Sample records for officinalis lavandula angustifolia

  1. Original article Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts August 2000) Abstract -- The short-term actions of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts, and of isoquercitrin, flavonoid present in Equisetum arvense, on in vitro fermentation by rumen

  2. Determination of trace elements in the Lavender inflorescence ( Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) — Lavender oil system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislav Bozhanov; Irina Karadjova; Stoyan Alexandrov

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaria is a famous world producer of essential oils. Quality control of the lavender oils produced is an important analytical task in view of their wide use in perfumery and cosmetics, the food industry and aromatherapy. The present paper studies the relationship between the trace elements content in lavender inflorescence (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) and in lavender oil derived from this

  3. The antimutagenic activity of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil in the bacterial reverse mutation assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Evandri; L. Battinelli; C. Daniele; S. Mastrangelo; P. Bolle; G. Mazzanti

    2005-01-01

    Essential oils from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree oil) and Lavandula angustifolia (lavender oil) are commonly used to treat minor health problems. Tea-tree oil possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and is increasingly used for skin problems. Lavender oil, traditionally used as an antiseptic agent, is now predominantly used as a relaxant, carminative, and sedative in aromatherapy. Despite their growing use no data are

  4. Anxiolytic effects of Lavandula angustifolia odour on the Mongolian gerbil elevated plus maze

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. F. Bradley; N. J. Starkey; S. L. Brown; R. W. Lea

    2007-01-01

    Lavender is a popular treatment for stress and mild anxiety in Europe and the USA.The present study investigated the effects of (Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae)) lavender odour inhalation over 2 weeks or 24h periods, on gerbil behaviour in the elevated plus maze in mature male and female gerbils, and compared results with the effects of diazepam (1mg\\/kg) i.p. after 30min

  5. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  6. The antimutagenic activity of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil in the bacterial reverse mutation assay.

    PubMed

    Evandri, M G; Battinelli, L; Daniele, C; Mastrangelo, S; Bolle, P; Mazzanti, G

    2005-09-01

    Essential oils from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree oil) and Lavandula angustifolia (lavender oil) are commonly used to treat minor health problems. Tea-tree oil possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and is increasingly used for skin problems. Lavender oil, traditionally used as an antiseptic agent, is now predominantly used as a relaxant, carminative, and sedative in aromatherapy. Despite their growing use no data are available on their mutagenic potential. In this study, after determining the chemical composition of tea-tree oil and lavender oil, by gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry, we investigated their mutagenic and antimutagenic activities by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain, with and without an extrinsic metabolic activation system. Neither essential oil had mutagenic activity on the two tested Salmonella strains or on E. coli, with or without the metabolic activation system. Conversely, lavender oil exerted strong antimutagenic activity, reducing mutant colonies in the TA98 strain exposed to the direct mutagen 2-nitrofluorene. Antimutagenicity was concentration-dependent: the maximal concentration (0.80 mg/plate) reduced the number of histidine-independent revertant colonies by 66.4%. Lavender oil (0.80 mg/plate) also showed moderate antimutagenicity against the TA98 strain exposed to the direct mutagen 1-nitropyrene. Its antimutagenic property makes lavender oil a promising candidate for new applications in human healthcare. PMID:15907354

  7. Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiacae).

    PubMed

    Lakusi?, Branislava; Lakusi?, Dmitar; Risti?, Mihailo; Marceti?, Mirjana; Slavkovska, Violeta

    2014-06-01

    Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils obtained from the same individual (of the same genotype) of Lavandula angustifolia cultivated in Belgrade were determined by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole (7.1-48.4%), linalool (0.1-38.7%), bomeol (10.9-27.7%), beta-phellandrene (0.5-21.2%) and camphor (1.5-15.8%). Cluster analysis showed that the 21 samples collected each month during the vegetation cycle were separable into three main clades with different compositions of essential oils. In the shoots with flowers, inflorescences and fruits of clade I, linalool is dominant, in the young leaves before flowering and old leaves of clade II, 1,8-cineole is dominant. In the young and incompletely developed leaves of clade III, beta-phellandrene is dominant. The composition of the essential oils of lavender depended on the plant part and the stage of development. PMID:25115100

  8. Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

    PubMed

    Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.-a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties-since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health. PMID:24971151

  9. Protein Drug Targets of Lavandula angustifolia on treatment of Rat Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zali, Hakimeh; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Akbar-zadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment strategies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are being studied for treating or slowing the progression of AD. Many pharmaceutically important regulation systems operate through proteins as drug targets. Here, we investigate the drug target proteins in beta-amyloid (A?) injected rat hippocampus treated with Lavandula angustifolia (LA) by proteomics techniques. The reported study showed that lavender extract (LE) improves the spatial performance in AD animal model by diminishing A? production in histopathology of hippocampus, so in this study neuroprotective proteins expressed in A? injected rats treated with LE were scrutinized. Rats were divided into three groups including normal, A? injected, and A? injected that was treated with LE. Protein expression profiles of hippocampus tissue were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) method and dysregulated proteins such as Snca, NF-L, Hspa5, Prdx2, Apoa1, and Atp5a1were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. KEGG pathway and gene ontology (GO) categories were used by searching DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. All detected protein spots were used to determine predictedinteractions with other proteins in STRING online database. Different isoforms of important protein, Snca that exhibited neuroprotective effects by anti-apoptotic properties were expressed. NF-L involved in the maintenance of neuronal caliber. Hspa5 likewise Prdx2 displays as anti-apoptotic protein that Prdx2 also involved in the neurotrophic effects. Apoa1 has anti-inflammatory activity and Atp5a1, produces ATP from ADP. To sum up, these proteins as potential drug targets were expressed in hippocampus in response to effective components in LA may have therapeutic properties for the treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25561935

  10. Protein Drug Targets of Lavandula angustifolia on treatment of Rat Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zali, Hakimeh; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Akbar-Zadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment strategies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are being studied for treating or slowing the progression of AD. Many pharmaceutically important regulation systems operate through proteins as drug targets. Here, we investigate the drug target proteins in beta-amyloid (A?) injected rat hippocampus treated with Lavandula angustifolia (LA) by proteomics techniques. The reported study showed that lavender extract (LE) improves the spatial performance in AD animal model by diminishing A? production in histopathology of hippocampus, so in this study neuroprotective proteins expressed in A? injected rats treated with LE were scrutinized. Rats were divided into three groups including normal, A? injected, and A? injected that was treated with LE. Protein expression profiles of hippocampus tissue were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) method and dysregulated proteins such as Snca, NF-L, Hspa5, Prdx2, Apoa1, and Atp5a1were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. KEGG pathway and gene ontology (GO) categories were used by searching DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. All detected protein spots were used to determine predictedinteractions with other proteins in STRING online database. Different isoforms of important protein, Snca that exhibited neuroprotective effects by anti-apoptotic properties were expressed. NF-L involved in the maintenance of neuronal caliber. Hspa5 likewise Prdx2 displays as anti-apoptotic protein that Prdx2 also involved in the neurotrophic effects. Apoa1 has anti-inflammatory activity and Atp5a1, produces ATP from ADP. To sum up, these proteins as potential drug targets were expressed in hippocampus in response to effective components in LA may have therapeutic properties for the treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25561935

  11. Cardioprotective Effects of Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia on Isoproterenol-induced Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Ziaee, Mojtaba; Khorrami, Arash; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Nourafcan, Hassan; Amiraslanzadeh, Masoumeh; Rameshrad, Maryam; Garjani, Mehraveh; Garjani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common presentation of the ischemic heart disease. Lavandula angustifolia is an herbaceous plant with antioxidative effects. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of lavandula angustifolia essential oil against isoproterenol-induced MI in rats. The dried sample was subjected to hydrodistillation by using a Clevenger and the oils were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of control, sham, isoproterenol and treatment with 5, 10, 20 mg/Kg of the essential oil. MI was induced by subcutaneous injection of Isoproterenol (100 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days at an interval of 24 h. The essential oil was given intraperitoneally every 24 h started at MI induction. Following anesthesia, hemodynamic parameters were measured. After sacrificing the animals, the hearts were removed to measure the heart to body weight ratio and histopathological examination. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in heart tissues for evaluating the activity of neutrophils and lipid peroxidation, respectively. The essential oil amended ECG pattern by suppressing ST-segment elevation and increasing R-amplitude. 10 mg/Kg of the essential oil significantly decreased heart to body weight ratio (P<0.001) and the elevation of MDA and MPO in myocardium, it also increased dp/dtmax from 2793 ± 210 to 4488 ± 253 mmHg/sec (P<0.001), and 20 mg/Kg of it significantly lowered LVEDP from 14 ± 3.43 to 4.3 ± 0.83 mmHg (P<0.001).The results demonstrated that L. angustifolia protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced MI that it could be related to its antioxidant properties. PMID:25561934

  12. Cardioprotective Effects of Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia on Isoproterenol-induced Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rat.

    PubMed

    Ziaee, Mojtaba; Khorrami, Arash; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Nourafcan, Hassan; Amiraslanzadeh, Masoumeh; Rameshrad, Maryam; Garjani, Mehraveh; Garjani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common presentation of the ischemic heart disease. Lavandula angustifolia is an herbaceous plant with antioxidative effects. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of lavandula angustifolia essential oil against isoproterenol-induced MI in rats. The dried sample was subjected to hydrodistillation by using a Clevenger and the oils were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of control, sham, isoproterenol and treatment with 5, 10, 20 mg/Kg of the essential oil. MI was induced by subcutaneous injection of Isoproterenol (100 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days at an interval of 24 h. The essential oil was given intraperitoneally every 24 h started at MI induction. Following anesthesia, hemodynamic parameters were measured. After sacrificing the animals, the hearts were removed to measure the heart to body weight ratio and histopathological examination. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in heart tissues for evaluating the activity of neutrophils and lipid peroxidation, respectively. The essential oil amended ECG pattern by suppressing ST-segment elevation and increasing R-amplitude. 10 mg/Kg of the essential oil significantly decreased heart to body weight ratio (P<0.001) and the elevation of MDA and MPO in myocardium, it also increased dp/dtmax from 2793 ± 210 to 4488 ± 253 mmHg/sec (P<0.001), and 20 mg/Kg of it significantly lowered LVEDP from 14 ± 3.43 to 4.3 ± 0.83 mmHg (P<0.001).The results demonstrated that L. angustifolia protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced MI that it could be related to its antioxidant properties. PMID:25561934

  13. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) and Lavandula officinalis (L.) cell suspension cultures-based biotransformation of ?-artemether.

    PubMed

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Upadhyaya, Mohita; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay K; Bhakuni, Rajendra S

    2011-07-01

    The biotransformation of ?-artemether (1) by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Lavandula officinalis is reported here for the first time. The major biotransformed product appeared as a grayish-blue color spot on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with transparent crystal-like texture. Based on its infrared (IR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the product was characterized as a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetate derivative (2). The highest conversion efficiencies of 57 and 60% were obtained when 8-9-day-old cell suspensions of G. glabra and L. officinalis were respectively fed with 4-7 mg of compound 1 in 40 ml of medium per culture and the cells were harvested after 2-5 days of incubation. The addition of compound 1 at the beginning of the culture cycle caused severe growth depression in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in poor bioconversion efficiency of ~25% at 2-5 mg/culture dose only. PMID:21544685

  14. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils

    PubMed Central

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (?FIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1?:?1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1?:?1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

  15. Biochemical composition and antioxidant properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil are shielded by propolis against UV radiations.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Angelo; Angelo, Gismondi; Canuti, Lorena; Lorena, Canuti; Grispo, Marta; Marta, Grispo; Canini, Antonella; Antonella, Canini

    2014-01-01

    UV radiations are principal causes of skin cancer and aging. Suntan creams were developed to protect epidermis and derma layers against photodegradation and photooxidation. The addition of antioxidant plant extracts (i.e. essential oil) to sunscreens is habitually performed, to increase their UV protective effects and to contrast pro-radical and cytotoxic compounds present in these solutions. According to these observations, in the present work, the alteration of chemical composition and bioactive properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil, exposed to UV light, was investigated. UV induced a significant deterioration of lavender oil biochemical profile. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of this solution, in in vitro tests and directly on B16-F10 melanoma cells, greatly decreased after UV treatment. Our results also showed that essential oil was shielded from UV stress by propolis addition. Even after UV treatment, bee glue highly protected lavender oil secondary metabolites from degradation and also preserved their antiradical properties, both in in vitro antioxidant assays and in cell oxidative damage evaluations. This research proposed propolis as highly efficient UV protective and antiradical additive for sunscreens, cosmetics and alimentary or pharmaceutical products containing plant extracts. PMID:24372191

  16. Comparative studies of cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of different extracts and the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia on malignant and normal cells.

    PubMed

    Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Amiri, Atefeh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is a bush-like shrub from Lamiaceae. The herb has been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the mechanisms of cell death induced by 3 different extracts of aerial parts and the essential oil of L. angustifolia were compared in normal and cancerous human cells. Malignant (HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines) and nonmalignant (human fibroblasts) cells were incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts. Cell viability was quantified by MTS assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The molecules as apoptotic signal translation, including Bax and cleaved PARP, were identified by Western blot. Ethanol and n-hexane extracts and essential oil exhibited significant cytotoxicity to malignant cells but marginal cytotoxicity to human fibroblasts in vitro and induced a sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to the control. Western blot analysis demonstrated that EtOH and n-hexane extracts upregulated Bax expression, also it induced cleavage of PARP in HeLa cells compared to the control. In conclusion, L. angustifolia has cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, and apoptosis is proposed as the possible mechanism of action. PMID:24571090

  17. Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts and isoquercitrin on the fermentation of diets varying in forage contents by rumen microorganisms in batch culture.

    PubMed

    Broudiscou, L P; Lassalas, B

    2000-01-01

    The short-term actions of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts, and of isoquercitrin, flavonoid present in Equisetum arvense, on in vitro fermentation by rumen microbes were studied in batch culture. The orchard grass hay:barley ratios in the three experimental diets were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 on a DM basis. The production rates of all volatile fatty acids except isobutyrate were strongly influenced by the composition of the diet and to a lesser extent, by plant extracts, with significant interactions between both factors. When hay was the only substrate, the addition of L. officinalis and E. arvense enhanced the fermentation rate by 50%, through an increased release of acetate and propionate. On the contrary, with the two other diets, the fermentation rate was strongly lowered by isoquercitrin. Gas outputs were not significantly influenced by plant extracts. PMID:11140815

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial for Salvia sclarea or Lavandula angustifolia: Differential Effects on Blood Pressure in Female Patients with Urinary Incontinence Undergoing Urodynamic Examination

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Hee; Kang, Purum; You, Ji Hye; Park, Mira; Min, Sun Seek

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inhalation of Salvia sclarea (clary sage; clary) or Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil vapors on autonomic nervous system activity in female patients with urinary incontinence undergoing urodynamic assessment. Study design, location, and subjects This study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial carried out in 34 female patients with urinary incontinence. Outcome measure The subjects were randomized to inhale lavender, clary, or almond (control) oil at concentrations of 5% (vol/vol) each. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and salivary cortisol were measured before and after inhalation of these odors for 60 minutes. Results The clary oil group experienced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure compared with the control (p=0.048) and lavender oil (p=0.026) groups, a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure compared with the lavender oil group (p=0.034) and a significant decrease in respiratory rate compared with the control group (p<0.001). In contrast, the lavender oil group tended to increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the control group. Compared with the control group, inhalation of lavender oil (p=0.045) and clary oil (p<0.001) resulted in statistically significant reductions in respiratory rate. Conclusions These results suggest that lavender oil inhalation may be inappropriate in lowering stress during urodynamic examinations, despite its antistress effects, while clary oil inhalation may be useful in inducing relaxation in female urinary incontinence patients undergoing urodynamic assessments. PMID:23360656

  19. Anxiolytic-like effect of inhalation of essential oil from Lavandula officinalis: investigation of changes in 5-HT turnover and involvement of olfactory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mizuho; Yamanaka, Ayako; Asanuma, Chihiro; Asano, Hiroko; Satou, Tadaaki; Koike, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    Essential oil extracted from Lavandula officinalis (LvEO) has a long history of usage in anxiety alleviation with good evidence to support its use. However, findings and information regarding the exact pathway involved and mechanism of action remain inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to (1) reveal the influence of olfactory stimulation, and (2) determine whether the serotonergic system is involved in the anxiolytic effect of LvEO when it is inhaled. To this end, we first compared the anxiety-related behaviors of normosmic and anosmic mice. LvEO inhalation caused notable elevation in anxiety-related parameters with or without olfactory perception, indicating that olfactory stimulation is not necessarily required for LvEO to be effective. Neurochemical analysis of the serotonin (5-HT) turnover rate, accompanied by EPM testing, was then performed. LvEO significantly increased the striatal and hippocampal levels of 5-HT and decreased turnover rates in accordance with the anxiolytic behavioral changes. These results, together with previous findings, support the hypothesis that serotonergic neurotransmission plays a certain role in the anxiolytic properties of LvEO. PMID:25230519

  20. Protective Effect of Lavandula stoechas and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sebai, Hichem; Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Gharbi, Najoua; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-02-01

    The authors aimed in the present study to assess the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (ROEO) and Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Essential oil samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Rats were divided into four groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy+ROEO (H+ROEO), healthy+LSEO (H+LSEO), diabetic+ROEO (D+ROEO), and diabetic+LSEO (D+LSEO). The use of GC-MS allowed to the identification of 15 and 22 compounds in ROEO and LSEO, respectively. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test showed that ROEO and LSEO had an important antioxidant capacity. In vivo, we initially found that ROEO and LSEO treatment protected against the decrease in alloxan-induced body weight gain, relative reproductive organ weights, testosterone level, as well as sperm quality decline. On the other hand, we showed that alloxan administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testis, epididymis, and sperm. More importantly, ROEO and LSEO treatment significantly protected against oxidative damage of the male reproductive organ systems in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggested that ROEO and LSEO exerted a potential protective effect against alloxan-induced reproductive function damage and oxidative stress in male rat. The beneficial effect of ROEO and LSEO might be related, in part, to their antioxidant properties. PMID:25105335

  1. Chromosome Karyotypes of Echinacea angustifolia var. angustifolia and

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiping Wang; Eatherley Hood; Meihua Wang; Richard Scalzo

    Chromosome karyotypes of the most commonly cultivated and medicinally used Echinacea taxa, E. angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia and E. purpurea (L.) Moench., were analyzed. The chromosomes of both taxa are medium in length, ranging from 4.12 to 5.83 µm in E. angustifolia var. angustifolia and 3.99 to 6.08 µm in E. purpurea. No abrupt length changes in the chromosomes were

  2. Echinacea angustifolia: An Emerging Medicinal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali O. Sari; Mario R. Morales; James E. Simon

    1999-01-01

    The genus Echinacea (Asteraceae) is native to North America and consists of nine species (McGregor 1968). E. angustifolia DC, a narrow leafed species, is distributed on barrens and dry prairies from Minnesota to Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, the Dakotas, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba (McGregor 1968; Kindscher 1989; Foster 1991). E. angustifolia grows lower and exhibits a smaller

  3. Differential activity of autochthonous bacteria in controlling drought stress in native Lavandula and Salvia plants species under drought conditions in natural arid soil.

    PubMed

    Armada, Elisabeth; Roldán, Antonio; Azcon, Rosario

    2014-02-01

    The effectiveness of autochthonous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria was studied in Lavandula dentata and Salvia officinalis growing in a natural arid Mediterranean soil under drought conditions. These bacteria identified as Bacillus megaterium (Bm), Enterobacter sp. (E), Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and Bacillus sp. (Bsp). Each bacteria has different potential to meliorate water limitation and alleviating drought stress in these two plant species. B. thuringiensis promoted growth and drought avoidance in Lavandula by increasing K content, by depressing stomatal conductance, and it controlled shoot proline accumulation. This bacterial effect on increasing drought tolerance was related to the decrease of glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) that resulted sensitive indexes of lower cellular oxidative damage involved in the adaptative drought response in B. thuringiensis-inoculated Lavandula plants. In contrast, in Salvia, having intrinsic lower shoot/root ratio, higher stomatal conductance and lower APX and GR activities than Lavandula, the bacterial effects on nutritional, physiological and antioxidant enzymatic systems were lower. The benefit of bacteria depended on intrinsic stress tolerance of plant involved. Lavadula demonstrated a greater benefit than Salvia to control drought stress when inoculated with B. thuringiensis. The bacterial drought tolerance assessed as survival, proline, and indolacetic acid production showed the potential of this bacteria to help plants to grow under drought conditions. B. thuringiensis may be used for Lavandula plant establishment in arid environments. Particular characteristic of the plant species as low shoot/root ratio and high stomatal conductance are important factors controlling the bacterial effectiveness improving nutritional, physiological, and metabolic plant activities. PMID:24337805

  4. Diterpenes from Arnica angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Schmidt; Claus M. Passreiter; Detlef Wendisch; Günter Willuhn

    1995-01-01

    From flowerheads of Arnica angustifolia ssp. attenuata the labdane diterpenes labd-13(Z)-ene-8?,15-diol (main component) and (13R,14R)8,13-epoxylabdane-14,15-diol were isolated and their structures established by extensive NMR and MS measurements. Both compounds are reported as natural products for the first time. Oxidative degradation of the main component was observed and the oxidation products 8?-hydroxylabd-13(Z)-ene-15-al, 8?-hydroxylabd-13(E)-ene-15-al and 8,13-epoxylabdane-15-al were identified. Additionally, the tetranorlabdanolide norambreinolide,

  5. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELDING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LAVENDER (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Biesiada; Anna Sokó; Alicja Kucharska

    The aim of the experiment conducted in 2003-2006 was to estimate the effect of dose of nitrogen on yielding and antioxidant activity of lavender. The experiment was established in one factorial design in four replications and plot area 3.0 m2. Nitrogen was supplied in three different rates: as a preplant dose 50 kg N·ha-1, or split application 100 (50 +

  6. Isolation and functional characterization of a ?-cadinol synthase, a new sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Jullien, Frédéric; Moja, Sandrine; Bony, Aurélie; Legrand, Sylvain; Petit, Cécile; Benabdelkader, Tarek; Poirot, Kévin; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Guitton, Yann; Nicolč, Florence; Baudino, Sylvie; Magnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we characterize three sTPSs: a germacrene D (LaGERDS), a (E)-?-caryophyllene (LaCARS) and a ?-cadinol synthase (LaCADS). ?-cadinol synthase is reported here for the first time and its activity was studied in several biological models including transiently or stably transformed tobacco species. Three dimensional structure models of LaCADS and Ocimum basilicum ?-cadinene synthase were built by homology modeling using the template structure of Gossypium arboreum ?-cadinene synthase. The depiction of their active site organization provides evidence of the global influence of the enzymes on the formation of ?-cadinol: instead of a unique amino-acid, the electrostatic properties and solvent accessibility of the whole active site in LaCADS may explain the stabilization of the cadinyl cation intermediate. Quantitative PCR performed from leaves and inflorescences showed two patterns of expression. LaGERDS and LaCARS were mainly expressed during early stages of flower development and, at these stages, transcript levels paralleled the accumulation of the corresponding terpene products (germacrene D and (E)-?-caryophyllene). By contrast, the expression level of LaCADS was constant in leaves and flowers. Phylogenetic analysis provided informative results on potential duplication process leading to sTPS diversification in lavender. PMID:24078339

  7. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Lavandula stoechas aqueous extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tülay A?kin Çelik; Özlem Sultan Aslantürk

    2007-01-01

    Lavandula genus is an important member of Labiatae (Lamiaceae) family. People use commonly Lavandula stoechas as a medicinal plant for various diseases around the world and also in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate cytotoxic\\u000a and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts (40, 80 and 120 g\\/L) from L. stoechas flowers on Allium cepa root tip meristem cells.

  8. Calcium distribution and function in the glandular trichomes of Lavandula pinnata L.

    E-print Network

    Kirchoff, Bruce K.

    Calcium distribution and function in the glandular trichomes of Lavandula pinnata L. Shan (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Biology, Greensboro, NC 27402), Calcium­15. 2010.--Calcium distribution during peltate and capitate glandular trichome development in Lavandula

  9. ORIGINAL PAPER Intercontinental dispersal of Typha angustifolia

    E-print Network

    Row, Jeffrey R.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Intercontinental dispersal of Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia between Europe introduced. In North America, the cattails Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia, and their hybrid T. 9 glauca dispersal Á Typha angustifolia Á Typha latifolia Á Hybridization Á Microsatellites Á Chloroplast DNA Á

  10. Drying of Echinacea angustifolia Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kabganian; D. J. Carrier; S. Sokansanj

    2003-01-01

    Echinacea angustifolia roots were dried at 23, 30, 40, 50, and 60°C to determine the effect of drying on chemical constituency. During drying, the concentrations of the alkamides, cis or trans undeca-2-en 8, 10-diyonic acid isobutylamide and cis or trans dodeca-2E, 4E, 8Z, 10-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide, did not decrease at any of the drying temperatures as compared with roots dried

  11. Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature.

    PubMed

    Djenane, Djamel; Aďder, Mohammed; Yangüela, Javier; Idir, Lamia; Gómez, Diego; Roncalés, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia L. and Mentha piperita L. were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major constituents were linalool (22.35%), linalyl acetate (21.80%), trans-ocimene (6.16%) and 4-terpineol (5.19%) for L. angustifolia and menthol (33.28%), menthone (22.03%), and menthyl acetate (6.40%) for M. piperita. In vitro antibacterial activity of both EOs against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus CECT 4459 showed high inhibition against S. aureus. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained with L. angustifolia (0.25 ?L/mL) against S. aureus; M. piperita exhibited a MIC of 0.50 ?L/mL against both microorganisms. Both EOs caused a significant decrease of bacterial growth in minced beef (p<0.05) stored at 9±1 °C. Minced beef treated with EOs showed the lowest TBARS values (lipid oxidation). Moreover, the results showed that the addition of EOs significantly extended fresh meat odor even at abuse temperature. PMID:22789458

  12. Phytotoxicity and Efficacy of Fascination (6-Benzyl Adenine + Gibberellic Acid)

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    Branching of English Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia `Munstead') By Heiner Lieth, Director Linda Dodge: English Lavender Lavandula angustifolia `Munstead' REASON: enhanced branching of potted crops SOIL TYPE

  13. [Rapid propagation of Echinacea angustifolia].

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin

    2007-06-01

    The embryo of Echinacea angustifolia was used for explants to induce shoots and callus on MS medium. The plantlets could produce from embryo directly and the shoots could be induced to form fasciculate buds through the callus differentiation. The green plantlets from embryo or fasciculated buds were used for rooting inducement. The experiment showed that the embryo pre-cultured at 4 degrees C and in dark for 7 days can germinate easier than at other cultural conditions; Treatment with low temperature and dark were favorable for growth of radicle and plumule and development of green plantlets; A single shoot could proliferate rapidly to form fasciculated buds by means of callus induction and differentiation; the optimal medium for growth and proliferate were MS + BA 1.0 mg/L + NAA 0.5 mg/L. With this method, the proliferous coefficient should be achieved 3.05. PMID:17918425

  14. officinalis) Abstract ITo

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    --""."-- - -t- -- I ' REPORTS I Effects of Crowding on the Social Behavior of Cuttlefish (Se as to avoid oilier cuttlefish. Those in die small tank hovered more and sat on die bottom less, showed more-cultured cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) have been the that are sufficiently large to permit a s~udy of this kind; we

  15. Synergistic antifungal activity of tea tree ( Melaleuca alternifolia) and lavender ( Lavandula angustifolia) essential oils against dermatophyte infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Cassella; John P. Cassella; I. Smith

    2002-01-01

    The antifungal potential of tea tree and lavender essential oils alone and in combination, against common causes of tinea infection in humans was investigated via in-vitro investigations, in order to determine a suitable dosage for use in clinical trials. The concept of synergy was considered, in the microbiological environment, and as a chemical phenomenon. Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes var.

  16. Effect of lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia) on cerebral edema and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Abedin; Sharifat, Shaghayegh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-02-22

    Lavender belongs to the family Labiatae and has a variety of cosmetic uses as well as therapeutic purposes in herbal medicine. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of lavender oil against brain edema and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke. Under Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1h in rats. Lavender oil (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg ip (and/or vehicle was injected at the onset of ischemia. Infarct size, cerebral edema, functional outcome, and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated using standard methods. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression of VEGF, Bax, and Bcl-2. Treatment with lavender oil at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly diminished infarct size, brain edema, and improved functional outcome after cerebral ischemia (P<0.001). Lavender oil (200 mg/kg) also reduced the content of malondialdehyde and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity (P<0.001). Although lavender oil enhanced VEGF expression (P=0.026), it could not decrease the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio (pro- to anti-apoptotic proteins) in the rat brain (P>0.05). The results indicated that lavender oil has neuroprotective activity against cerebral ischemia and alleviated neurological function in rats, and the mechanism may be related to augmentation in endogenous antioxidant defense, inhibiting oxidative stress, and increasing VEGF expression in the rat brain. However, lavender oil could not suppress the apoptosis pathway. PMID:24384140

  17. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Ten Aromatic Plants against Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petar D. Marin

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined. Antibacterial activity of these oils and their components; i.e. linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, ?- pinene, ?-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, carvacrol, thymol and menthol were

  18. Two new xanthones from Swertia angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Kun; Zhe, Wei; Duan, Yan-Qing; Wang, Ming-Feng; Gao, Yuan; Wei, Guo-Zhu; Liao, Tou-Gen

    2012-01-01

    Two new xanthones, angustins A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from the aerial parts of Swertia angustifolia together with six known compounds (3-8). The structures of these two xanthones were elucidated by extensive analysis of the spectroscopic data. In addition, compounds 3 and 6-8 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:22296155

  19. Echinacea angustifolia helpt niet bij verkoudheden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Laekeman

    2006-01-01

    Samenvatting  De indianen in Noord-Amerika gebruikten Echinacea angustifolia al meer dan twee eeuwen geleden bij allerlei infecties. Die traditie kwam 70 jaar geleden naar Europa. Echinacea werd vooral populair bij de behandeling van verkoudheden. Het ontbreken van doeltreffende preventieve en oorzakelijk gerichte\\u000a curatieve therapie droeg bij tot deze toepassing.

