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1

Isolation of fatty acids and aromatics from cell suspension cultures of Lavandula angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell suspension cultures of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. ssp. angustifolia (syn.: L. officinalis Chaix.) afforded a fatty acid composition, cis and trans p-coumaric acids (=p-hydroxy cinnamic acids), and ?-sitosterol. The fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS, and the structures of the isolated three compounds were determined by H- and C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic techniques.

GülaÇti TopÇu; Gabriele Herrmann; Ufuk Kolak; C. Gören; Andrea Porzel; Toni M. Kutchan

2007-01-01

2

Isolation of fatty acids and aromatics from cell suspension cultures of Lavandula angustifolia.  

PubMed

Cell suspension cultures of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. ssp. angustifolia (syn.: L. officinalis Chaix.) afforded a fatty acid composition, cis and trans p-coumaric acids (=p-hydroxy cinnamic acids), and beta-sitosterol. The fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS, and the structures of the isolated three compounds were determined by 1H- and 13C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic techniques. PMID:17365695

Topçu, Gülaçti; Herrmann, Gabriele; Kolak, Ufuk; Gören, C; Porzel, Andrea; Kutchan, Toni M

2007-02-01

3

Generation and characterisation of colchicine-induced autotetraploid Lavandula angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) is a small woody perennial grown for essential oil, which is steam distilled from flowers. To potentially improve\\u000a size of flowers and oil yield we produced and characterised autotetraploid plants. L. angustifolia seed germinated in the presence of the mitotic spindle inhibitor colchicine at concentrations of 125 mg l?1 or less resulted in plants carrying sports with larger flowers.

Nigel A. R. Urwin; Jennie Horsnell; Therese Moon

2007-01-01

4

Cloning and functional characterization of ?-phellandrene synthase from Lavandula angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

En route to building genomics resources for Lavandula, we have obtained over 14,000 ESTs for leaves and flowers of L. angustifolia, a major essential oil crop, and identified a number of previously uncharacterized terpene synthase (TPS) genes. Here we\\u000a report the cloning, expression in E. coli, and functional characterization of ?-phellandrene synthase, La?PHLS. The ORF—excluding the transit peptide—for this gene

Zerihun A. Demissie; Lukman S. Sarker; Soheil S. Mahmoud

2011-01-01

5

Lavandula angustifolia essential oil as a novel and promising natural candidate for tick ( Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus) annulatus) control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavandula angustifolia is a well known herbal medicine with a variety of useful properties, including its acaricidal effect. This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of L. angustifolia essential oil (EO) against engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Acari; Ixodidae) females. For this purpose six serial concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0% w\\/v) of L. angustifolia EO

Khodadad Pirali-Kheirabadi

2010-01-01

6

Inclusion interactions of cyclodextrins and crosslinked cyclodextrin polymers with linalool and camphor in Lavandula angustifolia essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of preparation of novel controlled release systems for the delivery of essential oil used as ambient odors. The inclusion interactions of cyclodextrins (CDs) and ?-cyclodextrin polymers with linalool and camphor in Lavandula angustifolia essential oil were investigated by static headspace gas chromatography (SH-GC). The stability constants with monomeric CD derivatives were determined

A. Ciobanu; I. Mallard; D. Landy; G. Brabie; D. Nistor; S. Fourmentin

7

Etherio, a new variety of Lavandula angustifolia with improved essential oil production and composition from natural selected genotypes growing in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavender oil is a popular essential oil which unfortunately is not produced in any Greek region due to problems reported before from insufficient lavender cultivars or varieties used. The aim of the present study was to create a synthetic Lavandula angustifolia variety from native Greek plants which however present very well adaptation in local fields. Thirty native plants of L.

C. N. Hassiotis; P. A. Tarantilis; D. Daferera; M. G. Polissiou

2010-01-01

8

Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) and Lavandula officinalis (L.) cell suspension cultures-based biotransformation of ?-artemether.  

PubMed

The biotransformation of ?-artemether (1) by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Lavandula officinalis is reported here for the first time. The major biotransformed product appeared as a grayish-blue color spot on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with transparent crystal-like texture. Based on its infrared (IR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the product was characterized as a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetate derivative (2). The highest conversion efficiencies of 57 and 60% were obtained when 8-9-day-old cell suspensions of G. glabra and L. officinalis were respectively fed with 4-7 mg of compound 1 in 40 ml of medium per culture and the cells were harvested after 2-5 days of incubation. The addition of compound 1 at the beginning of the culture cycle caused severe growth depression in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in poor bioconversion efficiency of ~25% at 2-5 mg/culture dose only. PMID:21544685

Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Upadhyaya, Mohita; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay K; Bhakuni, Rajendra S

2011-05-05

9

The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (?FIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1?:?1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1?:?1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro; van Vuuren, Sandy

2013-05-13

10

The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (?FIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1?:?1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1?:?1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender.

de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro

2013-01-01

11

Hydrodistillation-headspace solvent microextraction, a new method for analysis of the essential oil components of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.  

PubMed

A new method involving concurrent headspace solvent microextraction combined with continuous hydrodistillation (HD-HSME) for the extraction and pre-concentration of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. into a microdrop is developed. A microdrop of n-hexadecane containing n-heptadecane (as internal standard) extruded from the needle tip of a gas chromatographic syringe was inserted into the headspace above the plant sample. After extraction for an optimized time, the microdrop was retracted into the syringe and injected directly into a GC injection port. The effects of the type of extracting solvent, sample mass, microdrop volume and extraction time on HD-HSME efficiency were investigated and optimized. Using this method, thirty-six compounds were extracted and identified. Linalool (32.8%), linalyl acetate (17.6%), lavandulyl acetate (15.9%), alpha-terpineol (6.7%) and geranyl acetate (5.0%) were found to be the major constituents. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the use of continuous headspace solvent microextraction coupled with hydrodistillation for investigation of essential oil components. PMID:16314156

Fakhari, Ali Reza; Salehi, Peyman; Heydari, Rouhollah; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Haddad, Paul R

2005-09-06

12

Investigation of the effectiveness of Syzygium aromaticum, Lavandula angustifolia and Geranium robertianum essential oils in the treatment of acute external otitis: A comparative trial with ciprofloxacin.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents are the mainstay of acute external otitis (AEO) treatment. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a combination herbal drop (Lamigex) composed of essential oils from Syzygium aromaticum, Lavandula angustifolia, and Geranium robertianum in the alleviation of AEO symptoms and compared its effects to those of ciprofloxacin 0.3% drop. METHODS: Seventy patients were randomly assigned to receive ciprofloxacin 0.3% (n = 35) or Lamigex (n = 35) drop. Each group was administered with three drops every 12 hours for a week. Patients were examined for AEO symptoms and ear discharge cultures at baseline as well as at the end of trial. Pain severity was also recorded using a visual analogue scale at baseline, the 3(rd) day, and the 7(th) day of the trial. RESULTS: All assessed symptoms (tenderness, itching, erythema, edema and discharge) were equally improved in the ciprofloxacin and Lamigex groups by the end of trial (p > 0.05). There were remarkable reductions in the visual analogue scale score by the end of trial in both groups (p < 0.001). However, the rate of pain improvement was not found to be significantly different between the groups, either at the 3(rd) or 7(th) day of trial (p > 0.05). The numbers of positive cultures for all tested microorganisms were clearly reduced by the end of the trial in both groups but were not significantly different between the groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The herbal combination drop that was investigated in the present study exhibited good efficacy in reducing the burden of infection as well as AEO symptoms. PMID:23274083

Panahi, Yunes; Akhavan, Asghar; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Hosseini, Seied Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Akbari, Hossein; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Imani, Saber

2012-12-26

13

Micropropagation of Lavandula spp.  

PubMed

Lavandula species are some of the most popular ornamental and medicinal plants with great economic values. These species are vegetative propagated by stem cuttings. However, the poor rooting ability and vulnerability of plantlets to contamination are major limiting factors for propagation. In vitro culture methods are suitable to overcome these limitations. This chapter describes protocols for in vitro propagation of Lavandula viridis L'Hér and Lavandula vera DC. Nodal shoot proliferation of L. viridis and plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus of L. vera by an "open culture system" are highlighted. PMID:23179699

Gonçalves, Sandra; Romano, Anabela

2013-01-01

14

Cloning, functional characterization and genomic organization of 1,8-cineole synthases from Lavandula.  

PubMed

Several members of the genus Lavandula produce valuable essential oils (EOs) that are primarily constituted of the low molecular weight isoprenoids, particularly monoterpenes. We isolated over 8,000 ESTs from the glandular trichomes of L. x intermedia flowers (where bulk of the EO is synthesized) to facilitate the discovery of genes that control the biosynthesis of EO constituents. The expression profile of these ESTs in L. x intermedia and its parents L. angustifolia and L. latifolia was established using microarrays. The resulting data highlighted a differentially expressed, previously uncharacterized cDNA with strong homology to known 1,8-cineole synthase (CINS) genes. The ORF, excluding the transit peptide, of this cDNA was expressed in E. coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography and functionally characterized in vitro. The ca. 63 kDa bacterially produced recombinant protein, designated L. x intermedia CINS (LiCINS), converted geranyl diphosphate (the linear monoterpene precursor) primarily to 1,8-cineole with K ( m ) and k ( cat ) values of 5.75 ?M and 8.8 × 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. The genomic DNA of CINS in the studied Lavandula species had identical exon-intron architecture and coding sequences, except for a single polymorphic nucleotide in the L. angustifolia ortholog which did not alter protein function. Additional nucleotide variations restricted to L. angustifolia introns were also observed, suggesting that LiCINS was most likely inherited from L. latifolia. The LiCINS mRNA levels paralleled the 1,8-cineole content in mature flowers of the three lavender species, and in developmental stages of L. x intermedia inflorescence indicating that the production of 1,8 cineole in Lavandula is most likely controlled through transcriptional regulation of LiCINS. PMID:22592779

Demissie, Zerihun A; Cella, Monica A; Sarker, Lukman S; Thompson, Travis J; Rheault, Mark R; Mahmoud, Soheil S

2012-05-17

15

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELDING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LAVENDER (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the experiment conducted in 2003-2006 was to estimate the effect of dose of nitrogen on yielding and antioxidant activity of lavender. The experiment was established in one factorial design in four replications and plot area 3.0 m2. Nitrogen was supplied in three different rates: as a preplant dose 50 kg N·ha-1, or split application 100 (50 +

Anita Biesiada; Anna Sokó; Alicja Kucharska

16

Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional Romanian herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;

Iuliana Spiridon; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Carmen-Alice Teaca

2011-01-01

17

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

18

Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature.  

PubMed

The essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia L. and Mentha piperita L. were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major constituents were linalool (22.35%), linalyl acetate (21.80%), trans-ocimene (6.16%) and 4-terpineol (5.19%) for L. angustifolia and menthol (33.28%), menthone (22.03%), and menthyl acetate (6.40%) for M. piperita. In vitro antibacterial activity of both EOs against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus CECT 4459 showed high inhibition against S. aureus. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained with L. angustifolia (0.25 ?L/mL) against S. aureus; M. piperita exhibited a MIC of 0.50 ?L/mL against both microorganisms. Both EOs caused a significant decrease of bacterial growth in minced beef (p<0.05) stored at 9±1 °C. Minced beef treated with EOs showed the lowest TBARS values (lipid oxidation). Moreover, the results showed that the addition of EOs significantly extended fresh meat odor even at abuse temperature. PMID:22789458

Djenane, Djamel; Aïder, Mohammed; Yangüela, Javier; Idir, Lamia; Gómez, Diego; Roncalés, Pedro

2012-06-21

19

CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA, A VERSATILE MEDICINAL CROP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassia angustifolia (senna), a native plant of Yemen, Somalia and Arabia and now cultivated in other parts of the world, has a variety of medicinal uses in Unani as well as other traditional systems of medicine. The plant is mainly valued for its cathartic properties and is specially useful in habitual constipation. The laxative principles sennoside A and sennoside B,

Y. C. TRIPATHI

1999-01-01

20

Two new xanthones from Swertia angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new xanthones, angustins A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from the aerial parts of Swertia angustifolia together with six known compounds (3–8). The structures of these two xanthones were elucidated by extensive analysis of the spectroscopic data. In addition, compounds 3 and 6–8 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

Bao-Kun Zhu; Wei Zhe; Yan-Qing Duan; Ming-Feng Wang; Yuan Gao; Guo-Zhu Wei; Tou-Gen Liao

2012-01-01

21

Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Ten Aromatic Plants against Human Pathogenic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined. Antibacterial activity of these oils and their components; i.e. linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, ?- pinene, ?-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, carvacrol, thymol and menthol were

Petar D. Marin

22

Bacterial Colonization of Phyllosphere of Mediterranean Aromatic Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of secondary metabolites on the bacterial colonization of the phyllosphere of four aromatic species of the Mediterranean region was studied for the determination of total bacterial populations (TBP) and populations of ice nucleation active bacteria (INA). The aromatic plants used were lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Greek sage (Salvia fruticosa), and Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum),

K. Karamanoli; D. Vokou; U. Menkissoglu; H.-I. Constantinidou

2000-01-01

23

Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of six Mediterranean aromatic plants against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory bioassays on insecticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from six Mediterranean plants (Achillea millefolium, Lavandula angustifolia, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis, and Rosmarinus officinalis) were carried out against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. The chemical composition of the six EOs was also investigated. Results from applications showed that all tested oils had\\u000a insecticidal activity,

Barbara Conti; Angelo Canale; Alessandra Bertoli; Francesca Gozzini; Luisa Pistelli

2010-01-01

24

Antioxidative constituents of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die hohe antioxidative Wirksamkeit vonRosmarinus officinalis undSalvia officinalis läßt sich auf phenolische Diterpene zurückführen. In Form von Extrakten können sie Fetten und fetthaltigen Lebensmitteln zum Schutz vor oxidativen Veränderungen zugesetzt werden. Um ihre Konzentration in Extrakten selbst sowie in Fetten zu bestimmen, wurde eine HPLC-Methode mit elektrochemischer Detektion entwickelt.

Karin Schwarz; Waldemar Ternes

1992-01-01

25

Micropropagação de Calendula officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palavras-chave: Micropropagação, vitrificação, calêndula, plantas medicinais. ABSTRACT: Micropropagation of Calendula officinalis L. Micropropagation of Calendula officinalis L. is usually propagated through seeds and therefore shows high diversity in flower size and colour, what causes quantitative and qualitative chemical variability. A micropropagation protocol was established for clonal propagation of this species to achieve homogeneous biomass, more appropriate for the production of

DAMIÃO FILHO; J. MORO

26

Allelopathic potential of Echinacea angustifolia D.C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia D.C., the common purple coneflower of the western Great Plains, has been shown to produce many biologically active compounds. The allelopathic potential of water soluble and volatile compounds from E. angustifolia plants from three separate populations was examined. Lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa), the common allelopathy bioassay system, as well as seeds from two native species, Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

A. L. Viles; R. N. Reese

1996-01-01

27

Analysis of highly secondary-metabolite producing roots and flowers of two Echinacea angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia accessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia var. angustifolia (Asteraceae) is widely used in the nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical markets. Echinacoside, a phenol glycoside, is actually considered the marker compound and it is used for the assessment of quality of the roots. The plant material containing at least 1% of echinacoside is required by the market for the production of standardized extracts. The selection of

Dall’Acqua Stefano; Aiello Nicola; Scartezzini Fabrizio; Albertin Valentina; Innocenti Gabbriella

2010-01-01

28

Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.  

PubMed

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. PMID:20657443

de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

2010-06-14

29

Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of the pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus , to volatiles from a non-host plant, lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semiochemical based push-pull strategy for control of oilseed rape pests is being developed at Rothamsted Research. This\\u000a strategy uses insect and plant derived semiochemicals to manipulate pests and their natural enemies. An important element\\u000a within this strategy is an understanding of the importance of non-host plant cues for pest insects and how such signals could\\u000a be used to manipulate

Alice L. Mauchline; Michael A. Birkett; Christine M. Woodcock; John A. Pickett; Juliet L. Osborne; Wilf Powell

2008-01-01

30

Micropropagation of Rosmarinus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-node stem segments of Rosmarinus officinalis L. var. genuina forma erectus proved better explants than shoot tips (ca. 2 cm long) for extablishment of field-grown plants in aseptic cultures. Benzylaminopurine was far more effective than kinetin for shoot induction in shoot tips excised from aseptically-grown plants. Maximum numbers of shoot buds (ca. 14) were formed per explant at 0.2 mgl-1

Pratibha Misra; H. C. Chaturvedi

1984-01-01

31

Antitumour activity of Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis (E.O) was found to be cytotoxic to L 929 cells in culture in a dose dependent manner. Concentration needed for 50% inhibition was found to be 16.5 ?g\\/ml. E.O and chyavanaprash (a non-toxic herbal preparation containing 50% E.O) extracts were found to reduce ascites and solid tumours in mice induced by DLA cells. Animals treated

Jeena K. Jose; Girija Kuttan; Ramadasan Kuttan

2001-01-01

32

Self-incompatibility of Zinnia angustifolia HBK (compositae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible light and UV epifluorescence microscopy were used to assess self-incompatibility (SI) in Zinnia angustifolia clones. Pistils were fixed 24 h after pollination and stained either with aniline blue in lactophenol (visible light microscopy) or decolorized aniline blue (fluorescence microscopy). Percentage of florets with embryos 21 days following pollination (% embryo set) was used as a control. Embryo set following

R. R. Samaha; T. H. Boyle; D. L. Mulcahy

1989-01-01

33

1H NMR analysis of sporopollenin from Typha Angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first analysis of sporopollenin using 1H NMR-techniques revealed the presence of four phenolic compounds in different amounts. The phenolic compounds are tri- or tetrasubstituted. The sporopollenin was isolated and purified from Typha angustifolia by an enzymatic procedure, followed by extraction with organic solvents.

Friedhelm Ahlers; Ina Thom; Jörg Lambert; Rüdiger Kuckuk; Rolf Wiermann

1999-01-01

34

Phytochemical variation within populations of Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative evaluation of phytochemical diversity in Echinaceaangustifolia DC. populations from different natural geographic areas supports the existence of distinct natural chemotypes within the species. Consumers, growers and manufacturers of phytomedicines are interested in chemotype identification for prediction of phytochemical content in cultivar development. Six month old E. angustifolia roots, grown from nine different wild seed sources in a controlled environment,

Shannon E. Binns; John T. Arnason; Bernard R. Baum

2002-01-01

35

Mechanisms of cadmium detoxification in cattail ( Typha angustifolia L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread heavy metal pollutant and environmental and human health hazard, which may be partially resolved using green and cost-effective phytoremediation techniques. However, the efficiency of phytoremediation is often limited by the small biomass of Cd-hyperaccumulator plants. Although cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) is tolerant of heavy metals and has a high biomass, there is little information available

Weifeng Xu; Weiming Shi; Feng Yan; Biao Zhang; Jiansheng Liang

2011-01-01

36

Ethephon Promotes Germination of Echinacea angustifolia and E. pallida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds from fi ve lots each of Echinacea angustifolia DC and E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. were germinated in a growth chamber in light (40 µmol·m -2 ·s -1 ) or darkness at 25 o C for 16 to 20 days after soaking in 1 mM ethephon or water for 10 minutes or moist stratifi cation at 4 - 6 o

Richard Scalzo

37

Bioactive terpenes from Spongia officinalis.  

PubMed

The terpene metabolite pattern of Mediterranean Spongia officinalis was chemically investigated. This study resulted in the isolation of a series of sesterterpenes and C21 furanoterpenes, according to the literature data on this sponge. Four new oxidized minor metabolites (compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4) were isolated along with six known compounds of the furospongin series (compounds 5-8, 9, and 10) and three scalarane sesterterpenes (compounds 11-13). Interestingly, tetrahydrofurospongin-2 (6) and dihydrofurospongin-2 (7), which were among the main metabolites, induced biofilm formation by Escherichia coli. All compounds isolated were also assayed for antibacterial and antifungal properties. PMID:21548580

Manzo, Emiliano; Ciavatta, M Letizia; Villani, Guido; Varcamonti, Mario; Sayem, S M Abu; van Soest, Rob; Gavagnin, Margherita

2011-05-06

38

Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.  

PubMed

The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but-unlike most monoterpene synthases-was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated. PMID:23918183

Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

2013-08-06

39

Pollination ecology and breeding system of Elaeagnus angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollination ecology and breeding system of Elaeagnus angustifolia were studied in introduced populations in the middle of Hexi Corridor region in Gansu province of northwest China. We applied five experimental treatments, natural pollination, hand cross-pollination treatment, hand self-pollination treatment, autogamy, agamospermy. None of the experimented flowers produced fruits except natural pollination and cross-pollination treatment. The results confirmed that E.

Chengchen Pan; Halin Zhao; Xueyong Zhao; Jiliang Liu; Linde Liu; Yueli Hou; Li Zhang

2011-01-01

40

Volatile chemical composition and bioactivity of six essential oils against the stored food insect Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae).  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) of Achillea millefolium, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Lavandula angustifolia were analysed with GC-FID and GC-MS in order to define their aromatic profiles and then their toxicity and repellent activity against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae) with specific bioassays were evaluated. Results from topical applications on insects showed that all EOs had variable and significant insecticidal activity. Mortality rate never exceeded 76%. Results of repellency tests are indicated for M. communis and L. angustifolia EOs, displaying high repellent activity to S. zeamais adults. PMID:21861644

Bertoli, Alessandra; Conti, Barbara; Mazzoni, Valerio; Meini, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa

2011-08-23

41

Genetic and clonal diversity of two cattail species, Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia (Typhaceae), from Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic and clonal diversity vary between two closely related cattail species ( Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia) from Ukraine. This diversity was calculated from microsatellite data. Forty-eight percent of the total variation was partitioned between species, which formed distinct clusters in a dendrogram with no indication of hybrid populations. Typha angustifolia had higher heterozygosity at the species (Hes 5 0.66)

O. V. Tsyusko; MICHAEL H. SMITH; R EBECCA R. SHARITZ; TRAVIS C. GLENN

2005-01-01

42

In vitro culture of lavenders (Lavandula spp.) and the production of secondary metabolites.  

PubMed

Lavenders (Lavandula spp., Lamiaceae) are aromatic ornamental plants that are used widely in the food, perfume and pharmaceutical industries. The large-scale production of lavenders requires efficient in vitro propagation techniques to avoid the overexploitation of natural populations and to allow the application of biotechnology-based approaches for plant improvement and the production of valuable secondary metabolites. In this review we discuss micropropagation methods that have been developed in several lavender species, mainly based on meristem proliferation and organogenesis. Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation (establishment, shoot multiplication, root induction and acclimatization) and requisites for plant regeneration trough organogenesis, as an important step for the implementation of plant improvement programs, were revised. We also discuss different methods for the in vitro production of valuable secondary metabolites, focusing on the prospects for highly scalable cultures to meet the market demand for lavender-derived products. PMID:23022737

Gonçalves, Sandra; Romano, Anabela

2012-09-27

43

Two new cerebrosides from the pollen of Typha angustifolia.  

PubMed

Two new cerebrosides, 1-O-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-(2S,3S,4R,8Z)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxytricosanoylamino]-8-nonadecene-3,4-diol (1) and 1-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-(2S,3R,4E,8Z)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxynonadecanoylamino]-4,13-nonadecene-3-diol (2), were isolated from the pollen of Typha angustifolia. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral means. This is the first report on the occurrence of cerebroside in Typha (Typhaceae). Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited effect on the proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs) induced by fatal bovine serum (FBS). PMID:19720118

Tao, Wei-Wei; Yang, Nian-Yun; Liu, Li; Duan, Jin-Ao; Wu, De-Kang; Qian, Da-Wei; Tang, Yu-Ping

2009-08-29

44

Hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis and Chyavanaprash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis (EO) and Chyavanaprash (CHY) extracts were studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury model in rats. EO and CHY extracts were found to inhibit the hepatotoxicity produced by acute and chronic CCl4 administration as seen from the decreased levels of serum and liver lipid peroxides (LPO), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Chronic

Jeena K Jose; Ramadasan Kuttan

2000-01-01

45

Antifungal activity of phenolic-rich Lavandula multifida L. essential oil.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of a new chemotype of Lavandula multifida from Portugal. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of the oil and its major compounds were determined against several pathogenic fungi responsible for candidosis, meningitis, dermatophytosis, and aspergillosis. The influence of the oil on the dimorphic transition in Candida albicans was also studied, as well as propidium iodide (PI) and FUN-1 staining of C. albicans cells by flow cytometry. The essential oil was characterized by high contents of monoterpenes, with carvacrol and cis-?-ocimene being the main constituents. The oil was more effective against dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC and MLC values of 0.16 ?L/mL and 0.32 ?L/mL, respectively. The oil was further shown to completely inhibit filamentation in C. albicans at concentrations below the respective MIC (0.08 ?L/mL), with cis-?-ocimene being the main compound responsible for this inhibition (0.02 ?L/mL). The flow cytometry results suggest a mechanism of action ultimately leading to cytoplasmic membrane disruption and cell death. L. multifida essential oil may be useful in complementary therapy to treat disseminated candidosis, since the inhibition of filamentation alone appears to be sufficient to treat this type of infection. PMID:22020493

Zuzarte, M; Vale-Silva, L; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Vaz, S; Canhoto, J; Pinto, E; Salgueiro, L

2011-10-22

46

Tentative evidence of a rosmarinic acid peroxidase in cell cultures from lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia) flowers.  

PubMed

The oxidative stability of rosmarinic acid (alpha-O-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid) in lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia) cell cultures was studied in an attempt to explain the decrease in the rosmarinic acid content of aging cell cultures, a process which is associated with the appearance of brown pigments. The oxidation of rosmarinic acid by a partially purified protein fraction was followed spectrophotometrically and by HPLC. The results showed that rosmarinic acid oxidation was almost totally dependent on the presence of H2O2 and protein, and that brownish products were the results of this oxidation, resembling those shown by aging cell cultures. Since this protein fraction contains peroxidase activities and shows the total absence of tropolone-sensitive polyphenoloxidase (catecholase) and laccase activities, rosmarinic acid oxidation is tentatively proposed to be caused by a peroxidase-like activity. These results support the existence of a rosmarinic acid peroxidase in cell cultures of lavandin flowers, which may be involved in the oxidative destruction of rosmarinic acid, and which may also be responsible for the formation of brown pigments during aging, lowering the yields of rosmarinic acid. PMID:7866308

López-Arnaldos, T; López-Serrano, M; Ros Barceló, A; Calderón, A A; Zapata, J M

1994-10-01

47

Final Report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel Amended Safety Assessment of Calendula officinalis—Derived Cosmetic Ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies

F. Alan Andersen; Wilma F. Bergfeld; Donald V. Belsito; Ronald A. Hill; Curtis D. Klaassen; Daniel C. Liebler; James G. Marks; Ronald C. Shank; Thomas J. Slaga; Paul W. Snyder

2010-01-01

48

Intra-specific genetic relationship analyses of Elaeagnus angustifolia based on RP-HPLC biochemical markers.  

PubMed

Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn. has various ecological, medicinal and economical uses. An approach was established using RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography) to classify and analyse the intra-specific genetic relationships of seventeen populations of E. angustifolia, collected from the Xinjiang areas of China. Chromatograms of alcohol-soluble proteins produced by seventeen populations of E. angustifolia, were compared. Each chromatogram of alcohol-soluble proteins came from a single seed of one wild plant only. The results showed that when using a Waters Delta Pak. C18, 5 microm particle size reversed phase column (150 mm x 3.9 mm), a linear gradient of 25%-60% solvent B with flow rate of 1 ml/min and run time of 67 min, the chromatography yielded optimum separation of E. angustifolia alcohol-soluble proteins. Representative peaks in each population were chosen according to peak area and occurrence in every seed. The converted data on the elution peaks of each population were different and could be used to represent those populations. GSC (genetic similarity coefficients) of 41% to 62% showed a medium degree of genetic diversity among the populations in these eco-areas. Cluster analysis showed that the seventeen populations of E. angustifolia could be divided into six clusters at the GSC=0.535 level and indicated the general and unique biochemical markers of these clusters. We suggest that E. angustifolia distribution in these eco-areas could be classified into six variable species. RP-HPLC was shown to be a rapid, repeatable and reliable method for E. angustifolia classification and identification and for analysis of genetic diversity. PMID:16532528

Wang, Qiang; Ruan, Xiao; Huang, Jun-hua; Xu, Ning-yi; Yan, Qi-chuan

2006-04-01

49

Haematological studies of Emblica officinalis formulation on Wistar Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over three-quarters of the world population relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for health care. More than 30% of the entire plant species were used for medicinal purposes. Emblica officinalis is one of the widely used food supplement for the prevention of many ailments. A comprehensive account of the effect of Emblica officinalis formulation on some of the haematological

Narendra Kumar Savala; Parvathaneni Nagasri Haritha; Mangamoori Lakshmi Narasu

2012-01-01

50

Roles of Emblica officinalis in Medicine - A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis (Amla) are widely used in the Indian system of medicine and believed to increase defense against diseases. This article discuses and summarizes important medicinal values of Emblica officinalis (EO). In this communication, we reviewed the applications of EO in cancer, diabetis, liver treatment, heart disease, ulcer, anemia and various other diseases. The use of EO as antioxidant, immunomodulatory,

K. H. Khan

2009-01-01

51

Mycorrhizal dependency of a representative plant species in mediterranean shrublands ( Lavandula spica L.) as a key factor to its use for revegetation strategies in desertification-threatened areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavender plants (Lavandula spp.) are small woody shrubs which belong to the natural succession in certain plant communities of semiarid mediterranean ecosystems in the southeast of Spain and they thrive in areas which are threatened by desertification. Lavender plants form arbuscular mycorrhizas and have been described as mycorrhizal-dependent species, but they are also known to display a stimulated root phosphatase

Rosario Azcón; José M. Barea

1997-01-01

52

Some Mediterranean plant species ( Lavandula spp. and Thymus satureioides ) act as potential ‘plant nurses’ for the early growth of Cupressus atlantica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mycorrhizal status of several representative shrub species (Lavandula spp. and Thymus satureioides) in Moroccan semiarid ecosystems, was evaluated as well as their contribution to the mycorrhizal potential of the soil. Furthermore, the rhizosphere soils collected under these target species were tested for their influence on the growth of Cupressus atlantica, a tree species whose natural stands has declined in

L. Ouahmane; R. Duponnois; M. Hafidi; M. Kisa; A. Boumezouch; J. Thioulouse; C. Plenchette

2006-01-01

53

Flavonoid and phenolic glycosides from Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

Two novel phenolic glycosides cis-p-coumaric acid 4-O-(2'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and trans-p-coumaric acid 4-O-(2'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated and identified from Salvia officinalis together with 4-hydroxyacetophenone 4-O-(6'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside, 7- and 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronide, 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside and 7-O-glucuronide, and 6,8-di-C-beta-D-glucosylapigenin (vicenin-2). The luteolin glucuronides and vicenin-2 were identified as new sage constituents. PMID:11142853

Lu, Y; Foo, L Y

2000-10-01

54

neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemical investigation of the leaf surface exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f. yielded two new neo-clerodane diterpenes, neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (mkapwanin) and 15-methoxy-neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (15-methoxymkapwanin). In addition, ten known compounds were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This additional chemical information could contribute towards solving the taxonomical controversy that exists between Dodonaea angustifolia and Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., which are

Leonidah K. Omosa; Jacob O. Midiwo; Solomon Derese; Abiy Yenesew; Martin G. Peter; Matthias Heydenreich

2010-01-01

55

Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal ...  

Treesearch

International Institute of Tropical Forestry ... Title: Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

56

Genetic structure of plantations and the conservation of genetic resources of Brazilian pine ( Araucaria angustifolia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With growing concern about maintenance of genetic variation and conservation of gene resources, the question arises on the extent to which a planted population should be considered a resource able to preserve the gene pool of a species. In this study, levels of genetic diversity were assessed in natural and planted populations of Araucaria angustifolia using AFLPs and nuclear microsatellites,

Valdir Marcos Stefenon; Oliver Gailing; Reiner Finkeldey

2008-01-01

57

SENSITIVITY OF ARAUCARIA ANGUSTIFOLIA EMBRYOS TO LOW WATER CONTENTS AND TEMPERATURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A. angustifolia (Bertoloni.) Otto Kuntze seeds (Brazilian pine) limits our ability to conserve genetic resources of this important species in ex situ genebanks. As initial steps in developing storage protocols, we studied the interaction of water content and temperature on embryo survival. Embryos w...

58

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Typha angustifolia pollen grains extracts in experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and 70% methanolic extracts of pollen grains of Typha angustifolia. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats were used for the study. The acute anti-inflammatory activity of pollen grains of T. angustifolia was studied using the carrageenan as phlogistic agent, whereas its chronic anti-inflammatory effect was investigated by the percentage inhibition of cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Results: Both aqueous and 70% methanolic extracts of pollen grains of T. angustifolia showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema as compared to the control (P<0.001). It was observed that both the extracts at dose of 125 mg/kg inhibited the granuloma formation by 44.30% which is higher than at dose of 500, 250 mg/kg, thus causing a significant (P<0.001) non-dose-related inhibition of granuloma formation. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that extracts of pollen grains of T. angustifolia are effective in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and thus support its traditional utilization.

Varpe, Saroj S.; Juvekar, Archana R.; Bidikar, Mukta P.; Juvekar, Parikshit R.

2012-01-01

59

Essential oils composition of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Labill.) Markgraf (Apocynaceae – Periplocoideae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of roots, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island has been obtained by hydrodistillation and its composition analysed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 86 volatile compounds. Branches showed the higher diversity with 57 compounds followed by fruits with 33, roots with 23, flowers with 16 and

P. Zito; M. Sajeva; M. Bruno; S. Rosselli; A. Maggio; F. Senatore

2012-01-01

60

Antioxidant Enzyme Responses to NaCl Stress in Cassia angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. were subjected to 0, 20, 50, 100 mM NaCl for 7 d in order to study the effect of salt stress on growth parameters, endogenous Na+ and Cl- concentrations, antioxidant system, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and proline contents. Salinity affected all of the considered parameters and caused a great reduction in plant biomass. The root

S. Agarwal; V. Pandey

2004-01-01

61

Rhizobia and other legume nodule bacteria richness in brazilian Araucaria angustifolia forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Araucaria Forest is a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest, dominated by Araucaria angustifolia, which is considered an endangered species. The understory has a high diversity of plant species, including several legumes. Many leguminous plants nodulate with rhizobia and fix atmospheric nitrogen, contributing to forest sustainability. This work aimed at bacteria isolation and phenotypic characterization from the root nodules of

Daniel Renato Lammel; Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion; Carlos Tadeu Santos Dias; Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

2007-01-01

62

Changes in morphological phenotypes and essential oil components in lavandin ( Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loisel.) transformed with wild-type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairy roots were induced from leaf-derived calli of lavandin (Lavandula×intermedia Emeric ex Loisel.) by infection with wild-type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, A-5 (MAFF 02-10265) and A-13 (MAFF 02-10266). A-5-inoculated calli formed hairy roots more efficiently than A-13 ones. The transgenic shoots could be obtained from hairy root segments mediated by each Agrobacterium strain. However, different plant growth regulators were required

Masato Tsuro; Hiroyuki Ikedo

2011-01-01

63

[Dynamics of H2S and COS emission fluxes from Calamagrostis different calamagrostis angustifolia wetlands in Sanjiang Plain].  

PubMed

Using the static chamber and chromatogram method, H2S and COS emission fluxes from the mash meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia in Sanjiang Plain were measured during growth season(5-9 month), the results showed that the seasonal and diurnal variations of H2S and COS emission fluxes were obvious, the mean H2S and COS emission fluxes from the mash meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia were 0.34 microg x (m2 x h)(-1) and - 0.29 microg x (m2 x h)(-1) respectively, the Calamagrostis angustifolia wetlands were the sources for H2S and the sinks for COS during the growth time. The emission fluxes of H2S and COS were affected by the Calamagrostis angustifolia growth, and there were H2S emission peak and COS absorbed peak during the bloom growth time, meanwhile the integrative correlation of H2S and COS emission fluxes were observed. PMID:17326416

Li, Xin-Hua; Liu, Jing-Shuang; Yang, Ji-Song

2006-11-01

64

Establishment of in vitro tissue cultures from Echinacea angustifolia D.C. adult plants for the production of phytochemical compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of in vitro cultures of Echinacea angustifolia D.C. was obtained directly from sections of flower stalks of adult plants. The shoot formation was obtained from this plant material placed on a modified MS basal medium named CH supplemented with 0.5mgL?1 6-benzylaminopurine (BA). The in vitro propagation procedure of E. angustifolia consisted of three distinct phases: an initial regeneration

M. Lucchesini; A. Bertoli; A. Mensuali-Sodi; L. Pistelli

2009-01-01

65

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica—effectiveness for dyslipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats induced hyperlipidemia. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was significantly inhibited in rats fed E. officinalis flavonoids. But increase of this enzyme was observed in rats administered M. indica flavonoids. LCAT showed elevated levels in rats fed flavonoids from E. officinalis and M. indica.

L Anila; N. R Vijayalakshmi

2002-01-01

66

Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g(-1). The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%), camphor (17.1%), ?-pinene (12.3%), limonene (6.23%), camphene (6.00%) and linalool (5.70%). The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP) and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3) using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:24031588

Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Jabbar, Abdul; Mahboob, Shahid; Nigam, Poonam Singh

2010-12-01

67

Inhibition of aldose reductase by tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis: Implications for the prevention of sugar cataract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: E. officinalis is widely used against many chronic ailments including diabetes. Aqeous extract of E. officinalis and its major constituent tannoids were tested for inhibition against both rat lens and purified recombinant human AR. ARI potential of isolated tannoids of E. officinalis were also investigated against osmotic stress in rat lens organ culture. Results: E. officinalis extract inhibited rat

P. Suryanarayana; P. Anil Kumar; Megha Saraswat; J. Mark Petrash; G. Bhanuprakash Reddy

68

Ethylene-, light-, and prechill-enhanced germination of Echinacea angustifolia seeds  

SciTech Connect

Echinacea angustifolia DC., the common coneflower of the western Great Plains, is difficult to propagate by achenes due to inherent seed dormancy. The effects of light and prechilling on seed germination were examined, alone and combined with scarification (mechanical, acid) and ethylene (ethephon) treatments. The results showed that a 2-week prechill treatment combined with ethephon and continuous light, followed by a 2-week germination period in light (16 hours per day) at 25 C, could induce >95% seed germination in E. angustifolia. This was a significantly higher percentage of germination over a shorter period of time than any other method examined or previously described. This treatment also synchronized germination, with most viable seeds germinating in <1 week after being placed at 25 C in the light. Chemical name used: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).

Feghahati, S.M.J.; Reese, R.N. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). Dept. of Biology and Microbiology)

1994-07-01

69

Germination of Deyeuxia angustifolia as affected by soil type, burial depth, water depth and oxygen level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deyeuxia angustifolia is a dominant species in the Sanjiang Plain, the largest freshwater marsh wetland in China. However, this species has declined\\u000a because of great environment changes. In the effects of sea-level rise and greenhouse gas, magnitude and frequency of flood\\u000a and rate of deposit in wetland increased greatly. Thus, in this paper, effects of soil environment (soil type, burial

Youzhi Li; Canming Zhang; Yonghong Xie; Fen Liu

2009-01-01

70

Induction of drought tolerance by paclobutrazol and irrigation deficit in Phillyrea angustifolia during the nursery period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phillyrea angustifolia is a native Mediterranean species, which has recently been considered suitable for landscaping purposes. We hypothesize that hardening plants in the nursery could increase their tolerance of drought after transplanting. The effects of paclobutrazol (PBZ) and different irrigation regimes applied to seedlings planted in 4.5-L plastic pots were investigated. PBZ was applied as a substrate drench at 0mLL?1

J. A. Fernández; L. Balenzategui; S. Bañón; J. A. Franco

2006-01-01

71

Microbial growth and nitrogen retention in litter of Phragmites australis compared to Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tidal marshes of the northeast US, replacement of native cattail (Typha angustifolia) by the common reed (Phragmites australis) is widespread, and reed is often the target of removal efforts. Reed sequesters nearly twice the amount of nitrogen per\\u000a unit marsh area in living aboveground tissue compared to cattail. Microbial decay processes immobilize additional nitrogen\\u000a or return this organic nitrogen

Stuart E. G. Findlay; Susan Dye; Kevin A. Kuehn

2002-01-01

72

Quantitative genetics of floral characters in homostylous Turnera ulmifolia var. angustifolia Willd. (Turneraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic basis of floral variation influencing the mating system of Jamaican populations of homostylous Turnera ulmifolia var. angustifolia was investigated using controlled crosses and open-pollinated families. Crosses between plants with large differences in stigma-anther separation and analysis of F2 and backcross generations gave unimodal distributions for all floral characters. No evidence for major gene control of floral variation was

Joel S Shore; Spencer C H Barrett

1990-01-01

73

Effects of cadmium, chromium and lead on growth, metal uptake and antioxidative capacity in Typha angustifolia.  

