

Tsyusko, Olga V; Smith, Michael H; Sharitz, Rebecca R; Glenn, Travis C

2005-07-01

74

Foliar pathogens of Populus angustifolia are consistent with a hypothesis of Beringian migration into North America.  

PubMed

Populus angustifolia, the narrowleaf cottonwood, is considered one of two native species of Populus section Tacamahaca restricted to western North America. Efforts to construct a definitive phylogeny of Populus spp. are complicated by ancient hybridization, but some phylogenetic analyses suggest P. angustifolia is more closely related to Asian congeners than to Populus trichocarpa, the other species of Populus section Tacamahaca in western North America. Because hosts and their obligate symbionts can display parallel phylogeographic patterns, we evaluated the possibility of a Beringian migration into North America by an Asian ancestor of P. angustifolia by determining the distributions, host preferences, and, in some cases, closest phylogenetic relatives of fungal leaf pathogens of P. angustifolia. Phyllactinia populi, a common foliar pathogen on Populus spp. in Asia but unknown on P. trichocarpa, was found on P. angustifolia in multiple sites. Mycosphaerella angustifoliorum, also unknown on P. trichocarpa, was commonly collected on P. angustifolia. Conversely, many common foliar pathogens of P. trichocarpa in western North America were not found on P. angustifolia; only Melampsora×columbiana and Drepanopeziza populi were common to both Populus species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that M. angustifoliorum was not part of the diversification of Mycosphaerella on Populus that includes all other Mycosphaerella species on Populus in North America: Mycosphaerella populicola, Mycosphaerella populorum, M. sp. 1, and M. sp. 2. The latter two undescribed species represent a newly discovered diversification of M. populorum in western North America. Overall, the leaf pathogen community of P. angustifolia is consistent with a Beringian migration into North America by the ancestor of P. angustifolia. PMID:22749166

Busby, Posy E; Aime, M Catherine; Newcombe, George

2012-07-01

75

Endothelium-dependent induction of vasorelaxation by Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis in rat isolated thoracic aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, vasorelaxant effect produced by the aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis (MOO) (Lamiaceae) and its possible mechanism in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine were examined. In the first series of experiments, effect of MOO on the baseline and phenylephrine (10?5M) precontracted arteries was investigated, while in the second group of experiments, endothelium

S. Ersoy; I. Orhan; N. N. Turan; G. ?ahan; M. Ark; F. Tosun

2008-01-01

76

Effect of heat shock on ultrastructure and calcium distribution in Lavandula pinnata L. glandular trichomes.  

PubMed

The effects of heat shock (HS) on the ultrastructure and calcium distribution of Lavandula pinnata secretory trichomes are examined using transmission electron microscopy and potassium antimonate precipitation. After 48-h HS at 40°C, plastids become distorted and lack stroma and osmiophilic deposits, the cristae of the mitochondria become indistinct, the endoplasmic reticulum acquires a chain-like appearance with ribosomes prominently attached to the lamellae, and the plasma and organelle membranes become distorted. Heat shock is associated with a decrease in calcium precipitates in the trichomes, while the number of precipitates increases in the mesophyll cells. Prolonged exposure to elevated calcium levels may be toxic to the mesophyll cells, while the lack of calcium in the glands cell may deprive them of the normal protective advantages of elevated calcium levels. The inequality in calcium distribution may result not only from uptake from the transpiration stream, but also from redistribution of calcium from the trichomes to the mesophyll cells. PMID:22418827

Huang, S S; Kirchoff, B K; Liao, J P

2013-02-01

77

In vitro culture of lavenders (Lavandula spp.) and the production of secondary metabolites.  

PubMed

Lavenders (Lavandula spp., Lamiaceae) are aromatic ornamental plants that are used widely in the food, perfume and pharmaceutical industries. The large-scale production of lavenders requires efficient in vitro propagation techniques to avoid the overexploitation of natural populations and to allow the application of biotechnology-based approaches for plant improvement and the production of valuable secondary metabolites. In this review we discuss micropropagation methods that have been developed in several lavender species, mainly based on meristem proliferation and organogenesis. Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation (establishment, shoot multiplication, root induction and acclimatization) and requisites for plant regeneration trough organogenesis, as an important step for the implementation of plant improvement programs, were revised. We also discuss different methods for the in vitro production of valuable secondary metabolites, focusing on the prospects for highly scalable cultures to meet the market demand for lavender-derived products. PMID:23022737

Gonçalves, Sandra; Romano, Anabela

2013-01-01

78

New 2,2-diphenylpropane and ethoxylated aromatic monoterpenes from Lavandula gibsoni (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

A new substituted 2,2-diphenylpropane (1) and two new ethoxylated aromatic monoterpene alcohols (2 and 4) have been isolated from the acetone extract of the aerial parts of Lavandula gibsoni, along with the known compounds 8-hydroxycarvacrol (3), 8-hydroxythymol (5), coumarin (6), 4-methylresorcinol (7), 7,4'-dimethylapigenin (8), salvigenin (9), ?-sitosteryl-3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-6'-O-palmitate (10) and euscaphic acid D (11). The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra and two-dimensional NMR techniques, which included COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments and comparison with the reported literature. PMID:23126635

Kulkarni, Roshan R; Joshi, Swati P

2013-08-01

79

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Lavandula coronopifolia essential oil against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of the essential oil (EO) of Lavandula coronopifolia from Morocco and to evaluate its in vitro antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical infections. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by a broth micro-well dilution method using multiresistant clinical isolates of 11 pathogenic bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Providencia rettgeri, Citrobacter freundii, Hafnia alvei, Salmonella spp., Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The main compounds of the oil were carvacrol (48.9%), E-caryophyllene (10.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.7%). The oil showed activity against all tested strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging between 1% and 4%. For most of the strains, the MIC value was equivalent to the minimal bactericidal concentration value, indicating a clear bactericidal effect of L. coronopifolia EO. PMID:25174508

Ait Said, L; Zahlane, K; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Romane, A; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

2015-03-01

80

Biosorption of Cr (VI) by Typha angustifolia: mechanism and responses to heavy metal stress.  

PubMed

In this study, Typha angustifolia was proven to have an excellent accumulation ability in high concentrations of wastewater solutions having Cr (VI) concentrations up to 30 mg L(-1) for 20 days (74% of removal efficiency). Synchrotron microfocus micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) mapping showed that the uptaken Cr was mainly enriched in the outer layer of the roots and a small portion of it was uniformly distributed in the fronds. The total proteins, soluble sugars, and malondialdehyde in T. angustifolia increased when the concentration of Cr (VI) increased from 9 to 30 mg L(-1). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) assay showed that no lignifications were observed when Cr was absorbed by T. angustifolia. It was concluded that T. angustifolia can uptake Cr by means of surface layer absorption and transportation, and alleviate stresses associated with the sorption of Cr (VI) by thickening of cell walls or secretion of chemical substances. PMID:24485750

Chen, Ya-Li; Hong, Xiao-Qing; He, Hui; Luo, Hong-Wei; Qian, Ting-Ting; Li, Ru-Zhong; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

2014-05-01

81

Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated Typha angustifolia leaf proteome in response to Cr, Cd and Pb stress. T. angustifolia of 90 (D90) and 130d (D130) old plants were subjected to 1mM Cr, Cd and Pb and samples were collected 30d after treatment. 2-DE coupled with MS (mass spectrometry) was used to analyze and identify Cr, Cd and Pb-responsive proteins. More than

Alieu Mohamed Bah; Hongyan Sun; Fei Chen; Jing Zhou; Huaxin Dai; Guoping Zhang; Feibo Wu

2010-01-01

82

Effects of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead on Growth, Metal Uptake and Antioxidative Capacity in Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the modulation of antioxidant defence system of Typha angustifolia after 30 days exposure of 1 mM chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), or lead (Pb). T. angustifolia showed high tolerance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom when exposed to metal stress, and Cd\\/Pb addition\\u000a also increased plant height and biomass especially in Pb treatment. Along with increased Cr,

Alieu Mohamed Bah; Huaxin Dai; Jing Zhao; Hongyan Sun; Fangbin Cao; Guoping Zhang; Feibo Wu

2011-01-01

83

Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) essential oils attenuate hyperglycemia and protect against oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background The present study described the phytochemical profile of Lavandula stoechas essential oils, collected in the area of Ain-Draham (North-West of Tunisia), as well as their protective effects against alloxan-induced diabetes and oxidative stress in rat. Methods Essential oils samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC–MS. Rats were divided into four groups: Healthy Control (HC); Diabetic Control (DC); Healthy?+?Essential Oils (H?+?EO) and Diabetic?+?Essential Oils (D?+?EO). Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities were evaluated after subacute intraperitoneally injection of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) to rats during 15 days. Results The principal compounds detected are: D-Fenchone (29.28%), ?-pinene (23.18%), Camphor (15.97%), Camphene (7.83%), Eucapur (3.29%), Limonene, (2.71%) Linalool, (2.01%) Endobornyl Acetate (1.03%). The essential oils also contained smaller percentages of Tricyclene, Cymene, Delta-Cadinene, Selina-3,7(11)-diene. Furthermore, we found that Lavandula stoechas essential oils significantly protected against the increase of blood glucose as well as the decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities induced by aloxan treatment. Subacute essential oils treatment induced a decrease of lipoperoxidation as well as an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Conclusions These findings suggested that lavandula stoechas essential oils protected against diabetes and oxidative stress induced by alloxan treatment. These effects are in partly due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:24373672

2013-01-01

84

Characterization and inhibition of Rosmarinus officinalis L. polyphenoloxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from Rosmarinus officinalis L. was fractionated by ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation and dialysis, and then some of its kinetic properties such as optimum pH and temperature, substrate specificity,\\u000a thermal inactivation, and inhibition were investigated using 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol as substrates. The\\u000a protein content of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts was determined according to Bradford’s method. Kinetic parameters, K

Serap Do?an; Mehmet Emin Diken; Yasemin Turhan; Ümran Alan; Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan

2011-01-01

85

In vitro and ex vivo antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer and its metastasis. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis extract and its fractions was investigated. S. officinalis aerial parts were extracted with ethanol and its successive hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activities using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) capillary tube formation and rat aorta models in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Furthermore, antimigrative effects of the fractions were assessed using a wound healing model. The ethanol extract of S. officinalis (ESO) potently inhibited capillary tube formation in HUVEC and rat aorta models of angiogenesis, and its hexane fraction (HSO) exerted the highest inhibitory effect. In addition, the ethanol extract of S. officinalis and its hexane fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on the migration of the endothelial cells in the wound healing model. Furthermore, ESO inhibited endothelial cell proliferation at 50-200 ?g/mL in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicated some new pharmacological activities of S. officinalis such as antiangiogenic in vitro and ex vivo, and antimigrative activity in vitro. Therefore, S. officinalis could be a candidate as a useful herb with therapeutic or preventive activity against angiogenesis related disorders. PMID:20878705

Keshavarz, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mansouri, Kamran; Bidmeshkipour, Ali; Motlagh, Hamid Reza Mohammadi; Parvaneh, Shahram

2010-10-01

86

Natural indole butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors from Nauclea officinalis.  

PubMed

Nine monoterpenoid indole alkaloids; naucletine (1), angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), naucline (5), angustoline (6), harmane (7), 3,14-dihydroangustoline (8), strictosamide (9) and one quinoline alkaloid glycoside; pumiloside (10) from Nauclea officinalis were tested for cholinesterase inhibitory activity. All the alkaloids except for pumiloside (10) showed strong to weak BChE inhibitory effect with IC50 values ranging between 1.02-168.55 ?M. Angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), angustoline (6) and harmane (7) showed higher BChE inhibiting potency compared to galanthamine. Angustidine (2) was the most potent inhibitor towards both AChE and BChE. Molecular docking (MD) studies showed that angustidine (2) docked deep into the bottom gorge of hBChE and formed hydrogen bonding with Ser 198 and His 438. Kinetic study of angustidine (2) on BChE suggested a mixed inhibition mode with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 6.12 ?M. PMID:25636869

Liew, Sook Yee; Khaw, Kooi Yeong; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Yi Li; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah

2015-01-15

87

SHORT COMMUNICATION Epifluorescent and Histochemical Aspects of Shoot Anatomy of Typha latifolia L., Typha angustifolia L. and Typha glauca Godr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using epifluorescent and histochemical techniques, we examined anatomical differences in the shoot organs of Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia and T. glauca. The leaf lamina of T. latifolia and T. glauca had enlarged epider- mal cells and a thickened cuticle above the subepidermal vascular bundles; that of T. angustifolia lacked these characteristics. Leaf sheaths were similar among the species and all

H. A. M CMANUS; J. L. S EAGO J R; L. C. M ARSH

88

Comparison of EDTA and Citric Acid-Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals in Artificially Metal Contaminated Soil by Typha Angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of EDTA and citric acid (CA) addition in improving phytoextraction of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Cr from artificially contaminated soil by T. angustifolia. T. angustifolia showed the remarkable resistance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom including chlorosis and necrosis when exposed to metal stress. EDTA-addition significantly reduced plant

Dawood Muhammad; Fei Chen; Jing Zhao; Guoping Zhang; Feibo Wu

2009-01-01

89

Z .Forest Ecology and Management 105 1998 197207 The effect of Kalmia angustifolia on the growth, nutrition, and  

E-print Network

Z .Forest Ecology and Management 105 1998 197­207 The effect of Kalmia angustifolia on the growth laboratory research has suggested that allelochemicals of K. angustifolia affect the Z .growth and development of black spruce as well as the growth of certain ectomycorrhizal ECM fungi associated with black Z

Egger, Keith N.

90

Phytotoxicity of chlorinated benzenes to Typha angustifolia and Phragmites communis.  

PubMed

Healthy growth of plants is a prerequisite for successful application of phytoremediation technologies. Typha angustifolia and Phragmites communis are common wetland plants and have shown potential for phytoremediation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB). However, the lack of phytotoxicity data impedes their application in field sites. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of HCB, and its two metabolites: 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB) and 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) to Typha and the phytotoxicity of 1,3,5-TCB to Phragmites. The phytotoxicity of 1,3,5-TCB is species-dependent, with Typha demonstrating significantly higher tolerance than Phragmites. The concentration of 1,3,5-TCB causing zero growth of Phragmites was determined to be 1575 mg TCB/kg dry sediment. The concentration has to be doubled to completely inhibit the growth of Typha. Adverse effects of chlorinated benzenes in sediments on Typha increased with decreasing chlorine atoms. The concentrations causing zero growth of Typha are 5765 mg HCB/kg dry soil, 3157 mg 1,3,5-TCB/kg dry soil, and 1325 mg 1,4-DCB/kg dry soil. The higher toxicity of 1,4-DCB than 1,3,5-TCB and HCB in sediment was ascribed to its higher availability and easiness to be taken up by plants. The conclusion was supported by both growth rate calculations and plant height measurements. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2009. PMID:18442064

Ma, Xingmao; Havelka, Megan M

2009-02-01

91

Microscopic characters of the leaf and stem of Lavandula dentata L. (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Lavandula dentata L. is an aromatic plant used in folk medicine for different purposes and, for this reason, phytochemical surveys have been carried out in the search for bioactive substances aiming to support its uses. Since there is little knowledge on the structural aspects of L. dentata, this work has studied the anatomical characters of the leaf and stem using light and scanning electron microscopy, in order to assist the species identification. As a result, there are different types of trichomes: capitate glandular with uni- or bicellular head, peltate glandular with multicellular head, and branched non-glandular. The leaf is hypostomatic showing diacytic stomata. The epidermis is uniseriate and coated with striate cuticle. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the midrib is concave-convex and traversed by a single collateral vascular bundle. The stem is quadrangular and has alternating strands of collenchyma and cortical parenchyma as well as a typical endodermis in the cortex. The phloem and xylem cylinders are traversed by narrow rays and there is an incomplete sclerenchymatic sheath adjoining the phloem. These results are a novelty for the species and contribute to distinguish it from other lavenders. PMID:24861363

do Rocio Duarte, Márcia; Carvalho de Souza, Danielle

2014-08-01

92

Antifungal activity of phenolic-rich Lavandula multifida L. essential oil.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of a new chemotype of Lavandula multifida from Portugal. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of the oil and its major compounds were determined against several pathogenic fungi responsible for candidosis, meningitis, dermatophytosis, and aspergillosis. The influence of the oil on the dimorphic transition in Candida albicans was also studied, as well as propidium iodide (PI) and FUN-1 staining of C. albicans cells by flow cytometry. The essential oil was characterized by high contents of monoterpenes, with carvacrol and cis-?-ocimene being the main constituents. The oil was more effective against dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC and MLC values of 0.16 ?L/mL and 0.32 ?L/mL, respectively. The oil was further shown to completely inhibit filamentation in C. albicans at concentrations below the respective MIC (0.08 ?L/mL), with cis-?-ocimene being the main compound responsible for this inhibition (0.02 ?L/mL). The flow cytometry results suggest a mechanism of action ultimately leading to cytoplasmic membrane disruption and cell death. L. multifida essential oil may be useful in complementary therapy to treat disseminated candidosis, since the inhibition of filamentation alone appears to be sufficient to treat this type of infection. PMID:22020493

Zuzarte, M; Vale-Silva, L; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Vaz, S; Canhoto, J; Pinto, E; Salgueiro, L

2012-07-01

93

Karyotype rearrangements and telomere analysis in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) strains collected on Lavandula sp. plants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Karyotype analysis of nine strains of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776), collected on Lavandula sp. plants, evidenced showed that five of them had a standard 2n = 12 karyotype, one possessed a fragmentation of the X chromosome occurring at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one and three strains had a chromosome number 2n = 11 due to a non-reciprocal translocation of an autosome A3 onto an A1 chromosome. Interestingly, the terminal portion of the autosome A1 involved in the translocation was the same in all the three strains, as evidenced by FISH with the histone cluster as a probe. The study of telomeres in the Myzus persicae strain with the X fission evidenced that telomerase synthesised de novo telomeres at the breakpoints resulting in the stabilization of the chromosomal fragments. Lastly, despite the presence of a conserved telomerase, aphid genome is devoid of genes coding for shelterin, a complex of proteins involved in telomere functioning frequently reported as conserved in eukaryotes. The absence of this complex, also confirmed in the genome of other arthropods, suggests that the shift in the sequence of the telomeric repeats has been accompanied by other changes in the telomere components in arthropods in respect to other metazoans. PMID:25610541

Mandrioli, Mauro; Zanasi, Federica; Manicardi, Gian Carlo

2014-01-01

94

Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat memory dysfunction for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Aqueous and methanolic extracts of 11 plants, used in Danish folk medicine for improvement of memory and cognition, and 3 Corydalis species were tested for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using the Ellman colorimetric method. Significant inhibitory activity in dose-dependent manner was observed for extracts of Corydalis cava, Corydalis intermedia, Corydalis solida ssp. laxa and Corydalis solida ssp. slivenensis. Extracts of Ruta graveolens, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Petroselinum crispum and Mentha spicata exhibited moderate inhibition of the enzyme, defined as more than 15% at 0.1 mg/ml. PMID:16280217

Adsersen, Anne; Gauguin, Bente; Gudiksen, Lene; Jäger, Anna K

2006-04-01

95

Structural Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides Extracted from the Pulp of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.  

PubMed Central

In this study, two polysaccharides (Elaeagnus angustifolia L. polysaccharide-1 (PEA-1) and PEA-2) were prepared from Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Then, the preliminary structure and antioxidant activities of all the samples were investigated. The results showed that the average molecular weights for PEA-1 and PEA-2 were 9113 and 5020 Da, respectively. And, PEA-1 was mainly composed of rhamnose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, respectively. The components of PEA-2 were rhamnose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, respectively. Moreover, the Antioxidant assays demonstrated that PEA-1 possessed of strong free radicals scavenging activity and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities, suggesting that PEA-1 could potentially be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:24972139

Chen, Qingqing; Chen, Juncheng; Du, Hongtao; Li, Qi; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Gechao; Liu, Hong; Wang, Junru

2014-01-01

96

Arabinogalactan-proteins from cell suspension cultures of Araucaria angustifolia.  

PubMed

Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), found in the culture medium of suspension cells of Araucaria angustifolia grown in plant growth regulator-free and plant growth regulator-containing BM media, BM0 and BM2, respectively, were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. The concentrated extracellular fractions (CEFs), obtained from suspension cell cultures grown for 20 days in BM0 and BM2 media yielded two fractions, CEF-0 and CEF-2, respectively. CEF-0 and CEF-2 was submitted to selective precipitation using the beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent (beta-GlcY) to isolate AGPs for structural characterization; this yielded fractions designated CEF-0YPF and CEF-2YPF, respectively. The monosaccharide composition analysis established that samples were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and uronic acid in a molar ratio 3:37:55:5 (CEF-0YPF) and 1:37:58:4 (CEF-2YPF), although trace amounts (<0.5 mol%) of Xyl were also found. Methylation analysis of CEF-YPF fractions showed similar results for both CEF-0YPF and CEF-2YPF, with non-reducing terminal units of Araf, Arap, Galp, Rhap and Xylp, as well as 3-O-substituted and 5-O-substituted Araf units and 3-O-substituted, 6-O-substituted and 3,6-di-O-substituted Galp units. The amino acid composition analysis established Ser, Ala, and Hyp as major amino acids in both samples. In conclusion, this investigation has shown that CEF-0YPF and CEF-2YPF contain macromolecules having typical AGP characteristics, including a Hyp/Ala/Ser-rich protein moiety, a (1-->3) and/or (1-->6) linked beta-d-galactopyranosyl main chain substituted by Gal, Ara, Rha and Xyl residues, and binding affinity for beta-GlcY and monoclonal anti-AGP antibodies. PMID:20488499

Maurer, Juliana Bello Baron; Bacic, Antony; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Donatti, Lucélia; Zawadzki-Baggio, Selma Faria; Pettolino, Filomena Angela

2010-08-01

97

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula viridis L'Her.  

PubMed

In the present work we report for what we believe to be the first time the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of the essential oils of Lavandula viridis from Portugal. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC/MS. The MIC and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of the essential oil and its major compounds were determined against several pathogenic fungi. The influence of subinhibitory concentrations of the essential oil on the dimorphic transition in Candida albicans was also studied, as well as propidium iodide and FUN-1 staining of Candida albicans cells by flow cytometry following short treatments with the essential oil. The oils were characterized by a high content of oxygen-containing monoterpenes, with 1,8-cineole being the main constituent. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were present at lower concentrations. According to the determined MIC and MLC values, the dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans were the most sensitive fungi (MIC and MLC values ranging from 0.32 to 0.64 µl ml?¹), followed by Candida species (at 0.64-2.5 µl ml?¹). For most of these strains, MICs were equivalent to MLCs, indicating a fungicidal effect of the essential oil. The oil was further shown to completely inhibit filamentation in Candida albicans at concentrations well below the respective MICs (as low as MIC/16). Flow cytometry results suggested a mechanism of action ultimately leading to cytoplasmic membrane disruption and cell death. Our results show that L. viridis essential oils may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases, particularly dermatophytosis and candidosis, although clinical trials are required to evaluate the practical relevance of our in vitro research. PMID:21321363

Zuzarte, Mónica; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Canhoto, Jorge; Vale-Silva, Luís; Silva, Maria João; Pinto, Eugénia; Salgueiro, Lígia

2011-05-01

98

Genetic diversity and biogeographic determinants of population structure in Araucaria angustifolia Bert. O Ktze.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is a dioecious conifer that plays an important social and economic role, especially in the South region of Brazil. Due to changes in land use and over- harvesting of seeds and timber, the species is now listed as critically endangered (IUCN 3.1). There have been...

99

Maternal inheritance of a chloroplast microsatellite marker in controlled hybrids between Fraxinus excelsior and Fraxinus angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction fragment length polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction—restriction fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat (SSR or microsatellites) analyses were performed to detect chloroplast DNA polymorphisms between two ash species , Fraxinus excelsior and F. angustifolia . Only one SSR locus was found to be polymorphic, confirming the very close relatedness of these species. Inheritance of this marker was studied in

M. E. Morand-Prieur; F. Vedel; C. Raquin; S. Brachet; D. Sihachakr; N. Frascaria-Lacoste

2002-01-01

100

SENSITIVITY OF ARAUCARIA ANGUSTIFOLIA EMBRYOS TO LOW WATER CONTENTS AND TEMPERATURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A. angustifolia (Bertoloni.) Otto Kuntze seeds (Brazilian pine) limits our ability to conserve genetic resources of this important species in ex situ genebanks. As initial steps in developing storage protocols, we studied the interaction of water content and temperature on embryo survival. Embryos w...

101

Ethylene, light-, and prechill-enhanced germination of Echinacea angustifolia seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia DC., the common coneflower of the western Great Plains, is difficult to propagate by achenes due to inherent seed dormancy. The effects of light and prechilling on seed germination were examined, alone and combined with scarification (mechanical, acid) and ethylene (ethephon) treatments. The results showed that a 2-week prechill treatment combined with ethephon and continuous light, followed by

S. M. J. Feghahati; R. N. Reese

1994-01-01

102

Multiple elements in Typha angustifolia rhizosphere and plants: Wetland versus dryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent study, researchers found that multiple elements accumulated near the roots of Rumex crispus more under wetland conditions and element uptake was significantly greater in the plants grown under wetland compared to dryland conditions. The study reported here also found that elements accumulated in the root zone (up to 3mm beyond the rhizoplane) of Typha angustifolia grown under

La Toya T. Kissoon; Donna L. Jacob; Marinus L. Otte

2011-01-01

103

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Typha angustifolia pollen grains extracts in experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and 70% methanolic extracts of pollen grains of Typha angustifolia. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats were used for the study. The acute anti-inflammatory activity of pollen grains of T. angustifolia was studied using the carrageenan as phlogistic agent, whereas its chronic anti-inflammatory effect was investigated by the percentage inhibition of cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Results: Both aqueous and 70% methanolic extracts of pollen grains of T. angustifolia showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema as compared to the control (P<0.001). It was observed that both the extracts at dose of 125 mg/kg inhibited the granuloma formation by 44.30% which is higher than at dose of 500, 250 mg/kg, thus causing a significant (P<0.001) non-dose-related inhibition of granuloma formation. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that extracts of pollen grains of T. angustifolia are effective in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and thus support its traditional utilization. PMID:23248413

Varpe, Saroj S.; Juvekar, Archana R.; Bidikar, Mukta P.; Juvekar, Parikshit R.

2012-01-01

104

Influence of nutrient supply on growth, carbohydrate, and nitrogen metabolic relations in Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of Typha angustifolia, a species common in European wetlands, was studied in connection with wetlands eutrophication. Cultivation in a sand culture was used to follow the effect of nutrient availability per se and to study, in detail, both aboveground as well as belowground organs (rhizomes and roots) of the plant in contrast to the possibilities of field study. A

Lenka Steinbachová-Vojtíšková; Edita Tylová; Aleš Soukup; Hana Novická; Olga Votrubová; Helena Lipavská; Hana ?ížková

2006-01-01

105

Characterization of the Autotrophic Component in Periphyton upon Typha angustifolia Detritus in a Freshwater Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autotrophic component of periphyton on Typha angustifolia detritus was characterized in a freshwater wetland during a single growing season. 58 genera of algae and cyanobacteria, representing six divisions, were observed throughout the study period. Although the combined algae-cyanobacteria density from within and outside the Typha stands were significantly affected by both sample date and the combination of date and

Eric J Warda

2002-01-01

106

Morphology, growth and carbohydrate storage of the plant Typha angustifolia at different water depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological characteristics, growth and carbohydrate storage dynamics of Typha angustifolia in relation to water depth were investigated. The study was based on observations carried out in two stands, namely Akigase and Teganuma, for two growth seasons. The latter stand was about two times deeper than the former. Teganuma stands exhibited significantly higher number of thick shoots compared to those of

P. Sharma; T. Asaeda; M. Kalibbala; T. Fujino

2008-01-01

107

Narrow climate and habitat envelope affect the survival of relict populations of a northern Arnica angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species require certain habitat and climate features, especially at range limits. Because of climate warming, isolated relict southern populations of arctic-alpine species could lose their viability. Arnica angustifolia is a rare, clonal northern plant which has distinct populations far away from its central distribution area. I explored its population viability in relation to habitat properties and local temperature regimes

Anne Jäkäläniemi

2011-01-01

108

Morphological and molecular diversity of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul and Agave angustifolia Haw. var. Lineño  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity in forty-nine Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul accessions from different regions of the Appellation of Origin Tequila, and eighteen Agave angustifolia Haw. var. Lineño accessions from the south of the state of Jalisco, were evaluated using morphological traits and RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers. Thirteen morphological characters and three different random 10-mer primers were used. Statistical

B. Rodríguez-Garay; J. A. Lomelí-Sención; E. Tapia-Campos; A. Gutiérrez-Mora; J. García-Galindo; J. M. Rodríguez-Domínguez; D. Urbina-López; I. Vicente-Ramírez

2009-01-01

109

Biodiversity and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Araucaria angustifolia forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. is an endangered Brazilian coniferous tree that has been almost exterminated in the native areas because of uncontrolled wood exploitation. This tree has been shown to be highly dependent on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and, therefore, AMF may be essential for forest sustainability and biological diversity. Root colonization, density and diversity of AMF spores were

Milene Moreira; Dilmar Baretta; Siu Mui Tsai; Sandra Maria Gomes-da-Costa; Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

2007-01-01

110

Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation.

Laura C. Van Riper; Diane L. Larson

2009-01-01

111

ELECTROMYOGRAPHY OF THE FIN MUSCULATURE OF THE CUTTLEFISH SEPIA OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The musculature of the fins of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) was studied with electromyography to test predictions of the functional role of the various muscle masses. Previous research had shown the fins to consist of a tightly packed, three-dimensional array of muscle with distinct zones of anaerobic glycolytic and oxidative muscle fibres. In addition, a network of

WILLIAM M. KIER; KATHLEEN K. SMITH; JALEEL A. MIYAN

1989-01-01

112

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory guided fractionation of Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant Melissa officinalis L. has been used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Based on its traditional medicinal use, it was assessed for its clinical efficacy in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s patients. The plant was effective in the management of the disease. Therefore, based on this result, a similar plant extract was prepared in order to be screened

Keyvan Dastmalchi; Velimatti Ollilainen; Petri Lackman; Gustav Boije af Gennäs; H. J. Damien Dorman; Päivi P. Järvinen; Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma; Raimo Hiltunen

2009-01-01

113

Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC–MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon

P. Schnitzler; A. Schuhmacher; A. Astani; Jürgen Reichling

2008-01-01

114

Melissa officinalis, L.: study of antioxidant activity in supercritical residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical CO2 extraction of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.) at pressures from 10 to 18 MPa and at temperatures of 308–313 K was studied. The antioxidant activity of lemon balm extracts, obtained from solid residues of supercritical extraction and from raw lemon balm leaves, was performed using the Rancimat method. The best protection factor curve was obtained when extracts

M. A Ribeiro; M. G Bernardo-Gil; M. M Esqu??vel

2001-01-01

115

Micropropagation of Melissa officinalis L. through proliferation of axillary shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoots were differentiated in cotyledonary nodes of 10 d old seedlings of Melissa officinalis, cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0-4 mg\\/l). The production of shoots was further induced in subcultures of the original expiant, after the first harvest of shoots (stump), using similar conditions. The highest average number of shoots in the two inoculations was obtained with

A. C. Tavares; M. C. Pimenta; M. T. Gonçalves

1996-01-01

116

Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.  