  20. Lavandula species as accompanying plants in Cupressus replanting strategies: Effect on plant growth, mycorrhizal soil infectivity and soil microbial catabolic diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lahcen Ouahmane; Mohamed Hafidi; Christian Plenchette; Marija Kisa; Ali Boumezzough; Jean Thioulouse; Robin Duponnois

    2006-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to measure the mycorrhizal dependencies of Cupressus and Lavandula species, to assess the contribution of Lavandula species to the mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI) and to determine the main effects of the association between a Lavandula species (L. multifida) and Cupressus arizonica on the soil microbial activities, on the growth and the mycorrhizal status

  1. The Biosynthetic Origin of Irregular Monoterpenes in Lavandula

    PubMed Central

    Demissie, Zerihun A.; Erland, Lauren A. E.; Rheault, Mark R.; Mahmoud, Soheil S.

    2013-01-01

    Lavender essential oils are constituted predominantly of regular monoterpenes, for example linalool, 1,8-cineole, and camphor. However, they also contain irregular monoterpenes including lavandulol and lavandulyl acetate. Although the majority of genes responsible for the production of regular monoterpenes in lavenders are now known, enzymes (including lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS)) catalyzing the biosynthesis of irregular monoterpenes in these plants have not been described. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase cDNA, termed Lavandula x intermedia lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LiLPPS), through a homology-based cloning strategy. The LiLPPS ORF, encoding for a 305-amino acid long protein, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The approximately 34.5-kDa bacterially produced protein specifically catalyzed the head-to-middle condensation of two dimethylallyl diphosphate units to LPP in vitro with apparent Km and kcat values of 208 ± 12 ?m and 0.1 s?1, respectively. LiLPPS is a homodimeric enzyme with a sigmoidal saturation curve and Hill coefficient of 2.7, suggesting a positive co-operative interaction among its catalytic sites. LiLPPS could be used to modulate the production of lavandulol and its derivatives in plants through metabolic engineering. PMID:23306202

  2. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. PMID:20657443

  3. Bioaccumulation of metals from tannery sludge by Typha angustifolia L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheza Khilji

    2008-01-01

    The metal bioaccumulation capability of a common anchored hydrophyte, Typha angustifolia L. was studied in a green house trial. The plants could absorb significant amounts of the heavy metals like chromium, copper and zinc from tannery sludge. Different concentrations of tannery sludge were prepared in water and plants of T. angustifolia were exposed to the sludge for 30, 60 and

  4. BREAKING SEED DORMANCY IN ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA AND ARROWLEAF BALSAMROOT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Sexton

    Echinacea angustifolia and arrowleaf ba1samroot are valuable native plants that are difficult to germinate. Three hormones (kinetin, gibberelic acid, and ethylene) were tested along with a potassium nitrate treatment to evaluate their effect on breaking seed dormancy. Germination of E. angustifolia responded very strongly to treatment with ethephon (a source of ethylene), though field emergence was poorer than one would

  5. Allelopathic potential of Echinacea angustifolia D.C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Viles; R. N. Reese

    1996-01-01

    Echinacea angustifolia D.C., the common purple coneflower of the western Great Plains, has been shown to produce many biologically active compounds. The allelopathic potential of water soluble and volatile compounds from E. angustifolia plants from three separate populations was examined. Lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa), the common allelopathy bioassay system, as well as seeds from two native species, Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

  6. Analysis of highly secondary-metabolite producing roots and flowers of two Echinacea angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia accessions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dall’Acqua Stefano; Aiello Nicola; Scartezzini Fabrizio; Albertin Valentina; Innocenti Gabbriella

    2010-01-01

    Echinacea angustifolia var. angustifolia (Asteraceae) is widely used in the nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical markets. Echinacoside, a phenol glycoside, is actually considered the marker compound and it is used for the assessment of quality of the roots. The plant material containing at least 1% of echinacoside is required by the market for the production of standardized extracts. The selection of

  7. Lavandula species as accompanying plants in Cupressus replanting strategies: Effect on plant growth, mycorrhizal

    E-print Network

    Thioulouse, Jean

    , mycorrhizal soil infectivity and soil microbial catabolic diversity Lahcen Ouahmane a,b , Mohamed Hafidi of ``resource islands'' and ``nurse plants'' of Lavender plants in the regeneration processes of tree species rights reserved. Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; Cupressus; Lavandula; Nurse plant; Microbial

  8. Comparison of antioxidant activity of clove ( Eugenia caryophylata Thunb) buds and lavender ( Lavandula stoechas L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ělhami Gülçin; ?. Güngör ?at; ?ükrü Beydemir; Mahfuz Elmasta?; Ö. ?rfan Küfrevio?lu

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of water and ethanol extracts of clove (Eugenia carophyllata) buds and lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) was studied. The antioxidant properties of both extracts of clove and lavender were evaluated using different antioxidant tests; reductive potential, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. The both extracts of clove and lavender exhibited strong total antioxidant

  9. Lack of recruitment in Lavandula stoechas subsp. pedunculata: a case of safe-site limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Ana M.; Peco, Begońa

    2007-01-01

    Lavandula stoechas subsp. pedunculata regeneration depends exclusively on the establishment of new individuals. Seed availability and seedling emergence and survival are therefore critical life stages and processes for species regeneration. In this study, seedling emergence and survival was monitored for two years in the scrub, both in clearings and adjacent to adult plants, and the surrounding perennial grassland, at 1, 3 and 5 m from the scrub. Soil seed bank spatial distribution was also studied for one year in the same two habitats, using the same sampling design. Soil seed availability in the scrub is high regardless of the distance from the adult individuals. On the contrary, the adjacent grassland shows a drastic fall in seed density, and almost no seedlings were observed there. In the scrub, seedling density was negatively related to distance from the three nearest adult plants in the clearings, and positively related to adult plant size beneath the adult Lavandula plants. There was also a negative relationship between seedling density and the percentage of bare soil. Only one seedling survived the first drought period, with no detection of effects of either position with respect to adult individuals or seedling density. We hypothesized that the study populations suffer a lack of appropriate safe sites within the scrubland while in the adjacent perennial grassland, observed low seed availability was added to safe-site limitation. That results in a lack of successful seedling establishments and a poor expansion potential of Lavandula scrublands, whose edges remain static in the short and medium term. As found in other Mediterranean scrubland, recruitment may only occur in years with particularly favourable weather, under disturbance regimes that increase seedling survival probability or when external dispersal agents increased seed availability in adequate places for Lavandula establishment.

  10. Sesquiterpene lactone and flavonoid variability of the Arnica angustifolia aggregate (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J Schmidt; Günter Willuhn

    2000-01-01

    In flowerheads of Arnica angustifolia Vahl subsp. attenuata (Greene) Maguire, 26 flavonoid aglycones (4 flavanones, 9 flavones, 13 flavonols) were identified by means of GC\\/MS and TLC analyses. Four of these, naringenin, rhamnazin, rhamnocitrin and eupalitin have not previously been reported as constituents of the genus Arnica. Comparative analysis of different populations of A. angustifolia subsp. attenuata, angustifolia and tomentosa

  11. Long-term competitive displacement of Typha latifolia by Typha angustifolia in a eutrophic lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan E. B. Weiner

    1993-01-01

    This study follows the outcome of long-term competition between a broad-leaved and a narrowleaved Typha species, T. latifolia and T. angustifolia respectively, in a eutrophic lake. The lake was bordered by a zone of T. latifolia, at one location interrupted by a T. angustifolia stand. Distributional changes of the T. angustifolia stand and the adjacent zone of T. latifolia were

  12. A randomized, controlled cross-over trial of dermally-applied lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) oil as a treatment of agitated behaviour in dementia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lavender essential oil shows evidence of sedative properties in neurophysiological and animal studies but clinical trials of its effectiveness as a treatment of agitation in people with dementia have shown mixed results. Study methods have varied widely, however, making comparisons hazardous. To help remedy previous methodological shortcomings, we delivered high grade lavender oil in specified amounts to nursing home residents whose agitated behaviours were recorded objectively. Methods 64 nursing home residents with frequent physically agitated behaviours were entered into a randomized, single-blind cross-over trial of dermally-applied, neurophysiologically active, high purity 30% lavender oil versus an inactive control oil. A blinded observer counted the presence or absence of target behaviours and rated participants’ predominant affect during each minute for 30 minutes prior to exposure and for 60 minutes afterwards. Results Lavender oil did not prove superior to the control oil in reducing the frequency of physically agitated behaviours or in improving participants’ affect. Conclusions Studies of essential oils are constrained by their variable formulations and uncertain pharmacokinetics and so optimal dosing and delivery regimens remain speculative. Notwithstanding this, topically delivered, high strength, pure lavender oil had no discernible effect on affect and behaviour in a well-defined clinical sample. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12609000569202) PMID:24219098

  13. Volatile chemical composition and bioactivity of six essential oils against the stored food insect Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae).

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Conti, Barbara; Mazzoni, Valerio; Meini, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of Achillea millefolium, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Lavandula angustifolia were analysed with GC-FID and GC-MS in order to define their aromatic profiles and then their toxicity and repellent activity against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae) with specific bioassays were evaluated. Results from topical applications on insects showed that all EOs had variable and significant insecticidal activity. Mortality rate never exceeded 76%. Results of repellency tests are indicated for M. communis and L. angustifolia EOs, displaying high repellent activity to S. zeamais adults. PMID:21861644

  14. Nutrient Cycling in a Natural Stand of Typha angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pratima Sharma; Takashi Asaeda; Jagath Manatunge; Takeshi Fujino

    2006-01-01

    We studied nutrient cycling within a natural monospecific stand of Typha angustifolia along the shoreline of Lake Teganuma, a shallow eutrophic lake northeast of Tokyo. Seasonal patterns of biomass and nutrient concentrations in the above- and belowground plant parts were observed over a period of two years, and nutrients released from the dead plants into the water environment were estimated

  15. Mechanisms of cadmium detoxification in cattail ( Typha angustifolia L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weifeng Xu; Weiming Shi; Feng Yan; Biao Zhang; Jiansheng Liang

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread heavy metal pollutant and environmental and human health hazard, which may be partially resolved using green and cost-effective phytoremediation techniques. However, the efficiency of phytoremediation is often limited by the small biomass of Cd-hyperaccumulator plants. Although cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) is tolerant of heavy metals and has a high biomass, there is little information available

  16. 1H NMR analysis of sporopollenin from Typha Angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedhelm Ahlers; Ina Thom; Jörg Lambert; Rüdiger Kuckuk; Rolf Wiermann

    1999-01-01

    The first analysis of sporopollenin using 1H NMR-techniques revealed the presence of four phenolic compounds in different amounts. The phenolic compounds are tri- or tetrasubstituted. The sporopollenin was isolated and purified from Typha angustifolia by an enzymatic procedure, followed by extraction with organic solvents.

  17. Two new nonacosanetriols from the pollen of Typha angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wei Tao; Nian Yun Yang; Jin Ao Duan; De Kang Wu; Er Xin Shang; Da Wei Qian; Yu Ping Tang

    2010-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the pollen of Typha angustifolia Linn. has led to the isolation of two new nonacosanetriols, 7,8,10-nonacosanetriol (1) and 7,9,10-nonacosanetriol (2). Their structures were elucidated by chemical reaction and spectral analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited weak activity of antiplatelet aggregation in vitro.

  18. Ethephon Promotes Germination of Echinacea angustifolia and E. pallida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Scalzo

    Seeds from fi ve lots each of Echinacea angustifolia DC and E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. were germinated in a growth chamber in light (40 µmol·m -2 ·s -1 ) or darkness at 25 o C for 16 to 20 days after soaking in 1 mM ethephon or water for 10 minutes or moist stratifi cation at 4 - 6 o

  19. Genetic Variation in Echinacea angustifolia Along a Climatic Gradient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. S TILL; D.-H. K IM; N. A OYAMA

    2005-01-01

    ? Backgrounds and Aims Echinacea angustifolia is a widespread species distributed throughout the Great Plains region of North America. Genetic differentiation among populations was investigated along a 1500 km north-south climatic gradient in North America, a region with no major geographical barriers. The objective of the study was to determine if genetic differentiation of populations could be explained by an

  20. Phytochemical variation within populations of Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon E. Binns; John T. Arnason; Bernard R. Baum

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of phytochemical diversity in Echinaceaangustifolia DC. populations from different natural geographic areas supports the existence of distinct natural chemotypes within the species. Consumers, growers and manufacturers of phytomedicines are interested in chemotype identification for prediction of phytochemical content in cultivar development. Six month old E. angustifolia roots, grown from nine different wild seed sources in a controlled environment,

  1. Methods to overcome seed dormancy in Echinacea angustifolia DC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Macchia; L. G Angelini; L Ceccarini

    2001-01-01

    Some factors (light, prechilling, gibberellic acid, ethylene) affecting germination of seeds of Echinacea angustifolia DC. were investigated. Without any pretreatment, the seeds germinated better in darkness than in light, however, percentages germination were low in both cases. GA3 did not increase germination in light. Prechilling for 7–15 days in light or in darkness hardly affected percentage germination but significantly increased

  2. An Evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in Experimental Rhinovirus Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald B. Turner; Rudolf Bauer; Karin Woelkart; Thomas C. Hulsey; J. David Gangemi

    2005-01-01

    Background Echinacea has been widely used as an herbal remedy for the common cold, but efficacy studies have produced conflicting results, and there are a variety of echinacea products on the market with different phytochemical compositions. We evaluated the effect of chemically defined extracts from Echinacea angustifolia roots on rhinovirus infection. Methods Three preparations of echinacea, with distinct phytochemical profiles,

  3. Pharmacological and toxicological studies of Drimys angustifolia Miers. (Winteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Witaicenis; E. F. Roldăo; L. N. Seito; N. P. Rocha; L. C. Di Stasi

    2007-01-01

    Drimys angustifolia Miers. (Winteraceae) is a Brazilian medicinal plant used as analgesic, antiulcer and anti-inflammatory without studies to assure its efficacy and safety Leaf and stem bark extracts were evaluated to determine the antiulcer, analgesic, antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities. Preliminary toxic effects and qualitative phytochemical profile were also performed. The antiulcer activity was detected in both extracts. Administration of the

  4. Microbial degradation of mefenoxam in rhizosphere of Zinnia angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seema G Pai; Melissa B Riley; N. D Camper

    2001-01-01

    The fate of the fungicide mefenoxam was studied in a containerized rhizosphere system. The rhizosphere system used Zinnia angustifolia (Tropic Snow) in a bark\\/sand potting mix and was compared to bulk potting mix (no plants). Rhizosphere microbial populations were allowed to establish for 3 weeks prior to fungicide addition (20?g per g mix). Mefenoxam and degradation product concentrations were determined

  5. Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated. PMID:23918183

  6. Effects of Melilotus officinalis on acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ple?ca-Manea, Lumini?a; Pârvu, Alina Elena; Pârvu, M; Ta?ma?, M; Buia, R; Puia, M

    2002-06-01

    Our study investigated the effects of Melilotus officinalis L. extract, containing 0.25% coumarin, on acute inflammation induced with oil of turpentine in male rabbits. The results were compared with those from a group treated with hydrocortisone sodium hemisuccinate and one injected with coumarin before inflammation was induced. The effects were evaluated by measuring serum citrulline, a test of in vitro phagocytosis, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count expressed as a percentage. M. officinalis had antiinflammatory effects because it reduced the activation of circulating phagocytes and lowered citrulline production. These properties were similar to those of hydrocortisone sodium hemisuccinate and coumarin. In the bone marrow acute phase response, M. officinalis had an inhibitory action that was lower than that of hydrocortisone sodium hemisuccinate and similar to coumarin. PMID:12112285

  7. In vitro culture of lavenders (Lavandula spp.) and the production of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sandra; Romano, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Lavenders (Lavandula spp., Lamiaceae) are aromatic ornamental plants that are used widely in the food, perfume and pharmaceutical industries. The large-scale production of lavenders requires efficient in vitro propagation techniques to avoid the overexploitation of natural populations and to allow the application of biotechnology-based approaches for plant improvement and the production of valuable secondary metabolites. In this review we discuss micropropagation methods that have been developed in several lavender species, mainly based on meristem proliferation and organogenesis. Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation (establishment, shoot multiplication, root induction and acclimatization) and requisites for plant regeneration trough organogenesis, as an important step for the implementation of plant improvement programs, were revised. We also discuss different methods for the in vitro production of valuable secondary metabolites, focusing on the prospects for highly scalable cultures to meet the market demand for lavender-derived products. PMID:23022737

  8. New 2,2-diphenylpropane and ethoxylated aromatic monoterpenes from Lavandula gibsoni (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Roshan R; Joshi, Swati P

    2013-08-01

    A new substituted 2,2-diphenylpropane (1) and two new ethoxylated aromatic monoterpene alcohols (2 and 4) have been isolated from the acetone extract of the aerial parts of Lavandula gibsoni, along with the known compounds 8-hydroxycarvacrol (3), 8-hydroxythymol (5), coumarin (6), 4-methylresorcinol (7), 7,4'-dimethylapigenin (8), salvigenin (9), ?-sitosteryl-3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-6'-O-palmitate (10) and euscaphic acid D (11). The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra and two-dimensional NMR techniques, which included COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments and comparison with the reported literature. PMID:23126635

  9. Effect of heat shock on ultrastructure and calcium distribution in Lavandula pinnata L. glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Huang, S S; Kirchoff, B K; Liao, J P

    2013-02-01

    The effects of heat shock (HS) on the ultrastructure and calcium distribution of Lavandula pinnata secretory trichomes are examined using transmission electron microscopy and potassium antimonate precipitation. After 48-h HS at 40°C, plastids become distorted and lack stroma and osmiophilic deposits, the cristae of the mitochondria become indistinct, the endoplasmic reticulum acquires a chain-like appearance with ribosomes prominently attached to the lamellae, and the plasma and organelle membranes become distorted. Heat shock is associated with a decrease in calcium precipitates in the trichomes, while the number of precipitates increases in the mesophyll cells. Prolonged exposure to elevated calcium levels may be toxic to the mesophyll cells, while the lack of calcium in the glands cell may deprive them of the normal protective advantages of elevated calcium levels. The inequality in calcium distribution may result not only from uptake from the transpiration stream, but also from redistribution of calcium from the trichomes to the mesophyll cells. PMID:22418827

  10. Sesquiterpene lactones and inositol esters from Arnica angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T J; Willuhn, G; Steigel, A; Wendisch, D

    1995-12-01

    From flowerheads of Arnica angustifolia ssp. attenuata nine helenanolides, two 1,5- trans-guaianolides, and a mixture of inositol-tetraesters were isolated. Five of the helenanolides are described for the first time. One of them, 4- O-tigloylarnicalpin, is the first 7(12),6-trans-lactonized pseudoguaianolide isolated from a natural source. The occurrence of inositol esters within the genus Arnica has not been reported before. PMID:17238108

  11. Purification and biological effects of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) seed lectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiane Santi-Gadelha; Carlos Alberto de Almeida Gadelha; Karoline Sabóia Aragăo; Cec?´lia Carvalho de Oliveira; Mário Rogério Lima Mota; Raphaela Cardoso Gomes; Alana de Freitas Pires; Marcos Hikari Toyama; Daniela de Oliveira Toyama; Nylane Maria Nunes de Alencar; David Neil Criddle; Ana Maria Sampaio. Assreuy; Benildo Sousa. Cavada

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the purification and characterization of a new N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-specific lectin from Araucaria angustifolia (AaL) seeds (Araucariaceae) and its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. AaL was purified using a combination of affinity chromatography on a chitin column and ion exchange chromatography on Sephacel-DEAE. The pure protein has 8.0kDa (SDS–PAGE) and specifically agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes, effect that was independent of the

  12. Removal of Lead from Contaminated Soils by Typha Angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Panich-Pat; P. Pokethitiyook; M. Kruatrachue; E. S. Upatham; P. Srinives; G. R. Lanza

    2004-01-01

    A greenhouse study was demonstrated for removal of lead (Pb) from contaminated soil by the narrow — leaved cattail, Typha angustifolia. The plants were grown in sandy loam soil containing various concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 (53.3, 106.7, 160, 213.3, and 266.7 mg Pb kg-1 soil). Most lead was accumulated in roots and then transported to leaves. In soil contaminated with 266.7

  13. Structural analysis of the polysaccharides from Echinacea angustifolia radix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosaria Cozzolino; Paola Malvagna; Emanuela Spina; Andrea Giori; Nicola Fuzzati; Alessandro Anelli; Domenico Garozzo; Giuseppe Impallomeni

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report the characterization by monosaccharide and linkage analyses and by NMR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography of the carbohydrate fraction extracted from Echinacea angustifolia radix. In addition, the products of endo-pectin lyase, endo-pectate lyase, endo-polygalacturonase, endo-galactanase, and endo-arabinase digestion were characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The data obtained during this study showed that the carbohydrate fraction

  14. Localization of Alkamides, Echinacoside and Cynarin with Echinacea angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kabganian; D. J. Carrier; P. A. Rose; S. R. Abrams; S. Sokhansanj

    2003-01-01

    The alkamides, echinacoside, and cynarin in parts of three year old Echinacea angustifolia plants were quantified in this study. A chloroform extract of the plant root yielded two alkamides: undeca-2E\\/Z-en 8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide (alkamide 1) and dodeca-2E, 4E, 8Z, 10E\\/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (alkamide 2). A relative distribution study indicated that the bark and secondary roots contained highest concentrations of echinacoside,

  15. Carboxymethylation of Cassia angustifolia seed gum: synthesis and rheological study.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Gaurav; Pandey, I P; Joshi, Gyanesh

    2015-03-01

    The seeds of Cassia angustifolia are a rich source of galactomannan gum. The seed gums possess a wide variety of industrial applications. To utilize C. angustifolia seed gum for broader industrial applications, the carboxymethyl-Cassia angustifolia seed gum (CM-CAG) was synthesized. The gum was etherified with sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) in a methanol-water system in presence of alkali (NaOH) at different reaction conditions. The variables studied includes alkali concentration, SMCA concentration, methanol:water ratio, liquor:gum ratio, reaction temperature and time. The extent of carboxymethylation was determined as degree of substitution (DS). The optimum conditions for preparing CM-CAG (DS=0.474) comprised 0.100 mol of NaOH, 0.05 mol of SMCA, 80% of methanol:water ratio (as % methanol) and liquor:gum ratio (v/w) of 10:1 at 75 °C for 60 min using 0.03 mol (as AGU) of CAG. Rheological studies showed CM-CAG to exhibit non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour, relatively high viscosity, cold water solubility and solution stability. PMID:25498663

  16. Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) essential oils attenuate hyperglycemia and protect against oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study described the phytochemical profile of Lavandula stoechas essential oils, collected in the area of Ain-Draham (North-West of Tunisia), as well as their protective effects against alloxan-induced diabetes and oxidative stress in rat. Methods Essential oils samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC–MS. Rats were divided into four groups: Healthy Control (HC); Diabetic Control (DC); Healthy?+?Essential Oils (H?+?EO) and Diabetic?+?Essential Oils (D?+?EO). Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities were evaluated after subacute intraperitoneally injection of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) to rats during 15 days. Results The principal compounds detected are: D-Fenchone (29.28%), ?-pinene (23.18%), Camphor (15.97%), Camphene (7.83%), Eucapur (3.29%), Limonene, (2.71%) Linalool, (2.01%) Endobornyl Acetate (1.03%). The essential oils also contained smaller percentages of Tricyclene, Cymene, Delta-Cadinene, Selina-3,7(11)-diene. Furthermore, we found that Lavandula stoechas essential oils significantly protected against the increase of blood glucose as well as the decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities induced by aloxan treatment. Subacute essential oils treatment induced a decrease of lipoperoxidation as well as an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Conclusions These findings suggested that lavandula stoechas essential oils protected against diabetes and oxidative stress induced by alloxan treatment. These effects are in partly due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:24373672

  17. Genetic and clonal diversity of two cattail species, Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia (Typhaceae), from Ukraine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V. Tsyusko; MICHAEL H. SMITH; R EBECCA R. SHARITZ; TRAVIS C. GLENN

    2005-01-01

    Genetic and clonal diversity vary between two closely related cattail species ( Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia) from Ukraine. This diversity was calculated from microsatellite data. Forty-eight percent of the total variation was partitioned between species, which formed distinct clusters in a dendrogram with no indication of hybrid populations. Typha angustifolia had higher heterozygosity at the species (Hes 5 0.66)

  18. Isolation, selection and characterization of root-associated growth promoting bacteria in Brazil Pine ( Araucaria angustifolia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Marcelo Ribeiro; Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

    Araucaria angustifolia, a unique species of this genus that occurs naturally in Brazil, has a high socio-economic and environmental value and is critically endangered of extinction, since it has been submitted to intense predatory exploitation during the last century. Root-associated bacteria from A. angustifolia were isolated, selected and characterized for their biotechnological potential of growth promotion and biocontrol of plant

  19. Typha angustifolia stress tolerance to wastewater with different levels of chemical oxygen demand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingtao Xu; Cong Li; Fang Yang; Zhong Dong; Jian Zhang; Yingcan Zhao; Pengyu Qi; Zhen Hu

    2011-01-01

    The stress tolerance of wetland plants is important to their potential use in wastewater treatment. In the present study, we investigated the physiological response of Typha angustifolia (T. angustifolia) to wastewater with different chemical oxygen demands (CODs) by bucket experiments. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. The content of total

  20. Enzymatic variability in the cattail ( Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia, Typhaceae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Andrée Esnault; André Huon

    1985-01-01

    The enzymatic spectra ofTypha angustifolia, T. latifolia and their hybrids were examined by disc electrophoresis for three enzymatic systems: esterases, alcohol deshydrogenase, and glutamate deshydrogenase. The intermediate position of the hybrids is confirmed. The study of alcohol deshydrogenase reveales the existence of an intraspecific variability inT. angustifolia between individuals from the Massif Armoricain in France and Dellys in Algeria.

  1. Effect of chemical and physical factors to improve the germination rate of Echinacea angustifolia seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duan Chuanren; Wang Bochu; Liu Wanqian; Chen Jing; Lian Jie; Zhao Huan

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of Echinacea angustifolia are known for their deep dormancy. In this paper, we studied the responses of E. angustifolia seeds to some chemical and physical factors, such as scarification, chilling (5°C) period, light and applied BA (6-benzylaminopurine), GA3 (gibberellic acid) and sound stimulation. When the seed coat layers were removed, the germination rate grew up from 6 to 20%

  2. STYLE PERSISTENCE, POLLEN LIMITATION, AND SEED SET IN THE COMMON PRAIRIE PLANT ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA (ASTERACEAE)

    E-print Network

    Fant, Jeremie

    in the narrow-leaved purple coneflower Echinacea angustifolia, a species native to the North American prairieSTYLE PERSISTENCE, POLLEN LIMITATION, AND SEED SET IN THE COMMON PRAIRIE PLANT ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA (ASTERACEAE) Stuart Wagenius1 Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University

  3. Yield potential of Asparagus officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Moon

    1976-01-01

    Yield of individual plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. ‘Mary Washington 500W’ grown from seed is very variable. Yield can be improved by selection on plant sex, specific vegetative characters, or yield itself. A study of yield variation among plants in an experimental population showed that an all-male population would yield 35% more than a population with about equal numbers

  4. Two new cerebrosides from the pollen of Typha angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wei-Wei; Yang, Nian-Yun; Liu, Li; Duan, Jin-Ao; Wu, De-Kang; Qian, Da-Wei; Tang, Yu-Ping

    2010-04-01

    Two new cerebrosides, 1-O-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-(2S,3S,4R,8Z)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxytricosanoylamino]-8-nonadecene-3,4-diol (1) and 1-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-(2S,3R,4E,8Z)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxynonadecanoylamino]-4,13-nonadecene-3-diol (2), were isolated from the pollen of Typha angustifolia. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral means. This is the first report on the occurrence of cerebroside in Typha (Typhaceae). Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited effect on the proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs) induced by fatal bovine serum (FBS). PMID:19720118

  5. Two new cerebrosides from the pollen of Typha angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Wei Tao; Nian-Yun Yang; Li Liu; Jin-Ao Duan; De-Kang Wu; Da-Wei Qian; Yu-Ping Tang

    2010-01-01

    Two new cerebrosides, 1-O-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-(2S,3S,4R,8Z)-2-[(2?R)-2?-hydroxytricosanoylamino]-8-nonadecene-3,4-diol (1) and 1-O-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-(2S,3R,4E,8Z)-2-[(2?R)-2?-hydroxynonadecanoylamino]-4,13-nonadecene-3-diol (2), were isolated from the pollen of Typha angustifolia. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral means. This is the first report on the occurrence of cerebroside in Typha (Typhaceae). Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited effect on the proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs) induced by fatal bovine serum (FBS).