PubMed

This study investigates the modulation of antioxidant defence system of Typha angustifolia after 30 days exposure of 1 mM chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), or lead (Pb). T. angustifolia showed high tolerance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom when exposed to metal stress, and Cd/Pb addition also increased plant height and biomass especially in Pb treatment. Along with increased Cr, Cd, and Pb uptake in metal treatments, there was enhanced uptake of plant nutrients including Ca and Fe, and Zn in Pb treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were recorded in plants subjected to Cr, Cd, or Pb stress. Furthermore, Pb stress also improved catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities; whereas Cr stress depressed APX and GPX. The results indicate that enzymatic antioxidants and Ca/Fe uptake were important for heavy metal detoxification in T. angustifolia, stimulated antioxidative enzymes, and Ca, Fe, and Zn uptake could partially explain its hyper-Pb tolerance. PMID:20552296

Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Dai, Huaxin; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Hongyan; Cao, Fangbin; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

2010-06-16

74

Sulfur cycle in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang plain, Northeast China.  

PubMed

The sulfur cycle and its compartmental distribution within an atmosphere-plant-soil system was studied using a compartment model in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast China. The results showed that in the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem, soil was the main storage compartment and current hinge of sulfur in which 98.4% sulfur was accumulated, while only 1.6% sulfur was accumulated in the plant compartment. In the plant subsystem, roots and litters were the main storage compartment of sulfur and they remained 83.5% of the total plant sulfur. The calculations of sulfur turnover through the compartments of the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem demonstrated that the above-ground component took up 0.99 gS/m2 from the root, of which 0.16 gS/m2 was translocated to the roots and 0.83 gS/m2 to the litter. The roots took in 1.05 gS/m2 from the soil, subsequent translocation back to the soil accounted for 1.31 gS/m2, while there was 1.84 gS/m2 in the litter and the net transfer of sulfur to the soil was more than 0.44 gS/(m2 x a). The emission of H2S from the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere was 1.83 mgS/(m2 x a), while carbonyl sulfide (COS) was absorbed by the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem from the atmosphere at the rate of 1.76 mgS/(m2 x a). The input of sulfur by the rainfall to the ecosystem was 4.85 mgS/m2 during the growing season. The difference between input and output was 4.78 mgS/m2, which indicated that sulfur was accumulated in the ecosystem and may cause wetland acidify in the future. PMID:18575133

Liu, Jingshuang; Li, Xinhua

2008-01-01

75

Antiulcerogenic activity of crude hydroalcoholic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis L. crude hydroalcoholic (70%) extract was evaluated for antiulcerogenic activity employing different experimental models. The crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) decreased the ulcerative lesion index produced by indomethacin, ethanol and reserpine in rats. No antisecretory activity was observed on pyloric ligation model. The previous administration of l-NAME, a NO-synthase inhibitor, did not reduce the antiulcerogenic activity of CHE in

Patr??cia Corrêa Dias; Mary Ann Foglio; Ana Possenti; João Ernesto de Carvalho

2000-01-01

76

Flower Size Variation in Rosmarinus officinalis: Individuals, Populations and Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Background and Aims Flowers are relatively invariant organs within species, but quantitative variation often exists among conspecifics. These variations represent the raw material that natural selection can magnify, eventually resulting in morphological divergence and diversification. This paper investigates floral variability in Rosmarinus officinalis, a Mediterranean shrub. ? Methods Nine populations were selected in three major southern Spanish habitats (coast,

JAVIER HERRERA

2005-01-01

77

The Essential Oil from Rosmarinus officinalis L. in Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Algeria was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. More than 90% of the components were identified with 1,8-cineole (52.4%) and camphor (12.6%) being the major components.

C. Boutekedjiret; F. Bentahar; R. Belabbes; J. M. Bessiere

1998-01-01

78

Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation.

Laura C. Van Riper; Diane L. Larson

2009-01-01

79

Über ein antispastisches Prinzip in Petasites officinalis Moench  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  In Petasites officinalis Moench kommt ein antispastisches Prinzip vor, das qualitativ hnlich wie Papaverin wirkt. Es drfte\\u000a quantitativ bedeutend wirksamer sein als Papaverin und eine gnstigere therapeutische Breite haben. Seine chemische Natur\\u000a ist zur Zelt noch unbekannt.

Karl Bucher

1951-01-01

80

Isozymatic variation and phylogenetic relationships between henequen (Agave fourcroydes) and its wild ancestor A. angustifolia (Agavaceae).  

PubMed

Isozymatic variation and phylogenetic relationships among extant henequén (Agave fourcroydes) germplasm and wild populations of its ancestor A. angustifolia in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico were analyzed. Analysis of three isozyme systems using starch gel electrophoresis indicated that while A. angustifolia populations have relatively high levels of variation, within each henequén cultivar all individuals were identical. This result corresponds to previous ethnobotanical and morphological analyses, which indicated severe loss of genetic variation of this domesticated plant as a consequence of the promotion by means of asexual propagation of only one cultivar since the middle of the last century. The three extant cultivars of henequén were distinct from each other. Two of them, Sac Ki (SK) and Yaax Ki (YK), could be matched within the progenitor, but Kitam Ki (KK) has a MDH electrophenotype not found in any of the plants growing inside the Yucatan Peninsula, but found in some A. angustifolia plants growing in the Mexican states of Oaxaca and Veracruz. A parsimony analysis of the morphological data indicated two lineages: that of SK and YK, cultivated cordage plants selected for stronger and longer fibers, whose sister group is the Tropical subdeciduous forest ecotype (SF), and that of all the other wild populations, which also included KK, the cultivated textile plants selected for finer fibers and nearly extinct in Yucatan. These results support the hypothesis of the yucatecan origin of SK and YK from the SF ecotype, as well as the hypothesis of a recent introduction of KK to the Yucatan Peninsula in a domestication trend that probably included also Chelem White (its cultivation being abandoned later). PMID:21680351

Colunga-Garcíamarín, P; Coello-Coello, J; Eguiarte, L E; Piñero, D

1999-01-01

81

Chemical and biological characteristics of Cuminum cyminum and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from Cuminum cyminum and Rosmarinus officinalis were characterized by means of GC and GC–MS. C. cyminum and R. officinalis contained ?-pinene (29.1%,14.9%), 1,8-cineole (17.9%,7.43%) and linalool (10.4%,14.9%), respectively, as the major compounds. C. cyminum oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than did R. officinalis oil against E. coli, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. Complete death time

Latif Gachkar; Davood Yadegari; Mohammad Bagher Rezaei; Masood Taghizadeh; Shakiba Alipoor Astaneh; Iraj Rasooli

2007-01-01

82

The cell morphogenesis ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) gene, a plant homolog of CtBP/BARS, is involved in abiotic and biotic stress response in higher plants  

PubMed Central

Background ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN), one of the CtBP family proteins, plays a major role in microtubule-dependent cell morphogenesis. Microarray analysis of mammalian AN homologs suggests that AN might function as a transcriptional activator and regulator of a wide range of genes. Genetic characterization of AN mutants suggests that AN might be involved in multiple biological processes beyond cell morphology regulation. Results Using a reverse genetic approach, we provide in this paper the genetic, biochemical, and physiological evidence for ANGUSTIFOLIA’s role in other new biological functions such as abiotic and biotic stress response in higher plants. The T-DNA knockout an-t1 mutant exhibits not only all the phenotypes of previously described angustifolia null mutants, but also copes better than wild type under dehydration and pathogen attack. The stress tolerance is accompanied by a steady-state modulation of cellular H2O2 content, malondialdehyde (MDA) derived from cellular lipid peroxidation, and over-expression of stress responsive genes. Our results indicate that ANGUSTIFOLIA functions beyond cell morphology control through direct or indirect functional protein interaction networks mediating other biological processes such as drought and pathogen attacks. Conclusions Our results indicate that the ANGUSTIFOLIA gene participates in several biochemical pathways controlling cell morphogenesis, abiotic, and biotic stress responses in higher plants. Our results suggest that the in vivo function of plant ANGUSTIFOLIA has been overlooked and it needs to be further studied beyond microtubule-dependent cell morphogenesis.

2013-01-01

83

Isolation, selection and characterization of root-associated growth promoting bacteria in Brazil Pine (Araucaria angustifolia).  

PubMed

Araucaria angustifolia, a unique species of this genus that occurs naturally in Brazil, has a high socio-economic and environmental value and is critically endangered of extinction, since it has been submitted to intense predatory exploitation during the last century. Root-associated bacteria from A. angustifolia were isolated, selected and characterized for their biotechnological potential of growth promotion and biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi. Ninety-seven strains were isolated and subjected to chemical tests. All isolates presented at least one positive feature, characterizing them as potential PGPR. Eighteen isolates produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 27 were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate, 21 isolates were presumable diazotrophs, with pellicle formation in nitrogen-free culture medium, 83 were phosphatases producers, 37 were positive for siderophores and 45 endospore-forming isolates were antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogen of conifers. We also observed the presence of bacterial strains with multiple beneficial mechanisms of action. Analyzing the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of these isolates, it was possible to characterize the most effective isolates as belonging to Bacillaceae (9 isolates), Enterobacteriaceae (11) and Pseudomonadaceae (1). As far as we know, this is the first study to include the species Ewingella americana as a PGPR. PMID:21596540

Ribeiro, Carlos Marcelo; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

2011-05-18

84

Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress.  

PubMed

The present study investigated Typha angustifolia leaf proteome in response to Cr, Cd and Pb stress. T. angustifolia of 90 (D90) and 130d (D130) old plants were subjected to 1mM Cr, Cd and Pb and samples were collected 30d after treatment. 2-DE coupled with MS (mass spectrometry) was used to analyze and identify Cr, Cd and Pb-responsive proteins. More than 1600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel, wherein 44, 46, 66 and 33, 26, 62 spots in D90 and D130 samples were differentially expressed by Cr, Cd, Pb over the control, respectively. Of these differentially expressed proteins, 3, 1, 8 overlapped in D90 and D130; while 5, 8, 5 with regulation factors above 3 in one of D90 or D130 samples. Total of 22 and 4 up- and down-regulated proteins were identified using MS and data bank analysis. Cr-induced expression of ATP synthase, RuBisCO small subunit and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; Cd-induced RuBisCO large subunit; Pb up-regulated carbohydrate metabolic pathway enzymes of fructokinase, and improved RuBisCO activase and large subunit, Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase. Contrarily, elF4F was inhibited by Cr/Pb, chloroplast FtsZ-like protein and GF14 omega impeded by Cd and Pb, respectively. PMID:20817397

Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Fei; Zhou, Jing; Dai, Huaxin; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

2010-08-14

85

Annual Production of Decomposer Fungi Associated With Standing-Dead Litter of Typha angustifolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial decomposition of standing-dead plant litter is an important process in wetlands dominated by emergent macrophytes. We determined the annual fungal biomass (ergosterol) and production (14C-acetate incorporation) associated with decaying standing litter (leaves and shoots) of the emergent macrophyte Typha angustifolia in small lake littoral wetland in southeastern Michigan. Mean annual detrital mass of standing-dead leaf and shoot litter was 656±238 g/m2 (range 284-873) and 1184±280 g/m2 (range 522-1525), respectively, during study period. Mean annual fungal biomass associated with decaying standing litter was 46 and 15 g/m2 for leaves and shoots, respectively. Annual fungal biomass production associated with leaves and shoots was 168 and 78 g/m2, respectively, with maximum production /m2 occurring during the summer season. These production estimates account for diel periodicity in water availability and the consequent periodicity in microbial activities that are characteristic of the standing litter environment. A partial organic matter budget constructed for this littoral wetland indicates that 9.4% of the annual aboveground production of T. angustifolia went into the production of fungal biomass. These results provide additional evidence indicating considerable carbon flow from emergent plant matter to fungal decomposers while in the standing-decay phase.

Ohsowski, B. M.; Collins, M. D.; Tarry, D.; Francoeur, S. N.; Neely, R. K.; Kuehn, K. A.

2005-05-01

86

Comparative antimicrobial activities of Emblica officinalis and Ocimum sanctum.  

PubMed

The aqueous and successive extracts of the fruit pulp of Emblica officinalis and fresh leaves and stems of Ocimum sanctum were prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The successive extracts such as petroleum ether,chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were prepared by successive solvent extraction method and aqueous extract by maceration process and screened for antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, gram negative bacteria E.coli and fungal strains of Candida species by using agar cup plate method. The extracts showed different degree of activity against pathogenic microbes. The results obtained were compared with standard drugs Amoxicillin (10?g) and Amphotericin B(10?g). The methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was found to be more effective than the leaf and stem extracts of Ocimum sanctum in inhibiting all the microbial strains. PMID:22557261

Vijayalakshmi, S; Arunkumar, V; Anju, D; Gunasundari, P; Moorthy, P; Chandrasekharan, A K

2007-10-01

87

Sea Level Rise and Climate Change Effects on Marsh Plants Spartina Alterniflora and Typha Angustifolia Using Mesocosms  

EPA Science Inventory

A four month experiment using greenhouse mesocosms was conducted to analyze the effect of sea level rise and climate change on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail). Our goal was to examine the effects of three differen...

88

Accumulation of heavy metals in Typha angustifolia (L.) and Potamogeton pectinatus (L.) living in Sultan Marsh (Kayseri, Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu) were measured in bottom sediments, water and Typha angustifolia and Potamogeton pectinatus in Sultan Marsh. Sultan Marsh is one of the largest and most important wetlands in Turkey, Middle East and Europe, embodying saline and fresh water ecosystems and providing a shelter for 426 bird species. The organs of

Dilek Dem?rezen; Ahmet Aksoy

2004-01-01

89

Heavy Metal Accumulation and Distribution in Narrow-Leaved Cattail (Typha angustifolia) and Common Reed (Phragmites australis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were measured in Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia, and sediment from 11 sites in Karasu Stream, Kayseri, Turkey. Both plants were root accumulators of Zn, Cu, and Cd, having higher concentrations of these elements in their roots than were present in the surrounding sediment. Pb was also accumulated but not against a concentration

Ahmet Aksoy; Fatih Duman; Göksal Sezen

2005-01-01

90

Immunomodulating activity of Echinacea gloriosa L., Echinacea angustifolia DC. and Rudbeckia speciosa Wenderoth ethanol-water extracts.  

PubMed

The effect of the ethanol-water extracts of Echinacea gloriosa L., Echinacea angustifolia DC. and Rudbeckia speciosa Wenderoth on immunological system of inbred mice was investigated. The extract of the root of Rudbeckia speciosa had the highest immunostimulatory activity. PMID:8688891

Bukovský, M; Vaverková, S; Kost'álová, D

91

Antibacterial and resistance modifying activity of Rosmarinus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a project to characterise plant-derived natural products that modulate bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR), bioassay-guided fractionation of a chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis led to the characterisation of the known abietane diterpenes carnosic acid (1), carnosol (2) and 12-methoxy-trans-carnosic acid. Additionally, a new diterpene, the cis A\\/B ring junction isomer of 12-methoxy-trans-carnosic acid, 12-methoxy-cis-carnosic

Moyosoluwa Oluwatuyi; Glenn W. Kaatz; Simon Gibbons

2004-01-01

92

Physicochemical evaluation of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen samples of Rosmarinus officinalis were e xtracted by steam distillation in a p ilot plant and evaluated in terms of chemical compositions and physico-chemical characteristics. The v olatile oil yields ranged from 0.37% (1999 harvest) to 0.49% (1998 harvest). Twenty components were identified in the oils. The major components were alpha-pinene (40.55 to 45.10%), 1,8-cineole (17.40 to 19.35%), camphene

Ana Cristina Atti-Santos; Marcelo Rossato; Gabriel Fernandes Pauletti; Luciana Duarte Rota; Juarez Ciro Rech; Marcia Regina Pansera; Fabiana Agostini; Luciana Atti Serafini; Patrick Moyna

2005-01-01

93

Antibacterial and resistance modifying activity of Rosmarinus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a project to characterise plant-derived natural products that modulate bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR), bioas- say-guided fractionation of a chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis led to the characterisation of the known abietane diterpenes carnosic acid (1), carnosol (2) and 12-methoxy-trans-carnosic acid. Additionally, a new diterpene, the cis A\\/B ring junction isomer of 12-methoxy-trans-carnosic acid,

Moyosoluwa Oluwatuyi; Glenn W. Kaatz; Simon Gibbons; Brunswick Square; John D. Dingell

2004-01-01

94

Antioxidative responses of Calendula officinalis under salinity conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain a better insight into long-term salt-induced oxidative stress, some physiological parameters in marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) under 0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl were investigated. Salinity affected most of the considered parameters. High salinity caused reduction in growth parameters, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Under high salinity stress, a decrease in total glutathione and an increase in total ascorbate

Nader Chaparzadeh; Maria Lucia D'Amico; Ramazan-Ali Khavari-Nejad; Riccardo Izzo; Flavia Navari-Izzo

2004-01-01

95

Antioxidant and Antifungal Activity of Verbena officinalis L. Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and the antifungal effect against chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate and 50% methanolic extracts of Verbena officinalis leaves were investigated. The activity of different fractions of 50% methanolic extract and some isolated compounds were\\u000a also investigated. The results suggest that 50% methanolic extract and caffeoyl derivatives could potentially be considered\\u000a as excellent and readily available

E. Casanova; J. M. García-Mina; M. I. Calvo

2008-01-01

96

Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) - Hyptis suaveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia - incorporated in protein baits was evaluated against Bactrocera oleae, a worldwide pest of olive fruits. In laboratory conditions, all the tested EOs showed dose-dependent toxicity on B. oleae, with mortality rates ranging from 12% (EO concentration: 0.01% w:v) to 100% (EO concentration: 1.75% w:v). Semi-field results highlighted the toxicity of L. angustifolia and H. suaveolens EOs, which exerted more than 60% of flies mortality at a concentration of 1.75% (w:v). Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry analyses of the three EOs showed that H. suaveolens EO was dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main chemical class in R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs plus food bait against the olive fruit fly in the open field. PMID:23594314

Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Lenzi, Gabriele; Flamini, Guido; Francini, Alessandra; Cioni, Pier Luigi

2013-04-17

97

Effects of Iron on Yield and Composition of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of iron absorption on yield and composition of the oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) growing in calcareous soil in the North of Sardinia is reported. The plant material was obtained from two different chemotypes of R. officinalis whose oils were rich in ?-pinene (sample A) and 1,8-cineole (sample B) respectively. The effect of foliar iron sprays was

Mario D. L. Moretti; Alessandra T. Peana; Giovanni Sanna Passino; Alessandra Bazzoni; Vincenzo Solinas

1998-01-01

98

Use of Rosmarinus officinalis as a treatment against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia ( Oreochromis sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Rosmarinus officinalis as a treatment against Streptococcus iniae in Oreochromis sp. (tilapia) is described. Sixteen accessions of R. officinalis were extracted in several solvents and tested in vitro against S. iniae by disk diffusion assay. All extracts were effective in inhibiting bacterial growth. The most effective was accession no. 1 when extracted in ethyl acetate, which inhibited

S. Abutbul; A. Golan-Goldhirsh; O. Barazani; D. Zilberg

2004-01-01

99

Valeriana officinalis attenuates the rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 ?M) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). PMID:23639798

Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

2013-04-29

100

Component Interactions and Productivity of Emblica officinalis Based Cropping System in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis Gaerth was intercropped for 6 years with a view to monitoring tree-crop interaction and system productivity for socio-economic benefits to the people of the dry region. Two year old seedlings of E. officinalis spaced 5 x 5 m was intercropped (i) continuously with Vigna radiata throughout the study (FC), and (ii) with Vigna radiata, Pennisetum glaucum, Cymopsis tetragonoloba

G. Singh; T. R. Rathod; Bilas Singh; Manoj Chouhan

2008-01-01

101

Hypolipidaemic effect of fruit juice of Emblica officinalis in cholesterol-fed rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid lowering and antiatherosclerotic effects of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fresh juice were evaluated in cholesterol-fed rabbits (rendered hyperlipidaemic by atherogenic diet and cholesterol feeding). E. officinalis fresh juice was administered at a dose of 5 ml\\/kg body weight per rabbit per day for 60 days. Serum cholesterol, TG, phospholipid and LDL levels were lowered by 82%, 66%, 77% and

Ritu Mathur; Arti Sharma; V. P. Dixit; Mira Varma

1996-01-01

102

Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis against Klebsiella pneumoniae induced pneumonia in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & objectives: Emblica officinalis (amla), which is a good source of vitamin C, has been shown to be beneficial due to its immune system enhancing property coupled with its tonifying and antiageing effect. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of E. officinalis feeding on the susceptibility of experimental mice to respiratory tract infection induced by Klebsiella

A. Saini; S. Sharma; S. Chhibber

103

Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants ( Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was

M. I Alam; A Gomes

2003-01-01

104

The antiinflammatory potential of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis L. in rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiinflammatory effects of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis were evaluated in carrageenan and cotton pellet induced acute and chronic inflammatory animal model. Fractions of E. officinalis containing free (FPEO) and bounded (BPEO) phenolic compounds were assessed by HPLC technique. The free and bound phenolic\\u000a compounds were studied for their acute and chronic antiinflammatory activity at dose level of 20 and

Arunachalam Muthuraman; Shailja Sood; Sumeet Kumar Singla

105

Free and bound phenolic antioxidants in amla ( Emblica officinalis) and turmeric ( Curcuma longa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of free and bound phenolics of amla (Emblica officinalis) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) was investigated. The Emblica officinalis free (EOFP) and bound phenolics (EOBP) showed between four- to 10-fold higher levels of antioxidant activity as evaluated by both free radical scavenging and reducing power assays compared to that of Curcuma longa free (CLFP) and bound phenolics (CLBP).

G. Suresh Kumar; Harish Nayaka; Shylaja M. Dharmesh; P. V. Salimath

2006-01-01

106

Synergistic anti– Staphylococcus aureus activity of amoxicillin in combination with Emblica officinalis and Nymphae odorata extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the antibacterial activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn (E. officinalis; Family: Euphorbiaceae) seed and Nymphae odorata Aiton (N. odorata; Family: Nymphaeaceae) stamen extracts, alone and in combination, and in combination with amoxicillin (Ax) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).

Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha DebMandal; Nishith Kumar Pal; Krishnendu Saha

2010-01-01

107

Glandular trichomes of Rosmarinus officinalis L.: Anatomical and phytochemical analyses of leaf volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis is known for the production of volatile compounds used in medicinal and food preparations. Leaves of R. officinalis are densely covered with capitate and peltate glandular trichomes where biosynthesis of volatiles mainly occurs. This study aims to conduct a morphological assessment to identify anatomical characteristics of both leaves and trichomes, as well as a chemical analysis of leaf

Yilan Fung Boix; Cristiane Pimentel Victório; Anna Carina Antunes Defaveri; Rosani Do Carmo De Oliveira Arruda; Alice Sato; Celso Luiz Salgueiro Lage

2011-01-01

108

A new flavonoid and other polar compounds from Galeopsis angustifolia Ehrh. ex Hoffm.  

PubMed

The analysis of the polar fraction of Galeopsis angustifolia Ehrh. ex Hoffm. indicates that the main components are iridoids and flavonoids. Six compounds were identified: a new flavonoid, 3'-hydroxy-isoscutellarein 7-O-[6'?acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1???2)-?-D-glucopyranoside]; three iridoid glucosides: harpagide, acetyl harpagide and for the first time in this species, 8-epi-loganin; two known acetylated flavonoid glycosides: 3'-hydroxy-4'-O-methylisoscutellarein 7-O-[6'?acetyl-?-D-allopyranosyl-(1???2)-6?-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranoside], 3'-hydroxy-4'-O-methylisoscutellarein 7-O-[6'?acetyl-?-D-allopyranosyl-(1???2)-?-D-glucopyranoside]. Both flavonoids and iridoids are present in high amount; respectively, 16.7% and 4.5% of the crude extract. PMID:22963374

Venditti, Alessandro; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Bianco, Armandodoriano

2012-09-10

109

A new abietene diterpene and other constituents from Kaempferia angustifolia Rosc.  

PubMed

A new abietene diterpene, kaempfolienol (5S,6S,7S,9S,10S,11R,13S-abiet-8(14)-enepenta-6,7,9,11,13-ol, 1), was isolated from a rhizome extract of Kaempferia angustifolia Rosc. along with the known compounds crotepoxide, boesenboxide, zeylenol, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, (24S)-24-methyl-5?-lanosta-9(11),25-dien-3?-ol, ?-sitosterol and ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of all compounds were elucidated on the basis of mass spectroscopic and NMR data. Zeylenol (2), the major constituent of the plant, was derivatized into diacetate, triacetate and epoxide derivatives through standard organic reactions. The cytotoxic activity of compounds 1, 2 and the zeylenol derivatives was evaluated against the HL-60, MCF-7, HT-29 and HeLa cell lines. PMID:21475124

Tang, Sook Wah; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Rahmani, Mawardi; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Ali, Abdul Manaf

2011-04-07

110

Growth inhibition of an Araucaria angustifolia (Coniferopsida) fungal seed pathogen, Neofusicoccum parvum, by soil streptomycetes  

PubMed Central

Background Araucariaceae are important forest trees of the southern hemisphere. Life expectancy of their seedlings can largely be reduced by fungal infections. In this study we have isolated and characterized such a fungus and investigated the potential of Streptomyces Actinobacteria from the respective rhizosphere to act as antagonists. Results The pathogenic fungus from Araucaria angustifolia seeds was identified by morphological markers (pore-associated Woronin-bodies) as belonging to the Pezizomycotina. Molecular data identified the fungus as Neofusicoccum parvum (Botryosphaeriaceae). Co-cultures on agar of this fungus with certain streptomycete isolates from the rhizosphere, and from the surface of Araucaria roots significantly reduced the growth of the fungus. HPLC analysis of the agar yielded streptomycete-specific exudate compounds which were partly identified. There were differences in compounds between single (bacteria, fungus) and dual cultures (bacteria?+?fungus). Conclusion Streptomycetes from the rhizosphere of Araucariaceae produce exudates which can suppress the development of pathogenic fungi in their seeds.

2013-01-01

111

Differential patterns of morphological and molecular hybridization between Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Oleaceae) in eastern and western France.  

PubMed

We examined large-scale patterns of morphology, genetic structure and ecological correlates of Fraxinus excelsior and the closely related species Fraxinus angustifolia in France, in order to determine the degree of hybridization between them. We sampled 24 populations in two putative hybrid zones (Loire and Saône), and five control populations of each species. We measured foliar characteristics of adult trees and used five nuclear microsatellites as molecular markers. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that the two species differ in morphology, but that intermediate types are common in the Loire region but less frequent in the Saône region. Bayesian population assignment identified one F. angustifolia and two F. excelsior gene pools. Most Loire individuals clustered genetically with the F. angustifolia gene pool. In contrast, the Saône region presented individuals belonging mostly to F. excelsior pools, although the F. angustifolia type was frequent in certain populations. The lowest F(ST) values were found between the Loire and F. angustifolia controls that also exhibited no significant isolation by distance. The proportion of the F. angustifolia gene pool in each locality was negatively correlated with winter temperatures, suggesting that a cold climate may be limiting. Hybridization is probably favoured by the intermediate climatic conditions in the Loire region that allow both species to occur, but is somewhat hampered by the harsher winters in the Saône area where morphological introgression has apparently not yet occurred. PMID:16968268

Fernandez-Manjarres, J F; Gerard, P R; Dufour, J; Raquin, C; Frascaria-Lacoste, N

2006-10-01

112

Treatment of high-strength wastewater in tropical vertical flow constructed wetlands planted with Typha angustifolia and Cyperus involucratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of vertical flow (VF) constructed wetland systems to treat high-strength (ca. 300mgL?1 of COD and ca. 300mgL?1 total-nitrogen) wastewater under tropical climatic conditions was studied during a 5-month period. Nine 0.8-m diameter experimental VF units (depth 0.6m) were used: three units were planted with Typha angustifolia L., another three units were planted with Cyperus involucratus Rottb and three

Suwasa Kantawanichkul; Supreeya Kladprasert; Hans Brix

2009-01-01

113

In vitro shoot multiplication and plantlet regeneration from nodal explants of Cassia angustifolia (Vahl.): a medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient, rapid and reproducible plant regeneration protocol was successfully developed for Cassia angustifolia using nodal explants excised from 14-day-old aseptic seedlings. Of the two cytokinins, 6-benzyladenine (BA) and thidiazuron\\u000a (TDZ) evaluated as supplements to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, TDZ at an optimal concentration of 5.0 ?M was effective\\u000a in inducing multiple shoots. The highest rate of shoot multiplication was

Iram Siddique; M. Anis

2007-01-01

114

Leaf litter of Kageneckia angustifolia D. Don (Rosaceae) inhibits seed germination in sclerophyllous montane woodlands of central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf litter accumulation can have either positive, negative or neutral effects on seed germination and seedling recruitment.\\u000a In montane woodlands of the Mediterranean zone of central Chile, large amounts of leaf litter accumulate beneath the crowns\\u000a of the summer semi-deciduous tree Kageneckia angustifolia and no regeneration of this or other plant species has been observed beneath this tree throughout the

Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Paulina Chacón; Alejandro Peñaloza; Marco Molina-Montenegro; Mary T. K. Arroyo

2007-01-01

115

A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta  

PubMed Central

Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other.

Rajashekhara, N.; Sharma, P. P.

2010-01-01

116

Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.  

PubMed

Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2?mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5?-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500?µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5?-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5?µg/mL and 5??M, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth. PMID:22517595

Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

2012-04-20

117

The effect of Emblica officinalis diet on lifespan, sexual behavior, and fitness characters in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Drosophila is an excellent organism to test Ayurvedic medicines. The objective of our study was to explore the potential of Emblica officinalis drug on longevity, sexual behavior, and reproductive fitness of Drosophila melanogaster using adult feeding method. Increase in the lifespan, fecundity, fertility, ovarioles number, and developmental time was observed in both parents and F1 generation, but not in the F2 generation in experimental culture (control + E. officinalis). According to the Duncan's multiple range test and ANOVA, there is a significant difference between two cultures. It was also noticed that E. officinalis influence some fitness characters in Drosophila along with sexual behavior. PMID:22408317

Pathak, Pankaj; Prasad, B R Guru; Murthy, N Anjaneya; Hegde, S N

2011-04-01

118

Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative.

2009-01-01

119

Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-? release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile. PMID:23017402

Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tomic, Goran; Nikolic, Ivana; Nerantzaki, Alexandra A; Sayyad, Nisar; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

2012-07-31

120

Phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn from aqueous solution using Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus.  

PubMed

A comparative bioaccumulation pattern and ultra structural changes were studied in Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus in mixed metals solution of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). P. cummunis was observed to be a shoot accumulator for Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, T. angustifolia was found to be a root accumulator for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb. In addition, C. esculentus also accumulated most of the tested heavy metals in the roots, while Mn and Fe were translocated up to leaves. Further, the long term metal treatment showed maximum accumulation of all heavy metals in P. cummunis followed by T. angustifolia and C. esculentus. Among heavy metals, Fe was accumulated maximum, i.e., >1000 microg g(-1) by all three plants. Simultaneously, the adverse effects on biochemical parameters were noted earlier in C. esculentus than T. angustifolia and P. cummunis. Ultra structural observation showed the cellular changes in wetland plants after longer exposure. Results revealed that P. cummunis and T. angustifolia had more potential for tested metals than C. esculentus. This study established that these wetland plants could be used for heavy metals phytoremediation from metal containing industrial wastewater. PMID:21972504

Chandra, Ram; Yadav, Sangeeta

2011-07-01

121

Diversimorbus metrosiderotis gen. et sp. nov. and three new species of Holocryphia (Cryphonectriaceae) associated with cankers on native Metrosideros angustifolia trees in South Africa.  

PubMed

The Cryphonectriaceae includes important tree pathogens, especially on the Myrtales. During a routine disease survey in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, a fungus resembling the Eucalyptus pathogen Holocryphia eucalypti was observed on native Metrosideros angustifolia (Myrtales). The aims of this study were to identify the fungus and to expand surveys for fungi in the Cryphonectriaceae on M. angustifolia. Fungi were identified based on DNA sequence comparisons and morphological features, and their pathogenicity was tested on M. angustifolia under field conditions. Based on morphology and multigene phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from six gene regions, we describe a new genus including a single species and three new species of Holocryphia (Cryphonectriaceae) from M. angustifolia. These fungi are provided with the names Diversimorbus metrosiderotis gen. et sp. nov., Holocryphia capensis sp. nov., Holocryphia gleniana sp. nov., and Holocryphia mzansi sp. nov. We also revise H. eucalypti, the type of the genus, to include only isolates from Eucalyptus in South Africa. Research results indicated that H. mzansi may undergo host shifts between different tree genera in the Myrtaceae. Inoculation tests showed that isolates of all the newly described species can cause lesions on the branches of M. angustifolia, indicating that they are all pathogens of this tree. PMID:23719217

Chen, ShuaiFei; Wingfield, Michael J; Roux, Jolanda

2013-03-22

122

Composition of the Essential Oils of Ocimum basilicum var. glabratum and Rosmarinus officinalis from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-distilled volatiles of Ocimum basilicum var. glabratum and Rosmarinus officinalis gathered in Turkey were analyzed by means of GC, GC\\/MS, H-NMR and C-NMR. O. basilicum oil was found to contain linalool (43.73%) and (E)-methyl cinnamate (27.28%) as the major constituents whereas 1,8-cineole (36.91%), borneol (17.50%) and p-cymene (10.50%) were shown to dominate R. officinalis oil.

M. J. Pérez-Alonso; A. Velasco-Negueruela; M. Emin Duru; M. Harmandar; Joaquin L. Esteban

1995-01-01

123

Regulation of Thyroid Function in Mice with Extracts of Emblica officinalis L. and Bauhinia purpurea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of Emblica officinalis L. and Bauhinia purpurea L. extracts in regulating thyroid functions was studied in male mice. Oral administration of Emblica officinalis L. fruit extract at 30 mg\\/kg body weight (b.wt.) each day for 20 days decreased serum T3 and T4 concentrations and hepatic O2 consumption. In contrast, daily administration of Bauhinia purpurea at 2.5 mg\\/kg b.

S. Panda; A. Kar; S. Bharti

2003-01-01

124

Antioxidant Property of Emblica officinalis during Experimentally Induced Restrain Stress in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant property of Emblica officinalis (E. offic- inalis) during restrain-stress in albino rat. Three groups of albino rat were employed namely control, restrain-stress (4hr\\/day for 15days) and E. officinalis +r estrain-stress. The oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymatic antioxidant status superoxide dismutase (SOD), cata- lase (CAT), and

Ramasundaram Thangaraj; Senniyanallur Rathakrishnan Ayyappan; Panneerselvam Manikandan; Jayaraman Baskaranc

2007-01-01

125

Snake venom neutralising factor from the root extract of Emblica officinalis Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The folk use of the Indian medicinal plant Emblica officinalis Linn. root extract and its active compound (Pthalate in nature) against snake venom has been established in experimental animal\\u000a models. From the root extract of Emblica officinalis, a compound was isolated through silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined by UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR & EIMS studies. The

S. Sarkhel; A. K. Chakravarty; R. Das; Aparna Gomes; A. Gomes

2011-01-01

126

Quantification of Valerenic Acid in Valeriana jatamansi and Valeriana officinalis by HPTLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rapid, cost-effective and accurate high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for quantification\\u000a of valerenic acid in Valeriana jatamansi and Valeriana officinalis which is one of the stable compounds of Valeriana officinalis and designated as a key marker compound. Valerenic acid makes substantial contribution to the sedative and spasmolytic activity\\u000a of the essential oil and extract

N. Singh; A. P. Gupta; B. Singh; V. K. Kaul

2006-01-01

127

Seasonal changes in nodular nitrogenase activity of Alnus glutinosa and Elaeagnus angustifolia.  

PubMed

Root nodule development, and seasonal patterns of nodular nitrogenase and hydrogenase activities were determined for 5- to 8-year old black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) interplanted with black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) on bottomland and upland sites in central Illinois, USA. Black alder produced nodules at both sites, but Russian olive did so only at the bottomland site. Nodular nitrogenase activity was detectable in both species over a 220-day period. Maximum, midday rates of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) of 15 to 20 micromoles C(2)H(4) per g dry nodule per hour were maintained by black alder for approximately 150 days at both the upland and bottomland sites. Near maximum rates of nodular nitrogenase activity were maintained for a similar period by Russian olive at the lowland site, although specific nitrogenase activity was approximately 25% lower than in black alder owing to a larger proportion of necrotic nodular tissue in Russian olive. In both species, nitrogenase activity increased exponentially with temperature between 10 degrees C and 20 to 25 degrees C. No net hydrogen evolution by nodules of either species was detected at any time during the assay period, indicating efficient hydrogenase systems were operating under the conditions of the field assay. Height of black walnut interplanted with nodulated black alder and Russian olive was greater than that of black walnut grown in pure stands. PMID:14972986

Zitzer, S F; Dawson, J O

1989-06-01

128

The involvement of PUMP from mitochondria of Araucaria angustifolia embryogenic cells in response to cold stress.  

PubMed

In this study, the responses of plant uncoupling mitochondrial protein (PUMP) and alternative oxidase (AOX) in mitochondria from embryogenic cells of A. angustifolia subjected to cold stress (4°C for 24 h or 48 h) is reported. In the mitochondria of stressed cells, PUMP activity increased by approximately 45% (at 24h and 48 h), which was determined by measuring the oxygen consumption after the addition of linoleic acid and the inhibition by BSA and ATP. PUMP activation was confirmed using transmembrane electrical potential (??) assays. Immunoblot assays showed an increase of PUMP expression by 40% and 150% after 24h and 48 h of cold stress, respectively. AOX activity, measured under conditions similar to those of the PUMP assays, was only slightly increased in the mitochondria from stressed cells (at 24h and 48 h), as demonstrated by oxygen consumption experiments. Cell viability was unaffected by cold stress, indicating that the effects on PUMP and AOX were not caused by cell death. These results show that the main response of this gymnosperm to cold stress is the activation of PUMP, which suggests that this protein may be involved in the control of reactive oxygen species generation, which has been previously associated with this condition. PMID:23116675

Valente, Caroline; Pasqualim, Patrícia; Jacomasso, Thiago; Maurer, Juliana Bello Baron; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Carnieri, Eva Gunilla Skare; Cadena, Sílvia Maria Suter Correia

2012-09-24

129

Endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of Typha angustifolia L. in the constructed Beijing Cuihu Wetland (China).  

PubMed

We investigated the community structure of endophytic bacteria in narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) roots growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, using the 16S rDNA library technique. In total, 184 individual sequences were used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 161 clones (87.5%) were affiliated with Proteobacteria, other clones grouped into Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroids (3.3%), Fusobacteria (3.8%), and nearly 5% were uncultured bacteria. In Proteobacteria, the beta and gamma subgroups were the most abundant, accounting for approximately 46% and 36.6% of all Proteobacteria, respectively. The dominant genera included Rhodoferax, Pelomonas, Uliginosibacterium, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Rhizobium, Sulfurospirillum, Ilyobacter and Bacteroides. While some of these endophytic bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen and can therefore improve plant growth, other endophytes may play important biological roles by removing nitrogen, phosphorus and/or organic matter from the water body and thus have the potential to enhance the phytoremediation of eutrophic water bodies. These bacteria have the potential to degrade xenobiota such as methane, methanol, methylated amines, catechol, oxochlorate, urea, cyanide, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Hence, the use of certain endophytic bacteria in the process of phytoremediation could be a powerful approach for the restoration of eutrophic systems. PMID:21111814

Li, Yan Hong; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Yin; Zhu, Jing Nan; Zhang, Qiang

2010-11-25

130

Reproductive biology of henequen (Agave fourcroydes) and its wild ancestor Agave Angustifolia (Agavaceae). i. Gametophyte development.  