PubMed

Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH? production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts. PMID:25036683

Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

2014-01-01

117

Ethylene-, light-, and prechill-enhanced germination of Echinacea angustifolia seeds  

SciTech Connect

Echinacea angustifolia DC., the common coneflower of the western Great Plains, is difficult to propagate by achenes due to inherent seed dormancy. The effects of light and prechilling on seed germination were examined, alone and combined with scarification (mechanical, acid) and ethylene (ethephon) treatments. The results showed that a 2-week prechill treatment combined with ethephon and continuous light, followed by a 2-week germination period in light (16 hours per day) at 25 C, could induce >95% seed germination in E. angustifolia. This was a significantly higher percentage of germination over a shorter period of time than any other method examined or previously described. This treatment also synchronized germination, with most viable seeds germinating in <1 week after being placed at 25 C in the light. Chemical name used: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).

Feghahati, S.M.J.; Reese, R.N. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). Dept. of Biology and Microbiology)

1994-07-01

118

Endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of Typha angustifolia L. in the constructed Beijing Cuihu Wetland (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the community structure of endophytic bacteria in narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) roots growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, using the 16S rDNA library technique. In total, 184 individual sequences were used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 161 clones (87.5%) were affiliated with Proteobacteria, other clones grouped into Cytophaga\\/Flexibacter\\/Bacteroids (3.3%), Fusobacteria

Yan Hong Li; Qun Fang Liu; Yin Liu; Jing Nan Zhu; Qiang Zhang

2011-01-01

119

Benthic macroinvertebrate response to sedimentation in a Typha angustifolia L. wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiberglass mesh enclosures (1 × 1 m2) in a Typha angustifoliaL. marsh were employed to examine the effects of clay additions on theresident macroinvertebrate communities. Total invertebrate density, insectdensity, and number of insect families decreased significantly by 33%,37%, and 17%, respectively, in enclosures receiving sediment. Morespecifically, incoming clay adversely affected densities of Coleoptera larvae,Diptera larvae, Megaloptera larvae, Odonata larvae, Pelecypoda,

Dianne C. Martin; Robert K. Neely

2001-01-01

120

Effect of NaCl and Typha angustifolia L. on marsh community establishment: A greenhouse study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-restoration wetland sites often do not resemble natural wetlands in diversity or richness of native species, in part\\u000a due to the influence of stressors such as excess contaminant loads and invasive species. Road salt and the salt-tolerant invasiveTypha angustifolia are potential wetland stressors for which little is known, although it is thought that high salt contaminant loads can lead\\u000a to

Stefanie Miklovic; Susan M. Galatowitsch

2005-01-01

121

Seasonal patterns of carbohydrate translocation and synthesis of structural carbon components in Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative studies of material budgets and resource allocation patterns of emergent plants are needed to fully understand\\u000a nutrient and carbon cycling in wetlands. Whole-plant translocation patterns of nonstructural carbohydrates and synthesis of\\u000a structural carbon were documented using two (shallow and deepwater) populations of Typha angustifolia in floodplain habitats of the Arakawa River, Japan. Monthly and bimonthly measurements of the concentrations

Takashi Asaeda; Pratima Sharma; Lalith Rajapakse

2008-01-01

122

Microbial growth and nitrogen retention in litter of Phragmites australis compared to Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tidal marshes of the northeast US, replacement of native cattail (Typha angustifolia) by the common reed (Phragmites australis) is widespread, and reed is often the target of removal efforts. Reed sequesters nearly twice the amount of nitrogen per\\u000a unit marsh area in living aboveground tissue compared to cattail. Microbial decay processes immobilize additional nitrogen\\u000a or return this organic nitrogen

Stuart E. G. Findlay; Susan Dye; Kevin A. Kuehn

2002-01-01

123

Decomposition of Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis in the littoral zone of a shallow lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposition of air-dried live Typha angustifolia (L) stems and leaves and Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin ex Steud.) leaves and culms were studied in a shallow freshwater lake (Lake Fehér, Fert?-Hanság National Park,\\u000a Hungary) using the litter bag technique. Samples were analyzed for dry mass, fiber (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin) and\\u000a nutrient (C, N, P, S) contents, litter-associated fungal biomass (ergosterol concentration),

Mária Dinka

2008-01-01

124

Potential of Typha angustifolia for phytoremediation of heavy metals from aqueous solution of phenol and melanoidin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typha angustifolia was evaluated for various heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) bioremediation potential from aqueous solution containing variable concentrations of phenol (100–800mgl?1) and melanoidin (2500–8500 Co–Pt) at 20, 40, and 60 days. The concentration of phenol (200–400mgl?1) along with melanoidin 2500 Co–Pt showed optimum for phytoremediation of tested heavy metals, while, higher concentrations of melanoidin (5600–8500

Ram Chandra; Sangeeta Yadav

2010-01-01

125

Annual Production of Decomposer Fungi Associated With Standing-Dead Litter of Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial decomposition of standing-dead plant litter is an important process in wetlands dominated by emergent macrophytes. We determined the annual fungal biomass (ergosterol) and production (14C-acetate incorporation) associated with decaying standing litter (leaves and shoots) of the emergent macrophyte Typha angustifolia in small lake littoral wetland in southeastern Michigan. Mean annual detrital mass of standing-dead leaf and shoot litter was

B. M. Ohsowski; M. D. Collins; D. Tarry; S. N. Francoeur; R. K. Neely; K. A. Kuehn

2005-01-01

126

Impact of harvesting on constructed wetlands performance—a comparison between Scirpus grossus and Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three units of free water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater under tropical conditions were examined in terms of water quality and biomass characteristics. One unit (L2) was planted with Scirpus grossus, one with Typha angustifolia (L3), and the unplanted third (L1) served as control. Influent and effluent quality parameters: biological oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrate (NO3 -N), ammonium (NH4

K. B. S. N. Jinadasa; N. Tanaka; S. Sasikala; D. R. I. B. Werellagama; M. I. M. Mowjood; W. J. Ng

2008-01-01

127

Effect of water depth on the rhizome dynamics of Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhizome dynamics of Typha angustifolia in relation to water depth were investigated. Observations were made in two different stands, namely Akigase from April 2002\\u000a to December 2003, and Teganuma from April 2003 to December 2004. The mean rhizome length in the two stands was not significantly\\u000a different but the mean rhizome diameter and biomass showed a significant difference. The

Pratima Sharma; Takashi Asaeda; Takeshi Fujino

2008-01-01

128

Coexistence of Typha Angustifolia and Impatiens Capensis in a tidal freshwater marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several salt marsh plant species can oxygenate soils through their aerenchymous tissue and thereby facilitate the growth of\\u000a neighboring species. Such positive interactions remain poorly understood for tidal freshwater marshes, yet may explain why\\u000a species adverse to submerged roots are able to thrive in these marshes. Field observations showed a positive association between\\u000a Typha angustifolia L. and Impatiens capensis Meerb.,

Kristine N. Hopfensperger; Katharina A. M. Engelhardt

2007-01-01

129

Internal heterogeneity of ramet and flower densities of Typha angustifolia near the boundary of the stand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen relatively narrow stands of Typha angustifolia, including both stands bounded to open water and ridged boundary, were investigated in terms of the distributions of ramet\\u000a density as well as the fraction of flowering ramets. The ramet density, fraction of flowering ramet and morphological characteristics\\u000a of ramets were measured continuously from one side of the stand to the other, together

Takashi Asaeda; Le Quoc Hung

2007-01-01

130

Mechanical Properties and Thermal Conductivity of Typha angustifolia Natural Fiber–Reinforced Polyester Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially biodegradable Typha angustifolia natural fiber–reinforced polyester composites were prepared. The fiber content in the composites was varied from ?18.3% to 35.5% by volume, and the mechanical properties in each case were determined. The thermal conductivity of these composites at 333 K temperature was also determined. The mechanical properties increased with increase in fiber content. Further, the density and thermal conductivity

K. Ramanaiah; A. V. Ratna Prasad; K. Hema Chandra Reddy

2011-01-01

131

Regeneration of Elaeagnus angustifolia from leaf segments of in vitro-derived shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot regeneration was achieved from in vitro-produced leaves of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Half-leaf explants from the terminal part of the shoot produced more shoots than explants from the basal part of the in vitro-derived shoots on agar-solidified WPM medium supplemented with 1 µM benzyladenine (BA). In liquid medium of the same formulation, compact shoots that did not elongate were formed

Athanasios S. Economou; Eleni M. Maloupa

1995-01-01

132

Rusco aculeati-Fraxinetum angustifoliae, una nova associació forestal de ribera del territori ruscínic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposem una nova comunitat de ribera del territori ruscínic, dominada per Fraxinus angustifolia, que ocupa, d’una banda, la zona marginal externa de les alberedes litorals (Populetum albae), i d’altra, els petits cursos d’aigües estacionals de l’interior. Aquesta comunitat s’estableix en sòls amb marcades oscil·lacions estacionals del nivell freàtic, cosa que afavoreix precisament l a instal·lació dels freixes de fulla petita,

Josep Gesti Perich; Lluís Vilar Saís

2003-01-01

133

Lead-induced oxidative stress and metabolic alterations in Cassia angustifolia Vahl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-five-days old plants of Indian senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) were subjected to 0–500 µM lead acetate (Pb-Ac) in pot culture. Changes in contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive\\u000a substances (TBARS), ascorbate, glutathione, proline, sennosides (a+b), and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT)\\u000a were studied at pre-flowering (60 d after sawing, DAS), flowering (90

M. I. Qureshi; M. Z. Abdin; S. Qadir; M. Iqbal

2007-01-01

134

Benthic community structure in stands of Typha angustifolia and herbicide-treated and untreated Phragmites australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared benthic community structure among stands of Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaf cattail) and herbicide-treated (Glypro) and untreated Phragmites australis (common reed) over two summers in a Lake Erie coastal wetland (i.e., drowned river mouth). Both macrophytes are invasives,\\u000a but only Phragmites is currently controlled by herbicides because of its reputed “undesirable” effects on wetland community structure and function.\\u000a Macroinvertebrate diversity

Amy E. Kulesza; Joseph R. Holomuzki; David M. Klarer

2008-01-01

135

Germination of Deyeuxia angustifolia as affected by soil type, burial depth, water depth and oxygen level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deyeuxia angustifolia is a dominant species in the Sanjiang Plain, the largest freshwater marsh wetland in China. However, this species has declined\\u000a because of great environment changes. In the effects of sea-level rise and greenhouse gas, magnitude and frequency of flood\\u000a and rate of deposit in wetland increased greatly. Thus, in this paper, effects of soil environment (soil type, burial

Youzhi Li; Canming Zhang; Yonghong Xie; Fen Liu

2009-01-01

136

Induction of drought tolerance by paclobutrazol and irrigation deficit in Phillyrea angustifolia during the nursery period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phillyrea angustifolia is a native Mediterranean species, which has recently been considered suitable for landscaping purposes. We hypothesize that hardening plants in the nursery could increase their tolerance of drought after transplanting. The effects of paclobutrazol (PBZ) and different irrigation regimes applied to seedlings planted in 4.5-L plastic pots were investigated. PBZ was applied as a substrate drench at 0mLL?1

J. A. Fernández; L. Balenzategui; S. Bañón; J. A. Franco

2006-01-01

137

Quantitative genetics of floral characters in homostylous Turnera ulmifolia var. angustifolia Willd. (Turneraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic basis of floral variation influencing the mating system of Jamaican populations of homostylous Turnera ulmifolia var. angustifolia was investigated using controlled crosses and open-pollinated families. Crosses between plants with large differences in stigma-anther separation and analysis of F2 and backcross generations gave unimodal distributions for all floral characters. No evidence for major gene control of floral variation was

Joel S Shore; Spencer C H Barrett

1990-01-01

138

Impact of harvesting on constructed wetlands performance - a comparison between Scirpus grossus and Typha angustifolia.  

PubMed

Three units of free water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater under tropical conditions were examined in terms of water quality and biomass characteristics. One unit (L2) was planted with Scirpus grossus, one with Typha angustifolia (L3), and the unplanted third (L1) served as control. Influent and effluent quality parameters: biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)), nitrate (NO(3)(-)-N), ammonium (NH(4)(+)-N), phosphorus (P), total suspended solids (TSS) and fecal coliforms were regularly measured. The average BOD(5) reductions were 37.0%, 58.5%, and 53.8% for units L1, L2, and L3, respectively. The planted units removed pollutants more effectively although there was no significant difference between the Scirpus grossus and Typha angustifolia units. Plant growth was monitored in marked quadrats by measuring shoot height and other growth parameters. The above-ground organs in L2 and L3 was harvested whenever the shoots reached maximum shoot height and formed flowers. Scirpus grossus had sustainable above-ground biomass production but Typha angustifolia could not sustain repeated harvestings with the above-ground biomass production declining significantly following four consecutive harvests. PMID:18393076

Jinadasa, K B S N; Tanaka, N; Sasikala, S; Werellagama, D R I B; Mowjood, M I M; Ng, W J

2008-05-01

139

Effects of cadmium, chromium and lead on growth, metal uptake and antioxidative capacity in Typha angustifolia.  

PubMed

This study investigates the modulation of antioxidant defence system of Typha angustifolia after 30 days exposure of 1 mM chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), or lead (Pb). T. angustifolia showed high tolerance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom when exposed to metal stress, and Cd/Pb addition also increased plant height and biomass especially in Pb treatment. Along with increased Cr, Cd, and Pb uptake in metal treatments, there was enhanced uptake of plant nutrients including Ca and Fe, and Zn in Pb treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were recorded in plants subjected to Cr, Cd, or Pb stress. Furthermore, Pb stress also improved catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities; whereas Cr stress depressed APX and GPX. The results indicate that enzymatic antioxidants and Ca/Fe uptake were important for heavy metal detoxification in T. angustifolia, stimulated antioxidative enzymes, and Ca, Fe, and Zn uptake could partially explain its hyper-Pb tolerance. PMID:20552296

Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Dai, Huaxin; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Hongyan; Cao, Fangbin; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

2011-07-01

140

The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method. PMID:25598636

Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza

2015-01-01

141

Efficient plant regeneration from multiple shoots formed in the leaf-derived callus of Lavandula vera, using the “open culture system”  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop an efficient procedure for plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus of Lavandula vera DC, the production of multiple shoots and the formation of roots from these shoots were studied. When calli were cultured in a medium with 4.0×10?7M N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N?-phenylurea (CPPU), urea-type cytokinin, multiple shoots were obtained from the greenish surface of the callus efficiently at a rate of 52.2%.

M Tsuro; M Koda; M Inoue

2000-01-01

142

Comparative effect of different types of cytokinin for shoot formation and plant regeneration in leaf-derived callus of lavender ( Lavandula vera DC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf-derived calli of Lavandula vera DC were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) solid medium supplemented with purine or urea-type-cytokinins at 25°C under continuous light conditions. When calli were cultured on the medium with 6-benzylamino purine (BA) at 4.4×10?7–4.4×10?5M, shoots were formed on green spots appearing on the callus surface; the highest value for shoot formation rate was 55.3% at

M Tsuro; M Koda; M Inoue

1999-01-01

143

An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.  

PubMed

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life. PMID:20874226

Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

2010-12-01

144

Presence of monoterpene synthase in four Labiatae species and Solid-Phase Microextraction- Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis of their aroma profiles  

PubMed Central

Background: The family Lamiaceae (Labiatae) has included some medicinal plants. some monoterpene synthases, including linalool and limonene synthases, have been cloned and functionally characterized from several plants of Labiatae family. Materials and Methods: In this study, presence of linalool and limonene synthases, in four species of Labiatae family including Nepeta cataria, Lavandula angustifolia, Hyssopus officinalis and Salvia sclarea has been determined by molecular biological techniques together with the Head space SPME – GC-MS analysis of the aroma profile of these species. Results: Indicated that none of the plant species produced distinguishable bands with primer pairs related to d-limonene synthase. Distinguishable bands around 1800 bp in cDNA samples of L. angustifolia, H. officinalis and S. sclarea were observed regarding to the presence of linalool synthase. Head space SPME-GC-MS analysis of the aroma profiles of the above-mentioned plants showed that linalool (31.0%), linalyl acetate (18.2%), were found as the major compounds of L. angustifolia, while geraniol (5.5%), nerol (34.0%) and ?- citral (52.0%) were identified as the main compounds of the N. cataria. The major components of H. officinalis and S. sclarea oils were determined as cis-pinocamphone (57.3%), and linalool (19.0%), linalyl acetate (51.5%), respectively. Conclusion: H. officinalis was rich of cyclic monoterpenes, L. angustifolia, N. cataria and S. sclarea showed considerable amount of linear monoterpenes. The aroma profile of the above-mentioned plants contained low concentration of sesquiterpenes except N. cataria, which indicated no sesquiterpene. The profiles of the main components of these plants are in agreement with molecular assays. PMID:24761118

Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Haddadi, Azita; Amin, Gholamreza; Nikan, Marjan; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbass

2014-01-01

145

Wound healing activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis.  

PubMed

The effects of oral and topical application of Calendula officinalis flower extract on excision wounds made in rats were checked. The parameters assessed were the days needed for re-epithelization and percentage of wound closure. The hydroxy proline and hexosamine content in the granuloma tissue of the wound was also measured. The percentage of wound closure was 90.0% in the extract-treated group, whereas the control group showed only 51.1% on the eighth day of wounding (p < .01). The days needed for re-epithelization were 17.7 for the control animals; extract treatment at a dose of 20 or 100 mg/kg b.wt reduced the period to 14 and 13 days, respectively. A significant increase was observed in the hydroxy proline and hexosamine content in the extract-treated group compared with the untreated animals. The data indicate potent wound healing activity ofC. officinalis extract. PMID:19601397

Preethi, Korengath C; Kuttan, Ramadasan

2009-01-01

146

Flüchtige Inhaltsstoffe aus Steinklee ( Melilotus officinalis L. Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using MPLC the extract obtained by solid-liquid extraction of dry sweet clover herb (Melilotus officinalis L. Lam.) with pentane\\/dichloromethane (2+1, by vol.) was fractionated. The subsequent separation and identification of the volatiles in the preseparated fractions was carried out by high resolution capillary gas chromatography (HRGC) and on-line HRGC\\/mass spectrometry (HRGC\\/MS). In total, 84 volatile constituents of sweet clover

Martin Wörner; Peter Schreier

1990-01-01

147

Effect of calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.  

PubMed

In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing. Anat Rec, 298:428-435, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25266273

Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

2015-02-01

148

HPLC ANALYSIS OF PHENOLIC ACIDS IN MELISSA OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and effective HPLC assay for determination of the main phenolic acids (rosmarinic, caffeic, protocatechuic) that were isolated from medicinal plant Melissa officinalis has been developed. The main goal of this work was to test and evaluate the liquid extraction procedure for plant samples. As the effective extraction media, mixtures of methanol-water and methanol-water (pH 2.5) were chosen. The

Alicia Caniova; Eva Brandsteterova

2001-01-01

149

Lemon Balm ( Melissa officinalis ) Stalk: Chemical Composition and Fiber Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the potentials of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) stalk (LBS), a massive waste part of medicinal plant, for pulp and papermaking by assessing its fiber characteristics\\u000a and chemical composition. In addition, LBS properties were compared with some important agro-residues such as bagasse stalk\\u000a (BS), cotton stalk (CS) and tobacco stalk (TS). There is no information about suitability

Yahya Hamzeh; Fatemeh Amani

2011-01-01

150

The effect of triacontanol on micropropagationof balm, Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triacontanol, a long-chain primary alcohol was found to be an effective growth regulator in the micropropagation of balm,\\u000a Melissa officinalis. In both the multiplication and the rooting phase, concentrations of 2, 5, 10 and 20??g triacontanol per liter were applied.\\u000a After 4 weeks of culture, the fresh weight of shoots was measured in the multiplication phase and root formation, photosynthetic

Á. Tantos; A. Mészáros; J. Kissimon; G. Horváth; T. Farkas

1999-01-01

151

Small brown planthopper resistance loci in wild rice (Oryza officinalis).  

PubMed

Host-plant resistance is the most practical and economical approach to control the rice planthoppers. However, up to date, few rice germplasm accessions that are resistant to the all three kinds of planthoppers (1) brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål), (2) the small brown planthopper (SBPH; Laodelphax striatellus Fallen), and (3) the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) have been identified; consequently, the genetic basis for host-plant broad spectrum resistance to rice planthoppers in a single variety has been seldom studied. Here, one wild species, Oryza officinalis (Acc. HY018, 2n = 24, CC), was detected showing resistance to the all three kinds of planthoppers. Because resistance to WBPH and BPH in O. officinalis has previously been reported, the study mainly focused on its SBPH resistance. The SBPH resistance gene(s) was (were) introduced into cultivated rice via asymmetric somatic hybridization. Three QTLs for SBPH resistance detected by the SSST method were mapped and confirmed on chromosomes 3, 7, and 12, respectively. The allelic/non-allelic relationship and relative map positions of the three kinds of planthopper resistance genes in O. officinalis show that the SBPH, WBPH, and BPH resistance genes in O. officinalis were governed by multiple genes, but not by any major gene. The data on the genetics of host-plant broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers in a single accession suggested that the most ideally practical and economical approach for rice breeders is to screen the sources of broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers, but not to employ broad spectrum resistance gene for the management of planthoppers. Pyramiding these genes in a variety can be an effective way for the management of planthoppers. PMID:24504629

Zhang, Weilin; Dong, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ma, Bojun; Ma, Rongrong; Huang, Fudeng; Wang, Changchun; Hu, Haitao; Li, Chunshou; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

2014-06-01

152

Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student’s t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect. PMID:23844268

Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

2013-01-01

153

Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student's t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect. PMID:23844268

Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

2013-01-01

154

New insights in the recognition of the European ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl as useful tools for forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and narrow-leaved ash (F. angustifolia Vahl) are the most common ash species in Western Europe. The former is considered to be a highly valuable timber tree and contamination of its seed lots by the latter is strongly undesirable. We studied molecular, physiological and morphological characteristics that can help to detect the presence of F. angustifolia

Pierre R. Gérard; Juan F. Fernández-Manjarrés; Paola Bertolino; Jean Dufour; Christian Raquin; Nathalie Frascaria-Lacoste

2006-01-01

155

Phytoremediation of CD, CR, CU, MN, FE, NI, PB and ZN from Aqueous Solution Using Phragmites Cummunis, Typha Angustifolia and Cyperus Esculentus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative bioaccumulation pattern and ultra structural changes were studied in Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus in mixed metals solution of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). P. cummunis was observed to be a shoot accumulator for Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, T. angustifolia

Ram Chandra; Sangeeta Yadav

2011-01-01

156

Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences a case study using  

E-print Network

Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences ­ a case study Journal of Marine Science, 60: 1149­1158. The spatial and temporal distribution patterns of cuttlefish

Pierce, Graham

157

Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay  

E-print Network

Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard to the cuttlefishÃ?s visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration

Hanlon, Roger T.

158

Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203  

E-print Network

1 Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203 Hg the juvenile common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis following exposures via seawater and food28 using sensitive radiotracer technique (203 Hg). The cuttlefish readily concentrated 203 Hg when29 exposed via seawater

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding  

E-print Network

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding of Sussex, Brighton, UK Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show of natural substrates that cuttlefish cue on visually are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify

Hanlon, Roger T.

160

ORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Lydia M. Ma The camouflaging abilities of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) are remarkable and well known. It is commonly believed that cuttlefish--although color blind--actively match various colors of their immediate surroundings, yet

Hanlon, Roger T.

161

First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

1 First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Thomas in the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis via maternal transfer, using radiotracer techniques (110m Ag, 241 Am, 109 Cd, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 54 Mn, 75 Se and 65 Zn). The cuttlefish was fed daily

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food pathways  

E-print Network

1 Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food.envpol.2004.07.010 #12;2 ABSTRACT The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was selected as a model cephalopod to study PCB bioaccumulation via seawater, sediments and food. Newly hatched, juvenile cuttlefish were exposed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Kendra coloration Cephalopod a b s t r a c t Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, commonly use their visually. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three

California at Irvine, University of

164

The feeding and conversion of leaf litter by the pillbug armadillo officinalis (isopoda, oniscidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and food conversion of the pillbug Armadillo officinalis Duméril 1816, fed on the leaves of Myoporum serratum or Carthamus lanatus for 30 days, were determined. A steady increase in the body mass of A. officinalis fed on either diet was observed during the initial 15 days of the experimental period, with a decrease thereafter. A sigmoid growth pattern

G. Achuthan Nair; Mahmoud Mahdy Fadiel

1991-01-01

165

Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis  

SciTech Connect

The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-/sup 3/H)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess ..beta..-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2(U-/sup 14/C)campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C/sub 14/ to C/sub 20/) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots.

Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

1987-07-01

166

Epifluorescent and histochemical aspects of shoot anatomy of Typha latifolia L., Typha angustifolia L. and Typha glauca Godr.  

PubMed

Using epifluorescent and histochemical techniques, we examined anatomical differences in the shoot organs of Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia and T. glauca. The leaf lamina of T. latifolia and T. glauca had enlarged epidermal cells and a thickened cuticle above the subepidermal vascular bundles; that of T. angustifolia lacked these characteristics. Leaf sheaths were similar among the species and all lacked the epidermal thickenings found in the lamina. The fertile stems had typical scattered vascular bundles with a band of fibres that was most prominent in T. glauca. The sterile stems were only 1 cm in length and contained a multiseriate hypodermis and a uniseriate endodermis over part of their length. The rhizomes were similar except for a pronounced band of fibres surrounding the central core in T. angustifolia. The rhizome was also characterized by an outer cortical region with a large multiseriate hypodermis/exodermis and a uniseriate endodermis with Casparian bands, suberin lamellae and secondarily thickened walls. PMID:12324273

McManus, H A; Seago Jr, J L; Marsh, L C

2002-10-01

167

Effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in organically produced broilers.  

PubMed

Abstract 1. A trial was conducted to study the effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on organic broiler performance and meat chemical, microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality. 2. Male and female day-old Ross 308 chicks were fed on a standard commercial diet containing 0, 2.5, 5 or 10 g/kg feed ground M. officinalis for 84 d before slaughter. 3. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the broilers receiving either 5 or 10 mg M. officinalis/kg feed. 4. Inclusion of M. officinalis did not affect muscle chemical and fatty acid composition. 5. On the basis of microbiological and sensory experimental data and subsequent extension of meat shelf life, M. officinalis did not reduce the microbial populations of the meat, but was effective in limiting lipid oxidation. PMID:25299877

Kasapidou, E; Giannenas, I; Mitlianga, P; Sinapis, E; Bouloumpasi, E; Petrotos, K; Manouras, A; Kyriazakis, I

2014-12-01

168

Accumulation of heavy metals in Typha angustifolia (L.) and Potamogeton pectinatus (L.) living in Sultan Marsh (Kayseri, Turkey).  

PubMed

Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu) were measured in bottom sediments, water and Typha angustifolia and Potamogeton pectinatus in Sultan Marsh. Sultan Marsh is one of the largest and most important wetlands in Turkey, Middle East and Europe, embodying saline and fresh water ecosystems and providing a shelter for 426 bird species. The organs of T. angustifolia have a larger quantity of the measured elements than the P. pectinatus. Considerably higher contents of Cd were found rather than in helophytes (P. pectinatus) in submerged plant (= emergent, T. angustifolia) species. The percentage of Cd in plant tissues points to a certain degree of water pollution in Sultan Mash. Analyses of water, bottom sediments and plant samples indicated that the Marsh were polluted with Pb, Cd, and partly with Cu and Zn. All sampling sites in the study area basin are generally more or less polluted when compared with the control values. Strong positive correlation was found between concentrations of Pb in water and in plants. Ni and Pb were accumulated by plants at a higher rate from bottom sediments than from water. Leaves of T. angustifolia accumulated less heavy metal than the corresponding roots. There was a significant relationship between Cd concentration in samples of plants and water pH value. It has been found that the tissues of T. angustifolia accumulate more heavy metals than the tissues of P. pectinatus. Therefore, all plants can be used as a biological indicator while determining environmental pressures; however, T. angustifolia is proved more appropriate for such studies. PMID:15234165

Demirezen, Dilek; Aksoy, Ahmet

2004-08-01

169

Metabolic profile and biological activities of Lavandula pedunculata subsp. lusitanica (Chaytor) Franco: studies on the essential oil and polar extracts.  

PubMed

We investigated the metabolic profile and biological activities of the essential oil and polar extracts of Lavandula pedunculata subsp. lusitanica (Chaytor) Franco collected in south Portugal. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that oxygen-containing monoterpenes was the principal group of compounds identified in the essential oil. Camphor (40.6%) and fenchone (38.0%) were found as the major constituents. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis allowed the identification of hydroxycinnamic acids (3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and rosmarinic acids) and flavones (luteolin and apigenin) in the polar extracts, with rosmarinic acid being the main compound in most of them. The bioactive compounds from L. pedunculata polar extracts were the most efficient free-radical scavengers, Fe(2+) chelators and inhibitors of malondialdehyde production, while the essential oil was the most active against acetylcholinesterase. Our results reveal that the subspecies of L. pedunculata studied is a potential source of active metabolites with a positive effect on human health. PMID:23870987

Costa, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sandra; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Almeida, Carlos; Nogueira, José M F; Romano, Anabela

2013-12-01

170

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in Turkey.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the dried leaves and flowers of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas were separately identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. The main components were alpha-fenchone (41.9 +/- 1.2%), 1,8-cineole (15.6 +/- 0.8%), camphor (12.1 +/- 0.5%), and viridiflorol (4.1 +/- 0.4%) in the leaves; and alpha-fenchone (39.2 +/- 0.9%), myrtenyl acetate (9.5 +/- 0.4%), alpha-pinene (6.1 +/- 0.09%), camphor (5.9 +/- 0.05%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8 +/- 0.1%) in the flowers. Overall, 55 and 66 constituents were identified in the leaf and flower essential oils representing more than 90% and 94% of the total, respectively. In addition, the essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticandidal activities by broth microdilution. The flower essential oil was found to be relatively more active than the leaf oil towards the tested pathogenic microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to the flower oil (MIC = 31.2 microg/mL). The oils, evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity using a TLC-DPPH assay, were inactive at a concentration of 2 mg/mL. PMID:19731612

Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Demirci, Betül; Ye?ilada, Erdem; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

2009-07-01

171

Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. PMID:23827646

Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

2014-01-01

172

Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) - Hyptis suaveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia - incorporated in protein baits was evaluated against Bactrocera oleae, a worldwide pest of olive fruits. In laboratory conditions, all the tested EOs showed dose-dependent toxicity on B. oleae, with mortality rates ranging from 12% (EO concentration: 0.01% w:v) to 100% (EO concentration: 1.75% w:v). Semi-field results highlighted the toxicity of L. angustifolia and H. suaveolens EOs, which exerted more than 60% of flies mortality at a concentration of 1.75% (w:v). Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry analyses of the three EOs showed that H. suaveolens EO was dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main chemical class in R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs plus food bait against the olive fruit fly in the open field. PMID:23594314

Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Lenzi, Gabriele; Flamini, Guido; Francini, Alessandra; Cioni, Pier Luigi

2013-01-01

173

Phenolic and flavonoid content of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (leaf and flower)  

PubMed Central

Objectives : Leaves and flowers of Elaeagnus angustifolia contain phenolic and flavonoid compounds. These compounds have antioxidant properties that protect cells from oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to determine and analyze total phenolic and flavonoid content of leaves and flowers in two E. angustifolia variants using different solvents (ethanol and methanol). Materials and Methods: Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the plant leaves and flowers were prepared. Experiments were carried out to measure their phenolic and flavonoid content using two solvents. Data were analyzed using Instat-N software. Results: Results showed that the amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in both ethanolic and methanolic extracts was higher in Fariman variant compared with Mashhad variant. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Fariman variant had the highest amount of phenolic compound (10.91±0.18, 10.28± 0.36 mg GAE/100gFW, respectively) and also the highest amounts of flavonoids (5.80±0.10, 3.36±0.05 mgQE/100gFW, respectively). Phenolic and flavonoids compounds were better extracted using methanol and ethanol solvent. Conclusions: In both varieties and solvents, the amount of phenolic and flavonoids compounds in leaves were higher than flowers. In addition, the phenolic and flavonoids compounds were higher in Fariman compared to Mashhad variants PMID:25068137

Saboonchian, Fereshte; Jamei, Rashid; Hosseini Sarghein, Siavash

2014-01-01

174

Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by leaf extract of Cassia angustifolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study Cassia angustifolia (senna) is used for the environmentally friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles having symmetric surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band centred at 420 nm were obtained within 10 min at room temperature by treating aqueous solutions of silver nitrate with C. angustifolia leaf extract. The water soluble components from the leaves, probably the sennosides, served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanoparticles were poly-dispersed, spherical in shape with particle size in the range 9–31 nm, the average size was found to be 21.6 nm at pH 11. The zeta potential was –36.4 mV and the particles were stable for 6 months. The crystalline phase of the nanoparticles was confirmed from the selected area diffraction pattern (SAED). The rate of formation and size of silver nanoparticles were pH dependent. Functional groups responsible for capping of silver nanoparticles were identified from the FTIR spectrum. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

Amaladhas, T. Peter; Sivagami, S.; Akkini Devi, T.; Ananthi, N.; Priya Velammal, S.