  6. Genetic and clonal diversity of two cattail species, Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia (Typhaceae), from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Tsyusko, Olga V; Smith, Michael H; Sharitz, Rebecca R; Glenn, Travis C

    2005-07-01

    Genetic and clonal diversity vary between two closely related cattail species (Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia) from Ukraine. This diversity was calculated from microsatellite data. Forty-eight percent of the total variation was partitioned between species, which formed distinct clusters in a dendrogram with no indication of hybrid populations. Typha angustifolia had higher heterozygosity at the species (H(es) = 0.66) and population (H(ep) = 0.49) levels than did T. latifolia (H(es) = 0.37 and H(ep) = 0.29, respectively). The higher number of alleles in T. angustifolia may be indicative of larger effective population sizes due to its higher seed production. Clonal diversity of T. angustifolia was lower than that of T. latifolia (N(g)/N(r) = 0.40 and 0.61, Simpson's D = 0.82 and 0.94, respectively). Correlations between clonal and genetic diversity were higher for T. latifolia than T. angustifolia, suggesting that the importance of factors and their interactions affecting this relationship are different for the two species. Latitudinal and longitudinal trends were not observed in either species despite the large sampling area. Population differentiation was relatively high with F(ST) of 0.24 and 0.29 for T. angustifolia and T. latifolia, respectively. Weak isolation by distance was observed for T. latifolia but not for T. angustifolia. PMID:21646138

  7. Karyotype rearrangements and telomere analysis in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) strains collected on Lavandula sp. plants

    PubMed Central

    Mandrioli, Mauro; Zanasi, Federica; Manicardi, Gian Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Karyotype analysis of nine strains of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776), collected on Lavandula sp. plants, evidenced showed that five of them had a standard 2n = 12 karyotype, one possessed a fragmentation of the X chromosome occurring at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one and three strains had a chromosome number 2n = 11 due to a non-reciprocal translocation of an autosome A3 onto an A1 chromosome. Interestingly, the terminal portion of the autosome A1 involved in the translocation was the same in all the three strains, as evidenced by FISH with the histone cluster as a probe. The study of telomeres in the Myzus persicae strain with the X fission evidenced that telomerase synthesised de novo telomeres at the breakpoints resulting in the stabilization of the chromosomal fragments. Lastly, despite the presence of a conserved telomerase, aphid genome is devoid of genes coding for shelterin, a complex of proteins involved in telomere functioning frequently reported as conserved in eukaryotes. The absence of this complex, also confirmed in the genome of other arthropods, suggests that the shift in the sequence of the telomeric repeats has been accompanied by other changes in the telomere components in arthropods in respect to other metazoans. PMID:25610541

  8. Microscopic characters of the leaf and stem of Lavandula dentata L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    do Rocio Duarte, Márcia; Carvalho de Souza, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    Lavandula dentata L. is an aromatic plant used in folk medicine for different purposes and, for this reason, phytochemical surveys have been carried out in the search for bioactive substances aiming to support its uses. Since there is little knowledge on the structural aspects of L. dentata, this work has studied the anatomical characters of the leaf and stem using light and scanning electron microscopy, in order to assist the species identification. As a result, there are different types of trichomes: capitate glandular with uni- or bicellular head, peltate glandular with multicellular head, and branched non-glandular. The leaf is hypostomatic showing diacytic stomata. The epidermis is uniseriate and coated with striate cuticle. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the midrib is concave-convex and traversed by a single collateral vascular bundle. The stem is quadrangular and has alternating strands of collenchyma and cortical parenchyma as well as a typical endodermis in the cortex. The phloem and xylem cylinders are traversed by narrow rays and there is an incomplete sclerenchymatic sheath adjoining the phloem. These results are a novelty for the species and contribute to distinguish it from other lavenders. PMID:24861363

  9. Karyotype rearrangements and telomere analysis in Myzuspersicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) strains collected on Lavandula sp. plants.

    PubMed

    Mandrioli, Mauro; Zanasi, Federica; Manicardi, Gian Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Karyotype analysis of nine strains of the peach-potato aphid Myzuspersicae (Sulzer, 1776), collected on Lavandula sp. plants, evidenced showed that five of them had a standard 2n = 12 karyotype, one possessed a fragmentation of the X chromosome occurring at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one and three strains had a chromosome number 2n = 11 due to a non-reciprocal translocation of an autosome A3 onto an A1 chromosome. Interestingly, the terminal portion of the autosome A1 involved in the translocation was the same in all the three strains, as evidenced by FISH with the histone cluster as a probe. The study of telomeres in the Myzuspersicae strain with the X fission evidenced that telomerase synthesised de novo telomeres at the breakpoints resulting in the stabilization of the chromosomal fragments. Lastly, despite the presence of a conserved telomerase, aphid genome is devoid of genes coding for shelterin, a complex of proteins involved in telomere functioning frequently reported as conserved in eukaryotes. The absence of this complex, also confirmed in the genome of other arthropods, suggests that the shift in the sequence of the telomeric repeats has been accompanied by other changes in the telomere components in arthropods in respect to other metazoans. PMID:25610541

  10. Neuroprotective and Neurological Properties of Melissa officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Víctor López; Sara Martín; Maria Pilar Gómez-Serranillos; Maria Emilia Carretero; Anna K. Jäger; Maria Isabel Calvo

    2009-01-01

    Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective\\u000a effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase\\u000a enzymes and affinity to the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor). The results suggest that the plant has a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect on

  11. Neuroprotective properties of Valeriana officinalis extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joăo O. Malva; Sandra Santos; Tice Macedo

    2004-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis have been used in traditional medicine for its sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects. There are several eports in\\u000a the literature supporting a GABAergic mechanism of action for valerian. The rationale of the present work is based on the\\u000a concept that by decreasing neuronal network excitability valerian consumption may contribute to neuroprotection. The aim of\\u000a our investigation was to

  12. [Studies on chemical constituents of Valeriana officinalis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Zhang, Jian-chao; Liu, Yan-wen; Fang, Yin

    2007-11-01

    From Valeriana officinalis L., 4 compounds were isolated and identified by various spectral analysis and chemical conversion, as valerenic acid, beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, 4, 4', 8, 8'-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxyl-dibenzyl-ditetrahydrofuran and caryophyllene acide,valerane, naphthalene, linoleic acid, ethyl ester, myrtenyl acetate were identified by GC-MS. Ursolic acid and 4, 4', 8, 8'-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxyl-dibenzyl-ditetrahydrofuran were discovered in this plant for the first time. PMID:18323205

  13. New acylated clionasterol glycosides from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Pullela, Srinivas V; Choi, Young Whan; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2005-10-01

    The chloroform extract of Valeriana officinalis led to the isolation of clionasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and a mixture of 6'-O-acyl-beta-D-glucosyl-clionasterols. The acyl moieties were identified as hexadecanoyl, 8 E,11 E-octadecadienoyl and 14-methylpentadecanoyl by alkaline hydrolysis followed by GC-MS analysis. The isolated compounds did not exhibit any anti-inflammatory, anticancer or cytotoxic activity when tested in a variety of in vitro cell-based assays. PMID:16254830

  14. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney Bruce Croteau; Mitchell Lynn Wise; Eva Joy Katahira; Thomas Jonathan Savage

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ

  15. Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) susceptibility to Cunila angustifolia essential oil.

    PubMed

    Do Prado, Geisa Percio; Stefani, Lenita Moura; Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Smaniotto, Lisonéia Fiorentini; Garcia, Flávio Roberto Mello; De Moura, Neusa Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), is an insect that lives in poultry houses, and high infestations may cause economic losses to producers. The control of this insect is usually done with insecticides; however, many of these chemicals have no effect on lesser mealworm. Therefore, control alternatives are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Cunila angustifolia (Benth) oil on larvae and adults of A. diaperinus. In vitro tests used larvae and adults of A. diaperinus distributed in petri dishes with 0, 1, 5, and 10% of oil in a single dose. In vivo tests were performed in poultry houses with five treatments: 0, 5, and 10% and chemical insecticide (cypermethrin) in a single application, and a group with 5% of oil applied twice 15 d apart. In vitro, oil bioactivity showed an efficacy of 100% both for larvae and adults, when tested at concentrations of 5 and 10%. A reduced number of larvae were observed using 1% of oil; however, it was not effective against adults as compared with the control group. In vivo, the oil effectiveness against lesser mealworm was verified by larva and adult reduction in all concentrations compared with control (0%) throughout the experiments, with better efficacy when used at 5% with two applications. Therefore, we concluded that the oil of C. angustifolia has larvicidal and insecticidal effect against A. diaperinus larvae and adults, in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24191374

  16. Roles of Emblica officinalis in Medicine - A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Khan

    2009-01-01

    Emblica officinalis (Amla) are widely used in the Indian system of medicine and believed to increase defense against diseases. This article discuses and summarizes important medicinal values of Emblica officinalis (EO). In this communication, we reviewed the applications of EO in cancer, diabetis, liver treatment, heart disease, ulcer, anemia and various other diseases. The use of EO as antioxidant, immunomodulatory,

  17. Biosorption of Cr (VI) by Typha angustifolia: mechanism and responses to heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Li; Hong, Xiao-Qing; He, Hui; Luo, Hong-Wei; Qian, Ting-Ting; Li, Ru-Zhong; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-05-01

    In this study, Typha angustifolia was proven to have an excellent accumulation ability in high concentrations of wastewater solutions having Cr (VI) concentrations up to 30 mg L(-1) for 20 days (74% of removal efficiency). Synchrotron microfocus micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) mapping showed that the uptaken Cr was mainly enriched in the outer layer of the roots and a small portion of it was uniformly distributed in the fronds. The total proteins, soluble sugars, and malondialdehyde in T. angustifolia increased when the concentration of Cr (VI) increased from 9 to 30 mg L(-1). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) assay showed that no lignifications were observed when Cr was absorbed by T. angustifolia. It was concluded that T. angustifolia can uptake Cr by means of surface layer absorption and transportation, and alleviate stresses associated with the sorption of Cr (VI) by thickening of cell walls or secretion of chemical substances. PMID:24485750

  18. Endothelium-dependent induction of vasorelaxation by Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis in rat isolated thoracic aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ersoy; I. Orhan; N. N. Turan; G. ?ahan; M. Ark; F. Tosun

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, vasorelaxant effect produced by the aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis (MOO) (Lamiaceae) and its possible mechanism in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine were examined. In the first series of experiments, effect of MOO on the baseline and phenylephrine (10?5M) precontracted arteries was investigated, while in the second group of experiments, endothelium

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alieu Mohamed Bah; Hongyan Sun; Fei Chen; Jing Zhou; Huaxin Dai; Guoping Zhang; Feibo Wu

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated Typha angustifolia leaf proteome in response to Cr, Cd and Pb stress. T. angustifolia of 90 (D90) and 130d (D130) old plants were subjected to 1mM Cr, Cd and Pb and samples were collected 30d after treatment. 2-DE coupled with MS (mass spectrometry) was used to analyze and identify Cr, Cd and Pb-responsive proteins. More than

  20. Effects of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead on Growth, Metal Uptake and Antioxidative Capacity in Typha angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alieu Mohamed Bah; Huaxin Dai; Jing Zhao; Hongyan Sun; Fangbin Cao; Guoping Zhang; Feibo Wu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the modulation of antioxidant defence system of Typha angustifolia after 30 days exposure of 1 mM chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), or lead (Pb). T. angustifolia showed high tolerance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom when exposed to metal stress, and Cd\\/Pb addition\\u000a also increased plant height and biomass especially in Pb treatment. Along with increased Cr,

  1. Resprouting of Echinacea angustifolia Augments Sustainability of Wild Medicinal Plant Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Kindscher; Dana M. Price; Lisa Castle

    2008-01-01

    Resprouting of\\u000a Echinacea angustifolia\\u000a Augments Sustainability of Wild Medicinal Plant Populations. Overharvest of wild Echinacea species root has been a significant concern to the herbal industry. Harvesters of wild Echinacea angustifolia showed us that even after harvesting the top 15 to 20 cm of root, some plants resprout. We marked locations of harvested\\u000a plants at sites in Kansas and Montana and

  2. Purification and biological effects of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) seed lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal da Parai'ba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, Parai'ba (Brazil); Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal da Parai'ba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, Parai'ba (Brazil); Aragao, Karoline Saboia [Departamento de Bioqui'mica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, s/n, Bloco 907, 60.455-970, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Carvalho de Oliveira, Ceci'lia [Departamento de Bioqui'mica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, s/n, Bloco 907, 60.455-970, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Lima Mota, Mario Rogerio [Instituto Superior de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceara, Av. Paranjana 1700, 60740-000, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Gomes, Raphaela Cardoso [Instituto Superior de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceara, Av. Paranjana 1700, 60740-000, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Freitas Pires, Alana de [Instituto Superior de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceara, Av. Paranjana 1700, 60740-000, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Toyama, Marcos Hikari; Oliveira Toyama, Daniela de [Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Nunes de Alencar, Nylane Maria [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Porangabucu, 60.451-970, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Criddle, David Neil [MRC Secretory Control Research Group, Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio [Instituto Superior de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceara, Av. Paranjana 1700, 60740-000, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)]. E-mail: assreuy@uece.br; Cavada, Benildo Sousa [Departamento de Bioqui'mica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, s/n, Bloco 907, 60.455-970, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)]. E-mail: bscavada@ufc.br

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the purification and characterization of a new N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-specific lectin from Araucaria angustifolia (AaL) seeds (Araucariaceae) and its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. AaL was purified using a combination of affinity chromatography on a chitin column and ion exchange chromatography on Sephacel-DEAE. The pure protein has 8.0 kDa (SDS-PAGE) and specifically agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes, effect that was independent of the presence of divalent cations and was inhibited after incubation with glucose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. AaL showed antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, shown by scanning electron microscopy. AaL, intravenously injected into rats, showed anti-inflammatory effect, via carbohydrate site interaction, in the models of paw edema and peritonitis. This lectin can be used as a tool for studying bacterial infections and inflammatory processes.

  3. Neuroprotective properties of Valeriana officinalis extracts.

    PubMed

    Malva, Joăo O; Santos, Sandra; Macedo, Tice

    2004-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis have been used in traditional medicine for its sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects. There are several reports in the literature supporting a GABAergic mechanism of action for valerian. The rationale of the present work is based on the concept that by decreasing neuronal network excitability valerian consumption may contribute to neuroprotection. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of V. officinalis against the toxicity induced by amyloid beta peptide 25-35 Abeta(25-35). Cultured rat hippocampal neurons were exposed to Abeta(25-35) (25 microM) for 24-48 h, after which morphological and biochemical properties were evaluated. The neuronal injury evoked by Abeta, which includes a decrease in cell reducing capacity and associated neuronal degeneration, was prevented by valerian extract. Analysis of intracellular free calcium (Ca(2+)i) indicated that the neuroprotective mechanisms may involve the inhibition of excess influx of Ca2+ following neuronal injury. Moreover, membrane peroxidation in rat hippocampal synaptosomes was evaluated, and our data indicate that valerian extract partially inhibited ascorbate/iron-induced peroxidation. In conclusion we show evidence that the signalling pathways involving Ca(2+)i and the redox state of the cells may play a central role in the neuroprotective properties of V. officinalis extract against Abeta toxicity. The novelty of the findings of the present work, indicating neuroprotective properties of valerian against Abeta toxicity may, at the long-term, contribute to introduction of a new relevant use of valerian alcoholic extract to prevent neuronal degeneration in aging or neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:15325965

  4. Some Mediterranean plant species (Lavandula spp. and Thymus satureioides) act as potential `plant nurses' for the early growth of Cupressus atlantica

    E-print Network

    Thioulouse, Jean

    forest ecosystems, Microbial catabolic diversity, Nurse plant, Restoration ecology, Revegetation nurses' for the early growth of Cupressus atlantica L. Ouahmane1,2 , R. Duponnois3 , M. Hafidi1 , M. Kisa of plant nurses such as T. satureioides or Lavandula spp. could be of great interest to restore a self

  5. Pathologie vgtale Capacits de morphogense in vitro

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and lavender clones: preliminary observations on the agronomic value of the vitroplants. Lavenders and lavandins (sterile and spon- taneous interspecific hybrids between fine lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and lavender aspic, Lavandula latifolia Will) are of significant importance for dry areas

  6. Inhibiton of photodynamic haemolysis by Gratiola officinalis L. extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Natalie; Pravdin, Alexander; Terentyuk, George; Navolokin, Nikita; Kurchatova, Maria; Polukonova, Natalia

    2015-03-01

    On the model of photodynamic haemolysis, the membranoprotective properties of a plant origin antioxidant, Gratiola officinalis L. extract, have been studied based on its ability to inhibit photodamage of sensitized erythrocyte membranes. The effect of different concentrations of the antioxidant on the photodynamic hemolysis has been studied; and the influence of incubation time on the membranoprotective properties of Gratiola officinalis L. extract has also been revealed.

  7. Control of resin production in Araucaria angustifolia, an ancient South American conifer.

    PubMed

    Perotti, J C; da Silva Rodrigues-Corręa, K C; Fett-Neto, A G

    2015-07-01

    Araucaria angustifolia is an ancient slow-growing conifer that characterises parts of the Southern Atlantic Forest biome, currently listed as a critically endangered species. The species also produces bark resin, although the factors controlling its resinosis are largely unknown. To better understand this defence-related process, we examined the resin exudation response of A. angustifolia upon treatment with well-known chemical stimulators used in fast-growing conifers producing both bark and wood resin, such as Pinus elliottii. The initial hypothesis was that A. angustifolia would display significant differences in the regulation of resinosis. The effect of Ethrel(®) (ET - ethylene precursor), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), sulphuric acid (SuA) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP - nitric oxide donor) on resin yield and composition in young plants of A. angustifolia was examined. In at least one of the concentrations tested, and frequently in more than one, an aqueous glycerol solution applied on fresh wound sites of the stem with one or more of the adjuvants examined promoted an increase in resin yield, as well as monoterpene concentration (?-pinene, ?-pinene, camphene and limonene). Higher yields and longer exudation periods were observed with JA and ET, another feature shared with Pinus resinosis. The results suggest that resinosis control is similar in Araucaria and Pinus. In addition, A. angustifolia resin may be a relevant source of valuable terpene chemicals, whose production may be increased by using stimulating pastes containing the identified adjuvants. PMID:25545585

  8. Chemical investigation of the medicinal and ornamental plant Angelonia angustifolia Benth. reveals therapeutic quantities of lupeol.

    PubMed

    Deyrup, Stephen T; Asghar, Khush B; Chacko, Ann; Hebert, Jakob M; Samson, Eric; Talone, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Angelonia angustifolia Benth. is a small herbaceous plant with documented use as an anti-inflammatory remedy by indigenous cultures in Latin America. It has subsequently been developed as an ornamental annual widely available in nurseries in the United States. Chemical investigation led to the discovery that lupeol is the major organic soluble constituent in the roots, and is present in large quantities in the aerial structures of the plant. Lupeol was identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and quantified by HPLC-MS. The concentration of lupeol (9.14 mg/g in roots) in A. angustifolia is approximately 3 times higher than any previously reported sources. Therefore, the amount of lupeol in the roots of a single individual of A. angustifolia greatly exceeds the previously determined topical threshold for significant reduction of inflammation. The presence of topically therapeutic levels of lupeol in A. angustifolia provides chemical rationale for its indigenous use. In addition, the established cultivation of A. angustifolia could allow this plant to be used as a source of the important bioactive molecule lupeol, or to be developed as a nutraceutical without damaging wild populations. PMID:25111011

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATION Epifluorescent and Histochemical Aspects of Shoot Anatomy of Typha latifolia L., Typha angustifolia L. and Typha glauca Godr

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. M CMANUS; J. L. S EAGO J R; L. C. M ARSH

    Using epifluorescent and histochemical techniques, we examined anatomical differences in the shoot organs of Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia and T. glauca. The leaf lamina of T. latifolia and T. glauca had enlarged epider- mal cells and a thickened cuticle above the subepidermal vascular bundles; that of T. angustifolia lacked these characteristics. Leaf sheaths were similar among the species and all

  10. Comparison of EDTA and Citric Acid-Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals in Artificially Metal Contaminated Soil by Typha Angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawood Muhammad; Fei Chen; Jing Zhao; Guoping Zhang; Feibo Wu

    2009-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of EDTA and citric acid (CA) addition in improving phytoextraction of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Cr from artificially contaminated soil by T. angustifolia. T. angustifolia showed the remarkable resistance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom including chlorosis and necrosis when exposed to metal stress. EDTA-addition significantly reduced plant

  11. ANÁLISIS CUANTITATIVOS DE LOS PRINCIPALES CONSTITUYENTES QUÍMICOS DE RAÍCES DE Echinacea purpurea Y E. angustifolia PRODUCIDAS EN COSTA RICA1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Loaiza; Roberto Valverde; Gerardo Rodríguez; Jorge Molina

    Quantitative analyses of the main che- mical constituents in the roots of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia produced in Cos- ta Rica. Free phenylpropanoids (chlorogenic and cichoric acids), and a glycosidic (echinecoside), as well as the alkamides, present in root extracts of the medicinal plants Echinacea purpureaand E. angustifolia produced in 3 different locations of Costa Rica (Los Santos at

  12. Natural indole butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors from Nauclea officinalis.

    PubMed

    Liew, Sook Yee; Khaw, Kooi Yeong; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Yi Li; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah

    2015-01-15

    Nine monoterpenoid indole alkaloids; naucletine (1), angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), naucline (5), angustoline (6), harmane (7), 3,14-dihydroangustoline (8), strictosamide (9) and one quinoline alkaloid glycoside; pumiloside (10) from Nauclea officinalis were tested for cholinesterase inhibitory activity. All the alkaloids except for pumiloside (10) showed strong to weak BChE inhibitory effect with IC50 values ranging between 1.02-168.55 ?M. Angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), angustoline (6) and harmane (7) showed higher BChE inhibiting potency compared to galanthamine. Angustidine (2) was the most potent inhibitor towards both AChE and BChE. Molecular docking (MD) studies showed that angustidine (2) docked deep into the bottom gorge of hBChE and formed hydrogen bonding with Ser 198 and His 438. Kinetic study of angustidine (2) on BChE suggested a mixed inhibition mode with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 6.12 ?M. PMID:25636869

  13. Iboga-Type Alkaloids from Ervatamia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ben-Qin; Wang, Wen-Jing; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Yang, Ting-Ting; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-08-01

    Seven new iboga-type alkaloids, ervaoffines A-D (1-4), (7S)-3-oxoibogaine hydroxyindolenine (5), ibogaine-5,6-dione (6), and 19-epi-5-oxovoacristine (7), and 10 known alkaloids were isolated from Ervatamia officinalis. The absolute configurations of 1-7 were determined through X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analyses. Ervaoffines A and B represent the first iboga-type pseudoindoxyl alkaloids in which the C-2 spiro carbon configuration is opposite to that of other members of this class, such as iboluteine (8). The relationship between the absolute configuration of the spiro carbons and the Cotton effect in the ECD spectrum is established for the first time for iboga-type pseudoindoxyl and oxindole alkaloids. Additionally, a plausible biogenetic pathway for these alkaloids is proposed. PMID:25093992

  14. Major anthocyanins from purple asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yumi; Ozaki, Yukio; Miyajima, Ikuo; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Fukui, Yuko; Iwasa, Keiko; Motoki, Satoru; Suzuki, Takashi; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Two major anthocyanins (A1 and A2) were isolated from peels of the spears of Asparagus officinalis cv. Purple Passion. They were purified by column, paper and high-performance liquid chromatographic separations, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HR-FT-ICR MS), 1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses and either acid or alkaline hydrolysis, respectively. A1 was identified as cyanidin 3-[3''-(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6''-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside], whereas A2 was cyanidin 3-rutinoside, which is widely distributed in higher plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays proved their high antioxidant activities. PMID:18406435

  15. Phytotoxicity of chlorinated benzenes to Typha angustifolia and Phragmites communis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingmao; Havelka, Megan M

    2009-02-01

    Healthy growth of plants is a prerequisite for successful application of phytoremediation technologies. Typha angustifolia and Phragmites communis are common wetland plants and have shown potential for phytoremediation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB). However, the lack of phytotoxicity data impedes their application in field sites. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of HCB, and its two metabolites: 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB) and 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) to Typha and the phytotoxicity of 1,3,5-TCB to Phragmites. The phytotoxicity of 1,3,5-TCB is species-dependent, with Typha demonstrating significantly higher tolerance than Phragmites. The concentration of 1,3,5-TCB causing zero growth of Phragmites was determined to be 1575 mg TCB/kg dry sediment. The concentration has to be doubled to completely inhibit the growth of Typha. Adverse effects of chlorinated benzenes in sediments on Typha increased with decreasing chlorine atoms. The concentrations causing zero growth of Typha are 5765 mg HCB/kg dry soil, 3157 mg 1,3,5-TCB/kg dry soil, and 1325 mg 1,4-DCB/kg dry soil. The higher toxicity of 1,4-DCB than 1,3,5-TCB and HCB in sediment was ascribed to its higher availability and easiness to be taken up by plants. The conclusion was supported by both growth rate calculations and plant height measurements. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2009. PMID:18442064

  16. The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method. PMID:25598636

  17. In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Valeriana officinalis Against Different Neurotoxic Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jéssie Haigert Sudati; Roselei Fachinetto; Romaiana Picada Pereira; Aline Augusti Boligon; Margareth Linde Athayde; Felix Antunes Soares; Nilda Berenice de Vargas Barbosa; Joăo Batista Teixeira Rocha

    2009-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerian) is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep. Although V. officinalis have been well documented as promising pharmacological agent; the exact mechanisms by which this plant act is still unknown.\\u000a Limited literature data have indicated that V. officinalis extracts can exhibit antioxidant properties against iron in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However,

  18. Efficient plant regeneration from multiple shoots formed in the leaf-derived callus of Lavandula vera, using the “open culture system”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Tsuro; M Koda; M Inoue

    2000-01-01

    To develop an efficient procedure for plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus of Lavandula vera DC, the production of multiple shoots and the formation of roots from these shoots were studied. When calli were cultured in a medium with 4.0×10?7M N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N?-phenylurea (CPPU), urea-type cytokinin, multiple shoots were obtained from the greenish surface of the callus efficiently at a rate of 52.2%.