PubMed

The pathways of micro- and megagametophyte development in Agave fourcroydes (henequén) and A. angustifolia were studied. We used histology and light microscopy to observe anther ontogeny and ovary differentiation in relation to flower bud size. Both species have the same sexual reproductive strategies and gametophyte development that may be divided into three phases: (1) premeiotic, which includes the establishment of the megaspore mother cell and the pollen mother cell; (2) meiotic, the formation of mature microspores and functional megaspores; (3) postmeiotic, which encompasses the development of mature pollen grains and the formation of the embryo sac. A successive type microsporogenesis was found in both species with formation of T-shaped tetrads and binuclear pollen grains. In vitro germination tests revealed very low pollen fertility. The female gametophyte is formed from two micropylar megaspore cells after the first meiotic division (bisporic type). Male and female gametogenesis occur asynchronously with microsporogenesis finishing before macrosporogenesis. The results so far show that the formation of male and female gametophytes in henequén is affected at different stages and that these alterations might be responsible for the low fertility shown by this species. PMID:21669630

Piven, N M; Barredo-Pool, F A; Borges-Argáez, I C; Herrera-Alamillo, M A; Mayo-Mosqueda, A; Herrera-Herrera, J L; Robert, M L

2001-11-01

131

Biosynthesis of cyanohydrin glucosides from unnatural nitriles in intact tissue of Passiflora morifolia and Turnera angustifolia.  

PubMed

Passiflora morifolia, which under natural conditions contains cyanohydrin glucosides linamarin, lotaustralin and epilotaustralin, converted cyclopentanecarbonitrile, 2-cyclopentenecarbonitrile and 3-methylbutanenitrile into the corresponding cyanohydrin glucosides. Turnera angustifolia, which normally produces glucosides of cyclopentenone cyanohydrin, converted cyclopentanecarbonitrile, 2-methylpropanenitrile and 2-methylbutanenitrile, but not 3-methylbutanenitrile, into the corresponding cyanohydrin glucosides. Mixtures of epimers were produced when these glucosides contained chiral cyanohydrin carbon atoms. Feeding with cyclopentanecarbonitrile resulted in formation of 1-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)cyclopentanecarbonitrile, a saturated analogue of deidaclin and tetraphyllin A. Neither plant utilized cyclopropanecarbonitrile as substrate. The experiments demonstrate broad substrate specificity of nitrile hydroxylases present in these plants. A novel glycoside, 2-[6-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy]propane (isopropyl primeveroside), was isolated from P. morifolia. The compound represents a rare example of natural isopropyl glycoside; its characterization included assignment of all 1H and 13C NMR signals of the primeverosyl group using two-dimensional NMR methods. Biosynthesis of the isopropyl moiety of the primeveroside is unclear, but the formation of alcohols corresponding to natural cyanohydrins may be a previously unrecognized extension of the cyanohydrin biosynthesis pathway in higher plants. PMID:8768320

Jaroszewski, J W; Rasmussen, A B; Rasmussen, H B; Olsen, C E; Jørgensen, L B

1996-06-01

132

Effects of spacing and post-planting treatments on survival and growth of Fraxinus angustifolia seedlings.  

PubMed

This study was conducted at a bottomland hardwood site with heavy textured soil in Akyazi, Turkey to determine the effect of initial spacing (3.0 x 3.0, 3.0 x 2.0, 2.5 x 1.6 and 2.5 x 1.2 m) and post-planting treatments (untreated check, moving, hoeing, disking, and hoeing plus disking) on early survival and growth of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. One-year old bare-root seedlings (70 +/- 5 cm in height) were hand-planted in December 2004. Through three years survival was perfect with a rate of 98% in all treatments. Spacing and the interaction between spacing and post-planting treatment did not significantly affect seedling growth through three years. However height and diameter growth increased overtime and differed significantly among post-planting treatments. The hoeing and hoeing plus disking treatments gave the highest growth, and resulted in about 31% increase in diameter and height increment, and in total diameter and height about 20%. These results suggest that post-planting treatments on bottomland sites with heavy textured soil give promising results. PMID:21186728

Cicek, Emrah; Yilmaz, Faruk; Tilki, Fahrettin; Cicek, Nurten

2010-07-01

133

Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2?000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida

2013-01-01

134

Identification of Verbena officinalis based on ITS sequence analysis and RAPD-derived molecular markers.  

PubMed

Verbenae herba is a widely used drug and consists of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae). Until now, the identification has been performed based on morphological and phytochemical analyses, which are not reliable enough to distinguish Verbena officinalis from other relevant species of the genus Verbena. Hence, impurities and adulterants, negatively influencing the therapeutic effect of the drug, may remain undetected. In an attempt to generate an accurate authentication method we used two different DNA-based approaches: comparison of ITS sequences and molecular markers (RAPD). Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of V. officinalis from the rest of the genus despite the intraspecific variation existing within V. officinalis. The application of the two independent methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, however, a SCAR marker and primers for HRM were derived from the RAPD results. The SCAR marker could distinguish V. officinalis from all other verbena species except its closest relative V. hastata, while discrimination of V. officinalis even from V. hastata was unproblematic with HRM. PMID:19350481

Ruzicka, Joana; Lukas, Brigitte; Merza, Lina; Göhler, Irina; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Novak, Johannes

2009-04-06

135

Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) possesses antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects, and so may provide a possible therapeutic alternative for chronic liver disease. The effect produced by a methanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis on CCl(4)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats was investigated using both prevention and reversion models. Over the course of the development of cirrhosis, the increased enzymatic activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminotransferase, and the rise in bilirubin levels caused by CCl(4) administration, were prevented by Rosmarinus officinalis co-administration. When the cirrhosis by oxidative stress was evaluated as an increase on liver lipoperoxidation, total lipid peroxides, nitric oxide in serum, and loss of erythrocyte plasma membrane stability, R. officinalis was shown to prevent such alterations. On cirrhotic animals treated with CCl(4), histological studies showed massive necrosis, periportal inflammation and fibrosis which were modified by R. officinalis. These benefits on experimental cirrhosis suggest a potential therapeutic use for R. officinalis as an alternative for liver cirrhosis. PMID:19827016

Gutiérrez, Rosalinda; Alvarado, José L; Presno, Manuel; Pérez-Veyna, Oscar; Serrano, Carmen J; Yahuaca, Patricia

2010-04-01

136

Rosmarinus officinalis polyphenols produce anti-depressant like effect through monoaminergic and cholinergic functions modulation.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis), a culinary aromatic and medicinal plant, is very rich in polyphenols and flavonoids with high antioxidant properties. This plant was reported to exert multiple benefits for neuronal system and alleviate mood disorder. In our previous study, we demonstrated that R. officinalis and its active compounds, luteolin (Lut), carnosic acid (CA), and rosmarinic acid (RA), exhibited neurotrophic effects and improved cholinergic functions in PC12 cells in correlation with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The current study was conducted to evaluate and understand the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis using tail suspension test (TST) in ICR mice and PC12 cells as in vitro neuronal model. Proteomics analysis of PC12 cells treated with R. officinalis polyphenols (ROP) Lut, CA, and RA revealed a significant upregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) two major genes involved in dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic pathway regulations. Moreover, ROP were demonstrated to protect neuronal cells against corticosterone-induced toxicity. These results were concordant with decreasing immobility time in TST and regulation of several neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and acetylcholine) and gene expression in mice brain like TH, PC and MAPK phosphatase (MKP-1). To the best of our knowledge this is the first evidence to contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanism behind the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis and its major active compounds. PMID:23085339

Sasaki, Kazunori; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Kondo, Shinji; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko

2012-10-17

137

Influence of spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Med.) essential oil in the quality, stability and composition of soybean oil during microwave heating.  

PubMed

Lipids oxidation is one of the main factors leading to quality losses in foods. Its prevention or delay could be obtained by the addition of antioxidants. In this sense the present work intend to monitor the protective effects of Lavandula latifolia essential oil during soybean oil microwave heating. To achieve the proposed goal quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide value, specific coefficients of extinction and ?K), fatty acids profile, tocopherols and tocotrienols composition, antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were evaluated in soybean oil with and without spike lavender essential oils (EO) submitted to different microwave heating exposure times (1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 min; 1000 Watt) with a standard domestic microwave equipment. Microwave heating induced severe quality and composition losses, mainly above 3 min of microwave heating, regardless the sample tested. However, spike lavender EO addition counteracts the oxidation comparatively to control oils, by presenting enhanced values in quality parameters. A higher protection in unsaturated fatty acids loss was also observed as well as a higher antioxidant activity and oxidative stability. The microwave heating effects were clearly different in the samples with essential oils addition, allowing discrimination from plain soybean oils by a principal component analysis, being also capable to discriminate the different heating times tested within each sample. PMID:22659463

Rodrigues, Nuno; Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Asensio-S-Manzanera, M Carmen; Bento, Albino; Pereira, José Alberto

2012-05-29

138

Composition of volatile in micropropagated and field grown aromatic plants from Tuscany Islands.  

PubMed

Aromatic plant species present in the natural Park of Tuscany Archipelago are used as flavoring agents and spices, as dietary supplements and in cosmetics and aromatherapy. The plants are usually collected from wild stands, inducing a depletion of the natural habitat. Therefore, micropropagation of these aromatic plants can play a role in the protection of the natural ecosystem, can guarantee a massive sustainable production and can provide standardized plant materials for diverse economical purposes. The aim of this study is to compare the volatile organic compounds produced by the wild plants with those from in vitro plantlets using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) followed by capillary gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Typical plants of this natural area selected for this work were Calamintha nepeta L., Crithmum maritimum L., Lavandula angustifolia L., Myrtus communis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Satureja hortensis L. Different explants were used: microcuttings with vegetative apical parts, axillary buds and internodes. Sterilization percentage, multiplication rate and shoot length, as well as root formation were measured. The volatile aromatic profiles produced from in vitro plantlets were compared with those of the wild plants, in particular for C. maritimum, R. officinalis, S. officinalis and S. hortensis. This study indicated that the micropropagation technique can represent a valid alternative to produce massive and sterile plant material characterised by the same aromatic flavour as in the wild grown plants. PMID:23441303

Pistelli, Laura; Noccioli, Cecilia; D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

2013-02-25

139

A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.  

PubMed

Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

2010-10-01

140

ANGUSTIFOLIA3 plays roles in adaxial/abaxial patterning and growth in leaf morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Leaf morphogenesis relies on adaxial/abaxial patterning and extensive growth. This study investigated the role of ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3) from Arabidopsis thaliana in these processes. The an3 mutants produce narrower leaves that contain significantly fewer cells than the wild type. We examined the genetic interaction between an3 and asymmetric leaves2 (as2), which has a weak adaxial defect. The an3 as2 mutants developed trumpet-like leaves and accumulated transcripts of abaxially expressed genes at higher levels than an3 and as2. Gene expression analyses suggested that an3 altered the expression of a number of genes. Many of them were involved in metabolism, and several genes that promote adaxial identity cooperatively with as2 were down-regulated. Next, we performed detailed developmental analyses to examine the relationship between the narrow-leaf phenotype of an3 and leaf polarity. As a result, we showed that AN3 is required during a specific phase after an oblong shape is established in early leaf primordia. During this phase, the angle of the cell division plane relative to the longitudinal axis of the leaf primordium is more variable than in the earlier phase where transverse divisions were dominant in both the wild type and an3. Correlated with this dynamic change in cell division pattern, the leaf primordium became rounder. In an3, mitotic activity was reduced more rapidly than in the wild type, causing premature termination of the morphometric change. These results suggest that AN3 promotes cell proliferation during a specific developmental phase that is also required to correct abaxial/adaxial patterning in concert with AS2. PMID:21097896

Horiguchi, Gorou; Nakayama, Hokuto; Ishikawa, Naoko; Kubo, Minoru; Demura, Taku; Fukuda, Hiroo; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

2010-11-21

141

Paenibacillus typhae sp. nov., isolated from roots of Typha angustifolia L.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain xj7(T), was isolated from roots of Typha angustifolia L. growing in Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China. The isolate was identified as a member of the genus Paenibacillus based on phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference. The novel strain was spore-forming, motile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Optimal growth of strain xj7(T) occurred at 28-30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Diphosphatidylglycerol was the most abundant polar lipid and occurred along with phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid and three unknown aminophospholipids. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acid components were anteiso-C15?:?0 (56.1?%), iso-C16?:?0 (9.1?%), C16?:?0 (8.0?%), iso-C14?:?0 (6.3?%) and iso-C15?:?0 (5.1?%). The G+C content of genomic DNA was 47.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain xj7(T) fell within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Paenibacillus, its closest neighbours were Paenibacillus borealis KK19(T) (97.5?%) and Paenibacillus durus DSM 1735(T) (97.1?%). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain xj7(T) and P. borealis KK19(T) and between strain xj7(T) and P. durus DSM 1735(T), were both 35?%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain xj7(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus typhae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is xj7(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.11012(T)?=?DSM 25190(T)). PMID:22707528

Kong, Bi He; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Min; Liu, Yang; Liu, Lei; Li, Chun Li; Yu, Rong; Li, Yan Hong

2012-06-15

142

Nitrous Oxide Emission from Deyeuxia angustifolia Freshwater Marsh in Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report N2O emission results for freshwater marshes isolated from human activities at the Sanjiang Experimental Station of Marsh Wetland Ecology in northeastern China. These results are important for us to understand N2O emission in natural processes in undisturbed freshwater marsh. Two adjacent plots of Deyeuxia angustifolia freshwater marsh with different water regimes, i.e., seasonally waterlogged (SW) and not- waterlogged (NW), were chosen for gas sampling, and soil and biomass studies. Emissions of N2O from NW plots were obviously higher than from the SW plots. Daily maximum N2O flux was observed at 13 o'clock and the seasonal maximum occurred in end July to early August. The annual average N2O emissions from the NW marsh were 4.45 ?g m-2 h-1 in 2002 and 6.85 ?g m-2 h-1 in 2003 during growing season. The SW marsh was overall a sink for N2O with corresponding annual emissions of -1.00 ?g m-2 h-1 for 2002 and -0.76 ?g m-2 h-1 for 2003. There were significant correlations between N2O fluxes and temperatures of both air and 5-cm-depth soil. The range of soil redox potential 200-400 mV appeared to be optimum for N2O flux. Besides temperature and plant biomass, the freeze-thaw process is also an important factor for N2O emission burst. Our results show that the freshwater marsh isolated from human activity in northeastern China is not a major source of N2O.

Yu, Junbao; Liu, Jingshuang; Wang, Jinda; Sun, Weidong; Patrick, William H.; Meixner, Franz X.

2007-10-01

143

Efficacy of Elaeagnus angustifolia Topical Gel in the Treatment of Symptomatic Oral Lichen Planus  

PubMed Central

Background and aims The purpose of this study was to determine efficacy of 19% Elaeagnus angustifolia (EA) topical gel in the treatment of symptomatic oral lichen planus. Materials and methods Patients with symptomatic oral lichen planus referring to the Department of Oral Medicine, Fac-ulty of Dentistry at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were asked to participate in the study. Twenty-eight pa-tients who were histopathologically diagnosed with lichen planus were divided into two groups (15 in the case and 13 in the control groups). The subjects were randomly assigned to either topical gel of EA or placebo in a double-blind manner. They were then instructed to apply the medication on dried lesions three times daily. Pain and size of the lesions were evaluated after 2 weeks. Data were analyzed by SPSS 12.0 software, using t-test, paired t-test, Fisher’s exact test and chi-square test. Results Twenty-eight patients (m/f: 7/21) with symptomatic oral lichen planus participated in the study. Fifteen patients (m/f: 4/11) received E A gel and 13 patients (m/f: 3/10) received placebo. There was a 75% decrease in pain (33.3% in the case and 7.7% in the control groups), and a decrease of 50% in size (33.3% in the case group) and 75% only in 7.6% of the case group. Conclusion The results suggest that 19% EA gel is efficient in the treatment of symptomatic oral lichen planus, with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, as well.

Beigom Taheri, Jamileh; Anbari, Fahimeh; Maleki, Ziba; Boostani, Shiva; Zarghi, Afshin; Pouralibaba, Firoz

2010-01-01

144

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid

Sadaf Hasan; Mohd Danishuddin; Mohd Adil; Kunal Singh; Praveen K. Verma; Asad U. Khan

2012-01-01

145

Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

2010-10-27

146

Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of six Mediterranean aromatic plants against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Laboratory bioassays on insecticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from six Mediterranean plants (Achillea millefolium, Lavandula angustifolia, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis, and Rosmarinus officinalis) were carried out against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. The chemical composition of the six EOs was also investigated. Results from applications showed that all tested oils had insecticidal activity, with differences in mortality rates as a function of both oil and dosage. At the highest dosage (300 ppm), EOs from H. italicum, A. millefolium, and F. vulgare caused higher mortality than the other three oils, with mortality rates ranging from 98.3% to 100%. M. communis EO induced only 36.7% larval mortality at the highest dosage (300 ppm), a similar value to those recorded at the same dosage by using R. officinalis and L. angustifolia (51.7% and 55%, respectively). Identified compounds ranged from 91% to 99%. The analyzed EOs had higher content of monoterpenoids (80-99%) than sesquiterpenes (1-15%), and they can be categorized into three groups on the basis of their composition. Few EOs showed the hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, and these volatile compounds were generally predominant in comparison with the oxygenated forms, which were detected in lower quantities only in H. italicum (1.80%) and in M. communis (1%). PMID:20697909

Conti, Barbara; Canale, Angelo; Bertoli, Alessandra; Gozzini, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

2010-08-10

147

Polyploid evolution in Oryza officinalis complex of the genus Oryza  

PubMed Central

Background Polyploidization is a prominent process in plant evolution, whereas the mechanism and tempo-spatial process remained poorly understood. Oryza officinalis complex, a polyploid complex in the genus Oryza, could exemplify the issues not only for it covering a variety of ploidy levels, but also for the pantropical geographic pattern of its polyploids in Asia, Africa, Australia and Americas, in which a pivotal genome, the C-genome, witnessed all the polyploidization process. Results Tracing the C-genome evolutionary history in Oryza officinalis complex, this study revealed the genomic relationships, polyploid forming and diverging times, and diploidization process, based on phylogeny, molecular-clock analyses and fluorescent in situ hybridization using genome-specific probes. Results showed that C-genome split with B-genome at ca. 4.8 Mya, followed by a series of speciation of C-genome diploids (ca. 1.8-0.9 Mya), which then partook in successive polyploidization events, forming CCDD tetraploids in ca. 0.9 Mya, and stepwise forming BBCC tetraploids between ca. 0.3-0.6 Mya. Inter-genomic translocations between B- and C-genomes were identified in BBCC tetraploid, O. punctata. Distinct FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) patterns among three CCDD species were visualized by C-genome-specific probes. B-genome was modified before forming the BBCC tetraploid, O. malampuzhaensis. Conclusion C-genome, shared by all polyploid species in the complex, had experienced different evolutionary history particularly after polyploidization, e.g., inter-genomic exchange in BBCC and genomic invasion in CCDD tetraploids. It diverged from B-genome at 4.8 Mya, then participated in the tetraploid formation spanning from 0.9 to 0.3 Mya, and spread into tropics of the disjunct continents by transcontinentally long-distance dispersal, instead of vicariance, as proposed by this study, given that the continental splitting was much earlier than the C-genome species radiation. We also find reliable evidence indicated that an extinct BB diploid species in Asia was presumptively the direct genomic donor of their sympatric tetraploids.

Wang, Baosheng; Ding, Zhuoya; Liu, Wei; Pan, Jin; Li, Changbao; Ge, Song; Zhang, Daming

2009-01-01

148

Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress and Evaluation of Embilica Officinalis and Stressroak in Broilers  

PubMed Central

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity was studied in broilers, and efficacy of Emblica officinalis (500 ppm in feed), vitamin E (300 ppm in feed), and stressroak (1 g/kg feed) were evaluated for prophylactic and therapeutic management of Cd toxicity. One-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into eight groups consisting of 10 chicks in each. Groups 1 and 2 were maintained as plain control and Cd (100 ppm in feed) toxic control (for six weeks). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were maintained on a combination of Cd (100 ppm in feed) and Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak for six weeks. Groups 6, 7, and 8 were maintained with Cd for the first four weeks and on Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak during the subsequent two weeks without Cd. Body weights, feed consumed, Feed conversion ratio (FCR), and glulathione (GSH) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased, whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and concentration of Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in toxic control group. After treatment with Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in groups 6, 7, and 8 during last two weeks and discontinuation of Cd, the parameters revealed improvement. From this study, it is concluded that Cd induces toxicity by oxidative stress, and supplementing Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in feed is useful in preventing and treating the toxicity.

Swapna, G.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Reddy, A. Rajasekhar

2010-01-01

149

Valeriana officinalis ameliorates vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in rats.  

PubMed

Oral movements are associated with important neuropathologies as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. However, until this time, there has been no known efficacious treatment, without side effects, for these disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of V. officinalis, a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V. officinalis (in the drinking water, starting 15 days before the administration of the reserpine). VCMs, locomotor activity and oxidative stress measurements were evaluated. Furthermore, we carried out the identification of valeric acid and gallic acid by HPLC in the V. officinalis tincture. Our findings demonstrated that reserpine caused a marked increase on VCMs and the co-treatment with V. officinalis was able to reduce the intensity of VCM. Reserpine did not induce oxidative stress in cerebral structures (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra). However, a significant positive correlation between DCF-oxidation (an estimation of oxidative stress) in the cortex and VCMs (p < 0.05) was observed. Moreover, a negative correlation between Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in substantia nigra and the number of VCMs was observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, V. officinalis had behavioral protective effect against reserpine-induced VCMs in rats; however, the exact mechanisms that contributed to this effect have not been completely understood. PMID:21476069

Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Wagner, Caroline; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

2011-04-08

150

Spermatotoxic effect of ochratoxin and its amelioration by Emblica officinalis aqueous extract.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to evaluate the spermatotoxic effect of ochratoxin and it's amelioration by Emblica officinalis aqueous extract. When male albino mice were treated with ochratoxin (50 and 100 microg/0.2 mL of olive oil/animal/day for 45 days, orally) alterations in various reproductive parameters were observed (sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and fertility rate), when further treated with the aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis (2 mg/animal/day for 45 days) amelioration was noted in ochratoxin-induced spermatotoxic effect. Oral administration of ochratoxin for 45 days caused, as compared to vehicle control (Group 2), dose-dependent significant (p < 0.05) reduction in cauda epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and fertility rate (Groups 4, 5). Oral administration of aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters (Group 3). However, Emblica officinalis aqueous extract along with ochratoxin treatment caused significant recovery in all the sperm parameters as well as in fertility rate (Groups 6, 7) in comparison with ochratoxin alone treated animals (Groups 4, 5). Amelioration was higher in high dose ochratoxin plus extract treated animals than that of respective low dose. When normal human sperm cell suspension was treated with ochratoxin (in vitro), various morphological alterations were observed. These were mitigated further, when treated with aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis. PMID:20050533

Chakraborty, Devjani; Verma, Ramtej

151

Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress and Evaluation of Embilica Officinalis and Stressroak in Broilers.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity was studied in broilers, and efficacy of Emblica officinalis (500 ppm in feed), vitamin E (300 ppm in feed), and stressroak (1 g/kg feed) were evaluated for prophylactic and therapeutic management of Cd toxicity. One-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into eight groups consisting of 10 chicks in each. Groups 1 and 2 were maintained as plain control and Cd (100 ppm in feed) toxic control (for six weeks). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were maintained on a combination of Cd (100 ppm in feed) and Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak for six weeks. Groups 6, 7, and 8 were maintained with Cd for the first four weeks and on Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak during the subsequent two weeks without Cd. Body weights, feed consumed, Feed conversion ratio (FCR), and glulathione (GSH) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased, whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and concentration of Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in toxic control group. After treatment with Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in groups 6, 7, and 8 during last two weeks and discontinuation of Cd, the parameters revealed improvement. From this study, it is concluded that Cd induces toxicity by oxidative stress, and supplementing Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in feed is useful in preventing and treating the toxicity. PMID:21170244

Swapna, G; Reddy, A Gopala; Reddy, A Rajasekhar

2010-07-01

152

Antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis, depending on location and seasonal variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis is widely found in the lands of Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. The goal of this work was to test the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils and methanolic extracts of R. officinalis collected from three different regions at four different time intervals of the year against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus feacalis,

O. Yesil Celiktas; E. E. Hames Kocabas; E. Bedir; F. Vardar Sukan; T. Ozek; K. H. C. Baser

2007-01-01

153

Vitamin C content and antioxidant activity of the fruit and of the Ayurvedic preparation of Emblica officinalis Gaertn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis Gaertn. is one of the most important plants of ?yurved, the traditional Indian medicine. In this ancient medicine, the fruit of Emblica officinalis is processed according to a method named “Svaras Bhavana”, whereby the therapeutic potential of the plant is enhanced by treating the main herb with its own juice. For many years, the activity of the fruits

P. Scartezzini; F. Antognoni; M. A. Raggi; F. Poli; C. Sabbioni

2006-01-01

154

Growing environment and nutrient availability affect the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.  

PubMed

Medicinal plant production is different from other agricultural production systems in that the plants are grown for the production of specific phytochemical(s) for human use. To address this need, a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant, controlled-environment production system was developed for production of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia. Within the prototype facility, the growing systems, nutrient availability, water and physical environment were highly controlled. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of different hydroponic systems, nutrient solution NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratios and mild water stress on the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea plants. The deep-flow solution culture system in which the plant roots were continuously immersed in the nutrient solutions was optimum for the growth of E. purpurea. Higher concentrations of caftaric acid, cynarin and echinacoside were produced in E. angustifolia plants grown in the soil-based growing media while the plants grown in the deep-flow solution system had higher levels of cichoric acid. Altering the NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratio or limited water stress did not have any significant effect on the phytochemical content of Echinacea plants. Echinacea plants grown in the controlled environment systems had higher or similar amounts of cynarin, caftaric acid, echinacoside and cichoric acid as previously reported in the literature for both field-cultivated and wild-harvested Echinacea plants. This growing system offers the advantages of year-round crop production with minimal contamination by environmental pollutants and common microbes. PMID:17054043

Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Saxena, Praveen K

2006-10-20

155

Glutathione improves early somatic embryogenesis in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert) O. Kuntze by alteration in nitric oxide emission.  

PubMed

In this work, it was observed a straight relationship between the manipulation of the reduced glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio, nitric oxide emission and quality and number of early somatic embryos in Araucaria angustifolia, a Brazilian endangered native conifer. In low concentrations GSH (0.01 and 0.1mM) is a potential NO scavenger in the culture medium. Furthermore, it can increase the number of early SE formed in cell suspension culture media in a few days. However, the maintenance in this low redox state lead to a loss of early somatic embryos polarization. In gelled culture medium, high levels of GSH (5mM) allows the development of globular embryos presenting a high NO emission on embryo apex, stressing its importance in the differentiation and cell division. Taken together these results indicate that the modification of the embryogenic cultures redox state might be an effective strategy to develop more efficient embryogenic systems in A. angustifolia. PMID:22921001

Vieira, Leila do Nascimento; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; de Freitas Fraga, Hugo Pacheco; Dos Santos, André Luis Wendt; Steinmacher, Douglas André; Schlogl, Paulo Sérgio; Silveira, Vanildo; Steiner, Neusa; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

2012-06-29

156

The periodic wetting of leaves enhances water relations and growth of the long-lived conifer Araucaria angustifolia.  

PubMed

The importance of foliar absorption of water and atmospheric solutes in conifers was recognised in the 1970s, and the importance of fog as a water source in forest environments has been recently demonstrated. Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) is an emergent tree species that grows in montane forests of southern Brazil, where rainfall and fog are frequent events, leading to frequent wetting of the leaves. Despite anatomical evidence in favour of leaf water absorption, there is no information on the existence and physiological significance of a such process. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the use of atmospheric water by leaves takes place and is physiologically relevant for the species, by comparing growth, water relations and nutritional status between plants grown under two conditions of soil water (well-watered and water-stressed plants) and three types of leaf spraying (none, water and nutrient solution spray). Leaf spraying had a greater effect in improving plant water relations when plants were under water stress. Plant growth was more responsive to water available to the leaves than to the roots, and was equally increased by both types of leaf spraying, with no interaction with soil water status. Spraying leaves with nutrient solution increased shoot ramification and raised the concentrations of N, P, K, Zn, Cu and Fe in the roots. Our results provide strong indications that water and nutrients are indeed absorbed by leaves of A. angustifolia, and that this process might be as important as water uptake by its roots. PMID:22672733

Cassana, F F; Dillenburg, L R

2012-06-05

157

Meiotic restitution mechanisms involved in the formation of 2n pollen in Agave tequilana Weber and Agave angustifolia Haw.  

PubMed

A cytological analysis of the microsporogenesis was carried out in the Agave tequilana and A. angustifolia species. Several abnormalities such as chromosomal bridges, lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, monads, dyads and triads were found. The morphological analysis of the pollen, together with the above-mentioned 2n microspores, allowed us to confirm the presence of 2n pollen as well as its frequency. In both A. tequilana and A. angustifolia two different mechanisms were observed: the first mechanism, a failure in the cytokinesis in meiosis II caused the formation of dyads with two 2n cells and triads containing two n cells and one 2n cell; the second mechanism, involves an abnormal spindle, which caused the formation of triads with two n cells and one 2n cell. Likewise, the presence of monads was detected in both species, these, might be caused by a failure of the cytokinesis in both meiotic divisions. This is the first report about the presence of a Second Division Restitution mechanism (SDR) which causes the formation of 2n pollen in the genus Agave. The genetic implications of the presence of 2n pollen in the genus Agave are discussed. PMID:23961348

Gómez-Rodríguez, Víctor Manuel; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamín; Barba-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

2012-09-13

158

Facilitation and interference at the intraspecific level: Recruitment of Kageneckia angustifolia D. Don (Rosaceae) in the montane sclerophyllous woodland of central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the studies that have evaluated the interplay between interference and facilitation have been done at the interspecific level, whereas studies at the intraspecific level are scarce. The montane sclerophyllous forests of central Chile are dominated by the tree Kageneckia angustifolia, a semi-deciduous species that lose part of its foliage during summer. It has been reported that during winter

Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Alejandro Peñaloza

159

Acylated iridoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia resulted in the isolation and characterization of six new acylated iridoids, (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-8-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (1), (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (2), (5S,8S,9S)-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (3), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-1,3-diol (4), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-1,3-isovaleroxy-?4,11-1,3-diol (5), and (5S,6S,8S,9R)-3-isovaleroxy-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-1,3-diol (6). Their structures were determined mainly by 1D and 2D?NMR spectroscopic techniques. We also report herein for the first time the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 1. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated against A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma), SK-BR-3 (human breast carcinoma), and HepG2 (human hepatoma) cell lines. Compound 6 showed weak cell growth inhibition of A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2 cells. PMID:22872588

Han, Zhu-zhen; Yan, Zhao-hui; Liu, Qing-xin; Hu, Xian-qing; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-liang; Zhang, Wei-dong

2012-08-07

160

Emblica officinalis Gaertn and serum cholesterol level in experimental rabbits.  

PubMed

Twelve albino rabbits of either sex weighing 1.0-1.25 kg were fed a standard laboratory diet of green grass and sattu (roasted Bengal gram). After a 2-week run-in period their serum cholesterol levels were estimated. All animals were now fed 0.5 g cholesterol and 1.0 g clarified butter daily and were not divided into 3 groups of 4 animals each. While all received the standard cholesterol-rich diet, Group A animals received no additional substances, animals in Group B were each fed 10 mg vitamin C daily, while those in Group C were each given 1.0 g fresh Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn). Mean serum cholesterol levels in all three groups rose to significantly higher levels by the end of the second week. There was a further rise by the end of the third and fourth weeks in Groups A and B. However, animals in Group C (i.e. those given Amla) showed significantly lower mean serum cholesterol levels at the end of the second week than their counterparts in Groups A and B. At the end of the third and fourth weeks the differences were even more pronounced. PMID:7295546

Mishra, M; Pathak, U N; Khan, A B

1981-10-01

161

Emblica officinalis Gaertn and serum cholesterol level in experimental rabbits.  

PubMed Central

Twelve albino rabbits of either sex weighing 1.0-1.25 kg were fed a standard laboratory diet of green grass and sattu (roasted Bengal gram). After a 2-week run-in period their serum cholesterol levels were estimated. All animals were now fed 0.5 g cholesterol and 1.0 g clarified butter daily and were not divided into 3 groups of 4 animals each. While all received the standard cholesterol-rich diet, Group A animals received no additional substances, animals in Group B were each fed 10 mg vitamin C daily, while those in Group C were each given 1.0 g fresh Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn). Mean serum cholesterol levels in all three groups rose to significantly higher levels by the end of the second week. There was a further rise by the end of the third and fourth weeks in Groups A and B. However, animals in Group C (i.e. those given Amla) showed significantly lower mean serum cholesterol levels at the end of the second week than their counterparts in Groups A and B. At the end of the third and fourth weeks the differences were even more pronounced.

Mishra, M.; Pathak, U. N.; Khan, A. B.

1981-01-01

162

Antiallergic action of Magnolia officinalis on immediate hypersensitivity reaction.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of aqueous extract of Magnolia officinalis bark (Magnoliaceae) (MOAE) on the immediate hypersensitivity reaction. MOAE (0.01 to 1 g/kg) dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80 induced systemic anaphylaxis in rats. MOAE (0.1 and 1 g/kg) also significantly inhibited local immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction. When MOAE was pretreated at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1 g/kg, the levels of plasma histamine were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. MOAE (0.001 to 1 mg/ml) dose-dependently inhibited the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) activated by compound 48/80 or anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE. The level of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in RPMC, when MOAE was added, significantly increased compared with that of the normal control. Moreover, MOAE (0.01 to 1 mg/ml) had a significant inhibitory effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from RPMC. These results indicate that MOAE inhibits immediate hypersensitivity reaction in vivo and in vitro. PMID:11440086

Shin, T Y; Kim, D K; Chae, B S; Lee, E J

2001-06-01

163

Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.  

PubMed

Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-?B activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1? production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

2013-03-20

164

On "officinalis" the names of plants as one enduring history of therapeutic medicine.  

PubMed

The officina was the building, usually an out-building, in medieval monasteries where medical monks prepared medicaments and pharmaceutical preparations to heal the sick. Dried extracts, infusions, decoctions, tinctures and distillates were prepared therein. Often the officina was attached to the medicinal or herbal gardens, also enclosed within the monastery precinct. When Linnaeus invented the binomial system of nomenclature, he gave the specific name "officinalis", to dozens of herbs and plants whose medical use had been established in preceding millennia. In the 1735 (1st Edition) of his Systema Naturae, he acknowledged the historical traditions of healing by naming scores of plants with the species designator, "officinalis", as a generic qualifier. Literally "from the officina", the species name "officinalis" thus embodied the history of many centuries of medicinal use and health lore. PMID:21657104

Pearn, John

2010-12-01

165

Ascorbic acid and tannins from Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Fruits--a revisit.  

PubMed

The fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae), also known as amla in Ayurveda, are considered to be a rich source of ascorbic acid. However, the antioxidant activities exhibited by E. officinalis extract are superior to those of ascorbic acid itself. Low molecular hydrolyzable tannins emblicanins A and B have been suggested in the earlier literature to be the contributory antioxidant molecules in the extract. This work finds no evidence for the presence of emblicanins A and B in the extract. In addition, the high content of ascorbic acid is also questionable due to previous nonidentification of coeluting mucic acid gallates. This paper reports a new HPLC method to detect even trace amounts of ascorbic acid in E. officinalis fruit juice or extract. PMID:19063633

Majeed, Muhammed; Bhat, Beena; Jadhav, Atul N; Srivastava, Jyotish S; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam

2009-01-14

166

Structure of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) under external stress in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study is part of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina, conceived to evaluate forest resources, species composition and structure of forest remnants, providing information to update forest conservation and land use policy in Southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (95 000 km2). In accordance to the Brazilian National Forest Inventory (IFN-BR), the inventory applies systematic sampling, with 440 clusters containing four crosswise 1 000m2 plots (20 x 50m) each, located on a 10 x 10km grid overlaid to land use map based on classification of SPOT-4 images from 2005. Within the sample units, all woody individuals of the main stratum (DBH > or = 10cm) are measured and collected (fertile and sterile), if not undoubtedly identified in field. Regeneration stratum (height > 1.50m; DBH < 10cm) is registered in 100m2 in each sample unit. Floristic sampling includes collection of all fertile trees, shrubs and herbs within the sample unit and in its surroundings. This study performs analysis based on 92 clusters measured in 2008 within an area of 32320km2 of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia located at the state's high plateau (500m to 1 560m above sea level at 26 degrees 00'-28 degrees 30' S and 49 degrees 13'-51 degrees 23' W). Mean density (DBH > or = 10cm) is 578 individuals/ha (ranging from 85/ha to 1 310/ha), mean species richness in measured remnants is 35 (8 to 62), Shannon and Wiener diversity index (H') varies between 1.05 and 3.48. Despite high total species diversity (364 Magnoliophyta, five Coniferophyta and one tree fern) and relatively high mean basal area (25.75m2/ha, varying from 3.87 to 68.85m2/ha), the overwhelming majority of forest fragments are considered highly impacted and impoverished, mostly by logging, burning and extensive cattle farming, turning necessary more efficient protection measures. Basal area was considered an appropriate indicator for stand quality and conservation status. PMID:22017139

Vibrans, Alexander C; Sevegnani, Lúcia; Uhlmann, Alexandre; Schorn, Lauri A; Sobral, Marcos G; de Gasper, André L; Lingner, Débora V; Brogni, Eduardo; Klemz, Guilherme; Godoy, Marcela B; Verdi, Marcio

2011-09-01

167

Beneficial effects of Emblica officinalis in L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.  

PubMed

Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is characterized by focal macroscopic or diffuse necrosis, hemorrhage, and vascular thrombosis of the pancreas. Current treatment options are limited to supportive and symptomatic interventions. A large amount of experimental work is ongoing to identify novel therapeutic agents for acute pancreatitis. The present study was carried out to explore the beneficial effects of Emblica officinalis, a medicinal plant of India, on acute pancreatitis. Ascorbic acid is one of the major chemical components of E. officinalis, so a vitamin C group was included for comparison. Acute pancreatitis was induced by L-arginine. Rats were divided into the following groups: control (saline), arginine?+?saline, arginine?+?E. officinalis, and arginine?+?vitamin C. Animals in each group were sacrificed at 24 hours and 3, 14, and 28 days after pancreatitis induction for determination of biochemical parameters and histological examination. For rate of DNA synthesis and immunohistochemical studies, animals were sacrificed on Day 3 and Day 7. Drug administration was started 2 hours after the last arginine injection and continued until the day of sacrifice. E. officinalis treatment was found to be beneficial for treating acute pancreatitis. Serum levels of lipase and interleukin-10 were significantly lower than in the arginine group. Nucleic acid content, rate of DNA synthesis, pancreatic proteins, and pancreatic amylase content were significantly improved. Histopathological examination showed significantly lower total scores in the Emblica group. Vitamin C was found to be less efficacious than E. officinalis for all outcome parameters. Thus E. officinalis treatment was found to be beneficial in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID:21138365

Sidhu, Shabir; Pandhi, Promila; Malhotra, Samir; Vaiphei, Kim; Khanduja, Kundal Lal

2010-12-07

168

Protective effect of Emblica officinalis (amla) on isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla, is an important medicinal plant reputed for its dietary and therapeutic uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of E. officinalis against isoproterenol (ISP)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats and elucidate the possible mechanism involved. Rats were administered E. officinalis (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (normal saline) for 30 days, with concurrent subcutaneous injections of ISP (85 mg/kg, at 24 h interval) on 29th and 30th day. ISP-induced cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, contractility (+LVdP/dt) and relaxation (-LVdP/dt) along with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. ISP significantly (p < 0.05) decreased antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and myocyte-injury-specific marker enzymes, creatine phosphokinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase in heart. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of reduced glutathione and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances along with histopathological alteration has further indicated the oxidative damage of myocardium. However, pretreatment with E. officinalis exhibited restoration of hemodynamic and left ventricular function along with significant preservation of antioxidants, myocytes-injury-specific marker enzymes and significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, histopathological salvage of myocardium reconfirmed the protective effects of E. officinalis. Results of the present study demonstrate cardioprotective potential of E. officinalis attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by favorable improvement in hemodynamic, contractile function and tissue antioxidant status. PMID:22033422

Ojha, Shreesh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

2011-10-27

169

Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens.  