2012-12-01

175

Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress.  

PubMed

The present study investigated Typha angustifolia leaf proteome in response to Cr, Cd and Pb stress. T. angustifolia of 90 (D90) and 130d (D130) old plants were subjected to 1mM Cr, Cd and Pb and samples were collected 30d after treatment. 2-DE coupled with MS (mass spectrometry) was used to analyze and identify Cr, Cd and Pb-responsive proteins. More than 1600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel, wherein 44, 46, 66 and 33, 26, 62 spots in D90 and D130 samples were differentially expressed by Cr, Cd, Pb over the control, respectively. Of these differentially expressed proteins, 3, 1, 8 overlapped in D90 and D130; while 5, 8, 5 with regulation factors above 3 in one of D90 or D130 samples. Total of 22 and 4 up- and down-regulated proteins were identified using MS and data bank analysis. Cr-induced expression of ATP synthase, RuBisCO small subunit and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; Cd-induced RuBisCO large subunit; Pb up-regulated carbohydrate metabolic pathway enzymes of fructokinase, and improved RuBisCO activase and large subunit, Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase. Contrarily, elF4F was inhibited by Cr/Pb, chloroplast FtsZ-like protein and GF14 omega impeded by Cd and Pb, respectively. PMID:20817397

Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Fei; Zhou, Jing; Dai, Huaxin; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

2010-12-15

176

Annual Production of Decomposer Fungi Associated With Standing-Dead Litter of Typha angustifolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial decomposition of standing-dead plant litter is an important process in wetlands dominated by emergent macrophytes. We determined the annual fungal biomass (ergosterol) and production (14C-acetate incorporation) associated with decaying standing litter (leaves and shoots) of the emergent macrophyte Typha angustifolia in small lake littoral wetland in southeastern Michigan. Mean annual detrital mass of standing-dead leaf and shoot litter was 656±238 g/m2 (range 284-873) and 1184±280 g/m2 (range 522-1525), respectively, during study period. Mean annual fungal biomass associated with decaying standing litter was 46 and 15 g/m2 for leaves and shoots, respectively. Annual fungal biomass production associated with leaves and shoots was 168 and 78 g/m2, respectively, with maximum production /m2 occurring during the summer season. These production estimates account for diel periodicity in water availability and the consequent periodicity in microbial activities that are characteristic of the standing litter environment. A partial organic matter budget constructed for this littoral wetland indicates that 9.4% of the annual aboveground production of T. angustifolia went into the production of fungal biomass. These results provide additional evidence indicating considerable carbon flow from emergent plant matter to fungal decomposers while in the standing-decay phase.

Ohsowski, B. M.; Collins, M. D.; Tarry, D.; Francoeur, S. N.; Neely, R. K.; Kuehn, K. A.

2005-05-01

177

Nocturnal versus diurnal CO2 uptake: how flexible is Agave angustifolia?  

PubMed Central

Agaves exhibit the water-conserving crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthetic pathway. Some species are potential biofuel feedstocks because they are highly productive in seasonally dry landscapes. In plants with CAM, high growth rates are often believed to be associated with a significant contribution of C3 photosynthesis to total carbon gain when conditions are favourable. There has even been a report of a shift from CAM to C3 in response to overwatering a species of Agave. We investigated whether C3 photosynthesis can contribute substantially to carbon uptake and growth in young and mature Agave angustifolia collected from its natural habitat in Panama. In well-watered plants, CO2 uptake in the dark contributed about 75% of daily carbon gain. This day/night pattern of CO2 exchange was highly conserved under a range of environmental conditions and was insensitive to intensive watering. Elevated CO2 (800 ppm) stimulated CO2 fixation predominantly in the light. Exposure to CO2-free air at night markedly enhanced CO2 uptake during the following light period, but CO2 exchange rapidly reverted to its standard pattern when CO2 was supplied during the subsequent 24h. Although A. angustifolia consistently engages in CAM as its principal photosynthetic pathway, its relatively limited photosynthetic plasticity does not preclude it from occupying a range of habitats, from relatively mesic tropical environments in Panama to drier habitats in Mexico. PMID:24648568

Winter, Klaus; Garcia, Milton; Holtum, Joseph A. M.

2014-01-01

178

Nocturnal versus diurnal CO2 uptake: how flexible is Agave angustifolia?  

PubMed

Agaves exhibit the water-conserving crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthetic pathway. Some species are potential biofuel feedstocks because they are highly productive in seasonally dry landscapes. In plants with CAM, high growth rates are often believed to be associated with a significant contribution of C3 photosynthesis to total carbon gain when conditions are favourable. There has even been a report of a shift from CAM to C3 in response to overwatering a species of Agave. We investigated whether C3 photosynthesis can contribute substantially to carbon uptake and growth in young and mature Agave angustifolia collected from its natural habitat in Panama. In well-watered plants, CO2 uptake in the dark contributed about 75% of daily carbon gain. This day/night pattern of CO2 exchange was highly conserved under a range of environmental conditions and was insensitive to intensive watering. Elevated CO2 (800 ppm) stimulated CO2 fixation predominantly in the light. Exposure to CO2-free air at night markedly enhanced CO2 uptake during the following light period, but CO2 exchange rapidly reverted to its standard pattern when CO2 was supplied during the subsequent 24h. Although A. angustifolia consistently engages in CAM as its principal photosynthetic pathway, its relatively limited photosynthetic plasticity does not preclude it from occupying a range of habitats, from relatively mesic tropical environments in Panama to drier habitats in Mexico. PMID:24648568

Winter, Klaus; Garcia, Milton; Holtum, Joseph A M

2014-07-01

179

The role of gene flow in shaping genetic structures of the subtropical conifer species Araucaria angustifolia.  

PubMed

The morphological features of pollen and seed of Araucaria angustifolia have led to the proposal of limited gene dispersal for this species. We used nuclear microsatellite and AFLP markers to assess patterns of genetic variation in six natural populations at the intra- and inter-population level, and related our findings to gene dispersal in this species. Estimates of both fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) and migration rate suggest relatively short-distance gene dispersal. However, gene dispersal differed among populations, and effects of more efficient dispersal within population were observed in at least one stand. In addition, even though some seed dispersal may be aggregated in this principally barochorous species, reasonable secondary seed dispersal, presumably facilitated by animals, and overlap of seed shadows within populations is suggested. Overall, no correlation was observed between levels of SGS and inbreeding, density or age structure, except that a higher level of SGS was revealed for the population with a higher number of juvenile individuals. A low estimate for the number of migrants per generation between two neighbouring populations implies limited gene flow. We expect that stepping-stone pollen flow may have contributed to low genetic differentiation among populations observed in a previous survey. Thus, strategies for maintenance of gene flow among remnant populations should be considered in order to avoid degrading effects of population fragmentation on the evolution of A. angustifolia. PMID:18426482

Stefenon, V M; Gailing, O; Finkeldey, R

2008-05-01

180

Identification and elimination of bacterial contamination during in vitro propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth  

PubMed Central

Background: Guadua angustifolia Kunth is a very important bamboo species with significant utility in pharmaceutical, paper, charcoal, and construction industries. Microbial contamination is a major problem encountered during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. Objective: This study has been designed to analyze the identity of contaminating bacteria and to develop the strategy to eliminate them during micropropagation of Guadua. Materials and Methods: We isolated and consequently analyzed partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify two contaminating bacteria as (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis. In addition, we also- performed antibiotic sensitivity testing on these bacterial isolates. Results: We identified kanamycin and streptomycin sulfate as potentially useful antibiotics in eliminating the contaminating bacteria. We grew shoots on multiplication medium containing BAP (2 mg/l) and adenine sulfate (10 mg/l) supplemented with kanamycin (10 ?g/ml) for 10 days and transferred them to fresh medium without antibiotics and found that bacterial growth was inhibited. Moreover, we observed intensive formation of high-quality shoots. Streptomycin sulfate also inhibited bacterial growth but at higher concentration. We also demonstrated that shoots grown in streptomycin sulfate tended to be shorter and had yellow leaves. Conclusion: Thus, we have developed a novel strategy to identify and inhibit intriguing microbial contaminations of (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This would improve in vitro establishment of an important bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth for large scale propagation. PMID:22701279

Nadha, Harleen Kaur; Salwan, Richa; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

2012-01-01

181

Adsorption of lead (Pb) from aqueous solution with Typha angustifolia biomass modified by SOCl 2 activated EDTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemically modified Typha angustifolia biomass (CMTAB) material with abundant carboxyl groups was prepared using thionyl chloride (SOCl2) activated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a modification reagent. The CMTAB was characterized by back titration, elemental analysis, FTIR and SEM. The results show that EDTA is effectively grafted to the biomass matrix and the carboxyl group content of the biomass sharply increases

Wu-Jun Liu; Fan-Xin Zeng; Hong Jiang; Xue-Song Zhang

2011-01-01

182

Accumulation of heavy metals in Typha angustifolia (L.) and Potamogeton pectinatus (L.) living in Sultan Marsh (Kayseri, Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu) were measured in bottom sediments, water and Typha angustifolia and Potamogeton pectinatus in Sultan Marsh. Sultan Marsh is one of the largest and most important wetlands in Turkey, Middle East and Europe, embodying saline and fresh water ecosystems and providing a shelter for 426 bird species. The organs of

Dilek Dem?rezen; Ahmet Aksoy

2004-01-01

183

Molecular genetic data reveal hybridization between Typha angustifolia and Typha latifolia across a broad spatial scale in eastern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent increase in the abundance of cattails (Typha spp.) in North American wetlands has been anecdotally linked with hybridization between Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers (microsatellites) to investigate whether the hybrid lineage (Typha×glauca) is restricted to The Great Lakes region, or exists across a much broader spatial scale. We also investigated

Heather Kirk; Candace Connolly; Joanna R. Freeland

2011-01-01

184

Growth strategy of an emergent macrophyte, Typha orientalis Presl, in comparison with Typha latifolia L. and Typha angustifolia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth strategy of an emergent plant, Typha orientalis Presl, was examined in experimental ponds in comparison with two other Typha species distributed in Japan, Typha latifolia L. and Typha angustifolia L. T. orientalis showed the greatest ability of vegetative reproduction at the expense of growth in height. T. orientalis started to produce new ramets earlier than T. latifolia and

Tomomi Matsui Inoue; Takayoshi Tsuchiya

2006-01-01

185

Heavy Metal Accumulation and Distribution in Narrow-Leaved Cattail (Typha angustifolia) and Common Reed (Phragmites australis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were measured in Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia, and sediment from 11 sites in Karasu Stream, Kayseri, Turkey. Both plants were root accumulators of Zn, Cu, and Cd, having higher concentrations of these elements in their roots than were present in the surrounding sediment. Pb was also accumulated but not against a concentration

Ahmet Aksoy; Fatih Duman; Göksal Sezen

2005-01-01

186

Sea Level Rise and Climate Change Effects on Marsh Plants Spartina Alterniflora and Typha Angustifolia Using Mesocosms  

EPA Science Inventory

A four month experiment using greenhouse mesocosms was conducted to analyze the effect of sea level rise and climate change on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail). Our goal was to examine the effects of three differen...

187

Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report.  

PubMed

Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

Roveroni-Favaretto, Lúcia Helena Denardi; Lodi, Karina Bortolin; Almeida, Janete Dias

2009-01-01

188

Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

2009-01-01

189

Symmetrical crypsis and asymmetrical signalling in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

The salience of bilateral symmetry to humans has led to the suggestion that camouflage may be enhanced in asymmetrical patterns. However, the importance of bilateral symmetry in visual signals (and overall morphology) may constrain the evolution of asymmetrical camouflage, resulting in the bilaterally symmetrical cryptic patterns that we see throughout the animal kingdom. This study investigates the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), which can control the degree of symmetry in its coloration. Ten juvenile S. officinalis were filmed in two behavioural contexts (cryptic and threatened) to test the prediction that cryptic patterns will be expressed more asymmetrically than an anti-predator signal known as the ‘deimatic display’. Cryptic body patterns, particularly those with a disruptive function, were found to exhibit a high degree of bilateral symmetry. By contrast, the components of the deimatic display were often expressed asymmetrically. These results are contrary to the predicted use of symmetry in defensive coloration, indicating that the role of symmetry in both crypsis and visual signalling is not as straightforward as previously suggested. PMID:16627281

Langridge, Keri V

2005-01-01

190

Hepatoprotective potential of Lavandula coronopifolia extracts against ethanol induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

The present investigations were carried out to study the protective potential of four extracts (namely petroleum ether extract (LCR), chloroform extract (LCM), ethyl acetate extract (LCE), and alcoholic extract (LCL)) of Lavandula coronopifolia on oxidative stress-mediated cell death induced by ethanol, a known hepatotoxin in human hapatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cells were pretreated with LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts (10-50 ?g/ml) of L. coronopifolia for 24 h and then ethanol was added and incubated further for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red uptake assays and morphological changes in HepG2 cells were studied. Pretreatment with various extracts of L. coronpifolia was found to be significantly effective in countering the cytotoxic responses of ethanol. Antioxidant properties of these L. coronopifolia extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels induced by ethanol were investigated. Results show that pretreatment with these extracts for 24 h significantly inhibited ROS generation and LPO induced and increased the GSH levels reduced by ethanol. The data from the study suggests that LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts of L. coronopifolia showed hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced damage in HepG2 cells. However, a comparative study revealed that the LCE extract was found to be the most effective and LCL the least effective. The hepatoprotective effects observed in the study could be associated with the antioxidant properties of these extracts of L. coronopifolia. PMID:23546397

Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtsam S; Al-Oqail, Mai M; Hassan, Wafaa H B; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A

2013-03-28

191

Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relaxant effect of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis and its main component, citral, on rat isolated ileum contractions was evaluated. M. officinalis essential oil (MOEO) inhibited the response to KCl (80 mM), ACh (320 nM) and 5-HT (1.28 ?M) in a concentration-dependent manner with a IC50 of approximately 20 ng\\/ml. Citral also had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on

H. Sadraei; A. Ghannadi; K. Malekshahi

2003-01-01

192

Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200?g\\/ml) of volatile oils were examined.

A. Allahverdiyev; N. Duran; M. Ozguven; S. Koltas

2004-01-01

193

Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naïve and scopolamine-treated rats  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50–400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naïve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naïve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naïve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD.

Soodi, M.; Naghdi, N.; Hajimehdipoor, H.; Choopani, S.; Sahraei, E.

2014-01-01

194

Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naïve and scopolamine-treated rats.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50-400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naïve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naïve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naïve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD. PMID:25657779

Soodi, M; Naghdi, N; Hajimehdipoor, H; Choopani, S; Sahraei, E

2014-01-01

195

Composition of the Essential Oil from Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in Slovak Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Melissa officinalis L. c. v. citra cultivated at Nitra locality (Slovak Republic) was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. M. officinalis oil was found to contain geranial (33.60%), neral (22.18%), citronellal (11.30%), caryophyllene oxide (8.35%), geranyl acetate (5.89%), and ?-caryophyllene (4.20%) as the major components. More than 50 components were identified in the oil.

Magda Hollá; Emil Svajdlenka; Jozef Tekel; Stefánia Vaverková; Emil Havránek

1997-01-01

196

Antitussive activity of the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae).  

PubMed

The antitussive activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (E. officinalis, Fam. Euphorbiaceae) was tested in conscious cats by mechanical stimulation of the laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous areas of airways. The results showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt. perorally, the cough suppressive effect of E. officinalis is not unambiguous. A higher dose (200 mg/kg body wt.) of this substance perorally was more effective, especially in decreasing the number of cough efforts (NE), frequency of cough (NE/min(-1)) and the intensity of cough attacks in inspirium (IA+) and expirium (IA-) was more pronounced. These results showed that the cough suppressive activity of E. officinalis is dose-dependent. We could also demonstrate that the antitussive activity of E. officinalis is less effective than shown by the classical narcotic antitussive drug codeine, but more effective than the non-narcotic antitussive agent dropropizine. It is supposed that the antitussive activity of the dry extract of Emblica officinalis is due not only to antiphlogistic, antispasmolytic and antioxidant efficacy effects, but also to its effect on mucus secretion in the airways. PMID:13678247

Nosál'ová, G; Mokrý, J; Hassan, K M Tareq

2003-01-01

197

Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)  

PubMed Central

Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

Rajashekhara, N.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, Parameshwar P.

2013-01-01

198

Development and evaluation of microsatellite markers for a native prairie perennial, Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci for the native prairie perennial Echinacea angustifolia were developed and evaluated for future use in population structure and paternity studies. • Methods and Results: A total of 50 trinucleotide microsatellite regions were identified though an enrichment protocol that prescreens for microsatellite repeats before ligating into a vector. Of these, 11 loci were polymorphic and in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in three populations with varying numbers of plants. The loci had between three and 14 alleles and collectively provided high paternity exclusion probabilities. • Conclusions: These sets of microsatellite primers will provide researchers and land managers with valuable information on the population genetic structure and gene flow between fragmented prairie populations. PMID:25202499

Ison, Jennifer L.; Wagenius, Stuart; Reitz, Diedre; Ashley, Mary V.

2013-01-01

199

Continuous decomposition of sporopollenin from pollen of Typha angustifolia L. by acidic methanolysis.  

PubMed

Sporopollenin from the pollen of Typha angustifolia L. was exposed to a series of 36 subsequent acidic methanolysis procedures. The remaining decomposition products were investigated using several spectroscopic methods including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-CPMAS-NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). Substantial weight losses of the sporopollenin material occur after each acidic methanolysis step, while FT-IR and 13C-CPMAS-NMR spectra display no noticeable differences after 12, 24 and 36 steps. These findings are interpreted as a hint that the sporopollenin polymer has a uniform composition, i.e. relatively small monomer moieties of similar primary structure are present. Moreover, the weight losses account for the presence of substantial amounts of ether linkages in the sporopollenin polymer. PMID:12562090

Bubert, Henning; Lambert, Jörg; Steuernagel, Stefan; Ahlers, Friedhelm; Wiermann, Rolf

2002-01-01

200

The nature of oxygen in sporopollenin from the pollen of Typha angustifolia L.  

PubMed

Native and peracetylated sporopollenin from the pollen of Typha angustifolia L. was investigated using several spectroscopic methods, inducing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). Interpretation of the experimental data shows that the greater part of oxygen found in sporopollenin originates from hydroxyl groups and must be derived from aliphatics and not from aromatics. This result indicates that not only aromatics and long unbranched aliphatics but also poly-hydroxyl aliphatic components are involved in the complex structure of the polymer. Furthermore, it is most probable that the monomers of the sporopollenin skeleton are linked by ether- and not by ester-linkage. Two possible approaches are suggested for the characterisation of sporopollenin structure. PMID:10817199

Ahlers, F; Bubert, H; Steuernagel, S; Wiermann, R

2000-01-01

201

Acetylation and silylation of piperidine solubilized sporopollenin from pollen of Typha angustifolia L.  

PubMed

Silyl and acetyl derivatives of sporopollenin from the pollen of Typha angustifolia L. were prepared. The derivatized products were readily soluble in piperidine-d11 and could be investigated employing one- and two-dimensional proton and carbon NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy (1H,1H-COSY and 13C,1H-HETCOR techniques). For the first time, a two dimensional 13C,1H-HETCOR NMR spectrum of a sporopollenin could be obtained. The results underline the importance of derivatization techniques for obtaining two dimensional 13C-NMR spectra of sporopollenins. Moreover, piperidine turns out to be a more suitable solvent for sporopollenins than 2-aminoethanol, as it allows for higher solubilities, being important for 2D-NMR investigations. From the HETCOR and COSY spectra of the silylated and the acetylated Typha samples the occurrence of aliphatic polyhydroxy compounds as well as phenolic OH groups became evident. PMID:14713155

Ahlers, Friedhelm; Lambert, Jörg; Wiermann, Rolf

2003-01-01

202

Growth inhibition of an Araucaria angustifolia (Coniferopsida) fungal seed pathogen, Neofusicoccum parvum, by soil streptomycetes  

PubMed Central

Background Araucariaceae are important forest trees of the southern hemisphere. Life expectancy of their seedlings can largely be reduced by fungal infections. In this study we have isolated and characterized such a fungus and investigated the potential of Streptomyces Actinobacteria from the respective rhizosphere to act as antagonists. Results The pathogenic fungus from Araucaria angustifolia seeds was identified by morphological markers (pore-associated Woronin-bodies) as belonging to the Pezizomycotina. Molecular data identified the fungus as Neofusicoccum parvum (Botryosphaeriaceae). Co-cultures on agar of this fungus with certain streptomycete isolates from the rhizosphere, and from the surface of Araucaria roots significantly reduced the growth of the fungus. HPLC analysis of the agar yielded streptomycete-specific exudate compounds which were partly identified. There were differences in compounds between single (bacteria, fungus) and dual cultures (bacteria?+?fungus). Conclusion Streptomycetes from the rhizosphere of Araucariaceae produce exudates which can suppress the development of pathogenic fungi in their seeds. PMID:23866024

2013-01-01

203

Optical and thermal characterization of natural (Sepia officinalis) melanin.  

PubMed

The optical properties and the thermal diffusivity of natural cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) melanin have been measured. The optical absorption and scattering properties of melanin particles were determined at 580 nm and 633 nm, using photometric and photothermal techniques. For the photometric studies, the absorption and the transport scattering coefficients were determined from the measurements of diffuse reflectance and transmittance. The scattering anisotropy was obtained from an additional measurement of the total attenuation coefficient and independently obtained by goniometry. For photothermal studies, pulsed photothermal radiometry was used to deduce the absorption and transport scattering coefficients via a model based on optical diffusion theory. Pulsed photothermal radiometry was also used to provide the thermal diffusivity of solid melanin pressed pellets. PMID:8022888

Vitkin, I A; Woolsey, J; Wilson, B C; Anderson, R R

1994-04-01

204

Cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis resulted in the isolation of three new triterpene glycosides, 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (1), 2?,3?,19?,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (2), and 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?-hydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (3). All the triterpene glycosides exhibited the significant cytotoxic potential with low IC50 values (IC50 < 5.0 ?M) against six tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, HepG2, SGC-7901, NCI-H460, and BGC-823). PMID:25193625

Hu, Jiang; Song, Yan; Li, Hui; Yang, Benshou; Mao, Xia; Zhao, Yongmao; Shi, Xiaodong

2014-09-01

205

New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.  

PubMed

Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A1 (1), A2 (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F1 (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time. PMID:25200369

Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

2014-12-01

206

Effects of Chemically Characterized Fractions from Aerial Parts of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia on Myelopoiesis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Echinacea species are used for beneficial effects on immune function, and various prevalent phytochemicals have immunomodulatory effects. Using a commercial E. purpurea (L.) Moench product, we have evaluated the myelopoietic effect on bone marrow of rats treated with various extracts and correlated this with their chemical class composition. Granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) from femurs of female Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed at 24 h after 7 daily oral treatments. A 75% ethanolic extract at 50 mg dried weight (derived from 227 mg aerial parts) per kg body weight increased GM-CFCs by 70% but at 100 mg/kg was without effect. Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of E. angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia and E. purpurea from the US-DA North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station increased GM-CFCs by 3- and 2-fold, respectively, at 200 mg/kg (~ 1400 mg/kg plant material). Extract from another USDA E. angustifolia was inactive. Proton and APT NMR, MS, and TLC indicated alkylamides and caffeic-acid derivatives (CADs) present in ethanolic extracts of both the commercial and USDA-derived material. Cichoric and caftaric acids were prominent in both E. purpurea ethanolic extracts but absent in E. angustifolia. Aqueous extract of the commercial material exhibited polysaccharide and CAD signatures and was without effect on GM-CFCs. A methanol-CHCl3 fraction of commercial source, also inactive, was almost exclusively 1:4 nonanoic:decanoic acids, which were also abundant in commercial ethanolic extract but absent from USDA material. In conclusion, we have demonstrated an ethanol-extractable myelostimulatory activity in Echinacea aerial parts that, when obtained from commercial herbal supplements, may be antagonized by medium-chain fatty acids presumably derived from a non-plant additive. PMID:21870322

Ramasahayam, Sindhura; Baraka, Hany N.; Abdel Bar, Fatma M.; Abuasal, Bilal S.; Widrlechner, Mark P.; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Meyer, Sharon A.

2013-01-01

207

Modulation of acute inflammation by a chitin-binding lectin from Araucaria angustifolia seeds via mast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a lectin (AaL) from seeds of Araucaria angustifolia were investigated in the model of rat paw edema. In vivo anti-and pro-inflammatory activities, role of sugar residues, inflammatory mediators and systemic toxicity were assessed. Intravenous injection of AaL (0.1–1 mg\\/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the dextran-induced increase in edema and vascular permeability, which were prevented by association of the lectin with

Mário R. L. Mota; David N. Criddle; Nylane M. N. Alencar; Raphaela C. Gomes; Ana V. P. Meireles; Tatiane Santi-Gadelha; Carlos A. A. Gadelha; Cecília C. Oliveira; Raquel G. Benevides; Benildo S. Cavada; Ana M. S. Assreuy

2006-01-01

208

Manganese and iron both influence the shoot transcriptome of Typha angustifolia despite distinct preference towards manganese accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typha angustifolia is a metal hypertolerant grass that predominates the wetlands of uranium tailings in Jaduguda, India, contaminated with extreme\\u000a levels of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). In the paper investigations were carried out to understand the molecular mechanism\\u000a of metal tolerance in this tolerant macrophyte. Metal analysis was coupled with fluorescent differential display (FDD) and\\u000a reverse northern to compare

D. Chakraborty; S. Abhay Kumar; M. Sen; S. K. Apte; S. Das; R. Acharya; T. Das; A. V. R. Reddy; S. Roychaudhury; H. Rajaram; A. Seal

2011-01-01

209

Management of below-ground biomass of Typha angustifolia by harvesting shoots above the water surface on different summer days  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model of regrowth in Typha angustifolia after cutting shoots above the water surface was formulated by characterizing the phenology and mobilization of resources from below-ground to above-ground organs after the cutting. The model parameters were determined by two cutting experiments to investigate the different strategies with flowering and non-flowering shoots after cutting in 2001 and by four cutting

Norio Tanaka; Tetsuhiro Watanabe; Takashi Asaeda; Takeshi Takemura

2005-01-01

210

Comparison of fish and macroinvertebrate use of Typha angustifolia, Phragmites australis , and treated Phragmites marshes along the lower Connecticut River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1965 large areas of lower Connecticut River tidelands have been converted from high diversity brackish meadow andTypha angustifolia marsh to near monocultures ofPhragmites australis. This study addresses the impact ofPhragmites invasion on fish and crustacean use of oligohaline high marsh. During spring tides from early June through early September\\u000a 2000, fishes and crustaceans leaving flooded marsh along 3 km

Paul E. Fell; R. Scott Warren; John K. Light; Robert L. Rawson; Sean M. Fairley

2003-01-01

211

Treatment of high-strength wastewater in tropical vertical flow constructed wetlands planted with Typha angustifolia and Cyperus involucratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of vertical flow (VF) constructed wetland systems to treat high-strength (ca. 300mgL?1 of COD and ca. 300mgL?1 total-nitrogen) wastewater under tropical climatic conditions was studied during a 5-month period. Nine 0.8-m diameter experimental VF units (depth 0.6m) were used: three units were planted with Typha angustifolia L., another three units were planted with Cyperus involucratus Rottb and three

Suwasa Kantawanichkul; Supreeya Kladprasert; Hans Brix

2009-01-01

212

Amphipod performance responses to decaying leaf litter of Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia from a Lake Erie coastal marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared growth and survival performance of the detritivorous amphipod Hyalella azteca fed lab-conditioned leaves of either Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaf cattail), Phragmites australis (common reed) sprayed with the herbicide Glypro®, and unsprayed Phragmites, in microcosms. Leaves were from plants varying in time of senescence. Herbicide application advanced plant senescence and\\u000a death by ?3 months, whereas the other two leaf types

Amy E. Kulesza; Joseph R. Holomuzki

2006-01-01

213

Adsorption of Cu(II) on Araucaria angustifolia wastes: Determination of the optimal conditions by statistic design of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastes of Araucaria angustifolia (named pinhão) natural (PW) and also loaded with Congo red (CRP) were tested as low-cost adsorbents for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions. In order to reduce the total number of experiments to achieve the best conditions of the batch adsorption procedure, three sets of statistical designs of experiments were carried-out for each adsorbent. Initially, a full

Eder C. Lima; Betina Royer; Júlio C. P. Vaghetti; Jorge L. Brasil; Nathalia M. Simon; Araci A. dos Santos; Flavio A. Pavan; Silvio L. P. Dias; Edílson V. Benvenutti; Edson Antônio da Silva

2007-01-01

214

Naturally occurring insect growth regulators. III. Echinolone, a highly active juvenile hormone mimic from Echinacea angustifolia roots.  

PubMed

A compound, C14H24O2, which induces strong juvenilizing effects in the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L., following topical application to the pupal stage, was isolated in pure form from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia DC and tentatively identified as dextrorotatory (E)-10-hydroxy-4,10-dimethyl-4,11-dodecadien-2-one. The compound has been named echinolone. PMID:1221245

Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Mills, G D

1975-01-01

215

Behavior of Typha angustifolia L. in a free water surface constructed wetlands for the treatment of swine wastewater.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of Typha angustifolia L. in nitrogen retention in a Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland (FWS) for the swine wastewater treatment over a three-year operating period. Results show that the behavior of Typha angustifolia L. in a FWS for treatment of swine wastewater is affected by nitrogen concentration, seasonal variation and plant establishment in the system. Indeed, the application of Nitrogen Loading Rates (NLR) between 7.1-14.3 kg TN/ha·d removes 40% of Total Nitrogen (TN), where the maximum removal (20-40%) takes place in the spring-summer seasons. However, concentrations higher than 120.3 mg NH4 (+)-N/L significantly decrease (P = 0.004) diametrical growth by 55%. However, it was possible to estimate that NLR >14.3 kg TN/ha·d increased biomass production and plant uptake in Typha angustifolia L. during the period analyzed. Additionally, aboveground biomass values were between 1.509.6-2.874.0 g/m(2) and nitrogen uptake 27.4-40.8 g/m(2), where this last value represents 29% of the TN applied during the study. Finally, the TN accumulation in sediments represents less than 2% of the TN incorporated during this period. These results show that an increase of 50% of the TN in sediments increases plant abundance in 73%, which is related to the mineralization processes favored in the system during the last year of operation. PMID:23647112

De Los Reyes, Catalina Plaza; Villamar, Cristina A; Neubauer, María Elisa; Pozo, Guillermo; Vidal, Gladys

2013-01-01

216

Composition of volatile in micropropagated and field grown aromatic plants from Tuscany Islands.  