  19. Comparative effect of different types of cytokinin for shoot formation and plant regeneration in leaf-derived callus of lavender ( Lavandula vera DC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Tsuro; M Koda; M Inoue

    1999-01-01

    Leaf-derived calli of Lavandula vera DC were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) solid medium supplemented with purine or urea-type-cytokinins at 25°C under continuous light conditions. When calli were cultured on the medium with 6-benzylamino purine (BA) at 4.4×10?7–4.4×10?5M, shoots were formed on green spots appearing on the callus surface; the highest value for shoot formation rate was 55.3% at

  20. Narrow climate and habitat envelope affect the survival of relict populations of a northern Arnica angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Jäkäläniemi

    2011-01-01

    Many species require certain habitat and climate features, especially at range limits. Because of climate warming, isolated relict southern populations of arctic-alpine species could lose their viability. Arnica angustifolia is a rare, clonal northern plant which has distinct populations far away from its central distribution area. I explored its population viability in relation to habitat properties and local temperature regimes

  1. Efficiency of herbivore exclusion by ants attracted to aphids on the vetch Vicia angustifolia L. (Leguminosae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuhiko SUZUKI; Kazuhiro OGURA; Noboru KATAYAMA

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency of herbivore exclusion by ants on the vetch Vicia angustifolia L. (Leguminosae) with extrafloral nectary, mediated by ant attraction to aphids was investigated in a field census and laboratory experiments. In the field, workers of Lasius japonicus Santschi and Tetramorium tsushimae Emery frequently visited plants of the vetch parasitized by aphids of Aphis craccivora Koch, but only a

  2. Influence of nutrient supply on growth, carbohydrate, and nitrogen metabolic relations in Typha angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lenka Steinbachová-Vojtíšková; Edita Tylová; Aleš Soukup; Hana Novická; Olga Votrubová; Helena Lipavská; Hana ?ížková

    2006-01-01

    Performance of Typha angustifolia, a species common in European wetlands, was studied in connection with wetlands eutrophication. Cultivation in a sand culture was used to follow the effect of nutrient availability per se and to study, in detail, both aboveground as well as belowground organs (rhizomes and roots) of the plant in contrast to the possibilities of field study. A

  3. Characterization of the Autotrophic Component in Periphyton upon Typha angustifolia Detritus in a Freshwater Wetland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric J Warda

    2002-01-01

    The autotrophic component of periphyton on Typha angustifolia detritus was characterized in a freshwater wetland during a single growing season. 58 genera of algae and cyanobacteria, representing six divisions, were observed throughout the study period. Although the combined algae-cyanobacteria density from within and outside the Typha stands were significantly affected by both sample date and the combination of date and

  4. Morphology, growth and carbohydrate storage of the plant Typha angustifolia at different water depths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sharma; T. Asaeda; M. Kalibbala; T. Fujino

    2008-01-01

    Morphological characteristics, growth and carbohydrate storage dynamics of Typha angustifolia in relation to water depth were investigated. The study was based on observations carried out in two stands, namely Akigase and Teganuma, for two growth seasons. The latter stand was about two times deeper than the former. Teganuma stands exhibited significantly higher number of thick shoots compared to those of

  5. Ethylene, light-, and prechill-enhanced germination of Echinacea angustifolia seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. J. Feghahati; R. N. Reese

    1994-01-01

    Echinacea angustifolia DC., the common coneflower of the western Great Plains, is difficult to propagate by achenes due to inherent seed dormancy. The effects of light and prechilling on seed germination were examined, alone and combined with scarification (mechanical, acid) and ethylene (ethephon) treatments. The results showed that a 2-week prechill treatment combined with ethephon and continuous light, followed by

  6. Fertility of Echinacea angustifolia Moench and Linum usitatissimum L. After Herbicide Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romana Izmai?ow; Maria Paj?k

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the influence of the herbicide Roundup® on reproductive processes of Echinacea angustifolia Moench and Linum usitatissimum L. The plants with the flowers and fruits at various developmental stages were treated with Roundup 360 SL at 1% concentration. The effects on microsporogenesis, pollen viability, megasporogenesis, embryo sac development, embryo-genesis and endosperm development were

  7. Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Alkamides From the Roots of Echinacea angustifolia in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Woelkart; Christoph Koidl; Andrea Grisold; J. David Gangemi; Ronald B. Turner; Egon Marth; Rudolf Bauer

    2005-01-01

    Alkamides are suspected to contribute to the activity ofEchinacea preparations. They are mainly derived from undeca- and dodecanoic acid and differ in the degree of unsaturation and the configuration of the double bonds. In total, 6 alkamides have been isolated from the roots ofEchinacea angustifolia as major lipophilic constituents and have been investigated regarding their pharmacokinetics. A sensitive and specific

  8. Floral Structure and Dynamics of Nectar Production in Echinacea pallida var. angustifolia (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive structure of the disk florets of Echinacea pallida var. angustifolia (Asteraceae) in relation to insect pollination was investigated using light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. The study of this self-incompatible species emphasized pollen production, pollen-stigma interactions, transmitting tissue, and vasculature within the style. Nectary structure and nectar production dynamics were also examined. Produced in the fused anther tubes,

  9. Style Persistence, Pollen Limitation, and Seed Set in the Common Prairie Plant Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Wagenius

    2004-01-01

    Pollen limitation of seed set in flowering plants has important ramifications for the population dynamics, evolution, and conservation of plant populations. I conducted a pollen addition and exclusion experiment demonstrating that style persistence signifies pollen limitation in the narrow-leaved purple coneflower Echinacea angustifolia, a species native to the North American prairie and plains. I developed a measure of style persistence,

  10. Effect of Atropa belladonna and Echinacea angustifolia in homeopathic dilution on experimental peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Pedalino, C M V; Perazzo, F F; Carvalho, J C T; Martinho, K S; Massoco, C de O; Bonamin, L V

    2004-10-01

    Atropa belladonna and Echinacea angustifolia have been used in homeopathy as modulators of inflammatory processes, in simple potency or 'accord of potencies', as recommended by homotoxicology. We evaluated their effects on leukocyte migration and macrophage activity induced by experimental peritonitis in vivo. Mice were injected (i.p.) with LPS (1.0mg/kg) and treated (0.3ml/10g/day, s.c.) with different commercial forms of these medicines. Echinacea angustifolia D4--a simple potency preparation--and Belladonna Homaccord, Belladonna Injeel, Belladonna Injeel Forte, Echinacea Injeel and Echinacea Injeel Forte--all in 'accord of potencies'--were tested. The association of A. belladonna and E. angustifolia in 'accord of potencies' produced an increase of polymorphonuclear cell migration (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 0.03) and a decrease of mononuclear cell percentages (Kruskal-Wallis, P < or = 0.04), when compared with control, mainly in preparations containing low potencies. The proportion of degenerate leukocytes was lower in the treated groups, compared to a control group (P < or = 0.05). The treated groups showed increased phagocytosis (P < or = 0.05), mainly in preparations containing high potencies. Our results suggest that A. belladonna and E. angustifolia, when prepared in 'accord of potencies', modulate peritoneal inflammatory reaction and have a cytoprotective action on leukocytes. PMID:15532698

  11. Antioxidant Enzyme Responses to NaCl Stress in Cassia angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Agarwal; V. Pandey

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. were subjected to 0, 20, 50, 100 mM NaCl for 7 d in order to study the effect of salt stress on growth parameters, endogenous Na+ and Cl- concentrations, antioxidant system, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and proline contents. Salinity affected all of the considered parameters and caused a great reduction in plant biomass. The root

  12. Steroidal saponins from roots of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

    2006-02-01

    Sarsasapogenin M (1) and sarsasapogenin N (2), two new oligospirostanosides with a unique aglycone moiety, (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta, 17alpha-diol, along with seven known compounds (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-[beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (5), (25S)26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-5beta-furost-20 (22)-ene-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (6), yamogenin (7), beta-sitosterol (8), and sitosterol-beta-d-glucoside (9) were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were determined by spectral analysis, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:16280142

  13. Comparison of Elaeagnus angustifolia Extract and Sildenafil Citrate on Female Orgasmic Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Zeinalzadeh, Sanaz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2014-01-01

    Background Orgasmic disorder can create a feeling of deprivation and failure and provide mental problems, incompatibility and marital discord. This study aimed to compare the effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia flower extract and sildenafil citrate on female orgasmic disorder in women in 2013. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 125 women between 18-40 years old who suffered from orgasmic disorder were divided into three E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate and control groups. The data were gathered using Female Sexual Function Index and through measurement of TSH and prolactin. The first intervention group had to consume 4.5 gr E. angustifolia extract in two divided doses for 35 days and the second one had to use 50 mg sildenafil citrate tablets for 4 weeks one hour before their sexual relationship. However, the control group had to consume the placebo. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni posthoc test and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results The frequency of orgasmic disorder before the intervention was 41.5%, 40.5%, and 57.1% in E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate, and control groups, respectively (p=0.23). However, these measures were respectively 29.3%, 16.7%, and 50% after the intervention (p=0.004). A significant difference between the two groups regarding sexual satisfaction after the intervention (p=0.003) compared to the beginning of the study (p=0.356). Besides, the highest reduction of changes after the intervention (58.82%) was observed in the sildenafil citrate group. Conclusion Both E. angustifolia extract and sildenafil citrate were effective in reduction of the frequency of orgasmic disorder in women. PMID:25473627

  14. Establishment of in vitro tissue cultures from Echinacea angustifolia D.C. adult plants for the production of phytochemical compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lucchesini; A. Bertoli; A. Mensuali-Sodi; L. Pistelli

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of in vitro cultures of Echinacea angustifolia D.C. was obtained directly from sections of flower stalks of adult plants. The shoot formation was obtained from this plant material placed on a modified MS basal medium named CH supplemented with 0.5mgL?1 6-benzylaminopurine (BA). The in vitro propagation procedure of E. angustifolia consisted of three distinct phases: an initial regeneration

  15. Metabolic profile and biological activities of Lavandula pedunculata subsp. lusitanica (Chaytor) Franco: studies on the essential oil and polar extracts.

    PubMed

    Costa, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sandra; Valentăo, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Almeida, Carlos; Nogueira, José M F; Romano, Anabela

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the metabolic profile and biological activities of the essential oil and polar extracts of Lavandula pedunculata subsp. lusitanica (Chaytor) Franco collected in south Portugal. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that oxygen-containing monoterpenes was the principal group of compounds identified in the essential oil. Camphor (40.6%) and fenchone (38.0%) were found as the major constituents. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis allowed the identification of hydroxycinnamic acids (3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and rosmarinic acids) and flavones (luteolin and apigenin) in the polar extracts, with rosmarinic acid being the main compound in most of them. The bioactive compounds from L. pedunculata polar extracts were the most efficient free-radical scavengers, Fe(2+) chelators and inhibitors of malondialdehyde production, while the essential oil was the most active against acetylcholinesterase. Our results reveal that the subspecies of L. pedunculata studied is a potential source of active metabolites with a positive effect on human health. PMID:23870987

  16. ELECTROMYOGRAPHY OF THE FIN MUSCULATURE OF THE CUTTLEFISH SEPIA OFFICINALIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM M. KIER; KATHLEEN K. SMITH; JALEEL A. MIYAN

    1989-01-01

    Summary The musculature of the fins of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) was studied with electromyography to test predictions of the functional role of the various muscle masses. Previous research had shown the fins to consist of a tightly packed, three-dimensional array of muscle with distinct zones of anaerobic glycolytic and oxidative muscle fibres. In addition, a network of

  17. Micropropagation of Melissa officinalis L. through proliferation of axillary shoots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Tavares; M. C. Pimenta; M. T. Gonçalves

    1996-01-01

    Multiple shoots were differentiated in cotyledonary nodes of 10 d old seedlings of Melissa officinalis, cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0-4 mg\\/l). The production of shoots was further induced in subcultures of the original expiant, after the first harvest of shoots (stump), using similar conditions. The highest average number of shoots in the two inoculations was obtained with

  18. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory guided fractionation of Melissa officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keyvan Dastmalchi; Velimatti Ollilainen; Petri Lackman; Gustav Boije af Gennäs; H. J. Damien Dorman; Päivi P. Järvinen; Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma; Raimo Hiltunen

    2009-01-01

    The plant Melissa officinalis L. has been used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Based on its traditional medicinal use, it was assessed for its clinical efficacy in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s patients. The plant was effective in the management of the disease. Therefore, based on this result, a similar plant extract was prepared in order to be screened

  19. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    PubMed

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate. PMID:23738442

  20. Synergy between Salvia officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragana Stanojevi?; Ljiljana ?omi?; Olgica Stefanovi?

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis L. aqueous extracts and its synergistic action with preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in vitro against selected food spoiling bacteria. Synergy was assessed by the checkerboard assay method and quantitatively represented\\u000a by the FIC index. Synergistic action was established for aqueous extract\\/

  1. Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrati...

  2. Mechanical harvesting and cleaning of Calendula officinalis and Dimorphotheca pluvialis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Breemhaar; A. Bouman

    1995-01-01

    From 1990 to 1994 the research institutes of the Agricultural Research Department in the Netherlands (DLO-NL) investigated potential new arable oilseed crops for industrial application as part of the National Oilseeds Programme (NOP). The Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering (IMAG-DLO) studied the mechanical harvesting and cleaning of Crambe abyssinica, Dimorphotheca pluvialis, Calendula officinalis and Euphorbia lagascae. This paper describes

  3. Adventitious Shoot Regeneration and Micropropagation in Calendula officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Çöçü; S. Uranbey; A. ?pek; K. M. Khawar; E. O. Sarihan; M. D. Kaya; ?. Parmaksiz; S. Özcan

    2004-01-01

    Hypocotyl, cotyledon and cotyledonary node explants of Calendula officinalis L were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with various concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ), kinetin (KIN), a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) to induce adventitious shoot regeneration and micropropagation. The highest frequency of adventitious shoot regeneration was achieved from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants on MS media supplemented with

  4. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Galega officinalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Rasekh, Hamid R; Nazari, Pardis; Kamli-Nejad, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Leila

    2008-02-28

    Galega officinalis L. (Papilionaceae) is widely used in folk medicine as antidiabetic or for increasing lactation. There is a little information about its possible toxicity. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity of aerial parts of Galega officinalis in Wistar rats have been evaluated. For the acute toxicity study, the animals received orally four different single dose of plant suspension and were kept under observation for 14 days. The results indicated that LD50 of Galega officinalis is higher than 5 g/kg. In the subchronic study, 48 rats were divided into four groups and were fed a diet containing 0%, 0.15%, 1.5% and 3% (w/w) of Galega officinalis. After 90 days blood and tissue samples were taken for hematological, biochemical and histopathological determinations. An increase in serum levels of cholesterol, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and total and conjugated bilirubin was observed. Some parameters such as calcium, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio, hematocrit, WBC and platelet counts were decreased. In microscopic examination, sinusoidal congestion in liver and alveolar hemorrhage was observed. Other parameters showed non-significant difference between treatment and control groups. Present data suggest that liver and lung could serve as target organs in oral toxicity of this plant. PMID:18055147

  5. Ethylene-, light-, and prechill-enhanced germination of Echinacea angustifolia seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Feghahati, S.M.J.; Reese, R.N. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). Dept. of Biology and Microbiology)

    1994-07-01

    Echinacea angustifolia DC., the common coneflower of the western Great Plains, is difficult to propagate by achenes due to inherent seed dormancy. The effects of light and prechilling on seed germination were examined, alone and combined with scarification (mechanical, acid) and ethylene (ethephon) treatments. The results showed that a 2-week prechill treatment combined with ethephon and continuous light, followed by a 2-week germination period in light (16 hours per day) at 25 C, could induce >95% seed germination in E. angustifolia. This was a significantly higher percentage of germination over a shorter period of time than any other method examined or previously described. This treatment also synchronized germination, with most viable seeds germinating in <1 week after being placed at 25 C in the light. Chemical name used: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).

  6. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe3O4 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, S.; Arias, N. P.; Giraldo, O.; Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O.

    2012-08-01

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe2+ and Fe3+in NaOH or NH4OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 °C and 800 °C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  7. Presence of monoterpene synthase in four Labiatae species and Solid-Phase Microextraction- Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis of their aroma profiles

    PubMed Central

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Haddadi, Azita; Amin, Gholamreza; Nikan, Marjan; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbass

    2014-01-01

    Background: The family Lamiaceae (Labiatae) has included some medicinal plants. some monoterpene synthases, including linalool and limonene synthases, have been cloned and functionally characterized from several plants of Labiatae family. Materials and Methods: In this study, presence of linalool and limonene synthases, in four species of Labiatae family including Nepeta cataria, Lavandula angustifolia, Hyssopus officinalis and Salvia sclarea has been determined by molecular biological techniques together with the Head space SPME – GC-MS analysis of the aroma profile of these species. Results: Indicated that none of the plant species produced distinguishable bands with primer pairs related to d-limonene synthase. Distinguishable bands around 1800 bp in cDNA samples of L. angustifolia, H. officinalis and S. sclarea were observed regarding to the presence of linalool synthase. Head space SPME-GC-MS analysis of the aroma profiles of the above-mentioned plants showed that linalool (31.0%), linalyl acetate (18.2%), were found as the major compounds of L. angustifolia, while geraniol (5.5%), nerol (34.0%) and ?- citral (52.0%) were identified as the main compounds of the N. cataria. The major components of H. officinalis and S. sclarea oils were determined as cis-pinocamphone (57.3%), and linalool (19.0%), linalyl acetate (51.5%), respectively. Conclusion: H. officinalis was rich of cyclic monoterpenes, L. angustifolia, N. cataria and S. sclarea showed considerable amount of linear monoterpenes. The aroma profile of the above-mentioned plants contained low concentration of sesquiterpenes except N. cataria, which indicated no sesquiterpene. The profiles of the main components of these plants are in agreement with molecular assays. PMID:24761118

  8. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    PubMed

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life. PMID:20874226

  9. Weinmannia marquesana var. angustifolia (Cunoniaceae), a new variety from the Marquesas Islands

    PubMed Central

    Lorence, David H.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Weinmannia marquesana F. Br. var. angustifolia Lorence & W. L. Wagner, var. nov., a new variety with narrow, simple leaves endemic to Tahuata, Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) is described and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is similar to the other two varieties of this species by having simple leaves, but this new variety has much narrower leaf blades, and it resembles Weinmannia tremuloides in having narrow leaf blades but differs by having simple, not trifoliolate leaves. PMID:22171181

  10. Coexistence of Typha Angustifolia and Impatiens Capensis in a tidal freshwater marsh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristine N. Hopfensperger; Katharina A. M. Engelhardt

    2007-01-01

    Several salt marsh plant species can oxygenate soils through their aerenchymous tissue and thereby facilitate the growth of\\u000a neighboring species. Such positive interactions remain poorly understood for tidal freshwater marshes, yet may explain why\\u000a species adverse to submerged roots are able to thrive in these marshes. Field observations showed a positive association between\\u000a Typha angustifolia L. and Impatiens capensis Meerb.,

  11. Effect of NaCl and Typha angustifolia L. on marsh community establishment: A greenhouse study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Miklovic; Susan M. Galatowitsch

    2005-01-01

    Post-restoration wetland sites often do not resemble natural wetlands in diversity or richness of native species, in part\\u000a due to the influence of stressors such as excess contaminant loads and invasive species. Road salt and the salt-tolerant invasiveTypha angustifolia are potential wetland stressors for which little is known, although it is thought that high salt contaminant loads can lead\\u000a to

  12. Impact of harvesting on constructed wetlands performance—a comparison between Scirpus grossus and Typha angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. S. N. Jinadasa; N. Tanaka; S. Sasikala; D. R. I. B. Werellagama; M. I. M. Mowjood; W. J. Ng

    2008-01-01

    Three units of free water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater under tropical conditions were examined in terms of water quality and biomass characteristics. One unit (L2) was planted with Scirpus grossus, one with Typha angustifolia (L3), and the unplanted third (L1) served as control. Influent and effluent quality parameters: biological oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrate (NO3 -N), ammonium (NH4

  13. Endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of Typha angustifolia L. in the constructed Beijing Cuihu Wetland (China)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Hong Li; Qun Fang Liu; Yin Liu; Jing Nan Zhu; Qiang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the community structure of endophytic bacteria in narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) roots growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, using the 16S rDNA library technique. In total, 184 individual sequences were used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 161 clones (87.5%) were affiliated with Proteobacteria, other clones grouped into Cytophaga\\/Flexibacter\\/Bacteroids (3.3%), Fusobacteria

  14. Effect of water depth on the rhizome dynamics of Typha angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pratima Sharma; Takashi Asaeda; Takeshi Fujino

    2008-01-01

    The rhizome dynamics of Typha angustifolia in relation to water depth were investigated. Observations were made in two different stands, namely Akigase from April 2002\\u000a to December 2003, and Teganuma from April 2003 to December 2004. The mean rhizome length in the two stands was not significantly\\u000a different but the mean rhizome diameter and biomass showed a significant difference. The

  15. Mechanical Properties and Thermal Conductivity of Typha angustifolia Natural Fiber–Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ramanaiah; A. V. Ratna Prasad; K. Hema Chandra Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Partially biodegradable Typha angustifolia natural fiber–reinforced polyester composites were prepared. The fiber content in the composites was varied from ?18.3% to 35.5% by volume, and the mechanical properties in each case were determined. The thermal conductivity of these composites at 333 K temperature was also determined. The mechanical properties increased with increase in fiber content. Further, the density and thermal conductivity

  16. Decomposition of Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis in the littoral zone of a shallow lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mária Dinka

    2008-01-01

    Decomposition of air-dried live Typha angustifolia (L) stems and leaves and Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin ex Steud.) leaves and culms were studied in a shallow freshwater lake (Lake Fehér, Fert?-Hanság National Park,\\u000a Hungary) using the litter bag technique. Samples were analyzed for dry mass, fiber (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin) and\\u000a nutrient (C, N, P, S) contents, litter-associated fungal biomass (ergosterol concentration),

  17. Benthic macroinvertebrate response to sedimentation in a Typha angustifolia L. wetland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne C. Martin; Robert K. Neely

    2001-01-01

    Fiberglass mesh enclosures (1 × 1 m2) in a Typha angustifoliaL. marsh were employed to examine the effects of clay additions on theresident macroinvertebrate communities. Total invertebrate density, insectdensity, and number of insect families decreased significantly by 33%,37%, and 17%, respectively, in enclosures receiving sediment. Morespecifically, incoming clay adversely affected densities of Coleoptera larvae,Diptera larvae, Megaloptera larvae, Odonata larvae, Pelecypoda,

  18. Potential of Typha angustifolia for phytoremediation of heavy metals from aqueous solution of phenol and melanoidin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Chandra; Sangeeta Yadav

    2010-01-01

    Typha angustifolia was evaluated for various heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) bioremediation potential from aqueous solution containing variable concentrations of phenol (100–800mgl?1) and melanoidin (2500–8500 Co–Pt) at 20, 40, and 60 days. The concentration of phenol (200–400mgl?1) along with melanoidin 2500 Co–Pt showed optimum for phytoremediation of tested heavy metals, while, higher concentrations of melanoidin (5600–8500

  19. Annual Production of Decomposer Fungi Associated With Standing-Dead Litter of Typha angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Ohsowski; M. D. Collins; D. Tarry; S. N. Francoeur; R. K. Neely; K. A. Kuehn

    2005-01-01

    Microbial decomposition of standing-dead plant litter is an important process in wetlands dominated by emergent macrophytes. We determined the annual fungal biomass (ergosterol) and production (14C-acetate incorporation) associated with decaying standing litter (leaves and shoots) of the emergent macrophyte Typha angustifolia in small lake littoral wetland in southeastern Michigan. Mean annual detrital mass of standing-dead leaf and shoot litter was

  20. Microbial growth and nitrogen retention in litter of Phragmites australis compared to Typha angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart E. G. Findlay; Susan Dye; Kevin A. Kuehn

    2002-01-01

    In tidal marshes of the northeast US, replacement of native cattail (Typha angustifolia) by the common reed (Phragmites australis) is widespread, and reed is often the target of removal efforts. Reed sequesters nearly twice the amount of nitrogen per\\u000a unit marsh area in living aboveground tissue compared to cattail. Microbial decay processes immobilize additional nitrogen\\u000a or return this organic nitrogen

  1. Seasonal patterns of carbohydrate translocation and synthesis of structural carbon components in Typha angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Asaeda; Pratima Sharma; Lalith Rajapakse

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative studies of material budgets and resource allocation patterns of emergent plants are needed to fully understand\\u000a nutrient and carbon cycling in wetlands. Whole-plant translocation patterns of nonstructural carbohydrates and synthesis of\\u000a structural carbon were documented using two (shallow and deepwater) populations of Typha angustifolia in floodplain habitats of the Arakawa River, Japan. Monthly and bimonthly measurements of the concentrations

  2. Internal heterogeneity of ramet and flower densities of Typha angustifolia near the boundary of the stand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Asaeda; Le Quoc Hung

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen relatively narrow stands of Typha angustifolia, including both stands bounded to open water and ridged boundary, were investigated in terms of the distributions of ramet\\u000a density as well as the fraction of flowering ramets. The ramet density, fraction of flowering ramet and morphological characteristics\\u000a of ramets were measured continuously from one side of the stand to the other, together

  3. Morphology and anatomy of Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida and Parthenium integrifolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Mistríková; Štefánia Vaverková

    2007-01-01

    The Echinacea species are native to the Atlantic drainage area of the United States of America and Canada. They have been introduced as\\u000a cultivated medicinal plants in Europe. Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida are the species most often used medicinally due to their immune-stimulating properties. This review is focused on morphological\\u000a and anatomical characteristics of E. purpurea, E.

  4. Ethnobotany of purple coneflower ( Echinacea angustifolia , Asteraceae) and Other Echinacea Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Kindscher

    1989-01-01

    The purple coneflower, Echinacea angustifolia, was the most widely used medicinal plant of the Plains Indians. It was used\\u000a for a variety of ailments, including toothache, coughs, colds, sore throats, snakebite, and as a painkiller. H. C. F. Meyer\\u000a used it as a patent medicine in the 1870s and introduced it to the medical profession. Recent scientific research (mostly\\u000a German)

  5. Gas chromatographic method for determination of uracil herbicides in roots of Echinacea angustifolia Moench (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Štefánia Vaverková

    1998-01-01

    A GC\\/NPD method and a rapid screening TLC method were developed for the simultaneous determination of uracil herbicide residues (bromacil, lenacil, terbacil) in the roots of Echinacea angustifolia Moench (Asteraceae). The uracil herbicide residues were extracted into acetone. After evaporation of acetone from the acetone-water extract the residue was dissolved in water-methanol (5:1 v\\/v). Cyclohexane was used for removal of

  6. One hundred years of Echinacea angustifolia harvest in the smoky hills of Kansas, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana M. Price; Kelly Kindscher

    2007-01-01

    Echinacea angustifolia DC. (Asteraceae) is a major North American medicinal plant that has been harvested commercially in north-central Kansas for 100\\u000a years, making it one of the longest documented histories of large-scale commercial use of a native North American medicina\\u000a herb. We have compiled historical market data and relate it to harvest pressure on wildEchinacea populations. Interviews with local harvesters

  7. Effects of cadmium, chromium and lead on growth, metal uptake and antioxidative capacity in Typha angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Dai, Huaxin; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Hongyan; Cao, Fangbin; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2011-07-01

    This study investigates the modulation of antioxidant defence system of Typha angustifolia after 30 days exposure of 1 mM chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), or lead (Pb). T. angustifolia showed high tolerance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom when exposed to metal stress, and Cd/Pb addition also increased plant height and biomass especially in Pb treatment. Along with increased Cr, Cd, and Pb uptake in metal treatments, there was enhanced uptake of plant nutrients including Ca and Fe, and Zn in Pb treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were recorded in plants subjected to Cr, Cd, or Pb stress. Furthermore, Pb stress also improved catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities; whereas Cr stress depressed APX and GPX. The results indicate that enzymatic antioxidants and Ca/Fe uptake were important for heavy metal detoxification in T. angustifolia, stimulated antioxidative enzymes, and Ca, Fe, and Zn uptake could partially explain its hyper-Pb tolerance. PMID:20552296

  8. Impact of harvesting on constructed wetlands performance - a comparison between Scirpus grossus and Typha angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, K B S N; Tanaka, N; Sasikala, S; Werellagama, D R I B; Mowjood, M I M; Ng, W J

    2008-05-01

    Three units of free water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater under tropical conditions were examined in terms of water quality and biomass characteristics. One unit (L2) was planted with Scirpus grossus, one with Typha angustifolia (L3), and the unplanted third (L1) served as control. Influent and effluent quality parameters: biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)), nitrate (NO(3)(-)-N), ammonium (NH(4)(+)-N), phosphorus (P), total suspended solids (TSS) and fecal coliforms were regularly measured. The average BOD(5) reductions were 37.0%, 58.5%, and 53.8% for units L1, L2, and L3, respectively. The planted units removed pollutants more effectively although there was no significant difference between the Scirpus grossus and Typha angustifolia units. Plant growth was monitored in marked quadrats by measuring shoot height and other growth parameters. The above-ground organs in L2 and L3 was harvested whenever the shoots reached maximum shoot height and formed flowers. Scirpus grossus had sustainable above-ground biomass production but Typha angustifolia could not sustain repeated harvestings with the above-ground biomass production declining significantly following four consecutive harvests. PMID:18393076

  9. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of alkamides from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia in humans.

    PubMed

    Woelkart, Karin; Koidl, Christoph; Grisold, Andrea; Gangemi, J David; Turner, Ronald B; Marth, Egon; Bauer, Rudolf

    2005-06-01

    Alkamides are suspected to contribute to the activity of Echinacea preparations. They are mainly derived from undeca- and dodecanoic acid and differ in the degree of unsaturation and the configuration of the double bonds. In total, 6 alkamides have been isolated from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia as major lipophilic constituents and have been investigated regarding their pharmacokinetics. A sensitive and specific method has been developed for the identification and quantification of these alkamides in human plasma using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. The method was applied to analyze plasma samples obtained from a randomized, open, single-dose, crossover study after oral administration of a 60% ethanolic extract from the roots of E. angustifolia to 11 healthy subjects. The maximum concentration of dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamides, the main alkamides in the roots of E. angustifolia, appeared already after 30 minutes and was 10.88 ng/mL for the 2.5-mL dose. PMID:15901750

  10. Effect of chemical and physical factors to improve the germination rate of Echinacea angustifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Chuanren, Duan; Bochu, Wang; Wanqian, Liu; Jing, Chen; Jie, Lian; Huan, Zhao

    2004-09-01

    Seeds of Echinacea angustifolia are known for their deep dormancy. In this paper, we studied the responses of E. angustifolia seeds to some chemical and physical factors, such as scarification, chilling (5 degrees C) period, light and applied BA (6-benzylaminopurine), GA3 (gibberellic acid) and sound stimulation. When the seed coat layers were removed, the germination rate grew up from 6 to 20% (incubated in light) and the mean time germination (MTG) was reduced from 18 to 6.6 days. On the basis of layers-removed, chilling and continuous light gave significantly higher germination rate (up to 70%). Compare the data of seeds chilled by 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 days, the maximum germination rate (up to 70%) achieved at 18-days chilling treatment. Further increases in the chilling period could slightly improve germination. Exogenous application of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mg/L GA3 or BA in the previous pretreatment increased germination to 78, 90 and 84% or 76, 86 and 84%, respectively. Obviously, the best concentration of GA or BA is 0.3 mg/L. And the GA3 or BA treatment shortened the MTG to about 4 days. The influence of sound stimulation was also tested in the experiment. The result showed that one 100 dB and 1000 Hz sound wave (sine-wave) was beneficial to the germination of E. angustifolia seeds. PMID:15342019

  11. Hepatoprotective potential of Lavandula coronopifolia extracts against ethanol induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtsam S; Al-Oqail, Mai M; Hassan, Wafaa H B; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A

    2013-03-28

    The present investigations were carried out to study the protective potential of four extracts (namely petroleum ether extract (LCR), chloroform extract (LCM), ethyl acetate extract (LCE), and alcoholic extract (LCL)) of Lavandula coronopifolia on oxidative stress-mediated cell death induced by ethanol, a known hepatotoxin in human hapatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cells were pretreated with LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts (10-50 ?g/ml) of L. coronopifolia for 24 h and then ethanol was added and incubated further for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red uptake assays and morphological changes in HepG2 cells were studied. Pretreatment with various extracts of L. coronpifolia was found to be significantly effective in countering the cytotoxic responses of ethanol. Antioxidant properties of these L. coronopifolia extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels induced by ethanol were investigated. Results show that pretreatment with these extracts for 24 h significantly inhibited ROS generation and LPO induced and increased the GSH levels reduced by ethanol. The data from the study suggests that LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts of L. coronopifolia showed hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced damage in HepG2 cells. However, a comparative study revealed that the LCE extract was found to be the most effective and LCL the least effective. The hepatoprotective effects observed in the study could be associated with the antioxidant properties of these extracts of L. coronopifolia. PMID:23546397

  12. NF-kappaB modulators from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia J; Vartiainen, Nina; Bremner, Paul; Gibbons, Simon; Koistinaho, Jari; Heinrich, Michael

    2006-10-01

    Valeriana officinalis (Valerianaceae) has been of great interest for its therapeutic uses for treating mild nervous tension and temporary sleeping problems. In traditional European medicine it has been also reported as an antiinflammatory remedy. This study reports that the EtOAc extract of the underground parts of V. officinalis showed inhibitory activity against NF-kappaB at 100 microg/mL in the IL-6/Luc assay on HeLa cells and provided protection against excitotoxicity in primary brain cell cultures at micromolar concentrations. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract led to the isolation of three known sesquiterpenes: acetylvalerenolic acid (1), valerenal (2) and valerenic acid (3), 1 and 3 were active as inhibitors of NF-kappaB at a concentration of 100 microg/mL. Acetylvalerenolic acid (1) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 4%, whereas valerenic acid (3) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 25%. PMID:16909443

  13. Phytoremediation of CD, CR, CU, MN, FE, NI, PB and ZN from Aqueous Solution Using Phragmites Cummunis, Typha Angustifolia and Cyperus Esculentus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Chandra; Sangeeta Yadav