PubMed

Present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of Emblica officinalis (amla) and Coriandrum sativum (coriander) against 345 bacterial isolates belonging to 6 different genera of Gram negative bacterial population isolated from urine specimens by employing well diffusion technique. Aqueous infusion and decoction of Emblica officinalis exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (270), Klebsiella pneumoniae (51), K. ozaenae (3), Proteus mirabilis (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Salmonella typhi (1), S. paratyphi A (2), S. paratyphi B (1) and Serratia marcescens (2) but did not show any antibacterial activity against Gram negative urinary pathogens. PMID:17337425

Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

2007-01-01

170

Indole alkoloids from Nauclea officinalis with weak antimalarial activity.  

PubMed

Five indole alkaloids (naucleofficines A-E) were isolated from the stems (with bark) of Nauclea officinalis: (E)-2-(1-beta-d-glucopyranosyloxybut-2-en-2-yl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6,7-dihydro-indolo[2,3-a]quinolizin-4(12H)-one (1), (E)-1-propenyl-12-beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy-2,7,8-trihydro-indolo[2,3-a]pyran[3,4-g]quinolizin-4,5(13H)-dione (2), (E)-2-(1-hydroxybut-2-en-2-yl)-11-beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy-6,7-dihydro-indolo[2,3-a]quinolizin-4(12H)-one (3), (E)-1-propenyl-4-hydroxy-2,4a,7,8,13b,14,14a-hepthydro-(4alpha,4abeta,13balpha,14abeta)indolo[2,3-a]pyran[3,4-g]quinolizin-5(13H)-one (4) and 1-(1-hydroxyethyl)-10-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-indolo[2,3-a]pirydine[3,4-g]quinolizin-5(13H)-one (10-hydroxyangustoline) (5), together with two known compounds, naucleidinal (6) and angustoline (7). All of the structures of the seven compounds above were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including use of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2 and 3 are rare examples of monoterpene indole alkaloids with a glucopyranosyloxy group attached to position C-12. In vitro activity screening of the above seven compounds showed weak to moderate inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:18328515

Sun, Jingyong; Lou, Hongxiang; Dai, Shengjun; Xu, Hui; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Ke

2008-03-06

171

Indole Alkaloids of Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in 1 M HCl Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhibition effect of mild steel (MS) corrosion in 1 M HCl was studied by the addition of indole alkaloids (crude) isolated from Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia ( A. latifolia) leaves at 303 K. Potentiodynamic polarization, impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses were used for this study. Results show that the isolated alkaloid extract of A. latifolia is a good inhibitor and exhibited maximum inhibition efficiency (above 80%) at concentrations between 3 and 5 mg/L. Polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitor does not alter the mechanism of either anodic or cathodic reactions and acted as mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies of both electrochemical techniques are found to be in good agreement and adsorption of inhibitor follows Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption of inhibitor over metal surface was well supported by the SEM studies, while FTIR studies evidenced the presence of indole alkaloids as green inhibitor that reduces the rate of corrosion.

Raja, Pandian Bothi; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Awang, Khalijah; Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Osman, Hasnah

2013-04-01

172

Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L.

Iraj Rasooli; Mohammad Hadi Fakoor; Davod Yadegarinia; Latif Gachkar; Abdolamir Allameh; Mohammad Bagher Rezaei

2008-01-01

173

The structure of rosmariquinone — A new antioxidant isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new diterpene, named rosmariquinone, was isolated from the leaves ofRosmarinus officinalis L. The leaves were first extracted using methanol and, upon further purification, this extract yielded rosmariquinone. Structure\\u000a elucidation of the antioxidant was done using IR, MS,1H-NMR and13C-NMR.

Christopher M. Houlihan; Chi-Tang Ho; Stephen S. Chang

1985-01-01

174

Glandular trichomes on the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis: Morphology, stereology and histochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereological and histochemical analyses of the glandular trichomes on leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis were carried out using light and fluorescence microscopy. Non-glandular and two types of glandular trichomes – peltate and capitate – are described. The stereological method was used for estimating the volume density of epidermis, mesophyll, mechanical tissue, central cylinder, intercellular spaces and volume density of different types

M. Marin; V. Koko; S. Duleti?-Lauševi?; P. D. Marin; D. Ran?i?; Z. Dajic-Stevanovic

2006-01-01

175

In vitro antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts treated with supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) were subjected to supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE). Different sources of variability, including location (Izmir, Canakkale and Mersin) and harvesting time (December, March, June and September), were considered. Among active constituents of rosemary, carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid were analyzed by HPLC. Variability of the amounts of active constituents appears to be due to

O. Yesil Celiktas; E. Bedir; F. Vardar Sukan

2007-01-01

176

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis Cultivated in the Algerian Sahara  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile compounds obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis cultivated at the Algerian Sahara were analyzed by GC\\/MS. Thirty compounds were characterized representing 98.2% of the essential oil with 1,8-cineole (29.5%), 2-ethyl-4,5-dimethylphenol (12.0%) and camphor (11.5%) as the major components.

O. Touafek; A. Nacer; A. Kabouche; Z. Kabouche; C. Bruneau

2004-01-01

177

Phytostabilization of Amended Soils Polluted with Trace Elements Using the Mediterranean Shrub: Rosmarinus Officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the mid-term effects of two amendments and the establishment of R. officinalis on chemical and biochemical properties in a trace element contaminated soil by a mine spill and the possible use of this plant for stabilization purposes. The experiment was carried out using containers filled with trace element polluted soil, where four treatments were established: organic treatment (biosolid

P. Madejón; P. Burgos; F. Cabrera; E. Madejón

2009-01-01

178

Studies of UPLC fingerprint for the identification of Magnoliae officinalis cortex processed  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out with the objective of establishing Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatograph (UPLC) fingerprint for the identification of Magnoliae officinalis cortex processed. It was extracted by methanol using an ultrasonic extractor. Twelve samples of M. officinalis cortex produced in Zhejiang of China from different places and species were processed with ginger juice; sample solutions were determined by Waters UPLC equipped with BEH C18 column and a DAD detector, gradient eluted with formic acid/methanol-formic acid/water as mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 0.3 ml• min?1, while the column temperature was set at 30°C, and the wavelength for detection was set at 240 nm. The characteristic of the common peaks of the UPLC fingerprint for M. officinalis cortex processed are obvious. Forty-one common peaks were detected and two of them were identified. The method of UPLC fingerprint established in this experiment was rapid and efficient. It is an effective means for the quality control of M. officinalis cortex processed.

Wang, Lin; Yuan, Ke; Yu, Wei-wu

2010-01-01

179

Protective effects of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. in cyclophosphamide-treated mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most popular alkylating anticancer drugs in spite of its toxic side effects including immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity, mutagenicity and a host of others. The present study was undertaken to assess the protective effects of total aqueous extract of a medicinal plant, Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) in mice treated with CP. These protective effects were studied

R. Haque; B. Bin-Hafeez; I. Ahmad; S. Parvez; S. Pandey; S. Raisuddin

2001-01-01

180

Simple high-performance liquid chromatography method for ?-tocopherol measurement in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple HPLC method for vitamin E (?-tocopherol) measurement in the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis has been developed and validated. It has enabled new data for ?-tocopherol content to be established. The leaves, recently harvested, were dried in a microwave oven and crushed; then, ?-tocopherol was directly extracted from portions of ground material with acetone, by probe sonication. After centrifugation

J Torre; M. P Lorenzo; M. P Mart??nez-Alcázar; C Barbas

2001-01-01

181

Drinking of Salvia officinalis tea increases CCl 4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, the drinking of a Salvia officinalis tea (prepared as an infusion) for 14 days improved liver antioxidant status in mice and rats where, among other factors, an enhancement of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was observed. Taking in consideration these effects, in the present study the potential protective effects of sage tea drinking against a situation of hepatotoxicity

Cristovao F. Lima; Manuel Fernandes-Ferreira; Cristina Pereira-Wilson

2007-01-01

182

Effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish S. officinalis were studied. Cuttlefish used were one month old at the start of the experiment, on average; two densities were used (16 and 76 cuttlefish m?2). During the first experiment (until day 43), dead cuttlefish were replaced by individuals of similar weight. From that day onwards,

Miguel Correia; Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade

2005-01-01

183

Effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish S. officinalis were studied. Cuttlefish used were one month old at the start of the experiment, on average; two densities were used (16 and 76 cuttlefish m2). During the first experiment (until day 43), dead cuttlefish were replaced by individuals of similar weight. From that day onwards,

Miguel Correia; Pedro M. Domingues; Antonio Sykes

184

Effect of drying methods on nutritional composition of dehydrated aonla fruit ( Emblica officinalis Garten) during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aonla fruit (Emblica officinalis Garten) cv. Chakaiya was dried using four different methods viz., osmo-air drying, direct sun drying, indirect solar drying and oven drying. The osmo-air drying method was found to be the best method for drying of aonla because of better retention of nutrients like ascorbic acid and sugars. The level of antinutrients like tannins was also found

Pragati; S. S. Dhawan

2003-01-01

185

Effect of bioactive tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis on iron-induced hepatic toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tannoid principles of the fruits of the plant Emblica officinalis Gaertn comprising of emblicanin A. emblicanin B, punigluconin and pedunculagin, have been reported to exhibit antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, an emblicanin A (37%) and B (33 %) enriched fraction of fresh juice of Emblica fruits (EOT), administered prophylactically (10, 20 and 50

A. Bhattacharya; M. Kumar; S. Ghosal; S. K. Bhattacharya

2000-01-01

186

Effect of Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of Emblica officinalis (EO), Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) and Picrorrhiza kurroa (P. kurroa) significantly inhibited hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in a dose dependent manner. The anticarcinogenic activity of these extracts were evaluated by their effect on tumour incidence, levels of carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, levels of liver cancer markers and liver injury markers. Animals treated with NDEA alone showed

K. Jose Jeena; K. L Joy; Ramadasan Kuttan

1999-01-01

187

Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on lens regeneration in the frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (Schneider)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis (Amla) accelerated cell proliferation and dedifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells of dorsal iris and consequently induced lens regeneration in R.cyanophlyctis. Further it enhanced the percentage of lens regeneration not only in young tadpoles but also is adult frogs. Lens regeneration ability declined with the age of animals in both control as well as treated groups.

Jayshree Banot; Garima Lata; O P Jangir; Manshi Sharma; Vijay Singh Rathore; S K Saini; Amit Nagal

188

Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on lens regeneration in the frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (Schneider).  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis (Amla) accelerated cell proliferation and dedifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells of dorsal iris and consequently induced lens regeneration in R. cyanophlyctis. Further it enhanced the percentage of lens regeneration not only in young tadpoles but also is adult frogs. Lens regeneration ability declined with the age of animals in both control as well as treated groups. PMID:19405379

Banot, Jayshree; Lata, Garima; Jangir, O P; Sharma, Manshi; Rathore, Vijay Singh; Saini, S K; Nagal, Amit

2009-03-01

189

Antioxidant action of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis in hypercholesterolemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral administration of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis at a dose of 10 mg kg?1 body weight day?1 showed significant antioxidant action in cholesterol-fed experimental rats. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids was investigated on the basis of their effects on the activities of oxidative free radical scavenging enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase,

L. Anila; N. R. Vijayalakshmi

2003-01-01

190

Impact of Harvesting of Emblica officinalis (Aonla) on Its Natural Regeneration in Central Indian Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reports the prevalent harvesting practices of an important NTFP species, Aonla, Emblic myrobalan (Emblica officinalis) which grows as an associate in tropical dry and moist deciduous forests in large parts of India. Aonla fruit is a rich natural source of vitamin C and is an integral part of a number of Ayurvedic (Indian system of medicine) formulations.

Ram Prasad; P. C. Kotwal; Manish Mishra

2001-01-01

191

Studies on identification of white specks in cured aonla ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), an Indian vitamin C-rich fruit, has great potential for pickling but the development of white specks during curing and pickling is a major hindrance. Studies to evaluate the effects of various pre-treatments on the development of white specks were carried out. The extent of white specks was less in aonla fruit segments preserved in steeping solution

B. R Premi; Vijay Sethi; D. B Saxena

1998-01-01

192

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible

Letizia Penolazzi; Ilaria Lampronti; Monica Borgatti; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Margherita Zennaro; Roberta Piva; Roberto Gambari

2008-01-01

193

Effect of Emblica officinalis (fruit) against UVB-induced photo-aging in human skin fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceEmblica officinalis fruit (EO), commonly known as Amla is a reputed traditional medicine and functional food used in Indian subcontinent. It has long been used in Indian folk medicine to treat liver diseases, stomach ulcers, inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, geriatric complaints, skin disorders and beauty care.

Mushtaq D. Adil; Peerzada Kaiser; Naresh K. Satti; Afzal M. Zargar; Ram A. Vishwakarma; Sheikh A. Tasduq

2010-01-01

194

Protective Effect of an Extract of Emblica officinalis Against Radiation-Induced Damage in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioprotective effect of Emblica officinalis extract (EOE) was studied in mice. Swiss albino mice were exposed to ? rays (5 Gy) in the absence (control) or presence (experimental) of EOE, orally 100 mg\\/kg body weight, once daily for 7 consecutive days. A specimen of small intestine (jejunum) was removed from the mice and studied at different autopsy intervals from

Archana Jindal; Dhanraj Soyal; Abhilasha Sharma; P. K. Goyal

2009-01-01

195

Reduction of hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rat liver by Emblica officinalis Gaertn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of prefeeding of dehydrated E. officinalis (amla) powder at 5 and 10% levels on hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-induced changes in multicomponent antioxidant system and lipid peroxides in rat liver was studied. HCH induced significant elevation in hepatic malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides. The prefeeding of amla at 10% level could decrease the formation of these lipid peroxides significantly. The HCH

K R Anilakumar; N S Nagaraj; K Santhanam

196

Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.  

PubMed

Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria. PMID:22594260

Stefanovi?, Olgica D; Stanojevi?, Dragana D; Comi?, Ljiljana R

197

Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration

D. O Kennedy; Andrew B Scholey; N. T. J Tildesley; E. K Perry; K. A Wesnes

2002-01-01

198

Calendula officinalis—production potential and crop agronomy in southern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in Calendula officinalis L. as an industrial oil crop has developed from the discovery that it has a seed-oil content of around 20%, of which up to 60% is calendic acid, a useful industrial feedstock. An EU AIR project `vegetable oils with specific fatty acids', is in progress to further develop this and other species. The first 2 years

H. T. H Cromack; J. M Smith

1998-01-01

199

Effect of Water Stress on Salvia officinalis L. Bioproductivity and Its Bioelement Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salvia officinalis L. is an aromatic and medicinal species that has medicinal and antioxidative properties. Studying the growth, productivity, and nutrient absorption of this plant under different water regimes is necessary to optimize its cropping techniques. Five irrigation regimes (100, 75, 50, 25, and 0% of ET0) were tested in this trial, through two consecutive years, at two sites during

M. Corell; M. C. Garcia; J. I. Contreras; M. L. Segura; P. Cermeño

2012-01-01

200

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Salvia officinalis L. Oil from Two Culture Sites in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oils were produced from the aerial parts (leaves, stems and flowers) of Salvia officinalis cultivated in two culture sites in Tunisia. The herbage was hydrodistillated and the resulting oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC\\/MS. The composition of the oils obtained from the two culture sites reveals that they were quite similar, although some quantitative differences were found. The main

Souad Fellah; Papa N. Diouf; Mathieu Petrissans; Dominique Perrin; Mehrez Romdhane; Manef Abderrabba

2006-01-01

201

The Effects of Age on the Yield and Composition of the Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and

O. O. Okoh; A. A. Sadimenko; A. J. Afolayan

2007-01-01

202

Essential Oil Variation of Salvia officinalis Leaves during Vegetation after Treatment with Foliar Fertilizer and Thidiazuron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil yield and chemical composition of Salvia officinalis L. (Dalmatica origin) have been analyzed. Leaf samples for essential oil analysis were harvested at different developmental stages after treatment with foliar fertilizer Agroleaf and foliar fertilizer + thidiazuron. In total, 10 constituents were identified and quantified. The main compounds in the essential oil that increased during the vegetative to

Ira Stancheva; Maria Geneva; Georgi Georgiev; Milka Todorova; Lyuba Evstatieva

2010-01-01

203

Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.

Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia

2008-01-01

204

Linkage Arrangement of RFLP loci in progenies from crosses between doubled haploid Asparagus officinalis L. clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. (2n = 20) has been constructed on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and isozyme marker data. With DNA samples digested with either EcoRI or HindIII 61 out of 148 probes (41%) identified RFLPs in six families of doubled haploid lines obtained through anther culture. A higher

F. M. Restivo; F. Tassi; R. Biffi; A. Falavigna; E. Caporali; A. Carboni; M. L. Doldi; A. Spada; G. P. Marziani

1995-01-01

205

Über Inhaltsstoffe aus Petasites officinalis Moench I. Petasin und die Petasolester B und C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three spasmolytically active substances which contain no nitrogen, namely petasin and the petasolesters B and C, were isolated fromPetasites officinalis Moench. They are all esters of the same C15-alcohol. Petasin is an ester of angelic acid, whereas the petasolesters B and C are derivates of a new acid containing sulphur, the?-methylmercapto-acrylic acid.

A. Stoll; R. Morf; A. Rheiner; J. Renz

1956-01-01

206

Size-dependent pollination efficiency in Anchusa officinalis (Boraginaceae) : causes and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bumblebees foraging on the self-incompatible Anchusa officinalis fly between near neighbour plants and between near neighbour inflorescences within plants. Although many-flowered plants attracted most bumblebees these plants received fewer visits on a per flower basis than smaller plants, and each bumblebee visited a smaller proportion of the flowers. The calculated effective visitation rate per flower was highest on plants of

Stefan Andersson

1988-01-01

207

Matrix solid-phase dispersion for the liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic acids in Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was used for sample preparation of plant material (Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm) prior to liquid chromatography of rosmarinic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids, phenolic compounds present in this herb. Different MSPD sorbents and various elution agents were tested and the optimal extraction conditions determined with the aim to obtain extraction recoveries greater than 90% for all analytes.

Alica Žiaková; Eva Brandšteterová; Eva Blahová

2003-01-01

208

Pharmaco-physio-psychologic effect of Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment using an essential oil from Lavendula angustifolia.  

PubMed

Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment, Shirodhara, involves the use of medicated herbal sesame oils. In our previous reports, we found that Shirodhara with plain sesame oil induced anxiolysis and an altered state of consciousness (ASC) in healthy subjects. We studied the pharmaco-physio-psychologic effect of Shirodhara with medicated sesame oil including an essential oil from Lavendula angustifolia (lavender) in the present study. Sixteen (16) healthy females (38 +/- 8 years old) were assigned at random to three treatments applied by a robotic oil-dripping system: plain sesame oil (plain Shirodhara), medicated sesame oil with a 0.3 volume % of lavender essential oil (lavender Shirodhara), or the control supine position. Psychophysiologic parameters including the heart rate, skin temperature of the dorsum of hands and feet, as well as anxiety and ASC were monitored, and the rates of change of these items were calculated to assess the psychophysiologic changes brought about by Shirodhara. Lavender Shirodhara showed potent anxiolytic and ASC-inducing or promoting effects, and induced the largest increase in foot skin temperature. The correlation between anxiolysis and ASC, as well as the correlation between these psychologic effects and the elevated foot skin temperature were larger in the lavender Shirodhara than in the other two conditions. It was speculated that the psycho-physiologic effects of lavender Shirodhara would be brought about by three mechanisms: (1) the well-known relaxing action of essential oils from L. angustifolia mediated by olfactory nerves, (2) the pharmacologic action of substances absorbed through the skin or mucosa in the sesame oil or lavender essential oil, and (3) the physiologic effect of sesame oil dripped on the forehead induced by the somato-autonomic reflex through thermosensors or pressure sensors in the skin or hair follicles via the trigeminal cranial nerve. The complicated pharmaco-physio-psychologic action of Ayurvedic oil treatment may provide a useful model for future pharmaco-physio-psychotherapy. PMID:18990044

Xu, Fenghao; Uebaba, Kazuo; Ogawa, Hiroko; Tatsuse, Takeshi; Wang, Bing-Hong; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Venkatraman, Sonia

2008-10-01

209

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities.

Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

2008-01-01

210

Biochemical characterization, cDNA cloning, and molecular modeling of araujiain aII, a papain-like cysteine protease from Araujia angustifolia latex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Araujiain aII, the protease with highest specific activity purified from latex of Araujia angustifolia (Apocynaceae), shows optimum proteolytic activity at alkaline pH, and it is completely inhibited by the irreversible inhibitor\\u000a of cysteine proteases trans-epoxysucciny-l-leucyl-amido(4-guanidino) butane. It exhibits esterolytic activity on several N-?-Cbz-amino acid p-nitrophenyl esters with a preference for Gln, Ala, and Gly derivatives. Kinetic enzymatic assays were performed

Walter D. Obregón; Daniela Lufrano; Constanza S. Liggieri; Sebastián A. Trejo; Sandra E. Vairo-Cavalli; Francesc X. Avilés; Nora S. Priolo

211

Kocuria palustris sp. nov, and Kocuria rhizophila sp. nov., isolated from the rhizoplane of the narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Gram-positive, aerobic spherical actinobacteria were isolated from the rhizoplane of narrow-leaved cattail (lypha angustifolia) collected from a floating mat in the Soroksdr tributary of the Danube river, Hungary. Sequence comparisons of the 16s rDNA indicated these isolates to be phylogenetic neighbours of members of the genus Kocuria, family Micrococcaceae, in which they represent two novel lineages. The phylogenetic distinctness

Gabor KOV; Jutta Burghardt; Silke Pradella; Peter Schumann; Erko Stackebrandt

212

Heavy metals accumulation and ecophysiological effect on Typha angustifolia L. and Cyperus esculentus L. growing in distillery and tannery effluent polluted natural wetland site, Unnao, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillery and tanneries are major source of heavy metals pollution in natural wetland sites in India. Present study deals\\u000a with the heavy metals accumulation potential of Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus growing in distillery and tannery effluent polluted wetland sites. The metal accumulation pattern in both macrophytes showed\\u000a direct correlation with the metal content in sediments. Both macrophytes were observed

Sangeeta Yadav; Ram Chandra

2011-01-01

213

Estimating nitrogen budgets of Typha angustifolia by considering the regrowth shoot productivity and nitrogen content after harvesting aerial organs in different growing seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model that includes regrowth after harvesting aerial shoots of an emergent macrophyte, Typha angustifolia L., was applied to evaluate the nitrogen (N) budget and the N uptake by the plant from sediment in Shibakawa Pond, Japan.\\u000a Under natural conditions (control\\/uncut stands), the analysis showed that the annual uptake of N from sediment was 26.6 gN\\/m2 and harvesting Typha shoots

Shamal Chandra Das; Norio Tanaka

2007-01-01

214

Effects of NaCl on growth, water status, N 2 fixation, and ion distribution in Pterocarpus officinalis seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pterocarpus officinalis (Fabaceae) dominates in the swamp forests of the Lesser Antilles, submitted to strong variations of soil salinity (30–445 mM).\\u000a This study aimed to assess the effect of salinity on growth, nodulation, N2 fixation, water status and ions content in P. officinalis and to clarify the mechanisms involved. Seedlings inoculated or not with two strains from areas of contrasting salinity

Maguy Dulormne; Olivia Musseau; Félix Muller; Armel Toribio; Amadou Bâ

2010-01-01

215

Metabolomic analysis reveals that the accumulation of specific secondary metabolites in Echinacea angustifolia cells cultured in vitro can be controlled by light.  

PubMed

Echinacea angustifolia cell suspension cultures are usually grown and maintained in the dark, but we also exposed cells to light for one culture cycle (14 days) and then compared the metabolomes of dark-grown and illuminated cells by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among 256 signals, we putatively identified 159 molecules corresponding to 56 different metabolites plus their fragments, adducts and isotopologs. The E. angustifolia metabolome consisted mainly of caffeic acid derivatives, comprising (a) caffeic acid conjugated with tartaric, quinic and hexaric acids; and (b) caffeic acid conjugated with hydroxytyrosol glycosides (e.g., echinacoside, verbascoside and related molecules). Many of these metabolites have not been previously described in E. angustifolia, which currently lacks detailed metabolic profiles. Exposure to light significantly increased the levels of certain caffeic acid derivatives (particularly caffeoylquinic acids and hydroxytyrosol derivatives lacking rhamnose residues) and reduced the level of hydroxytyrosol derivatives with rhamnose residues, revealing that light specifically inhibits the rhamnosylation of caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides. These results are significant because they suggest that the metabolic profile of cell cultures can be manipulated by controlling simple environmental variables such as illumination to modulate the levels of potentially therapeutic compounds. PMID:22009052

Guarnerio, Chiara Francesca; Fraccaroli, Marica; Gonzo, Irene; Pressi, Giovanna; Dal Toso, Roberto; Guzzo, Flavia; Levi, Marisa

2011-10-19

216

Ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced memory deficiency via its antineuroinflammatory and antiamyloidogenic effects.  

PubMed

Magnolia bark contains several compounds such as magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, obovatol, and other neolignan compounds. These compounds have been reported to have various beneficial effects in various diseases. There is sufficient possibility that ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis is more effective in amyloidogenesis via synergism of these ingredients. Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether the ethanol extract of M.?officinalis (10?mg/?kg in 0.05% ethanol) prevents memory dysfunction and amyloidogenesis in AD mouse model by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250?µg/?kg/day for seven times) injection. We found that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevented LPS-induced memory deficiency as well as inhibited the LPS-induced elevation of inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and activation of astrocytes and microglia. In particular, administration of M.?officinalis ethanol extract inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis, which resulted in the inhibition of amyloid precursor protein, beta-site amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving enzyme 1 and C99. Thus, this study shows that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevents LPS-induced memory impairment as well as amyloidogenesis via inhibition of neuroinflammation and suggests that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis might be a useful intervention for neuroinflammation-associated diseases such as AD. PMID:22628265

Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Hwan Mook; Lee, Kiho; Choi, Seok Hwa; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Jeong, Jea-Hwang; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

2012-05-25

217

Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in algeria: juglans regia, lawsonia inermis and salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (P<0.01). however, S. officinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth. PMID:24146470

Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

2013-04-12

218

Total peroxynitrite scavenging capacity of phenylethanoid and flavonoid glycosides from the flowers of Buddleja officinalis.  

PubMed

Nine compounds, including six phenylethanoid glycosides: acteoside (1); bioside (2); echinacoside (3); poliumoside (4); phenylethyl glycoside (5); salidroside (6) and three flavonoids; linarin (7); apigenin (8); isorhoifolin (9), were isolated from the flowers of Buddleja officinalis MAXIM. (Buddlejaceae). Chemical structures were confirmed by (1)H-, and (13)C-NMR, and MS spectral methods and compared with those reported in the literature. Antioxidant activities of the methanol and water extracts, and all isolated compounds were evaluated using the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay against peroxynitrite. Results of the assay showed that the phenylethanoid glycosides, a major class of compounds of the flowers of B. officinalis, possess strong antioxidant activity. Of these, acteoside, echinacoside and poliumoside have 9.9-, 9.8- and 9.5-fold TOSC value, respectively, compared with the positive control, Trolox. PMID:19952410

Tai, Bui Huu; Jung, Bong Yong; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Linh, Pham Thuy; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Huong, Tran Thu; Anh, Ngo Thi; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho

2009-12-01

219

Enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Cornus officinalis.  

PubMed

Process of enzyme assisted extraction (EAE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The influence of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. Results showed that the optimal conditions were compound enzyme amount of 2.15%, extraction pH of 4.2, extraction temperature of 55°C and extraction time of 97min. Under these conditions, the COP yield was 9.29±0.31%, which was well in agreement with the value predicted by the model. The three methods, EAE, hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for extracting COP by RSM were further compared. Results showed that EAE had the largest yield of polysaccharides with lower equipment cost. PMID:23987388

You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping

2013-06-28

220

Characterization of a Saponaria officinalis seed ribosome-inactivating protein: immunoreactivity and sequence homologies.  

PubMed

A ribosome inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis, SO-6, was purified and the N-terminus sequenced. The sequence shows extensive homology with Pokeweed antiviral protein, Pokeweed antiviral protein II, Pokeweed antiviral seed protein and dodecandrin. SDS gel electrophoresis in the Laemmli system revealed two bands of similar intensities with a smear between them, probably an artifact due to the high pI of the protein. Use of a harsher denaturing gel system resulted in one band in electrophoresis. Immune antisera was raised in rabbits against this protein and it cross reacted with other proteins (SO-5, SO-8 and SO-9) from seeds of Saponaria officinalis, but not with gelonin, Momordica charantia inhibitor and dianthin 32. PMID:3925952

Lappi, D A; Esch, F S; Barbieri, L; Stirpe, F; Soria, M

1985-06-28

221

Seasonal variation of the lipoidal matters and hypolipidaemic activity of the red alga Corallina officinalis L.  

PubMed

The lipoidal matters of Corallina officinalis L. showed a seasonal nonsignificant quantitative variation. However, the fatty acids revealed a relative increase in the summer and winter, while unsaponifiable matter exhibited a slight increase in the spring. The GC/MS analysis of saponifiable and unsaponifiable matter of the algal samples collected in different seasons revealed that samples collected in the spring contained a low cholesterol content and high steroidal compounds as well as high polyunsaturated fatty acids. The alcohol extract, hexane extract and fatty acid fraction of this algal sample exhibited a significant hypolipidaemic activity. Also, two biologically active fractions of hydrocarbons were isolated by CC technique from the hexane fraction of C. officinalis L. and identified by GC/MS. PMID:12557241

Awad, N E; Selim, M A; Saleh, M M; Matloub, A A

2003-01-01

222

Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.  

PubMed

Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18853256

Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

2008-10-14

223

Supercritical fluid extraction from rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis): Kinetic data, extract's global yield, composition, and antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work the global yields isotherms and the overall extraction curves for the system rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)+CO2, the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined. The experiments were performed in two supercritical extraction units. The following bed height to bed diameter ratios were used: 0.67, 1.34, 2.8, 5.6, and 8.4. The global yields were determined

Raul N. Carvalho; Lucinewton S. Moura; Paulo T. V. Rosa; M. Angela A. Meireles

2005-01-01

224

Inhibitory effect of Turkish Rosmarinus officinalis L. on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, we have tested acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and methanol extracts, rosmarinic acid as well as the essential oil obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. growing in Turkey by a spectrophotometric method of Ellman using ELISA microplate-reader at 0.2,0.5, and 1.0mg\\/mL concentrations. In addition, quantification of rosmarinic acid,

Ilkay Orhan; Sinem Aslan; Murat Kartal; Bilge ?ener; K. Hüsnü Can Ba?er

2008-01-01

225

Antioxidative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to its main components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to three of its main components (1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, ?-pinene). GC–MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 19 compounds, representing 97.97% of the oil, the major constituents of the oil were described as 1,8-cineole (27.23%), ?-pinene (19.43%), camphor (14.26%),

W. Wang; N. Wu; Y. G. Zu; Y. J. Fu

2008-01-01

226

Effects of Carbon Dioxide, Water Supply, and Seasonality on Terpene Content and Emission by Rosmarinus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 µmol\\/mol (atmospheric CO2 and elevated CO2) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO2 led to increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO2 treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995,

Josep Peñuelas; Joan Llusià

1997-01-01

227

Essential oils composition in two Rosmarinus officinalis L. varieties and incidence for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil composition of Rosmarinus officinalis var. typicus and var. troglodytorum endemic to Tunisia, and growing wild in different bioclimates, was determined by GC and GC–MS. Oils were assessed for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. A variation of the chemical composition attributed to varieties rather than to bioclimates was revealed. 1.8-Cineole (47.2–27.5%) and camphor (12.9–27.9%) were identified as the

Yosr Zaouali; Taroub Bouzaine; Mohamed Boussaid

2010-01-01

228

Supercritical fluid extraction from rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis): Kinetic data, extract's global yield, composition, and antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work the global yields isotherms and the overall extraction curves for the system rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis )+C O 2, the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined. The experiments were performed in two supercritical extraction units. The following bed height to bed diameter ratios were used: 0.67, 1.34, 2.8, 5.6, and 8.4. The

Raul N. Carvalho Jr; Lucinewton S. Moura; Paulo T. V. Rosa; M. Angela; A. Meireles

2005-01-01

229

Anti-oedematous activities of the main triterpendiol esters of marigold ( Calendula officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation and isolation of the genuine faradiol esters (1,2) from flower heads of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae) could be achieved by means of repeated column chromatography (CC) and HPLC for the first time. Structure elucidation of faradiol-3-myristic acid ester 1, faradiol-3-palmitic acid ester 2 and ?-taraxasterol 3 has been also performed, without any previous degradation by means of MS,

K Zitterl-Eglseer; S Sosa; J Jurenitsch; M Schubert-Zsilavecz; R Della Loggia; A Tubaro; M Bertoldi; C Franz

1997-01-01

230

Experimental data and modeling the supercritical fluid extraction of marigold ( Calendula officinalis) oleoresin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fixed bed extraction of marigold (Calendula officinalis) oleoresin with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The operating conditions studied were: pressures ranging from 12 to 20MPa and temperatures from 293 to 313K, indicating solvent densities ranging from 666 to 938kgCO2\\/m3, and solvent flow rate varying from 1.3×10?5 to 5.0×10?5kgCO2\\/s. The results show an increase in the extraction rate,

Eliane M. Z. Michielin; Leandro Danielski; Sandra R. S. Ferreira

2005-01-01

231

Preparative purification of the major anti-inflammatory triterpenoid esters from Marigold ( Calendula officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the efficient preparative purification of faradiol 3-O-laurate, palmitate and myristate, the major anti-inflammatory triterpenoid esters in the flower heads of the medicinal plant Calendula officinalis has been developed. Gram quantities of the individual compounds were obtained with 96 to 98% purity by a combination of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), normal-phase and reversed-phase column chromatography. During the work-up

M. Hamburger; S. Adler; D. Baumann; A. Förg; B. Weinreich

2003-01-01

232

Morphogenesis and plant regeneration from cultured endosperm of Emblica officinalis Gaertn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature endosperm of Emblica Officinalis (Euphorbiaceae) formed a continously growing callus on MS medium supplemented with an auxin (2,4-D or IAA) and a cytokinin (K or BAP). Subculture of callus on MS with BAP (0.2 mg\\/l) and IAA (0.1 mg\\/l) resulted in formation of shoots and embryo-like structures in 50 and 8 per cent cultures, respectively. Regeneration of shoots was

C. B. Sehgal; Sunilla Khurana

1985-01-01

233

LIBS-Based Detection of Antioxidant Elements in Seeds of Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the elements of the extract of seed from Emblica officinalis on antioxidant enzymes and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes membrane in normal as well as streptozotocin-induced severely\\u000a diabetic albino Wister rats. The results revealed that the untreated diabetic rats exhibited increase in oxidative stress\\u000a as indicated by significantly diminished activities

Shikha Mehta; Prashant Kumar Rai; Devendra Kumar Rai; Nilesh Kumar Rai; A. K. Rai; Dane Bicanic; Bechan Sharma; Geeta Watal

2010-01-01

234

Evaluation of antioxidant profile and activity of amalaki (Emblica officinalis) , spirulina and wheat grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of amalki (Emblica officinalis), spirulina and wheatgrass were prepared and analyzed for antioxidant\\u000a vitamin content (vitamin C and E), total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant status, reducing power and effect on glutathione\\u000a S-transferase (GST) activity were evaluated in vitro. Vitamin C content of crude amalaki powder was found to be 5.38 mg\\/g,\\u000a while very less amount 0.22 mg\\/g

Vasudha Shukla; Manish Vashistha; Som Nath Singh

2009-01-01

235

Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate the anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of ethanol (EEO) and aqueous (AEO) extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits in several experimental models. A single oral dose of EEO and AEO (500mg\\/kg, i.p.) showed significant reduction in brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermia in rats. EEO and AEO also elicited pronounced inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced writhing response

James B. Perianayagam; S. K. Sharma; Aney Joseph; A. J. M. Christina

2004-01-01

236

Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis against alcohol induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the protective effect of Emblica officinalis against alcohol-induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8 in each group): control (C), alcohol (A), alcohol plus Emblica fruit extract (A+EFE) and Emblica fruit extract (EFE) alone. Administration of twenty percent alcohol (5g\\/kg body weight) to rats significantly increased cholesterol\\/phospholipid

Vaddi Damodara Reddy; Pannuru Padmavathi; Maturu Paramahamsa; Nallanchakravarthula Varadacharyulu

2009-01-01

237

Plant regeneration after long term callus culture in clones of Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus growth and plant regeneration from long-term callus cultures were studied in two elite clones of Asparagus officinalis cv. Argenteuil, to establish a suitable protocol for a prospective in vitro selec- tion program. Callus initiation and growth was evaluated on MS medium with 3% sucrose, 0.9% agar, 1 mg.l - 1 kinetin, and three levels of 2,4-D. The highest callus

A. C. PONTAROLI; E. L. CAMADRO

238

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

PubMed Central

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

2012-01-01

239

Disinfectant properties of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation of the aerial part of Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Sfax gardens, Tunisia. The obtained oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and 44 compounds were identified. Strong bactericidal and fungicidal effects were shown using the NCCLS broth dilution, EN 1275 and EN 1276 standard methods. The minimal cidal concentrations (MCCs) values

Mohamed Bouaziz; Thabèt Yangui; Sami Sayadi; Abdelhafidh Dhouib

2009-01-01

240

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity.  

PubMed

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-04-10

241

Marigold ( Calendula officinalis L.) oleoresin: Solubility in SC-CO 2 and composition profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) oleoresin in supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and the composition profile of the extracts obtained using different extraction methods were investigated. Supercritical experiments were performed at different temperature (20–40°C) and pressure (120–200bar) levels. The oleoresin solubility in SC-CO2 was determined through the dynamic method using low solvent flow rates (0.79–1.67gCO2\\/min), by assuming that the solvent

Leandro Danielski; Louisiane F. V. Bresciani; Haiko Hense; Rosendo A. Yunes; Sandra R. S. Ferreira

2007-01-01

242

COMPOSITION AND INSECT ATTRACTING ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Rosmarinus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and a number of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalisL. in solvents of increasing polarity were isolated, and their components identified and tested as pest control agents. Ethanol and acetone extracts attract grape berry moth Lobesia botrana. However, none of the extracts had a significant effect on western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, which is attracted by 1,8-cineole, a major

HARALAMBOS E. KATERINOPOULOS; GEORGIA PAGONA; ATHANASIOS AFRATIS; NICOLAOS STRATIGAKIS; NIKOLAOS RODITAKIS

2005-01-01

243

The effects of drying on the chemical components of essential oils of Calendula officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis is a medicinal plant whose essential oils are used for various purposes. The oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves, dry leaves and fresh flowers of the herb yielding 0.06, 0.03 and 0.09%, respectively. The analysis of the oils by GC-MS revealed a total of 30, 21 and 24 compounds from the fresh leaves, dry leaves and

Okoh O. O; Sadimenko A. P; Asekun O. T; Afolayan A. J

2008-01-01

244

Analysis of Carotenoid Composition in Petals of Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen carotenoids were identified in extracts of petals of orange- and yellow-flowered cultivars of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.). Ten carotenoids were unique to orange-flowered cultivars. The UV-vis absorption maxima of these ten carotenoids were at longer wavelengths than that of flavoxanthin, the main carotenoid of calendula petals, and it is clear that these carotenoids are responsible for the orange color

Sanae KISHIMOTO; Takashi MAOKA; Katsuhiko SUMITOMO; Akemi OHMIYA

2005-01-01

245

HPLC analysis of carotenoids in four varieties of Calendula officinalis L. flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis L. is a medicinal plant that accumulates large amounts of carotenoids in its inflorescences. The yellow-to-orange colour of inflorescences is mostly due to carotenoids and the shade is dependent on pigments content and profile.We investigated the carotenoid content and profile in four selected varieties of Calendula: Double Esterel Orange, Radio Extra Selected, Bonbon Abricot and Double Esterel Jaune.