PubMed

Aromatic plant species present in the natural Park of Tuscany Archipelago are used as flavoring agents and spices, as dietary supplements and in cosmetics and aromatherapy. The plants are usually collected from wild stands, inducing a depletion of the natural habitat. Therefore, micropropagation of these aromatic plants can play a role in the protection of the natural ecosystem, can guarantee a massive sustainable production and can provide standardized plant materials for diverse economical purposes. The aim of this study is to compare the volatile organic compounds produced by the wild plants with those from in vitro plantlets using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) followed by capillary gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Typical plants of this natural area selected for this work were Calamintha nepeta L., Crithmum maritimum L., Lavandula angustifolia L., Myrtus communis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Satureja hortensis L. Different explants were used: microcuttings with vegetative apical parts, axillary buds and internodes. Sterilization percentage, multiplication rate and shoot length, as well as root formation were measured. The volatile aromatic profiles produced from in vitro plantlets were compared with those of the wild plants, in particular for C. maritimum, R. officinalis, S. officinalis and S. hortensis. This study indicated that the micropropagation technique can represent a valid alternative to produce massive and sterile plant material characterised by the same aromatic flavour as in the wild grown plants. PMID:23441303

Pistelli, Laura; Noccioli, Cecilia; D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

2013-01-01

217

Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.  

PubMed

This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

2013-02-01

218

Determination of Uracil Herbicide Residues and Components in Essential Oil of Melissa officinalis L. in Its Main Development Phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uracil herbicide residues were studied in the medicinal plant lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. c.v. citra) grown under standard agrochemical conditions. The residues from the uracil herbicides bromacil, lenacil, and terbacil were determined at selected phases of flower development. In addition the main components of the M. officinalis oil were determined by GC\\/MS at the same stages of development such

Jozef Tekel; Magda Hollá; Stefánla Vaverková; Emil Svajdlenka

1997-01-01

219

Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization  

PubMed Central

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

2012-01-01

220

Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization.  

PubMed

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed.A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder's physical stability.The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

2012-12-01

221

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

222

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

223

Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress and Evaluation of Embilica Officinalis and Stressroak in Broilers  

PubMed Central

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity was studied in broilers, and efficacy of Emblica officinalis (500 ppm in feed), vitamin E (300 ppm in feed), and stressroak (1 g/kg feed) were evaluated for prophylactic and therapeutic management of Cd toxicity. One-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into eight groups consisting of 10 chicks in each. Groups 1 and 2 were maintained as plain control and Cd (100 ppm in feed) toxic control (for six weeks). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were maintained on a combination of Cd (100 ppm in feed) and Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak for six weeks. Groups 6, 7, and 8 were maintained with Cd for the first four weeks and on Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak during the subsequent two weeks without Cd. Body weights, feed consumed, Feed conversion ratio (FCR), and glulathione (GSH) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased, whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and concentration of Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in toxic control group. After treatment with Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in groups 6, 7, and 8 during last two weeks and discontinuation of Cd, the parameters revealed improvement. From this study, it is concluded that Cd induces toxicity by oxidative stress, and supplementing Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in feed is useful in preventing and treating the toxicity. PMID:21170244

Swapna, G.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Reddy, A. Rajasekhar

2010-01-01

224

Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits  

PubMed Central

Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1–10 ?g/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 ?g/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 106 cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean survival time (MST) lifespan, reduction in the solid tumor volume, and also the reversal of altered hematological parameters almost equal to normal. The methanolic extract (100–200 mg/kg/day orally) was found to be cytotoxic on human cancer cell lines. In addition, the methanolic extract had an antioxidant effect as reflected by a decrease in LPO, GST, and GPx (oxidant enzymes), and an increase in SOD and catalase. PMID:22529657

Shivhare, Shaktikumar C.; Patidar, Arjun O.; Malviya, K. G.; Shivhare-Malviya, K. K.

2011-01-01

225

Efficient shoot regeneration from internodal explants of Populus angustifolia, Populus balsamifera and Populus deltoids.  

PubMed

In the present study, interactions between the duration of treatment with auxin and different cytokinins and their effect on shoot regeneration were evaluated with the aim to establish a rapid and efficient in vitro regeneration method applicable to a variety of Populus species. Three different species, Populus angustifolia, P. balsamifera, and P. deltoids, were chosen for that purpose. We were successful in regenerating plantlets from stem and petiole explants from all three chosen species using a four-step simple procedure. The first step was callus induction when the explants were exposed to an auxin-rich medium for 0-20 days. During the second step, they were transferred onto a cytokinin-rich medium for shoot bud induction. In the third step, the shoots regenerated were transferred onto a medium with reduced levels of cytokinins to promote shoot proliferation and elongation; finally, in the fourth step, the shoots were rooted and acclimated. A short period (6-10 days) of time of exposure to auxin was sufficient for shoot regeneration. A culture time longer than ten days in callus induction medium drastically reduced the efficiency of shoot regeneration. Besides, cytokinin type and concentration also affected the frequency of shoot induction. A 0.2 mg/l concentration of 2,4-D for callus induction followed by 0.02 mg/l of Thidiazuron for shoot formation proved to be the best treatment for adventitious shoot bud multiplication, generating a maximum of 10-13 shoots of P. balsamifera and P. angustifolia in ten weeks. In contrast, for P. deltoids, a combination of 1.1mg/l 2,4-D, 1.0mg/l NAA, 0.1mg/l zeatin for callus induction followed by a combination of 1mg/l zeatin plus 1.0mg/l BA for shoot bud induction was found to be the most effective, generating on average 15 shoots over a period of ten weeks. PMID:21640207

Maheshwari, Priti; Kovalchuk, Igor

2011-10-01

226

Phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn from aqueous solution using Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus.  

PubMed

A comparative bioaccumulation pattern and ultra structural changes were studied in Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus in mixed metals solution of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). P. cummunis was observed to be a shoot accumulator for Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, T. angustifolia was found to be a root accumulator for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb. In addition, C. esculentus also accumulated most of the tested heavy metals in the roots, while Mn and Fe were translocated up to leaves. Further, the long term metal treatment showed maximum accumulation of all heavy metals in P. cummunis followed by T. angustifolia and C. esculentus. Among heavy metals, Fe was accumulated maximum, i.e., >1000 microg g(-1) by all three plants. Simultaneously, the adverse effects on biochemical parameters were noted earlier in C. esculentus than T. angustifolia and P. cummunis. Ultra structural observation showed the cellular changes in wetland plants after longer exposure. Results revealed that P. cummunis and T. angustifolia had more potential for tested metals than C. esculentus. This study established that these wetland plants could be used for heavy metals phytoremediation from metal containing industrial wastewater. PMID:21972504

Chandra, Ram; Yadav, Sangeeta

2011-07-01

227

Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanovi?, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gaji?, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

2014-01-01

228

A simple and efficient DNA isolation method for Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

We report an efficient, simple, and cost-effective protocol for the isolation of genomic DNA from an aromatic medicinal plant, common sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Our modification of the standard CTAB protocol includes two polyphenol adsorbents (PVP 10 and activated charcoal), high NaCl concentrations (4 M) for removing polysaccharides, and repeated Sevag treatment to remove proteins and other carbohydrate contaminants. The mean DNA yield obtained with our Protocol 2 was 330.6 ?g DNA g(-1) of dry leaf tissue, and the absorbance ratios 260/280 and 260/230 nm averaged 1.909 and 1.894, respectively, revealing lack of contamination. PCR amplifications of one nuclear (26S rDNA) and one chloroplast (rps16-trnK) locus indicated that our DNA isolation protocol may be used in common sage and other aromatic and medicinal plants containing essential oil for molecular biologic and biotechnological studies and for population genetics, phylogeographic, and conservation surveys in which nuclear or chloroplast genomes would be studied in large numbers of individuals. PMID:22847363

Aleksi?, Jelena M; Stojanovi?, Danilo; Banovi?, Bojana; Jan?i?, Radiša

2012-12-01

229

Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants. PMID:25026727

Nurzy?ska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

2014-05-01

230

Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses  

PubMed Central

Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-?B activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1? production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

2013-01-01

231

Insecticidal activity of some essential oils against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis.  

PubMed

Thirty-four essential oils were tested for insecticidal activity (fumigation or topical application) against larvae Spodoptera littoralis. Twenty essential oils applied by fumigation were highly toxic to the third instar of S. littoralis larvae. Two essential oils Nepeta cataria and Thuja occidentalis were highly toxic, with LC50< or =10.0 ml/m3. Five essential oils Salvia sclarea, Thymus mastichina, Origanum majorana, Pogostemon cablin and Mentha pulegium were toxic with LC50 between 10.1 and 20.0 l ml/m3. Twenty-three essential oils were highly toxic to the third instar of S. littoralis larvae after topical application. Eight essential oils Mentha citrata, N. cataria, S. sclarea, O. vulgare, O. compactum, Melissa officinalis, T. mastichina, and Lavandula angustifolia were highly toxic with LD50 < or =0.05 microl/larvae. PMID:16236461

Pavela, Roman

2005-12-01

232

Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

2010-11-01

233

Environmental heterogeneity explains the genetic structure of Continental and Mediterranean populations of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.  

PubMed

Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data analyses based on nuclear microsatellite loci, multivariate statistics on environmental data and ecological niche modelling (ENM). We identified a geographic structure with a high genetic diversity and low differentiation in the Continental region, which contrasted with the significantly lower genetic diversity and higher population divergence in the Mediterranean region. The positive and significant correlation between environmental and genetic distances after controlling for geographic distance suggests an important influence of ecological divergence of the sites in shaping genetic variation. The ENM provided support for niche differentiation between the populations from the Continental and Mediterranean regions, suggesting that contemporary populations may represent two divergent ecotypes. Ecotype differentiation was also supported by multivariate environmental and genetic distance analyses. Our results suggest that despite extensive gene flow in continental areas, long-term stability of heterogeneous environments have likely promoted genetic divergence of ashes in this region and can explain the present-day genetic variation patterns of these ancient populations. PMID:22905171

Temunovi?, Martina; Franji?, Jozo; Satovic, Zlatko; Grgurev, Marin; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie; Fernández-Manjarrés, Juan F

2012-01-01

234

Endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of Typha angustifolia L. in the constructed Beijing Cuihu Wetland (China).  

PubMed

We investigated the community structure of endophytic bacteria in narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) roots growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, using the 16S rDNA library technique. In total, 184 individual sequences were used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 161 clones (87.5%) were affiliated with Proteobacteria, other clones grouped into Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroids (3.3%), Fusobacteria (3.8%), and nearly 5% were uncultured bacteria. In Proteobacteria, the beta and gamma subgroups were the most abundant, accounting for approximately 46% and 36.6% of all Proteobacteria, respectively. The dominant genera included Rhodoferax, Pelomonas, Uliginosibacterium, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Rhizobium, Sulfurospirillum, Ilyobacter and Bacteroides. While some of these endophytic bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen and can therefore improve plant growth, other endophytes may play important biological roles by removing nitrogen, phosphorus and/or organic matter from the water body and thus have the potential to enhance the phytoremediation of eutrophic water bodies. These bacteria have the potential to degrade xenobiota such as methane, methanol, methylated amines, catechol, oxochlorate, urea, cyanide, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Hence, the use of certain endophytic bacteria in the process of phytoremediation could be a powerful approach for the restoration of eutrophic systems. PMID:21111814

Li, Yan Hong; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Yin; Zhu, Jing Nan; Zhang, Qiang

2011-01-01

235

Patterns of genetic diversity in southern and southeastern Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze relict populations  

PubMed Central

Habitat fragmentation and a decrease in population size may lead to a loss in population genetic diversity. For the first time, the reduction in genetic diversity in the northernmost limit of natural occurence (southeastern Brazil) of Araucaria angustifolia in comparison with populations in the main area of the species continuous natural distribution (southern Brazil), was tested. The 673 AFLPs markers revealed a high level of genetic diversity for the species (Ht = 0.27), despite anthropogenic influence throughout the last century, and a decrease of H in isolated populations of southeastern Brazil (H = 0.16), thereby indicating the tendency for higher genetic diversity in remnant populations of continuous forests in southern Brazil, when compared to natural isolated populations in the southeastern region. A strong differentiation among southern and southeastern populations was detected (AMOVA variance ranged from 10%-15%). From Bayesian analysis, it is suggested that the nine populations tested form five “genetic clusters” (K = 5). Five of these populations, located in the northernmost limit of distribution of the species, represent three “genetic clusters”. These results are in agreement with the pattern of geographic distribution of the studied populations. PMID:21637518

2009-01-01

236

Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia Inhibits Germ Tube and Biofilm Formation by C. albicans  

PubMed Central

The virulence factors of Candida albicans are germ tube and biofilm formation, adherence to host tissues, and production of hydrolytic enzymes. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia extract on the germ tube and biofilm formation of C. albicans. Serum containing the three subinhibitory concentrations of leaf extract was inoculated with C. albicans, incubated, and viewed under a light microscope. Number of cells with germ tube was recorded and the results were analysed using Scheffe test for pairwise comparison. Biofilms were grown on coverslips in the presence of plant extracts and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Planktonic cells were grown in the presence of plant extract for 6?h and processed for electron microscopy (TEM). The crude plant extract significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the germ tube formation of C. albicans at 3.125 (85.36%), 1.56 (61.91%), and 0.78?mg/mL (26.27%) showing a concentration dependent effect. SEM results showed concentration dependent reduction in biofilm and hyphae formation. TEM results showed that the plant extract caused damage to the cell wall and cell membrane. DVA extract has ability to reduce virulence of C. albicans by inhibiting germ tube and biofilm formation through damage to the cell wall. Therefore, it has therapeutic potential. PMID:24223612

Naicker, Serisha Devi

2013-01-01

237

Changes in the 2-DE protein profile during zygotic embryogenesis in the Brazilian Pine (Araucaria angustifolia).  

PubMed

Araucaria angustifolia is the only native conifer of economic importance in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Due to a clear-cutting form of exploitation this species has received the status of vulnerable. The aim of this work was to investigate and characterize changes in protein expression profile during seed development of this endangered species. For this, the proteome of developing seeds was characterized by 2-DE and LC-MS/MS. Ninety six proteins were confidently identified and classified according to their biological function and expression profile. Overaccumulated proteins in early seed development indicated a higher control on oxidative stress metabolism during this phase. In contrast, highly expressed proteins in late stages revealed an active metabolism, leading to carbon assimilation and storage compounds accumulation. Comprehensive protein expression profiles and identification of overaccumulated proteins provide new insights into the process of embryogenesis in this recalcitrant species. Considerations on the improvement and control of somatic embryogenesis through medium manipulation and protein markers screening using data generated are also discussed. PMID:19367732

Balbuena, Tiago S; Silveira, Vanildo; Junqueira, Magno; Dias, Leonardo L C; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Shevchenko, Andrej; Floh, Eny I S

2009-04-13

238

Phytochemicals from Kaempferia angustifolia Rosc. and Their Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical investigation on rhizomes of Kaempferia angustifolia has afforded a new abietene diterpene, kaempfolienol (1) along with crotepoxide (2), boesenboxide (3), 2?-hydroxy-4,4?,6?-trimethoxychalcone (4), zeylenol (5), 6-methylzeylenol (6), (24S)-24-methyl-5?-lanosta-9(11), 25-dien-3?-ol (7), sucrose, ?-sitosterol, and its glycoside (8). The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, and NMR). Isolation of 6-methylzeylenol (6), (24S)-24-methyl-5?-lanosta-9(11), 25-dien-3?-ol (7), and ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (8) from this plant species has never been reported previously. The spectroscopic data of (7) is firstly described in this paper. Cytotoxic screening indicated that most of the pure compounds tested showed significant activity with (4) showing the most potent activity against HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines. However, all extracts and most of the pure compounds tested were found to be inactive against HT-29 (human colon cancer) and HeLa (human cervical cancer) cell lines. Similarly, none of the extracts or compounds showed activity in the antimicrobial testing. PMID:25057485

Tang, Sook Wah; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Yeap, Yunie Soon Yu; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Cheng Lian Ee, Gwendoline

2014-01-01

239

Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens.  

PubMed

Present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of Emblica officinalis (amla) and Coriandrum sativum (coriander) against 345 bacterial isolates belonging to 6 different genera of Gram negative bacterial population isolated from urine specimens by employing well diffusion technique. Aqueous infusion and decoction of Emblica officinalis exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (270), Klebsiella pneumoniae (51), K. ozaenae (3), Proteus mirabilis (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Salmonella typhi (1), S. paratyphi A (2), S. paratyphi B (1) and Serratia marcescens (2) but did not show any antibacterial activity against Gram negative urinary pathogens. PMID:17337425

Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

2007-01-01

240

Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).  

PubMed

Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. PMID:6667259

Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

1983-12-15

241

Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).  

PubMed Central

Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. Images Fig. 2. PMID:6667259

Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

1983-01-01

242

Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP.  

PubMed

Two natural extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Nutrox) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Meliox) showing a potential antioxidant activity, have been evaluated and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (Butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) and a control batch. Pork meat patties were made by addition of the mentioned compounds, cooked and packed in modified atmosphere and stored under illumination for 6 days. A descriptive sensory analysis was also conducted. The patties with natural extracts showed higher a*-values (P<0.001) than control and BHT samples. Cooked pork hardness was the lowest for Meliox batch after 0 and 3 days of storage in comparison with the rest of the batches. Nutrox batch showed the lowest TBARS values and hexanal content (P<0.05) throughout the storage period. The batches with natural antioxidants produced the highest concentrations of free thiol groups after 0 and 3 days. Differences in sensory attributes among batches were not detected by the judge panel. PMID:21345605

Lara, M S; Gutierrez, J I; Timón, M; Andrés, A I

2011-07-01

243

Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.

Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.

2009-01-01

244

Shampoo-Clay Heals Diaper Rash Faster Than Calendula Officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background: Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. Patients and Methods: A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests and risk ratio. Results: Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusions: S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O. PMID:25414900

Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

2014-01-01

245

Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials.  

PubMed

The use of plants is as old as the mankind. Natural products are cheap and claimed to be safe. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) is a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. It is used for flavouring food, a beverage drink, as well as in cosmetics; in folk.medicine it is used as an antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhoea, in relieving respiratory disorders and to stimulate growth of hair. Extract of rosemary relaxes smooth muscles of trachea and intestine, and has choleretic, hepatoprotective and antitumerogenic activity. The most important constituents of rosemary are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These compounds have antioxidant effect. The phenolic compound, rosmarinic acid, obtains one of its phenolic rings from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Relatively large-scale production of rosmarinic acid can be obtained from the cell culture of Coleus blumei Benth when supplied exogenously with phenylalanine and tyrosine. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and from the skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotriene B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and inhibits the complement system. It is concluded that rosemary and its constituents especially caffeic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic acid have a therapeutic potential in treatment or prevention of bronchial asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, hepatotoxicity, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility. PMID:10641130

al-Sereiti, M R; Abu-Amer, K M; Sen, P

1999-02-01

246

How sensitive is Melissa officinalis to realistic ozone concentrations?  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.; Lamiaceae) was exposed to realistic ozone (O3) dosages (80 ppb for 5 h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 regimes. Temporal alterations of different ecophysiological, biochemical and structural parameters were investigated in order to test if this species can be considered as an O3-bioindicator regarding changes in background concentrations. At the end of ozone exposure, the plants did not exhibit any visible foliar symptoms, as only at microscopic level a small number of dead cells were found. Photosynthetic processes, however, were significantly affected. During and after the treatment, ozone induced a reduction in CO2 fixation capacity (up to 52% after 12 h from the beginning of the treatment) due to mesophyllic limitations. Intercellular CO2 concentration significantly increased in comparison to controls (+90% at the end of the post-fumigation period). Furthermore impairment of carboxylation efficiency (-71% at the end of the post-fumigation period compared to controls in filtered air) and membrane damage in terms of integrity (as demonstrated by a significant rise in solute leakage) were observed. A regulatory adjustment of photosynthetic processes was highlighted during the post-fumigation period by the higher values of qNP and (1-q(P)) and therefore suggests a tendency to reduce the light energy used in photochemistry at the expense of the capacity to dissipate the excess as excitation energy. In addition, the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the de-epoxidation index increased, showing a rearrangement of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus and a marked activation of photoprotective mechanisms. PMID:24321873

Döring, Anne Sarah; Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

2014-01-01

247

Flower Size Variation in Rosmarinus officinalis: Individuals, Populations and Habitats  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Flowers are relatively invariant organs within species, but quantitative variation often exists among conspecifics. These variations represent the raw material that natural selection can magnify, eventually resulting in morphological divergence and diversification. This paper investigates floral variability in Rosmarinus officinalis, a Mediterranean shrub. • Methods Nine populations were selected in three major southern Spanish habitats (coast, lowland and mountains) along an elevation gradient. Flower samples from randomly chosen plants were collected from each population, and a total of 641 flowers from 237 shrubs were weighed while still fresh to the nearest 0·1 mg. Leaves from the same plants were also measured. Variations among habitats, sites and plants were explored with general linear model ANOVA. Leaf–flower covariation was also investigated. • Key Results Most (58 %) mass in flowers was accounted for by the corolla, whose linear dimensions correlated directly with flower mass. Averaged over plants, the mass of a flower varied between 12 mg and 38 mg. Habitat, site (within habitat) and shrub identity had significant effects on mass variance. Flowers from the coast were the smallest (17 mg) and those from the mountains the largest (25 mg on average). A pattern of continuously increasing flower size with elevation emerged which was largely uncoupled from the geographical pattern of leaf size variation. • Conclusions As regards flower size, a great potential to local differentiation exists in Rosmarinus. Observed divergences accord with a regime of large-bodied pollinator selection in the mountains, but also with resource–cost hypotheses on floral evolution that postulate that reduced corollas are advantageous under prevailingly stressful conditions. PMID:15585545

HERRERA, JAVIER

2004-01-01

248

Comparison of EDTA- and citric acid-enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals in artificially metal contaminated soil by Typha angustifolia.  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of EDTA and citric acid (CA) addition in improving phytoextraction of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Cr from artificially contaminated soil by T. angustifolia. T. angustifolia showed the remarkable resistance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom including chlorosis and necrosis when exposed to metal stress. EDTA-addition significantly reduced plant height and biomass, compared with the control, and stunted plant growth, while 2.5 and 5 mM CA addition induced significant increases in root dry weight. EDTA, and 5 and 10 mM CA significantly increased shoot Cd, Pb, and Cr concentrations compared with the control, with EDTA being more effective. At final harvest, the highest shoot Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations were recorded in the treatment of 5 mM EDTA addition, while maximal root Pb concentration was found at the 2.5 mM CA treatment. However, shoot Cd accumulation in the 10 mM CA treatment was 36.9% higher than that in 2.5 mM EDTA, and similar with that in 10 mM EDTA. Shoot Pb accumulation was lower in 10 mM CA than that in EDTA treatments. Further, root Cd, Cu, and Pb accumulation of CA treatments and shoot Cr accumulation in 5 or 10 mM CA treatments were markedly higher than that of control and EDTA treatments. The results also showed that EDTA dramatically increased the dissolution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Cd in soil, while CA addition had less effect on water-soluble Cu, Cr, and Cd, and no effect on Pb levels. It is suggested that CA can be a good chelator candidate for T. angustifolia used for environmentally safe phytoextraction of Cd and Cr in soils. PMID:19810355

Muhammad, Dawood; Chen, Fei; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

2009-08-01

249

Polyamines, IAA and ABA during germination in two recalcitrant seeds: Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant growth regulators play an important role in seed germination. However, much of the current knowledge about their function during seed germination was obtained using orthodox seeds as model systems, and there is a paucity of information about the role of plant growth regulators during germination of recalcitrant seeds. In the present work, two endangered woody species with recalcitrant seeds, Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm), native to the Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil, were used to study the mobilization of polyamines (PAs), indole-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. Methods Data were sampled from embryos of O. odorifera and embryos and megagametophytes of A. angustifolia throughout the germination process. Biochemical analyses were carried out in HPLC. Key Results During seed germination, an increase in the (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio was recorded in embryos in both species. An increase in IAA and PA levels was also observed during seed germination in both embryos, while ABA levels showed a decrease in O. odorifera and an increase in A. angustifolia embryos throughout the period studied. Conclusions The (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio could be used as a marker for germination completion. The increase in IAA levels, prior to germination, could be associated with variations in PA content. The ABA mobilization observed in the embryos could represent a greater resistance to this hormone in recalcitrant seeds, in comparison to orthodox seeds, opening a new perspective for studies on the effects of this regulator in recalcitrant seeds. The gymnosperm seed, though without a connective tissue between megagametophyte and embryo, seems to be able to maintain communication between the tissues, based on the likely transport of plant growth regulators. PMID:21685432

Pieruzzi, Fernanda P.; Dias, Leonardo L. C.; Balbuena, Tiago S.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; dos Santos, André L. W.; Floh, Eny I. S.

2011-01-01

250

Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by chalepin and pseudane IX isolated from Ruta angustifolia leaves.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among global populations, with an estimated number of infected patients being 170 million. Approximately 70-80% of patients acutely infected with HCV will progress to chronic liver disease, such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. New therapies for HCV infection have been developed, however, the therapeutic efficacies still need to be improved. Medicinal plants are promising sources for antivirals against HCV. A variety of plants have been tested and proven to be beneficial as antiviral drug candidates against HCV. In this study, we examined extracts, their subfractions and isolated compounds of Ruta angustifolia leaves for antiviral activities against HCV in cell culture. We isolated six compounds, chalepin, scopoletin, ?-fagarine, arborinine, kokusaginine and pseudane IX. Among them, chalepin and pseudane IX showed strong anti-HCV activities with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC??) of 1.7 ± 0.5 and 1.4 ± 0.2 ?g/ml, respectively, without apparent cytotoxicity. Their anti-HCV activities were stronger than that of ribavirin (2.8 ± 0.4 ?g/ml), which has been widely used for the treatment of HCV infection. Mode-of-action analyses revealed that chalepin and pseudane IX inhibited HCV at the post-entry step and decreased the levels of HCV RNA replication and viral protein synthesis. We also observed that arborinine, kokusaginine and ?-fagarine possessed moderate levels of anti-HCV activities with IC?? values being 6.4 ± 0.7, 6.4 ± 1.6 and 20.4 ± 0.4 ?g/ml, respectively, whereas scopoletin did not exert significant anti-HCV activities at 30 ?g/ml. PMID:25454460

Wahyuni, Tutik Sri; Widyawaruyanti, Aty; Lusida, Maria Inge; Fuad, Achmad; Soetjipto; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Aoki, Chie; Hotta, Hak

2014-12-01

251

Paenibacillus typhae sp. nov., isolated from roots of Typha angustifolia L.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain xj7(T), was isolated from roots of Typha angustifolia L. growing in Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China. The isolate was identified as a member of the genus Paenibacillus based on phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference. The novel strain was spore-forming, motile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Optimal growth of strain xj7(T) occurred at 28-30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Diphosphatidylglycerol was the most abundant polar lipid and occurred along with phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid and three unknown aminophospholipids. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acid components were anteiso-C15?:?0 (56.1?%), iso-C16?:?0 (9.1?%), C16?:?0 (8.0?%), iso-C14?:?0 (6.3?%) and iso-C15?:?0 (5.1?%). The G+C content of genomic DNA was 47.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain xj7(T) fell within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Paenibacillus, its closest neighbours were Paenibacillus borealis KK19(T) (97.5?%) and Paenibacillus durus DSM 1735(T) (97.1?%). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain xj7(T) and P. borealis KK19(T) and between strain xj7(T) and P. durus DSM 1735(T), were both 35?%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain xj7(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus typhae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is xj7(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.11012(T)?=?DSM 25190(T)). PMID:22707528

Kong, Bi He; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Min; Liu, Yang; Liu, Lei; Li, Chun Li; Yu, Rong; Li, Yan Hong

2013-03-01

252

Structural aspects of ovule and seed development and nonrandom abortion in Melilotus officinalis (Fabaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Only one ovule matures into a seed inMelilotus officinalis. Although eight ovules form within an ovary, only the basal ovule develops into a mature seed, whereas the other ovules degenerate. The investigation of ovule and seed structure at different developmental stages and a comparison of quantitative characters of differently fated ovules within an ovary were undertaken by light, phase

M. Akhalkatsi; M. Pfauth; C. L. Calvin

1999-01-01

253

Changes in composition of digestive gland and mantle muscle of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis during starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the biochemical composition of the digestive gland and in the proteins of the mantle muscle of Sepia officinalis L, collected in September 1989 from the Ria de Vigo (northwest Spain), were measured during periods of 2, 4, 10 and >53 d starvation. The digestive gland lost weight faster than the rest of the body throughout the whole period

B. G. Castro; J. L. Garrido; C. G. Sotelo

1992-01-01

254

Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth, Survival and Condition of Adult Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of artificial diets on growth and body condition of adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis were tested in two experiments. Supplemented prepared diets (fish myofibrillar protein concentrate) were fed during a 30-day and a 21-day experiments. Growth, feeding rate and food conversion of group-reared cuttlefish were analyzed. The first of these experiments tested four artificial diets, made with increasing levels

Pedro M. Domingues; Paul F. Dimarco; Jose P. Andrade; Phillip G. Lee

2005-01-01

255

Allozyme differentiation in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic–Mediterranean area has recently been proposed as a new phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance of genetic differentiation patterns observed in several marine species. However, additional taxa need to be studied to establish the phylogeographical relationship between the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Eleven samples of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis around the Iberian Peninsula, one from the Canary Islands, and

Marcos Pérez-Losada; Ángel Guerra; Andrés Sanjuan

1999-01-01

256

Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to

Lydia M. Mäthger; Alexandra Barbosa; Simon Miner; Roger T. Hanlon

2006-01-01

257

A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Je´re´my Enault1 that are thought to induce the aggregation of mature cuttlefish in their egg-laying areas. Results: To facilitate generated from accessory sex glands of female cuttlefish. Our analysis yielded 223 unique sequences composed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

2008-01-01

259

Ultrastructure of the corallinaceae. I. The vegetative cells of Corallina officinalis and C. cuvierii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique utilizing combined fixation and gentle decalcification has been employed to study the ultrastructure of the vegetative cells of the articulated calcareous coralline algae Corallina officinalis Linnaeus and C. cuvierii Lamouroux (Rhodophyta: Cryptonemiales). The epidermal cells are distinctive, with many cell wall inggrowths which pass between the chloroplasts. It is suggested that these cells function as “transfer cells”. The

M. A. Borowitzka; M. Vesk

1978-01-01

260

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible

Letizia Penolazzi; Ilaria Lampronti; Monica Borgatti; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Margherita Zennaro; Roberta Piva; Roberto Gambari

2008-01-01

261

Effects of shape Rosmarinus officinalis neighbors on resprouting of shape Erica multiflora individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effects of competition in Mediterranean shrubland regeneration following disturbance, we used a neighborhood approach to assess the influence of mature Rosmarinus officinalis neighbors on the resprouting of Erica multiflora individuals after clipping. Sprout biomass of target plants 2 years after clipping was regressed against various measures of neighbor abundance within a 2 m radius around target E.