    2011-01-01

    A comparative bioaccumulation pattern and ultra structural changes were studied in Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus in mixed metals solution of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). P. cummunis was observed to be a shoot accumulator for Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, T. angustifolia

  14. HPLC ANALYSIS OF PHENOLIC ACIDS IN MELISSA OFFICINALIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia Caniova; Eva Brandsteterova

    2001-01-01

    A simple and effective HPLC assay for determination of the main phenolic acids (rosmarinic, caffeic, protocatechuic) that were isolated from medicinal plant Melissa officinalis has been developed. The main goal of this work was to test and evaluate the liquid extraction procedure for plant samples. As the effective extraction media, mixtures of methanol-water and methanol-water (pH 2.5) were chosen. The

  15. The effect of triacontanol on micropropagationof balm, Melissa officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Á. Tantos; A. Mészáros; J. Kissimon; G. Horváth; T. Farkas

    1999-01-01

    Triacontanol, a long-chain primary alcohol was found to be an effective growth regulator in the micropropagation of balm,\\u000a Melissa officinalis. In both the multiplication and the rooting phase, concentrations of 2, 5, 10 and 20??g triacontanol per liter were applied.\\u000a After 4 weeks of culture, the fresh weight of shoots was measured in the multiplication phase and root formation, photosynthetic

  16. (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Dharmaratne, H Ranjith; Nanayakkara, N P; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2002-07-01

    Chemical investigation of the root extract of Valeriana officinalis afforded a new bicyclic sesquiterpene acid, (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid together with valerenic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data and confirmed by partial synthesis of its methyl ester from valerenic acid. Methyl (-)-3 alpha,4 alpha-epoxyvalerenate was obtained as a minor product from the above reaction. PMID:12143008

  17. Biological and analytical characterization of two extracts from Valeriana officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara Circosta; Rita De Pasquale; Stefania Samperi; Annalisa Pino; Francesco Occhiuto

    2007-01-01

    The anticoronaryspastic and antibronchospastic activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. roots were investigated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs and the results were correlated with the qualitative\\/quantitative chemical composition of the extracts in order to account for some of the common uses of this plant. The protective effects of orally administered ethanolic and aqueous extracts (50, 100 and 200mg\\/kg)

  18. Extraction of valerenic acids from valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Boyadzhiev, L; Kancheva, D; Gourdon, C; Metcheva, D

    2004-09-01

    Extraction of valerenic acids (valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic) from dry ground rhizomes of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) was studied. The effect of ethanol concentration in the solvent, extraction temperature and drug particle size on extraction kinetics were investigated and the optimum values of these process parameters were determined for the case of intensively stirred two-phase dispersion. It was found that increased processing temperature favors extraction kinetics, but provokes moderate degradation of valerenic acids. PMID:15497760

  19. Antioxidative responses of Calendula officinalis under salinity conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nader Chaparzadeh; Maria Lucia D'Amico; Ramazan-Ali Khavari-Nejad; Riccardo Izzo; Flavia Navari-Izzo

    2004-01-01

    To gain a better insight into long-term salt-induced oxidative stress, some physiological parameters in marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) under 0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl were investigated. Salinity affected most of the considered parameters. High salinity caused reduction in growth parameters, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Under high salinity stress, a decrease in total glutathione and an increase in total ascorbate

  20. Genotoxicity of an extract of Calendula officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Ramos; A Edreira; A Vizoso; J Betancourt; M López; M Décalo

    1998-01-01

    A fluid extract of Calendula officinalis L. displayed genotoxic properties when assayed for mitotic segregation in the heterozygous diploid D-30 of Aspergillusnidulans. The extract of Calendula exhibited dose-dependent toxicity and genotoxicity (both mitotic crossing-over and chromosome malsegregation being observed) to Aspergillus in the range of five plate concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0 mg of solids\\/ml assayed. Mutagenicity testing with the

  1. Effect of Calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing. PMID:25266273

  2. Volatiles From Leaves and Flowers of Borage (Borago officinalis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baya Mhamdi; Wissem A. Wannes; Wissal Dhiffi; Brahim Marzouk

    2009-01-01

    The essential oils obtained from the fresh leaves and flowers of Borago officinalis collected in the region of Amdoun (northwestern Tunisia) were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified. The oil yields expressed on a dry weight basis were 0.14% and 0.24% for the leaves and flowers, respectively. The main compound determined in flower and leaf oil

  3. Isolation of chemically induced mutants in borage ( Borago officinalis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. De Haro-Bailón; M. Del Rio

    1998-01-01

    ?-Linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 ?6,9,12) has been reported to be helpful in the treatment of a wide range of disorders. Borage\\u000a (Borago officinalis L.) is an annual plant of renewed interest because the seeds are an important source of GLA. The failure to retain mature\\u000a seeds until harvest limits the total seed and GLA yield per plant and is the

  4. AFLPs Represent Highly Repetitive Sequences in Asparagus Officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stella Marie Reamon-Büttner; Thomas Schmidt; Christian Jung

    1999-01-01

    The chromosomal and genomic organization of 5 cloned AFLP fragments in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) were investigated. Two of the 5 AFLP loci were sex-linked. The fragments, amplified with EcoRI\\/MseI primers, ranged from 107 to 267 bp and were AT-rich. Southern hybridization gave interspersed, middle repetitive to high copy sequence signals. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) exhibited hybridization signals on all

  5. [Type I and type IV sensitization to Asparagus officinalis].

    PubMed

    Rieker, J; Ruzicka, T; Neumann, N J; Bielicky, P; Homey, B

    2004-04-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis),a member of the Liliaceae family, is a popular vegetable, most commonly eaten in May. A 55-year-old cook presented with seasonal (always in May) recurrent dyshidrosiform hand eczema which prevented him from working. He also reported developing dyspnea and dysphagia after consuming asparagus. Diagnostic allergy testing revealed positive reactions against asparagus in prick-to-prick and epicutaneous patch tests. PMID:15146878

  6. In vitro antioxidant activity of Valeriana officinalis against different neurotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Fachinetto, Roselei; Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Felix Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda Berenice; Rocha, Joăo Batista Teixeira

    2009-08-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerian) is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep. Although V. officinalis have been well documented as promising pharmacological agent; the exact mechanisms by which this plant act is still unknown. Limited literature data have indicated that V. officinalis extracts can exhibit antioxidant properties against iron in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However, there is no data available about the possible antioxidant effect of V. officinalis against other pro-oxidants in brain. In the present study, the protective effect of V. officinalis on lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by different pro-oxidant agents with neuropathological importance was examined. Ethanolic extract of valerian (0-60 microg/ml) was tested against quinolinic acid (QA); 3-nitropropionic acid; sodium nitroprusside; iron sulfate (FeSO4) and Fe2+/EDTA induced LPO in rat brain homogenates. The effect of V. officinalis in deoxyribose degradation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also investigated. In brain homogenates, V. officinalis inhibited thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by all pro-oxidants tested in a concentration dependent manner. Similarly, V. officinalis caused a significant decrease on the LPO in cerebral cortex and in deoxyribose degradation. QA-induced ROS production in cortical slices was also significantly reduced by V. officinalis. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in modulating LPO induced by different pro-oxidant agents. These data may imply that V. officinalis extract, functioning as antioxidant agent, can be beneficial for reducing insomnia complications linked to oxidative stress. PMID:19191025

  7. Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser.

    PubMed

    Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student's t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect. PMID:23844268

  8. Epifluorescent and histochemical aspects of shoot anatomy of Typha latifolia L., Typha angustifolia L. and Typha glauca Godr.

    PubMed

    McManus, H A; Seago Jr, J L; Marsh, L C

    2002-10-01

    Using epifluorescent and histochemical techniques, we examined anatomical differences in the shoot organs of Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia and T. glauca. The leaf lamina of T. latifolia and T. glauca had enlarged epidermal cells and a thickened cuticle above the subepidermal vascular bundles; that of T. angustifolia lacked these characteristics. Leaf sheaths were similar among the species and all lacked the epidermal thickenings found in the lamina. The fertile stems had typical scattered vascular bundles with a band of fibres that was most prominent in T. glauca. The sterile stems were only 1 cm in length and contained a multiseriate hypodermis and a uniseriate endodermis over part of their length. The rhizomes were similar except for a pronounced band of fibres surrounding the central core in T. angustifolia. The rhizome was also characterized by an outer cortical region with a large multiseriate hypodermis/exodermis and a uniseriate endodermis with Casparian bands, suberin lamellae and secondarily thickened walls. PMID:12324273

  9. Valeriana officinalis attenuates the rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, Joăo Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 ?M) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). PMID:23639798

  10. Dveloppement et volution de la coquille de seiche, Sepia officinalis (Mollusque, Cphalopode)

    E-print Network

    Développement et évolution de la coquille de seiche, Sepia officinalis (Mollusque, Céphalopode'embryon de seiche, Sepia officinalis. L'équipe 2 montre une expertise en développement des Céphalopodes et utilise la seiche comme modčle biologique pour explorer l'évolution des structures du complexe

  11. Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203 Hg the juvenile common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis following exposures via seawater and food28 using sensitive radiotracer technique (203 Hg). The cuttlefish readily concentrated 203 Hg when29 exposed via seawater

  12. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food pathways

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food.envpol.2004.07.010 #12;2 ABSTRACT The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was selected as a model cephalopod to study PCB bioaccumulation via seawater, sediments and food. Newly hatched, juvenile cuttlefish were exposed

  13. Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding of Sussex, Brighton, UK Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show of natural substrates that cuttlefish cue on visually are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify

  14. Identification biochimique de clones et de lignes d'asperge (Asparagus officinalis L., Liliaces)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Identification biochimique de clones et de lignées d'asperge (Asparagus officinalis L., Liliacées lines or clones of Asparagus officinalis L. have been characterized by the study of the isoenzymes tissus étudiés sont retenues comme éléments descripteurs. SUMMARY Asparagus, Identification, Electro

  15. Production of interspecific somatic hybrid plants between Asparagus officinalis and A. macowanii through electrofusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisato Kunitake; Toshiki Nakashima; Kinya Mori; Masanobu Tanaka; Akira Saito; Masahiro Mii

    1996-01-01

    Interspecific somatic hybridization was performed between embryogenic callus protoplasts of Asparagus officinalis cv. Mary Washington and callus protoplasts of A. macowanii by electrofusion. By utilizing iodoacetamide (IOA) inactivation treatment for A. officinalis protoplasts and the difference of cell division capacity between the two species, one callus line, which had an ability to produce somatic embryos, was selected as a putative

  16. Effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in organically produced broilers.

    PubMed

    Kasapidou, E; Giannenas, I; Mitlianga, P; Sinapis, E; Bouloumpasi, E; Petrotos, K; Manouras, A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-01-01

    1. A trial was conducted to study the effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on organic broiler performance and meat chemical, microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality. 2. Male and female day-old Ross 308 chicks were fed on a standard commercial diet containing 0, 2.5, 5 or 10 g/kg feed ground M. officinalis for 84 d before slaughter. 3. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the broilers receiving either 5 or 10 mg M. officinalis/kg feed. 4. Inclusion of M. officinalis did not affect muscle chemical and fatty acid composition. 5. On the basis of microbiological and sensory experimental data and subsequent extension of meat shelf life, M. officinalis did not reduce the microbial populations of the meat, but was effective in limiting lipid oxidation. PMID:25299877

  17. CRESCIMENTO EM ALTURA DE Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. EM TRĘS SÍTIOS NATURAIS, NA REGIĂO DE CANELA - RS HEIGHT GROWTH OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. ON THREE NATURAL SITES, AT REGION OF CANELA - RS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cięncia Florestal; Santa Maria; Luciano Weber Scheeren; César Augusto; Guimarăes Finger; Mauro Valdir Schumacher; Solon Jonas Longhi

    This work has had as its principal objectives the study of dominant height growth considering its age in three natural sites, and the determination of natural sites classification efficacy for the Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. in a planting stand in Canela, RS. For height and age data adjustment, determined through stem analysis, it was used the RICHARDS (1959) non-linear

  18. Iridoids and sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, He-Zhong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2009-09-01

    Two new iridoids, volvaltrates A and B (1 and 2), and three new sesquiterpenoids, E-(-)-3beta,4beta-epoxyvalerenal (3), E-(-)-3beta,4beta-epoxyvalerenyl acetate (4), and mononorvalerenone (5), together with five known iridoids and two known sesquiterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis. The structures and relative configurations of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence. Compound 1 was an unusual iridoid with an oxygen bridge connecting C-3 and C-10, forming a cage-like structure, and compound 5 was a mononorsesquiterpenoid. PMID:19691292

  19. Annual Production of Decomposer Fungi Associated With Standing-Dead Litter of Typha angustifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsowski, B. M.; Collins, M. D.; Tarry, D.; Francoeur, S. N.; Neely, R. K.; Kuehn, K. A.

    2005-05-01

    Microbial decomposition of standing-dead plant litter is an important process in wetlands dominated by emergent macrophytes. We determined the annual fungal biomass (ergosterol) and production (14C-acetate incorporation) associated with decaying standing litter (leaves and shoots) of the emergent macrophyte Typha angustifolia in small lake littoral wetland in southeastern Michigan. Mean annual detrital mass of standing-dead leaf and shoot litter was 656±238 g/m2 (range 284-873) and 1184±280 g/m2 (range 522-1525), respectively, during study period. Mean annual fungal biomass associated with decaying standing litter was 46 and 15 g/m2 for leaves and shoots, respectively. Annual fungal biomass production associated with leaves and shoots was 168 and 78 g/m2, respectively, with maximum production /m2 occurring during the summer season. These production estimates account for diel periodicity in water availability and the consequent periodicity in microbial activities that are characteristic of the standing litter environment. A partial organic matter budget constructed for this littoral wetland indicates that 9.4% of the annual aboveground production of T. angustifolia went into the production of fungal biomass. These results provide additional evidence indicating considerable carbon flow from emergent plant matter to fungal decomposers while in the standing-decay phase.

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress.

    PubMed

    Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Fei; Zhou, Jing; Dai, Huaxin; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2010-12-15

    The present study investigated Typha angustifolia leaf proteome in response to Cr, Cd and Pb stress. T. angustifolia of 90 (D90) and 130d (D130) old plants were subjected to 1mM Cr, Cd and Pb and samples were collected 30d after treatment. 2-DE coupled with MS (mass spectrometry) was used to analyze and identify Cr, Cd and Pb-responsive proteins. More than 1600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel, wherein 44, 46, 66 and 33, 26, 62 spots in D90 and D130 samples were differentially expressed by Cr, Cd, Pb over the control, respectively. Of these differentially expressed proteins, 3, 1, 8 overlapped in D90 and D130; while 5, 8, 5 with regulation factors above 3 in one of D90 or D130 samples. Total of 22 and 4 up- and down-regulated proteins were identified using MS and data bank analysis. Cr-induced expression of ATP synthase, RuBisCO small subunit and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; Cd-induced RuBisCO large subunit; Pb up-regulated carbohydrate metabolic pathway enzymes of fructokinase, and improved RuBisCO activase and large subunit, Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase. Contrarily, elF4F was inhibited by Cr/Pb, chloroplast FtsZ-like protein and GF14 omega impeded by Cd and Pb, respectively. PMID:20817397

  1. Purification of alkylamides from Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell. Roots by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Lutz, Daise; Mudge, Elizabeth; Ippolito, Robert; Brown, Paula; Schieber, Andreas

    2011-01-26

    High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was used for the separation of alkylamides from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell. For this purpose, the alkylamides were extracted with hexane and subjected to semipreparative HSCCC using a two-phase solvent system consisting of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water (4:1:2:1). The lower aqueous phase was used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 3 mL/min and a rotary speed of 1000 rpm. This procedure led to the isolation of four pure alkylamides, that is, dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (38.9 mg, 97% purity), dodeca-2E,4E,8Z-trienoic acid isobutylamide (4.4 mg, 92% purity), dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid isobutylamide (3.2 mg, 99% purity), and dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid 2-methylbutylamide (0.3 mg, 92% purity). The identity and purity of the isolated alkylamides were confirmed by LC-ESI-MS and (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR data. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid 2-methylbutylamide in E. angustifolia roots. PMID:21190380

  2. [Soil nitrogen net mineralization and nitrification in typical Calamagrostis angustifolia wetlands in Sanjiang Plain].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi-Gao; Liu, Jing-Shuang

    2007-08-01

    From June 2004 to July 2005, the dynamics of soil inorganic N pool and N net mineralization/nitrification rates in typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland (TMCW) and marsh meadow C. angustifolia wetland (MMCW) in Sanjiang Plain were studied by top-closed PVC tube in situ incubation method, with the affecting factors and annual N net mineralization/nitrification investigated. The results showed that the soil inorganic N in the two wetlands had evident dynamic characteristics. The NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N contents were much higher in TMCW soil than in MMCW soil, and the soil N net mineralization/nitrification rates in the two wetlands presented significant fluctuations. Biological immobilization, denitrification, and abundant precipitation in rainy season were the main reasons inducing the N net mineralization/nitrification rates to be negative, and temperature, precipitation, soil organic matter content, soil C/N ratio and soil pH were the main factors resulting in the significant differences of soil inorganic N pool and N net mineralization/ nitrification rates between the two wetlands. The annual N net mineralization and nitrification and the percentage of nitrified N in mineralized N were much higher in TMCW soil than in MMCW soil, suggesting that TMCW soil was superior to MMCW soil in N availability and available N-maintaining capacity. PMID:17974243

  3. Nocturnal versus diurnal CO2 uptake: how flexible is Agave angustifolia?

    PubMed

    Winter, Klaus; Garcia, Milton; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2014-07-01

    Agaves exhibit the water-conserving crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthetic pathway. Some species are potential biofuel feedstocks because they are highly productive in seasonally dry landscapes. In plants with CAM, high growth rates are often believed to be associated with a significant contribution of C3 photosynthesis to total carbon gain when conditions are favourable. There has even been a report of a shift from CAM to C3 in response to overwatering a species of Agave. We investigated whether C3 photosynthesis can contribute substantially to carbon uptake and growth in young and mature Agave angustifolia collected from its natural habitat in Panama. In well-watered plants, CO2 uptake in the dark contributed about 75% of daily carbon gain. This day/night pattern of CO2 exchange was highly conserved under a range of environmental conditions and was insensitive to intensive watering. Elevated CO2 (800 ppm) stimulated CO2 fixation predominantly in the light. Exposure to CO2-free air at night markedly enhanced CO2 uptake during the following light period, but CO2 exchange rapidly reverted to its standard pattern when CO2 was supplied during the subsequent 24h. Although A. angustifolia consistently engages in CAM as its principal photosynthetic pathway, its relatively limited photosynthetic plasticity does not preclude it from occupying a range of habitats, from relatively mesic tropical environments in Panama to drier habitats in Mexico. PMID:24648568

  4. Nocturnal versus diurnal CO2 uptake: how flexible is Agave angustifolia?

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Klaus; Garcia, Milton; Holtum, Joseph A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Agaves exhibit the water-conserving crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthetic pathway. Some species are potential biofuel feedstocks because they are highly productive in seasonally dry landscapes. In plants with CAM, high growth rates are often believed to be associated with a significant contribution of C3 photosynthesis to total carbon gain when conditions are favourable. There has even been a report of a shift from CAM to C3 in response to overwatering a species of Agave. We investigated whether C3 photosynthesis can contribute substantially to carbon uptake and growth in young and mature Agave angustifolia collected from its natural habitat in Panama. In well-watered plants, CO2 uptake in the dark contributed about 75% of daily carbon gain. This day/night pattern of CO2 exchange was highly conserved under a range of environmental conditions and was insensitive to intensive watering. Elevated CO2 (800 ppm) stimulated CO2 fixation predominantly in the light. Exposure to CO2-free air at night markedly enhanced CO2 uptake during the following light period, but CO2 exchange rapidly reverted to its standard pattern when CO2 was supplied during the subsequent 24h. Although A. angustifolia consistently engages in CAM as its principal photosynthetic pathway, its relatively limited photosynthetic plasticity does not preclude it from occupying a range of habitats, from relatively mesic tropical environments in Panama to drier habitats in Mexico. PMID:24648568

  5. Variations in growth and reproduction within populations of two rhizomatous plant species: Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James B. Grace; Robert G. Wetzel

    1982-01-01

    Seasonal excavations of ramet systems in overlapping natural populations of Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia revealed intrapopulation variation in ramet size and reproduction. Reproductive “states” were recognized based on whether or not a ramet had flowered and the number of offspring ramets it possessed. As the growing season progressed, the populations became increasingly heterogeneous in their reproductive-state composition with the

  6. Mitochondria and redox homoeostasis as chemotherapeutic targets of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze in human larynx HEp-2 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Branco, Cátia dos Santos; de Lima, Émilin Dreher; Rodrigues, Tiago Selau; Scheffel, Thamiris Becker; Scola, Gustavo; Laurino, Claudia Cilene Fernandes Correia; Moura, Sidnei; Salvador, Mirian

    2015-04-25

    Natural products are among one of the most promising fields in finding new molecular targets in cancer therapy. Laryngeal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers affecting the head and neck regions, and is associated with high morbidity rate if left untreated. The aim of this study was to examine the antiproliferative effect of Araucaria angustifolia on laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cells. The results showed that A. angustifolia extract (AAE) induced a significant cytotoxicity in HEp-2 cells compared to the non-tumor human epithelial (HEK-293) cells, indicating a selective activity of AAE for the cancer cells. A. angustifolia extract was able to increase oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, and the production of nitric oxide, along with the depletion of enzymatic antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the tumor cell line. Moreover, AAE was able to induce DNA damage, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. A significant increase in the Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), Bax, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage expression were also found. These effects could be related to the ability of AAE to increase the production of reactive oxygen species through inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity and ATP production by the tumor cells. The phytochemical analysis of A. angustifolia, performed using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) in MS and MS/MS mode, showed the presence of dodecanoic and hexadecanoic acids, and phenolic compounds, which may be associated with the chemotherapeutic effect observed in this study. PMID:25770932

  7. Flash-flood impacts cause changes in wood anatomy of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Quercus pyrenaica

    E-print Network

    Stoffel, Markus

    Flash-flood impacts cause changes in wood anatomy of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia; published online May 12, 2010 Summary Flash floods may influence the development of trees growing on channel from trees that had been injured by past flash floods. From each of the samples, micro-sections were

  8. Heavy Metal Accumulation and Distribution in Narrow-Leaved Cattail (Typha angustifolia) and Common Reed (Phragmites australis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Aksoy; Fatih Duman; Göksal Sezen

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were measured in Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia, and sediment from 11 sites in Karasu Stream, Kayseri, Turkey. Both plants were root accumulators of Zn, Cu, and Cd, having higher concentrations of these elements in their roots than were present in the surrounding sediment. Pb was also accumulated but not against a concentration

  9. Adsorption of lead (Pb) from aqueous solution with Typha angustifolia biomass modified by SOCl 2 activated EDTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Jun Liu; Fan-Xin Zeng; Hong Jiang; Xue-Song Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A chemically modified Typha angustifolia biomass (CMTAB) material with abundant carboxyl groups was prepared using thionyl chloride (SOCl2) activated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a modification reagent. The CMTAB was characterized by back titration, elemental analysis, FTIR and SEM. The results show that EDTA is effectively grafted to the biomass matrix and the carboxyl group content of the biomass sharply increases

  10. Growth strategy of an emergent macrophyte, Typha orientalis Presl, in comparison with Typha latifolia L. and Typha angustifolia L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomomi Matsui Inoue; Takayoshi Tsuchiya

    2006-01-01

    The growth strategy of an emergent plant, Typha orientalis Presl, was examined in experimental ponds in comparison with two other Typha species distributed in Japan, Typha latifolia L. and Typha angustifolia L. T. orientalis showed the greatest ability of vegetative reproduction at the expense of growth in height. T. orientalis started to produce new ramets earlier than T. latifolia and

  11. Molecular genetic data reveal hybridization between Typha angustifolia and Typha latifolia across a broad spatial scale in eastern North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Kirk; Candace Connolly; Joanna R. Freeland

    2011-01-01

    A recent increase in the abundance of cattails (Typha spp.) in North American wetlands has been anecdotally linked with hybridization between Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers (microsatellites) to investigate whether the hybrid lineage (Typha×glauca) is restricted to The Great Lakes region, or exists across a much broader spatial scale. We also investigated

  12. A comparative study for the estimation of dynamical drying behavior of Echinacea angustifolia: regression analysis and neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koksal Erenturk; Saliha Erenturk; Lope G. Tabil

    2004-01-01

    Echinacea angustifolia is a root with curative properties and with immunological and pharmaceutical applications after drying. Studies of its drying kinetics have been limited in the past. This paper presents thin-layer drying kinetics of these roots and a comparative study between regression analysis and a multilayer feed-forward neural network to estimate their dynamic drying behavior. Experiments were performed at drying

  13. Effetti immunostimolanti in vitro ed in vivo di un nuovo estratto standardizzato di Echinacea angustifolia radice (Polinacea TM )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Morazzoni; A. Cristoni; F. Di Pierro; C. Avanzino; D. Ravarino; S. Stornello; M. Zucca; T. Musso

    2005-01-01

    Polinacea TM č un nuovo estratto idroalcolico standardizzato ottenuto dalle radici di Echinacea angustifolia contenente echinacoside (> 4%), un polisaccaride con elevato peso molecolare identificato come IDN 5405 (> 5%) ed una frazione isobutilamidica (< 0,1%). Per i test in vitro č stata preparata Polinacea TM priva di lipopolisaccaridi batterici (LPS-free) al fine di evitare risposte non specifiche delle cellule

  14. Modulation of ovine neutrophil function and apoptosis by standardized extracts of Echinacea angustifolia, Butea frondosa and Curcuma longa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maura Farinacci; Monica Colitti; Bruno Stefanon

    2009-01-01

    Impaired neutrophil function has been associated with increased infectious diseases in ruminants. Attachment of neutrophils to endothelium and superoxide production is critical features of their immune activity. Once the infection is cleared, programmed cell death ensures the rapid resolution of inflammation. To develop new natural therapeutics for ruminants, standard extracts of Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea™), Butea frondosa and Curcuma longa (Curcuvet™)

  15. Sea Level Rise and Climate Change Effects on Marsh Plants Spartina Alterniflora and Typha Angustifolia Using Mesocosms

    EPA Science Inventory

    A four month experiment using greenhouse mesocosms was conducted to analyze the effect of sea level rise and climate change on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail). Our goal was to examine the effects of three differen...

  16. The antioxidant and Flavonoids contents of Althaea officinalis L. flowers based on their color

    PubMed Central

    Sadighara, Parisa; Gharibi, Soraya; Moghadam Jafari, Amir; Jahed Khaniki, Golamreza; Salari, Samira

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There has been a growing interest in finding plants with biological active ingredients for medicinal application. Materials and Methods: Three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis (A. officinalis) flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total antioxidant activity and ?avonoids content. Results: The reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white. Conclusion: Findings suggest that the dark color can serve as an indicator of antioxidant content of the plant. Flavonoid content was highest in white flower thus this result indicated that flowers with light color can be considered for medicinal uses. PMID:25050239

  17. Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tomic, Goran; Nikolic, Ivana; Nerantzaki, Alexandra A; Sayyad, Nisar; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-? release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile. PMID:23017402

  18. Thesinine-4?- O-?- d-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Herrmann; Holger Joppe; Gerhard Schmaus

    2002-01-01

    The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4?-O-?-d-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of dried seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

  19. Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

    2002-06-01

    The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. PMID:12031432

  20. Pharmacological basis for the use of Borago officinalis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anwarul Hassan Gilani; Samra Bashir; Arif-ullah Khan

    2007-01-01

    Aim of the studyIn this study, we investigated the crude extract of Borago officinalis leaves (Bo.Cr) for its antispasmodic, bronchodilator, vasodilator and cardio-depressant activities to rationalize some of the traditional uses.

  1. The division of protoplasts from Asparagus officinalis L. and their growth and differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duc Bui-Dang-Ha; Ian A. Mackenzie

    1973-01-01

    Summary Protoplasts have been isolated from cladodes ofAsparagus officinalis L., and cell wall regeneration and division observed. Callus derived from isolated protoplasts has been induced to differentiate roots and shoots.

  2. Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Sadraei; A. Ghannadi; K. Malekshahi

    2003-01-01

    The relaxant effect of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis and its main component, citral, on rat isolated ileum contractions was evaluated. M. officinalis essential oil (MOEO) inhibited the response to KCl (80 mM), ACh (320 nM) and 5-HT (1.28 ?M) in a concentration-dependent manner with a IC50 of approximately 20 ng\\/ml. Citral also had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on

  3. Composition of the Essential Oil from Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in Slovak Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magda Hollá; Emil Svajdlenka; Jozef Tekel; Stefánia Vaverková; Emil Havránek

    1997-01-01

    The leaf oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Melissa officinalis L. c. v. citra cultivated at Nitra locality (Slovak Republic) was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. M. officinalis oil was found to contain geranial (33.60%), neral (22.18%), citronellal (11.30%), caryophyllene oxide (8.35%), geranyl acetate (5.89%), and ?-caryophyllene (4.20%) as the major components. More than 50 components were identified in the oil.

  4. Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Allahverdiyev; N. Duran; M. Ozguven; S. Koltas

    2004-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200?g\\/ml) of volatile oils were examined.

  5. Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naďve and scopolamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Soodi, M; Naghdi, N; Hajimehdipoor, H; Choopani, S; Sahraei, E

    2014-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50-400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naďve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naďve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naďve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD. PMID:25657779

  6. Antinociceptive Anti-inflammatory Effect of Monotropein Isolated from the Root of Morinda officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jongwon Choi; Kyung-Tae Lee; Moo-Young Choi; Jung-Hwan Nam; Hyun-Ju Jung; Sun-Kyu Park; Hee-Juhn Park

    2005-01-01

    The root of Morinda officinalis (Rubiaceae) is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and impotence in the tradi- tional Oriental medicine. To identify the antinociceptive anti-inflammatory components of this crude drug, we adopted an activity-directed fractionation approach. The active fraction of the BuOH extract of M. officinalis root was subjected to silica gel and ODS column chromatography to yield two diterpenes,

  7. Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naďve and scopolamine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Soodi, M.; Naghdi, N.; Hajimehdipoor, H.; Choopani, S.; Sahraei, E.