Adela Pintea; Constantin Bele; Sanda Andrei; Carmen Socaciu

246

Lipid components of borage ( Borago officinalis L.) seeds and their changes during germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in composition of total and neutral lipids (NL) as well as glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seeds, germinated in the dark at 25°C for 10 d, were studied. Total lipids constituted 34.0% of the dry matter of borage seeds. During germination, the content\\u000a of total lipids was decreased by 95%. NL accounted for

S. P. J. Namal Senanayake; Fereidoon Shahidi

2000-01-01

247

Carnosol and Carnosic Acids from Salvia officinalis Inhibit Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE2 synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE2 in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC50 values between 1.9 and 3.5 ?g/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC50 values of 5.0 ?M. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE2 generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC50 = 9.3 ?M). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF1?, 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B2] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE2 formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE2 formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis.

Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M.; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

2012-01-01

248

Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress. Methods We examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured. Results Cytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 ?g/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P<0.05). Melissa treatment decrease caspase3 activity (P<0.05) and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.01). Melissa oil has also inhibited malon dialdehyde level and attenuated decrease of Antioxidant Capacity in the hippocampus. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? and HIF-1? mRNA levels were highly increased after ischemia and treatment with Melissa significantly suppressed HIF-1? gene expression (P<0.05). Discussion Results showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury.

2012-01-01

249

Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of Melissa officinalis L. extracts.  

PubMed

The aromatic herb Melissa officinalis L. can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and as a phytochemical. Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water extracts of M. officinalis L. extracts were investigated. The results of antioxidative activity, obtained by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, confirmed that investigated extracts suppressed the formation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and lipid peroxyl radicals in all investigated systems in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities (SA(DPPH) = SA(OH) = 100%) were achieved in the presence of n-butanol extract at concentrations of 0.4 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The highest lipid peroxyl scavenging activity (93.20%) was observed at a higher concentration (5 mg/mL) of n-butanol extract in the lipid peroxidation system. The most effective antibacterial activities were expressed by petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts on Sarcina lutea. Chloroform extract showed the strongest antiproliferative effect with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 0.09 mg/mL and 0.10 mg/mL for HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. The present study demonstrated the high phenolic content and radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of extracts of M. officinalis L. originating from Serbia. PMID:18361749

Canadanovi?-Brunet, Jasna; Cetkovi?, Gordana; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas, Vesna; Bogdanovi?, Gordana; Mandi?, Anamarija; Markov, Sinisa; Cvetkovi?, Dragoljub; Canadanovi?, Vladimir

2008-03-01

250

The antiinflammatory potential of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis L. in rat.  

PubMed

Antiinflammatory effects of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis were evaluated in carrageenan and cotton pellet induced acute and chronic inflammatory animal model. Fractions of E. officinalis containing free (FPEO) and bounded (BPEO) phenolic compounds were assessed by HPLC technique. The free and bound phenolic compounds were studied for their acute and chronic antiinflammatory activity at dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg. The carrageenan induced acute inflammation was assessed by measuring rat paw volume at different time of intervals. Further, cotton pellet induced chronic inflammation was assessed by granulomatous tissue mass estimation along with the estimation of tissue biomarker changes (i.e. lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase and plasma extravasation). The results indicated that in both acute and chronic inflammation, FPEO and BPEO show reduction in the inflammation, but significant effects was observed only at high doses of both fractions which was comparable to diclofenac treated group. In conclusion, phenolic compounds of E. officinalis may serve as potential herbal candidate for amelioration of acute and chronic inflammation due to their modulatory action of free radicals. PMID:20596897

Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Sood, Shailja; Singla, Sumeet Kumar

2010-07-02

251

Chemical and antioxidant evaluation of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) supplements.  

PubMed

Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) (Euphorbiaceae) has a distinguished history in Ayurveda medicine and is ascribed a number of medicinal properties and as a dietary supplement, its use is increasing in Western countries. It is thought that its beneficial properties are a function of its antioxidant potency. The study investigated the chemistry and antioxidant properties of four commercial E. officinalis fruit extracts in order to determine if there are any qualitative-quantitative differences. All extracts produced positive responses in the total phenol, total flavonoid and total tannin assays. The presence of predominantly (poly)phenolic analytes, e.g. ellagic and gallic acids and corilagin, was confirmed by RP-HPLC coupled with photodiode array detection. Despite ascorbic acid being a major constituent of E. officinalis fruits, the furanolactone could not be identified in one of the samples. The extracts demonstrated varying degrees of antioxidative efficacy. The extract designated IG-3 was consistently amongst the most effective extracts in the iron(III) reduction and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays while the extract designated IG-1 demonstrated the best hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. All extracts appeared to be incapable of chelating iron(II) at realistic concentrations. PMID:19172666

Poltanov, Eugeny A; Shikov, Alexander N; Dorman, H J Damien; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Tikhonov, Vladimir P; Hiltunen, Raimo

2009-09-01

252

Disinfectant properties of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Tunisia.  

PubMed

The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation of the aerial part of Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Sfax gardens, Tunisia. The obtained oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 44 compounds were identified. Strong bactericidal and fungicidal effects were shown using the NCCLS broth dilution, EN 1275 and EN 1276 standard methods. The minimal cidal concentrations (MCCs) values ranged from 0.031 to 0.25 microLmL(-1). The essential oils concentrations of 0.5% and 1% (v/v) resulted in a reduction in viability higher than 5 and 4 log units per mL for the standard bacteria and fungi, respectively, within a contact time of 5 min. Using an air sampler and an aroma dispenser, vaporisation of 0.25 mLm(-3) of S. officinalis essential oils resulted in (72%, 73% and 70%) and (54%, 55% and 55%) reduction of the total microbial count and the total count of yeasts and moulds, after a residence time of 1h, 6h and 24h in a selected testing room, respectively. S. officinalis essential oils showed a potent vapour activity against a panel of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. This supported their use as a natural eco-friendly disinfectant to manage airborne microbes. PMID:19682532

Bouaziz, Mohamed; Yangui, Thabèt; Sayadi, Sami; Dhouib, Abdelhafidh

2009-08-12

253

Identification of Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract as the most potent anti-inflammatory of four plant extracts.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory potential of a Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract solely or in combination with extracts prepared from either Polygonum aviculare L., Sambucus nigra L., or Isodon japonicus L. in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) and human U-937 monocytes, as cell models of periodontal disease. HGF-1 and U-937 cells were incubated with LPS from either Porphyromonas gingivalis or Escherichia coli together with the four plant extracts alone or in combination. Secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines from HGF-1 and U-937 cells was measured by means of a multiplexed bead assay system. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract, at concentrations of 1 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL, reduced interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from HGF-1 cells to 72.5 ± 28.6% and reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion from U-937 cells to 8.87 ± 7.97% compared to LPS-treated cells (100%). The other three extracts also reduced secretion of these inflammatory markers but were not as effective. Combination of 9 ?g/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 1 ?g/mL of each of the other extracts maintained the anti-inflammatory effect of Magnolia officinalis L. extract. Combination of 5 ?g/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 5 ?g/mL Isodon japonicus L. extract also maintained the anti-inflammatory potential of the Magnolia officinalis L. extract, whereas increasing concentrations of any of the other plant extracts in the combination experiments reduced the Magnolia officinalis L. extract efficacy in U-937 cells. PMID:23711140

Walker, Joel M; Maitra, Amarnath; Walker, Jessica; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam M; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

2013-01-01

254

ANGUSTIFOLIA is a central component of tissue morphogenesis mediated by the atypical receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG  

PubMed Central

Background During plant tissue morphogenesis cells have to coordinate their behavior to allow the generation of the size, shape and cellular patterns that distinguish an organ. Despite impressive progress the underlying signaling pathways remain largely unexplored. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG (SUB) is involved in signal transduction in several developmental processes including the formation of carpels, petals, ovules and root hair patterning. The three STRUBBELIG-LIKE MUTANT (SLM) genes DETORQUEO (DOQ), QUIRKY (QKY) and ZERZAUST (ZET) are considered central elements of SUB-mediated signal transduction pathways as corresponding mutants share most phenotypic aspects with sub mutants. Results Here we show that DOQ corresponds to the previously identified ANGUSTIFOLIA gene. The genetic analysis revealed that the doq-1 mutant exhibits all additional mutant phenotypes and conversely that other an alleles show the slm phenotypes. We further provide evidence that SUB and AN physically interact and that AN is not required for subcellular localization of SUB. Conclusions Our data suggest that AN is involved in SUB signal transduction pathways. In addition, they reveal previously unreported functions of AN in several biological processes, such as ovule development, cell morphogenesis in floral meristems, and root hair patterning. Finally, SUB and AN may directly interact at the plasma membrane to mediate SUB-dependent signaling.

2013-01-01

255

Effect of N and NPK fertilizers on early field performance of narrow-leaved ash, Fraxinus angustifolia.  

PubMed

The effect of fertilization in the first growing season on early survival and growth of narrow-leaved ash (NLA) (Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. oxycarpa) was evaluated throughout the first 3 years of growth in Adapazari, Turkey. A randomized complete block design with four replications was established to investigate fertilization effects. Granular N urea [46%, (NH2)2CO, NH2-N] and NPK (15/15/15%; NH3-N, P2O5, K2O) fertilizers were applied in mid-May of the first growing season. Fertilization treatments per tree were control, 67 g NPK (equal to 10/10/10 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 133 g NPK (20/20/20 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 33 g urea N (15 g N tree(-1)) and 54 g urea N (25 g N tree(-1)). After three growing seasons under these fertilizer treatments, 98% of trees were still viable. Compared to the control treatment, fertilization had a large and positive effect on diameter and height growth during the first 3 years of growth. However, since there were no significant differences among the fertilized plots in terms of tree diameter and height growth, addition of P and K to the fertilizer regime was not beneficial. The results show that N fertilization in the first growing season has the potential to improve early field growth of narrow-leaved ash. PMID:20648820

Cicek, Emrah; Yilmaz, Faruk; Yilmaz, Murat

256

An exploratory study into the putative prebiotic activity of fructans isolated from Agave angustifolia and the associated anticancer activity.  

PubMed

Linear inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics have a putative role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, whereas relatively little is known about branched fructans. This study aims to investigate the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of branched fructans derived from Agave angustifolia Haw, using the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) model. The proximal, transverse and distal vessels were used to investigate fructan fermentation throughout the colon and to assess the alterations of the microbial composition and fermentation metabolites (short chain fatty acids and ammonia). The influence on bioactivity of the fermentation supernatant was assessed by MTT, Comet and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), respectively. Addition of Agave fructan to the SHIME model significantly increased (P < 0.05), bifidobacteria populations (proximal and transverse), SCFA concentrations (proximal, transverse and distal) and decreased ammonia concentrations in the distal vessel. Furthermore, the fermentation supernatant significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TER of a Caco-2 cell monolayer (%) and decreased fluorescein-based paracellular flux, suggesting enhanced barrier function and reduced epithelial barrier permeability (proximal and distal vessel). While cytotoxicity and genotoxicity remained unaltered in response to the presence of Agave fructans. To conclude, branched Agave fructans show indications of prebiotic activity, particularly in relation to colon health by exerting a positive influence on gut barrier function, an important aspect of colon carcinogenesis. PMID:23714623

Allsopp, Philip; Possemiers, Sam; Campbell, David; Oyarzábal, Iván Saldaña; Gill, Chris; Rowland, Ian

2013-05-25

257

Pre-culturing of nodal explants in thidiazuron supplemented liquid medium improves in vitro shoot multiplication of Cassia angustifolia.  

PubMed

An in vitro propagation system for Cassia angustifolia Vahl. has been developed. Due to the presence of sennosides, the demand of this plant has increased manyfold in global market. Multiple shoots were induced by culturing nodal explants excised from mature plants on a liquid Murashige and Skoog [8] medium supplemented with 5-100 ?M of thidiazuron (TDZ) for different treatment duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d). The optimal level of TDZ supplemented to the culture medium was 75 ?M for 12 d induction period followed by subculturing in MS medium devoid of TDZ as it produced maximum regeneration frequency (87%), mean number of shoots (9.6 ± 0.33) and shoot length (4.4 ± 0.46 cm) per explant. A culture period longer than 12 d with TDZ resulted in the formation of fasciated or distorted shoots. Ex vitro rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of regenerated shoots was dipped in 200 ?M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for half an hour followed by their transplantation in plastic pots filled with sterile soilrite where 85% plantlets grew well and all exhibited normal development. The present findings describe an efficient and rapid plant regeneration protocol that can further be used for genetic transformation studies. PMID:24013898

Siddique, I; Abdullwahab Bukhari, N; Perveen, K; Siddiqui, I; Anis, M

2013-09-01

258

Effects of irrigation and air humidity preconditioning on water relations, growth and survival of Rosmarinus officinalis plants during and after transplanting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different irrigation and air humidity conditioning treatments on the morphological and physiological responses of Rosmarinus officinalis in nursery conditions was investigated in order to evaluate the degree of hardening resulting from these conditions. Rosmarinus officinalis seedlings were pot-grown during 4 months in two greenhouses (nursery period), in which two irrigation treatments were used (control and deficit). In

Trinitario Ferrández; Alejandra Navarro; Sebastián Bañon; Juan José Alarcón

2004-01-01

259

Soil moisture changes under shrub cover (rosmarinus officinalis) and cleared shrub as response to precipitation in a semiarid environment: Stemflow effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in soil moisture after rainfall under Rosmarinus officinalis L and cleared shrub (prior cover R. officinalis) were analyzed. The results from the General Linear Model analysis showed the relevance of shrub plant cover on soil water infiltration in depth. A threshold of about 15–18 mm of rainfall was established, above which soil moisture changes tended to be positive. Moisture

J. Bellot

1997-01-01

260

Application of the threshold of toxicological concern approach for the safety evaluation of calendula flower ( Calendula officinalis) petals and extracts used in cosmetic and personal care products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) (CF) has been used in herbal medicine because of its anti-inflammatory activity. CF and C. officinalis extracts (CFE) are used as skin conditioning agents in cosmetics. Although data on dermal irritation and sensitization of CF and CFE’s are available, the risk of subchronic systemic toxicity following dermal application has not been evaluated. The threshold of toxicological

T. A. Re; D. Mooney; E. Antignac; E. Dufour; I. Bark; V. Srinivasan; G. Nohynek

2009-01-01

261

Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. Methods The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts. Results The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied fruit extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards. Conclusions The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis, imposes the fact that they might be useful as potent sources of natural antioxidant.

2010-01-01

262

A statistical model of fracture for a 2D hexagonal mesh: The Cell Network Model of Fracture for the bamboo Guadua angustifolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2D, hexagonal in geometry, statistical model of fracture is proposed. The model is based on the drying fracture process of the bamboo Guadua angustifolia. A network of flexible cells are joined by brittle junctures of fixed Young moduli that break at a certain thresholds in tensile force. The system is solved by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM). The distribution of avalanche breakings exhibits a power law with exponent -2.93(9), in agreement with the random fuse model (Bhattacharyya and Chakrabarti, 2006) [1].

Villalobos, Gabriel; Linero, Dorian L.; Muñoz, José D.

2011-01-01

263

Species-specific SSR alleles for studies of hybrid cattails (Typha latifolia x T. angustifolia; Typhaceae) in North America.  

PubMed

• Premise: Studies of hybridizing species are facilitated by the availability of species-specific molecular markers for identifying early- and later-generation hybrids. Cattails are a dominant feature of wetland communities, and a better understanding of the prevalence of hybrids is needed to assess the ecological and evolutionary effects of hybridization. Hybridization between Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia produce long-lived clones, known as Typha ×glauca, which are considered to be invasive. Although morphological variation in cattails makes it difficult to recognize early- and later-generation hybrids, several dominant, species-specific RAPD markers are available. Our goal was to find codominant, species-specific markers with greater polymorphism than RAPDs, to identify later-generation hybrids more efficiently. • Methods: We screened nine SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci that were described from populations in Ukraine, and we surveyed 31 cattail populations from the upper Midwest and eastern USA. • Key results: Seven SSR loci distinguished the parent taxa and were consistent with known species-specific RAPD markers, allowing easier detection of backcrossing. We used linear discriminant analysis to show that F(1) hybrid phenotypes were intermediate between the parent taxa, while those of backcrossed plants overlapped with the hybrids and their parents. Log(leaf length/leaf width), spike gap length, spike length, and stem diameter explained much of the variation among groups. • Conclusions: We provide the first documentation of backcrossed plants in hybridizing cattail populations in Michigan. The diagnostic SSR loci we identified should be extremely useful for examining the evolutionary and ecology interactions of hybridizing cattails in North America. PMID:21616852

Snow, Allison A; Travis, Steven E; Wildová, Radka; Fér, Tomás; Sweeney, Patricia M; Marburger, Joy E; Windels, Steven; Kubátová, Barbora; Goldberg, Deborah E; Mutegi, Evans

2010-11-15

264

Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm).  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration of Melissa to healthy humans. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced-crossover study investigated the acute effects on cognition and mood of a standardised extract of M. officinalis. Twenty healthy, young participants received single doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg of M. officinalis (Pharmaton) or a matching placebo at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery and two serial subtraction tasks immediately prior to dosing and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. In vitro IC(50) concentrations for the displacement of [3H]-(N)-nicotine and [3H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in human occipital cortex tissue were also calculated. Results, utilising the cognitive factors previously derived from the CDR battery, included a sustained improvement in Accuracy of Attention following 600 mg of Melissa and time- and dose-specific reductions in both Secondary Memory and Working Memory factors. Self-rated "calmness," as assessed by Bond-Lader mood scales, was elevated at the earliest time points by the lowest dose, whilst "alertness" was significantly reduced at all time points following the highest dose. Both nicotinic and muscarinic binding were found to be low in comparison to the levels found in previous studies. PMID:12062586

Kennedy, D O; Scholey, Andrew B; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A

2002-07-01

265

The W-shaped pupil in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis): functions for improving horizontal vision.  

PubMed

The eyes of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) have a modified horizontal slit-pupil with a distinctive W-shape in bright light, while in darkness the pupil is circular. Two suggestions have previously been made for a function of the W-shape: (1) camouflaging the eye; (2) providing distance information. Since neither of these suggestions can fully explain the function of this pupil across the entire visual field, particularly the frontal and caudal periphery, we re-addressed the question of its functional significance. We took infra-red images of the eyes of live S. officinalis at different light intensities and from different viewing angles. This allowed us to determine the shape and light-admitting area of the pupil for different parts of the visual field. Our data show that the W-shaped pupil projects a blurred "W" directly onto the retina and that it effectively operates as vertical slits for the frontal and caudal parts of the visual field. We also took images of the natural habitat of S. officinalis and calculated the average vertical brightness distribution in the visual habitat. Computing a retinal illumination map shows that the W-shaped pupil is effective in balancing a vertically uneven light field: The constricted pupil reduces light from the dorsal part of the visual field significantly more than it reduces light from the horizontal band. This will cut the amount of direct sunlight that is scattered by the lens and ocular media, and thus improve image contrast particularly for the dimmer parts of the scene. We also conclude that the pupil provides even attenuation along the horizontal band, whereas a circular pupil would attenuate the image relatively more in the important frontal and caudal periphery of the visual field. PMID:23474299

Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Håkansson, Jonas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

2013-03-05

266

Protonophoric and uncoupling activity of royleanones from Salvia officinalis and euvimals from Eucalyptus viminalis.  

PubMed

The mechanism of action of quinones from the roots of Salvia officinalis L. (royleanones) and terpenoid phenolaldehydes from the leaves of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. (euvimals) was studied. Royleanones and euvimals displayed marked protonophoric activity on artificial bilayer lipid membranes in vitro, and exerted an uncoupling action on oxidative phosphorylation in isolated rat liver mitochondria. The results suggest that biological membranes are the primary targets of royleanones and euvimals, and the protonophoric activity may contribute to the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties of these compounds. PMID:14669263

Spiridonov, Nikolay A; Arkhipov, Vladimir V; Foigel, Alexander G; Shipulina, Liudmila D; Fomkina, Maria G

2003-12-01

267

Diversity and structure of landraces of Agave grown for spirits under traditional agriculture: A comparison with wild populations of A. angustifolia (Agavaceae) and commercial plantations of A. tequilana.  

PubMed

Traditional farming communities frequently maintain high levels of agrobiodiversity, so understanding their agricultural practices is a priority for biodiversity conservation. The cultural origin of agave spirits (mezcals) from west-central Mexico is in the southern part of the state of Jalisco where traditional farmers cultivate more than 20 landraces of Agave angustifolia Haw. in agroecosystems that include in situ management of wild populations. These systems, rooted in a 9000-year-old tradition of using agaves as food in Mesoamerica, are endangered by the expansion of commercial monoculture plantations of the blue agave variety (A. tequilana Weber var. Azul), the only agave certified for sale as tequila, the best-known mezcal. Using intersimple sequence repeats and Bayesian estimators of diversity and structure, we found that A. angustifolia traditional landraces had a genetic diversity (H(BT) = 0.442) similar to its wild populations (H(BT) = 0.428) and a higher genetic structure ((B) = 0.405; (B) =0. 212). In contrast, the genetic diversity in the blue agave commercial system (H(B) = 0.118) was 73% lower. Changes to agave spirits certification laws to allow the conservation of current genetic, ecological and cultural diversity can play a key role in the preservation of the traditional agroecosystems. PMID:21628200

Vargas-Ponce, Ofelia; Zizumbo-Villarreal, Daniel; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Coello-Coello, Julián; Colunga-Garcíamarín, Patricia

2009-01-15

268

O USO DA POMADA DE Calendula officinalis NO TRATAMENTO PÓS-OPERATÓRIO DAS DEISCÊNCIAS DE SUTURA DE FERIDAS CIRÚRGICAS COMPLICADAS. THE USE OF Calendula officinalis OINTMENT DURING THE POST-OPERATIVE TREATMENT OF SUTURE DEHISCENCE AND COMPLICATED SURGICAL WOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper reports the topical use of Calendula officinalis in the treatment of 10 dogs that showed post-operative complications in emergency (mainly trauma), orthopedic and oncologic surgeries. These severe complications included suture dehiscence, infections and even tissular necrosis. All the patients reached complete healing between 21 and 28 days of treatment.

JORGE LUIZ COSTA CASTRO; JANE MAIA CASTRO; MARCOS VINICIUS MOTTA

269

Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.  

PubMed

Arsenic, an important human toxin, is naturally occurring in groundwater and its accumulation in plants and animals have assumed a menacing proportion in a large part of the world, particularly Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between chronic arsenic exposure and various adverse health effects, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological defects and cancer of lung, skin, bladder, liver and kidney. The protective role of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (500 mg/kg b.wt.) was studied in adult Swiss albino mice against arsenic induced hepatopathy. Arsenic treated group (NaAsO(2), 4 mg/kg b.wt.) had a significant increase in serum transaminases and lipid peroxidation (LPO) content in liver, whereas significant decrease was recorded in hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Combined treatment of Emblica and arsenic (pre and post) declined the serum transaminases and LPO content in liver whereas significant increase was noticed in SOD, CAT, GST and serum alkaline phosphatase activities. Liver histopathology showed that Emblica fruit extract had reduced karyolysis, karyorrhexis, necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization induced by NaAsO(2) intoxication. Thus it can be concluded that pre- and post-supplementation of E. officinalis fruit extract significantly reduced arsenic induced oxidative stress in liver. PMID:19428342

Sharma, Ambika; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Madhu

2009-02-03

270

Emblica officinalis protects against alcohol-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.  

PubMed

The protective effect of Emblica officinalis, a commonly used botanical in many Ayurvedic preparations, was investigated for its effects on liver mitochondria of ethanol-administered rats. Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species-mediated toxicity are considered two of the key underlying mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced liver injury and mitochondrial dysfunction. Alcohol-administered rats showed a significant elevation of plasma transaminases (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases), alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase compared to control rats. However, activities of hepatic mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione, were significantly lower. Chronic alcohol feeding also increased lipid peroxide levels, protein carbonyl content, and overproduction of nitric oxide followed by lowered activities of NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and cytochrome c oxidase and content of cytochromes. Administration of E. officinalis fruit extract (EFE) at a dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day to alcoholic rats offers protection by simultaneously lowering the carbonyl content and lipid peroxidation and elevating antioxidant enzyme activities, SDH, NADH dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase activities, and content of cytochromes in hepatic mitochondria. Our data indicate that EFE administration to chronically alcohol-fed rats offers protection against alcohol-induced alterations. The active tannoid principles and nitric oxide scavenging compounds present in EFE may have contributed to the protection observed. PMID:19459733

Reddy, V Damodara; Padmavathi, P; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2009-04-01

271

Emblica officinalis ameliorates alcohol-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.  

PubMed

The fruit of Emblica officinalis has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of different ailments and is also an ingredient of various traditional medicinal herbal formulations in India and other countries. To investigate the protective effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction, male Wistar rats were orally administered 20% alcohol (5?g/kg of body weight/day) and EFE (250?mg/kg of body weight/day) for 60 days. Alcohol-treated rats showed significantly lowered activities of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and reduced glutathione compared with those of experimental control rats. Furthermore, alcohol feeding lowered the activities of NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and cytochrome c oxidase and the content of cytochromes followed by increased levels of nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and protein carbonyls. No significant change was observed in membrane potential. Administration of EFE to alcohol-treated rats, lowered the levels of NO, protein carbonyls, and lipid peroxidation and elevated the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SDH, NADH dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase and the content of cytochromes. The active tannoid principles present in EFE with its antioxidant as well as NO scavenging properties might have contributed to the observed protection against alcohol-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:21138366

Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Kavitha, Godugu; Gopi, Sriram; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

2010-12-07

272

Apoptotic effect of hot water extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. in human oral cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Sanguisorba officinalis L. has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat diseases including diarrhea, chronic intestinal infections, duodenal ulcers and bleeding. This study examined the antiproliferative effects and apoptotic activity of hot water extract of S. officinalis L. (HESO) on HSC4 and HN22 human oral cancer cells. The effects of HESO were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-20yl)-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay, 4?-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and western blot analysis. HESO was found to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in HSC4 and HN22 oral cancer cells. HESO downregulated myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in HSC4 cells and was associated with the activation of Bak, resulting in Bak oligomerization on the mitochondrial outer membrane. HESO did not alter Mcl-1 expression in HN22 cells, but it decreased Sp1 expression. The downregulation of Sp1 by HESO in HN22 cells resulted in a decrease in survivin, a downstream target protein of Sp1. These results suggested that HESO inhibited the growth of oral cancer through either Mcl-1 or Sp1, indicating that HESO may serve as a potential drug candidate against oral cancer.

SHIN, JI-AE; KIM, JUN-SUNG; KWON, KI-HAN; NAM, JEONG-SEOK; JUNG, JI-YOUN; CHO, NAM-PYO; CHO, SUNG-DAE

2012-01-01

273

High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.  

PubMed

Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and ?-pinene, ?-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/?-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study. PMID:23081929

Jug-Dujakovi?, Marija; Risti?, Mihailo; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Daji?-Stevanovi?, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Han?evi?, Katarina; Radi?, Tomislav; Satovi?, Zlatko

2012-10-01

274

Identification and Analysis of a Gene from Calendula officinalis Encoding a Fatty Acid Conjugase  

PubMed Central

Two homologous cDNAs, CoFad2 and CoFac2, were isolated from a Calendula officinalis developing seed by a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy. Both sequences share similarity to FAD2 desaturases and FAD2-related enzymes. In C. officinalis plants CoFad2 was expressed in all tissues tested, whereas CoFac2 expression was specific to developing seeds. Expression of CoFad2 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) indicated it encodes a ?12 desaturase that introduces a double bond at the 12 position of 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z). Expression of CoFac2 in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme acts as a fatty acid conjugase converting 18:2(9Z, 12Z) to calendic acid 18:3(8E, 10E, 12Z). The enzyme also has weak activity on the mono-unsaturates 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z) producing compounds with the properties of 8,10 conjugated dienes.

Qiu, Xiao; Reed, Darwin W.; Hong, Haiping; MacKenzie, Samuel L.; Covello, Patrick S.

2001-01-01

275

Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm.

2012-01-01

276

Evaluation of microbiological accumulation capability of the commercial sponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica (Schmidt) (Porifera, Demospongiae).  

PubMed

This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological accumulation capability of the demosponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica. Six microbiological parameters were researched in two sampling periods in the water and in reared sponge samples coming from sites with different degrees of microbial contamination: an off-shore fish farm displaced off the Apulian coast (Southern Adriatic Sea) and a no-impacted area displaced into the Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Apulian coast-Ionian Sea). We detected the density of culturable heterotrophic bacteria by spread plate on marine agar, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C on Plate Count Agar and vibrios on thiosulphate-citrate-bile-sucrose-salt (TCBS) agar. Total and fecal coliforms as well as fecal streptococci concentrations were detected by the MPN method. Bacterial densities were always higher in the sponge homogenates compared with the corresponding seawater in the sampling points and in both sampling periods. As regard vibrios, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C and fecal streptococci concentrations, the highest values were observed in the sponge samples coming from the off-shore fish farm during the summer period. The ability of Spongia officinalis var. adriatica to accumulate the microbial pollution indicators suggests that this species can be employed as a bioindicator for monitoring water quality. PMID:18325562

Stabili, Loredana; Licciano, Margherita; Longo, Caterina; Corriero, Giuseppe; Mercurio, Maria

2008-02-19

277

Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceRosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general.

Zhiyi Qiang; Zhong Ye; Cathy Hauck; Patricia A. Murphy; Joe-Ann McCoy; Mark P. Widrlechner; Manju B. Reddy; Suzanne Hendrich

2011-01-01

278

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. METHODS: Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma

Lai Wah Chan; Emily LC Cheah; Constance LL Saw; Wanyu Weng; Paul WS Heng

2008-01-01

279

Effects of water and a nutrient pulse supply on Rosmarinus officinalis growth, nutrient content and flowering in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis is a dominant shrub species of calcareous Mediterranean communities that has increased its presence in wide areas due to fire frequency increase and field abandonment. We aimed to study the capacity of adult shrubs to respond to nutrient pulses such as those produced by fires and human driven eutrophycation. In a 5 years old post-fire Mediterranean shrubland we

J. Sardans; F. Rodà; J. Peñuelas

2005-01-01

280

Effect of drying on the volatile constituents of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.) and sage ( Salvia officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The losses of volatile constituents in herbs and spices depend mainly on drying parameters and biological characteristics of the plants. In the present study, two methods were applied in the analysis of the effect of drying on the aroma constituents of the widely used herbs thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The volatile constituents of herbs (fresh,

P. R. Venskutonis

1997-01-01

281

Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

2007-01-01

282

Effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium on conversion of somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium were studied to produce plants from somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L. There was a significant difference among concentrations of sugar but not among kinds of sugar tested in the present experiment in growth of shoots and roots. When the sucrose concentrations were 10, 30, or 50gl?1, the fresh weight

Kanji Mamiya; Yuji Sakamoto

2000-01-01

283

Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

284

Testing hypotheses of population structuring in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population structuring in species inhabiting marine environments such as the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (NEA) and Mediterranean Sea (MS) has usually been explained based on past and present physical barriers to gene flow and isolation by distance (IBD). Here, we examined the relative importance of these factors on population structuring of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis by using methods of phylogenetic

MARCOS PÉREZ-LOSADA; MARK J. NOLTE; KEITH A. CRANDALL; PAUL W. SHAW

2007-01-01

285

Amla ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extract promotes procollagen production and inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyEmblica officinalis Gaertn., commonly known as amla, is a rich dietary source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids, and also contains various phenolic compounds. Amla extract is also known to exhibits potent antioxidant properties and to provide protection for human dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress, and therefore it is thought to be useful for natural skin

Takashi Fujii; Masanori Wakaizumi; Takao Ikami; Morio Saito

2008-01-01

286

Influence of amla fruits ( Emblica officinalis) on the bio-availability of iron from staple cereals and pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amla fruits (Emblica officinalis) used as an acidulant in Indian dietary are claimed to be rich source of ascorbic acid, and the latter has been known to enhance intestinal absorption of dietary iron. The present study examined the beneficial influence of amla fruits, if any, on food iron availability, by virtue of their high ascorbic acid content. In this context,

B. S Gowri; Kalpana Platel; Jamuna Prakash; K Srinivasan

2001-01-01

287

MONOAMINES AND THE ISOLATED AURICLE OFSEPIA OFFICINALIS: ARE THERE ?-LIKE RECEPTORS IN THE HEART OF A CEPHALOPOD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacological examinations of isolated auricles from Sepia officinalis were carried out to analyze the putative role of the monoaminergic transmitter\\/receptor system in the control of auricle function. In conjunction with histofluorescence studies and HPLC analyses, evidence of a double excitatory serotonergic and noradrenergic innervation of the auricles was obtained. Serotonin- induced positive chronotropic and inotropic effects were blocked by mianserin

B. VERSEN; S. GOKORSCH; A. FIEDLER; R. SCHIPP

288

TULIP VIRUS X (TVX) ASSOCIATED WITH LEMON BALM (MELISSA OFFICINALIS) VARIEGATION . FIRST REPORT OF TVX IN THE UNITED STATES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) has been used for centuries as an ornamental and for its medicinal properties. One of the most popular clones shows bright variegation symptoms. Mechanical inoculations onto Gomphrena globosa using variegated leaf tissue as the inoculum source resulted in development...

289

Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to that of its main components.  

PubMed

In this study, Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and three of its main components 1,8-cineole (27.23%), ?-pinene (19.43%) and ?-pinene (6.71%) were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. R. officinalis L. essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to ?-pinene, and a little bit better than ?-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. R. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC??) values on SK-OV-3, HO-8910 and Bel-7402 were 0.025‰, 0.076‰ and 0.13‰ (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of all the test samples on SK-OV-3 was significantly stronger than on HO-8910 and Bel-7402. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both antibacterial and anticancer test systems, and the activities were mostly related to their concentrations. PMID:22391603

Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Efferth, Thomas

2012-03-05

290

Yield, essential oil and pigment content of Calendula officinalis L. flower heads cultivated under salt stress conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower heads of Calendula officinalis L. are used for medicinal or culinary purposes. Since Egyptian agricultural lands contain salt, this study investigated the effects of saline irrigation water on yield (fresh and dry weights of flower heads), essential oil (EO) yield, chemical constituents of the EO and total flavonoids and carotenoids of flower heads at three flowering stages, i.e. initial

Khalid A. Khalid

2010-01-01

291

Physical, chemical, histological and microbiological changes in fresh green asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis, L.) stored in modified atmosphere packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been used to increase the shelf life of the green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L.), meeting the market demand for fresh high quality products available annually and without the use of additives whenever possible.Green asparagus spears were stored under three different conditions until they were not fit for consumption: refrigeration at 2 °C, MAP at 2

M. J. Villanueva; M. D. Tenorio; M. Sagardoy; A. Redondo; M. D. Saco

2005-01-01

292

Study of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Yield and Composition as a Function of the Plant Life Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield and composition variation of the Algerian Rosmarinus officinalis as a function of plant life cycle was studied. Best period to collect the plant was found to be at full flowering stage. However, to obtain required oil quality, a compromise between oil yield and composition must be considered.

C. Boutekedjiret; R. Belabbes; F. Bentahar; J. M. Bessiere

1999-01-01

293

Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

294

Adaptive Coloration in Young Cuttlefish (Sepia Officinalis L.): The Morphology and Development of Body Patterns and Their Relation to Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young Sepia officinalis (0-5 months) were studied in the laboratory and in the sea, and their appearance and behaviour compared with that of adult animals. Cuttlefish lay large eggs and the hatchlings are miniature replicas of the adults. From the moment of hatching they show body patterns as complex as those of adults and far more elaborate than those shown

R. T. Hanlon; J. B. Messenger

1988-01-01

295

Potential for the use of ultrasound in the extraction of antioxidants from Rosmarinus officinalis for the food and pharmaceutical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound was used to increase the extraction efficiency of carnosic acid from the herb Rosmarinus officinalis using butanone, ethyl acetate and ethanol as solvents. Both dried and fresh leaves of the herb were extracted and, when performed at the same temperature, sonication improved the yields of carnosic acid for all three solvents and shortened the extraction times. Sonication also reduced

S. Albu; E. Joyce; L. Paniwnyk; J. P. Lorimer; T. J. Mason

2004-01-01

296

Evaluation of the effectiveness of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) in the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) on CCl4-induced acute liver injury was investigated. Rats were daily treated with the plant extract at a dose of 200 mg\\/kg corresponding to 6.04 mg\\/kg of carnosol as determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The treatment was initiated 1 h after CCl4 administration and Rosmarinus officinalis fully prevented CCl4

J. I Sotelo-Félix; D Martinez-Fong; P Muriel; R. L Santillán; D Castillo; P Yahuaca

2002-01-01

297

Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia.\\u000a Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which\\u000a Cyracos®, a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos® contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was

Julien Cases; Alvin Ibarra; Nicolas Feuillère; Marc Roller; Samir G. Sukkar

298

A new extract of the plant calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Phytopharmacological studies of different Calendula extracts have shown anti-inflamatory, anti-viral and anti-genotoxic properties of therapeutic interest. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities and in vivo anti-tumor effect of Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE), a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae). METHODS: An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by

Eva Jiménez-Medina; Angel Garcia-Lora; Laura Paco; Ignacio Algarra; Antonia Collado; Federico Garrido

2006-01-01

299

The cell morphogenesis gene ANGUSTIFOLIA encodes a CtBP/BARS-like protein and is involved in the control of the microtubule cytoskeleton  

PubMed Central

The ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) gene is required for leaf hair (trichome) branching and is also involved in polarized expansion underlying organ shape. Here we show that the AN gene encodes a C-terminal binding proteins/brefeldin A ADP-ribosylated substrates (CtBP/BARS) related protein. AN is expressed at low levels in all organs and the AN protein is localized in the cytoplasm. In an mutant trichomes, the organization of the actin cytoskeleton is normal but the distribution of microtubules is aberrant. A role of AN in the control of the microtubule cytoskeleton is further supported by the finding that AN genetically and physically interacts with ZWICHEL, a kinesin motor molecule involved in trichome branching. Our data suggest that CtBP/BARS-like protein function in plants is directly associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton.

Folkers, U.; Kirik, V.; Schobinger, U.; Falk, S.; Krishnakumar, S.; Pollock, M.A.; Oppenheimer, D.G.; Day, I.; Reddy, A.R.; Jurgens, G.; Hulskamp, M.

2002-01-01

300

Galega orientalis is more diverse than Galega officinalis in Caucasus--whole-genome AFLP analysis and phylogenetics of symbiosis-related genes.  

PubMed

Legume plants can obtain combined nitrogen for their growth in an efficient way through symbiosis with specific bacteria. The symbiosis between Rhizobium galegae and its host plant Galega is an interesting case where the plant species G. orientalis and G. officinalis form effective, nitrogen-fixing, symbioses only with the appropriate rhizobial counterpart, R. galegae bv. orientalis and R. galegae bv. officinalis, respectively. The symbiotic properties of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are well studied, but more information is needed on the properties of the host plants. The Caucasus region in Eurasia has been identified as the gene centre (centre of origin) of G. orientalis, although both G. orientalis and G. officinalis can be found in this region. In this study, the diversity of these two Galega species in Caucasus was investigated to test the hypothesis that in this region G. orientalis is more diverse than G. officinalis. The amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting performed here showed that the populations of G. orientalis and R. galegae bv. orientalis are more diverse than those of G. officinalis and R. galegae bv. officinalis, respectively. These results support the centre of origin status of Caucasus for G. orientalis at a genetic level. Analysis of the symbiosis-related plant genes NORK and Nfr5 reveals remarkable diversity within the Nfr5 sequence, although no evidence of adaptive evolution could be found. PMID:21980996

Osterman, J; Chizhevskaja, E P; Andronov, E E; Fewer, D P; Terefework, Z; Roumiantseva, M L; Onichtchouk, O P; Dresler-Nurmi, A; Simarov, B V; Dzyubenko, N I; Lindström, K

2011-10-10

301

Antinociceptive property of Emblica officinalis Gaertn (Amla) in high fat diet-fed/low dose streptozotocin induced diabetic neuropathy in rats.  