Montserrat Vilà; Peter Stoll; Jacob Weiner

1998-01-01

262

Effect of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the lipid composition of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Addition of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis to the culture medium of Aspergillus fumigatus induced alterations in both growth and lipid composition of this mould. Total lipids and sterols were reduced, whereas total phospholipids were increased. There were alterations in the proportions of fatty acids, neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions. PMID:7935731

Ghfir, B; Fonvieille, J L; Koulali, Y; Ecalle, R; Dargent, R

1994-06-01

263

Calendula officinalis—production potential and crop agronomy in southern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in Calendula officinalis L. as an industrial oil crop has developed from the discovery that it has a seed-oil content of around 20%, of which up to 60% is calendic acid, a useful industrial feedstock. An EU AIR project `vegetable oils with specific fatty acids', is in progress to further develop this and other species. The first 2 years

H. T. H Cromack; J. M Smith

1998-01-01

264

Development and essential oil content of secretory glands of sage (Salvia officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leave confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of

K. V. Venkatachalam; R. Kjonaas; R. Croteau

1984-01-01

265

Chromatographic Determination of Derivatives of p?Hydroxybenzoic Acid in Melissa officinalis by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fast method for the determination of phenolic compounds–benzoic acids in Melissa officinalis. Soxhlet extraction has been optimized for the isolation of benzoic acids (gallic acid, p?hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid) from plant material. The conditions of Soxhlet extraction, such as solvent composition and extraction time were studied. The efficient extraction

Gabriela Karasová; Jozef Lehotay

2005-01-01

266

Effects of lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) extract on germination and seedling growth of six plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The n-hexane-, acetone- and water-soluble fractions obtained from an aqueous acetone extract of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) shoots inhibited the germination and the growth of roots and shoots of cockscomb (Amaranthus caudatus L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The inhibitory activity of the

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi

2001-01-01

267

Composition of the Essential Oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of dried herb of Melissa officinalis L. grown in Cuba was subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 28 constituents separated, 17 were identified (88% of the oil composition). The oil consisted mainly of neral (29–9%) and geranial (41.0%).

Jorge A. Pino; Aristides Rosado; Victor Fuentes

1999-01-01

268

Extraction and Liquid Membrane Preconcentration of Rosmarinic Acid from Lemon Balm (Melissa Officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid membrane separation technique was applied for the recovery and preconcentration of rosmarinic acid from aqueous extract of dried leaves of Balm lemon (Melissa officinalis L.). Among several studied organic solvents, diisopropyl ether and ethylacetate appeared to be appropriate membrane liquids for recovery and selective preconcentration of the acid. The difference in pH values between the two aqueous solutions was

Lubomir Boyadzhiev; Valentina Dimitrova

2006-01-01

269

Response surface optimised extraction and chromatographic purification of rosmarinic acid from Melissa officinalis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) leaves with aqueous methanol was optimised using response surface methodology. Fifteen runs were conducted following a Box-Behnken design (BBD) followed by ridge analysis using the concentration of methanol, the extraction temperature and time as the independent variables and taking the extraction yield of RA from lemon balm as the response variable. The optimal

Sooah Kim; Eun Ju Yun; Jin Seop Bak; Hojoung Lee; Sung Joon Lee; Cheong Tae Kim; Jong-Hoon Lee; Kyoung Heon Kim

2010-01-01

270

INVESTIGATIONS ON THE IN VITRO MORPHOGENETIC REACTION OF MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents some preliminary results concerning the in vitro initiation of Melissa officinalis species and the morphogenetic reaction of some explants on several hormonal formuli of the basal Murashige-Skoog medium. We recommended some medium formuli that are effective for this species' micropropagation as well as the appropriate accommodation to septic conditions of the neoplantlets obtained in vitro and for

GOGU I. GHIORGHI; DIANA ELENA; T. MAFTEI; DANIELA N. NICU

271

Comparison of Several Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Benzoic Acid Derivatives from Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several extraction techniques, such as Soxhlet extraction, solid phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer, matrix solid phase dispersion, and supercritical fluid extraction were evaluated for the isolation and purification of phenolic compounds, e.g., benzoic acids from natural samples of Melissa officinalis. The extracts of benzoic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in reversed phase modus (C18 column)

Gabriela Karasová; Jozef Lehotay; Ewa K?odzinska; Bogus?aw Buszewski

2006-01-01

272

Cloning and characterisation of rosmarinic acid synthase from Melissa officinalis L.  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant mainly due to two groups of compounds, the essential oil and the phenylpropanoid derivatives. The prominent phenolic compound is rosmarinic acid (RA), an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. RA shows a number of interesting biological activities. Rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS; 4-coumaroyl-CoA:hydroxyphenyllactic acid hydroxycinnamoyltransferase) catalyses the ester formation. Cell cultures of M. officinalis have been established in order to characterise the formation of RA in an important diploid medicinal plant. RAS activity as well as the expression of the RAS gene are closely correlated with the accumulation of RA in suspension cultures of M. officinalis. The RAS cDNA and gene (MoRAS) were isolated. The RAS gene was shown to be intron-free. MoRAS belongs to the BAHD superfamily of acyltransferases. Southern-blot analysis suggests the presence of only one RAS gene copy in the M. officinalis genome. The enzyme was characterised with respect to enzyme properties, substrate preferences and kinetic data in crude plant extracts and as heterologously synthesised protein from Escherichia coli. PMID:21354582

Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

2011-05-01

273

Oil of Melissa officinalis L., as Affected by Storage and Herb Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of the fresh and dried herb Melissa officinalis L., grown in Egypt were subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 60 constituents separated, 21 were identified. The oil consisted mainly of geranial, neral, citronellal, caryophyllene oxide, ?-caryophyllene and geraniol. Drying the herb prior to distillation did not change the qualitative composition of the oil, but the relative amount

A. S. Shabby; S. El-Gengaihi; M. Khattab

1995-01-01

274

Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration

D. O Kennedy; Andrew B Scholey; N. T. J Tildesley; E. K Perry; K. A Wesnes

2002-01-01

275

Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81),

G. Mazzanti; L. Battinelli; C. Pompeo; A. M. Serrilli; R. Rossi; I. Sauzullo; F. Mengoni; V. Vullo

2008-01-01

276

Solvent extraction study of antioxidants from Balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, the extraction of antioxidants from Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) leaves with ethanol is presented. Effects of particle size, amount of solvent and temperature on the extraction rates and concentrations of antioxidants in the extracts were studied and kinetics was determined. Individual antioxidants (carnosic, ursolic and oleanolic acids) were identified by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that

Špela Stangler Herodež; Majda Hadolin; Mojca Škerget; Željko Knez

2003-01-01

277

Matrix solid-phase dispersion for the liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic acids in Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was used for sample preparation of plant material (Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm) prior to liquid chromatography of rosmarinic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids, phenolic compounds present in this herb. Different MSPD sorbents and various elution agents were tested and the optimal extraction conditions determined with the aim to obtain extraction recoveries greater than 90% for all analytes.

Alica Žiaková; Eva Brandšteterová; Eva Blahová

2003-01-01

278

Improved in vitro culture and micropropagation of different Melissa officinalis L. genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. is widely cultivated in the world and Iran as well, due to its useful application in medicine. In order to establish a stable and high frequency of regeneration system with 4 landrace collected from different climate in Iran, major parameters such as regeneration rate, rooting percentage, shooting and proliferation rate were investigated. Statistical analysis of results showed

H. Meftahizade; H. Moradkhani; B. Naseri; M. Lofti; A. Naseri

279

Larvicidal activity of essential extract of Rosmarinus officinalis against Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

Constituents in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) have been shown to have larvicidal activity against invertebrates. In order to explore the properties of crude extract of rosemary further, we studied the chemical composition and its activity against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major components of R. officinalis were found to be eucalyptol and camphor, with relative percentages of 10.93% and 5.51%, respectively. Minor constituents included limonene, (+)-4-carene, isoborneol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene, and pinene. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the essential oil of R. officinalis against DDT-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were 30.6, 26.4, and 38.3 mg/liter, respectively. The single median lethal dose (LD50) in Kunming mice was 4752 mg/kg. Essential oils from R. officinalis may, therefore, provide an effective natural plant product for use in mosquito prevention and control. PMID:23687854

Yu, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Yi; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Feng, Zi-Liang; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Fan, Quan-Shui

2013-03-01

280

Pimenta officinalis Lindl. (pimento, myrtle pepper) from early modern latrines in Gdansk (northern Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits, seeds and embryos of Pimenta officinalis Lindl. syn. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae) have been found in Gdansk (northern Poland) in latrines dated to the 18th century. This is one of the first few records of allspice from European archaeobotanical material. The paper presents morphological criteria used for the identification of allspice or myrtle pepper remains and briefly summarises

Monika Badura

2003-01-01

281

Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. were obtained by hydrodistillation. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. T. copticum L. oil showed a stronger inhibitory effect than R. officinalis on the growth of A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 450 ppm of both oils with that of R. officinalis being stronger inhibitor. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major components of R. officinalis and T. copticum L. oils were Piperitone (23.65%), alpha-pinene (14.94%), Limonene (14.89%), 1,8-Cineole (7.43%) and Thymol (37.2%), P-Cymene (32.3%), gamma-Terpinene (27.3%) respectively. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods to protect them from toxigenic fungal infections. PMID:18190993

Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Allameh, Abdolamir; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher

2008-02-29

282

The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

2014-01-01

283

In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301

Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

2013-01-01

284

Melissa officinalis Extract Inhibits Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. Methods Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (P<0.001), 44.09±12.01 µm in the low-dose group (P?=?0.016), and 51.00±12.37 µm in the control group. The proportion of CNV lesions with clinically significant fluorescein leakage was 9.2% in rats treated with high-dose M. officinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, P<0.001). The levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. Meanwhile, M. officinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. Conclusions Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV formation in rats. Inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9 via anti-oxidative activity may underlie this effect. PMID:25314292

Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun Beom; Yu, Hyeong Gon

2014-01-01

285

Emblica officinalis reverses thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress and early promotional events of primary hepatocarcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis is widely used in Indian medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In the present study, it was found that fruits of E. officinalis inhibit thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress and hyper-proliferation in rat liver. The administration of a single necrotic dose of thioacetamide(6.6 mM kg(-1)) resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels compared with saline-treated control values. Thioacetamide caused hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion and a concomitant increase in malanodialdehyde (MDA) content. It also resulted in an increase(P < 0.001) in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (P < 0.001). Hepatic ornithine decarboxylase activity and thymidine incorporation in DNA were increased bythioacetamide administration. Prophylactic treatment with E. officinalis for 7 consecutive days before thioacetamide administration inhibited SGOT, SGPT and GGT release in serum compared with treated control values. It also modulated the hepatic GSH content and MDA formation. The plant extract caused a marked reduction in levels of GSH content and simultaneous inhibition of MDA formation. E. officinalis also caused a reduction in the activity of GST, GR and G6PD. GPx activity was increased after treatment with the plant extract at doses of 100 mg kg(-1) and 200 mg kg(-1). Prophylactic treatment with the plant caused a significant down-regulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity (P < 0.001) and profound inhibition in the rate of DNA synthesis (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the acute effects of thioacetamide in rat liver can be prevented by pre-treatment with E. officinalis extract. PMID:15586980

Sultana, Sarwat; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Sharma, Sonia; Jahangir, Tamanna

2004-12-01

286

Comparison of the diversity of root-associated bacteria in Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia L. in artificial wetlands.  

PubMed

Common reed (Phragmites australis) and narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) are two plant species used widely in artificial wetlands constructed to treat wastewater. In this study, the community structure and diversity of root-associated bacteria of common reed and narrow-leaved cattail growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, were investigated using 16S rDNA library and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. Root-associated bacterial diversity was higher in common reed than in narrow-leaved cattail. In both plant species, the dominant root-associated bacterial species were Alpha, Beta and Gamma Proteobacteria, including the genera Aeromonas, Hydrogenophaga, Ideonella, Uliginosibacterium and Vogesella. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae and Spirochaetes were only found in the roots of common reed. Comparing the root-associated bacterial communities of reed and cattail in our system, many more species of bacteria related involved in the total nitrogen cycle were observed in reed versus cattail, while species involved in total phosphorus and organic matter removal were mainly found in cattail. Although we cannot determine their nutrient removal capacity separately, differences in the root-associated bacterial communities may be an important factor contributing to the differing water purification effects mediated by T. angustifolia and P. australis wetlands. Thus, further work describing the ecosystem functions of these bacterial species is needed, in order to fully understand how effective common reed- and narrow-leaved cattail-dominated wetlands are for phytoremediation. PMID:23504190

Li, Yan Hong; Zhu, Jing Nan; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Yin; Liu, Min; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Qiang

2013-08-01

287

Meiotic restitution mechanisms involved in the formation of 2n pollen in Agave tequilana Weber and Agave angustifolia Haw.  

PubMed

A cytological analysis of the microsporogenesis was carried out in the Agave tequilana and A. angustifolia species. Several abnormalities such as chromosomal bridges, lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, monads, dyads and triads were found. The morphological analysis of the pollen, together with the above-mentioned 2n microspores, allowed us to confirm the presence of 2n pollen as well as its frequency. In both A. tequilana and A. angustifolia two different mechanisms were observed: the first mechanism, a failure in the cytokinesis in meiosis II caused the formation of dyads with two 2n cells and triads containing two n cells and one 2n cell; the second mechanism, involves an abnormal spindle, which caused the formation of triads with two n cells and one 2n cell. Likewise, the presence of monads was detected in both species, these, might be caused by a failure of the cytokinesis in both meiotic divisions. This is the first report about the presence of a Second Division Restitution mechanism (SDR) which causes the formation of 2n pollen in the genus Agave. The genetic implications of the presence of 2n pollen in the genus Agave are discussed. PMID:23961348

Gómez-Rodríguez, Víctor Manuel; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamín; Barba-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

288

Evidences of delayed size recovery in Araucaria angustifolia populations after post-glacial colonization of highlands in Southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Up to date, little is known about the relationship between historical demography and the current genetic structure of A. angustifolia. As a first effort towards overcoming this lack, microsatellite data scored in six populations and isozyme allele frequencies published for 11 natural stands of this species were analysed in order to assess molecular signatures of populations' demographic history. Signatures of genetic bottlenecks were captured in all analysed populations of southeastern Brazil. Among southern populations, signatures of small effective population size were observed in only three out of 13 populations. Southern populations likely experienced faster recovery of population size after migration onto highlands. Accordingly, current genetic diversity of the southern populations gives evidence of fast population size recovery. In general, demographic history of A. angustifolia matches climatic dynamics of southern and southeastern Brazil during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Palynological records and reconstruction of the past climatic dynamics of southeastern and southern Brazil support the hypothesis of different population size recovery dynamics for populations from these regions. PMID:18797796

Stefenon, Valdir M; Behling, Hermann; Gailing, Oliver; Finkeldey, Reiner

2008-09-01

289

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding Edges and Contrast of Objects in Natural Substrate Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show disruptive body patterns for camouflage. This response is evoked when the size of the gravel is equivalent to the area of the \\

CHUAN-CHIN CHIAO; EMMA J. KELMAN; ROGER T. HANLON

290

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

2008-01-01

291

Enrichment of Echinacea angustifolia with Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 increased anti-inflammatory potential through interfering with COX-2 enzyme activity  

PubMed Central

Bauer alkylamide 11 and ketone 23 were partially responsible for Echinacea angustifolia anti-inflammatory properties previously. This study further tested their importance using the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. angustifolia extracts, phytochemical enriched fractions, or pure synthesized standards. Molecular targets were probed using microarray, qRT-PCR, western blot, and enzyme assays. Fractions with these phytochemicals were more potent inhibitors of LPS induced PGE2 production than E. angustifolia extracts. Microarray did not detect changes in transcripts with phytochemical treatments; however qRT-PCR showed decrease in TNF-? and increase of iNOS transcripts. LPS induced COX-2 protein was increased by an E. angustifolia fraction containing Bauer ketone 23 and by pure phytochemical. COX-2 activity was decreased with all treatments. The phytochemical inhibition of PGE2 production by Echinacea may be due to the direct targeting of COX-2 enzyme. PMID:20681645

LaLone, Carlie A.; Huang, Nan; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Yum, Man-Yu; Singh, Navrozedeep; Hauck, Cathy; Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve S.; Kohut, Marian L.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Birt, Diane F.

2013-01-01

292

Enrichment of Echinacea angustifolia with Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 increased anti-inflammatory potential through interference with cox-2 enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 were previously found to be partially responsible for Echinacea angustifolia anti-inflammatory properties. This study further tested their importance using the inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. angustifolia extracts, phytochemical enriched fractions, or pure synthesized standards. Molecular targets were probed using microarray, qRT-PCR, Western blot, and enzyme assays. Fractions with these phytochemicals were more potent inhibitors of LPS-induced PGE(2) production than E. angustifolia extracts. Microarray did not detect changes in transcripts with phytochemical treatments; however, qRT-PCR showed a decrease in TNF-alpha and an increase of iNOS transcripts. LPS-induced COX-2 protein was increased by an E. angustifolia fraction containing Bauer ketone 23 and by pure phytochemical. COX-2 activity was decreased with all treatments. The phytochemical inhibition of PGE(2) production by Echinacea may be due to the direct targeting of COX-2 enzyme. PMID:20681645

Lalone, Carlie A; Huang, Nan; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Yum, Man-Yu; Singh, Navrozedeep; Hauck, Cathy; Nikolau, Basil J; Wurtele, Eve S; Kohut, Marian L; Murphy, Patricia A; Birt, Diane F

2010-08-11

293

Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between

Jose A. Manzanera; Maria F. Martínez-Chacón

2007-01-01

294

Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family  

PubMed Central

Background: Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Results: The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g-1 of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. Conclusion: M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid . PMID:22438661

Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali

2012-01-01

295

The biosynthetic origin of irregular monoterpenes in Lavandula: isolation and biochemical characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase gene, lavandulyl diphosphate synthase.  

PubMed

Lavender essential oils are constituted predominantly of regular monoterpenes, for example linalool, 1,8-cineole, and camphor. However, they also contain irregular monoterpenes including lavandulol and lavandulyl acetate. Although the majority of genes responsible for the production of regular monoterpenes in lavenders are now known, enzymes (including lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS)) catalyzing the biosynthesis of irregular monoterpenes in these plants have not been described. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase cDNA, termed Lavandula x intermedia lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LiLPPS), through a homology-based cloning strategy. The LiLPPS ORF, encoding for a 305-amino acid long protein, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The approximately 34.5-kDa bacterially produced protein specifically catalyzed the head-to-middle condensation of two dimethylallyl diphosphate units to LPP in vitro with apparent Km and kcat values of 208 ± 12 ?m and 0.1 s(-1), respectively. LiLPPS is a homodimeric enzyme with a sigmoidal saturation curve and Hill coefficient of 2.7, suggesting a positive co-operative interaction among its catalytic sites. LiLPPS could be used to modulate the production of lavandulol and its derivatives in plants through metabolic engineering. PMID:23306202

Demissie, Zerihun A; Erland, Lauren A E; Rheault, Mark R; Mahmoud, Soheil S

2013-03-01

296

Accumulation of phenolic compounds in in vitro cultures and wild plants of Lavandula viridis L'Hér and their antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase potential.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the phenolic profile, antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase potential of different extracts from wild plants and in vitro cultures of Lavandula viridis L'Hér. The HPLC-DAD analysis allowed the identification and quantification of 3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and rosmarinic acids, and luteolin and pinocembrin. Water/ethanol extract from in vitro cultures contained the highest amount of the identified phenolic compounds (51652.92 mg/kg). To investigate the antioxidant activity we used Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, Fe(2+) chelation activity and the inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse brain homogenates (in vitro). Overall, all the extracts from both wild plants and in vitro cultures exhibited ability to scavenge free radicals, to chelate Fe(2+) and to protect against lipid peroxidation. In addition, the extracts from L. viridis were active in inhibiting both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (Ellman's method). Our findings suggest that L. viridis in vitro cultures represent a promising alternative for the production of active metabolites with antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activity. PMID:23524312

Costa, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sandra; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Romano, Anabela

2013-07-01

297

Chemical composition, seasonal variability, and antifungal activity of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas essential oils from stem/leaves and flowers.  

PubMed

Essential oils from the stems/leaves (L) and flowers (F) of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in southern Sardinia (Italy) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector and ion trap mass spectrometry. The major compound was fenchone, accounting for, on average, 52.60% in L and 66.20% in F, followed by camphor (13.13% versus 27.08%, in L and F, respectively). F essential oil yields (volume per dry weight) decreased from the beginning to the end of the flowering stage, whereas L yields remained constant during the year. The nine main compounds derived from two different subpathways, A and B. The compounds that belong to the same subpathway showed a similar behavior during the year. The essential oils were tested for their antifungal activity using the paper disk diffusion method. The essential oils tested were effective on the inactivation of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum and less effective against Aspergillus flavus. Among the single compounds tested, fenchone, limonene, and myrtenal appeared to be the more effective on the inhibition of R. solani growth. PMID:16756368

Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessi, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

2006-06-14

298

A Comparison between Extract Products of Magnolia officinalis on Memory Impairment and Amyloidogenesis in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The components of Magnolia officinalis have well known to act anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective activities. These efficacies have been sold many products as nutritional supplement extracted from bark of Magnolia officinalis. Thus, to assess and compare neuroprotective effect in the nutritional supplement (Magnolia ExtractTM, Health Freedom Nutrition LLC, USA) and our ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis (BioLand LTD, Korea), we investigated memorial improving and anti-Alzheimer’s disease effects of extract products of Magnolia officinalis in a transgenic AD mice model. Oral pretreatment of two extract products of Magnolia officinalis (10 mg/kg/day in 0.05% ethanol) into drinking water for 3 months ameliorated memorial dysfunction and prevented A? accumulation in the brain of Tg2576 mice. In addition, extract products of Magnolia officinalis also decreased expression of ?-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its product, C99. Although both two extract products of Magnolia officinalis could show preventive effect of memorial dysfunction and A? accumulation, our ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis (BioLand LTD, Korea) could be more effective than Magnolia ExtractTM (Health Freedom Nutrition LLC, USA). Therefore, our results showed that extract products of Magnolia officinalis were effective for prevention and treatment of AD through memorial improving and anti-amyloidogenic effects via down-regulating ?-secretase activity, and neuroprotective efficacy of Magnolia extracts could be differed by cultivating area and manufacturing methods. PMID:24130932

Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Young Hee; Kim, Ki Ho; Seong, Yeon Hee; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

2012-01-01

299

Purification and spectroscopic studies on catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).  

PubMed

A catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) moCO which only catalyzes the oxidation of catechols to quinones without hydroxylating tyrosine was purified. The molecular mass of the M. officinalis enzyme of 39,370 Da was obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry and the isoelectric point was determined to be 3.4. Addition of 2 eq. H(2)O(2) to the enzyme leads to oxy catechol oxidase. In the UV/Vis spectrum two new absorption bands occur at 343 nm (?=8510 M(-1)cm(-1)) and 580 nm (?=580 M(-1)cm(-1)) due to O(2)(2-)Cu (II) charge transfer transitions in accordance with the oxy forms of other type 3 copper proteins. The N-terminal sequence has been determined by Edman degradation to NPVQAPELDKCGTAT, exhibiting a proline at the second and sixth position conserved in other polyphenol oxidases. PMID:22727580

Rompel, Annette; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Molitor, Christian; Krebs, Bernt

2012-09-01

300

Carnosol and Carnosic Acids from Salvia officinalis Inhibit Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE2 synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE2 in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC50 values between 1.9 and 3.5 ?g/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC50 values of 5.0 ?M. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE2 generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC50 = 9.3 ?M). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF1?, 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B2] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE2 formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE2 formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis. PMID:22511203

Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M.; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

2012-01-01

301

A new oleanene glucuronide obtained from the aerial parts of Melilotus officinalis.  

PubMed

A new oleanene glucuronide called melilotus-saponin O2 (1) was isolated together with three known ones (soyasaponin I, astragaloside VIII, wistariasaponin D) from the aerial parts of Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas (Leguminosae). The structure of 1 was determined to be 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- (1-->2)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl melilotigenin by spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:10705521

Hirakawa, T; Okawa, M; Kinjo, J; Nohara, T

2000-02-01

302

A new oleanene glucuronide having a branched-chain sugar from Melilotus officinalis.  

PubMed

A new oleanene glucuronide called melilotus-saponin O1 (1) was isolated together with three known ones from the roots of Melilotus officinalis (L.) PALLAS (Leguminosae). The structure of 1 was determined to be 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1--> 3)]- beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl soyasapogenol B by spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:9549893

Udayama, M; Kinjo, J; Yoshida, N; Nohara, T

1998-03-01

303

Electron-dense tracer evidence for a blood—brain barrier in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Electron-dense tracers were used to study the permeability of the blood—brain interface in a cephalopod mollusc, the cuttlefishSepia officinalis. Gel filtration established that horseradish peroxidase is a suitable tracer forin vivo injection, but microperoxidase is not, being subject to binding by plasma proteins. Perfusion-fixed brain vertical and optic lobes showed no endogenous peroxidatic activity. Horseradish peroxidase was injected intravenously,

N. J. Abbott; M. Bundgaard

1992-01-01

304

Effects of Crowding on the Social Behavior of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effect of crowding on cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), a benthic cephalopod, the behavior of captive-reared cuttlefish was monitored for a period of 1 month. One group of 6 cuttlefish was housed in a tank 6.1 m in diameter (4.87 m 2 per cuttlefish); another group of 6 was housed in a tank 1.5 m in diameter (0.29 m

JEAN GEARY BOAL; REBECCA A. HYLTON; SUSAN A. GONZALEZ; ROGER T. HANLON

1999-01-01

305

Behavioral aspects of sperm competition in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Sepioidea: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection studies in cephalopods indicate that sperm competition is a central feature of their mating systems, yet\\u000a this has not been studied experimentally in any detail. In 1998 we staged 20 matings of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L., in the laboratory. Males rapidly initiated mating in the “head-to-head” position, with no apparent courtship. Mating\\u000a lasted an average of 10?min

R. T. Hanlon; S. A. Ament; H. Gabr

1999-01-01

306

Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments were performed to determine the level of social recognition in captive-reared adult cuttlefish,Sepia officinalisL. No evidence of discrimination of familiar from unfamiliar individuals was found in either females or males. Despite good evidence for mate guarding, no recognition of individual mates was found. Within sex classes, associations between freely moving animals were not different from random (f–f, f–m

JEAN GEARY BOAL

1996-01-01

307

Composition and insect attracting activity of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

The essential oil and a number of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in solvents of increasing polarity were isolated, and their components identified and tested as pest control agents. Ethanol and acetone extracts attract grape berry moth Lobesia botrana. However, none of the extracts had a significant effect on western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, which is attracted by 1,8-cineole, a major essential oil component. PMID:15839484

Katerinopoulos, Haralambos E; Pagona, Georgia; Afratis, Athanasios; Stratigakis, Nicolaos; Roditakis, Nikolaos

2005-01-01

308

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-04-01

309

Antioxidant Effects of Different Extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence\\u000a of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate\\u000a the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The

Romaiana Picada Pereira; Roselei Fachinetto; Alessandro de Souza Prestes; Robson Luiz Puntel; Gloria Narjara Santos da Silva; Berta Maria Heinzmann; Ticiane Krapf Boschetti; Margareth Linde Athayde; Marilise Escobar Bürger; Ademir Farias Morel; Vera Maria Morsch; João Batista Teixeira Rocha

2009-01-01

310

Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon Balm): In Vitro Culture and the Production and Analysis of Volatile Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The genus Melissa belongs to the family Labiatae (Lamiaceae) and comprises erect branched herbs with crenate opposite leaves and a two-lipped\\u000a corolla. It includes very few species, which chiefly occur in many parts of Europe and Asia. For the European region two individual\\u000a species are differentiated by the Flora Europaea (Tutin et al. 1972): M. officinalis L. (comprising the two

W. Schultze; S. Hose; A. Abou-Mandour; F.-C. Czygan

311

Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidative activity of a lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf material of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) was extracted with 450ml\\/l aqueous ethanol by medium pressure liquid–solid extraction. The total phenolic content of the extract was estimated as gallic acid equivalents by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method and a qualitative–quantitative compositional analysis was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. The lemon balm extract contained

Keyvan Dastmalchi; H. J. Damien Dorman; Päivi P. Oinonen; Yusrida Darwis; Into Laakso; Raimo Hiltunen

2008-01-01

312

Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds,\\u000a the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds,\\u000a two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL),\\u000a were investigated in suspension cultures of

Corinna Weitzel; Maike Petersen

2010-01-01

313

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

PubMed Central

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

2012-01-01

314

Response surface optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of yellow pigment from Buddleja officinalis Maxim  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrasonic-assisted extraction technology of yellow pigment from Buddleja officinalis Maxim. was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). The single factors tests and Box-Behnken experimental design were conducted and the optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: ethanol concentration 68%, liquid\\/material ratio (mL\\/g) 50:1, ultrasonic power 499 W, extraction temperature 74?? , and extraction time 35 min. Under this

Guo Lei

2011-01-01

315

Evaluation of antioxidant profile and activity of amalaki (Emblica officinalis) , spirulina and wheat grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of amalki (Emblica officinalis), spirulina and wheatgrass were prepared and analyzed for antioxidant\\u000a vitamin content (vitamin C and E), total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant status, reducing power and effect on glutathione\\u000a S-transferase (GST) activity were evaluated in vitro. Vitamin C content of crude amalaki powder was found to be 5.38 mg\\/g,\\u000a while very less amount 0.22 mg\\/g

Vasudha Shukla; Manish Vashistha; Som Nath Singh

2009-01-01

316

Evaluating the Effect of Zingiber Officinalis on Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Cisplatin Based Regimens  

PubMed Central

Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinalis, has long been used as herbal medicine for its antiemetic effect. For evaluating the effect of zingiber officinalis on nausea and vomiting (N and V) in patients receiving cisplatin based regimens, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial was carried out in patients receiving cisplatin in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The patients were randomly assigned to receive ginger capsules (rhizome of zingiber officinalis) or placebo in their first cycle of the study. All patients received standard antiemetics for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The patients were crossed-over to receive ginger or placebo in their next cycle of chemotherapy. Among 36 eligible patients who received both cycles of treatment, there were no difference in prevalence, severity, and duration of both acute and delayed N and V. Addition of ginger to the standard antiemetic regimen has shown no advantage in reducing acute and delayed N and V in patients with cisplatin-based regimen in this study. PMID:24250368

Fahimi, Fanak; Khodadad, Kian; Amini, Somayeh; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Baniasadi, Shadi

2011-01-01

317

Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as “erva-cidreira” or “melissa”, it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Ângela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

2011-01-01

318

Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as "erva-cidreira" or "melissa", it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Angela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

2011-04-01

319

Indole Alkaloids of Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in 1 M HCl Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhibition effect of mild steel (MS) corrosion in 1 M HCl was studied by the addition of indole alkaloids (crude) isolated from Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia ( A. latifolia) leaves at 303 K. Potentiodynamic polarization, impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses were used for this study. Results show that the isolated alkaloid extract of A. latifolia is a good inhibitor and exhibited maximum inhibition efficiency (above 80%) at concentrations between 3 and 5 mg/L. Polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitor does not alter the mechanism of either anodic or cathodic reactions and acted as mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies of both electrochemical techniques are found to be in good agreement and adsorption of inhibitor follows Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption of inhibitor over metal surface was well supported by the SEM studies, while FTIR studies evidenced the presence of indole alkaloids as green inhibitor that reduces the rate of corrosion.