    2014-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50–400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naďve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naďve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naďve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD. PMID:25657779

  8. Snake venom neutralising factor from the root extract of Emblica officinalis Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sarkhel; A. K. Chakravarty; R. Das; Aparna Gomes; A. Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The folk use of the Indian medicinal plant Emblica officinalis Linn. root extract and its active compound (Pthalate in nature) against snake venom has been established in experimental animal\\u000a models. From the root extract of Emblica officinalis, a compound was isolated through silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined by UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR & EIMS studies. The

  9. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Verbena officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Calvo

    2006-01-01

    Verbena officinalis has traditionally been used in herbal medicine in Navarra, Spain, in the treatment of topical inflammation. Due to the anti-inflammatory activity of Verbena officinalis 50% methanolic extract in i.p. and topical administration, the effects of several formulations were prepared and studied using carrageenan-induced edema and formalin testing. Piroxicam gel and methyl salicylate ointment were studied as positive control

  10. Continuous decomposition of sporopollenin from pollen of Typha angustifolia L. by acidic methanolysis.

    PubMed

    Bubert, Henning; Lambert, Jörg; Steuernagel, Stefan; Ahlers, Friedhelm; Wiermann, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    Sporopollenin from the pollen of Typha angustifolia L. was exposed to a series of 36 subsequent acidic methanolysis procedures. The remaining decomposition products were investigated using several spectroscopic methods including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-CPMAS-NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). Substantial weight losses of the sporopollenin material occur after each acidic methanolysis step, while FT-IR and 13C-CPMAS-NMR spectra display no noticeable differences after 12, 24 and 36 steps. These findings are interpreted as a hint that the sporopollenin polymer has a uniform composition, i.e. relatively small monomer moieties of similar primary structure are present. Moreover, the weight losses account for the presence of substantial amounts of ether linkages in the sporopollenin polymer. PMID:12562090

  11. Acetylation and silylation of piperidine solubilized sporopollenin from pollen of Typha angustifolia L.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Friedhelm; Lambert, Jörg; Wiermann, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    Silyl and acetyl derivatives of sporopollenin from the pollen of Typha angustifolia L. were prepared. The derivatized products were readily soluble in piperidine-d11 and could be investigated employing one- and two-dimensional proton and carbon NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy (1H,1H-COSY and 13C,1H-HETCOR techniques). For the first time, a two dimensional 13C,1H-HETCOR NMR spectrum of a sporopollenin could be obtained. The results underline the importance of derivatization techniques for obtaining two dimensional 13C-NMR spectra of sporopollenins. Moreover, piperidine turns out to be a more suitable solvent for sporopollenins than 2-aminoethanol, as it allows for higher solubilities, being important for 2D-NMR investigations. From the HETCOR and COSY spectra of the silylated and the acetylated Typha samples the occurrence of aliphatic polyhydroxy compounds as well as phenolic OH groups became evident. PMID:14713155

  12. The nature of oxygen in sporopollenin from the pollen of Typha angustifolia L.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, F; Bubert, H; Steuernagel, S; Wiermann, R

    2000-01-01

    Native and peracetylated sporopollenin from the pollen of Typha angustifolia L. was investigated using several spectroscopic methods, inducing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). Interpretation of the experimental data shows that the greater part of oxygen found in sporopollenin originates from hydroxyl groups and must be derived from aliphatics and not from aromatics. This result indicates that not only aromatics and long unbranched aliphatics but also poly-hydroxyl aliphatic components are involved in the complex structure of the polymer. Furthermore, it is most probable that the monomers of the sporopollenin skeleton are linked by ether- and not by ester-linkage. Two possible approaches are suggested for the characterisation of sporopollenin structure. PMID:10817199

  13. The endocannabinoid system as a target for alkamides from Echinacea angustifolia roots.

    PubMed

    Woelkart, Karin; Xu, Wei; Pei, Ying; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Picone, Robert P; Bauer, Rudolf

    2005-08-01

    Alkamides are the major lipophilic constituents of Echinacea angustifolia roots. Due to their structural similarity with anandamide, we have evaluated their ability to bind to rodent cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 by a standard receptor binding assay using [(3)H]CP-55,940 as a radioligand. The alkamides exhibited selective affinity especially to CB2 receptors and can therefore be considered as CB ligands. Most of the alkamides showed good metabolic stability as indicated by the similarity between affinity to CB1 determined in the presence/absence of the protease inhibitor PMSF. It is suggested that CB2 interactions may be the molecular mode of action of Echinacea alkamides as immunomodulators. PMID:16142631

  14. Development and evaluation of microsatellite markers for a native prairie perennial, Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Ison, Jennifer L.; Wagenius, Stuart; Reitz, Diedre; Ashley, Mary V.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci for the native prairie perennial Echinacea angustifolia were developed and evaluated for future use in population structure and paternity studies. • Methods and Results: A total of 50 trinucleotide microsatellite regions were identified though an enrichment protocol that prescreens for microsatellite repeats before ligating into a vector. Of these, 11 loci were polymorphic and in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in three populations with varying numbers of plants. The loci had between three and 14 alleles and collectively provided high paternity exclusion probabilities. • Conclusions: These sets of microsatellite primers will provide researchers and land managers with valuable information on the population genetic structure and gene flow between fragmented prairie populations. PMID:25202499

  15. Use of a standardized extract from Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea) for the prevention of respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Ferrara, Tarcisio; Togni, Stefano

    2012-03-01

    Echinacea preparations are extensively used for the prevention and the management of the common cold. Despite this popularity, the clinical studies on Echinacea have produced mixed results, possibly in part because of the poor characterization of the extracts investigated and the use of different species and/or plant parts for the preparations investigated in the various trials. To address this issue, Polinacea, a highly standardized extract from a well-defined botanical source (roots of Echinacea angustifolia) with a specific phytochemical profile (presence of the complex polysaccharide IDN5405, the phenylethanoid echinacoside, and substantial lack of alkamides) was developed. We have studied whether Polinacea could enhance the immune response subsequent to the influenza vaccination, and whether the use of this preparation could translate into a decreased morbidity from influenza. The preliminary results were encouraging, and suggest that Polinacea could be used for improving the immune response to influenza vaccine. PMID:22502621

  16. Hydrophobic modification of cellulose isolated from Agave angustifolia fibre by graft copolymerisation using methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan; Mohamed, Faizal

    2015-07-10

    Graft copolymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto Agave angustifolia was conducted with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as the redox initiator. The maximum grafting efficiency was observed at CAN and MMA concentrations of 0.91 × 10(-3) and 5.63 × 10(-2)M, respectively, at 45°C for 3h reaction time. Four characteristic peaks at 2995, 1738, 1440, and 845 cm(-1), attributed to PMMA, were found in the IR spectrum of grafted cellulose. The crystallinity index dropped from 0.74 to 0.46, while the thermal stability improved upon grafting. The water contact angle increased with grafting yield, indicating increased hydrophobicity of cellulose. SEM images showed the grafted cellulose to be enlarged and rougher. The changes in the physical nature of PMMA-grafted cellulose can be attributed to the PMMA grafting in the amorphous regions of cellulose, causing it to expand at the expense of the crystalline component. PMID:25857961

  17. Composition of essential oils of Laurus nobilis, L. nobilis var. angustifolia and Laurus azorica.

    PubMed

    Hokwerda, H; Bos, R; Tattje, D H; Malingre, T M

    1982-02-01

    The essential oils of Laurus nobilis, L. nobilis var. angustifolia and L. azorica were investigated by means of GLC, IR, PMR, CMR and GC-MS. The composition of the oils of the first two mentioned species was about the same with as main constituent 1,8-cineole, whereas the oil of L. azorica was different with low content of 1,8-cineole (10% vice 40-50%), absence of spathulenol, high content of alpha- and beta-pinene and presence of alpha-copaene, cinnamyl acetate, allo-aromadendrene, beta-eudesmol, beta-caryophyllene oxide and 1 (12), 8 (15)-caryophylladiene-9alpha-ol. About 50 components were tentatively identified. PMID:17402091

  18. Cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang; Song, Yan; Li, Hui; Yang, Benshou; Mao, Xia; Zhao, Yongmao; Shi, Xiaodong

    2015-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis resulted in the isolation of three new triterpene glycosides, 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (1), 2?,3?,19?,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (2), and 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?-hydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (3). All the triterpene glycosides exhibited the significant cytotoxic potential with low IC50 values (IC50 < 5.0 ?M) against six tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, HepG2, SGC-7901, NCI-H460, and BGC-823). PMID:25193625

  19. Sesquiterpenoids and lignans from the roots of Valeriana officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Rui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Liu, Yu-Qing; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Jiang, He-Zhong; Chen, Zhong-Quan; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2011-10-01

    Two new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids, valerol A (1) and kessyl 3-acetate (2), together with nine known compounds, valeracetate (3), anismol A (4), orientalol C (5), spatulenol (6), 4?,10?-epoxyaromadendrane (7), (+)-8-hydroxypinoresinol (8), pinorespiol (9), pinoresinol 4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (10), and 8-hydroxypinoresinol 4'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (11) were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis. The structures and relative configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR). These compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. PMID:22006719

  20. Composition of volatile in micropropagated and field grown aromatic plants from Tuscany Islands.

    PubMed

    Pistelli, Laura; Noccioli, Cecilia; D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic plant species present in the natural Park of Tuscany Archipelago are used as flavoring agents and spices, as dietary supplements and in cosmetics and aromatherapy. The plants are usually collected from wild stands, inducing a depletion of the natural habitat. Therefore, micropropagation of these aromatic plants can play a role in the protection of the natural ecosystem, can guarantee a massive sustainable production and can provide standardized plant materials for diverse economical purposes. The aim of this study is to compare the volatile organic compounds produced by the wild plants with those from in vitro plantlets using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) followed by capillary gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Typical plants of this natural area selected for this work were Calamintha nepeta L., Crithmum maritimum L., Lavandula angustifolia L., Myrtus communis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Satureja hortensis L. Different explants were used: microcuttings with vegetative apical parts, axillary buds and internodes. Sterilization percentage, multiplication rate and shoot length, as well as root formation were measured. The volatile aromatic profiles produced from in vitro plantlets were compared with those of the wild plants, in particular for C. maritimum, R. officinalis, S. officinalis and S. hortensis. This study indicated that the micropropagation technique can represent a valid alternative to produce massive and sterile plant material characterised by the same aromatic flavour as in the wild grown plants. PMID:23441303

  1. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.

    PubMed

    Felšöciová, So?a; Ka?ániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Vukovi?, Nenad; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Rovná, Katarina; Stri?ík, Michal; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis. PMID:25780826

  2. Modulation of acute inflammation by a chitin-binding lectin from Araucaria angustifolia seeds via mast cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mário R. L. Mota; David N. Criddle; Nylane M. N. Alencar; Raphaela C. Gomes; Ana V. P. Meireles; Tatiane Santi-Gadelha; Carlos A. A. Gadelha; Cecília C. Oliveira; Raquel G. Benevides; Benildo S. Cavada; Ana M. S. Assreuy

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a lectin (AaL) from seeds of Araucaria angustifolia were investigated in the model of rat paw edema. In vivo anti-and pro-inflammatory activities, role of sugar residues, inflammatory mediators and systemic toxicity were assessed. Intravenous injection of AaL (0.1–1 mg\\/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the dextran-induced increase in edema and vascular permeability, which were prevented by association of the lectin with

  3. Manganese and iron both influence the shoot transcriptome of Typha angustifolia despite distinct preference towards manganese accumulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Chakraborty; S. Abhay Kumar; M. Sen; S. K. Apte; S. Das; R. Acharya; T. Das; A. V. R. Reddy; S. Roychaudhury; H. Rajaram; A. Seal

    2011-01-01

    Typha angustifolia is a metal hypertolerant grass that predominates the wetlands of uranium tailings in Jaduguda, India, contaminated with extreme\\u000a levels of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). In the paper investigations were carried out to understand the molecular mechanism\\u000a of metal tolerance in this tolerant macrophyte. Metal analysis was coupled with fluorescent differential display (FDD) and\\u000a reverse northern to compare

  4. Treatment of high-strength wastewater in tropical vertical flow constructed wetlands planted with Typha angustifolia and Cyperus involucratus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suwasa Kantawanichkul; Supreeya Kladprasert; Hans Brix

    2009-01-01

    The ability of vertical flow (VF) constructed wetland systems to treat high-strength (ca. 300mgL?1 of COD and ca. 300mgL?1 total-nitrogen) wastewater under tropical climatic conditions was studied during a 5-month period. Nine 0.8-m diameter experimental VF units (depth 0.6m) were used: three units were planted with Typha angustifolia L., another three units were planted with Cyperus involucratus Rottb and three

  5. Management of below-ground biomass of Typha angustifolia by harvesting shoots above the water surface on different summer days

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Tanaka; Tetsuhiro Watanabe; Takashi Asaeda; Takeshi Takemura

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic model of regrowth in Typha angustifolia after cutting shoots above the water surface was formulated by characterizing the phenology and mobilization of resources from below-ground to above-ground organs after the cutting. The model parameters were determined by two cutting experiments to investigate the different strategies with flowering and non-flowering shoots after cutting in 2001 and by four cutting

  6. Amphipod performance responses to decaying leaf litter of Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia from a Lake Erie coastal marsh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy E. Kulesza; Joseph R. Holomuzki

    2006-01-01

    We compared growth and survival performance of the detritivorous amphipod Hyalella azteca fed lab-conditioned leaves of either Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaf cattail), Phragmites australis (common reed) sprayed with the herbicide Glypro®, and unsprayed Phragmites, in microcosms. Leaves were from plants varying in time of senescence. Herbicide application advanced plant senescence and\\u000a death by ?3 months, whereas the other two leaf types

  7. Comparison of fish and macroinvertebrate use of Typha angustifolia, Phragmites australis , and treated Phragmites marshes along the lower Connecticut River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Fell; R. Scott Warren; John K. Light; Robert L. Rawson; Sean M. Fairley

    2003-01-01

    Since 1965 large areas of lower Connecticut River tidelands have been converted from high diversity brackish meadow andTypha angustifolia marsh to near monocultures ofPhragmites australis. This study addresses the impact ofPhragmites invasion on fish and crustacean use of oligohaline high marsh. During spring tides from early June through early September\\u000a 2000, fishes and crustaceans leaving flooded marsh along 3 km

  8. In vitro and in vivo immune stimulating effects of a new standardized Echinacea angustifolia root extract (Polinacea™)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Morazzoni; A. Cristoni; F. Di Pierro; C. Avanzini; D. Ravarino; S. Stornello; M. Zucca; T. Musso

    2005-01-01

    Polinacea™ is a new standardized hydroethanolic extract obtained from Echinacea angustifolia roots containing echinacoside (>4%), the high molecular weight polysaccharide IDN 5405 (>5%) and a isobutylamide fraction (<0.1%). For in vitro tests, a bacterial lipopolysaccharide-free (LPS-free) Polinacea™ has been prepared in order to avoid non-specific responses of immunocompetent cells.LPS-free Polinacea™ enhanced the immune functions as highlighted by the proliferation rate

  9. Antioxidative responses of Echinacea angustifolia cultured roots to different levels of CO 2 in bioreactor liquid cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Babar Ali; Eun Joo Hahn; Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2006-01-01

    The effects of CO2 levels (0.03, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5%) on growth and antioxidant responses in 5l bioreactor (working volume 4l) root suspension cultures of Echinacea angustifolia were studied. CO2 caused reduction in growth, malondialdehyde content (MDA), lipoxygenase (LOX, EC 1.13.11.13) activity and superoxide anion (O2?) accumulation along with high total phenols accumulation and pH levels. Maximal increases (37%)

  10. Effects of Chemically Characterized Fractions from Aerial Parts of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia on Myelopoiesis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramasahayam, Sindhura; Baraka, Hany N.; Abdel Bar, Fatma M.; Abuasal, Bilal S.; Widrlechner, Mark P.; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Meyer, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    Echinacea species are used for beneficial effects on immune function, and various prevalent phytochemicals have immunomodulatory effects. Using a commercial E. purpurea (L.) Moench product, we have evaluated the myelopoietic effect on bone marrow of rats treated with various extracts and correlated this with their chemical class composition. Granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) from femurs of female Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed at 24 h after 7 daily oral treatments. A 75% ethanolic extract at 50 mg dried weight (derived from 227 mg aerial parts) per kg body weight increased GM-CFCs by 70% but at 100 mg/kg was without effect. Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of E. angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia and E. purpurea from the US-DA North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station increased GM-CFCs by 3- and 2-fold, respectively, at 200 mg/kg (~ 1400 mg/kg plant material). Extract from another USDA E. angustifolia was inactive. Proton and APT NMR, MS, and TLC indicated alkylamides and caffeic-acid derivatives (CADs) present in ethanolic extracts of both the commercial and USDA-derived material. Cichoric and caftaric acids were prominent in both E. purpurea ethanolic extracts but absent in E. angustifolia. Aqueous extract of the commercial material exhibited polysaccharide and CAD signatures and was without effect on GM-CFCs. A methanol-CHCl3 fraction of commercial source, also inactive, was almost exclusively 1:4 nonanoic:decanoic acids, which were also abundant in commercial ethanolic extract but absent from USDA material. In conclusion, we have demonstrated an ethanol-extractable myelostimulatory activity in Echinacea aerial parts that, when obtained from commercial herbal supplements, may be antagonized by medium-chain fatty acids presumably derived from a non-plant additive. PMID:21870322

  11. Optimization of culturing conditions for the production of biomass and phenolics from adventitious roots of Echinacea angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Hua Wu; Yaser Hassan Dewir; Eun-Joo Hahn; Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2006-01-01

    We investigated different concentrations of auxins (1AA, IBA, NAA), the strength of the MS medium, sucrose and ammonium\\/nitrate\\u000a contents, initial medium pH, and inoculum size to determine their effects on biomass increase and the accumulation of total\\u000a phenols and flavonoids in adventitious roots ofEchinacea angustifolia. These roots were cultured under darkness in shake flasks for 4 weeks. IBA proved the

  12. Effects of chemically characterized fractions from aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia on myelopoiesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ramasahayam, Sindhura; Baraka, Hany N; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; Abuasal, Bilal S; Widrlechner, Mark P; Sayed, Khalid A El; Meyer, Sharon A

    2011-11-01

    Echinacea species are used for beneficial effects on immune function, and various prevalent phytochemicals have immunomodulatory effects. Using a commercial E. purpurea (L.) Moench product, we have evaluated the myelopoietic effect on bone marrow of rats treated with various extracts and correlated this with their chemical class composition. Granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) from femurs of female Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed at 24 h after 7 daily oral treatments. A 75% ethanolic extract at 50 mg dried weight (derived from 227 mg aerial parts) per kg body weight increased GM-CFCs by 70% but at 100 mg/kg was without effect. Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of E. angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia and E. purpurea from the USDA North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station increased GM-CFCs by 3- and 2-fold, respectively, at 200 mg/kg (~1400 mg/kg plant material). Extract from another USDA E. angustifolia was inactive. Proton and APT NMR, MS, and TLC indicated alkylamides and caffeic-acid derivatives (CADs) present in ethanolic extracts of both the commercial and USDA-derived material. Cichoric and caftaric acids were prominent in both E. purpurea ethanolic extracts but absent in E. angustifolia. Aqueous extract of the commercial material exhibited polysaccharide and CAD signatures and was without effect on GM-CFCs. A methanol-CHCl3 fraction of commercial source, also inactive, was almost exclusively 1:4 nonanoic: decanoic acids, which were also abundant in commercial ethanolic extract but absent from USDA material. In conclusion, we have demonstrated an ethanolextractable myelostimulatory activity in Echinacea aerial parts that, when obtained from commercial herbal supplements, may be antagonized by medium-chain fatty acids presumably derived from a non-plant additive. PMID:21870322

  13. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of four kaempferol methyl ethers isolated from Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. var . angustifolia leaf extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Teffo; M. A. Aderogba; J. N. Eloff

    2010-01-01

    Fractionation of dichloromethane and acetone fractions obtained by serial extraction from the leaf powder of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. var. angustifolia (Sapindaceae) resulted in the isolation of four kaempferol methyl ethers. The compounds were identified by spectral data (1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) as: 3, 5, 7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (1); 5, 7, 4'-trihydroxy-3, 6-dimethoxyflavone (2); 5, 7-dihydroxy-3, 6, 4'-trimethoxyflavone (santin) (3); and

  14. Adsorption of Cu(II) on Araucaria angustifolia wastes: Determination of the optimal conditions by statistic design of experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eder C. Lima; Betina Royer; Júlio C. P. Vaghetti; Jorge L. Brasil; Nathalia M. Simon; Araci A. dos Santos; Flavio A. Pavan; Silvio L. P. Dias; Edílson V. Benvenutti; Edson Antônio da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Wastes of Araucaria angustifolia (named pinhăo) natural (PW) and also loaded with Congo red (CRP) were tested as low-cost adsorbents for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions. In order to reduce the total number of experiments to achieve the best conditions of the batch adsorption procedure, three sets of statistical designs of experiments were carried-out for each adsorbent. Initially, a full

  15. Behavior of Typha angustifolia L. in a free water surface constructed wetlands for the treatment of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    De Los Reyes, Catalina Plaza; Villamar, Cristina A; Neubauer, María Elisa; Pozo, Guillermo; Vidal, Gladys

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of Typha angustifolia L. in nitrogen retention in a Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland (FWS) for the swine wastewater treatment over a three-year operating period. Results show that the behavior of Typha angustifolia L. in a FWS for treatment of swine wastewater is affected by nitrogen concentration, seasonal variation and plant establishment in the system. Indeed, the application of Nitrogen Loading Rates (NLR) between 7.1-14.3 kg TN/ha·d removes 40% of Total Nitrogen (TN), where the maximum removal (20-40%) takes place in the spring-summer seasons. However, concentrations higher than 120.3 mg NH4 (+)-N/L significantly decrease (P = 0.004) diametrical growth by 55%. However, it was possible to estimate that NLR >14.3 kg TN/ha·d increased biomass production and plant uptake in Typha angustifolia L. during the period analyzed. Additionally, aboveground biomass values were between 1.509.6-2.874.0 g/m(2) and nitrogen uptake 27.4-40.8 g/m(2), where this last value represents 29% of the TN applied during the study. Finally, the TN accumulation in sediments represents less than 2% of the TN incorporated during this period. These results show that an increase of 50% of the TN in sediments increases plant abundance in 73%, which is related to the mineralization processes favored in the system during the last year of operation. PMID:23647112

  16. Chemical composition, seasonal variability, and antifungal activity of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas essential oils from stem/leaves and flowers.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessi, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

    2006-06-14

    Essential oils from the stems/leaves (L) and flowers (F) of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in southern Sardinia (Italy) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector and ion trap mass spectrometry. The major compound was fenchone, accounting for, on average, 52.60% in L and 66.20% in F, followed by camphor (13.13% versus 27.08%, in L and F, respectively). F essential oil yields (volume per dry weight) decreased from the beginning to the end of the flowering stage, whereas L yields remained constant during the year. The nine main compounds derived from two different subpathways, A and B. The compounds that belong to the same subpathway showed a similar behavior during the year. The essential oils were tested for their antifungal activity using the paper disk diffusion method. The essential oils tested were effective on the inactivation of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum and less effective against Aspergillus flavus. Among the single compounds tested, fenchone, limonene, and myrtenal appeared to be the more effective on the inhibition of R. solani growth. PMID:16756368

  17. The biosynthetic origin of irregular monoterpenes in Lavandula: isolation and biochemical characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase gene, lavandulyl diphosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zerihun A; Erland, Lauren A E; Rheault, Mark R; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-03-01

    Lavender essential oils are constituted predominantly of regular monoterpenes, for example linalool, 1,8-cineole, and camphor. However, they also contain irregular monoterpenes including lavandulol and lavandulyl acetate. Although the majority of genes responsible for the production of regular monoterpenes in lavenders are now known, enzymes (including lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS)) catalyzing the biosynthesis of irregular monoterpenes in these plants have not been described. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase cDNA, termed Lavandula x intermedia lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LiLPPS), through a homology-based cloning strategy. The LiLPPS ORF, encoding for a 305-amino acid long protein, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The approximately 34.5-kDa bacterially produced protein specifically catalyzed the head-to-middle condensation of two dimethylallyl diphosphate units to LPP in vitro with apparent Km and kcat values of 208 ± 12 ?m and 0.1 s(-1), respectively. LiLPPS is a homodimeric enzyme with a sigmoidal saturation curve and Hill coefficient of 2.7, suggesting a positive co-operative interaction among its catalytic sites. LiLPPS could be used to modulate the production of lavandulol and its derivatives in plants through metabolic engineering. PMID:23306202

  18. Accumulation of phenolic compounds in in vitro cultures and wild plants of Lavandula viridis L'Hér and their antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase potential.

    PubMed

    Costa, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sandra; Valentăo, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Romano, Anabela

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the phenolic profile, antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase potential of different extracts from wild plants and in vitro cultures of Lavandula viridis L'Hér. The HPLC-DAD analysis allowed the identification and quantification of 3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and rosmarinic acids, and luteolin and pinocembrin. Water/ethanol extract from in vitro cultures contained the highest amount of the identified phenolic compounds (51652.92 mg/kg). To investigate the antioxidant activity we used Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, Fe(2+) chelation activity and the inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse brain homogenates (in vitro). Overall, all the extracts from both wild plants and in vitro cultures exhibited ability to scavenge free radicals, to chelate Fe(2+) and to protect against lipid peroxidation. In addition, the extracts from L. viridis were active in inhibiting both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (Ellman's method). Our findings suggest that L. viridis in vitro cultures represent a promising alternative for the production of active metabolites with antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activity. PMID:23524312

  19. FACTORES QUE INFLUYEN SOBRE LA EMERGENCIA DE PLÁNTULAS DE BORRAJA (BORAGO OFFICINALIS L.) FACTORS INFLUENCING BORAGE (BORAGO OFFICINALIS L.) SEEDLING EMERGENCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Solís; Rosemarie Wilckens; Maritza Tapia; Susana Fischer; Daniel Sorlino; Marisol Berti

    Background: Borago officinalis L. seeds and the whole plant are used as medicinal plants. Gamma linolenic acid, an important essential fatty acid from the omega-6 family is present in its seeds. Objectives: To analyze the effect of the seeding depth, seed maturity, germination promoters, and\\/or stratification on the emergence percentage, vigor index and time to reach a 50% emergence were

  20. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

  1. Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of six Mediterranean aromatic plants against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Conti, Barbara; Canale, Angelo; Bertoli, Alessandra; Gozzini, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

    2010-11-01

    Laboratory bioassays on insecticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from six Mediterranean plants (Achillea millefolium, Lavandula angustifolia, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis, and Rosmarinus officinalis) were carried out against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. The chemical composition of the six EOs was also investigated. Results from applications showed that all tested oils had insecticidal activity, with differences in mortality rates as a function of both oil and dosage. At the highest dosage (300 ppm), EOs from H. italicum, A. millefolium, and F. vulgare caused higher mortality than the other three oils, with mortality rates ranging from 98.3% to 100%. M. communis EO induced only 36.7% larval mortality at the highest dosage (300 ppm), a similar value to those recorded at the same dosage by using R. officinalis and L. angustifolia (51.7% and 55%, respectively). Identified compounds ranged from 91% to 99%. The analyzed EOs had higher content of monoterpenoids (80-99%) than sesquiterpenes (1-15%), and they can be categorized into three groups on the basis of their composition. Few EOs showed the hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, and these volatile compounds were generally predominant in comparison with the oxygenated forms, which were detected in lower quantities only in H. italicum (1.80%) and in M. communis (1%). PMID:20697909

  2. Genotoxic and anti-genotoxic properties of Calendula officinalis extracts in rat liver cell cultures treated with diethylnitrosamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I Pérez-Carreón; G Cruz-Jiménez; J. A Licea-Vega; E Arce Popoca; S Fattel Fazenda; S Villa-Trevińo

    2002-01-01

    Calendula officinalis flower extracts are used to cure inflammatory and infectious diseases, for wound healing and even cancer with partial objective evidence of its therapeutic properties or toxic effects, many of which can be attributed to the presence of flavonols. We studied whether C. officinalis extracts induce unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in rat liver cell cultures, and if these extracts

  3. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

  4. Valeriana officinalis ameliorates vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Wagner, Caroline; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, Joăo Batista Teixeira

    2011-11-01

    Oral movements are associated with important neuropathologies as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. However, until this time, there has been no known efficacious treatment, without side effects, for these disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of V. officinalis, a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V. officinalis (in the drinking water, starting 15 days before the administration of the reserpine). VCMs, locomotor activity and oxidative stress measurements were evaluated. Furthermore, we carried out the identification of valeric acid and gallic acid by HPLC in the V. officinalis tincture. Our findings demonstrated that reserpine caused a marked increase on VCMs and the co-treatment with V. officinalis was able to reduce the intensity of VCM. Reserpine did not induce oxidative stress in cerebral structures (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra). However, a significant positive correlation between DCF-oxidation (an estimation of oxidative stress) in the cortex and VCMs (p < 0.05) was observed. Moreover, a negative correlation between Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in substantia nigra and the number of VCMs was observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, V. officinalis had behavioral protective effect against reserpine-induced VCMs in rats; however, the exact mechanisms that contributed to this effect have not been completely understood. PMID:21476069

  5. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Pińa, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

  6. Acylated iridoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhu-zhen; Yan, Zhao-hui; Liu, Qing-xin; Hu, Xian-qing; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-liang; Zhang, Wei-dong