PubMed

Diabetic neuropathic pain is an important microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress plays a vital role in associated neural and vascular complications. The present study investigated flavonoid rich fruit extract (ethyl acetate:methanol fraction) of E. officinalis (10 mg/kg), in type II diabetes (high fat diet fed/low dose streptozotocin) induced diabetic neuropathy in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetic rats exhibited a significant hyperalgesia (nociception) as compared to control rats. Treatment with E. officinalis extract (EOE) and quercetin in diabetic rats showed significant increase in tail flick latency in hot immersion test and pain threshold level in hot plate test compared to control rats. The changes in lipid peroxidation status and anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) levels observed in diabetic rats were significantly restored by E. officinalis extract and quercetin treatment. Both, E. officinalis extract and quercetin attenuated diabetic induced axonal degeneration. The study provides experimental evidence of the preventive and curative effect of E. officinalis on nerve function and oxidative stress in animal model of diabetic neuropathy. Since, E. officinalis fruit is already in clinical use for diabetic patients it may be evaluated for preventive therapy in diabetic patients at risk of developing neuropathy. PMID:19957886

Kumar, N Prem; Annamalai, A R; Thakur, R S

2009-09-01

302

Evaluation of the effectiveness of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) in the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the rat.  

PubMed

The effect of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) on CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury was investigated. Rats were daily treated with the plant extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg corresponding to 6.04 mg/kg of carnosol as determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The treatment was initiated 1 h after CCl(4) administration and Rosmarinus officinalis fully prevented CCl(4) effect on hepatic lipid peroxidation after 24 h of CCl(4) administration. The increase in bilirubin level and alanine aminotransferase activity in plasma induced by CCl(4) was completely normalized by Rosmarinus officinalis. The treatment also produced a significant recovery of CCl(4)-induced decrease in liver glycogen content. CCl(4) did not modify the activity of liver cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) compared with that of control groups. However, Rosmarinus officinalis increased liver cytosolic GST activity and produced an additional increment in plasma GST activity in rats treated with CCl(4). Histological evaluation showed that Rosmarinus officinalis partially prevented CCl(4)-induced inflammation, necrosis and vacuolation. Rosmarinus officinalis might exert a dual effect on CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury, acting as an antioxidant and improving GST-dependent detoxification systems. PMID:12065145

Sotelo-Félix, J I; Martinez-Fong, D; Muriel, P; Santillán, R L; Castillo, D; Yahuaca, P

2002-07-01

303

Chlorinated Coumarins from the Polypore Mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis and Their Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins, which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The structures of the two isolates were deduced by ab initio spectroscopic methods and confirmed by chemical synthesis. In addition, an analogue of each was synthesized as 7-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (3) and ethyl 7-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (4). All four compounds were characterized physicochemically, and their antimicrobial activity profiles revealed a narrow spectrum of activity with lowest MICs against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24087924

Hwang, Chang Hwa; Jaki, Birgit U; Klein, Larry L; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Napolitano, José G; Fryling, Nicole A; Franzblau, Scott G; Cho, Sang Hyun; Stamets, Paul E; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F

2013-10-02

304

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of the alkaloids of Amlaki (Emblica officinalis).  

PubMed

Alkaloids are important sources of drug that's why we have conducted our research to find out the biological activity of the alkaloids of a plant that is the Amlaki. Alkaloids were extracted from the methanolic extract of the fresh ripe fruits of Amlaki (Emblica officinalis) through solvent-solvent partitioning method with n-hexane and chloroform. The chloroform soluble fraction of the crude methanolic extract of the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids was subjected to antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay for observing cytotoxic activity. The chloroform soluble fraction of the methanolic extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against some Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria and strong cytotoxicity having a LC50 of 10.257 +/- 0.770 microg mL(-1). It is concluded that the chloroform soluble fraction of the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids are biologically active. PMID:19899327

Rahman, S; Akbor, M M; Howlader, A; Jabbar, A

2009-08-15

305

Simultaneous quantification of verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Attenuated-total-reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) in hyphenation with multivariate analysis was utilized to quantify verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method as a reference was established and validated. For both vibrational spectroscopic methods test-set and cross validation were performed. Different data-pre-treatments like SNV, 1st and 2nd derivative were applied to remove systematic errors and were evaluated. Quality parameters obtained for the test-set validation revealed that ATR-IR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.94, RPD=4.23; verbascoside: R(2)=0.93, RPD=3.63) has advantages over NIR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.91, RPD=3.75; verbascoside: R(2)=0.80, RPD=2.35) in the given application. PMID:23810849

Schönbichler, S A; Bittner, L K H; Pallua, J D; Popp, M; Abel, G; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

2013-05-20

306

Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV–visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

2012-01-01

307

In vitro antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions extracted from Corallina officinalis.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides (F1, F2) from seaweed Corallina officinalis were isolated through anion-exchange column chromatography. Their chemical characteristics were determined by GC, HPLC, FT-IR and UV spectra. F1 and F2 contained only two monosaccharides, namely galactose and xylose. The antioxidant activities of F1, F2 and the de-sulfated polysaccharides (DF-1, DF-2) in vitro were investigated, including hydroxyl radicals scavenging effect, superoxide radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical activity and reducing power. As expected, antioxidant assay showed that the two sulfated polysaccharide fractions (F1, F2) possessed considerable antioxidant properties and had more excellent abilities than de-sulfated polysaccharides (DF-1, DF-2). PMID:21896282

Yang, Yuling; Liu, Dan; Wu, Jun; Chen, Yan; Wang, Shusheng

2011-09-01

308

Pharmacological and biological evaluation of extracts from Gratiola officinalis L. (Scrophulariaceae).  

PubMed

The crude extract of Gratiola officinalis and its n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were subjected to biological (Brine Shrimp Bioassay, Insecticidal and Phytotoxicity/Cytotoxic) and neuropharmacological (Head dip, Open field Forced swimming test, Sodium pentothal induced sleep) activities. Results obtained in this study indicated that at high concentration dose (1000?g/ml), all test samples showed 60-95% phytotoxicity. In crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous fractions produced more than 85% phytotoxicity. While low concentration (10?g/ml) dose showed 25-28% phytotoxicity in all test samples. The crude extract was devoid of any effect against the growth of Callosbruchus analis and Tribolium castaneum and caused 10 mortality of Rhyzopertha dominica. n-Hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions caused 50, 30, 40, 10 and 20% mortality respectively of C. analis where as chloroform, ethyl-acetate, aqueous and crude extract, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate fractions also caused low mortality (10%) of Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica respectively. In cytotoxic assay at 1000?g/ml concentration, n-butanol fraction produced 36.7% and the crude extract produced 13.3% mortality of brine shrimp, its aqueous fraction was inactive at all concentrations. The results of head dip, open field, mobility time and Pentothal Na induced sleep indicated that crude extract, n-butanol and ethylacetate fractions of G. officinalis had mild sedative effect. However aqueous fraction was found to produce a significant decrease in motor activities and potentiated the duration of sleep. PMID:22713957

Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammad, Noor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Ahmad, Manzoor; Habib, Salman

2012-07-01

309

Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.  

PubMed

Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

2011-10-01

310

Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes.

2013-01-01

311

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height.

Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

312

Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process.

Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Paula, Jose Realino; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

2012-01-01

313

Distribution of oxytocin-like and vasopressin-like immunoreactivities within the central nervous system of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the distribution of oxytocin\\/vasopressin (OT\\/VP) superfamily peptides in the central nervous system (CNS)\\u000a of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, by using antibodies raised against mammalian OT and VP. Several populations of OT-like and VP-like immunoreactive cell bodies\\u000a and fibers were widely distributed in cerebral structures involved in learning processes (vertical lobe complex, optic lobes),\\u000a behavioral communication (peduncle, lateral

Isabelle Bardou; Eric Maubert; Jérôme Leprince; Raymond Chichery; Claude Cocquerelle; Séverine Launay; Denis Vivien; Hubert Vaudry; Véronique Agin

2009-01-01

314

Increase in Freezing Resistance of Excised Shoot Tips of Asparagus officinalisL. by Preculture on Sugar-Rich Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of preculture on freezing resistance, sugar and water content, and the cell structure of asparagus shoot tips (Asparagus officinalisL.) were examined. Freezing resistance of tips was increased by a 48-h preculture on a medium supplemented with a high concentration of sugar. The optimal concentration of sugar in the preculture medium was 0.5M,regardless of the sugar. The results of

Takashi Suzuki; Manabu Kaneko; Takashi Harada

1997-01-01

315

Salvia officinalis L. essential oils: effect of hydrodistillation time on the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salvia officinalis L. oils were isolated from the plant's commercial dried aerial parts, by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times. The essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The antioxidant ability was measured using a free radical scavenging activity assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, a deoxyribose assay for the scavenging of

G. Miguel; C. Cruz; M. L. Faleiro; M. T. F. Simões; A. C. Figueiredo; J. G. Barroso; L. G. Pedro

2011-01-01

316

Screening of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts with focus on location and harvesting times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) harvested from different locations of Turkey at four different times of the year were analyzed by HPLC, and their\\u000a radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities were studied by various assays. The amounts of carnosol, carnosic\\u000a acid and rosmarinic acid, active constituents of rosemary, varied in different geographical regions of growth, and

O. Yesil-Celiktas; G. Girgin; H. Orhan; H. J. Wichers; E. Bedir; F. Vardar-Sukan

2007-01-01

317

Effectiveness of a natural Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on the stability of filleted and minced fish during frozen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding a natural Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract to filleted and minced frozen fish and to compare the fat stability of the samples with that of the controls.\\u000a Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), a relatively fatty fish, and Mediterranean hake (Merluccius mediterraneus), a low-fat fish, were used. Fat stability evaluation

K. Vareltzis; Dimitrios Koufidis; Erini Gavriilidou; Ekaterini Papavergou; Sophia Vasiliadou

1997-01-01

318

Essential Oils of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). The Chemical Composition of Oils of Various Origins (Morocco, Spain, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) from various geographical origins (Morocco, Spain and France) was determined by GC\\/MS. Although 48 constituents were identified, the oils of different origins could be differentiated based both on their physicochemical characteristics and their major components. The Spanish oils were found to be rich in ?-pinene (19.4–24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.0–21.8%)

Jean-Claude Chalchat; Raymond-Philippe Garry; André Michet; B. Benjilali; J. L. Chabart

1993-01-01

319

A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of ?-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60?000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24130010

Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

2013-10-01

320

Temperature-dependent oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current and the costs of ventilation in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier work found cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ventilatory muscle tissue to progressively switch to an anaerobic mode of energy production at critical temperatures (T\\u000a c) of 7.0 and 26.8°C. These findings suggested that oxygen availability limits thermal tolerance. The present study was designed to elucidate whether it is the ventilatory apparatus that sets critical temperature thresholds during acute thermal stress. Routine

Frank Melzner; Christian Bock; Hans O. Pörtner

2006-01-01

321

Instrumental neutron activation analysis of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula for trace element efficacy and safety.  

PubMed

To assess the efficacy and safety, essential (Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Se, Zn), toxic (As, Br, Hg, Sb,) and other elements (Ba, Ce, Cs, Eu, Rb, Sc) were determined in Emblica officinalis (EO), Terminalia belerica (TB) and Terminalia chebula (TC) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These herbs contain K as a major element, while Co, Cr and Na in EO, Fe, K and Mn in TB and Cl and Zn in TC are the highest. PMID:23608598

Waheed, S; Fatima, I

2013-03-16

322

A Pilot clinical study to evaluate the effect of Emblica officinalis extract (Amlamax™) on markers of systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis Gaertn., commonly known as the Indian gooseberry or “Amla”, has been used as health food for centuries\\u000a in India and other Asian countries. The biological effects of amla have been attributed to the antioxidant properties of the\\u000a low-molecular weight hydrolysable tannins present in the fruit. Amlamax™ is a purified, standardized, dried extract of amla\\u000a containing about 35% galloellagi

B. Antony; M. Benny; T. N. B. Kaimal

2008-01-01

323

High frequency plant regeneration through adventitious multiple shoot organogenesis in epicotyl explants of Indian gooseberry ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoots regenerated adventitiously on epicotyl segments from in vitro seedlings of Emblica officinalis var. ‘Kanchan’. Epicotyls derived from 2-week-old aseptic seedlings were most responsive and produced a maximum number of 303 shoots per explant in Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium (MS) augmented with 8.8?MN6-benzyladenine (BA)+1.425?M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Shoots readily elongated in MS lacking growth regulators and rooted in half-salt-strength

P. Nayak; P. R. Behera; M. Thirunavoukkarasu; P. K. Chand

2010-01-01

324

Vitamin C Enrichment of Fruit Juice Based ReadytoServe Beverages Through Blending of Indian Gooseberry ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiconutritional qualities of fruits viz. apple, lime, pome- granate, Perlette grape, and Pusa Navrang grape were analyzed and compared with those of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.). Indian gooseberry juice contained the highest vitamin C (478.56 mg\\/100 ml). Hence, when gooseberry juice was blended with other fruits’ juice for the preparation of ready-to-serve (RTS) beverages, it boosted their nutritional quality

SHASHI KUMAR JAIN; D. S. KHURDIYA

2004-01-01

325

Cyto-protective and immunomodulating properties of Amla ( Emblica officinalis) on lymphocytes: an in-vitro study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruits extracts of Emblica officinalis (Amla) has been reported to have strong anti-oxidant properties. There is a paucity of studies on the immunomodulatory properties of fruit extracts of Amla in immuno-compromised states, with the emphasis on lymphocytes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties of Amla using chromium (VI) as an immunosuppressive

M Sai Ram; D Neetu; B Yogesh; B Anju; P Dipti; T Pauline; S. K Sharma; S. K. S Sarada; G Ilavazhagan; Devendra Kumar; W Selvamurthy

2002-01-01

326

Protective Effect of Emblica officinalis Against Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Injury by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced hepatic damage in rats was investigated in the present study. In vitro studies\\u000a showed that EFE possesses antioxidant as well nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. In vivo administration of alcohol (5 g\\/kg\\u000a b.wt\\/day) for 60 days resulted increased liver lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, nitrite plus nitrate levels. Alcohol\\u000a administration also significantly lowers

V. Damodara Reddy; P. Padmavathi; S. Gopi; M. Paramahamsa; N. Ch. Varadacharyulu

2010-01-01

327

Sorption studies of Cu(II) on gooseberry fruit ( emblica officinalis) and its removal from electroplating wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of Cu(II) onto waste residue left after extraction of juice from Indian gooseberry (Amla) fruit (Emblica officinalis) was studied. Equilibrium isotherms, kinetic data and thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated. Equilibrium data agreed well with Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) isotherm models. The kinetic data followed pseudo-second-order model and it was found that intra-particle diffusion was not the

Rifaqat Ali Khan Rao; Shaista Ikram

2011-01-01

328

Dietary chemoprevention of clastogenic effects of 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene by Emblica officinalis Gaertn. fruit extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary supplementation with extract of fruit of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (a rich source of vitamin C) to mice in vivo significantly reduced the cytotoxic effects of a known carcinogen, 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene. Age-matched Swiss albino mice were fed by gavaging the fruit extract daily for 28 days. From day 9, one dose of the carcinogen was given on alternate days up to

P Nandi; G Talukder; A Sharma

1997-01-01

329

Chemical Composition and Chemometric Analysis of Variation in Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis L . during Vegetation Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in the content and composition of Calendula officinalis essential oils was studied using supercritical CO2 extraction followed by GC–MS. Samples of marigold were harvested at four different vegetation stages. A total of 43 different\\u000a compounds were identified in the essential oils. The identified components were represented mainly by monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes\\u000a and sesquiterpene alcohols. The qualitative and quantitative composition

Vilma Kaškonien?; Paulius Kaškonas; Modesta Jalinskait?; Audrius Maruška

2011-01-01

330

ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF GREEK O. DICTAMNUS AND R. OFFICINALIS METHANOL AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS - HPLC DETERMINATION OF PHENOLIC ACIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the total phenol (TP), phenolic acid (PA) content as well as the free radical scavenging activity (RSA) and ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP) of methanol and aqueous extracts of R.officinalis and O.dictamnus species (Crete, Greece). The methanol extracts showed higher RSA (P<0.05) than the aqueous extracts (mean EC50 value: 0.33 and 0.38mg\\/mL, resp.). Rosemary was superior in

V. Lagouri; G. Alexandri

2011-01-01

331

Plant growth, essential oil yield and composition of sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) fruits cultivated under salt stress conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different NaCl concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100mM) on plant growth, essential oil production and composition of Salvia officinalis fruits. The first results showed that increasing NaCl levels to 100mM reduced significantly the plant growth by 65%. While, the essential oil yield increased significantly from control to 75mM and decreased

Mouna Ben Taarit; Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Mohamed Hammami; Mohamed Elyes Kchouk; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

332

[Immunomodulating activity of ethanol-water extracts of the roots of Echinacea gloriosa L., Echinacea angustifolia DC. and Rudbeckia speciosa Wenderoth tested on the immune system in C57BL6 inbred mice].  

PubMed

The ethanolic extract from the roots Echinacea gloriosa L. (Moench), Echinacea angustifolia DC. and Rudbeckia speciosa Wenderoth shows immunomodulating activity. It was seen on the seventh day after five days of in vivo treatment of mice. The most marked immunostimulatory effect was observed on the lysosomal and peroxidal activity of peritoneal macrophages, and splenic cells after in vivo treatment with the ethanolic extract of the roots of R. speciosa Wenderoth. PMID:8402973

Bukovský, M; Vaverková, S; Kostálová, D; Magnusová, R

1993-08-01

333

Nitrogen acquisition and competitive ability of Kalmia angustifolia L., paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) seedlings grown on different humus forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of boreal tree seedlings, paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), and the ericaceous shrub Kalmia angustifolia L. were grown in pots with humus from a birch-dominated site and two spruce-Kalmia sites. Root systems interacted with humus form in controlling soil-N cycling as well as energy and nutritional deficiencies of soil microorganisms. In

R. L. Bradley; B. D. Titus; J. W. Fyles

1997-01-01

334

Prevention of diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction in rats using the juice of the Emblica officinalis fruit  

PubMed Central

Normalization of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress is an important objective in preventing diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of the fruit juice obtained from Emblica officinalis on myocardial dysfunction in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and the rats were treated with E officinalis fruit juice for eight weeks. Injection of STZ produced loss of body weight, polydypsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. It also produced hypertension, bradycardia, hypertrophy and myocardial functional alterations associated with an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels. Treatment with the fruit juice not only prevented STZ-induced loss of body weight, increases in water and food intake, increases in serum glucose levels and disturbed lipid profile, but also an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels, and increased myocardial hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy. There was an increase in the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, and a decrease in AUCinsulin was observed in diabetic rats; treatment decreased AUCglucose but not AUCinsulin or hyperinsulinemia. There was a decrease in antioxidant enzyme levels (in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase) in diabetic hearts, which could be improved by treatment with fruit juice. The present data suggest that fruit juice may be beneficial for the treatment of myocardial damage associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The activity of E officinalis fruit juice can be attributed to the concentration of polyphenol present.

Patel, Snehal S; Goyal, Ramesh K

2011-01-01

335

Prevention of diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction in rats using the juice of the Emblica officinalis fruit.  

PubMed

Normalization of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress is an important objective in preventing diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of the fruit juice obtained from Emblica officinalis on myocardial dysfunction in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and the rats were treated with E officinalis fruit juice for eight weeks. Injection of STZ produced loss of body weight, polydypsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. It also produced hypertension, bradycardia, hypertrophy and myocardial functional alterations associated with an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels. Treatment with the fruit juice not only prevented STZ-induced loss of body weight, increases in water and food intake, increases in serum glucose levels and disturbed lipid profile, but also an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels, and increased myocardial hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy. There was an increase in the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, and a decrease in AUC(insulin) was observed in diabetic rats; treatment decreased AUC(glucose) but not AUC(insulin) or hyperinsulinemia. There was a decrease in antioxidant enzyme levels (in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase) in diabetic hearts, which could be improved by treatment with fruit juice. The present data suggest that fruit juice may be beneficial for the treatment of myocardial damage associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The activity of E officinalis fruit juice can be attributed to the concentration of polyphenol present. PMID:22065939

Patel, Snehal S; Goyal, Ramesh K

2011-01-01

336

Simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds in Verbena officinalis L. by using high-performance liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

Background: Verbena officinalis L., called mabiancao in Chinese, is derived from the aerial part of Herba Verbanae. It is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in China and northern Europe, which is widely used for clearing away heat and detoxicating, promoting blood circulation, and removing blood stasis. This paper describes a sensitive and specific assay for the determination of four bioactive compounds in V. officinalis L. Materials and Methods: In this paper, the four components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 ?m) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.1%, v/v) and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30°C with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 203, 238, and 331 nm. Results: All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ? 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and interday variations were less than 1.84%, and the average recoveries were 97.32–102.81% for analytes. Discussion and Conclusion: The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for comprehensive quality control for clinical use and modernization of V. officinalis L.

Liu, Zhen; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Hanyu; Cao, Gang; Cong, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Yun; Cai, Bao-Chang

2012-01-01

337

Water repellency and soil moisture variations under Rosmarinus officinalis in a burned soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean semi-arid landscapes are characterised by the patchiness of the vegetation cover, in which variations in the distribution pattern of soil water repellency (SWR) can be of major importance for their hydrological and geomorphological effects in burned areas, and also for their ecological implications concerning to the re-establishment of their plant cover. Within a broader research framework, the present work studies the influence of Rosmarinus officinalis vegetated patches on SWR in burned and unburned soils and its relationship with the field soil moisture content (SMC). The results presented here are the first step analysing the spatial pattern of sink and source runoff areas in a burned hillslope. The study area is located in the municipality of Les Useres, 40 km from Castellón city (E Spain), where a wildfire occurred in August 2007. We selected a burned SSE facing hillslope, located at 570 m a.s.l., with 12 ° slope angle, in which it was possible to identify the presence of two unique shrub species: Quercus coccifera L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L., which were distributed in a patchy mosaic. Twenty microsites with burned R. officinalis and eight at the nearest unburned area were selected. At the burned microsites, it was possible to distinguish three concentric zones (I, II and III) around the stumps showing differences on their soil surface appearance, which indicate a gradient of fire severity. Those differences were considered for soil sampling (1 sample per zone at each microsite, n= 84, form the first 2 cm of the mineral A horizon) and field soil moisture measurements determined by means of the moisture meter HH2 with ThetaProbe sensor type ML2x (5 measurements per zone at each microsite, n= 420), which were taken one day after the first rainfall event after fire, when 11 mm were registered in the study area. Results showed that the largest repellency persistence (measured by means of the Water Drop Penetration Time test, WDPT) was found close to the burned R. officinalis stumps, where all soil samples showed water repellency, with mean WDPT of 68 seconds. Generally, we observed a sharp hydrophobic/hydrophilic boundary between the zones I (stump) and II (intermediate). Soil samples from bare soil (zone III) were entirely wettable. At control microsites, SWR was present only in one of the unburned R. officinalis samples. On the basis that unburned microsites are representative of the pre-fire conditions at the burned ones, these results imply that fire caused a significant increase in SWR occurrence at the soil surface. Field SMC showed statistically significant differences between the three zones. Both control and burned microsites showed the same trend, with an increasing gradient towards the outer zone. Furthermore, burned microsites showed larger differences in SMC between zone I and zone III (18% and 27%, respectively) than the unburned ones. It could be explained because at burned stumps, the largest persistence of water repellency and the highest SOM content might decrease the wettability of aggregates, slowing their rates of wetting, which might not occur at all during the rainstorms. In fact, there was obtained a significant and negative Pearson's correlation coefficients between SMC and WDPT, and between SMC and SOM at burned microsites. However, no correlation between field SMC and WDPT was found from control microsites. Moreover, at the burned microsites, the partial correlation analysis with SOM as control variable revealed that SMC and WDPT were influenced by the SOM. In addition, it is necessary to consider the existence of root channels with the development of preferential flow pathways, which could enhance deeper water infiltration in the stump areas. These results provide evidences of the importance of microsite soil surface properties on SMC variability on semiarid burned slopes. The existence of SWR and lowest SMC detected at burned stumps opposite to the highest SMC after rainfall and the absence of SWR in burned bare soil zones could be key factors for the differences in ove

Gimeno-García, E.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Llovet, J.

2009-04-01

338

Quantification of canavanine, 2-aminoethanol, and cyanamide in Aphis craccivora and its host plants, Robinia pseudoacacia and Vicia angustifolia: effects of these compounds on larval survivorship of Harmonia axyridis.  

PubMed

The cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora that infests the black locust Robinia pseudoacacia shows toxicity to its predator, the multicolored Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis. In contrast, the same aphid species that infests the common vetch, Vicia angustifolia, is suitable prey for H. axyridis larvae. Previously, it was reported that the toxicity of A. craccivora infesting R. pseudoacacia was due to canavanine and 2-aminoethanol, but there was some doubt about the toxicity of these compounds and their concentrations in the aphids. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of cyanamide, canavanine, and 2-aminoethanol in A. craccivora infesting the two host plants. In the extracts of A. craccivora that infested either of the host plants, canavanine was undetectable, and 2-aminoethanol was detected at the concentration of 3.0-4.0 ?g/g fresh weight. Cyanamide was detected in the extract of A. craccivora that infested R. pseudoacacia (7.7 ?g/g fresh weight) but not in that infesting V. angustifolia. The toxicity of canavanine, 2-aminoethanol, and cyanamide was evaluated against H. axyridis larvae in a bioassay by using an artificial diet containing these compounds at various concentrations. Cyanamide exhibited 10-100 times stronger toxicity than canavanine and 2-aminoethanol. These results indicate that the toxicity is at least partly due to cyanamide, which is present in the toxic A. craccivora that infests R. pseudoacacia but absent from the non-toxic A. craccivora that infests V. angustifolia. PMID:23179101

Kamo, Tsunashi; Tokuoka, Yoshinori; Miyazaki, Masahisa

2012-11-23

339

Allelopathic effect of some essential oils and components on germination of weed species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, allelopathic effects of some essential oil plants (Carum carvi L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Lavandula stoechas L., Mentha spicata L.,Origanum onites L., Pimpinella anisum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Thymbra spicata L.) were investigated against some common weed species (Alcea pallida Waldst. & Kit., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Centaurea salsotitialis L., Raphanus raphanistrum

Sebile Azirak; Sengul Karaman

2008-01-01

340

Effect of Amla fruit (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on blood glucose and lipid profile of normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic and lipid-lowering properties of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. fruit in normal and diabetic human volunteers. The results indicated a significant decrease (P <  0.05) in fasting and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose levels on the 21st day in both normal and diabetic subjects receiving 1, 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder per day as compared with their baseline values. Significant (P <  0.05) decreases were also observed in total cholesterol and triglycerides in both normal and diabetic volunteers on day 21 that were given either 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder per day. However, diabetic volunteers receiving only 3 g E. officinalis powder exhibited a significant (P <  0.05) decrease in total lipids on day 21. Both normal and diabetic volunteers receiving 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder significantly (P <  0.05) improved high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lowered low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. PMID:21495900

Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Ramzan, Ayesha; Ali, Amanat; Ahmad, Maqsood

2011-04-18

341

Dietary intervention with narrow-leaved cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) prevents intestinal inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal epithelium that is driven by the intestinal immune system, oxidative stress and the loss of tolerance to the luminal microbiota. The use of dietary products containing ingredients such as fibres and carbohydrates and/or antioxidant compounds have been used as a therapeutic strategy for intestinal diseases because these products are considered effective in the modulation of the immune system and colonic microbiota. We investigated the beneficial effects of cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. In addition, we investigated the effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone, which is a reference drug that is used for treatment of human IBD. Methods The present study included the preparation of flour from rhizomes of cattail (Typha angustifolia L.); an evaluation of the qualitative phytochemical profile of cattail rhizomes; an evaluation of the efficacy of cattail rhizome flour in TNBS-induced rat colitis; an evaluation of the synergistic effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone; and macroscopic, clinical, biochemical, histopathological and microbiological studies to assess the healing effects of cattail rhizome flour and its synergistic effects in TNBS-induced rat colitis. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and ?2 tests. Results We tested several concentrations of cattail rhizome flour and found that dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour showed the best effects at reducing the extension of the lesion, the colon weight ratio, adherences to adjacent organs and diarrhoea. These effects were related to inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities and an attenuation of glutathione (GSH) depletion. The 10% cattail rhizome flour was as effective as prednisolone, and no synergistic effects were observed. Saponins, flavonoids and coumarins were detected in the rhizome flour. No changes were observed in the total number of lactic bacteria after dietary supplementation with cattail rhizome flour. Conclusions Dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour and its combination with prednisolone prevent TNBS-induced colonic damage in rats, but no synergistic effects were observed. The prevention of TNBS-induced colon damage was associated with an improvement in intestinal oxidative stress, which likely resulted from the antioxidant properties of the active compounds detected in the cattail rhizome. This protective effect was not related to an improvement in lactic bacteria counts.

2012-01-01

342

Identification and expression of two oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Two novel members of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily have been identified in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis. Oxytocin/vasopressin gene sequences were cloned by Race PCR. The two precursors we identified exhibit the classical organization of OT/VP superfamily precursors: a signal peptide followed by a nonapeptide and a neurophysin domain. The neurophysin domain is entirely conserved for the cuttlefish precursors, but the nonapeptides and the signal peptides differ. The first nonapeptide, called sepiatocin, is highly homologous to Octopus vulgaris octopressin. The second nonapeptide, called pro-sepiatocin, shows sequence homologies with a Crustacean oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide identified in Daphnia culex and with a novel form of oxytocin described in New World monkeys. The expression of pro-sepiatocin is restricted to the supraesophageal and subesophageal masses of the brain whereas sepiatocin is expressed in the entire central nervous system. Sepiatocin, as described for octopressin, modulates the contractile activity of several muscles such as penis, oviduct and vena cava muscles; this suggests its involvement in reproduction and blood circulation. Pro-sepiatocin is released in the hemolymph; it is a neurohormone able to target numerous peripheral organs. PMID:23764263

Henry, Joël; Cornet, Valerie; Bernay, Benoit; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

2013-06-11

343

Plant regeneration after long-term callus culture in clones of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

Callus growth and plant regeneration from long-term callus cultures were studied in two elite clones of Asparagus officinalis cv. Argenteuil, to establish a suitable protocol for a prospective in vitro selection program. Callus initiation and growth was evaluated on MS medium with 3% sucrose, 0.9% agar, 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, and three levels of 2,4-D. The highest callus relative growth was obtained on medium with 1.5 mg x l(-1) 2,4-D and 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin. Shoot primordia (SP) induction from > 18-months-old calluses was evaluated on several media; the highest percentage of SP induction (89%) and average number of SP per callus (8.6) were obtained with clone "265" on MS medium with 5 mg x l(-1) 2iP, 1 mg x l(-1) IAA, 3% sucrose and 0.9% agar. The highest percentage of root induction (100%) was achieved with clone '265' on MS medium with 0.1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, 0.1 mg x l(-1) NAA, 1.32 mg x l(-1) ancymidol, 7% glucose and 0.8% agar. Important medium x genotype interactions were detected, pointing to the need of adjusting this and other in vitro protocols for specific asparagus genotypes. PMID:16524253

Pontaroli, A C; Camadro, E L

2005-12-01

344

Extraction of polysaccharides from Fomes officinalis Ames and their antitumor activity  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction parameters of Fomes officinalis Ames polysaccharides (FOAPs) and evaluate their antitumor activity. FOAPs were extracted using the hot water extraction, acid extraction and alkali extraction methods, respectively. Alcohol precipitation and acetone washes were conducted to separate and purify the FOAPs. The FOAP content was determined using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The effects of raw material particle size, extraction time and material-liquid ratio on the yield of FOAPs were investigated, and the effects of FOAPs on the immune function of S180 tumor-bearing mice and their antitumor activity were evaluated. The yield of FOAPs obtained with the hot water extraction method was higher compared with the yields of the other methods. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: a raw material particle size of 24 mesh; an extraction time of 2.5 h; and a material-liquid ratio of 1 g:12 ml. Under these conditions, the yield of FOAPs was 1.13%. FOAPs significantly inhibited tumor growth and enhanced the immune function in S180 tumor-bearing mice. FOAPs extracted using the hot water extraction method have antitumor activity.

HU, MINGDONG; ZHANG, HUIFENG; FENG, BO; LIU, KE; GUO, SHUYING

2013-01-01

345

Effect of pasteurized egg and Rosmarinus officinalis supplementation on quality of cryopreserved ram semen.  

PubMed

The aim was to assess the in vitro effect of pasteurized egg (PE) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen-thawed ram semen. Ejaculates from three mature rams of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were cryopreserved using a 2-step dilution method (Fraction 1: F1; Fraction 2: F2). In Experiment 1, semen was frozen in egg yolk (EY) or PE extenders. After thawing, similar results were obtained in terms of total and progressive motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity after 2 h incubation. In Experiment 2, addition of rosemary to F1, F2 or both fractions to EY extenders was evaluated. Rosemary in F1 decreased progressive motility (p = 0.013) after 2 h incubation. Finally, PE can be used as a substitute for EY to reduce hygienic risks in extenders and is easier to standardize. Supplementation of EY extender with rosemary in F1 reduced progressive motility. Rosemary supplementation in F2 does not affect semen quality. PMID:23995410

Mascaro, F; Gil, L; Malo, C; Gonzales, N; Martinez, F; de Blas, I

346

Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or amla, is arguably the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Various parts of the plant are used to treat a range of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. The fruit is used either alone or in combination with other plants to treat many ailments such as common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. Preclinical studies have shown that amla possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemia, antihypercholesterolemia, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties. In addition, experimental studies have shown that amla and some of its phytochemicals such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, pyrogallol, some norsesquiterpenoids, corilagin, geraniin, elaeocarpusin, and prodelphinidins B1 and B2 also possess antineoplastic effects. Amla is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities, properties that are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans. PMID:21317655

Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Dsouza, Jason Jerome

2011-05-01

347

Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in the health risks related to the use of herbal remedies. Although most consumers think that phytomedicines are safe and without side effects, interactions between complementary alternative and conventional medicines are being described. The aim of this clinical case report is to highlight the importance of the safe use of herbal remedies by providing a clinical interaction study between pharmaceutical medicines and herbal medicinal products. The case of a patient self-medicated with Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. while he was on lorazepam treatment is described. Handshaking, dizziness, throbbing and muscular fatigue were reported within the 32 h before clinical diagnosis. The analysis of family medical history ruled out essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease and other symptom-related pathologies. His medical history revealed a generalized anxiety disorder and medicinal plant consumption but no neurological disorder. Appropriate physical examination was carried out. An additive or synergistic effect is suspected to have produced these symptoms. The active principles of Valerian and passionflower might increase the inhibitory activity of benzodiazepines binding to the GABA receptors, causing severe secondary effects. Due to the increase in herbal product self-medication, the use of herbal remedies should be registered while taking the personal clinical history. Multidisciplinary teams should be created to raise studies on medicinal plants with impact on medical praxis. PMID:19441067

Carrasco, María Consuelo; Vallejo, José Ramón; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Peral, Diego; Martín, Miguel Angel; Altimiras, Jacinto

2009-12-01

348

Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) Inhibits Inflammation in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mouse Model.  

PubMed

Objectives. Ginger rhizomes have a long history of human use, especially with regards to their anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms by which ginger acts on lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)induced inflammation have not yet been identified. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of dried Zingiber officinalis (DZO) on LPS-induced hepatic injury. Methods. ICR mice were given a DZO water extract (100, 1000?mg/kg) orally for three consecutive days. On the third day, they were administered by LPS intraperitoneally. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of DZO, histological, cytokine expression, and protein factor analyses were performed. Results. Oral administration of DZO significantly reduced pathological changes in the liver and proinflammatory cytokines including interferon-(IFN-) ? and interleukin-(IL-)6 in the serum. In addition, DZO inhibited LPS-induced NF- ? B activation by preventing degradation of the I ? B- ? , as well as the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK, and p38 MAPKs. These were associated with a decrease in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxyenase-2 (COX-2). Conclusions. Our data provide evidence for the hepatoprotective mechanisms of DZO as an anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, use of DZO to treat could provide therapeutic benefits in clinical settings. PMID:23935687

Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Woong Mo

2013-06-27

349

Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis against alcohol induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes.  

PubMed

This study investigated the protective effect of Emblica officinalis against alcohol-induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8 in each group): control (C), alcohol (A), alcohol plus Emblica fruit extract (A+EFE) and Emblica fruit extract (EFE) alone. Administration of twenty percent alcohol (5 g/kg body weight) to rats significantly increased cholesterol/phospholipid (C/P) ratio, lipid peroxidation and the activities of Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases in erythrocyte membranes as well as augmented nitric oxide (NO) levels. However, membrane fluidity studies using the fluorescent probe DPH (1,6 diphenyl 1,3 hexatriene) reveals that alcohol administration significantly (p<0.05) increased membrane anisotropic values and altered membrane individual phospholipid content. Administration of EFE (250 mg/kg body weight) to alcoholic rats resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction of NO levels, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation, C/P ratio, activities of Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases and fluorescent anisotropic values. Further, EFE administration to alcoholic rats beneficially modulated membrane properties as evidenced from the contents of total phospholipids as well individual phospholipid classes. The tannoid principles present in Emblica offers protection against alcohol induced adverse effects in rats. PMID:19454300

Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Paramahamsa, Maturu; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

2009-05-18

350

Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi of Emblica officinalis, an Ethnomedicinal Plant of India.  

PubMed

In the present study, an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes inhabiting Emblica officinalis has been made keeping in view the medicinal importance of the selected host plant in Indian traditional practices. A total of four endophytic fungi belonging to Phylum Ascomycetes were isolated from different parts of the plant which were characterized morphologically and by using rDNA-internal transcribed spacer. The most frequently isolated endophyte was Phomopsis sp. The antioxidant activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay, and total phenol were evaluated using ethanolic extract of endophytic fungi. DPPH activities in all the ethanolic extract increased with the increase in concentrations. Endophytes, Phomopsis sp. and Xylaria sp. showed highest antioxidant activity and also had the higher levels of phenolics. Antimicrobial activity of fungal extract were tested against four bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC730, Enteroccocus faecalis MTCC2729, Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi MTCC735 and Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC1925, and the fungus Candida albicans MTCC183. In general, the fungal extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms except E. coli. PMID:22783128

Nath, Archana; Raghunatha, Prajwal; Joshi, S R

2012-03-31

351

Protective effect of an extract of Emblica officinalis against radiation-induced damage in mice.  

PubMed

The radioprotective effect of Emblica officinalis extract (EOE) was studied in mice. Swiss albino mice were exposed to gamma rays (5 Gy) in the absence (control) or presence (experimental) of EOE, orally 100 mg/kg body weight, once daily for 7 consecutive days. A specimen of small intestine (jejunum) was removed from the mice and studied at different autopsy intervals from 12 hours to 30 days. In control animals, crypt cell population, mitotic figures, and villus length were markedly reduced on day 1; these later started to increase progressively but did not attain the normal level even at the last autopsy interval. The animals receiving EOE prior to irradiation had a higher number of crypt cells and mitotic figures when compared with non-drug-treated control at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiation of animals resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione as well as catalase concentration in the intestine at 1 hour post-irradiation. In contrast, EOE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione and catalase levels. PMID:19223372

Jindal, Archana; Soyal, Dhanraj; Sharma, Abhilasha; Goyal, P K

2009-03-01

352

Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi of Emblica officinalis, an Ethnomedicinal Plant of India  

PubMed Central

In the present study, an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes inhabiting Emblica officinalis has been made keeping in view the medicinal importance of the selected host plant in Indian traditional practices. A total of four endophytic fungi belonging to Phylum Ascomycetes were isolated from different parts of the plant which were characterized morphologically and by using rDNA-internal transcribed spacer. The most frequently isolated endophyte was Phomopsis sp. The antioxidant activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay, and total phenol were evaluated using ethanolic extract of endophytic fungi. DPPH activities in all the ethanolic extract increased with the increase in concentrations. Endophytes, Phomopsis sp. and Xylaria sp. showed highest antioxidant activity and also had the higher levels of phenolics. Antimicrobial activity of fungal extract were tested against four bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC730, Enteroccocus faecalis MTCC2729, Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi MTCC735 and Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC1925, and the fungus Candida albicans MTCC183. In general, the fungal extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms except E. coli.