Raja, Pandian Bothi; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Awang, Khalijah; Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Osman, Hasnah

2013-04-01

320

Nuclear and mitochondrial genome instability induced by senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) aqueous extract in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

PubMed

Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (senna) is commonly used in self-medication and is frequently used to treat intestine constipation. A previous study involving bacteria and plasmid DNA suggested the possible toxicity of the aqueous extract of senna (SAE). The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge concerning SAE genotoxicity mechanisms because of its widespread use and its risks to human health. We investigated the impact of SAE on nuclear DNA and on the stability of mitochondrial DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wt, ogg1, msh6, and ogg1msh6) strains, monitoring the formation of petite mutants. Our results demonstrated that SAE specifically increased Can(R) mutagenesis only in the msh6 mutant, supporting the view that SAE can induce misincorporation errors in DNA. We observed a significant increase in the frequency of petite colonies in all studied strains. Our data indicate that SAE has genotoxic activity towards both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. PMID:25501195

Silva, C R; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Leitão, A C; Pádula, M

2014-01-01

321

The larva of Aphylla protracta (Hagen, 1859), and a redescription of the larva of A. angustifolia Garrison, 1986 (Odonata: Gomphidae).  

PubMed

The larva of Aphylla protracta is described and figured. It is characterized by 3rd antennomere subcylindrical, flattened on ventral surface, 4.2 times longer than its widest part. Abdomen with dorsal protuberances well developed on S2-4, reduced on S5, vestigial or absent on S6-9; lateral spines lacking entirely, tergites 5-8 with minute reddish setae, tergite 9 with abundant, small, reddish setae on most of its surface and the whole posterior margin; S10 cylindrical, very long, five times longer than its base, much longer than S6+7+8+9. Also, a redescription and figures of A. angustifolia are provided, and a comparison of both species is made. Mainly differences between both species were found in abdominal dorsal protuberances and the presence/absence of small setae on abdominal tergites. PMID:25543796

Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo

2014-01-01

322

Effect of transient oxic conditions on the composition of the nitrate-reducing community from the rhizosphere of Typha angustifolia.  

PubMed

Within a nitrate-reducing bacterial community, a niche differentiation between denitrifying and nitrate ammonifying bacteria may be determinated by a complex of environmental parameters, such as the availability of carbon, nitrate, and oxygen. Hence, oxygen- and carbon-releasing aerenchymatous plants may affect the composition of the nitrate-reducing community in waterlogged sediment. The composition of the nitrate-reducing community in the rhizosphere of the aerenchymatous plant species Typha angustifolia was compared with the community in nonrhizospheric sediment. All three functional groups (NO2 (-) accumulators, N2O producers, and presumed NH4 (+) producers) were present at both sites with an ratio of 36:45:12 and 43:22:18 for nonrhizospheric and rhizospheric sediments, respectively. Most of the isolated were gram-negative, and approximately 50% of these strains demonstrated an obligatory oxidative metabolism.In the absence of nitrate, Enterobacteriaceae (belonging to the NO2 (-) accumulating group) became dominant during enrichment of bacteria from the rhizosphere of T. angustifolia in a chemostat with glycerol (20 mM) as substrate, both under strictly anoxic and transient oxic conditions. Addition of nitrate to the chemostats led to the predominance of denitrifying pseudomonads, irrespective of the presence or absence of oxygen. However, in the presence of nitrate under anoxic conditions, enterobacteria persisted in the medium together with pseudomonads.It was concluded that oxidative bacteria such as pseudomonads are the better competitors for limiting amounts of glycerol, provided oxygen or nitrate is present. In the absence of these electron acceptors, fermentative bacteria become dominant. PMID:24193039

Brunel, B; Janse, J D; Laanbroek, H J; Woldendorp, J W

1992-07-01

323

Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candida albicans. Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris.  

PubMed

The antifungal effect of the essential oil from Satureja montana L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lavandula hybrida Reverchon, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merril and Perry, Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and six chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris L. on Candida albicans growth were studied. The most efficiency was obtained with the essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (MIC 80% = 0.016 microL/mL and Kaff = 296 microL/mL). The presence in the culture medium of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 microg/mL) and amphotericin B involved a decrease of the MIC 80% of amphotericin B. In contrast, the combination of amphotericin B and low concentrations (0.00031-0.0025 microg/mL) of essential oil was antagonistic. The strongest decrease (48%) of the MIC 80% was obtained with medium containing 0.2 microL/mL of essential oil. These results signify that the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype potentiates the antifungal action of amphotericin B suggesting a possible utilization of this essential oil in addition to antifungal drugs for the treatment of mycoses. PMID:15742351

Giordani, R; Regli, P; Kaloustian, J; Mikaïl, C; Abou, L; Portugal, H

2004-12-01

324

The influence of physical soil conditions on the formation of root nodules of Melilotus officinalis in the montane zone of Rocky Mountain National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic invasion is a key threat to native biological diversity, second only to habitat degradation. Melilotus officinalis is an exotic species that thrives in areas of anthropogenic disturbances and low nutrient availability. Typically, natural disturbance facilitates native species establishment and maintains species diversity; however, anthropogenic disturbance facilitates exotic species establishment. M. officinalis functions as a competitor in the montane communities

Joy J. Wolf; Jennifer Rohrs

2001-01-01

325

Variation of heavy metal concentrations (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, V, and Zn) during the life cycle of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Pierre Miramand* 1,2 , Paco Bustamante 1,2 , Daniel Bentley 1, cuttlebone and whole animal) of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis collected in the Bay of Seine has of cuttlefish, except for Ag which decreases as soon as cuttlefish migrate to open sea. This strongly suggests

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

326

Assessment of the exposure pathway in the uptake and distribution of1 americium and cesium in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) at different stages of2  

E-print Network

in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) at different stages of2 its life cycle3 4 P. Bustamante1,2* , J-L. Teyssié1 (134 Cs) by the common cuttlefish20 Sepia officinalis. Uptake and loss kinetics of the radionuclides in juveniles.23 Following a short seawater exposure, cuttlefish accumulated 241 Am and 134 Cs, but only to24

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

327

Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are suggested to be involved in the regulation of hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia iwayomogi, improves lipid metabolism, body weight gain and adiposity and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is associated with these events. Mice

Jinmi Lee; Kyungsil Chae; Juran Ha; Byung-Young Park; Hee Suk Lee; Sunhyo Jeong; Min-Young Kim; Michung Yoon

2008-01-01

328

Influência do horário de colheita e secagem de folhas no óleo essencial de melissa (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivada em dois ambientesa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of harvest times and drying of leaves on the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in two environments. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of harvest times and drying of leaves on content and chemical composition of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in greenhouse and field. The assay was conducted at the

S. FONTES; CARVALHO FILHO; P. B. ALVES; R. SILVA-MANN; M. O. RODRIGUES; Bairro Jardim; Rosa Elze

329

Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar (Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as\\u000a ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between\\u000a environmental parameters and

Jose A. Manzanera; Maria F. Martínez-Chacón

2007-01-01

330

An examination of hybridization between the cattail species typha latifolia and typha angustifolia using random amplified polymorphic DNA and chloroplast DNA markers  

PubMed

Typha glauca represents a significant portion of the biomass of the wetlands surrounding the Great Lakes, USA. It is generally accepted to be a form of hybrid between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia, which itself appears to be an exotic introduction from Europe. Based on morphological and isozyme data, conflicting theories have been proposed for the hybrid nature of T. glauca: it has been described as a hybrid swarm, a distinct hybrid species and an F1 hybrid. Therefore, we developed random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and chloroplast DNA markers, specific to the parental species, to assess hybrids. Ten RAPD primers gave 17 fragments specific to T. angustifolia and 13 fragments specific to T. latifolia. All of the interspecific hybrids contained each of the species-specific markers, indicating an F1 hybrid status. Furthermore, all hybrids tested contained the T. angustifolia chloroplast haplotype, which is consistent with differential interspecific crossing success found previously. Additional confirmation of an F1 hybrid status was gained by examining seedlings from T. glauca. These progeny were expected to be advanced-generation hybrids, as opposed to the F1 hybrid parent. Analysis of the seedlings revealed segregating marker patterns consistent with patterns observed in experimental advanced-generation hybrids, although these advanced hybrids do not appear to be a significant part of mature stands. Our data do not provide support for extensive gene flow between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia. However, our results suggest that hybridization between the native and introduced Typha species has impacted the native population through the spread of the F1 hybrid, T. glauca. PMID:10632850

Kuehn; Minor; White

1999-12-01

331

Heavy metals accumulation and ecophysiological effect on Typha angustifolia L. and Cyperus esculentus L. growing in distillery and tannery effluent polluted natural wetland site, Unnao, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillery and tanneries are major source of heavy metals pollution in natural wetland sites in India. Present study deals\\u000a with the heavy metals accumulation potential of Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus growing in distillery and tannery effluent polluted wetland sites. The metal accumulation pattern in both macrophytes showed\\u000a direct correlation with the metal content in sediments. Both macrophytes were observed

Sangeeta Yadav; Ram Chandra

2011-01-01

332

Estimating nitrogen budgets of Typha angustifolia by considering the regrowth shoot productivity and nitrogen content after harvesting aerial organs in different growing seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model that includes regrowth after harvesting aerial shoots of an emergent macrophyte, Typha angustifolia L., was applied to evaluate the nitrogen (N) budget and the N uptake by the plant from sediment in Shibakawa Pond, Japan.\\u000a Under natural conditions (control\\/uncut stands), the analysis showed that the annual uptake of N from sediment was 26.6 gN\\/m2 and harvesting Typha shoots

Shamal Chandra Das; Norio Tanaka

2007-01-01

333

Growth Characteristics of Introduced Green Ash ( Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and Narrow-leaved Ash ( F. angustifolia L.) in Lowland Forest Region in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

American ash and green ash were used about 100 years ago in the lowland regions of Croatia to afforest and fill the depressions\\u000a where narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) could not survive. The growth of mean stand trees of green ash and narrow-leaved ash were studied in 14 sites (a systematic\\u000a sample of 0.03 ha circular plots). A total of 212 trees

D. Kremer; J. Cavlovic; M. Bozic

2006-01-01

334

Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. Methods The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts. Results The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied fruit extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards. Conclusions The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis, imposes the fact that they might be useful as potent sources of natural antioxidant. PMID:20462461

2010-01-01

335

A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?  

PubMed Central

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

2013-01-01

336

Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2013-01-01

337

Protective effect of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract against Mn-induced oxidative stress in chronically exposed mice.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for biological systems; however occupational exposure to high levels of this metal may lead to neurodegenerative disorders, resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). While its mechanisms of neurotoxicity have yet to be fully understood, oxidative stress plays a critical role. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis in attenuating Mn-induced brain oxidative stress in mice. Sixteen male mice were randomly divided into two groups and treated for 3 months: the first group consumed tap water (control group) and the second group was treated with Mn (50 mg/kg/day for habituation during the first 15 days followed by 100 mg/kg/day for additional 75 days) in the drinking water. After 3 months both groups were sub divided (n=4 per group) and treated for additional 3 months with Mn and/or M. officinalis in the drinking water. The first group (control) was treated with water and served as control; the second group (M. officinalis) was treated with M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day); the third group was treated with Mn (100 mg/kg/day); the fourth group (Mn+M. officinalis) was treated with both Mn and M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day each). Mn-treated mice showed a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels (a marker of oxidative stress) in both the hippocampus and striatum. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in total thiol content in the hippocampus and a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the hippocampus, striatum, cortex and cerebellum. Co-treatment with M. officinalis aqueous extract in Mn-treated mice significantly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities and attenuated the oxidative damage (TBARS and decreased total thiol levels). These results establish that M. officinalis aqueous extract possesses potent antioxidative properties, validating its efficacy in attenuating Mn-induced oxidative stress in the mouse brain. PMID:22020131

Martins, Eduarda N; Pessano, Naira T C; Leal, Luiza; Roos, Daniel H; Folmer, Vanderlei; Puntel, Gustavo O; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Aschner, Michael; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Puntel, Robson Luiz

2012-01-01

338

Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.  

PubMed

Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl?, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC?? value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC?? 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC?? 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC?? 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC?? 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause. PMID:23670626

Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

2013-06-01

339

Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The variation in the chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis , growing in different habitats, was studied. GC-MS analysis revealed 57 compounds representing 94.68-96.80% of total oils. The major components were alpha-thujone (11.55-19.23%), viridiflorol (9.94-19.46%), 1,8-cineole (8.85-15.60%), camphor (5.08-15.06%), manool (5.52-13.06%), beta-caryophyllene (2.63-9.24%), alpha-humulene (1.93-8.94%), and beta-thujone (5.45-6.17%), showing significant differences between different collection sites. Analysis of some representative polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed using postdistilled dry samples. Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the prevalent compounds of S. officinalis methanolic extracts. The results revealed differences in the polyphenolic composition and also exhibited antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities at different magnitudes of potency. However, within the used methods, only the DPPH(*) assay showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in free radical scavenging activity among samples collected in different regions. Plants collected in the coastal regions Soliman and Kelibia accumulate more polyphenolic compounds, known to be responsible for the main antioxidant activity of sage (rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid), than those growing inland at Bou Arada and Sers. Moreover, the former presented a higher radical-scavenging activity. The methanolic extracts of postdistilled S. officinalis might be valuable antioxidant natural sources and seemed to be applicable in both the health medicine and food industries. PMID:19886685

Ben Farhat, Mouna; Jordán, María J; Chaouech-Hamada, Rym; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sotomayor, Jose A

2009-11-11

340

Componential Profile and Amylase Inhibiting Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Calendula officinalis L. Leaves  

PubMed Central

An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6?-O-vanilloyl-?-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6??-acetyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase. PMID:24683352

Olennikov, Daniil N.; Kashchenko, Nina I.

2014-01-01

341

Apoptosis-inducing effects of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil in glioblastoma multiforme cells.  

PubMed

Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are not effective. This study investigated the activity of the M. officinalis essential oil (EO) and its major component (citral) in GBM cell lines. Both EO and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Antioxidant prevented citral-induced death, indicating its dependence on the production of reactive oxygen species. Citral downmodulated the activity and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). These results show that EO, through its major component, citral, may be of potential interest for the treatment of GBM. PMID:24745610

Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz de; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Guimarães, Lívia Paes Tavares Pacheco; Rocha, Gleice da Graça; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

2014-07-01

342

Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

2014-05-01

343

Fatty Acid Profiles of the Seed Oils in Two Groups of Anchusa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total seed oil and fatty acid compositions of two informal groups of Anchusa officinalis L. were studied in order to provide additional information for the delineation of the groups. Major fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2n6), oleic (C18:1n9), ?-linolenic (C18:3n3), ?-linolenic (C18:3n6), palmitic (C16:0) and stearidonic acid (C18:4n3) respectively. The lower levels were observed in stearic (C18:0), eicosenoic (C20:1n9) and erucic

Tamer Özcan

344

Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.  

PubMed

In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 ?L.mL(-1)-0.39 ?L.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 ?L.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties were different in particular plant species. The highest% of inhibition after 30 min. of reaction was observed at Origanum vulgare (93%), Satureia montana (90.66%) and Lavandula augustifolia (90.22%). PMID:24813985

Ka?ániová, Miroslava; Vukovi?, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vat?ák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

2014-01-01

345

ANGUSTIFOLIA3 Binds to SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes to Regulate Transcription during Arabidopsis Leaf Development[W  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional coactivator ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3) stimulates cell proliferation during Arabidopsis thaliana leaf development, but the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we show that inducible nuclear localization of AN3 during initial leaf growth results in differential expression of important transcriptional regulators, including GROWTH REGULATING FACTORs (GRFs). Chromatin purification further revealed the presence of AN3 at the loci of GRF5, GRF6, CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR2, CONSTANS-LIKE5 (COL5), HECATE1 (HEC1), and ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR4 (ARR4). Tandem affinity purification of protein complexes using AN3 as bait identified plant SWITCH/SUCROSE NONFERMENTING (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes formed around the ATPases BRAHMA (BRM) or SPLAYED. Moreover, SWI/SNF ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 73B (SWP73B) is recruited by AN3 to the promoters of GRF5, GRF3, COL5, and ARR4, and both SWP73B and BRM occupy the HEC1 promoter. Furthermore, we show that AN3 and BRM genetically interact. The data indicate that AN3 associates with chromatin remodelers to regulate transcription. In addition, modification of SWI3C expression levels increases leaf size, underlining the importance of chromatin dynamics for growth regulation. Our results place the SWI/SNF-AN3 module as a major player at the transition from cell proliferation to cell differentiation in a developing leaf. PMID:24443518

Vercruyssen, Liesbeth; Verkest, Aurine; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Heyndrickx, Ken S.; Eeckhout, Dominique; Han, Soon-Ki; Jégu, Teddy; Archacki, Rafal; Van Leene, Jelle; Andriankaja, Megan; De Bodt, Stefanie; Abeel, Thomas; Coppens, Frederik; Dhondt, Stijn; De Milde, Liesbeth; Vermeersch, Mattias; Maleux, Katrien; Gevaert, Kris; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej; Benhamed, Moussa; Wagner, Doris; Vandepoele, Klaas; De Jaeger, Geert; Inzé, Dirk

2014-01-01

346

Genetic structure of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) populations in Brazil: implications for the in situ conservation of genetic resources.  

PubMed

The distribution of the genetic variation within and among natural populations of A. ANGUSTIFOLIA growing in different regions in Brazil was assessed at microsatellite and AFLP markers. Both markers revealed high gene diversity ( H = 0.65; AR = 9.1 for microsatellites and H = 0.27; P = 77.8 % for AFLPs), moderate overall differentiation ( RST = 0.13 for microsatellites and FST = 0.10 for AFLPs), but high divergence of the northernmost, geographically isolated population. In a Bayesian analysis, microsatellite data suggested population structure at two levels: at K = 2 and at K = 3 in agreement to the geographical distribution of populations. This result was confirmed by the UPGMA dendrogram based on microsatellite data (bootstrap support > 95 %). Non-hierarchical AMOVA revealed high variation among populations from different A POSTERIORI defined geographical groups. The genetic distance between sample locations increased with geographical distance for microsatellites ( R = 0.62; P = 0.003) and AFLPs ( R = 0.32; P = 0.09). This pattern of population differentiation may be correlated with population history such as geographical isolation and postglacial colonization of highlands. Implications of the population genetic structure for the conservation of genetic resources are discussed. PMID:17401807

Stefenon, V M; Gailing, O; Finkeldey, R

2007-07-01

347

The Effect of Plant Inbreeding and Stoichiometry on Interactions with Herbivores in Nature: Echinacea angustifolia and Its Specialist Aphid  

PubMed Central

Fragmentation of once widespread communities may alter interspecific interactions by changing genetic composition of interacting populations as well as their abundances and spatial distributions. In a long-term study of a fragmented population of Echinacea angustifolia, a perennial plant native to the North American prairie, we investigated influences on its interaction with a specialist aphid and tending ants. We grew plant progeny of sib-matings (I), and of random pairings within (W) and between (B) seven remnants in a common field within 8 km of the source remnants. During the fifth growing season, we determined each plant's burden of aphids and ants, as well as its size and foliar elemental composition (C, N, P). We also assayed composition (C, N) of aphids and ants. Early in the season, progeny from genotypic classes B and I were twice as likely to harbor aphids, and in greater abundance, than genotypic class W; aphid loads were inversely related to foliar concentration of P and positively related to leaf N and plant size. At the end of the season, aphid loads were indistinguishable among genotypic classes. Ant abundance tracked aphid abundance throughout the season but showed no direct relationship with plant traits. Through its potential to alter the genotypic composition of remnant populations of Echinacea, fragmentation can increase Echinacea's susceptibility to herbivory by its specialist aphid and, in turn, perturb the abundance and distribution of aphids. PMID:21935460

Wagenius, Stuart; Stanton-Geddes, John; Shaw, Ruth G.

2011-01-01

348

A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521

2014-01-01

349

Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor distribution in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

The immune system of cephalopods remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specific activity of immune enzymes in epithelial barriers, circulatory and digestive systems of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Three enzyme groups with putative functions in immunity were investigated: phenoloxidases (POs), lysozymes and protease inhibitors (PIs). Consistent with a role in immunity, highest PO activities were found in the integument as well as the respiratory and circulatory organs under zymogenic (proPO) and active form. Surprisingly, high PO activities were also found in the digestive gland and its appendages. Similarly, high lysozyme activities were detected in the integument and circulatory organs, but also in the posterior salivary glands, highlighting the implication of this antibacterial enzyme group in most tissues exposed to the environment but also within the circulatory system. Albeit highest in digestive organs, the ubiquitous detection of PI activity in assayed compartments suggests immune function(s) in a wide range of tissues. Our study reports proPO/PO, lysozyme and PI distributions in S. officinalis body compartments for the first time, and thus provides the fundamental basis for a better understanding of the humoral immune system in cephalopods as well as invertebrates. PMID:24813822

Le Pabic, Charles; Safi, Georges; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Robin, Jean-Paul; Koueta, Noussithé

2014-01-01

350

Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

2010-01-01

351

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Characterization by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses of the Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts allowed the identification of 190 components that represented 97.9% of the total oil content. The main constituents identified were germacrene D (19.9%), ?-caryophyllene (14.1%), and ?-humulene (7.5%). Terpenoids were by far predominant (89.4%), with sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (69.1%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (14.8%) being the most abundant compounds detected in the oil. Based on the present and previously published results, multivariate statistical comparison of the chemical composition of the essential oils was performed within the species. Principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) of the data on the volatile profiles of S. officinalis taxa revealed no pronounced differences among the samples originated from the Balkan Peninsula. Additionally, the oil was screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity using the broth microdilution assay. The oil's best antimicrobial activities were obtained against the mold Aspergillus niger (minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0?mg/ml, resp.) and the yeast Candida albicans (MIC and MFC of 5.0?mg/ml). PMID:23847079

Lazarevi?, Jelena S; ?or?evi?, Aleksandra S; Kiti?, Dušanka V; Zlatkovi?, Bojan K; Stojanovi?, Gordana S

2013-07-01

352

High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.  

PubMed

Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and ?-pinene, ?-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/?-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study. PMID:23081929

Jug-Dujakovi?, Marija; Risti?, Mihailo; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Daji?-Stevanovi?, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Han?evi?, Katarina; Radi?, Tomislav; Satovi?, Zlatko

2012-10-01

353

Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L.  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds, the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds, two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL), were investigated in suspension cultures of lemon balm. MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 cDNAs were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the enzymes characterised. Expression analysis of both genes showed a correlation with the enzyme activities and rosmarinic acid content during a cultivation period of the suspension culture. Southern-blot analysis suggested the presence of most probably two gene copies in the M. officinalis genome of both PAL and 4CL. The genomic DNA sequences of MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 were amplified and sequenced. MoPAL1 contains one phase 2 intron of 836 bp at a conserved site, whilst Mo4CL1 was devoid of introns. PMID:20563822

Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

2010-08-01

354

In vitro amoebicidal activities of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites.  

PubMed

Amoebic keratitis is difficult to treat without total efficacy in some patients because of cysts, which are less susceptible than trophozoites to the usual treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro amoebicidal activity of the methanolic extracts of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis. In the presence of methanolic extracts (ranging from 1.0 to 32.0 mg/ml), numbers of the viable Acanthamoe castellanii trophozoites and cysts were decreased during the experimental process. Both extracts showed a time- and dose-dependent amoebicidal action on the trophozoites and cysts. Among the extracts tested, S. cuneifolia showed the strongest amoebicidal effect on the trophozoites and cysts. In the presence of 32 mg/ml extract, no viable trophozoites were observed within 24 h. At the same concentration value, the extract was found effective against the cysts at a rate of 46.3% within 72 h of the experimental process. At 16 mg/ml extract concentration, no viable trophozoites were also observed in the 24th hour of the experiment. At the end of the experimental process, 34.7% of the cysts were killed by the extract. M. officinalis showed moderate amoebicidal effect. At the concentration of 32 mg/ml, 44.3% and 30.0% of the trophozoites and cysts were killed by the extract, respectively. Results obtained from these concentration values were found statistically different in terms of their actions both on trophozoites and cysts (p<0.05). PMID:22160280

Malatyali, E; Tepe, B; Degerli, S; Berk, S

2012-06-01

355

How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. PMID:24484956

Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

2014-03-01

356

Active monoterpene ketones isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis with fumigant and contact action against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank).  

PubMed

The acaricidal activities of an active material derived from Rosmarinus officinalis oil and its relative monoterpene ketones were determined using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and were compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). The active component of R. officinalis oil, isolated by silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, was identified as camphor, based on various spectroscopic analyses. In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, camphor (2.25 ?g/cm(3)) was 5.58 times more active than benzyl benzoate (12.56 ?g/cm(3)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (3.89 ?g/cm(3)) and (-)-camphor (5.61 ?g/cm(3)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, camphor (1.34 ?g/cm(2)) was 6.74 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.03 ?g/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (2.23 ?g/cm(2)) and (-)-camphor (2.94 ?g/cm(2)). These results indicate that camphor and its derivatives are very useful as potential control agents against stored food mites regardless of the application method. PMID:25198597

Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Park, Jun-Hwan; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2014-08-01

357

Identification and analysis of a gene from Calendula officinalis encoding a fatty acid conjugase.  

PubMed

Two homologous cDNAs, CoFad2 and CoFac2, were isolated from a Calendula officinalis developing seed by a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy. Both sequences share similarity to FAD2 desaturases and FAD2-related enzymes. In C. officinalis plants CoFad2 was expressed in all tissues tested, whereas CoFac2 expression was specific to developing seeds. Expression of CoFad2 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) indicated it encodes a Delta12 desaturase that introduces a double bond at the 12 position of 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z). Expression of CoFac2 in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme acts as a fatty acid conjugase converting 18:2(9Z, 12Z) to calendic acid 18:3(8E, 10E, 12Z). The enzyme also has weak activity on the mono-unsaturates 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z) producing compounds with the properties of 8,10 conjugated dienes. PMID:11161042

Qiu, X; Reed, D W; Hong, H; MacKenzie, S L; Covello, P S

2001-02-01

358

Dietary intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis increases life span in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

2014-01-01

359

Apoptotic effect of hot water extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. in human oral cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Sanguisorba officinalis L. has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat diseases including diarrhea, chronic intestinal infections, duodenal ulcers and bleeding. This study examined the antiproliferative effects and apoptotic activity of hot water extract of S. officinalis L. (HESO) on HSC4 and HN22 human oral cancer cells. The effects of HESO were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-20yl)-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay, 4?-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and western blot analysis. HESO was found to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in HSC4 and HN22 oral cancer cells. HESO downregulated myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in HSC4 cells and was associated with the activation of Bak, resulting in Bak oligomerization on the mitochondrial outer membrane. HESO did not alter Mcl-1 expression in HN22 cells, but it decreased Sp1 expression. The downregulation of Sp1 by HESO in HN22 cells resulted in a decrease in survivin, a downstream target protein of Sp1. These results suggested that HESO inhibited the growth of oral cancer through either Mcl-1 or Sp1, indicating that HESO may serve as a potential drug candidate against oral cancer. PMID:23741248

SHIN, JI-AE; KIM, JUN-SUNG; KWON, KI-HAN; NAM, JEONG-SEOK; JUNG, JI-YOUN; CHO, NAM-PYO; CHO, SUNG-DAE

2012-01-01

360

Sponging up metals: Bacteria associated with the marine sponge Spongia officinalis.  

PubMed

The present study explored the bacteria of the sponge Spongia officinalis in a metal-polluted environment, using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, culture-dependent approaches and in situ hybridization. The sponge samples collected over three consecutive years in the Western Mediterranean Sea contained high concentrations of zinc, nickel, lead and copper determined by ICP-MS. DGGE signatures indicated a sponge specific bacterial association and suggested spatial and temporal variations. The bacterial culturable fraction associated with S. officinalis and tolerant to heavy metals was isolated using metal-enriched microbiological media. The obtained 63 aerobic strains were phylogenetically affiliated to the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. All isolates showed high tolerances to the selected heavy metals. The predominant genus Pseudovibrio was localized via CARD-FISH in the sponge surface tissue and validated as a sponge-associated epibiont. This study is the first step in understanding the potential involvement of the associated bacteria in sponge's tolerance to heavy metals. PMID:25575352

Bauvais, Cléa; Zirah, Séverine; Piette, Laurie; Chaspoul, Florence; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Gallice, Philippe; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Pérez, Thierry; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

2015-03-01

361

Specificity of the tonoplast transport of the oleanolic acid monoglycosides in the vacuoles from Calendula officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

The specificity of two separate tonoplast permeases transporting oleanolic acid glycosides was investigated in vacuoles isolated from leaf protoplasts of marigold (Calendula officinalis) with the use of chemically synthesized analogs. The results indicate that the proper structure of both parts of oleanolic acid monoglycoside, i.e. aglycon and the sugar moiety, are required for binding to a specific tonoplast carrier. PMID:9360723

Szakiel, A; Janiszowska, W

1997-01-01

362

Reversibility of the oleanolic acid monoglycosides transport across the tonoplast in vacuoles isolated from Calendula officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

The possibility of the reversible tonoplast transport of oleanolic acid monoglycosides was investigated in vacuoles isolated from Calendula officinalis leaf protoplasts. The obtained results point to the reversibility of the transport of monoglucoside I, whereas monoglucuronide F seems to be definitely stored in the vacuolar space. PMID:9241354

Szakiel, A; Janiszowska, W

1997-01-01

363

Extensive population subdivision of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) around the Iberian Peninsula indicated by microsatellite DNA variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic Ocean-Mediterranean Sea junction has been proposed as an important phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance in genetic patterns observed at allozyme, mtDNA and microsatellite DNA markers in several marine species. This study presents microsatellite DNA data for a mobile invertebrate species in this area, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, allowing comparison of this relatively new class of DNA

M Pérez-Losada; A Guerra; G R Carvalho; A Sanjuan; P W Shaw

2002-01-01

364

Sensory, microbiological, physical and chemical properties of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii) stored in ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to characterize whole raw cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) during storage in ice through sensory, microbiological, chemical and physical analyses. The recently developed Quality Index Method (QIM) tables for these species were used for sensory analysis. Shelf-life of whole cuttlefish and shortfin squid were estimated as around 10 and 9 days,

Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas; Micaela Mota; Judite Lapa-Guimarães; Jana Pickova; Andreia Lindo; Teresa Silva

2008-01-01

365

The effects of crowding on growth of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 reared at two temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of crowding (stocking density) on food consumption and growth of juvenile Sepia officinalis reared at 17 and 25 °C. Two groups of 75 cuttlefish each were reared in closed seawater systems with water temperatures of 17 and 25 °C. Each group was subdivided into two treatments (three replicates per treatment):

John Forsythe; Phillip Lee; Leigh Walsh; Tara Clark

2002-01-01

366

Development of new quality index method (QIM) schemes for cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of sensory schemes for freshness grading of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) based on the recent quality index method (QIM). As preliminary work, four storage experiments were performed to choose the relevant sensory parameters for building the schemes. From an initial large set of parameters, some were chosen to be attributes

Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas

2006-01-01

367

Aspects of the stock dynamics and exploitation of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), in the English Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic biological parameters of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, in the English Channel are described from samples of commercial and research vessel landings made between April 1994 and September 1995. There was a significant difference between the length–weight relationship of male and female cuttlefish. Growth of both sexes was rapid and seasonal during the last 12 months of life. Males grew faster

M. R. Dunn

1999-01-01

368

Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

369

Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: A morphological and biochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a

S. Bolkent; R. Yanardag; Omur Karabulut-Bulan; B. Yesilyaprak

2005-01-01

370

Effect of propagation method, plant density, and age on lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) herb and oil yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of cultivation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) in the Thrace region of north?western Turkey, which has a rich flora with many medicinal and aromatic plants. The study evaluated two propagation methods (cuttings with roots and seedlings) and three row spacings (40 × 20 cm, 40 × 30 cm, and 50

C. Saglam; I. Atakisi; H. Turhan; S. Kaba; F. Arslanoglu; F. Onemli

2004-01-01

371

TULIP VIRUS X (TVX) ASSOCIATED WITH LEMON BALM (MELISSA OFFICINALIS) VARIEGATION . FIRST REPORT OF TVX IN THE UNITED STATES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) has been used for centuries as an ornamental and for its medicinal properties. One of the most popular clones shows bright variegation symptoms. Mechanical inoculations onto Gomphrena globosa using variegated leaf tissue as the inoculum source resulted in development...