    2012-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia resulted in the isolation and characterization of six new acylated iridoids, (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-8-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-dihyronepetalactone (1), (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-dihyronepetalactone (2), (5S,8S,9S)-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-dihyronepetalactone (3), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-1,3-diol (4), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-1,3-isovaleroxy-?4,11-1,3-diol (5), and (5S,6S,8S,9R)-3-isovaleroxy-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-1,3-diol (6). Their structures were determined mainly by 1D and 2D?NMR spectroscopic techniques. We also report herein for the first time the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 1. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated against A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma), SK-BR-3 (human breast carcinoma), and HepG2 (human hepatoma) cell lines. Compound 6 showed weak cell growth inhibition of A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2 cells. PMID:22872588

  7. Biological and analytical characterization of two extracts from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Circosta, Clara; De Pasquale, Rita; Samperi, Stefania; Pino, Annalisa; Occhiuto, Francesco

    2007-06-13

    The anticoronaryspastic and antibronchospastic activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. roots were investigated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs and the results were correlated with the qualitative/quantitative chemical composition of the extracts in order to account for some of the common uses of this plant. The protective effects of orally administered ethanolic and aqueous extracts (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) were evaluated against pitressin-induced coronary spasm and pressor response in guinea-pigs and were compared with those of nifedipine. Furthermore, the protective effects against histamine-induced and Oleaceae antigen challenge-induced bronchospasm were evaluated. Finally, the two valerian extracts were analytically characterized by qualitative and quantitative chromatographic analysis. The results showed that the two valeriana extracts possessed significant anticoronaryspastic, antihypertensive and antibronchospastic properties. These were similar to those exhibited by nifedipine and are due to the structural features of the active principles they contain. This study justifies the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of some respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:17467210

  8. Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Mussi, Maria Carolina Martins; Fiorini, Joăo Evangelista; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo; Schneedorf, José Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the inhibitory activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis against the cariogenic microorganism, Streptococcus mutans. For such purpose, a minimum inhibition concentration test of copaiba oil against S. mutans was performed, using the serial dilution in broth technique, with a negative control, a positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine) and a 10% copaíba oil solution as a test. A minimum bactericidal concentration test with tubes presenting microbial inhibition was also conduced. In the minimum inhibitory concentration test, copaiba oil showed inhibition of bacterial growth at all concentrations tested up to 0.78 µL/mL of the 10% copaiba oil solution in the broth. In addition, the negative control had no inhibition, and the 0.12% chlorhexidine solution was effective up to 6.25 µL/mL in the broth. Copaiba oil showed a bacteriostatic activity against S. mutans at low concentrations, and could be a an option of phytotherapic agent to be used against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention of caries disease. PMID:22460312

  9. New triterpenoid saponins and sapogenins from Saponaria officinalis.

    PubMed

    Koike, K; Jia, Z; Nikaido, T

    1999-12-01

    Five new triterpenoid saponins, named saponariosides I-M, were isolated from the whole plants of Saponario officinalis. Their structures were established as saponarioside I (1) 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-16 alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid 28-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)[-beta-D-glucopyranoside[, saponarioside J (3) 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosylolean-11,13(18)-diene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)[- beta-D-glucopyranoside[, saponarioside K (4) 3,4-seco-16 alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)[-beta-D-glucopyranoside[, saponarioside L (5) 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosylgypsogenic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)[-beta- D- glucopyranoside[, and saponarioside M (6) 3-O-beta-D-glucopyrano-sylgypsogenic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1--6)-beta-D- glucopyranoside[ by NMR studies and chemical degradations. The aglycons of saponariosides J (3) and K (4) are new sapogenins. PMID:10654413

  10. A simple and efficient DNA isolation method for Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Aleksi?, Jelena M; Stojanovi?, Danilo; Banovi?, Bojana; Jan?i?, Radiša

    2012-12-01

    We report an efficient, simple, and cost-effective protocol for the isolation of genomic DNA from an aromatic medicinal plant, common sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Our modification of the standard CTAB protocol includes two polyphenol adsorbents (PVP 10 and activated charcoal), high NaCl concentrations (4 M) for removing polysaccharides, and repeated Sevag treatment to remove proteins and other carbohydrate contaminants. The mean DNA yield obtained with our Protocol 2 was 330.6 ?g DNA g(-1) of dry leaf tissue, and the absorbance ratios 260/280 and 260/230 nm averaged 1.909 and 1.894, respectively, revealing lack of contamination. PCR amplifications of one nuclear (26S rDNA) and one chloroplast (rps16-trnK) locus indicated that our DNA isolation protocol may be used in common sage and other aromatic and medicinal plants containing essential oil for molecular biologic and biotechnological studies and for population genetics, phylogeographic, and conservation surveys in which nuclear or chloroplast genomes would be studied in large numbers of individuals. PMID:22847363

  11. Genomic organization of the AODEF gene in Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuro; Suzuki, Go; Ochiai, Toshinori; Nakada, Mutsumi; Kameya, Toshiaki; Kanno, Akira

    2005-04-01

    The perianths of Liliaceae plants, such as lily and tulip, have two whorls of almost identical petaloid organs, which are called tepals. According to the modified ABC model proposed in tulip, the class B genes are expressed in whorl 1 as well as whorls 2 and 3, so that the organs of whorls 1 and 2 have the same petaloid structure. The floral structure of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is similar to that of Liliaceae plants, however, the expression of B-class genes (AODEF, AOGLOA, AOGLOB) was not found in whorl 1, but was confined to whorls 2 and 3. This result does not support the modified ABC model in asparagus. In order to gain a better understanding of asparagus flower development, we have characterized a genomic clone of the AODEF gene. We compared the genomic organization and promoter sequence of AODEF with three well-studied DEF-like genes, DEFICIENS (Antirrhinum), APETALA3 (Arabidopsis), and OSMADS16 (rice). Exon-intron structures of these genes are well-conserved except for the large fifth intron in the AODEF gene and the OSMADS16 gene. Putative cis-elements including CArG-boxes were found in the promoter region and forty-two microsatellites were found in the AODEF genomic sequence. PMID:16172521

  12. ESTs library from embryonic stages reveals tubulin and reflectin diversity in Sepia officinalis (Mollusca — Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Bassaglia, Yann; Bekel, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Andouche, Aude; Navet, Sandra; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-05-01

    New molecular resources regarding the so-called “non-standard models” in biology extend the present knowledge and are essential for molecular evolution and diversity studies (especially during the development) and evolutionary inferences about these zoological groups, or more practically for their fruitful management. Sepia officinalis, an economically important cephalopod species, is emerging as a new lophotrochozoan developmental model. We developed a large set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryonic stages of S. officinalis, yielding 19,780 non-redundant sequences (NRS). Around 75% of these sequences have no homologs in existing available databases. This set is the first developmental ESTs library in cephalopods. By exploring these NRS for tubulin, a generic protein family, and reflectin, a cephalopod specific protein family,we point out for both families a striking molecular diversity in S. officinalis. PMID:22548232

  13. Structural features of the cell-wall polysaccharides of Asparagus officinalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, R; Gillou, L; Prat, R; Herve Du Penhoat, C; Michon, V

    1991-03-20

    The fine structure of a beta-)1----4)-linked glucomannan from Asparagus officinalis has been determined by n.m.r. analysis of the oligosaccharides obtained by acidic and enzymic hydrolyses. Cleavage of the glucomannan with beta-D-mannase from Aspergillus niger and purification by h.p.l.c. gave oligosaccharide fractions that contained Man (mannose), GlcMan (beta-glucopyranosylmannose), Man2, Glc2Man, and Glc3Man as the major components. Simulated digestion of a polymer composed of randomly distributed monomers with the same Glc:Man ratio as glucomannan from A. officinalis led to the same polysaccharides. The random distribution of the monomers of glucomannan from A. officinalis was corroborated by the diffraction diagram of the raw flour, which indicated that the "in situ" glucomannan was amorphous, whereas both cellulose and mannans are crystalline. PMID:1878881

  14. ANGUSTIFOLIA, a plant homolog of CtBP/BARS, functions outside the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Minamisawa, Naoko; Sato, Mayuko; Cho, Kiu-Hyung; Ueno, Hanako; Takechi, Katsuaki; Kajikawa, Masataka; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Ohyama, Kanji; Toyooka, Kiminori; Kim, Gyung-Tae; Horiguchi, Gorou; Takano, Hiroyoshi; Ueda, Takashi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2011-12-01

    CtBP/BARS is a unique protein family in having quite diversified cellular functions, intercellular localizations, and developmental roles. ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) is the sole homolog of CtBP/BARS from Arabidopsis thaliana, although it has plant AN-specific motifs and a long C-terminus. Previous studies suggested that AN would function in the nucleus as a transcriptional co-repressor, as CtBPs function in animals; however, precise verification has been lacking. In this paper, we isolated a homologous gene (MAN) of AN from liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. Transformation of the Arabidopsis an-1 mutant with 35S-driven MAN completely complemented the an-1 phenotype, although it lacks the putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) that exists in AN proteins isolated from other plant species. We constructed several plasmids for expressing modified ANs with amino acid substitutions in known motifs. The results clearly indicated that modified AN with mutations in the putative NLS-like domain could complement the an-1 phenotype. Therefore, we re-examined localization of AN using several techniques. Our results demonstrated that AN localizes on punctuate structures around the Golgi, partially overlapping with a trans-Golgi network resident, which highlighted an unexpected link between leaf development and membrane trafficking. We should reconsider the roles and evolutionary traits of AN based on these findings. PMID:21801251

  15. Endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of Typha angustifolia L. in the constructed Beijing Cuihu Wetland (China).

    PubMed

    Li, Yan Hong; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Yin; Zhu, Jing Nan; Zhang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the community structure of endophytic bacteria in narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) roots growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, using the 16S rDNA library technique. In total, 184 individual sequences were used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 161 clones (87.5%) were affiliated with Proteobacteria, other clones grouped into Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroids (3.3%), Fusobacteria (3.8%), and nearly 5% were uncultured bacteria. In Proteobacteria, the beta and gamma subgroups were the most abundant, accounting for approximately 46% and 36.6% of all Proteobacteria, respectively. The dominant genera included Rhodoferax, Pelomonas, Uliginosibacterium, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Rhizobium, Sulfurospirillum, Ilyobacter and Bacteroides. While some of these endophytic bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen and can therefore improve plant growth, other endophytes may play important biological roles by removing nitrogen, phosphorus and/or organic matter from the water body and thus have the potential to enhance the phytoremediation of eutrophic water bodies. These bacteria have the potential to degrade xenobiota such as methane, methanol, methylated amines, catechol, oxochlorate, urea, cyanide, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Hence, the use of certain endophytic bacteria in the process of phytoremediation could be a powerful approach for the restoration of eutrophic systems. PMID:21111814

  16. Evaluation of inflorescence visitors as pollinators of Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae): comparison of techniques.

    PubMed

    Wist, Tyler J; Davis, Arthur R

    2013-10-01

    Inflorescences (heads or capitula) of the putative self-incompatible species, purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia (DC) Cronq. (Asteraceae)), were visited by insects representing the Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, in accordance with a generalist pollination syndrome. Measurement of the effectiveness of insect species as pollinators was accomplished by permitting solitary visits to receptive, central disc florets of virgin (previously bagged) heads. Four parameters were quantified: total stigmatic pollen load and proportion of pollen grains germinated, numbers of pollen tubes at style bases, and percentages of total receptive florets that had retracted (shrivelled) styles. Quantifying total and germinated pollen grains proved ineffective, partly owing to the tendency of self-pollen to initiate pollen tubes. The most effective pollinators were Apidae, especially bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (mean: 39 - 61% of styles retracted). Other noteworthy pollinators were cloudless sulfur butterflies (Phoebis sennae L.--Pieridae; mean 47% of style bases with pollen tubes), golden blister beetles (Epicauta ferruginea Say--Meloidae; 44%), and grasshopper bee flies (Systoechus vulgaris Loew--Bombyliidae; 22%). Sunflower leafcutter bees (Megachile pugnata Say) were less effective (4% of styles retracted). Promisingly, analysis of the proportion of retracted styles provided similar results to the established technique of pollen-tube quantification, but had the significant advantages of being completed more rapidly, without a microscope, and in the field. The quantitative technique of retracted-style analysis appears well suited for prompt measurement of inflorescence-visiting insects as pollinators of many asteraceans. PMID:24224247

  17. Proliferative activity of Echinacea angustifolia root extracts on cancer cells: Interference with doxorubicin cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Huntimer, Eric D; Halaweish, Fathi T; Chase, Christopher C L

    2006-06-01

    Doxorubicin is an anticancer drug that causes apoptosis in cells, but cardiotoxicity limits the cumulative dose that can remain in the blood. Echinacea extracts have been prescribed to supplement cancer chemotherapy. In a recent study, it was reported that Echinacea purpurea extracts protected noncancerous cells from apoptosis. Our study aimed to determine interference with doxorubicin chemotherapy, and if fractions and compounds from Echinacea angustifolia roots protected the cells. Cervical and breast cancer cells were treated with the Echinacea samples and doxorubicin. At 0.05 and 0.5 microM doxorubicin concentration, cynarine increased HeLa cell growth by 48-125% and 29-101%, respectively (p<0.01). At 0.05 microM doxorubicin concentration, chicoric acid increased cell growth by 23-100% (p<0.01). When MCF-7 cells were treated with Echinacea and doxorubicin, the ethyl acetate fraction increased cell growth by 20-25%, and chicoric acid increased cell growth by 10-15%. Cynarine showed proliferative activity on HeLa cells, but showed antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 cells. Results indicate that phenolic compounds are responsible for proliferative activity. Studies with individual compounds show that chicoric acid and cynarine interfered with cells treated with 0.5 microM doxorubicin. The results of this study show that Echinacea herbal medicines affect cell proliferation despite cancer treatment, and that herbal medicines require further study with respect to anticancer drugs. PMID:17193302

  18. Environmental heterogeneity explains the genetic structure of Continental and Mediterranean populations of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.

    PubMed

    Temunovi?, Martina; Franji?, Jozo; Satovic, Zlatko; Grgurev, Marin; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie; Fernández-Manjarrés, Juan F

    2012-01-01

    Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data analyses based on nuclear microsatellite loci, multivariate statistics on environmental data and ecological niche modelling (ENM). We identified a geographic structure with a high genetic diversity and low differentiation in the Continental region, which contrasted with the significantly lower genetic diversity and higher population divergence in the Mediterranean region. The positive and significant correlation between environmental and genetic distances after controlling for geographic distance suggests an important influence of ecological divergence of the sites in shaping genetic variation. The ENM provided support for niche differentiation between the populations from the Continental and Mediterranean regions, suggesting that contemporary populations may represent two divergent ecotypes. Ecotype differentiation was also supported by multivariate environmental and genetic distance analyses. Our results suggest that despite extensive gene flow in continental areas, long-term stability of heterogeneous environments have likely promoted genetic divergence of ashes in this region and can explain the present-day genetic variation patterns of these ancient populations. PMID:22905171

  19. Environmental Heterogeneity Explains the Genetic Structure of Continental and Mediterranean Populations of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl

    PubMed Central

    Temunovi?, Martina; Franji?, Jozo; Satovic, Zlatko; Grgurev, Marin; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie; Fernández-Manjarrés, Juan F.

    2012-01-01

    Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data analyses based on nuclear microsatellite loci, multivariate statistics on environmental data and ecological niche modelling (ENM). We identified a geographic structure with a high genetic diversity and low differentiation in the Continental region, which contrasted with the significantly lower genetic diversity and higher population divergence in the Mediterranean region. The positive and significant correlation between environmental and genetic distances after controlling for geographic distance suggests an important influence of ecological divergence of the sites in shaping genetic variation. The ENM provided support for niche differentiation between the populations from the Continental and Mediterranean regions, suggesting that contemporary populations may represent two divergent ecotypes. Ecotype differentiation was also supported by multivariate environmental and genetic distance analyses. Our results suggest that despite extensive gene flow in continental areas, long-term stability of heterogeneous environments have likely promoted genetic divergence of ashes in this region and can explain the present-day genetic variation patterns of these ancient populations. PMID:22905171

  20. Studies on the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira on schistosomiasis transmitting snails.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdalla M; Abdel-Gawad, Mahfouz M; El-Nahas, Hanan A; Osman, Nadia S

    2015-04-01

    In the search for new molluscicidal plants for controlling the snail vectors of schistosomiasis, laboratory evaluation was made to assess the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira plants against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Results indicated that both plants have promising molluscicidal activity as the LC90 of the dry powder of both plants was 120 ppm. Both plants showed marked cercaricidal and miracidicidal potencies against S. mansoni larvae. The LC90 of both plants (120 ppm) killed most B. alexandrina eggs within 24 h of exposure. The sub-lethal concentrations of both plants markedly suppressed the survival rate of B. alexandrina snails and the mortality increased with increasing the concentrations and the exposure period up to 10 successive weeks. The accumulative toxic effect of these concentrations was continuous during the recovery period. Also, the reproductive rates of exposed snails were greatly affected even through the recovery period. This depression in reproductive ability of snails was accompanied by histological damage in the hermaphrodite glands of exposed snails. Meanwhile, the growth of snails was estimated weekly and it showed great inhibition in exposed snails comparing with the control ones. PMID:26012228

  1. Prebiotic potential of Agave angustifolia Haw fructans with different degrees of polymerization.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Martínez, José Rodolfo; González-Cervantes, Rina M; Hernández-Gallegos, Minerva Aurora; Mendiola, Roberto Campos; Aparicio, Antonio R Jiménez; Ocampo, Martha L Arenas

    2014-01-01

    Inulin-type fructans are the most studied prebiotic compounds because of their broad range of health benefits. In particular, plants of the Agave genus are rich in fructans. Agave-derived fructans have a branched structure with both ?-(2?1) and ?-(2?6) linked fructosyl chains attached to the sucrose start unit with a degree of polymerization (DP) of up to 80 fructose units. The objective of this work was to assess the prebiotic potential of three Agave angustifolia Haw fructan fractions (AFF) with different degrees of polymerization. The three fructan fractions were extracted from the agave stem by lixiviation and then purified by ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography: AFF1, AFF2 and AFF3 with high (3-60 fructose units), medium (2-40) and low (2-22) DP, respectively. The fructan profile was determined with high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), which confirmed a branched fructan structure. Structural elucidation was performed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy. The AFF spectrum shows characteristic fructan bands. The prebiotic effect of these fractions was assessed in vitro through fermentation by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains. Four growth patterns were observed. Some bacteria did not grow with any of the AFF, while other strains grew with only AFF3. Some bacteria grew according to the molecular weight of the AFF and some grew indistinctly with the three fructan fractions. PMID:25153877

  2. Sedative and sleep-enhancing properties of linarin, a flavonoid-isolated from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Sebastián; Wasowski, Cristina; Paladini, Alejandro C; Marder, Mariel

    2004-02-01

    We have recently reported the presence of the anxiolytic flavone 6-methylapigenin (MA) and of the sedative and sleep-enhancing flavanone glycoside 2S (-) hesperidin (HN) in Valeriana officinalis and Valeriana wallichii. MA, in turn, was able to potentiate the sleep-inducing properties of HN. The present paper reports the identification in V. officinalis of the flavone glycoside linarin (LN) and the discovery that it has, like HN, sedative and sleep-enhancing properties that are potentiated by simultaneous administration of valerenic acid (VA). These effects should be taken into account when considering the pharmacological actions of valeriana extracts. PMID:14751470

  3. A Preliminary Analysis of Sleep-Like States in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marcos G.; Waldrop, Robert H.; Dumoulin, Michelle; Aton, Sara; Boal, Jean G.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis. PMID:22701609

  4. Comparison of EDTA- and citric acid-enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals in artificially metal contaminated soil by Typha angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Dawood; Chen, Fei; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2009-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of EDTA and citric acid (CA) addition in improving phytoextraction of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Cr from artificially contaminated soil by T. angustifolia. T. angustifolia showed the remarkable resistance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom including chlorosis and necrosis when exposed to metal stress. EDTA-addition significantly reduced plant height and biomass, compared with the control, and stunted plant growth, while 2.5 and 5 mM CA addition induced significant increases in root dry weight. EDTA, and 5 and 10 mM CA significantly increased shoot Cd, Pb, and Cr concentrations compared with the control, with EDTA being more effective. At final harvest, the highest shoot Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations were recorded in the treatment of 5 mM EDTA addition, while maximal root Pb concentration was found at the 2.5 mM CA treatment. However, shoot Cd accumulation in the 10 mM CA treatment was 36.9% higher than that in 2.5 mM EDTA, and similar with that in 10 mM EDTA. Shoot Pb accumulation was lower in 10 mM CA than that in EDTA treatments. Further, root Cd, Cu, and Pb accumulation of CA treatments and shoot Cr accumulation in 5 or 10 mM CA treatments were markedly higher than that of control and EDTA treatments. The results also showed that EDTA dramatically increased the dissolution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Cd in soil, while CA addition had less effect on water-soluble Cu, Cr, and Cd, and no effect on Pb levels. It is suggested that CA can be a good chelator candidate for T. angustifolia used for environmentally safe phytoextraction of Cd and Cr in soils. PMID:19810355

  5. How sensitive is Melissa officinalis to realistic ozone concentrations?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne Sarah; Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.; Lamiaceae) was exposed to realistic ozone (O3) dosages (80 ppb for 5 h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 regimes. Temporal alterations of different ecophysiological, biochemical and structural parameters were investigated in order to test if this species can be considered as an O3-bioindicator regarding changes in background concentrations. At the end of ozone exposure, the plants did not exhibit any visible foliar symptoms, as only at microscopic level a small number of dead cells were found. Photosynthetic processes, however, were significantly affected. During and after the treatment, ozone induced a reduction in CO2 fixation capacity (up to 52% after 12 h from the beginning of the treatment) due to mesophyllic limitations. Intercellular CO2 concentration significantly increased in comparison to controls (+90% at the end of the post-fumigation period). Furthermore impairment of carboxylation efficiency (-71% at the end of the post-fumigation period compared to controls in filtered air) and membrane damage in terms of integrity (as demonstrated by a significant rise in solute leakage) were observed. A regulatory adjustment of photosynthetic processes was highlighted during the post-fumigation period by the higher values of qNP and (1-q(P)) and therefore suggests a tendency to reduce the light energy used in photochemistry at the expense of the capacity to dissipate the excess as excitation energy. In addition, the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the de-epoxidation index increased, showing a rearrangement of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus and a marked activation of photoprotective mechanisms. PMID:24321873

  6. Flower Size Variation in Rosmarinus officinalis: Individuals, Populations and Habitats

    PubMed Central

    HERRERA, JAVIER

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Flowers are relatively invariant organs within species, but quantitative variation often exists among conspecifics. These variations represent the raw material that natural selection can magnify, eventually resulting in morphological divergence and diversification. This paper investigates floral variability in Rosmarinus officinalis, a Mediterranean shrub. • Methods Nine populations were selected in three major southern Spanish habitats (coast, lowland and mountains) along an elevation gradient. Flower samples from randomly chosen plants were collected from each population, and a total of 641 flowers from 237 shrubs were weighed while still fresh to the nearest 0·1 mg. Leaves from the same plants were also measured. Variations among habitats, sites and plants were explored with general linear model ANOVA. Leaf–flower covariation was also investigated. • Key Results Most (58 %) mass in flowers was accounted for by the corolla, whose linear dimensions correlated directly with flower mass. Averaged over plants, the mass of a flower varied between 12 mg and 38 mg. Habitat, site (within habitat) and shrub identity had significant effects on mass variance. Flowers from the coast were the smallest (17 mg) and those from the mountains the largest (25 mg on average). A pattern of continuously increasing flower size with elevation emerged which was largely uncoupled from the geographical pattern of leaf size variation. • Conclusions As regards flower size, a great potential to local differentiation exists in Rosmarinus. Observed divergences accord with a regime of large-bodied pollinator selection in the mountains, but also with resource–cost hypotheses on floral evolution that postulate that reduced corollas are advantageous under prevailingly stressful conditions. PMID:15585545

  7. Perfusion strategy for rosmarinic acid production by Anchusa officinalis.

    PubMed

    Su, W W; Lei, F; Su, L Y

    1993-09-20

    The production of an intracellular secondary metabolite rosmarinic acid (RA) by plant cell suspensions of Anchusa officinalis cultivated with intermittent medium exchange is investigated. Initially, a two-stage perfusion culture method was employed. After being cultured in the batch mode for ca. 6 days in B5 medium plus 3% sucrose, 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 0.1 mg/L kinetin (2,4-D B5 medium), Anchusa culture was cultivated to high cell density by perfusion during the growth stage using a hormone-free Gamborg B5 medium supplemented with 6% sucrose. This was followed by a production stage, in which a complete medium exchange into B5 medium plus 3% sucrose and 0.25 mg/L naphthleneacetic acid (NAA) was conducted. The two-stage perfusion culture had a higher maximum culture RA concentration but a lower RA content per cell than the batch stock culture maintained in the 2,4-D B5 medium. Higher culture RA concentration was due primarily to high cell density. The high packed cell volume, however, seemed to reduce the synergistic effect of NAA on RA synthesis. Subsequently, a single-stage perfusion culture method was investigated. The best result was obtained by growing the culture in the batch mode for ca. 10 days using B5 medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and 0.25 mg/L NAA, followed by perfusing the culture with B5 medium plus 6% sucrose and 0.25 mg/L NAA at a constant perfusion rate of 0.1/day. A maximum cell dry weight of 35 g/L and a RA concentration of almost 4 g/L were achieved. This is the highest RA concentration ever reported in the Anchusa culture. PMID:18613136

  8. Dynamic Changes in ANGUSTIFOLIA3 Complex Composition Reveal a Growth Regulatory Mechanism in the Maize Leaf.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Hilde; Eeckhout, Dominique; Demuynck, Kirin; Persiau, Geert; Walton, Alan; van Bel, Michiel; Vervoort, Marieke; Candaele, Jasper; De Block, Jolien; Aesaert, Stijn; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Goormachtig, Sofie; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van Leene, Jelle; Muszynski, Michael; Gevaert, Kris; Inzé, Dirk; De Jaeger, Geert

    2015-06-01

    Most molecular processes during plant development occur with a particular spatio-temporal specificity. Thus far, it has remained technically challenging to capture dynamic protein-protein interactions within a growing organ, where the interplay between cell division and cell expansion is instrumental. Here, we combined high-resolution sampling of the growing maize (Zea mays) leaf with tandem affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry. Our results indicate that the growth-regulating SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex associated with ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3) was conserved within growing organs and between dicots and monocots. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate the dynamics of the AN3-interacting proteins within the growing leaf, since copurified GROWTH-REGULATING FACTORs (GRFs) varied throughout the growing leaf. Indeed, GRF1, GRF6, GRF7, GRF12, GRF15, and GRF17 were significantly enriched in the division zone of the growing leaf, while GRF4 and GRF10 levels were comparable between division zone and expansion zone in the growing leaf. These dynamics were also reflected at the mRNA and protein levels, indicating tight developmental regulation of the AN3-associated chromatin remodeling complex. In addition, the phenotypes of maize plants overexpressing miRNA396a-resistant GRF1 support a model proposing that distinct associations of the chromatin remodeling complex with specific GRFs tightly regulate the transition between cell division and cell expansion. Together, our data demonstrate that advancing from static to dynamic protein-protein interaction analysis in a growing organ adds insights in how developmental switches are regulated. PMID:26036253

  9. Paenibacillus typhae sp. nov., isolated from roots of Typha angustifolia L.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bi He; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Min; Liu, Yang; Liu, Lei; Li, Chun Li; Yu, Rong; Li, Yan Hong

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain xj7(T), was isolated from roots of Typha angustifolia L. growing in Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China. The isolate was identified as a member of the genus Paenibacillus based on phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference. The novel strain was spore-forming, motile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Optimal growth of strain xj7(T) occurred at 28-30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Diphosphatidylglycerol was the most abundant polar lipid and occurred along with phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid and three unknown aminophospholipids. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acid components were anteiso-C15?:?0 (56.1?%), iso-C16?:?0 (9.1?%), C16?:?0 (8.0?%), iso-C14?:?0 (6.3?%) and iso-C15?:?0 (5.1?%). The G+C content of genomic DNA was 47.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain xj7(T) fell within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Paenibacillus, its closest neighbours were Paenibacillus borealis KK19(T) (97.5?%) and Paenibacillus durus DSM 1735(T) (97.1?%). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain xj7(T) and P. borealis KK19(T) and between strain xj7(T) and P. durus DSM 1735(T), were both 35?%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain xj7(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus typhae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is xj7(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.11012(T)?=?DSM 25190(T)). PMID:22707528

  10. Changes in composition of digestive gland and mantle muscle of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis during starvation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Castro; J. L. Garrido; C. G. Sotelo

    1992-01-01

    Changes in the biochemical composition of the digestive gland and in the proteins of the mantle muscle of Sepia officinalis L, collected in September 1989 from the Ria de Vigo (northwest Spain), were measured during periods of 2, 4, 10 and >53 d starvation. The digestive gland lost weight faster than the rest of the body throughout the whole period

  11. Allozyme differentiation in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcos Pérez-Losada; Ángel Guerra; Andrés Sanjuan

    1999-01-01

    The Atlantic–Mediterranean area has recently been proposed as a new phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance of genetic differentiation patterns observed in several marine species. However, additional taxa need to be studied to establish the phylogeographical relationship between the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Eleven samples of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis around the Iberian Peninsula, one from the Canary Islands, and

  12. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydia M. Mäthger; Alexandra Barbosa; Simon Miner; Roger T. Hanlon

    2006-01-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to

  13. Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth, Survival and Condition of Adult Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro M. Domingues; Paul F. Dimarco; Jose P. Andrade; Phillip G. Lee

    2005-01-01

    The effects of artificial diets on growth and body condition of adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis were tested in two experiments. Supplemented prepared diets (fish myofibrillar protein concentrate) were fed during a 30-day and a 21-day experiments. Growth, feeding rate and food conversion of group-reared cuttlefish were analyzed. The first of these experiments tested four artificial diets, made with increasing levels

  14. Comparison of Several Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Benzoic Acid Derivatives from Melissa officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Karasová; Jozef Lehotay; Ewa K?odzinska; Bogus?aw Buszewski

    2006-01-01

    Several extraction techniques, such as Soxhlet extraction, solid phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer, matrix solid phase dispersion, and supercritical fluid extraction were evaluated for the isolation and purification of phenolic compounds, e.g., benzoic acids from natural samples of Melissa officinalis. The extracts of benzoic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in reversed phase modus (C18 column)

  15. Improved in vitro culture and micropropagation of different Melissa officinalis L. genotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Meftahizade; H. Moradkhani; B. Naseri; M. Lofti; A. Naseri

    Melissa officinalis L. is widely cultivated in the world and Iran as well, due to its useful application in medicine. In order to establish a stable and high frequency of regeneration system with 4 landrace collected from different climate in Iran, major parameters such as regeneration rate, rooting percentage, shooting and proliferation rate were investigated. Statistical analysis of results showed

  16. Solvent extraction study of antioxidants from Balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Špela Stangler Herodež; Majda Hadolin; Mojca Škerget; Željko Knez

    2003-01-01

    In the paper, the extraction of antioxidants from Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) leaves with ethanol is presented. Effects of particle size, amount of solvent and temperature on the extraction rates and concentrations of antioxidants in the extracts were studied and kinetics was determined. Individual antioxidants (carnosic, ursolic and oleanolic acids) were identified by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that

  17. Composition of the Essential Oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Cuba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge A. Pino; Aristides Rosado; Victor Fuentes

    1999-01-01

    The essential oil of dried herb of Melissa officinalis L. grown in Cuba was subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 28 constituents separated, 17 were identified (88% of the oil composition). The oil consisted mainly of neral (29–9%) and geranial (41.0%).