Nath, Archana; Raghunatha, Prajwal

2012-01-01

353

Metabolism of Monoterpenes in Cell Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1  

PubMed Central

Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from [U-14C]sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+)-camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+)-camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

Falk, Kimberly L.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Croteau, Rodney

1990-01-01

354

Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries.  

PubMed

Variations in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 2.2-24.8 mL kg(-1). In three samples, the content of essential oil did not conform to the EP standard (10 mL kg(-1)). Variations in the essential oil composition of sage were studied using capillary gas chromatographic methods. A total of 40 components were identified. The principal components in the sage oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, borneol, and viridiflorol. The chemotypes of sage were not determined in investigated samples. The concentration of the main compounds in the drugs cultivated in Estonia varied in about the same range as the concentrations of these compounds in the oils of drugs obtained from other countries. The comparatively high concentration of toxic thujones seem to be characteristic to sage leaves cultivated in Estonia. PMID:17487611

Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

2007-05-01

355

Perception of visual texture and the expression of disruptive camouflage by the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

Juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage themselves by changing their body pattern according to the background. This behaviour can be used to investigate visual perception in these molluscs and may also give insight into camouflage design. Edge detection is an important aspect of vision, and here we compare the body patterns that cuttlefish produced in response to checkerboard backgrounds with responses to backgrounds that have the same spatial frequency power spectrum as the checkerboards, but randomized spatial phase. For humans, phase randomization removes visual edges. To describe the cuttlefish body patterns, we scored the level of expression of 20 separate pattern ‘components’, and then derived principal components (PCs) from these scores. After varimax rotation, the first component (PC1) corresponded closely to the so-called disruptive body pattern, and the second (PC2) to the mottle pattern. PC1 was predominantly expressed on checkerboards, and PC2 on phase-randomized backgrounds. Thus, cuttlefish probably have edge detectors that control the expression of disruptive pattern. Although the experiments used unnatural backgrounds, it seems probable that cuttlefish display disruptive camouflage when there are edges in the visual background caused by discrete objects such as pebbles. We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of disruptive camouflage.

Kelman, E.J; Baddeley, R.J; Shohet, A.J; Osorio, D

2007-01-01

356

Nitric Oxide Mediates the Glutamate-dependent Pathway for Neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis Chromatophore Organs  

PubMed Central

Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia.

Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R.; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

2010-01-01

357

Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) Inhibits Inflammation in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Ginger rhizomes have a long history of human use, especially with regards to their anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms by which ginger acts on lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)induced inflammation have not yet been identified. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of dried Zingiber officinalis (DZO) on LPS-induced hepatic injury. Methods. ICR mice were given a DZO water extract (100, 1000?mg/kg) orally for three consecutive days. On the third day, they were administered by LPS intraperitoneally. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of DZO, histological, cytokine expression, and protein factor analyses were performed. Results. Oral administration of DZO significantly reduced pathological changes in the liver and proinflammatory cytokines including interferon-(IFN-)? and interleukin-(IL-)6 in the serum. In addition, DZO inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation by preventing degradation of the I?B-?, as well as the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK, and p38 MAPKs. These were associated with a decrease in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxyenase-2 (COX-2). Conclusions. Our data provide evidence for the hepatoprotective mechanisms of DZO as an anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, use of DZO to treat could provide therapeutic benefits in clinical settings.

Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Sung-Hoon

2013-01-01

358

Suppression of LPS-induced inflammatory activities by Rosmarinus officinalis L.  

PubMed

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary need more study to be established. Therefore, in this study, the effects of rosemary on the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and cytokine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were investigated. A methanol extract of rosemary and its hexane fraction reduced NO generation with an IC(50) of 2.75 and 2.83 ?g/ml, respectively. Also, the methanol extract and the hexane fraction inhibited LPS-induced MAPKs and NF-kB activation associated with the inhibition of iNOS or COX-2 expression. LPS-induced production of PGE(2) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) were blocked by rosemary. Rosemary extract and its hexane fraction are important for the prevention of phosphorylation of MAPKs, thereby blocking NF-kB activation, which in turn leads to decreased expression of iNOS and COX-2, thus preventing inflammation. PMID:23122161

Yu, Mi-Hee; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Chae, In-Gyeong; Im, Hyo-Gwon; Yang, Seun-Ah; More, Kunal; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Jinho

2012-09-12

359

Kocuria palustris sp. nov. and Kocuria rhizophila sp. nov., isolated from the rhizoplane of the narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia).  

PubMed

Two Gram-positive, aerobic spherical actinobacteria were isolated from the rhizoplane of narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia) collected from a floating mat in the Soroksár tributary of the Danube river, Hungary. Sequence comparisons of the 16S rDNA indicated these isolates to be phylogenetic neighbours of members of the genus Kocuria, family Micrococcaceae, in which they represent two novel lineages. The phylogenetic distinctness of the two organisms TA68T and TAGA27T was supported by DNA-DNA similarity values of less than 55% between each other and with the type strains of Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae and Kocuria varians. Chemotaxonomic properties supported the placement of the two isolates in the genus Kocuria. The diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan is lysine, the interpeptide bridge is composed of three alanine residues. Predominant menaquinone was MK-7(H2). The fatty acid pattern represents the straight-chain saturated iso-anteiso type. Main fatty acid was anteiso-C15:0. The phospholipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown component. The DNA base composition of strains TA68T and TAGA27T is 69.4 and 69.6 mol% G+C, respectively. Genotypic, morphological and physiological characteristics are used to describe two new species of Kocuria, for which we propose the names Kocuria palustris, type strain DSM 11925T and Kocuria rhizophila, type strain DSM 11926T. PMID:10028258

Kovács, G; Burghardt, J; Pradella, S; Schumann, P; Stackebrandt, E; Màrialigeti, K

1999-01-01

360

Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis  

PubMed Central

The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO2 concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO2 and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO2. Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO2, while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO2. The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO2 due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO2 are discussed.

Hofmann, Laurie C.

2013-01-01

361

Permeability of Rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and Ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis Extracts across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological relevance Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. Aim of the study To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in P. vulgaris and S. officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Materials and methods The permeabilities and Phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. Results The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for RA and RA in P. vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10?6 cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10?6 cm/s after ?-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. Papp for UA and UA in S. officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10?6 cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10?6 cm/s before and after ?-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. Conclusion RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA.

Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Hendrich, Suzanne

2011-01-01

362

Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and ?-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 ?M kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 ?M kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and ?-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and ?-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems. PMID:21856165

Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

2011-07-24

363

Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose Advanced glycation end products (AGE) are associated in the development of several pathophysiologies including diabetic cataract. Earlier we have reported that some common dietary agents have antiglycating activity and ginger (Zingiber officinalis) was one of the few prominent agents that effectively prevented AGE formation in vitro. In this study we investigated the potential of ginger to prevent diabetic cataract in rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar-NIN rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg bodyweight) and the control rats received vehicle alone. While a set of diabetic animals received AIN-93 diet, another set received either 0.5 or 3% ginger in their diet for a period of two months. Cataract progression was monitored by slit-lamp biomicroscope. At the end of two months, the animals were sacrificed to evaluate non-enzymatic glycation and osmotic stress in the eye lens. Results Slit-lamp examination revealed that feeding of ginger not only delayed the onset but also the progression of cataract in rats. Molecular analyses indicated that feeding of ginger significantly inhibited the formation of various AGE products including carboxymethyl lysine in the eye lens. In addition, ginger also countered hyperglycemia-induced osmotic stress in the lens. Conclusions The results indicated that ginger was effective against the development of diabetic cataract in rats mainly through its antiglycating potential and to a lesser extent by inhibition of the polyol pathway. Thus, ingredients of dietary sources, such as ginger, may be explored for the prevention or delay of diabetic complications.

Saraswat, Megha; Suryanarayana, Palla; Patil, Madhoosudan A.; Balakrishna, Nagalla

2010-01-01

364

Immunomodulatory role of Emblica officinalis in arsenic induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice  

PubMed Central

Background Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment and has been found to be associated with the various health related problems including skin lesions, cancer, cardiovascular and immunological disorders. The fruit extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) has been shown to have anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory properties. In view of increasing health risk of arsenic, the present study has been carried out to investigate the protective effect of amla against arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice. Methods Mice were exposed to arsenic (sodium arsenite 3 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or simultaneously with arsenic and amla for 28 days. The antioxidant enzyme assays were carried out using spectrophotometer and generation of ROS, apoptotic parameters, change in cell cycle were carried out using flow cytometer following the standard protocols. Results Arsenic exposure to mice caused a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation, ROS production and decreased cell viability, levels of reduced glutathione, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential in the thymus as compared to controls. Increased activity of caspase-3 linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis and annexin V/PI binding was also observed in mice exposed to arsenic as compared to controls. Co-treatment with arsenic and amla decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation, ROS production, activity of caspase-3, apoptosis and increased cell viability, levels of antioxidant enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions The results of the present study exhibits that arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly protected by co-treatment with amla that could be due to its strong antioxidant potential.

2013-01-01

365

Role of blood-oxygen transport in thermal tolerance of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Mechanisms that affect thermal tolerance of ectothermic organisms have recently received much interest, mainly due to global warming and climate-change debates in both the public and in the scientific community. In physiological terms, thermal tolerance of several marine ectothermic taxa can be linked to oxygen availability, with capacity limitations in ventilatory and circulatory systems contributing to oxygen limitation at extreme temperatures. The present review briefly summarizes the processes that define thermal tolerance in a model cephalopod organism, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, with a focus on the contribution of the cephalopod oxygen-carrying blood pigment, hemocyanin. When acutely exposed to either extremely high or low temperatures, cuttlefish display a gradual transition to an anaerobic mode of energy production in key muscle tissues once critical temperatures (T(crit)) are reached. At high temperatures, stagnating metabolic rates and a developing hypoxemia can be correlated with a progressive failure of the circulatory system, well before T(crit) is reached. However, at low temperatures, declining metabolic rates cannot be related to ventilatory or circulatory failure. Rather, we propose a role for hemocyanin functional characteristics as a major limiting factor preventing proper tissue oxygenation. Using information on the oxygen binding characteristics of cephalopod hemocyanins, we argue that high oxygen affinities (= low P(50) values), as found at low temperatures, allow efficient oxygen shuttling only at very low venous oxygen partial pressures. Low venous PO(2)s limit rates of oxygen diffusion into cells, thus eventually causing the observed transition to anaerobic metabolism. On the basis of existing blood physiological, molecular, and crystallographical data, the potential to resolve the role of hemocyanin isoforms in thermal adaptation by an integrated molecular physiological approach is discussed. PMID:21672869

Melzner, Frank; Mark, Felix C; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

2007-07-23

366

Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3?-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)}-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[?-d-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3?,26-diol, 3-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)}-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[?-d-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3?,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3?,22,26-triol-3-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranoside]-26-O-?-d-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus. PMID:24128498

Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

2013-08-26

367

Hepatoprotective properties of the Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn): a review.  

PubMed

Liver diseases characterized by inflammation or tissue damage affect the optimal functioning and increase the morbidity and mortality of the affected individual. Liver diseases are a largely neglected health issue and recent reports indicate that they affect over 10% of the world population, with the highest burden in low and middle income countries that have minimal medical resources. To complicate matters the currently available pharmacological therapies are not optimal and when used for extended periods of time impart systemic toxicity. Diet can modify pathophysiological processes, including those of hepatotoxins, and studies have shown that some dietary constituents can afford heptoprotection. Emblica officinalis Gaertn or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as the Indian gooseberry in English or amla in Hindi, is one of the most important medicinal and dietary plants in the Indian subcontinent. The fruits are of dietary and medicinal use and have wide applications in both traditional and folk systems of medicine. Scientific studies have shown amla to be effective in preventing/ameliorating the toxic effects of hepatotoxic agents like ethanol, paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride, heavy metals, ochratoxins, hexachlorocyclohexane, antitubercular drugs and hepatotoxicity resulting from iron overload. Amla is also reported to impart beneficial effects on liver function and to mitigate hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Amla possesses protective effects against chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models of study. Additionally, the phytochemicals quercetin, gallic acid, corilagin and ellagic acid are also reported to protect against the cytotoxic effects of paracetamol, microcystins, galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide. The hepatoprotective actions of amla appear to be mediated by its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and modulation of the xenobiotic detoxification process and lipid metabolism. PMID:23978895

Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Mathai, Rashmi Teresa; Simon, Paul; Ravi, Rithin T; Baliga-Rao, Manjeshwar Poonam; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2013-10-25

368

The isolation and characterization of ?-glucogallin as a novel aldose reductase inhibitor from Emblica officinalis.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a leading cause of new cases of blindness. The prevalence of diabetic eye disease is expected to continue to increase worldwide as a result of the dramatic increase in the number of people with diabetes. At present, there is no medical treatment to delay or prevent the onset and progression of cataract or retinopathy, the most common causes of vision loss in diabetics. The plant Emblica officinalis (gooseberry) has been used for thousands of years as a traditional Indian Ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of diabetes in humans. Extracts from this plant have been shown to be efficacious against the progression of cataract in a diabetic rat model. Aldose reductase (ALR2) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes including cataract and, therefore, has been a major drug target for the development of therapies to treat diabetic disease. Herein, we present the bioassay-guided isolation and structure elucidation of 1-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (?-glucogallin), a major component from the fruit of the gooseberry that displays selective as well as relatively potent inhibition (IC(50) = 17 µM) of AKR1B1 in vitro. Molecular modeling demonstrates that this inhibitor is able to favorably bind in the active site. Further, we show that ?-glucogallin effectively inhibits sorbitol accumulation by 73% at 30 µM under hyperglycemic conditions in an ex-vivo organ culture model of lenses excised from transgenic mice overexpressing human ALR2 in the lens. This study supports the continued development of natural products such as ?-glucogallin as therapeutic leads in the development of novel therapies to treat diabetic complications such as cataract. PMID:22485126

Puppala, Muthenna; Ponder, Jessica; Suryanarayana, Palla; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash; Petrash, J Mark; LaBarbera, Daniel V

2012-04-02

369

Emblica officinalis Gaertn. attentuates N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammation in rat livers.  

PubMed

Inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to liver injury. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) is rich in vitamin C, gallic acid, flavonoids, and tannins, which may protect against hepatoxicity-induced liver injury. We elucidated the effects of supplementary Amla (100?mg/kg of body weight) on N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced injury by evaluating reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses in the liver and bile, the degree of accumulated leukocytes and Kupffer cell infiltration, 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal stains, apoptosis and autophagy, plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT) levels, and antioxidant/oxidant enzymes in rats. Amla was more potent than vitamin C in scavenging O??·, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide. N-Nitrosodiethylamine increased ROS production in liver and bile, hepatic Kupffer cell and leukocyte infiltration, 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal accumulations, apoptosis and autophagy, and plasma ALT, AST, and ?-GT levels in the rats, decreased hepatic manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase protein expressions, and enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) protein expressions. Amla significantly preserved MnSOD and catalase expressions and decreased iNOS and CYP2E1 protein expressions in N-nitrosodiethylamine-treated livers. Amla decreased N-nitrosodiethylamine-enhanced hepatic apoptosis and autophagy appearances via down-regulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Beclin-1 expression. Thus Amla supplementation counteracts N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver injury via its antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-autophagy properties. PMID:21761987

Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Lin, Bor-Ru; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Ho, Chien-Hsin

370

The Isolation and Characterization of ?-Glucogallin as a Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitor from Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a leading cause of new cases of blindness. The prevalence of diabetic eye disease is expected to continue to increase worldwide as a result of the dramatic increase in the number of people with diabetes. At present, there is no medical treatment to delay or prevent the onset and progression of cataract or retinopathy, the most common causes of vision loss in diabetics. The plant Emblica officinalis (gooseberry) has been used for thousands of years as a traditional Indian Ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of diabetes in humans. Extracts from this plant have been shown to be efficacious against the progression of cataract in a diabetic rat model. Aldose reductase (ALR2) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes including cataract and, therefore, has been a major drug target for the development of therapies to treat diabetic disease. Herein, we present the bioassay-guided isolation and structure elucidation of 1-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (?-glucogallin), a major component from the fruit of the gooseberry that displays selective as well as relatively potent inhibition (IC50?=?17 µM) of AKR1B1 in vitro. Molecular modeling demonstrates that this inhibitor is able to favorably bind in the active site. Further, we show that ?-glucogallin effectively inhibits sorbitol accumulation by 73% at 30 µM under hyperglycemic conditions in an ex-vivo organ culture model of lenses excised from transgenic mice overexpressing human ALR2 in the lens. This study supports the continued development of natural products such as ?-glucogallin as therapeutic leads in the development of novel therapies to treat diabetic complications such as cataract.

Puppala, Muthenna; Ponder, Jessica; Suryanarayana, Palla; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash; Petrash, J. Mark; LaBarbera, Daniel V.

2012-01-01

371

Antiproliferation effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on human ovarian cancer cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular culinary/medicinal herb. Recent studies have shown it has pharmacologic activities for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. This study evaluated the antiproliferation activity of rosemary extract (RE) against human ovarian cancer cells, and whether the extract and its three main active ingredients carnosol (CS), carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) can enhance the antiproliferation activity of cisplatin (CDDP). Our study showed that RE has significant antiproliferation activity on human ovarian cancer A2780 and its CDDP resistant daughter cell line A2780CP70, with IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration) estimated at 1/1000 and 1/400 dilutions respectively. RE enhanced the antiproliferation effect with CDDP on both A2780 and A2780CP70 cells. A2780 cells were consistently more sensitive to CS, CA, and RA than A2780CP70 cells between 2.5 and 20?g/ml. CS and RA also showed synergistic antiproliferation effect with CDDP on A2780 cells at some concentrations. RE treated by ultrafiltration, dialysis, and removal of phenolics lost the antiproliferation activity suggested that the activity resides in phenolics with MW<1000Da. Apoptosis array study of A2780 cells treated with RE showed that the expression of a number of genes regulating apoptosis were modulated by the treatment. This study showed that RE inhibited the proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines by affecting the cell cycle at multiple phases. It induced apoptosis by modifying the expression of multiple genes regulating apoptosis, and holds potential as an adjunct to cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22325591

Tai, Joseph; Cheung, Susan; Wu, Matthew; Hasman, David

2012-02-09

372

Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.  

PubMed

The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Pagonopoulou, Olga

2013-06-02

373

Hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. affords protection against PTZ-induced seizures, oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in rats.  

PubMed

The cognitive impairment seen in epileptics may be a consequence of either the underlying epileptogenic process alone or it could manifest on account of the use of antiepileptic drugs that cause cognitive impairment as an adverse effect or both. Thus, there is a need for drugs that can suppress epileptogenesis without contributing to or, if possible, by acting to prevent the development of cognitive impairment. Emblica officinalis, an Indian medicinal plant, has marked antioxidant property. The effect of seven days pretreatment of 300, 500 and 700 mg/kg doses of hydroalcoholic extract of E. officinalis (HAEEO) administered intraperitoneally to rats was evaluated on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures, cognitive deficit and oxidative stress markers viz malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione. The 500 and 700 mg/kg ip doses of HAEEO completely abolished the generalized tonic seizures and also improved the retention latency in passive avoidance task. Further, HAEEO dose-dependently ameliorated the oxidative stress induced by PTZ. These findings suggest the potential of HAEEO to be used as an adjuvant to treatment with antiepileptic drugs. PMID:20795364

Golechha, Mahaveer; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

2010-05-01

374

A herbal antifungal formulation of Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis for treating ovine dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes.  

PubMed

A number of herbal products with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antimycotic properties are available for dermatological usage. The successful treatment of 13 sheep affected by ringworm due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with a mixture consisting of essential oils (EOs) of Thymus serpillum 2%, Origanum vulgare 5% and Rosmarinus officinalis 5% in sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) oil. The effectiveness of EOs and of the major components of the mixture (thymol, carvacrol, 1,8 cineole, ?-pinene, p-cymene, ?-terpinene) against the fungal clinical isolate was evaluated by a microdilution test. Thirteen animals were topically administered with the mixture twice daily for 15?days. The other sheep were administered with a conventional treatment (seven animals) or left untreated (two animals). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 0.1% for T. serpillum, 0.5% for O. vulgare, 2.5% for I. verum and 5% for both R. officinalis and C. limon. Thymol and carvacrol showed MICs of 0.125% and 0.0625%. A clinical and aetiological cure was obtained at the end of each treatment regimen in only the treated animals. Specific antimycotic drugs licenced for food-producing sheep are not available within the European Community. The mixture tested here appeared to be a versatile tool for limiting fungal growth. PMID:23368893

Mugnaini, Linda; Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Leonardi, Michele; Giuliotti, Lorella; Benvenuti, Maria N; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

2013-02-01

375

Antidepressant-like effects of fractions, essential oil, carnosol and betulinic acid isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of fractions from Rosmarinus officinalis L.: ethyl acetate 1 and 2 (AcOEt1 and 2), hexane (HEX), ethanolic (ET), and essential oil-free (EOF) fractions, as well as essential oil, the isolated compounds carnosol and betulinic acid in the tail suspension test, a predictive test of antidepressant activity. Swiss mice were acutely administered by oral route (p.o.) with fractions, essential oil or isolated compounds, 60 min before the tail suspension test or open-field test. All of them produced a significant antidepressant-like effect: AcOEt1, ET, EOF fractions and essential oil (0.1-100mg/kg, p.o); HEX (0.1-10mg/kg, p.o) and AcOEt2 fraction (0.1-1mg/kg, p.o), carnosol (0.01-0.1mg/kg, p.o.) isolated from the HEX fraction and betulinic acid (10mg/kg, p.o.), isolated from the AcOEt1 and AcOEt2 fractions. No psychostimulant effect was shown in the open-field test, indicating that the effects in the tail suspension test are specific. This study suggests that carnosol and betulinic acid could be responsible for the anti-immobility effect of extracts from R. officinalis. PMID:23122155

Machado, Daniele G; Cunha, Mauricio P; Neis, Vivian B; Balen, Grasiela O; Colla, André; Bettio, Luis E B; Oliveira, Agatha; Pazini, Francis Leonardo; Dalmarco, Juliana B; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

2012-09-16

376

Protective effect of ursolic acid from Cornus officinalis on the hydrogen peroxide-induced damage of HEI-OC1 auditory cells.  

PubMed

The fruits of Cornus officinalis have been used in traditional oriental medicine for treatment of inner ear diseases, such as tinnitus and hearing loss. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of C. officinalis on hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in HEI-OC1 auditory cells. The results from bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of C. officinalis fruits showed that ursolic acid is a major active component. Ursolic acid (0.05-2 microg/ml) had protective effect against the HEI-OC1 cell damage and reduced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment with ursolic acid significantly attenuated the decrease of activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), but superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was not significantly affected by ursolic acid. These results indicate that ursolic acid protects hydrogen peroxide-induced HEI-OC1 cell damage through inhibition of lipid peroxidation and induction of antioxidant enzymes, CAT and GPX, and may be one of the active components responsible for these effects of C. officinalis fruits. PMID:19655411

Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Hur, Jong-Moon; Seo, Se-Jeong; Moon, Hae-Dalma; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Rae-Kil; You, Yong-Ouk

2009-01-01

377

Comparative evaluation of the antibacterial activities of the essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L. obtained by hydrodistillation and solvent free microwave extraction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a perennial herb that belongs to the Lamiaceae family. It is used as a food flavouring agent, and well known medicinally for its powerful antimutagenic, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. Essential oils were obtained from this plant by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent free microwave extraction (SFME). GC–MS analyses of the oils revealed the presence of 24 and

O. O. Okoh; A. P. Sadimenko; A. J. Afolayan

2010-01-01

378

AM inoculation as a biological tool to improve plant revegetation of a disturbed soil with Rosmarinus officinalis under semi-arid conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis L., is an evergreen sclerophyllous mediterranean shrub that can be used for revegetation purposes under semi-arid conditions. Plants, some of which had been inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, were grown on eroded topsoil collected from a sideslope of a recently constructed motorway. The effects of the symbiosis on plant growth and

Victoria Estaún; Robert Savé; Carme Biel

1997-01-01

379

Antioxidant effect of dittany ( Origanum dictamnus ) in pre-cooked chicken meat balls during chill-storage in comparison to rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dittany ( Origanus dictamnus L.) has been compared with rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) as an antioxidant in pre-cooked meat balls made from chicken breast and added 0.50% salt during chill storage for up to ten days packed in atmospheric air. For an addition of 0.10% of dried leaves, dittany yielded protection of the product against oxidation a little less

Aline M. C. Racanicci; Bente Danielsen; JoséFernando M. Menten; Marisa A. B. Regitano-d’Arce; Leif H. Skibsted

2004-01-01

380

Effect of irrigation frequency and planting density on herbage biomass and oil production of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris) and hyssop ( Hyssopus officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was undertaken to determine the herbage biomass and oil production of thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linn.) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis Linn.) in 2003 and 2004 in the semi-arid region of Khorasan in Iran. The experiment was a split plot with three irrigation intervals as main plots and three planting densities as subplots, all of which replicated three times. Irrigation

H. R. Khazaie; F. Nadjafi; M. Bannayan

2008-01-01

381

Comparisons of microsatellite variability and population genetic structure of two endangered wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon and O. officinalis , and their conservation implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conserving endangered wild rice species requires a thorough understanding of their population genetic structure and appropriate approaches. We applied six and seven microsatellite loci to study the genetic structure of six populations throughout the range of Chinese Oryza rufipogon and Oryza officinalis, respectively. The results showed that O. rufipogon possesses higher levels of genetic diversity but lower differentiation (RS =

Li-Zhi Gao; Chi-Hong Zhang

2005-01-01

382

Studies on the Physiological Function of In Vitro Produced Antioxidants from Sage (Salvia officinalis L.): Effects on Cell Growth and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of antioxidant phenolic compounds produced by sage (Salvia officinalis) callus cultures on some physiological parameters of the producing cells. Although cultures demonstrated a continuous growth during an incubation period of five weeks, the cell dehydrogenase activity, the cytochrome c oxidase activity and the respiration of isolated mitochondria declined. An analysis of meth-anolic extracts derived from the

Spiridon Kintzios; Maria Adamopoulou; Eleni Pistola; Katerina Delki; John Drossopoulos

2002-01-01

383

Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. METHODS: The 70% methanol extracts were studied

Bibhabasu Hazra; Rhitajit Sarkar; Santanu Biswas; Nripendranath Mandal

2010-01-01

384

In vitro antioxidant and inhibitory potential of Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis fruits against LDL oxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts (Hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), methanol (ME), 70% methanol (MW) and Water (WA)) of Terminalia bellerica (TB) and Emblica officinalis (EB) fruits. Methanol extract (ME) of TB and EB fruits exhibited maximum scavenging activity against DPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals. Cell based

Suresh V. Nampoothiri; A. Prathapan; Ozhathil Lijo Cherian; K. G. Raghu; V. V. Venugopalan; A. Sundaresan

2011-01-01

385

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans: a novel and alternative approach to suppress quorum-sensing mechanism.  

PubMed

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

Hasan, Sadaf; Danishuddin, Mohd; Adil, Mohd; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K; Khan, Asad U

2012-07-05

386

Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and

T. Lacoue-Labarthe; S. Martin; F. Oberhänsli; J.-L. Teyssié; S. Markich; R. Jeffree; P. Bustamante

2009-01-01

387

Antioxidant effect rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) extracts on TBARS and colour of model raw pork batters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbs and spices are traditional used as food ingredients as well as for their antioxidant properties. The objective of this work was to study the concentration of carnosol, rosmarinic and carnosic acids in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.), and their effect on the oxidation and colour of model pork batters. Extracts were obtained by maceration

E. Hernández-Hernández; E. Ponce-Alquicira; M. E. Jaramillo-Flores; I. Guerrero Legarreta

2009-01-01

388

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans.

Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

2012-01-01

389

Variation of volatile oil concentration of Mediterranean aromatic shrubs Thymus capitatus hoffmag et link, Satureja thymbra L., Teucrium polium L. and Rosmarinus officinalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatile oil content of four Labiatae aromatic plants, viz. Thymus capitatus, Satureja thymbra, Teucrium polium and Rosmarinus officinalis has been estimated throughout the year; leaves, braches, flowers and leaf litter were analysed. The pattern of changes in the volatile oil concentration is not the same in all four plants; it corresponds to the major adaptive strategy towards summer drought, which each has evolved.

Vokou, D.; Margaris, N. S.

1986-06-01

390

Extraction, Separation and Isolation of Volatiles and Dyes from Calendula officinalis L. and Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton by Supercritical CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation of volatile concentrate from the dried leaves of Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit.) Britton (lemon verbena) and the dried flowers of Calendula officinalis L. were obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2. To obtain a pure volatile extract devoid of cuticular waxes, the extraction products were fractionated in two separators operating in series. A good extraction process was obtained operating at 90

Nicoletta Crabps; Bruno Marongiu; Alessandra Piras; Tiziana Pivetta; Silvia Porcedda

2003-01-01

391

Extraction, Separation and Isolation of Volatiles and Dyes from Calendula officinalis L. and Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton by Supercritical CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation of volatile concentrate from the dried leaves of Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit.) Britton (Lemon verbena) and the dried flowers of Calendula officinalis L. were obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2. To obtain a pure volatile extract devoid of cuticular waxes, the extraction products were fractionated in two separators operating in series. A good extraction process was obtained operating at 90

Nicoletta Crabas; Bruno Marongiu; Alessandra Piras; Tiziana Pivetta; Silvia Porcedda

2003-01-01

392

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Characteristic of the Essential Oils Obtained from the Flower, Leaf and Stem of Salvia officinalis L. Originating from Southeast Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the yield, chemical composition and antimicrobial action of the essential oils obtained from the flower, leaf and stem of Salvia officinalis L., originating from the southeast region of Serbia was carried out. The oils were obtained by different procedures of distillation (water and steam distillation). Water distillation contributed to a larger oil yield from all parts of

Dragan T. Velickovic; Mihailo S. Ristic; Novica V. Randjelovic; Andrija A. Smelcerovic

2002-01-01

393

Chemical Composition of Lebanese Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Essential Oil as a Function of the Geographical Region and the Harvest Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) from three locations in Lebanon were extracted by steam distillation and their chemical composition was determined by GC\\/MS. The plants were collected during two years at either flowering stage or after. The oils obtained did not show appreciable differences in their composition in relation to geographical region. The three oil samples were

Youssef Diab; Lizette Auezova; Hanna Chebib; Jean-Claude Chalchat; Gilles Figueredo

2002-01-01

394

Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity.

Manzanera, Jose A.; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F.

2007-12-01

395

Morphological variation of henequen (Agave fourcroydes, Agavaceae) germplasm and its wild ancestor (A. angustifolia) under uniform growth conditions: diversity and domestication.  

PubMed

Extant variants of henequen (Agave fourcroydes Lem.) and wild populations of its putative ancestor A. angustifolia Haw. were grown in the Mexican state of Yucatan for 10 yr under homogeneous conditions. A statistical and numerical analysis of their patterns of morphological variation was performed as part of broader research to provide evidence of its genetic diversity, evolutionary relationships and changes under human selection. A comparison with results of a similar analysis under natural growing conditions was also made. The study indicated the following. (1) Under natural growth conditions, the three putative wild ecotypes are morphologically distinct, but under uniform conditions only populations growing in Tropical subdeciduous forest may be distinguished from the other two, thus indicating the probable existence of only two ecotypes: one growing in Coastal dunes and Tropical subdeciduous forest, and the other growing in Tropical deciduous forest. (2) This last ecotype is the most similar to cultivated variants. Within its populations, the most similar to the cultivated is that known as Chelem White, gathered by artisans for its textile use. (3) The cordage-cultivated Sac Ki and Yaax Ki differ from wild populations in four syndromes of domestication: gigantism, greater fibrosity, less thorniness, and less reproductive capacity. The lower cv of their characteristics compared with those of wild populations suggest less genetic diversity. (4) Kitam Ki is probably a textile-cultivated variant of recent introduction and/or a variant in which the artificial selection process has had different direction and intensity. (5) Improved growth conditions in the botanic garden resulted in a decreased cv, an increase in size and fiber content, and a reduction of thorniness for both wild and cultivated variants. Given that wild populations with desirable characteristics exist and that these characteristics are highly plastic and respond positively to cultivation, then selection and cultivation of populations such as those from Tropical deciduous forest may well have been the path taken by the ancient Maya during henequen domestication. PMID:21708552

Colunga-Garciamarin, P; May-Pat, F

1997-11-01

396

The study protocol of a blinded randomised-controlled cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Increasingly more attention is being paid to alternative interventions that are associated with fewer risks than pharmacology. Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) has been thought, for centuries, to have soothing properties, but the existing evidence

Eva S van der Ploeg; Barbara Eppingstall; Daniel W O'Connor

2010-01-01

397

Polyamines affect the cellular growth and structure of pro-embryogenic masses in Araucaria angustifolia embryogenic cultures through the modulation of proton pump activities and endogenous levels of polyamines.  

PubMed

Polyamines (PAs) are abundant polycationic compounds involved in many physiological processes in plants, including somatic embryogenesis. This study investigates the role of PAs on cellular growth and structure of pro-embryogenic masses (PEMs), endogenous PA and proton pump activities in embryogenic suspension cultures of Araucaria angustifolia. The embryogenic suspension cultures were incubated with putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm) and the inhibitor methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), respectively (1 mM). After 24?h and 21 days, the cellular growth and structure of PEMs, endogenous PA contents and proton pump activities were analyzed. The addition of Spm reduced the cellular growth and promoted the development of PEMs in embryogenic cultures, which could be associated with a reduction in the activities of proton pumps, such as H(+) -ATPase P- and V-types and H(+) -PPases, and alterations in the endogenous PA contents. Spm significantly affected the physiology of the A. angustifolia somatic embryogenesis suspension, as it potentially affects cellular growth and structure of PEMs through the modulation of proton pump activities. This work demonstrates the involvement of exogenous PAs in the modulation of cellular growth and structure of PEMs, endogenous PA levels and proton pump activities during somatic embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a relationship between PAs and proton pump activities in these processes. The results obtained in this study offer new perspectives for studies addressing the role of PAs and proton pump on somatic embryogenesis in this species. PMID:22998677

Dutra, Nathalia Torres; Silveira, Vanildo; de Azevedo, Inga Gonçalves; Gomes-Neto, Lupis Ribeiro; Façanha, Arnoldo Rocha; Steiner, Neusa; Guerra, Miguel Pedro; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; Santa-Catarina, Claudete

2012-10-24

398

In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.  

PubMed

The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts, which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders. Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of 50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed), Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100 microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum (seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba (leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL. PMID:16317658

Mahady, Gail B; Pendland, Susan L; Stoia, Adenia; Hamill, Frank A; Fabricant, Daniel; Dietz, Birgit M; Chadwick, Lucas R

2005-11-01

399

Investigation of the Effect of Rice Wine on the Metabolites of the Main Components of Herbal Medicine in Rat Urine by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Case Study on Cornus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of the effect of rice wine on the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine in rat urine. Using Cornus officinalis as a model of herbal medicine, the metabolite profiles of crude and processed (steaming the crude drug presteeped in rice wine) Cornus officinalis extracts in rat urine were investigated. The metabolites of Cornus officinalis were identified by using dynamic adjustment of the fragmentor voltage to produce structure-relevant fragment ions. In this work, we identified the parent compounds and metabolites of crude and processed Cornus officinalis in rats. In total, three parent compounds and seventeen new metabolites of Cornus officinalis were found in rats. The contents of the parent compounds and metabolites in vivo varied significantly after intragastric (i.g.) administration of aqueous extracts of crude and processed Cornus officinalis. Data from this study suggests that UPLC-QTOF/MS could be used as a potential tool for uncovering the effects of excipients found in the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine, in vivo, to predict and discover the processing mechanisms of herbal medicine.

Cao, Gang; Cai, Hao; Yue, Xianke; Tu, Sicong; Cai, Baochang; Xu, Zhiwei

2013-01-01

400

GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.  

PubMed

In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h. PMID:23610957

Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jaros?aw; Zieba, Krzysztof; G?owniak, Kazimierz

401

Behavior of Free Aromatic Amino Acid Pools in Rosmarinic Acid-Producing Cell Cultures of Anchusa officinalis L. 1  

PubMed Central

The pool sizes of free l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine, the precursors of rosmarinic acid in Anchusa officinalis L. cell suspension cultures, fluctuated during the culture cycle. The major increase in pool sizes was preceded by a peak of prephenate aminotransferase activity, while the subsequent decrease coincided with the presence of high activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine aminotransferase, the two entrypoint enzymes of the rosmarinic acid biosynthesis pathway. Timecourse feeding studies with linear growth stage cells revealed that the tyrosine pool turned over rapidly, consistent with direct participation in rosmarinic acid synthesis. Since externally applied l-tyrosine was rapidly incorporated into rosmarinic acid with little evidence of radioactively labeled intermediates, it is suggested that there exists a close coupling between the l-tyrosine pool and the rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway, which may involve the channelling of intermediates both into and within the pathway.

De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Ellis, Brian E.

1989-01-01

402

Preliminary study on mercury uptake by Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) in a mining area (Mt. Amiata, Italy)  

SciTech Connect

Among the different plants analyzed to assess environmental mercury contamination of mining areas, lichens are those most studied, followed by brooms together with pine, which was also used in other areas, and spruce. Other species, both naturally occurring and cultivated, have also been studied. This work reports on the results of mercury uptake and accumulation in rosemary in relation to metal concentrations in both air and soil. R. officinalis is a widespread endemic Mediterranean evergreen shrub, which in Italy grows naturally and is also cultivated as a culinary herb. This research was carried out in Tuscany (Italy), in the Mt. Amiata area, which is characterized by the presence of cinnabar (HgS) deposits and has been used for mercury extraction and smelting from Etruscan times until 1980, and in the country near the town of Pisa, 140 km away from Mt. Amiata. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T. [Institute of Biophysics, Pisa (Italy)

1995-04-01

403

Expression and characterization of the N-terminal half of antistasin, an anticoagulant protein derived from the leech Haementeria officinalis.  

PubMed

Antistasin, a 15-kDa anticoagulant protein isolated from the salivary glands of the Mexican leech Haementeria officinalis, has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of factor Xa in the blood coagulation cascade. Antistasin possesses a twofold internal homology between the N- and C-terminal halves of the molecule, suggesting a gene duplication event in the evolution of the antistasin gene. This structural feature also suggests that either or both halves of the protein may possess biological activity if expressed as separate domains. Because the N-terminal domain contains a factor Xa P1-reactive site, we chose to express this domain in an insect cell baculovirus expression system. Characterization of this recombinant half antistasin molecule reveals that the N-terminal domain inhibits factor Xa in vitro, with a K(i) of 1.7 nM. PMID:1821771

Palladino, L O; Tung, J S; Dunwiddie, C; Alves, K; Lenny, A B; Przysiecki, C; Lehman, D; Nutt, E; Cuca, G C; Law, S W

1991-02-01

404

Protective action of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in gastric ulcer prevention induced by ethanol in rats.  

PubMed

The pathology of a gastric ulcer is complex and multifactorial. Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and its development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (eeRo); this plant, more commonly known as rosemary, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its numerous pharmacological properties and their potential therapeutic applications. Here, we tested the preventive effects of eeRo against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol in male Wistar rats. In addition, we aimed to clarify the mechanism involved in the preventive action of the eeRo in gastric ulcers. Based on the analysis of markers of oxidative damage and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, the measurement of nitrite and nitrate levels and the assessment of the inflammatory response, the eeRo exhibited significant antioxidant, vasodilator and antiinflammatory properties. PMID:23279841

Amaral, Guilherme Pires; de Carvalho, Nelson Rodrigues; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Portella, Rafael de Lima; da Silva, Michele Hinerasky; Lugokenski, Thiago Henrique; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Villetti, Marcos Antonio; Antunes Soares, Félix Alexandre; Fachinetto, Roselei

2012-12-29

405

Efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Amla (Emblica officinalis) extract for the treatment of diabetic-uremic patients.  