372

Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceRosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general.

Zhiyi Qiang; Zhong Ye; Cathy Hauck; Patricia A. Murphy; Joe-Ann McCoy; Mark P. Widrlechner; Manju B. Reddy; Suzanne Hendrich

2011-01-01

373

Growth and yield response of calendula (Calendula officinalis) to sowing date in the northern U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) seed is a rich source of the conjugated C18:3 fatty acid calendic acid and can serve as a replacement for VOCs in many industrial chemicals such as paints, coatings and adhesives. Calendula is widely adapted to temperate climates and may be a beneficial rotationa...

374

Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.  

PubMed

Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. PMID:20688230

Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

2010-10-01

375

In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits.  

PubMed

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), used in traditional Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely accepted as one of the medicinal herb with the highest antioxidant activity. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the possible actions of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis on glucose homeostasis and antioxidant defense in rabbits. In the first set of experiments, hypoglycaemic effects of oral administration of various doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of the extract were examined in normoglycaemic and glucose-hyperglycaemic rabbits. Optimal effect was observed in both of the animal groups with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract and this activity was independent from the effects of insulin. In another part of experiments, acute effect of various doses of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on blood glucose and serum insulin levels was studied in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Of the three doses of extract, the highest dose (200 mg/kg) significantly lowered blood glucose level and increased serum insulin concentration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. The last set of experiments designed to investigate the subacute effect of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on repeated administration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, antihyperglycaemic effect of extract was accompanied by a significant increase in serum insulin levels in diabetic rabbits. Furthermore, during 1 week of treatment of diabetic rabbits with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract showed that the extract possessed a capability to inhibit the lipid peroxidation and activate the antioxidant enzymes. It was concluded that probably, due to its potent antioxidant properties, the Rosmarinus officinalis extract exerts remarkable antidiabetogenic effect. PMID:18063331

Bakirel, Tülay; Bakirel, Utku; Kele?, Oya Ustüner; Ulgen, Sinem Güne?; Yardibi, Hasret

2008-02-28

376

The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats  

PubMed Central

Background: In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree. Aim: To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach. Results: Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates. Conclusion: Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective.

Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B. K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

2014-01-01

377

Isolation and Identification of a Novel Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-amide-Related Peptide Inhibiting the Motility of the Mature Oviduct in the Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henry J., P. Favrel and E. Boucaud-Camou. Isolation and identification of a novel APGW-amide-related peptide inhibiting the motility of the mature oviduct in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis. Peptides 18(10) 1469–1474, 1997.—A novel myotropic neuropeptide was isolated from 110 optic lobes (OL) of mature females of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. by mean of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peptide

Joel Henry; Pascal Favrel; Eve Boucaud-Camou

1997-01-01

378

Evaluation of the effectiveness of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) in the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) on CCl4-induced acute liver injury was investigated. Rats were daily treated with the plant extract at a dose of 200 mg\\/kg corresponding to 6.04 mg\\/kg of carnosol as determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The treatment was initiated 1 h after CCl4 administration and Rosmarinus officinalis fully prevented CCl4

J. I Sotelo-Félix; D Martinez-Fong; P Muriel; R. L Santillán; D Castillo; P Yahuaca

2002-01-01

379

Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia.\\u000a Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which\\u000a Cyracos®, a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos® contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was

Julien Cases; Alvin Ibarra; Nicolas Feuillère; Marc Roller; Samir G. Sukkar

380

Effects of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon Balm) Extract on Neurogenesis Associated with Serum Corticosterone and GABA in the Mouse Dentate Gyrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm, leaves of Melissa officinalis L., has been used for anti-anxiety and spasmolytics. We observed the extract of Melissa officinalis L. (MOE) on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged mice (12 months\\u000a of age) using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively. We also observed changes in corticosterone, GAD67 and GABA-transaminase\\u000a (GABA-T) to check their

Dae Young Yoo; Jung Hoon Choi; Woosuk Kim; Ki-Yeon Yoo; Choong Hyun Lee; Yeo Sung Yoon; Moo-Ho Won; In Koo Hwang

2011-01-01

381

Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent  

PubMed Central

Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ?3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ? 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups – test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0.05), whereas, the control group showed no reduction in scores when the baseline scores were compared with the third month scores. Also, when scaling was performed during the third month (second visit), there was statistically significant reduction in the scores of all parameters, when the third month scores were compared with the sixth month scores in both groups (P < 0.05), but the test group showed a significantly greater reduction in the PI, GI, SBI, and OHI-S scores compared to those of the control group. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that calendula mouthwash is effective in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis adjunctive to scaling. PMID:24554883

Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

2013-01-01

382

Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (?D, ?18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high ? values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, ? 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near the adjacent tidal creek. Nonetheless, 18O-enriched stem water and low d-excess values suggested that Pterocarpus officinalis relies primarily on water accessed from unsaturated soil mounds that surround the tree and that are subject to evaporation, as opposed to groundwater at depth. This observation provides further insight to the adaptation mechanisms of Pterocarpus officinalis to survive in flooded ecosystems. In summary, our work demonstrates that for preventing saltwater intrusion, the amount of rainfall and freshwater inflow is more important than the sea level or the existence of an overland hydrological connection to the ocean.

Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

2014-06-01

383

Modulation of acute inflammation by a chitin-binding lectin from Araucaria angustifolia seeds via mast cells.  

PubMed

The effects of a lectin (AaL) from seeds of Araucaria angustifolia were investigated in the model of rat paw edema. In vivo anti-and pro-inflammatory activities, role of sugar residues, inflammatory mediators and systemic toxicity were assessed. Intravenous injection of AaL (0.1-1 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the dextran-induced increase in edema and vascular permeability, which were prevented by association of the lectin with its binding sugar N-acetyl-glucosamine (Glyc-Nac). AaL also significantly inhibited edema induced by serotonin (18%) and compound 48/80 (33%), but not edema induced by histamine. In contrast, when applied by the s.c. route, AaL evoked a paw edema that peaked 1 h later and was partially prevented by association with Glyc-Nac (59%) or by prior i.v. administration of the lectin itself (38.8%). This AaL edematogenic activity was significantly inhibited by pentoxifylline (44.4%) or dexamethasone (51%) and also by depletion of rat paw mast cells (45.6%), but not by L-N-nitro-arginine methyl ester or indomethacin, excluding involvement of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. Treatment of animals with a single anti-inflammatory dose of AaL (1 mg/kg, i.v.) for 7 days did not affect rat corporal mass, liver, kidney, spleen or stomach wet weight, blood leukocyte count, and urea, creatinine or serum transaminase activity. Systemic toxicity was apparent only at much higher doses (LD50=88.3 mg/kg) than those required for the anti-inflammatory effect. Summarizing, AaL exerts anti-and pro-edematogenic actions via interaction with its specific lectin domain. These actions may share a common pathway involving either activation or inhibition of inflammatory mediators from resident mast cells. PMID:16957941

Mota, Mário R L; Criddle, David N; Alencar, Nylane M N; Gomes, Raphaela C; Meireles, Ana V P; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Gadelha, Carlos A A; Oliveira, Cecília C; Benevides, Raquel G; Cavada, Benildo S; Assreuy, Ana M S

2006-10-01

384

The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis prevents depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. These results support the traditional belief on the about beneficial effects of V. officinalis in the nervous system. Moreover, further investigations are required in order to better understand this protective effect. PMID:24741277

Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

2014-01-01

385

Studies on the labelling of terpenoids in shoots and cells or protoplasts from Calendula officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

1. From the leaves of Calendula officinalis, homogeneous preparations of isolated cells and protoplasts have been obtained which effectively synthesized terpenoid compounds from [1-14C]acetate. 2. The quantitative determinations have shown that the level of sterols, beta-amyrin and oleanolic acid was similar in shoots, isolated cells and protoplasts but the level of polyprenols was the highest in shoots, lower in cells and the lowest in protoplasts. 3. The determination of the dynamics of labelling with radioactive acetate has shown that sterols are labelled at a similar rate in shoots, cells and protoplasts, whereas the labelling of beta-amyrin, oleanolic acid and polyprenols is delayed in cells and protoplasts as compared with shoots. The labelling of beta-amyrin and oleanolic acid reached eventually the level observed in the shoots, but the labelling of polyprenols at this time was twice as high in the cells and protoplasts as in the shoots. PMID:6817567

Augu?ci?ska, E; Kasprzyk, Z

1982-01-01

386

The influence of Calendulae officinalis flos extracts on cell cultures, and the chromatographic analysis of extracts.  

PubMed

Three extracts of Calendulae officinalis flos (Asteraceae): heptane, ethyl acetate and methanol were introduced to a human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells culture and a culture of human breast cancer cells (T47D), cell culture collection ECACC number 85102201. The ethyl acetate but not the heptane and methanol extracts in concentrations above 25 microg/mL, can stimulate cell proliferation and cellular metabolism by increase of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. However, concentrations exceeding 75 microg/mL are toxic for cells. The second part of the study concerned elaborating of optimal chromatographic systems for quantitative analysis of these extracts by the use of HPTLC with densitometry. Oleanolic acid, beta-amyrin, beta-amyrin acetate, rutin, narcissin, 3-glucoside of isorhamnetin, quercetin, isoquercitrin, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protokatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and syringic acid were all identified. PMID:15925220

Matysik, G; Wójciak-Kosior, M; Paduch, R

2005-06-15

387

[Pharmacology of calenduloside B, a new triterpene glycoside from the roots of Calendula officinalis].  

PubMed

Calendulozide B--trioside of oleanolic acid, isolated from rhizomes of Calendula officinalis, Fam. Compositae, used perorally in doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg exerted an antiulcerous action in 3 experimental ulcer models of different genesis (caffein-arsenic, butadion and induced by ligation of pylorus) and also displayed a certain antiphlogistic and sedative action. It did not have any effect on the cardiovascular system, the tone of intestinal smooth muscles, diuretic renal function and electrolytes excretion with urine or on the biligenic function of the liver. The drug is devoid of locally irritation properties, manifests a relatively low hemolytic activity (15000 after Kofler) and an insignificant toxicity both with its one-time and chronic administration. PMID:700077

Iatsyno, A I; Belova, L F; Lipkina, G S; Sokolov, S I; Trutneva, E A

1978-01-01

388

Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis) 12  

PubMed Central

The camphor content of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves increases as the leaves expand, and the increase is roughly proportional to the number of filled peltate oil glands which appear on the leaf surface during the expansion process. 14CO2 is more rapidly incorporated into camphor and its direct progenitors in expanding leaves than in mature leaves, and direct in vitro measurement of the key enzymes involved in the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphor indicates that these enzymes, including the probable rate-limiting cyclization step, are at the highest levels during the period of maximum leaf expansion. These results clearly demonstrate that immature sage leaves synthesize and accumulate camphor most rapidly. Images PMID:16661761

Croteau, Rodney; Felton, Mark; Karp, Frank; Kjonaas, Robert

1981-01-01

389

Naucline, a new indole alkaloid from the bark of Nauclea officinalis.  

PubMed

A new indole alkaloid, naucline (1) together with four known alkaloids, angustine (2), angustidine (3), nauclefine (4) and naucletine (5), were isolated from the bark of Nauclea officinalis. The structures of all isolated compounds were elucidated with various spectroscopic methods such as 1D- and 2D- NMR, IR, UV and LCMS-IT-TOF. In addition to that of alkaloid 1, the complete 13C-NMR data of naucletine (5) were also reported. Naucline (1) showed a moderate vasorelaxant activity (90% relaxation at 1 × 10(-5) M) whereas, angustine (2), nauclefine (4), and naucletine (5) showed potent vasorelaxant activity (more than 90% relaxation at 1 × 10(-5) M) on an isolated rat aorta. PMID:22469596

Liew, Sook Yee; Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Hadi, A Hamid A; Awang, Khalijah; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Zaima, Kazumasa; Morita, Hiroshi; Litaudon, Marc

2012-01-01

390

Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV–visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin. PMID:22523455

Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

2012-01-01

391

Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.  

PubMed

This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions. PMID:25627599

Cardoso, Ghs; Dantas, Ebs; Sousa, Frc; Peron, Ap

2014-11-01

392

Constituents of sage (Salvia officinalis) with in vitro affinity to human brain benzodiazepine receptor.  

PubMed

Benzodiazepine receptor binding assay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract from sage leaves ( Salvia officinalis L.) revealed three flavones and two abietane diterpenes functioning as benzodiazepine receptor-active components. Structural elucidation of the isolated pure compounds was performed by UV, EI-MS, ESI(pos)-MS/MS, as well as 1H- and 13C-NMR techniques. The flavones apigenin, hispidulin and cirsimaritin competitively inhibited 3H-flumazenil binding to the benzodiazepine receptor with IC50 values of 30, 1.3 and 350 microM, respectively. In addition, the affinities of the newly discovered diterpene receptor ligands, i. e., 7-methoxyrosmanol and galdosol, were characterized. 7-Methoxyrosmanol exhibited an IC50 value of 7.2 microM and galdosol showed the strongest binding activity to the benzodiazepine receptor with an IC50 value of 0.8 microM. PMID:12624814

Kavvadias, Dominique; Monschein, Vanessa; Sand, Philipp; Riederer, Peter; Schreier, Peter

2003-02-01

393

Rapid UHPLC determination of polyphenols in aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).  

PubMed

Sage tea, the aqueous infusion of dried sage leaves (Salvia officinalis L.), is used as a form of food as well as a form of traditional herbal medicine. Several in vivo and in vitro studies point to sage polyphenols as active principles that may inhibit lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defences. This study describes an UHPLC methodology with MS/MS and UV detection, which allows the separation, identification and quantification of the major phenolic constituents in sage tea within 34 min, and was used to characterize 16 commercial brands of sage tea.The quantitatively dominating compounds were either rosmarinic acid (12.2–296 mg/l) or luteolin-7-o-glucuronide (37.9–166 mg/l) [corrected].In general, considerable differences in polyphenolic composition between the brands were detected, leading to the demand for quality standardization and control, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:21783434

Zimmermann, Benno F; Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

2011-08-15

394

Development and essential oil content of secretory glands of sage (Salvia officinalis)  

SciTech Connect

Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leave confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. 21 references, 2 figures.

Venkatachalam, K.V.; Kjonaas, R.; Croteau, R.

1984-09-01

395

Chlorinated Coumarins from the Polypore Mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis, and their Activity Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds, 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The structures of the two isolates were deduced ab initio by spectroscopic methods and confirmed by chemical synthesis. In addition, an analogue of each was synthesized as of 7-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (3) and ethyl 7-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (4). All four compounds were characterized physicochemically, and their antimicrobial activity profiles revealed a narrow spectrum of activity with lowest MICs against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24087924

Hwang, Chang Hwa; Jaki, Birgit U.; Klein, Larry L.; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Napolitano, José G.; Fryling, Nicole A.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Cho, Sang Hyun; Stamets, Paul E.; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F.

2013-01-01

396

Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects. PMID:25306360

Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2015-03-01

397

Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.  

PubMed

In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively. PMID:25204856

He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

2015-01-01

398

A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background The cephalopod mollusk Sepia officinalis can be considered as a relevant model for studying reproduction strategies associated to seasonal migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones that are thought to induce the aggregation of mature cuttlefish in their egg-laying areas. Results To facilitate the identification of sex pheromones, 576 5?-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from a single cDNA library generated from accessory sex glands of female cuttlefish. Our analysis yielded 223 unique sequences composed of 186 singletons and 37 contigs. Three major redundant ESTs called SP?, SP?? and SP? were identified as good candidates for putative sex pheromone transcripts and are part of the 87 unique sequences classified as unknown. The alignment of translated SP? and SP?? revealed a high level of conservation, with 98.4% identity. Translation led to a 248-amino acid precursor containing six peptides with multiple putative disulfide bonds. The alignment of SP?-?? with SP? revealed a partial structural conservation, with 37.3% identity. Translation of SP? led to a 252-amino acid precursor containing five peptides. The occurrence of a signal peptide on SP?, SP?? and SP? showed that the peptides were secreted. RT-PCR and mass spectrometry analyses revealed a co-localization of transcripts and expression products in the oviduct gland. Preliminary in vitro experiments performed on gills and penises revealed target organs involved in mating and ventilation. Conclusions The analysis of the accessory sex gland transcriptome of Sepia officinalis led to the identification of peptidic sex pheromones. Although preliminary functional tests suggested the involvement of the ?3 and ?2 peptides in ventilation and mating stimulation, further functional investigations will make it possible to identify the complete set of biological activities expected from waterborne pheromones. PMID:23118854

Enault, Jérémy; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Bernay, Benoît; Lefranc, Benjamin; Leprince, Jérôme; Baudy-Floc'h, Michèle; Henry, Joël

2012-01-01

399

Arm regeneration in two species of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis.  

PubMed

To provide quantitative information on arm regeneration in cuttlefish, the regenerating arms of two cuttlefish species, Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis, were observed at regular intervals after surgical amputation. The third right arm of each individual was amputated to ~10-20 % starting length. Arm length, suction cup number, presence of chromatophores, and behavioral measures were collected every 2-3 days over a 39-day period and compared to the contralateral control arm. By day 39, the regenerating arm reached a mean 95.5 ± 0.3 % of the control for S. officinalis and 94.9 ± 1.3 % for S. pharaonis. The process of regeneration was divided into five separate stages based on macroscopic morphological events: Stage I (days 0-3 was marked by a frayed leading edge; Stage II (days 4-15) by a smooth hemispherical leading edge; Stage III (days 16-20) by the appearance of a growth bud; Stage IV (days 21-24) by the emergence of an elongated tip; and Stage V (days 25-39) by a tapering of the elongated tip matching the other intact arms. Behavioral deficiencies in swimming, body postures during social communication, and food manipulation were observed immediately after arm amputation and throughout Stages I and II, returning to normal by Stage III. New chromatophores and suction cups in the regenerating arm were observed as early as Stage II and by Stage IV suction cup number equaled that of control arms. New chromatophores were used in the generation of complex body patterns by Stage V. These results show that both species of cuttlefish are capable of fully regenerating lost arms, that the regeneration process is predictable and consistent within and across species, and provide the first quantified data on the rate of arm lengthening and suction cup addition during regeneration. PMID:23982859

Tressler, Jedediah; Maddox, Francis; Goodwin, Eli; Zhang, Zhuobin; Tublitz, Nathan J

2014-03-01

400

Pharmacological and biological evaluation of extracts from Gratiola officinalis L. (Scrophulariaceae).  

PubMed

The crude extract of Gratiola officinalis and its n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were subjected to biological (Brine Shrimp Bioassay, Insecticidal and Phytotoxicity/Cytotoxic) and neuropharmacological (Head dip, Open field Forced swimming test, Sodium pentothal induced sleep) activities. Results obtained in this study indicated that at high concentration dose (1000?g/ml), all test samples showed 60-95% phytotoxicity. In crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous fractions produced more than 85% phytotoxicity. While low concentration (10?g/ml) dose showed 25-28% phytotoxicity in all test samples. The crude extract was devoid of any effect against the growth of Callosbruchus analis and Tribolium castaneum and caused 10 mortality of Rhyzopertha dominica. n-Hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions caused 50, 30, 40, 10 and 20% mortality respectively of C. analis where as chloroform, ethyl-acetate, aqueous and crude extract, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate fractions also caused low mortality (10%) of Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica respectively. In cytotoxic assay at 1000?g/ml concentration, n-butanol fraction produced 36.7% and the crude extract produced 13.3% mortality of brine shrimp, its aqueous fraction was inactive at all concentrations. The results of head dip, open field, mobility time and Pentothal Na induced sleep indicated that crude extract, n-butanol and ethylacetate fractions of G. officinalis had mild sedative effect. However aqueous fraction was found to produce a significant decrease in motor activities and potentiated the duration of sleep. PMID:22713957

Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammad, Noor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Ahmad, Manzoor; Habib, Salman

2012-07-01

401

Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.  

PubMed

The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 ?g/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05).These results suggested that the Bacillus strains isolated in this work may be further used as bioinoculants to improve the production of C. officinalis and other crop systems. PMID:24426149

Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

2013-12-01

402

Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.  

PubMed

Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

2011-10-01

403

Diversity and structure of landraces of Agave grown for spirits under traditional agriculture: A comparison with wild populations of A. angustifolia (Agavaceae) and commercial plantations of A. tequilana.  

PubMed

Traditional farming communities frequently maintain high levels of agrobiodiversity, so understanding their agricultural practices is a priority for biodiversity conservation. The cultural origin of agave spirits (mezcals) from west-central Mexico is in the southern part of the state of Jalisco where traditional farmers cultivate more than 20 landraces of Agave angustifolia Haw. in agroecosystems that include in situ management of wild populations. These systems, rooted in a 9000-year-old tradition of using agaves as food in Mesoamerica, are endangered by the expansion of commercial monoculture plantations of the blue agave variety (A. tequilana Weber var. Azul), the only agave certified for sale as tequila, the best-known mezcal. Using intersimple sequence repeats and Bayesian estimators of diversity and structure, we found that A. angustifolia traditional landraces had a genetic diversity (H(BT) = 0.442) similar to its wild populations (H(BT) = 0.428) and a higher genetic structure ((B) = 0.405; (B) =0. 212). In contrast, the genetic diversity in the blue agave commercial system (H(B) = 0.118) was 73% lower. Changes to agave spirits certification laws to allow the conservation of current genetic, ecological and cultural diversity can play a key role in the preservation of the traditional agroecosystems. PMID:21628200

Vargas-Ponce, Ofelia; Zizumbo-Villarreal, Daniel; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Coello-Coello, Julián; Colunga-Garcíamarín, Patricia

2009-02-01

404

D IVERSITY AND STRUCTURE OF LANDRACES OF AGAVE GROWN FOR SPIRITS UNDER TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURE: A COMPARISON WITH WILD POPULATIONS OF A. ANGUSTIFOLIA (AGAVACEAE) AND COMMERCIAL PLANTATIONS OF A. TEQUILANA 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional farming communities frequently maintain high levels of agrobiodiversity, so understanding their agricultural prac- tices is a priority for biodiversity conservation. The cultural origin of agave spirits (mezcals) from west-central Mexico is in the southern part of the state of Jalisco where traditional farmers cultivate more than 20 landraces of Agave angustifolia Haw. in agroecosystems that include in situ management

Ofelia Vargas-Ponce; Daniel Zizumbo-Villarreal

2009-01-01

405

Changes to mineral N cycling and microbial communities in black spruce humus after additions of (NH 4) 2SO 4 and condensed tannins extracted from Kalmia angustifolia and balsam fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms responsible for conifer growth “check” on cutovers invaded by Kalmia angustifolia L. in central Newfoundland were studied by examining effects of added Kalmia and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill) condensed tannins on black spruce humus N dynamics and microbial community development over 10 weeks using microcosms. Because of the silvicultural implications, interactions of tannins with fertiliser N, applied

R. L. Bradley; B. D. Titus; C. P. Preston

2000-01-01

406

Flavonoid distribution during the development of leaves, flowers, stems, and roots of Rosmarinus officinalis. postulation of a biosynthetic pathway.  

PubMed

The distribution of seven flavonoids, eriocitrin, luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide, hesperidin, diosmin, isoscutellarein 7-O-glucoside, hispidulin 7-O-glucoside, and genkwanin, has been studied in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves, flowers, stems, and roots during plant growth. The maximum level reached by luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide in leaves during June-August suggests the existence of a delay between the activation of the enzymes involved in the flavanone and flavone biosynthesis. The presence of hesperidin and diosmin in the vascular system is significant, and hesperidin shows even higher levels than the phenolic diterpenes and rosmarinic acid. The distribution of flavonoids observed in R. officinalis suggests a functional and structural relationship between phytoregulators and flavonoids, where flavonoids would be "protectors" of the activity of phytoregulators. A hypothesis for the general pathway of biosynthesis of these compounds in plants of the family Labiatae is proposed. PMID:15291464

del Baño, María José; Lorente, Juan; Castillo, Julián; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Marín, María Piedad; Del Río, José Antonio; Ortuño, Ana; Ibarra, Isidro

2004-08-11

407

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.  

PubMed

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

408

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

2012-01-01

409

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

410

Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process. PMID:22315631

Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Lino Júnior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Paula, José Realino; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

2012-01-01

411

The effect of inorganic pyrophosphate on the transport of oleanolic acid monoglycosides into vacuoles isolated from Calendula officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

The influence of exogenous inorganic pyrophosphate on the transport of oleanolic acid monoglucoside and monoglucuronide to vacuoles isolated from Calendula officinalis leaf protoplasts was studied. The results indicate that the transport of both monoglycosides is carrier-mediated; however, the transport of the monoglucuronide is passive, and that of the monoglucoside active. The active transport of the monoglucoside is dependent on tonoplast energization created as a result of cooperation of two vacuolar proton pumps: H+-ATPase and H+-PPase. PMID:9918510

Szakiel, A; Janiszowska, W

1998-01-01

412

The influence of culture density and enriched environments on the first stage culture of young cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of Sepia officinalis hatchlings and juveniles at different densities and enriched environments was investigated. Experiments were conducted to\\u000a determine effects of culture density and the use of a substrate on growth and survival. Experiment I studied the effect of\\u000a three different densities (52, 515 and 1544 hatchlings m?2). Experiment II tested the effects of the enriched environment, using

António V. Sykes; Pedro M. Domingues; Maria Loyd; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

2003-01-01

413

Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract on Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells by Induction of Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma (Raji) and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937), Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A) and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) cell lines. Methods: The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Results: The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 ?g/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p<0.01), with ascending order of IC50 values in 24: KG-1A (214.377 ?g/ml), U937 (229.312 ?g/ml) and Raji (239.692 ?g/ml) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, paclitaxel (Toxol), confirming the tumour-selective cytotoxicity. The crude extract however did not exert any significant cytotoxic effect on normal cell line HUVEC (IC50>800 Ag/ml). Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. Conclusion: The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway. PMID:24312812

zare shahneh, fatemeh; Valiyari, Samira; Baradaran, Behzad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Bandehagh, Ali; Azadmehr, Abass; Hajiaghaee, Reza

2013-01-01

414

Inhibitory effects of Lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis, L.) extract on the formation of advanced glycation end products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a medicinal herb possessing functional compounds with unexplored anti-glycative action. The anti-glycative activity of Lemon balm extract was evaluated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)\\/glucose system. The level of glycation, conformational alterations and protein binding to RAGE receptors were assessed by specific fluorescence, Congo red binding assay, circular dichroism, ligand and Western blotting. Ethanol fractions

Mehran Miroliaei; Sima Khazaei; Sorour Moshkelgosha; Mansoureh Shirvani

2011-01-01

415

Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.This research was developed to evaluate the actions of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus upon contractile force (CF) and cardiac rate (CR).2.For the experiments in isolated heart, 21 male adult rats were used. The hearts were perfused according to Langendorff’s method. The records of CF and CR were obtained in control and

Ruth Gazola; Denise Machado; Campos Ruggiero; Glenan Singi; Mariângela Macedo Alexandre

2004-01-01

416

Comparison of rosmarinic acid content in commercial tinctures produced from fresh and dried lemon balm (Melissa officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To measure the rosmarinic acid content of eight commercial tinctures derived from fresh (n= 5) and dried (n=3) Melissa officinalis herb. Methods. Rosmarinic acid and the internal standard (esculin) were purchased from Aldrich Chemical Co. The column used was a Luna C18, 5 ?m (150 x 4.6 mm I.D., Phenomenex) maintained at ambient room temperature. The HPLC system consisted

Alberto Sanchez-Medina; Christopher J. Etheridge; Geoffrey E. Hawkes; Peter J. Hylands; Barbara A. Pendry; Michael J. Hughes; Olivia Corcoran

417

Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric Investigation of Essential Oils from Melissa officinalis ( Labiatae Family) and Pellargonium ssp. ( Geraniaceae Family)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work we report upon the development of a novel methodology based on electrospray (ESI) high capacity ion trap\\u000a (HCT) multistage mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS), for assessing the composition and structure of essential volatile oils. The method\\u000a was particularly applied to a native terpenoid mixture extracted from Melissa officinalis and different species of Pellargonium genus. Optimized ESI HCT MS

Claudia C. Toma; Ioan B. Pancan; Marius Chiri??; Florina M. Vata; Alina D. Zamfir

418

“High in omega-3 fatty acids” bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed.The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6\\/?-3 ratio from

Izaskun Berasategi; Sheila Legarra; Mikel García-Íñiguez de Ciriano; Sheyla Rehecho; Maria Isabel Calvo; Rita Yolanda Cavero; Íñigo Navarro-Blasco; Diana Ansorena; Iciar Astiasarán

2011-01-01

419

Mechanisms involved in the antinociception caused by ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract from Melissa officinalis L. and of the rosmarinic acid in chemical behavioral models of nociception and investigates some of the mechanisms underlying this effect. The extract (3–1000 mg\\/kg), given orally (p.o.) 1 h prior to testing, produced dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain, with ID50 value of 241.9 mg\\/kg. In the

Giselle Guginski; Ana Paula Luiz; Morgana Duarte Silva; Murilo Massaro; Daniel Fernandes Martins; Juliana Chaves; Robson Willain Mattos; Damaris Silveira; Vânia M. M. Ferreira; João Batista Calixto; Adair R. S. Santos

2009-01-01

420

Induction and characterization of a cytochrome P-450-dependent camphor hydroxylase in tissue cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

(+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O[sub 2]-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal

C. Funk; R. Croteau

1993-01-01

421

Extraction of soluble dietary fiber and hemicellulose from Cornus officinalis residue and preparation of fiber drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) is an extract from spent residue of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc fruit by ultrasonic. The conditions of the experiment optimized with response surface methodology were ambient\\u000a temperature of 70.3°C, the ratio of solvent to solid being 30 mL\\/g, and processing time of 110 min under the ultrasonic wave\\u000a frequency of 40 kHz and ultrasonic power

Yitian Shao; Cunli Zhang; Ying Guo; Pengzhou Xi; Jie Guo

422

Global profiling of ultraviolet-induced metabolic disruption in Melissa officinalis by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis contains various secondary metabolites that have health benefits. Generally, irradiating plants with ultraviolet (UV)-B induces the accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants. To understand the effect of UV-B irradiation on the metabolism of M. officinalis, metabolomics based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used in this study. The GC-MS analysis revealed 37 identified metabolites from various chemical classes, including alcohols, amino acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, and sugars. The metabolite profiles of the groups of M. officinalis irradiated with UV-B were separated and differentiated according to their irradiation times (i.e., 0, 1, and 2 h), using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), respectively. The PCA score plots of PC1 and PC2 showed that the three groups with different irradiation times followed a certain trajectory with increasing UV-B irradiation. HCA revealed that metabolic patterns differed among the three groups, and the 1 h-irradiated group was more similar to the control group (0 h) than the 2 h-irradiated group. In particular, UV-B irradiation of plants led to a decrease in sugars such as fructose, galactose, sucrose, and trehalose and an increase in metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, and the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study demonstrated that metabolite profiling with GC-MS is useful for gaining a holistic understanding of UV-induced changes in plant metabolism. PMID:22729379

Kim, Sooah; Yun, Eun Ju; Hossain, Md Aktar; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2012-08-01

423

Metabolite profiling of sucrose effect on the metabolism of Melissa officinalis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The effect of sugar on plant metabolism, which is known to be similar to hormone-like signaling, was metabolomically studied using Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). The metabolite profiles of M. officinalis treated with sucrose were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 64 metabolites from various chemical classes including alcohols, amines, amino acids, fatty acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, phosphates, and sugars were identified by GC-MS. Three groups treated with different sucrose concentrations were clearly separated by PCA of their metabolite profiles, indicating changes in the levels of many metabolites depending on the sucrose concentration. Metabolite profiling revealed that treatment with a higher sucrose level caused an increase in the levels of metabolites such as sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar phosphates, which are related to the glycolytic pathway of M. officinalis. Furthermore, proline and succinic acid, which are associated with the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, the shikimic acid pathway, and the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, also increased with increasing sucrose concentration. Therefore, these metabolic changes induced by sucrose ultimately led to the increased production of flavonoids such as caffeic acid via the biosynthetic pathway of phenylpropanoids. This study demonstrated that the abundance changes in some primary and secondary metabolites were somewhat interlocked with each other in response to sucrose. PMID:21301821

Kim, Sooah; Shin, Min Hye; Hossain, Md Aktar; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2011-04-01

424

Allelopathic effect of some essential oils and components on germination of weed species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, allelopathic effects of some essential oil plants (Carum carvi L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Lavandula stoechas L., Mentha spicata L.,Origanum onites L., Pimpinella anisum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Thymbra spicata L.) were investigated against some common weed species (Alcea pallida Waldst. & Kit., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Centaurea salsotitialis L., Raphanus raphanistrum

Sebile Azirak; Sengul Karaman

2008-01-01

425

A dense linkage map of hybrid cottonwood (Populus fremontii x P. angustifolia) contributes to long-term ecological research and comparison mapping in a model forest tree.  

PubMed

Cottonwoods are foundation riparian species, and hybridization among species is known to produce ecological effects at levels higher than the population, including effects on dependent species, communities and ecosystems. Because these patterns result from increased genetic variation in key cottonwood traits, novel applications of genetic tools (for example, QTL mapping) could be used to place broad-scale ecological research into a genomic perspective. In addition, linkage maps have been produced for numerous species within the genus, and, coupled with the recent publication of the Populus genome sequence, these maps present a unique opportunity for genome comparisons in a model system. Here, we conducted linkage analyses in order to (1) create a platform for QTL and candidate gene studies of ecologically important traits, (2) create a framework for chromosomal-scale perspectives of introgression in a natural population, and (3) enhance genome-wide comparisons using two previously unmapped species. We produced 246 backcross mapping (BC(1)) progeny by crossing a naturally occurring F(1) hybrid (Populus fremontii x P. angustifolia) to a pure P. angustifolia from the same population. Linkage analysis resulted in a dense linkage map of 541 AFLP and 111 SSR markers distributed across 19 linkage groups. These results compared favorably with other Populus linkage studies, and addition of SSR loci from the poplar genome project provided coarse alignment with the genome sequence. Preliminary applications of the data suggest that our map represents a useful framework for applying genomic research to ecological questions in a well-studied system, and has enhanced genome-wide comparisons in a model tree. PMID:17895905

Woolbright, S A; Difazio, S P; Yin, T; Martinsen, G D; Zhang, X; Allan, G J; Whitham, T G; Keim, P

2008-01-01

426

Extraction of polysaccharides from Fomes officinalis Ames and their antitumor activity  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction parameters of Fomes officinalis Ames polysaccharides (FOAPs) and evaluate their antitumor activity. FOAPs were extracted using the hot water extraction, acid extraction and alkali extraction methods, respectively. Alcohol precipitation and acetone washes were conducted to separate and purify the FOAPs. The FOAP content was determined using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The effects of raw material particle size, extraction time and material-liquid ratio on the yield of FOAPs were investigated, and the effects of FOAPs on the immune function of S180 tumor-bearing mice and their antitumor activity were evaluated. The yield of FOAPs obtained with the hot water extraction method was higher compared with the yields of the other methods. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: a raw material particle size of 24 mesh; an extraction time of 2.5 h; and a material-liquid ratio of 1 g:12 ml. Under these conditions, the yield of FOAPs was 1.13%. FOAPs significantly inhibited tumor growth and enhanced the immune function in S180 tumor-bearing mice. FOAPs extracted using the hot water extraction method have antitumor activity. PMID:24137206

HU, MINGDONG; ZHANG, HUIFENG; FENG, BO; LIU, KE; GUO, SHUYING

2013-01-01

427

Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of quercetagetin from Calendula officinalis extract.  

PubMed

A new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for quercetagetin was prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as the supporter. Acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and acetonitrile as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied to characterize the MMIPs, and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to analyze the target analytes. The selectivity of quercetagetin MMIPs was evaluated according to their recognition to template and its analogues. Excellent binding for quercetagetin was observed in MMIPs adsorption experiment, and the adsorption isotherm models analysis showed that the homogeneous binding sites were distributed on the surface of the MMIPs. The MMIPs were employed as adsorbents in solid phase extraction for the determination of quercetagetin in Calendula officinalis extracts. Furthermore, this method is fast, simple and could fulfill the determination and extraction of quercetagetin from herbal extract. PMID:25618718

Ma, Run-Tian; Shi, Yan-Ping

2015-03-01

428

The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: a review.  

PubMed

Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb which is cultivated for medicinal and culinary uses, although it is commercially cultivated for borage seed oil. Borage seed oil is the plant rich in the gamma-linolenic acid (26%-38%) which is used as dietary or food supplement. Other than seed oil it contains a lot of fatty acids such as linoleic acid (35%-38%), oleic acid (16%-20%), palmitic acid (10%-11%), stearic acid (3.5%-4.5%), eicosenoic acid (3.5%-5.5%) and erucic acid (1.5%-3.5%). It is used for the treatment of various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema. In this study different aspects of borage such as plant characteristics, production, applications in traditional medicine, clinical considerations, its effects on patients' blood and urine biochemistry, and also the effect of the its products on liver and kidney performance tests are presented using published articles in scientific sites. PMID:25312125

Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

2014-09-01

429

Production of oleanolic acid glycosides by hairy root established cultures of Calendula officinalis L.  

PubMed

In order to initiate hairy root culture initiation cotyledons and hypocotyls of Calendula officinalis L. were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 or the same strain containing pCAMBIA 1381Z vector with ?-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of promoter of NIK (Nematode Induced Kinase) gene. The efficiency of induction of hairy roots reached 33.8% for cotyledons and 66.6% for hypocotyls together for both transformation experiments. Finally, eight control and nine modified lines were established as a long-term culture. The hairy root cultures showed the ability to synthesize oleanolic acid mainly (97%) as glycosides; control lines contained it at the average 8.42 mg ? g(-1) dry weight in tissue and 0.23 mg ? dm(-3) in medium; modified lines: 4.59 mg ? g(-1) for the tissue, and 0.48 mg ? dm(-3) for the medium. Additionally lines showed high positive correlation between dry/fresh weight and oleanolic acid concentration in tissue. Using the Killiani mixture in acidic hydrolysis of oleanolic acid glycosides released free aglycones that were partially acetylated in such conditions. PMID:24040627

D?ugosz, Marek; Wiktorowska, Ewa; Wi?niewska, Anita; P?czkowski, Cezary

2013-01-01

430

Antibacterial and antiparasitic activity of oleanolic acid and its glycosides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis).  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antiparasitic activities of free oleanolic acid and its glucosides and glucuronides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis) were investigated. The MIC of oleanolic acid and the effect on bacterial growth were estimated by A600 measurements. Oleanolic acid's influence on bacterial survival and the ability to induce autolysis were measured by counting the number of cfu. Cell morphology and the presence of endospores were observed under electron and light microscopy, respectively. Oleanolic acid inhibited bacterial growth and survival, influenced cell morphology and enhanced the autolysis of Gram-positive bacteria suggesting that bacterial envelopes are the target of its activity. On the other hand, glycosides of oleanolic acid inhibited the development of L3 Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae, the infective stage of this intestinal parasitic nematode. In addition, both oleanolic acid and its glycosides reduced the rate of L3 survival during prolonged storage, but only oleanolic acid glucuronides affected nematode infectivity. The presented results suggest that oleanolic acid and its glycosides can be considered as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:18951335

Szakiel, Anna; Ruszkowski, Dariusz; Grudniak, Anna; Kurek, Anna; Wolska, Krystyna I; Doligalska, Maria; Janiszowska, Wirginia

2008-11-01

431

Novel polysaccharide from Radix Cyathulae officinalis Kuan can improve immune response to ovalbumin in mice.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the effects of oral administration of the polysaccharide from the Radix Cyathulae officinalis Kuan (RCPS) for its adjuvant potential on the specific cellular and humoral immune responses in mice. In this study, our data demonstrated that oral administration of RCPS significantly enhanced the phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophage, splenocyte proliferation, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and OVA-speci?c IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibody titers. Furthermore, RCPS promoted the level of interleukin-2(IL-2), IFN-? and IL-4 in CD4(+)T cells and level of IFN-? in CD8(+)T cells. In addition, RCPS enhanced the expression of CD40(+), CD80(+) and CD86(+) on the dendritic cells (DCs). Importantly, RCPS down-regulated the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells. Taken together, these results suggested that RCPS could increase both cellular and humoral immune responses via up-regulating DCs maturation, and suppressing Treg frequency. PMID:24418339

Feng, Haibo; Du, Xiaogang; Liu, Juan; Han, Xingfa; Cao, Xiaohan; Zeng, Xianyin

2014-04-01

432

Dried leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis as a treatment for streptococcosis in tilapia.  

PubMed

Dietary application of dried Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) leaves as a treatment for streptococcal infection was studied in tilapia, Oreochromis sp. Feeding with dried rosemary leaves significantly reduced mortality following infection with Streptococcus iniae: 44% mortality in the group fed 8% rosemary, similar to oxytetracycline treatment (43% mortality), and significantly lower than the control (65%). Dietary administration of 16% rosemary significantly reduced mortality because of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in 44 g fish (62% and 76% in 16% rosemary and control, respectively), but not in a similar experiment conducted with 5.5 g fish. The antibacterial effect of rosemary on S. iniae was studied. Activity of rosemary cultivar Israel was reduced during the winter, but there was no significant change in cultivars Oranit and Star. Storage of powdered rosemary leaves at 50 degrees C resulted in fourfold and eightfold higher MIC(24 h) values after 3 and 4.5 months, respectively. Storage at -20 degrees C, 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C and autoclaving (120 degrees C) each resulted in a twofold increase in MIC(24 h). Repeated exposures of S. iniae to rosemary did not affect minimal inhibitory concentration, suggesting no development of resistance to rosemary. PMID:20158579

Zilberg, D; Tal, A; Froyman, N; Abutbul, S; Dudai, N; Golan-Goldhirsh, A

2010-04-01

433

Dietary Supplementation of Calendula officinalis Counteracts the Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage Resulted from Aflatoxin  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant properties, and the hepatorenoprotective potential of Calendula officinalis extract against aflatoxins (AFs-) induced liver damage. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 6 weeks included the control; the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5?mg/kg diet); the groups treated orally with Calendula extract at low (CA1) and high (CA2) doses (500 and 1000?mg/kg?b.w); the groups treated orally with CA1 and CA2 one week before and during AFs treatment for other five weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract contained higher phenolic compounds and posses higher 1,1-diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the aqueous extract. Animals fed AFs-contaminated diet showed significant disturbances in serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, and the histological and histochemical pictures of the liver accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver. Calendula extract succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, decreased the oxidative stress, and improved the histological pictures in the liver of rats fed AFs-contaminated diet in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Calendula extract has potential hepatoprotective effects against AFs due to its antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activity. PMID:24959547

Hamzawy, Mohamed A.; El-Denshary, Ezzeldein S. M.; Hassan, Nabila S.; Mannaa, Fathia A.; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A.

2013-01-01

434

Effect of bioclimatic area on the composition and bioactivity of Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of eight Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis L. populations (A-H) from different bioclimatic areas has been examined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The essential oils are characterised by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (58.2-71.7%) followed by monoterpene hydrocabons (15.1-26.7%). 1,8-Cineole, camphor, ?-pinene and borneol are the main representative components. The antioxidant activity was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), ferric reducing ability power assay and ?-carotene bleaching test. Samples showed antiradical activity by inhibiting DPPH radical with IC50 values ranging from 375.3 to 592.8 ?g mL(- 1) for samples F and A, respectively. Sample A also showed the most promising activity in ?-carotene bleaching test (IC50 of 31.9 ?g mL(- 1)). The essential oils were also screened for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity. Sample G showed the highest activity against AChE (IC50 of 64.7 ?g mL(- 1)) while sample D (IC50 of 29.5 ?g mL(- 1)) exhibited the most potent activity against BChE. PMID:25104041

Ben Jemia, Mariem; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes; Loizzo, Monica Rosa

2015-02-01

435

Attachment and penetration of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus are inhibited by Melissa officinalis extract.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel source of drugs for antiherpetic agents, because herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant strains in vitro. When drugs were added during the intracellular replication of HSV-1 infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed by plaque reduction assay. However, Melissa extract interacted directly with free viral particles of two acyclovir-resistant HSV strains at low IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.23?µg/mL and high selectivity indices of 2692 and 1522, respectively. The Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner for acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant strains. These results indicate that mainly rosmarinic acid contributed to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. Penetration of herpes viruses into cells was inhibited by Melissa extract at 80% and 96% for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant viruses, respectively. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity and affects attachment and penetration of acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSVs in vitro. PMID:24817544

Astani, Akram; Navid, Mojdeh Heidary; Schnitzler, Paul

2014-10-01

436

Determination of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis' calli.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis is widely found in the lands of Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. Stem explants of very young shoots were cultured in both woody plant medium (WPM) and Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 7g/L agar, 30g/L sucrose, and 1 and 3mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for callus initiation. Induced calli were subcultured 4 times with intervals of 7-10 days. MS medium supplemented with 1mg/L NAA proved to be the best medium for the production of callus (65.0%) among the samples tested. The lyophilized calli were subjected to solvent extraction. Active constituents of 8 calli extracts were analyzed by HPLC, and rosmarinic acid (RA) was determined to be the primary compound. Calli cultivated in WPM supplemented with 1mg/L NAA and extracted at 50 degrees C, yielded the highest amount of RA (34.4mg/g dry weight). Moreover, antioxidant activity of calli extracts was determined using a number of in vitro assays, including total phenol assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). On the basis of the current findings, we conclude that WPM supplemented with 1mg/L NAA yields higher phenolic content as well as higher antioxidant activity. PMID:17913287

Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem; Nartop, Pinar; Gurel, Aynur; Bedir, Erdal; Vardar-Sukan, Fazilet

2007-11-01

437

Effect of different format-solvent rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen chicken nuggets quality.  

PubMed

Three kinds of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (powder-acetone, liquid-methanol, liquid-acetone) were used to examine the effects of format-solvent on the active compounds extracted (total phenolic, carnosol and carnosic acid content) and antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS). The results showed that both, as the format but also the solvent used, had significant effect on the parameters analyzed (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activity was found for the powder-acetone extract followed by the liquid methanol and liquid acetone extracts (p < 0.05). The effect of the three different extracts on the physical-chemical and sensory quality of frozen chicken nuggets was evaluated. At the dose proposed by the European Union Directive 2010/69/EU for the carnosic and carnosol compounds [150 ppm (mg/kg fat basic)], the format-solvent combination of the rosemary extracts used did not modify the chicken nuggets quality characteristics (pH, colour, sensory quality) and still underlines the effectiveness of these extracts. PMID:25442521

Rocío Teruel, M; Garrido, M Dolores; Espinosa, Miriam C; Linares, M Belén

2015-04-01

438

Single nucleotide polymorphism isolated from a novel EST dataset in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) are abundant and evenly distributed co-dominant molecular markers in plant genomes. SSRs are valuable for marker assisted breeding and positional cloning of genes associated traits of interest. Although several high throughput platforms have been developed to identify SNP and SSR markers for analysis of segregant plant populations, breeding in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) has been limited by a low content of such markers. In this study massively parallel GS-FLX pyro-sequencing technology (454 Life Sciences) has been used to sequence and compare transcriptome from two genotypes: a rust tolerant male (1770) and a susceptible female (G190). A total of 122,963 and 99,368 sequence reads, with an average length of 245.7bp, have been recovered from accessions 1770 and 190 respectively. A computational pipeline has been used to predict and visually inspect putative SNPs and SSR sequences. Analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) slim annotation assignments for all assembled uniscripts indicated that the 24,403 assemblies represent genes from a broad array of functions. Further, over 1800 putative SNPs and 1000 SSRs were detected. One hundred forty-four SNPs together with 60 selected SSRs were validated and used to develop a preliminary genetic map by using a large BC(1) population, derived from 1770 and G190. The abundance of SNPs and SSRs provides a foundation for the development of saturated genetic maps and their utilization in assisted asparagus breeding programs. PMID:23415335

Mercati, Francesco; Riccardi, Paolo; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Falavigna, Agostino; Sunseri, Francesco

2013-04-01

439

Seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and biological properties in sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and ?-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:22344920

Generali?, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Surjak, Jana; Možina, Sonja Smole; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalini?, Ana; Simat, Vida; Katalini?, Višnja

2012-02-01

440

An arabino(glucurono)xylan isolated from immunomodulatory active hemicellulose fraction of Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

From the aerial parts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) an arabino-(4-O-methyl-glucurono)-xylan (AGX) was isolated by alkaline extraction followed by precipitation with barium hydroxide solution. Polymer was isolated from sage as a light brown polysaccharide material of molecular mass (Mp) 84,000. Compositional analyses of sage AGX revealed xylose (81%), arabinose (10%), glucuronic acid (8%) and small amounts of hexoses (1%). Linkage sugar analyses showed the (1?4)-linked xylopyranosyl backbone with low degree of substitution (9-10%) at O-2 and O-3. Arabinofuranose residues were found as the terminal, 1,3-, 1,5- and 1,3,5-linked. NMR structural analyses of acidic oligomers, generated by partial acidic hydrolysis of AGX, confirmed a substitution of xylose residues by glucuronic acid and its 4-O-methyl derivate at O-2 at an average on every fourteenth xylose residue. NMR and FT-IR measurements, as well as a high negative optical rotation confirmed the ? configuration of glycosidic linkages in AGX backbone. PMID:23664938

Capek, P; Matulová, M

2013-08-01

441

Phenolic profiles of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial samples of Melissa officinalis L. infusions.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is normally consumed as an infusion and presents therapeutic properties, such as sedative, carminative and antispasmodic, also being included in some pharmaceutical preparations. The phenolic profiles of different samples of lemon balm, prepared as infusions, were evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The profiles were compared in order to understand the differences between cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial (bags and granulated) samples. All the samples showed a similar phenolic profile, presenting differences only in the quantities found of each compound. Rosmarinic acid was the most abundant compound, being higher in commercial samples, especially in tea bag sample (55.68mg/g of infusion) and lower in in vitro cultured sample (15.46mg/g). Moreover, dimers, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid were identified and quantified for the first time in lemon balm. Only one flavonoid, luteolin-3'-O-glucuronide was found in all the samples, ranging from 8.43mg/g in commercial granulate sample to 1.22mg/g in in vitro cultured sample. Overall, cultivated and in vitro cultured samples presented the lowest amounts of phenolic compounds (59.59 and 30.21mg/g, respectively); otherwise, commercial samples showed the highest contents (109.24mg/g for tea bag and 101.03mg/g for granulate sample). The present study shows that infusion of lemon balm can be a source of phenolic compounds, known for their bioactive effects. PMID:23017385

Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Dias, Maria Inês; Sousa, Maria João; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2013-01-01

442

Anti-proliferative effect of Melissa officinalis on human colon cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is consumed as a traditional herbal tea in the Mediterranean region. The cytotoxic effect of the 50% ethanolic and aqueous extract, determined by the MTT and NR assays, was evaluated in vitro on Human Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT-116), using Triton 10% as positive control. The 50% ethanolic extract showed significant differences after 72 h of treatment, reducing cell proliferation to values close to 40%, even the lowest dose tested (5 ?g/ml). In the MTT assay, the same extract caused the lowest cell viability with 13% at a concentration of 1,000 ?g/ml after 72 h of treatment, being a value lower than Triton 10%. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed evaluating the capacity of the extracts to scavenge ABTS and DPPH radicals, and IC(50) values were highly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of an anti-proliferative compound, rosmarinic acid. Its structural elucidation was performed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS analysis. High dose of rosmarinic acid (1,000 ?g/ml) was clearly cytotoxic against HCT-116 cells, with a significant decrease in cell number since the earliest time point (24 h). PMID:21964875

Encalada, Manuel Alejandro; Hoyos, Kelly Melissa; Rehecho, Sheyla; Berasategi, Izaskun; de Ciriano, Mikel García-Íñiguez; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Calvo, María Isabel

2011-11-01

443

Proteomic analysis of plasma membrane and tonoplast from the leaves of mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis.  

PubMed

In order to understand the salt tolerance and secretion in mangrove plant species, gel electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS-based proteomics was used to identify key transport proteins in the plasma membrane (PM) and tonoplast fractions of Avicennia officinalis leaves. PM and tonoplast proteins were purified using two-aqueous-phase partitioning and density gradient centrifugation, respectively. Forty of the 254 PM proteins and 31 of the 165 tonoplast proteins identified were predicted to have transmembrane domains. About 95% of the identified proteins could be classified based on their functions. The major classes of proteins were predicted to be involved in transport, metabolic processes, defense/stress response, and signal transduction, while a few of the proteins were predicted to be involved in other functions such as membrane trafficking. The main classes of transporter proteins identified included H(+) -ATPases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and aquaporins, all of which could play a role in salt secretion. These data will serve as the baseline membrane proteomic dataset for Avicennia species. Further, this information can contribute to future studies on understanding the mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes in addition to salt secretion in mangroves. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000837 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000837). PMID:25236605

Krishnamurthy, Pannaga; Tan, Xing Fei; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lim, Tit-Meng; Kumar, Prakash P; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Lin, Qingsong

2014-11-01

444

ILME: a waterborne pheromonal peptide released by the eggs of Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

A novel tetrapeptide modulating the oviduct contractions was characterized from egg mass of Sepia officinalis. After two purification steps by rpHPLC, an apparent pure fraction containing the biological activity was submitted to MALDI-TOF analysis. The mass spectrum revealed 6 peaks of m/z 293, 505, 596, 613, 728, and 745. The tissue peptide mapping performed in LC-MS demonstrated the occurrence of the m/z 505 peptide in the follicles, the full-grown oocytes, and in the eggs. This peptide was also recovered in the seawater after the incubation of full grown oocytes or eggs, demonstrating a release in the genital tract and in the environment. Edman degradation gave the following sequence: Ileu-Leu-Met-Glu. The synthetic peptide applied to the whole genital tract triggered a cyclisation of the contractions at 10(-14) M. ILME appeared to be a chemical messenger released by the oocytes and the eggs, and was able to exert both paracrine and pheromonal activity. PMID:10944467

Zatylny, C; Gagnon, J; Boucaud-Camou, E; Henry, J

2000-08-18

445

Lack of Nephroprotective Efficacy of Althaea Officinalis Flower Extract Against Gentamicin Renal Toxicity in Male Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Gentamicin (GM) is used as antibiotic for Gram-negative infections, but its administration is limited due to a side-effect of nephrotoxicity. It was attempted to investigate the effect of Althaea officinalis flower extract (AOFE) against nephrotoxicity induced by GM in male rats. Methods: 30-year-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group 1 as a negative control group received AOFE 250 mg/kg/day. Groups 2-5 received saline, AOFE 50 mg/kg/day, AOFE 250 mg/kg/day, and AOFE 500 mg/kg/day for 9 days, respectively, and GM (100 mg/kg/day) was added from the 3rd day on. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were obtained, animals were sacrificed, and the kidneys were removed immediately. Results: Gentamicin (in group 2) significantly increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine as well as the pathological damage score (P < 0.05) when compared with group 1. Low dose of AOFE did not decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by GM while the high dose of AOFE aggravated renal toxicity (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Although AOFE acts as an antioxidant, at the doses used in the current study did not ameliorate nephrotoxicity induced by GM.

Talebi, Ardeshir; Karimi, Amirhossein; Ouguerram, Khadija; Vahidi-Ataabadi, Nasrin; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Mansouri, Azam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

2014-01-01

446

Effect of pasteurized egg and Rosmarinus officinalis supplementation on quality of cryopreserved ram semen.  

PubMed

The aim was to assess the in vitro effect of pasteurized egg (PE) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen-thawed ram semen. Ejaculates from three mature rams of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were cryopreserved using a 2-step dilution method (Fraction 1: F1; Fraction 2: F2). In Experiment 1, semen was frozen in egg yolk (EY) or PE extenders. After thawing, similar results were obtained in terms of total and progressive motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity after 2 h incubation. In Experiment 2, addition of rosemary to F1, F2 or both fractions to EY extenders was evaluated. Rosemary in F1 decreased progressive motility (p = 0.013) after 2 h incubation. Finally, PE can be used as a substitute for EY to reduce hygienic risks in extenders and is easier to standardize. Supplementation of EY extender with rosemary in F1 reduced progressive motility. Rosemary supplementation in F2 does not affect semen quality. PMID:23995410

Mascaro, F; Gil, L; Malo, C; Gonzales, N; Martinez, F; de Blas, I

2013-01-01

447

Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).  

PubMed

The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, ? carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian. PMID:24803690

Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

2014-05-01

448

A new dopachrome-rearranging enzyme from the ejected ink of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed Central

A melanogenic enzyme catalysing the rearrangement of dopachrome has been identified in the ejected ink of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. This enzyme occurs as a heat-labile protein which co-migrates with tyrosinase under a variety of chromatographic and electrophoretic conditions. On SDS/PAGE it shows like a single band with an approx. molecular mass of 85 kDa. The enzyme possesses high substrate specificity, acting on L-dopachrome (Km = 1 mM at pH 6.8) and on L-alpha-methyl-dopachrome, but not on D-dopachrome, L-dopachrome methyl ester, dopaminochrome and adrenochrome. Significant inhibition of the catalytic activity was observed with tropolone and L-mimosine. H.p.1.c. analysis of the enzyme-catalysed rearrangement of L-dopachrome revealed the quantitative formation of the decarboxylated product, 5,6-dihydroxyindole. These results point to marked differences between melanogenesis in cephalopod pigment cells and in melanocytes, which may have important implications in relation to the use of sepiomelanin as a model for studies of mammalian melanins. Images Figure 2 PMID:8192674

Palumbo, A; d'Ischia, M; Misuraca, G; De Martino, L; Prota, G

1994-01-01

449

Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)  

SciTech Connect

Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

1990-08-01

450

Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis  

PubMed Central

The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO2 concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO2 and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO2. Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO2, while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO2. The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO2 due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO2 are discussed. PMID:23314813

Hofmann, Laurie C.

2013-01-01

451

Study on spectrum-effect relationship of rhizoma Rhei, cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, fructus Aurantii Immaturus and their formula.  

PubMed

Rhizoma Rhei, cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and fructus Aurantii Immaturus compose dachengqi tang (DCQT), a classical formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that is used for acute intestinal obstruction and has been proven to be effective and economic. However, the ingredients of TCM are complicated, and it is unclear which ingredients are the most important for its effects. In this paper, the relationship between the spectra and effects is discussed to provide a powerful method and some insights into the quality control of the herbs and their formula. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprint analysis was performed to investigate the chemical structures in different batches of rhizoma Rhei, cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, fructus Aurantii Immaturus and DCQT. Hierarchical clustering analysis was employed to evaluate the similarities between fingerprints. Animal model of small intestinal propulsion was established to study the purgative functions of the herbs and DCQT. The relationship between the chemical ingredients and the effects was explored by regression analysis. HPLC fingerprint analysis results demonstrated variations between ingredients in different batches of rhizoma Rhei, cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, fructus Aurantii Immaturus and DCQT. The origin, collection time and preparation process may have contributed to these differences. Small intestinal propulsion results showed that, compared with the control group, the positive and therapeutic groups including single herbs and formula were significantly effective (P < 0.05). Spectrum-effect relationship results indicated that seven peak ingredients, hesperidin, aloe-emodin, honokiol, rhein, magnolol, emodin and sennoside A, were inducted in the regression equation, among which, the influence of sennoside A was the largest and most positively associated with the effects. The data analysis results indicated that many ingredients contributed to the purgative effects, among which, sennoside A might be the most important effective component; therefore, sennoside A should be determined for quality control. Furthermore, the spectrum-effect relationship is simple, operative and suitable for the quality evaluation of TCM. PMID:23118210

Xie, Rui-Fang; Zhou, Xin; Shi, Zhi-Na; Li, Yi-Ming; Li, Zhi-Cheng

2013-07-01

452

Distribution of oleanolic acid glycosides in vacuoles and cell walls isolated from protoplasts and cells of Calendula officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

The contents of oleanolic acid and its 3-0-glucuronide derivatives as well as of 3-0-glucoside derivatives were determined in vacuoles prepared from protoplasts and cell walls obtained from cells of Calendula officinalis leaves. In both cell compartments studied 37% of total cellular oleanolic acid were accumulated, 0.6% occurring as free oleanolic acid (only in vacuoles). Glucuronides accounted for 31.1% (20.7% in vacuoles and 10.4% in cell walls), and glucosides for 5.3% (2.6% in vacuoles and 2.7% in cell walls). PMID:2799856

Szakiel, A; Kasprzyk, Z

1989-01-01

453

Quantification of canavanine, 2-aminoethanol, and cyanamide in Aphis craccivora and its host plants, Robinia pseudoacacia and Vicia angustifolia: effects of these compounds on larval survivorship of Harmonia axyridis.  

PubMed

The cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora that infests the black locust Robinia pseudoacacia shows toxicity to its predator, the multicolored Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis. In contrast, the same aphid species that infests the common vetch, Vicia angustifolia, is suitable prey for H. axyridis larvae. Previously, it was reported that the toxicity of A. craccivora infesting R. pseudoacacia was due to canavanine and 2-aminoethanol, but there was some doubt about the toxicity of these compounds and their concentrations in the aphids. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of cyanamide, canavanine, and 2-aminoethanol in A. craccivora infesting the two host plants. In the extracts of A. craccivora that infested either of the host plants, canavanine was undetectable, and 2-aminoethanol was detected at the concentration of 3.0-4.0 ?g/g fresh weight. Cyanamide was detected in the extract of A. craccivora that infested R. pseudoacacia (7.7 ?g/g fresh weight) but not in that infesting V. angustifolia. The toxicity of canavanine, 2-aminoethanol, and cyanamide was evaluated against H. axyridis larvae in a bioassay by using an artificial diet containing these compounds at various concentrations. Cyanamide exhibited 10-100 times stronger toxicity than canavanine and 2-aminoethanol. These results indicate that the toxicity is at least partly due to cyanamide, which is present in the toxic A. craccivora that infests R. pseudoacacia but absent from the non-toxic A. craccivora th