PubMed

Uremic patients with diabetes suffer from high levels of oxidative stress due to regular hemodialysis therapy (neutrophil activation induced by hemo-incompatibility between the hemodialyser and blood) and complications associated with diabetes. Several plasma biomarkers were screened in 13 uremic diabetic patients after receiving the mixture of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea extract, and Amla extract (AE), from Emblica officinalis, the Indian gooseberry, for 3 months. We found that oral administration of a 1:1 mixture of EGCG and AE for 3 months significantly improved antioxidant defense as well as diabetic and atherogenic indices in uremic patients with diabetes. Furthermore, no significant changes in hepatic function, renal function, or inflammatory responses were observed. These results suggest that a 1:1 combination of EGCG and AE is a safe and effective treatment for uremic patients with diabetes. PMID:21631363

Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Yen-Lin

2011-06-01

406

Biased morph ratios and skewed mating success contribute to loss of genetic diversity in the distylous Pulmonaria officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In heterostylous plant species, skewed morph ratios are not uncommon and may arise from a range of factors. Despite the recognized importance of skewed morph ratios on overall reproductive success within populations, little is known about the impact of skewed morph ratios on population genetic diversity and differentiation in heterostylous species. This study specifically aimed to clarify the effect of population size and morph bias on population genetic diversity and differentiation in the temperate forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. This species is characterized by a distylous breeding system and shows morph-specific differences in reproductive success. Methods Genetic diversity was determined for 27 P. officinalis populations in northern Belgium by using eight recently developed microsatellite markers. Multiple regressions were used to assess the relationship between genetic diversity, morph bias and population size, and FST-values were calculated for short- and long-styled morphs separately to study genetic differentiation as a function of morph type. Key Results For all genetic measures used, morph bias was more important in explaining patterns of genetic diversity than population size, and in all cases patterns of population genetic diversity followed a quadratic function, which showed a symmetrical decrease in genetic diversity with increasing morph bias. However, probably due to the reproductive advantage of L-morphs relative to S-morphs, maximum genetic diversity was found in populations showing an excess of L-morphs (60·7 % L-morph). On the other hand, no significant difference in pairwise genetic distances between populations was observed between L- (0·107) and S-morphs (0·106). Conclusions Our results indicate that significant deviations from equal morph ratios not only affect plant reproductive success but also population genetic diversity of heterostylous plant species. Hence, when defining conservation measures for populations of heterostylous plant species, morph ratios should be considered as an important trait affecting their long-term population viability.

Meeus, Sofie; Honnay, Olivier; Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans

2012-01-01

407

Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes.  

PubMed

Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20?nM [(3)H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-3)?mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [(3)H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05?mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [(3)H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10(-2)?mg/mL, and at 0.008?mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant. PMID:21584239

Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ayala-Marín, Yoshira M; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, José G

2011-04-26

408

Estudio de la eficacia antibiótica de un extracto etanólico de Rosmarinus officinalis L. contra Staphylococcus aureus en dos modelos de infección en piel de ratón (Study of the antibiotic efficacy of an ethanolic extract from Rosmarinus officinalis against Staphylococcus aureus in two skin infection models in mice)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examined the antibacterial efficacy of an ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. containing a high amount of antioxidant polyphenols against the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus in two skin infection models in mice, superficial and subcutaneous. Results obtained showed that the rosemary extract containing 2.3% of polyphenols had bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus on the skin infection.

María V. BARNI; Adriana FONTANALS; Silvia MORENO

409

Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of essential oils of Artemisia afra, Pteronia incana and Rosmarinus officinalis on selected bacteria and yeast strains.  

PubMed

Essential oils are frequently used for flavour and fragrance in the perfume, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of Artemisia afra, Pteronia incana and Rosmarinus officinalis were tested against 41 microbial strains. The test organisms were selected on the basis of their significance as food spoilage and/or poisoning, common human and plant pathogens. The agar diffusion assay was performed using nutrient agar and antibiotic medium. All the oils tested displayed some antimicrobial activities. However, the efficiency differed and depended both on the type and concentration of the oil, as well as the test microbial strain. Artemisia afra and R. officinalis showed similar and higher antimicrobial activity than P. incana. Due to their broad antimicrobial activities, the essential oils of the above plants growing in Eastern Cape may have preservative potential for the food and cosmetic industries. PMID:10212442

Mangena, T; Muyima, N Y

1999-04-01

410

Population structure and genetic diversity distribution in wild and cultivated populations of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Magnolia officinalis subsp. biloba (Magnoliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnolia officinalis subsp. biloba, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, experienced severe declines in the number of populations and the number of individuals\\u000a in the late 20th century due to the widespread harvest of the subspecies. A large-scale cultivation program was initiated\\u000a and cultivated populations rapidly recovered the loss in individual plant numbers, but wild populations remained small as\\u000a a consequence

Jingsheng He; Ling Chen; Ying Si; Bo Huang; Xiaoquan Ban; Youwei Wang

2009-01-01

411

Estimating recent growth in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: are nucleic acid-based indicators for growth and condition the method of choice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory calibration study was undertaken with juvenile Sepia officinalis (80–85 g initial wet weight) to investigate the effects of different food rations and different starving intervals on RNA\\/dry weight (DW) ratios and RNA\\/DNA ratios in cephalopod mantle muscle at two different temperatures. The digestive gland index was also used as an additional indicator of recent growth. High food rations

Frank Melzner; John W. Forsythe; Phillip G. Lee; James B. Wood; Uwe Piatkowski; Catriona Clemmesen

2005-01-01

412

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF GALLIC ACID, ELLAGIC ACID AND ASCORBIC ACID IN EMBLICA OFFICINALIS AND IN UNANI POLYHERBAL FORMULATIONS BY VALIDATED HPLC METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple rapid and economic simultaneous HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantification of Gallic acid (GA), Ellagic acid (EA) and Ascorbic acid (AA), in Emblica officinalis Linn. (aamla) and in two poly herbal Unani formulations, containing aamla as an ingredient. Separation of was achieved on a reverse phase C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column with mobile phase 0.1% orthophosphoric

Mhaveer Singh; Y. T. Kamal; E. T. Tamboli; Rabea Parveen; Khalid M. Siddiqui; S. M. A. Zaidi; Sayeed Ahmad

2012-01-01

413

Evaluation of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe levels in Rosmarinus officinalis labaiatae (Rosemary) medicinal plant and soils in selected zones in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of heavy metals including Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe in different parts of Rosmarinus officinalis medicinal plant grown in Jordan were evaluated. Medicinal plant samples and soil samples were collected from three different\\u000a zones in Jordan (Irbid, Al-Mafraq and Ma’an). Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after chemical\\u000a treatments using acid digestion procedures. Heavy

Abdul-Wahab O. El-Rjoob; Adnan M. Massadeh; Mohammad N. Omari

2008-01-01

414

Changes in carotenoids, tocopherols and diterpenes during drought and recovery, and the biological significance of chlorophyll loss in Rosmarinus officinalis plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Two-year-old rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) plants were subjected to severe stress by exposure to prolonged drought during a Mediterranean summer. Severely stressed\\u000a plants recovered completely after the autumn rainfalls although the relative water content remained below 35% for 3 months\\u000a and the chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced by up to 85% during the drought. In severe stress: (i)

S. Munné-Bosch; L. Alegre

2000-01-01

415

The antioxidative activity of summer savory ( Satureja hortemis L.) and rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in dressing stored exposed to light or in darkness  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an oil-in-water emulsion dressing, addition of 0.15% of dried leaves of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) or more significantly of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), resulted in a significantly better antioxidative protection than addition of 80 ppm propyl gallate (standard concentration for this type of product) during dark storage at 19 °C for up to 24 weeks, as determined by

Helle Lindberg Madsen; Bente Sørensen; Leif H. Skibsted; Grete Bertelsen

1998-01-01

416

The combined effect of rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and modified atmosphere packaging as protection against warmed over flavour in cooked minced pork meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Rosmarin (getrocknete Blätter vonRosmarinus officinalis L.), erwärmten Fleischklößen (gehacktes Schweinefleisch) zugesetzt, hinderte die Entwicklung des Aufwärmgeschmacks (warmed over flavour) während der Kühllagerung. Das Gewürz wurde den aus Schweinefleisch (Longissimus dorsi) hergestellten Fleischklößen in einer für das Produkt akzeptablen Menge zugegeben, beurteilt von einem sensorischen Panel (0.05% des Totalgewichtes). Nach der Wärmebehandlung (Wasserbad, Zentrum-Temperatur 80°C) wurden die Fleischklöße in fünf

Miranda Huisman; Helle Lindberg Madsen; Leif H. Skibsted; Grete Bertelsen

1994-01-01

417

Effects of Valeriana Officinalis Extracts on [ 3 H]Flunitrazepam Binding, Synaptosomal [ 3 H]GABA Uptake, and Hippocampal [ 3 H]GABA Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of Valeriana officinalis have been used in folkloric medicine for its sedative, hypnotic, tranquilizer and anticonvulsant effects, and may interact with ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and\\/or benzodiazepine sites. At low concentrations, valerian extracts enhance [3H]flunitrazepam binding (EC50 4.13 × 10-10 mg\\/ml). However, this increased [3H]flunitrazepam binding is replaced by an inhibition at higher concentrations (IC50 of 4.82 × 10-1 mg\\/ml).

José G. Ortiz; Jennifer Nieves-Natal; Pedro Chavez

1999-01-01

418

Protective effect of Emblica officinalis ethanolic extract against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract was evaluated for protection against genotoxicity induced by the rodent carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Oral administration of EO fruit extract in various concentrations (100, 250, 500mg\\/kg b.wt) for seven consecutive days prior to a single intraperitoneal injection of DMBA decreased the frequency of bone marrow micronuclei induced in Swiss albino mice. Significant increases

S Mumtaz Banu; K Selvendiran; J Prince Vijeya Singh; D Sakthisekaran

2004-01-01

419

Modulation of Mood and Cognitive Performance Following Acute Administration of Single Doses of Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm) with Human CNS Nicotinic and Muscarinic Receptor-Binding Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) is a herbal medicine that has traditionally been attributed with memory-enhancing properties, but which is currently more widely used as a mild sedative and sleep aid. In a previous study it was demonstrated that a commercial Melissa extract led to dose-specific increases in calmness, and dose-dependent decrements in timed memory task performance. However, the extract utilized

D O Kennedy; G Wake; S Savelev; N T J Tildesley; E K Perry; K A Wesnes; A B Scholey

2003-01-01

420

Effects of chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract on anxiety-like reactivity and on circadian and exploratory activities in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the effects of chronic (15 consecutive days of treatment) per os administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract (Cyracos®, Naturex) on anxiety-like reactivity in mice. As measured by HPLC, Cyracos® contains significant amounts of rosmarinic acid and the triterpenoids oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, which inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) activity and increase GABA levels in

Alvin Ibarra; Nicolas Feuillere; Marc Roller; Edith Lesburgere; Daniel Beracochea

2010-01-01

421

Composition of Oils of Three Cultivated Forms of Hyssopus officinalis Endemic in Yugoslavia: f. albus Alef., f. cyaneus Alef. and f. ruber Mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three forms of hyssop Hyssopus officinalis L., f. cyaneus Alef., f. ruber Mill, and f. albus Alef. occurring wild in Yugoslavia were multiplied and cultivated. The cyaneus form, characterized by its blue flowers, yielded between 4.9 and 5.8 tonnes of fresh plant material per hectare, and essential oil in yields ranging from 0.65–0.75%. The pink-flowered ruber form and the white

Jean-Claude Chalchat; D. Adamovic; M. S. Gorunovic

2001-01-01

422

Composition of Essential Oil Obtained From Tubular, Head and Ligulate Flowers of Calendula officinalis L. by Steam Distillation of Plant Material and CO2 Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil content of tubular, head and ligulate flowers of Calendula officinalis L. were determined using official steam distillation procedure. It was found that the ligulate flower sample had the highest oil content (0.16%). Applying SFE by means of CO2 (200 bar, 40°C, 3 h extraction time), the highest extraction yield was found in tubular and ligulate flower samples (3.67%

Lidija Petrovi?; Žika Lepojevi?; Verica Sovilj; Dušan Adamovi?; Vele Teševi?

2010-01-01

423

Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.F., (lemon) and Melissa officinalis, (balm) were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,N- diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (Deet) as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05) against the tested species, thus oils were more

MA Oshaghi; R Ghalandari; H Vatandoost; M Shayeghi; M Kamali-nejad; H Tourabi-Khaledi; M Abolhassani; M Hashemzadeh

424

Emblica officinalis corrects functional, biochemical and molecular deficits in experimental diabetic neuropathy by targeting the oxido-nitrosative stress mediated inflammatory cascade.  

PubMed

Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus which affects more than 50% of diabetic patients. Diabetic neuropathic pain is amongst the most difficult types of pain to treat mainly due to the lack of understanding of its etiology and inadequate relief with available drug therapy. The present study targeted oxidative stress mediated nerve damage in diabetic rats using an aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis, a potent natural antioxidant. Diabetic rats exhibited significantly decreased tail-flick latency in the tail-immersion test (thermal hyperalgesia) and decreased paw withdrawal threshold in both Randall-Selitto (mechanical hyperalgesia) and von-Frey hair test (mechanical allodynia). A decrease in the nociceptive threshold was accompanied by significantly increased oxidative stress, nitrite levels and cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1? and TGF-?1) both in the serum and sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. Treatment with the Emblica officinalis aqueous extract (250, 500 and 1000?mg/kg/day) significantly attenuated all the behavioral, biochemical and molecular alterations in a dose-dependent manner. The major finding of the study is that insulin alone corrected the hyperglycemia and partially reversed the pain response in diabetic rats. However, combination with Emblica officinalis extract not only attenuated the diabetic condition but also reversed neuropathic pain through modulation of oxidative-nitrosative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:21394805

Tiwari, Vinod; Kuhad, Anurag; Chopra, Kanwaljit

2011-03-11

425

Genetic diversity of the imperilled bath sponge Spongia officinalis Linnaeus, 1759 across the Mediterranean Sea: patterns of population differentiation and implications for taxonomy and conservation.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean bath sponge Spongia officinalis is an iconic species with high socio-economic value and precarious future owing to unregulated harvesting, mortality incidents and lack of established knowledge regarding its ecology. This study aims to assess genetic diversity and population structure of the species at different geographical scales throughout its distribution. For this purpose, 11 locations in the Eastern Mediterranean (Aegean Sea), Western Mediterranean (Provence coast) and the Strait of Gibraltar were sampled; specimens were analysed using partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences, along with a set of eight microsatellite loci. According to our results (i) no genetic differentiation exists among the acknowledged Mediterranean morphotypes, and hence, S. officinalis can be viewed as a single, morphologically variable species; (ii) a notable divergence was recorded in the Gibraltar region, indicating the possible existence of a cryptic species; (iii) restriction to gene flow was evidenced between the Aegean Sea and Provence giving two well-defined regional clusters, thus suggesting the existence of a phylogeographic break between the two systems; (iv) low levels of genetic structure, not correlated to geographical distance, were observed inside geographical sectors, implying mechanisms (natural or anthropogenic) that enhance dispersal and gene flow have promoted population connectivity; (v) the genetic diversity of S. officinalis is maintained high in most studied locations despite pressure from harvesting and the influence of devastating epidemics. These findings provide a basis towards the effective conservation and management of the species. PMID:21880083

Dailianis, T; Tsigenopoulos, C S; Dounas, C; Voultsiadou, E

2011-08-22

426

Studies on effects of Emblica officinalis (Amla) on oxidative stress and cholinergic function in scopolamine induced amnesia in mice.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla, is an important medicinal plant of India. Its fruits have potent antioxidant activity due to the presence of tannoids, tannins, vitamin C and flavonoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (EO) on memory impairment in Swiss albino mice. Scopolamine (1 mg kg(-1), i.p)was administered to induce amnesia and the memory was evaluated by using elevated plus-maze and passive avoidance tests. Piracetam (200 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was used as a standard nootropic agent. The EO extract was administered intraperitoneally in four graded doses (150, 300, 450 and 600 mg kg(-1)) for 7 consecutive days to different groups of mice. The mice were sacrificed on the 8th day following assessment of memory. The brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) as well as acetylcholinesterase (AchE)) activity was determined. It was observed that EO extract reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine. The mean transfer latency and retention latency in the EO extract 600 mg kg(-1) group vs the vehicle treated scopolamine group was 13.46 sec (p<0.001) and 134.4 sec (p<0.001) vs 23.99 sec and 44.55 sec, respectively. EO extract treatment also significantly (p<0.001) ameliorated the oxidative stress induced by scopolamine administration. The mice brain MDA and GSH levels in the EO extract 600 mg kg(-1) group vs the scopolamine group were 29.95 nmol g(-1) of wet tissue and 51.87 microg g(-1) tissue vs 55.22 nmol g(-1) of wet tissue and 28.33 microg g(-1) tissue, respectively. Further, EO extract (300, 450 and 600 mg kg(-1), i.p) significantly (p<0.001) reversed the rise in brain acetyl cholinesterase (AchE) level induced by scopolamine. The mice brain Ach E levels in the EO extract 600 mg kg(-1) group as compared to the scopolamine group was 70.23 vs 151.49 U mg(-1) protein(-1), respectively. These results suggestthat EO possesses memory enhancing, antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activity. It may be useful for the treament of cognitive impairments induced by cholinergic dysfunction. Its potential in the management of dementia and Azheimer disease needs to be further explored. PMID:23033650

Golechha, Mahaveer; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharmveer Singh

2012-01-01

427

Coordination between ventilatory pressure oscillations and venous return in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis under control conditions, spontaneous exercise and recovery.  

PubMed

Venous blood flow was measured for the first time in a cephalopod. Blood velocity was determined in the anterior vena cava (AVC) of cuttlefish S. officinalis with a Doppler, while simultaneously, ventilatory pressure oscillations were recorded in the mantle cavity. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was employed to investigate pulsatile flow in other major vessels. Blood pulses in the AVC are obligatorily coupled to ventilatory pressure pulses, both in frequency and phase. AVC peak blood velocity (v(AVC)) in animals of 232 (+/- 30 SD) g wet mass at 15 degrees C was found to be 14.2 (+/- 7.1) cm s(-1), AVC stroke volume (SV(AVC)) was 0.2 (+/- 0.1) ml stroke(-1), AVC minute volume (MV(AVC)) amounted to 5.5 (+/- 2.8) ml min(-1). Intense exercise bouts of 1-2 min resulted in 2.2-fold increases in MV(AVC), enabled by 1.6-fold increments in both, AVC pulse frequency (f (AVC)) and v(AVC). As increases in blood flow occurred delayed in time by 1.7 min with regard to exercise periods, we concluded that it is not direct mantle cavity pressure conveyance that drives venous return in this cephalopod blood vessel. However, during jetting at high pressure amplitude (> 1 kPa), AVC blood flow and mantle cavity pressure pulse shapes completely overlap, suggesting that under these conditions, blood transport must be driven passively by mantle cavity pressure. MRI measurements at 15 degrees C also revealed that under resting conditions, f (AVC )and ventilation frequency (f (V)) match at 31.6 (+/- 2.1) strokes min(-1). In addition, rates of pulsations in the cephalic artery and in afferent branchial vessels did not significantly differ from f (AVC) and f (V). It is suggested that these adaptations are beneficial for high rates of oxygen extraction observed in S. officinalis and the energy conserving mode of life of the cuttlefish ecotype in general. PMID:16868753

Melzner, Frank; Bock, Christian; Pörtner, Hans-O

2006-07-26

428

Mutational analysis of antistasin, an inhibitor of blood coagulation factor Xa derived from the Mexican leech Haementeria officinalis.  

PubMed

Antistasin is a Factor Xa inhibitor that is present in the salivary glands of the Mexican leech Haementeria officinalis. The antistasin protein consists of 119 amino acids, of which residues 1-55 (domain I) are 56% similar to residues 56-110 (domain II). Of the nine C-terminal amino acids (residues 111-119; domain III), four are positively charged. The reactive site for Factor Xa is located in domain I. In this study we assessed the role of separate domains and of individual amino acids in the reactive site for the inhibition of Factor Xa. A series of mutants was constructed and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In vitro chromogenic assays for Factor Xa show that domain I is sufficient for inhibition of Factor Xa. Domains II and III neither contain any intrinsic Factor Xa inhibitory activity, nor contribute to the activity of domain I. Furthermore, domain II does not become a Factor Xa inhibitor by partially adaptating its sequence towards that of the reactive site in domain I. Mutation of the cysteine at position 33 is not crucial for Factor Xa inhibition, suggesting a relatively rigid reactive site loop structure. PMID:8073407

Theunissen, H J; Dijkema, R; Swinkels, J C; de Poorter, T L; Vink, P M; van Dinther, T G

1994-07-01

429

Spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture under Rosmarinus officinalis and Quercus coccifera in a burned soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When studying surface runoff processes, measurement of the soil moisture content (SMC) at the surface could be used to identify sinks and sources areas of runoff. Surface soil moisture patterns variability have been studied in a burned Mediterranean semi-arid area. Since surface SMC and soil water repellency (SWR) are influenced by fire and vegetation (see previous abstract), and soil water dynamics and vegetation dynamics are functionally related, it could be expected to find some changes during the following months after fire when vegetation starts to recover. The identification of these changes is the main goal of this research. The study area is located at the municipality of Les Useres, 40 km from Castellón city (E Spain), where a wildfire occured in August 2007. We selected a burned SSE facing hillslope, located at 570 m a.s.l., with 12° slope angle, in which it was possible to identify the presence of two unique shrub species: Quercus coccifera L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L., which were distributed in a patchy mosaic. Twenty microsites with burned R. officinalis and eight microsites with burned Q. coccifera were selected in an area of 7 m wide by 14 m long. At the burned microsites, it was possible to distinguish three concentric zones (I, II and III) around the stumps showing differences on their soil surface appearance, which indicate a gradient of fire severity. Those differences were considered for field soil moisture measurements. Five measurements of SMC separated approximately 10 cm per zone at each microsite (n= 420) were carried out after different rainfall events. Volumetric soil moisture was measured by means of the moisture meter HH2 with ThetaProbe sensor type ML2x, 6 cm long. SMC was monitored on three occasions, always one day after the following rainfall events: (1) the first rainfall event after fire, when 11 mm were registered (Oct-07); (2) four months later than fire (Dec-07), after six consecutive raining days with a total rain volume of 172 mm; and (3) ten months after fire (Jun-08), when 50 mm were registered in the previous ten days. The spatial pattern of SMC was determined trough geostatistical analysis using GS+ software, calculating the semivariograms, to analyse the spatial correlation scale, interpolating data to estimate values of SMC at unsampled locations by means of kriging and finally, the results of kriging were displayed as different contour maps. Results showed that spatial pattern of SMC was highly variable, with important differences recorded within short distances. In fact, the range of spatial correlation (a0), which is the distance at that spatial correlation exists, varied between 0.5 to 1.4 m. A0 also varied according to the time from fire, with values of 0.5 m in the first rainfall after fire, 0.9 m four months later and 1.4 m ten months after fire occurs. This result suggests that the extent of the wettest areas increase as the vegetation recover. After the first rainfall, the SMC spatial pattern seems to be related to the soil microsite characteristics, mainly organic matter content, presence of hydrophobicity and soil clay content. Generally, the highest SMC (26-31%) appears at the burned bare soil areas. Four months later, as the same time as Q. coccifera resprouts, and in the R. officinalis microsites an important regrowth of Brachypodium resutum is observed, the spatial pattern of SMC changed according this plant cover distribution. This pattern is more clearly observed ten months after fire, when the highest SMC values were located at Q. coccifera and B. resutum areas (28-33%). At this time, no evidence of germination of R. officinalis (obligate seeder specie) was found. The lowest SMC (19-22%) appeared at the half lower part of the plot, where there was a central strip dominated by bare soil, with scarce presence of resprouter species. These results showed that at detailed working scale, the soil moisture pattern in this burned area was highly heterogeneous and the microsite characteristics (mainly soil properties and vegetation regrowth) seem to control the

Gimeno-García, E.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Llovet, J.

2009-04-01

430

The cytotoxic effect of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and/or Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (RO), both singly and in combination at sub-inhibitory concentrations (¼ MIC?+?¼ MIC), against Aeromonas hydrophila and to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying these activities. Used singly (OV: 2.5??L/mL; RO: 20??L/mL) or in a mixture (OV: 0.625??L/mL?+?RO: 5??L/L), these essential oils led to a significant decrease (p<0.01) in bacterial viability after 24?h of exposure. A decrease in glucose consumption by A. hydrophila and release of cellular material were observed immediately after the addition of the essential oils, both singly and as a mixture, and continued for up to 6?h. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to the essential oils revealed severe changes in the plasma membrane, cytoplasmic appearance, and cell shape during the 6-h exposure period. OV and RO essential oils combined at sub-inhibitory concentrations could be rationally applied to inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila in food products, particularly minimally processed vegetables. PMID:22300224

Azerêdo, Geíza Alves de; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de; Souza, Evandro Leite de

2012-02-02

431

Amelioration of iron overload-induced liver toxicity by a potent antioxidant and iron chelator, Emblica officinalis Gaertn.  

PubMed

In liver, the major site of iron storage, iron overload is associated with oxidative damage of protein, lipid, and DNA and causes protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and rupture of hepatocytes, leading to cell death. Serum ferritin and liver iron content are the main forecasters of moderate to severe iron overload in the liver. The sequels of excess iron deposition in the liver are fibrosis and enhanced levels of serum enzymes and bilirubin markers. Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract was found efficient in lessening intraperitoneally injected iron dextran-induced liver toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Mice administered with different doses of 70% methanol extract of EO (50, 100, and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight) showed significant decrease in liver iron, serum ferritin, and serum enzyme levels, along with the decrease in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and collagen content. The activity was further supported by its considerable iron chelation with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 70.24 ± 2.74 ?g ml(-1) and the protection on ferrous ion-mediated DNA breakdown with 50% protection ([P]50) of 1.04 ± 0.01 ?g ml(-1). Simultaneously, the extract effectively induced the antioxidant enzyme levels and also exhibited the potential activity of reductive release of ferritin iron. These findings suggest that the EO extract may be used as a potent drug for the treatment of pathological sequences arisen in the iron overload-induced liver damage. PMID:23524878

Sarkar, Rhitajit; Hazra, Bibhabasu; Mandal, Nripendranath

2013-03-22

432

Effect of ionising radiation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant potential of parathion-treated sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves.  

PubMed

The ?-irradiation effects on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of parathion-pretreated leaves of Salvia officinalis plant were investigated. The analysis of phenolic extracts of sage without parathion showed that irradiation decreased polyphenolic content significantly (p<0.05) by 30% and 45% at 2 and 4kGy, respectively, compared to non-irradiated samples. The same trend was observed for the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), as assessed by the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical-scavenging assays. The antioxidant potential decreased significantly (p<0.01) at 2 and 4kGy, by 11-20% and 40-44%, respectively. The results obtained with a pure chlorogenic acid solution confirmed the degradation of phenols; however, its TEAC was significantly (p<0.01) increased following irradiation. Degradation products of parathion formed by irradiation seem to protect against a decline of antioxidant capacity and reduce polyphenolic loss. Ionising radiation was found to be useful in breaking down pesticide residues without inducing significant losses in polyphenols. PMID:23790930

Ben Salem, Issam; Fekih, Sana; Sghaier, Haitham; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Fattouch, Sami

2013-04-18

433

Protective Effect of Emblica officinalis Against Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Injury by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress in Rats.  

PubMed

The effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced hepatic damage in rats was investigated in the present study. In vitro studies showed that EFE possesses antioxidant as well nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. In vivo administration of alcohol (5 g/kg b.wt/day) for 60 days resulted increased liver lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, nitrite plus nitrate levels. Alcohol administration also significantly lowers the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione as compared with control rats. Administration of EFE (250 mg/kg body weight) to alcoholic rats significantly brought the plasma enzymes towards near normal level and also significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and restored the enzymic and non-enzymatic antioxidants level. This observation was supplemented by histopathological examination in liver. Our data indicate that the tannoid, flavonoid and NO scavenging compounds present in EFE may offer protection against free radical mediated oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes of animals with alcohol-induced liver injury. PMID:21966117

Damodara Reddy, V; Padmavathi, P; Gopi, S; Paramahamsa, M; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2010-09-14

434

Effect of Calendula officinalis Flower Extract on Acute Phase Proteins, Antioxidant Defense Mechanism and Granuloma Formation During Thermal Burns  

PubMed Central

Effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract was investigated against experimentally induced thermal burns in rats. Burn injury was made on the shaven back of the rats under anesthesia and the animals were treated orally with different doses of the flower extract (20 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight). The animals treated with the extract showed significant improvement in healing when compared with the control untreated animals. The indicators of the wound healing such as collagen-hydroxyproline and hexosamine contents were significantly increased in the treated group indicating accelerated wound healing in the treated animals. The acute phase proteins—haptoglobin and orosomucoid which were increased due to burn injury were found to be decreased significantly in 200 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The antioxidant defense mechanism, which was decreased in the liver during burn injury, was found to be enhanced in treated animals. The lipid peroxidation was significantly lowered in the treated group when compared to control animals. Tissue damage marker enzymes- alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases were significantly lowered in the treated groups in a dose dependant manner. The histopathological analyses of skin tissue also give the evidence of the increased healing potential of the extract after burn injury.

Chandran, Preethi K.; Kuttan, Ramadasan

2008-01-01

435

Environment-related variations of the composition of the essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in the Balkan Penninsula.  

PubMed

Composition of the essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis of ten populations from the Balkan Peninsula were determined by GC/FID and GC/MS. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole, camphor, ?-pinene, and borneol. Multivariate statistical analysis (UPGMA cluster analysis and principal-component analysis (PCA)) revealed two major types of rosemary oil, i.e., 1,8-cineole and camphor-type, and two intermediate types, i.e., camphor/1,8-cineole/borneol type and 1,8-cineole/camphor type. The regression analyses (simple linear regression and stepwise multiple regression) have shown that, with respect to basic geographic, orographic, and 19 bioclimatic characteristics of each population, bioclimatic factor temperature of habitat represented the dominant abiogenetic factor, which, in chemical sense, led to differentiation of populations in the studied region. Also, the regression analysis have shown that some constituents of essential oils are independent of any single bioclimatic factors. However, some constituents display statistically significant correlations with some abiotic factors. PMID:22782876

Lakuši?, Dmitar V; Risti?, Mihailo S; Slavkovska, Violeta N; Sinžar-Sekuli?, Jasmina B; Lakuši?, Branislava S

2012-07-01

436

Down regulation effect of Rosmarinus officinalis polyphenols on cellular stress proteins in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells.  

PubMed

Polyphenols are known to exhibit wide spectrum of benefit for brain health and to protect from several neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was sought to determine the neuroprotective effects of Rosmarinus officinalis' polyphenols (luteolin, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid) through the investigation of stress-related proteins. We carried out measurement of the expression of heat-shock protein (Hsp) 47 promoter in heat stressed Chinese hamster ovary transfected cells. We performed proteomic analysis and confirmed gene expression by real time PCR in PC12 cells. Results showed that these compounds modulated significant and different effects on the expression of 4 stress-related proteins: heat shock protein 90 ? (Hsp90), Transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (VCP/p97), Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), and Hypoxia up-regulated protein 1 (HYOU1)) at translational and post translational levels in PC12 cells and they downregulated the expression of Hsp47 activity in Chinese hamster transformed cells. These findings suggest that luteolin, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid may modulate the neuroprotective defense system against cellular stress insults and increase neuro-thermotolerance. PMID:21861121

E L Omri, Abdelfatteh; Han, Junkyu; Ben Abdrabbah, Manef; Isoda, Hiroko

2011-08-23

437

Molecularly imprinted microspheres and nanoparticles prepared using precipitation polymerisation method for selective extraction of gallic acid from Emblica officinalis.  

PubMed

This paper reports the preparation of gallic acid (GA) molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by the precipitation polymerisation and highlights the effect of porogen on particle size and specific molecular recognition properties. MIP, M-100 prepared in the porogen acetonitrile and MIP, M-75 prepared in a mixture of acetonitrile-toluene (75:25 v/v), resulted in the formation of microspheres with approximately 4?m particle size and surface area of 96.73m(2)g(-1) and nanoparticles (0.8-1000nm) and a surface area of 345.9m(2)g(-1), respectively. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm study revealed that M-75 has comparatively higher number of binding sites which are homogenous and has higher affinity for GA. The MIPs selectively recognised GA in presence of its structural analogues. Pure GA with percent recovery of 75 (±1.6) and 83.4 (±2.2) was obtained from the aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis by M-100 and M-75, respectively and hot water at 60°C served as the eluting solvent. PMID:24176358

Pardeshi, Sushma; Dhodapkar, Rita; Kumar, Anupama

2013-09-24

438

Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf extract improves memory impairment and affects acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in rat brain.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf as part of a diet and medication can be a valuable proposal for the prevention and treatment of dementia. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a plant extract (RE) (200mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses of rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity and their mRNA expression level in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The passive avoidance test results showed that RE improved long-term memory in scopolamine-induced rats. The extract inhibited the AChE activity and showed a stimulatory effect on BuChE in both parts of rat brain. Moreover, RE produced a lower mRNA BuChE expression in the cortex and simultaneously an increase in the hippocampus. The study suggests that RE led to improved long-term memory in rats, which can be partially explained by its inhibition of AChE activity in rat brain. PMID:24080468

Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Bogacz, Anna; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Piasecka, Anna; Napieczynska, Hanna; Szulc, Micha?; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Cichocka, Joanna; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M

2013-09-27

439

Emblica officinalis Exerts Antihypertensive Effect in a Rat Model of DOCA-Salt-Induced Hypertension: Role of (p) eNOS, NO and Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis (EO) has antioxidant properties that could improve redox-sensitive vascular, cardiac and renal changes associated with deoxycorticosterone\\u000a acetate\\/1% NaCl high salt (DOCA\\/HS)-induced hypertension. We determined whether hydroalcoholic lyophilized extract of EO may\\u000a influence DOCA\\/HS-induced hypertension by modulating activity of (p) eNOS and endogenous antioxidants. Hypertension was induced\\u000a in rats by DOCA-salt (20 mg\\/kg, s.c.) twice weekly for 5 weeks and replacing

Jagriti BhatiaFauzia; Fauzia Tabassum; Ashok Kumar Sharma; Saurabh Bharti; Mahaveer Golechha; Sujata Joshi; Abhay Krishna Srivastava; Dharamvir Singh Arya

2011-01-01

440

An analytical and theoretical approach for the profiling of the antioxidant activity of essential oils: The case of Rosmarinus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant constituents of essential oils (EOs) of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (?-pinene chemotype) were isolated at the flowering (A), post-flowering (B), and vegetative stages (C). GC–MS was used to analyze total chemical composition, Folin–Ciocalteau and Prussian blue methods for reducing substances. Radical scavenging capacity (DPPH test, IC50 36.78±0.38, 79.69±1.54, 111.94±2.56?L) and anti-lipoperoxidant activity (TBARS, IC50 0.42±0.04, 1.20±0.06?L, 4.07±0.05?L) differed widely

G. Beretta; R. Artali; R. Maffei Facino; F. Gelmini

2011-01-01

441

A review of the factors influencing spawning, early life stage survival and recruitment variability in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).  

PubMed

Global landings of cephalopods (cuttlefish, squid and octopus) have increased dramatically over the past 50 years and now constitute almost 5% of the total world's fisheries production. At a time when landings of many traditional fin-fish stocks are continuing to experience a global decline as a result of over-exploitation, it is expected that fishing pressure on cephalopod stocks will continue to rise as the fishing industry switch their focus onto these non-quota species. However, long-term trends indicate that landings may have begun to plateau or even decrease. In European waters, cuttlefish are among the most important commercial cephalopod resource and are currently the highest yielding cephalopod group harvested in the north-east Atlantic, with the English Channel supporting the main fishery for this species. Recruitment variability in this short-lived species drives large fluctuations in landings. In order to provide sustainable management for Sepia officinalis populations, it is essential that we first have a thorough understanding of the ecology and life history of this species, in particular, the factors affecting spawning, early life stage (ELS) survival and recruitment variability. This review explores how and why such variability exists, starting with the impact of maternal effects (e.g. navigation, migration and egg laying), moving onto the direct impact of environmental variation on embryonic and ELSs and culminating on the impacts that these variations (maternal and environmental) have at a population level on annual recruitment success. Understanding these factors is critical to the effective management of expanding fisheries for this species. PMID:23763891

Bloor, Isobel S M; Attrill, Martin J; Jackson, Emma L

2013-01-01

442

Accumulation, transformation and tissue distribution of domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. Although DA has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about DA accumulation in these molluscs. This study presents the first data showing relevant concentrations of DA detected in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, which is one of the most studied cephalopod species in the world. Domoic acid was consistently found throughout 2003 and 2004 in the digestive gland of cuttlefish reaching concentrations of 241.7 microg DA g(-1). The highest DA values were detected during spring and summer months, periods when Pseudo-nitzschia occur in the plankton. In fact, Pseudo-nitzschia blooms preceded the highest DA concentrations in cuttlefish. Evaluation of DA tissue distribution showed elevated DA concentrations in the digestive gland and branchial hearts. Further, DA isomers comprised a relevant percentage of the toxin profile, indicating degradation and biotransformation of the toxin in the branchial hearts. The common cuttlefish, like other cephalopod species, plays a central position in the food web and might be a new DA vector to top predators like marine mammals. Human intoxications are not expected since DA was only seldom detected in the mantle and even then in very low levels (max 0.7 microg DA g(-1)). However, in some countries whole juvenile animals are consumed (i.e. without evisceration) and in this case they might represent a risk to human health. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence of phycotoxins in cephalopods and reveals a new member of the marine food web able to accumulate DA. PMID:15961171

Costa, Pedro R; Rosa, Rui; Duarte-Silva, Alexandra; Brotas, Vanda; Sampayo, Maria Antónia M

2005-08-15

443

Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-related eating. Competitive athletes are “stressed” by their intense exercise regimens in addition to their normal activities of daily living and thus may benefit from a natural therapy intended to modulate baseline perceptions of stress and stress hormone exposure. Methods We assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora®, Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks. Results After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (p<0.05) lower (?18%) in the Relora group compared to Placebo. Compared to Placebo, the Relora group had significantly better (p<0.05) mood state parameters, including lower indices of Overall Stress (?11%), Tension (?13%), Depression (?20%), Anger (?42%), Fatigue (?31%), and Confusion (?27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with a combination of Magnolia bark extract and Phellodendron bark extract (Relora®) reduces cortisol exposure and perceived daily stress, while improving a variety of mood state parameters, including lower fatigue and higher vigor. These results suggest an effective natural approach to modulating the detrimental health effects of chronic stress in moderately stressed adults. Future studies should examine the possible performance and recovery benefits of Relora supplementation in athletes overstressed by the physical and psychological demands of training and competition.

2013-01-01

444

Effects of extract and essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on TNBS-induced colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Family Lamiaceae) popularly named rosemary, is a common household plant grown around the world, including Iran. Rosemary aerial parts are used as flavoring agent in foods, beverages, and cosmetic preparations and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine including: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, spasmolytic, carminative and choleretic applications. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of rosemary leaves hydroalcoholic extract (RHE) and essential oil (REO) in a well-defined model of experimental colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Different doses of RHE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and REO (100, 200 and 400 ?l/kg) were administered orally and intraperitoneally (100, 400 mg/kg and 100, 400 ?l/kg) to male Wistar rats (n=6), 6 h after colitis induction and continued for 5 days by intracolonic instillation of 0.25 ml TNBS (80 mg/kg)/ethanol 50% v/v. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. RHE and REO at all test doses used were effective to reduce colon tissue lesions and colitis indices while greater doses were significantly effective to diminish histopathologic parameters irrespective to the route of administration. Administration of oral prednisolone, Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules) and parenteral hydrocortisone acetate were effective to reduce colon tissue injures as well. These