  18. Oil of Melissa officinalis L., as Affected by Storage and Herb Drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Shabby; S. El-Gengaihi; M. Khattab

    1995-01-01

    The essential oils of the fresh and dried herb Melissa officinalis L., grown in Egypt were subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 60 constituents separated, 21 were identified. The oil consisted mainly of geranial, neral, citronellal, caryophyllene oxide, ?-caryophyllene and geraniol. Drying the herb prior to distillation did not change the qualitative composition of the oil, but the relative amount

  19. Chromatographic Determination of Derivatives of p?Hydroxybenzoic Acid in Melissa officinalis by HPLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Karasová; Jozef Lehotay

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a fast method for the determination of phenolic compounds–benzoic acids in Melissa officinalis. Soxhlet extraction has been optimized for the isolation of benzoic acids (gallic acid, p?hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid) from plant material. The conditions of Soxhlet extraction, such as solvent composition and extraction time were studied. The efficient extraction

  20. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE IN VITRO MORPHOGENETIC REACTION OF MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. SPECIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GOGU I. GHIORGHI; DIANA ELENA; T. MAFTEI; DANIELA N. NICU

    The paper presents some preliminary results concerning the in vitro initiation of Melissa officinalis species and the morphogenetic reaction of some explants on several hormonal formuli of the basal Murashige-Skoog medium. We recommended some medium formuli that are effective for this species' micropropagation as well as the appropriate accommodation to septic conditions of the neoplantlets obtained in vitro and for

  1. Chemical Characters, Height and Root Weight in Callus Regenerated Plants of Valeriana officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Gao; L. Bjork

    2000-01-01

    To induce variation in a valerian, Valeriana officinalis L., selected plant materials were cultured in vitro. Plants were successfully regenerated from callus and these regenerated plants had large variations in height and root weight. Some of the regenerated plants had improved chemical composition, a higher concentration of valerenic acid derivatives and a tower concentration of vatepotriates. No correlation between morphological

  2. Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Murphy; Z. J. Kubin; J. N. Shepherd; R. H. Ettinger

    2010-01-01

    Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular and widely available herbal supplement, primarily used to treat insomnia and anxiety. Until recently, its mechanism of action has remained unknown. Neurobiological research has begun to show that the herb, with its active valerenic acid, interacts with the GABAA-ergic system, a mechanism of action similar to the benzodiazepine drugs. This series of experiments

  3. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  4. Glandular hairs and essential oils in micropropagated plants of Salvia officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pinarosa Avato; Irene Morone Fortunato; Claudia Ruta; Roberta D’Elia

    2005-01-01

    Micropropagation of Salvia officinalis L. (the common sage) plants to verify their ability to produce the typical volatile oil is described. The morphology of the glandular hairs and the chemical composition of the essential oils from in vitro shoots and micropropagated plants have been studied. For comparative purposes, volatile constituents from field grown mother plants and derived rooted cuttings have

  5. Fungi threatening the cultivation of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in south-eastern Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BEATA ZIMOWSKA

    S u m m a r y In 2004-2006 there were studies conducted on fungi colonizing and harming different parts of plants on plantations of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grouped in south-eastern Poland. Fungi were isolated from roots, the stem base and leaves. The surface was disinfected by means of a mineral medium. Fungi from genera Fusarium, Rhizoctonia solani, Phoma

  6. The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Kendra-guided, rapid adaptive camouflage for multiple tactics to avoid detection or recognition by predators. Two. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three

  7. Comparative anatomy of bisexual and female florets, embryology in Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae), a naturalized horticultural plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengqi Ao

    2007-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is a perennial gynomonoecious herb, often used for medicinal purpose and as ornamentation. The corolla consists of only one petal for ligulate florets, whereas it consists of four to seven petals for disk florets with four to seven stamens accordingly. The bisexual florets are functionally male and their ovaries are either solid or unilocular with no ovule. In

  8. The Effects of Age on the Yield and Composition of the Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. O. Okoh; A. A. Sadimenko; A. J. Afolayan

    2007-01-01

    The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and

  9. Harvesting and cleaning Calendula officinalis, a new arable oilseed crop for industrial application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Breemhaar; A. Bouman

    1995-01-01

    Experiments performed in 1994 on mechanically harvesting and cleaning of Calendula officinalis, a new arable oilseed crop for industrial application, are described. Two suitable methods for harvesting Calendula were compared: combining after chemical desiccation and combining after windrowing. The header of the windrower was modified to enable dehiscent seeds to be collected. Seeds were cleaned with an air-screen cleaner. Analysis

  10. PI3K-mediated proliferation of fibroblasts by Calendula officinalis tincture: implication in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Manikarna; Dasgupta, Uma; Singh, Namrata; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Karmakar, Parimal

    2015-04-01

    Calendula officinalis, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a flowering plant and has been used for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, anticancer and wound healing activity. The mode of action of C. officinalis tincture on wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of C. officinalis tincture (CDOT) on cell viability and wound closure. C. officinalis tincture stimulated both proliferation and migration of fibroblasts in a statistically significant manner in a PI3K-dependent pathway. The increase in phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr 397) and Akt (Ser 473) was detected after treatment of CDOT. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway by wortmannin and LY294002 decreased both cell proliferation and cell migration. HPLC-ESI MS revealed the presence of flavonol glycosides as the major compounds of CDOT. Altogether, our results showed that CDOT potentiated wound healing by stimulating proliferation and migration of fibroblast in a PI3K-dependent pathway, and the identified compounds are likely to be responsible for wound healing activity. PMID:25641010

  11. A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Je´re´my Enault1 migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones the identification of sex pheromones, 576 59-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from a single cDNA library

  12. Within-plant distribution and emission of sesquiterpenes from Copaifera officinalis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Al-Ahmad, Hani; Joyce, Blake; Zhao, Nan; Köllner, Tobias G; Degenhardt, Jörg; Stewart, C Neal

    2009-01-01

    Copaifera officinalis, the diesel tree, is known for massive production of oleoresin, mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. In this study, composition of these sesquiterpenes and their concentrations in leaves, stems and roots of C. officinalis at two developmental stages, including the three-week old (TW) seedlings and two-year old (TY) trees, were determined. The leaves of TW seedlings and TY trees contained similar number of sesquiterpenes, which also had comparable concentrations. The stems of TW seedlings had higher concentrations of sesquiterpenes than those of TY trees. In contrast, the number of sesquiterpene species and their concentrations in the roots of TW seedlings were much lower than those in the roots of TY trees. Cluster analysis of sesquiterpenes estimated that there are at least four terpene synthase genes involved in the production of sesquiterpenes in C. officinalis. Because sesquiterpenes are highly volatile, emissions of sesquiterpenes from healthy and wounded TW seedlings were examined using headspace analysis. Whereas very low emission of sesquiterpenes was detected from undamaged plants, the physically injured seedlings emitted a large number of sesquiterpenes, the quality and the relative quantity of which were similar to those in leaves determined using organic extraction. The implications of our findings to the biosynthetic pathways leading to the production of sesquiterpenes as well as their biological roles in C. officinalis are discussed. PMID:19648019

  13. Description of two biovars in the Rhizobium galegae species: biovar orientalis and biovar officinalis.

    PubMed

    Radeva, G; Jurgens, G; Niemi, M; Nick, G; Suominen, L; Lindström, K

    2001-07-01

    Twenty-six Rhizobium galegae strains, representing the center of origin of the host plants Galega orientalis and G. officinalis as well as other geographic regions, were used in a polyphasic analysis of the relationships of R. galegae strains. Phage typing, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiling, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling and rep-PCR (use of repetitive sequences as PCR primers for genomic fingerprinting) with REP and ERIC primers investigated nonsymbiotic properties, whereas plasmid profiling and hybridisation with a nif gene probe, and with nodB, nodD, nod box and an IS sequence from the symbiotic region as probes, were used to reveal the relationships of symbiotic genes. The results were used in pairwise calculations of distances between the strains, and the distances were visualised as a dendrogram. Indexes of association were compared for all tests pooled, and for chromosomal tests and symbiotic markers separately, to display the input of the different categories of tests on the grouping of the strains. Our study shows that symbiosis related genetic traits in R. galegae divide strains belonging to the species into two groups, which correspond to strains forming an effective symbioses with G. orientalis and G. officinalis respectively. We therefore propose that Rhizobium galegae strains forming an effective symbiosis with Galega orientalis are called R. galegae bv. orientalis and strains forming an effective symbiosis with Galega officinalis are called R. galegae bv. officinalis. PMID:11518322

  14. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceiçăo, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

  15. Size-dependent pollination efficiency in Anchusa officinalis (Boraginaceae) : causes and consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Andersson

    1988-01-01

    Bumblebees foraging on the self-incompatible Anchusa officinalis fly between near neighbour plants and between near neighbour inflorescences within plants. Although many-flowered plants attracted most bumblebees these plants received fewer visits on a per flower basis than smaller plants, and each bumblebee visited a smaller proportion of the flowers. The calculated effective visitation rate per flower was highest on plants of

  16. Effects of macronutrients on growth and rosmarinic acid formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. De-Eknamkul; B. E. Ellis

    1985-01-01

    The influence of various macronutrients on growth and RA formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis has been investigated. Factors tested included sucrose concentration, alternate carbon sources, nitrate, phosphate and calcium concentration. The optimum concentration of sucrose was 3%. Fructose, glucose or their 1:1 mixture were also suitable carbon sources. The optimum concentrations of nitrate (15 mM), phosphate (3

  17. In situ filtration of Anchusa officinalis culture in a cell-retention stirred tank bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wen Su

    1995-01-01

    The effect of agitation and aeration on filtration of Anchusa officinalis culture in a stirred tank bioreactor integrated with an internal filter unit was investigated. Increases in suction head of the pump that drove the filtration process were measured at impeller speeds of 100 and 200 rpm. Surprisingly, suction head attained at 200 rpm was about 40% higher than at

  18. Rosmarinic acid production in perfused Anchusa officinalis culture: Effect of inoculum size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wen Su; Fei Lei

    1993-01-01

    High cell density and rosmarinic acid (RA) productivity have been achieved by applying periodic culture perfusion to the Anchusa officinalis cell suspension. In this study, the effect of inoculum size on cell growth and RA productivity in the perfused Anchusa culture was investigated. Experimental results showed that RA productivity increased with the inoculum size, up to 4 g dry weight\\/L.

  19. Seeding date and nitrogen fertilization effects on the performance of borage ( Borago officinalis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R El Hafid; S. F Blade; Y Hoyano

    2002-01-01

    Recently, borage (Borago officinalis L.) has been the subject of increasing agricultural interest because of the potential market for gamma linolenic acid (GLA), an unusual fatty acid extracted from the seed. GLA is an omega-6 essential fatty acid which has been identified as having several beneficial therapeutic effects such as treatment of atopic eczema, diabetes, cyclic mastalgia, heart disease, arthritis,

  20. Effect of harvesting time on phenolic compounds and antiradical scavenging activity of Borago officinalis seed extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mhamdi; W. Aidi Wannes; J. Sriti; I. Jellali; R. Ksouri; B. Marzouk

    2010-01-01

    Borage seeds (Borago officinalis L.) were sampled in Amdoun region (North of Tunisia) during their ripening stage in order to analyse their phenolic compounds and to ascertain their antiradical scavenging activity. The harvesting time effect on some physical properties of borage seed was significant. The increase of dry weight (from 10 to 90%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that

  1. ORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    that cuttlefish--although color blind--actively match various colors of their immediate surroundings, yet and signaling, despite their apparent color-blindness (Brown and Brown 1958; Hanlon and Messenger 1996; MarshallORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Lydia M. Ma

  2. Calendula officinalis—production potential and crop agronomy in southern England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. T. H Cromack; J. M Smith

    1998-01-01

    Interest in Calendula officinalis L. as an industrial oil crop has developed from the discovery that it has a seed-oil content of around 20%, of which up to 60% is calendic acid, a useful industrial feedstock. An EU AIR project `vegetable oils with specific fatty acids', is in progress to further develop this and other species. The first 2 years

  3. Comparison of classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Salvia officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Hromádková; A. Ebringerová; P. Valachovi?

    1999-01-01

    After preparation of medicine tinctures from the herbal plant Salvia officinalis by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction with aqueous ethanol, the insoluble plant residues were subsequently treated with hot water and dilute alkali to isolate polysaccharide cell wall components. The yields of the hot water extract as well as total extracted polysaccharides were higher in the case of the ultrasound-treated plant

  4. Determination of honokiol and magnolol in Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Chen; Xuejiao Xu; Yizhun Zhu; Luyan Zhang; Pengyuan Yang

    2006-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection has been employed for the determination of honokiol and magnolol in Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (i.e. Magnolia Bark) for the first time. Effects of several important factors such as the concentration and the acidity of the running buffer, separation voltage, injection time, and detection potential were investigated to acquire the optimum conditions. The detection electrode was

  5. Isolation and characterization of phytotoxic compounds from asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.) roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Hartung; M. G. Nair; A. R. Putnam

    1990-01-01

    Potential allelochemicals from aqueous extracts of dried asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) roots were isolated and characterized. Active fractions separated by HPLC included ferulic, isoferulic, malic, citric, and fumaric acids. Soxhlet extraction of the residues also produced phytotoxic caffeic acid. Although none of these compounds, when applied singly, was active enough to account for the phytotoxicity of asparagus extracts, their combined

  6. Direct gene transfer to protoplasts of two genotypes of Asparagus officinalis L. by electroporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandip Mukhopadhyay; Yves Desjardins

    1994-01-01

    Callus-derived protoplasts of two genotypes of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) were electroporated to introduce the -glucuronidase gene (GUS). The level of GUS transient gene expression and the viability of the protoplasts were influenced by the voltage and duration of the electric pulse. The transient expression level was enhanced by increasing the plasmid DNA concentration and by the presence of polyethylene

  7. Effects of Asparagus officinalis extracts on liver cell toxicity and ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, B-Y; Cui, Z-G; Lee, S-R; Kim, S-J; Kang, H-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, D-B

    2009-09-01

    Asparagus officinalis is a vegetable that is widely consumed worldwide and has also long been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of several diseases. Although A. officinalis is generally regarded as a supplement for the alleviation of alcohol hangover, little is known about its effects on cell metabolism. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the constituents of the young shoots and the leaves of asparagus and to compare their biochemical properties. The amino acid and inorganic mineral contents were found to be much higher in the leaves than the shoots. In addition, treatment of HepG2 human hepatoma cells with the leaf extract suppressed more than 70% of the intensity of hydrogen peroxide (1 mM)-stimulated DCF fluorescence, a marker of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cellular toxicities induced by treatment with hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, or tetrachloride carbon (CCl(4)) were also significantly alleviated in response to treatment with the extracts of A. officinalis leaves and shoots. Additionally, the activities of 2 key enzymes that metabolize ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, were upregulated by more than 2-fold in response to treatment with the leaf- and shoot extracts. Taken together, these results provide biochemical evidence of the method by which A. officinalis exerts its biological functions, including the alleviation of alcohol hangover and the protection of liver cells against toxic insults. Moreover, the results of this study indicate that portions of asparagus that are typically discarded, such as the leaves, have therapeutic use. PMID:19895471

  8. Different kinds of male flowers in the dioecious plant Asparagus of officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Galli; M. Bracale; A. Falavigna; F. Raffaldi; C. Savini; A. Vigo

    1993-01-01

    Summary  In the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis L. the female plants bear flowers that are all strictly of the same type, with well-developed pistils and collapsed and consistently sterile rudiments of anthers, while male plants, on the contrary, show a great variety of vestigial female organs, from small, rudimentary ovaries with no style and stigma, up to pistils provided with a

  9. Linkage Arrangement of RFLP loci in progenies from crosses between doubled haploid Asparagus officinalis L. clones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Restivo; F. Tassi; R. Biffi; A. Falavigna; E. Caporali; A. Carboni; M. L. Doldi; A. Spada; G. P. Marziani

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. (2n = 20) has been constructed on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and isozyme marker data. With DNA samples digested with either EcoRI or HindIII 61 out of 148 probes (41%) identified RFLPs in six families of doubled haploid lines obtained through anther culture. A higher

  10. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation improve flooding tolerance in Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Fougnies, L; Renciot, S; Muller, F; Plenchette, C; Prin, Y; de Faria, S M; Bouvet, J M; Sylla, S Nd; Dreyfus, B; Bâ, A M

    2007-05-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) seedlings inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices, and the strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. (UAG 11A) were grown under stem-flooded or nonflooded conditions for 13 weeks after 4 weeks of nonflooded pretreatment under greenhouse conditions. Flooding of P. officinalis seedlings induced several morphological and physiological adaptive mechanisms, including formation of hypertrophied lenticels and aerenchyma tissue and production of adventitious roots on submerged portions of the stem. Flooding also resulted in an increase in collar diameter and leaf, stem, root, and total dry weights, regardless of inoculation. Under flooding, arbuscular mycorrhizas were well developed on root systems and adventitious roots compared with inoculated root systems under nonflooding condition. Arbuscular mycorrhizas made noteworthy contributions to the flood tolerance of P. officinalis seedlings by improving plant growth and P acquisition in leaves. We report in this study the novel occurrence of nodules connected vascularly to the stem and nodule and arbuscular mycorrhizas on adventitious roots of P. officinalis seedlings. Root nodules appeared more efficient fixing N(2) than stem nodules were. Beneficial effect of nodulation in terms of total dry weight and N acquisition in leaves was particularly noted in seedlings growing under flooding conditions. There was no additive effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas and nodulation on plant growth and nutrition in either flooding treatment. The results suggest that the development of adventitious roots, aerenchyma tissue, and hypertrophied lenticels may play a major role in flooded tolerance of P. officinalis symbiosis by increasing oxygen diffusion to the submerged part of the stem and root zone, and therefore contribute to plant growth and nutrition. PMID:17143615

  12. Comparison of the diversity of root-associated bacteria in Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia L. in artificial wetlands.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan Hong; Zhu, Jing Nan; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Yin; Liu, Min; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-08-01

    Common reed (Phragmites australis) and narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) are two plant species used widely in artificial wetlands constructed to treat wastewater. In this study, the community structure and diversity of root-associated bacteria of common reed and narrow-leaved cattail growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, were investigated using 16S rDNA library and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. Root-associated bacterial diversity was higher in common reed than in narrow-leaved cattail. In both plant species, the dominant root-associated bacterial species were Alpha, Beta and Gamma Proteobacteria, including the genera Aeromonas, Hydrogenophaga, Ideonella, Uliginosibacterium and Vogesella. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae and Spirochaetes were only found in the roots of common reed. Comparing the root-associated bacterial communities of reed and cattail in our system, many more species of bacteria related involved in the total nitrogen cycle were observed in reed versus cattail, while species involved in total phosphorus and organic matter removal were mainly found in cattail. Although we cannot determine their nutrient removal capacity separately, differences in the root-associated bacterial communities may be an important factor contributing to the differing water purification effects mediated by T. angustifolia and P. australis wetlands. Thus, further work describing the ecosystem functions of these bacterial species is needed, in order to fully understand how effective common reed- and narrow-leaved cattail-dominated wetlands are for phytoremediation. PMID:23504190

  13. Growing environment and nutrient availability affect the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Saxena, Praveen K

    2006-12-01

    Medicinal plant production is different from other agricultural production systems in that the plants are grown for the production of specific phytochemical(s) for human use. To address this need, a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant, controlled-environment production system was developed for production of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia. Within the prototype facility, the growing systems, nutrient availability, water and physical environment were highly controlled. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of different hydroponic systems, nutrient solution NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratios and mild water stress on the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea plants. The deep-flow solution culture system in which the plant roots were continuously immersed in the nutrient solutions was optimum for the growth of E. purpurea. Higher concentrations of caftaric acid, cynarin and echinacoside were produced in E. angustifolia plants grown in the soil-based growing media while the plants grown in the deep-flow solution system had higher levels of cichoric acid. Altering the NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratio or limited water stress did not have any significant effect on the phytochemical content of Echinacea plants. Echinacea plants grown in the controlled environment systems had higher or similar amounts of cynarin, caftaric acid, echinacoside and cichoric acid as previously reported in the literature for both field-cultivated and wild-harvested Echinacea plants. This growing system offers the advantages of year-round crop production with minimal contamination by environmental pollutants and common microbes. PMID:17054043

  14. Micropropagation and validation of genetic and biochemical fidelity amongst regenerants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl employing RAPD marker and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Siva K; Sardar, Pratima Rani; Agrawal, Veena

    2014-10-01

    In vitro protocol has been established for clonal propagation of Cassia angustifolia Vahl which is an important source of anticancerous bioactive compounds, sennoside A and B. Nodal explants excised from field raised elite plant (showing optimum level of sennoside A and B) of C. angustifolia when reared on Murashige and Skoog's medium augmented with different cytokinins, viz. N(6)-benzyladenine (BA), N(6)-(2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP) and 6-furfuryl aminopurine (Kn) differentiated multiple shoots in their axils. Of the three cytokinins, BA at 5 ?M proved optimum for differentiating multiple shoots in 95 % cultures with an average of 9.14 shoots per explant within 8 weeks of culture. Nearly, 95 % of the excised in vitro shoots rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with 10 ?M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The phenotypically similar micropropagated plants were evaluated for their genetic fidelity employing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eleven individuals, randomly chosen amongst a population of 120 regenerants were compared with the donor plant. A total of 36 scorable bands, ranging in size from 100 to 1,000 bp were generated amongst them by the RAPD primers. All banding profiles from micropropagated plants were monomorphic and similar to those of mother plant proving their true to the type nature. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography evaluation of the sennoside A and B content amongst leaves of the mature regenerants and the elite mother plant too revealed consistency in their content. PMID:25320475

  15. Meiotic restitution mechanisms involved in the formation of 2n pollen in Agave tequilana Weber and Agave angustifolia Haw.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Víctor Manuel; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamín; Barba-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    A cytological analysis of the microsporogenesis was carried out in the Agave tequilana and A. angustifolia species. Several abnormalities such as chromosomal bridges, lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, monads, dyads and triads were found. The morphological analysis of the pollen, together with the above-mentioned 2n microspores, allowed us to confirm the presence of 2n pollen as well as its frequency. In both A. tequilana and A. angustifolia two different mechanisms were observed: the first mechanism, a failure in the cytokinesis in meiosis II caused the formation of dyads with two 2n cells and triads containing two n cells and one 2n cell; the second mechanism, involves an abnormal spindle, which caused the formation of triads with two n cells and one 2n cell. Likewise, the presence of monads was detected in both species, these, might be caused by a failure of the cytokinesis in both meiotic divisions. This is the first report about the presence of a Second Division Restitution mechanism (SDR) which causes the formation of 2n pollen in the genus Agave. The genetic implications of the presence of 2n pollen in the genus Agave are discussed. PMID:23961348

  16. Range dynamics and invasive tendencies in Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia in eastern North America derived from herbarium and pollen records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica G. Shih; Sarah A. Finkelstein

    2008-01-01

    Typha species are increasingly considered invasive weeds in wetlands of eastern North America. Typha angustifolia and T. × glauca are often seen as more invasive than T. latifolia, but there are few comparative biogeographic data on these three species. We examined 1,127 Typha specimens archived in major herbaria to map changes in the distributions of these species since the late-19th

  17. Modelling of the long-term competition between Typha angustifolia and Typha latifolia in shallow water — effects of eutrophication, latitude and initial advantage of belowground organs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Tanaka; Takashi Asaeda; Atsushi Hasegawa; Katsutoshi Tanimoto

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic growth model was developed for Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia that took account of their vertical productive structures, life cycle, shoot height, leaf area and aboveground biomass. The model successfully simulated the seasonal variation of the aboveground and belowground biomass for two monospecific stands at 43°N and 47°N and the total biomass for one competitive stand at 42°N

  18. Transcriptome-Wide Identification of miRNAs and Their Targets from Typha angustifolia by RNA-Seq and Their Response to Cadmium Stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingchun; Chu, Lingling; Jin, Qijiang; Wang, Yanjie; Chen, Xian; Zhao, Hui; Xue, Zeyun

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plant responses to environmental stress. In this work, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze transcriptome and small RNAs (sRNAs) in Typha angustifolia under cadmium (Cd) stress. 57,608,230 raw reads were obtained from deep sequencing of a pooled cDNA library. Sequence assembly and analysis yielded 102,473 unigenes. We subsequently sequenced two sRNA libraries from T. angustifolia with or without Cd exposure respectively. Based on transcriptome data of T. angustifolia, we catalogued and analyzed the sRNAs, resulting in the identification of 114 conserved miRNAs and 41 novel candidate miRNAs in both small RNA libraries. In silico analysis revealed 764 targets for 89 conserved miRNAs and 21 novel miRNAs. Statistical analysis on sequencing reads abundance and experimental validation revealed that 4 conserved and 6 novel miRNAs showed specific expression. Combined with function of target genes, these results suggested that miRNAs might play a role in plant Cd stress response. This study provided the first transcriptome-based analysis of miRNAs and their targets responsive to Cd stress in T. angustifolia, which provide a framework for further analysis of miRNAs and their role in regulating plant responses to Cd stress. PMID:25923807

  19. Increased production of antigen-specific immunoglobulins G and M following in vivo treatment with the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Hydrastis canadensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jalees Rehman; Jennifer M Dillow; Steve M Carter; James Chou; Brian Le; Alan S Maisel

    1999-01-01

    A number of immunomodulatory effects have been attributed to the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis); however, little is known about whether treatment with these plants can enhance antigen-specific immunity. We investigated the antigen-specific in vivo immunomodulatory potential of continuous treatment with Echinacea and Goldenseal root extract over a period of 6 weeks using rats that were injected

  20. Enrichment of Echinacea angustifolia with Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 increased anti-inflammatory potential through interference with cox-2 enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Lalone, Carlie A; Huang, Nan; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Yum, Man-Yu; Singh, Navrozedeep; Hauck, Cathy; Nikolau, Basil J; Wurtele, Eve S; Kohut, Marian L; Murphy, Patricia A; Birt, Diane F

    2010-08-11

    Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 were previously found to be partially responsible for Echinacea angustifolia anti-inflammatory properties. This study further tested their importance using the inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. angustifolia extracts, phytochemical enriched fractions, or pure synthesized standards. Molecular targets were probed using microarray, qRT-PCR, Western blot, and enzyme assays. Fractions with these phytochemicals were more potent inhibitors of LPS-induced PGE(2) production than E. angustifolia extracts. Microarray did not detect changes in transcripts with phytochemical treatments; however, qRT-PCR showed a decrease in TNF-alpha and an increase of iNOS transcripts. LPS-induced COX-2 protein was increased by an E. angustifolia fraction containing Bauer ketone 23 and by pure phytochemical. COX-2 activity was decreased with all treatments. The phytochemical inhibition of PGE(2) production by Echinacea may be due to the direct targeting of COX-2 enzyme. PMID:20681645

  1. Polyamine effects on the endogenous polyamine contents, nitric oxide release, growth and differentiation of embryogenic suspension cultures of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanildo Silveira; Ni Ni Tun; Günther F. E. Scherer; Walter Handro; Miguel P. Guerra; Eny I. S. Floh

    2006-01-01

    In the present work we determined the effects of exogenous polyamines (PAs), supplemented to the culture medium, on the endogenous PA contents, nitric oxide (NO) release, culture growth and organization of proembryogenic masses (PEMs), in embryogenic suspension cultures of Araucaria angustifolia. We observed that PAs (Putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)) had a different effect on growth, morphological evolution

  2. Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding Edges and Contrast of Objects in Natural Substrate Backgrounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHUAN-CHIN CHIAO; EMMA J. KELMAN; ROGER T. HANLON

    Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show disruptive body patterns for camouflage. This response is evoked when the size of the gravel is equivalent to the area of the \\

  3. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  4. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  5. Valepotriate content in different in vitro cultures of Valerianaceae and characterization of Valeriana officinalis L. callus during a growth period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Violon; N. van Cauwenbergh; A. Vercruysse

    1983-01-01

    Differentin vitro cultures of Valerianaceae were analysed for valepotriate content [(iso)valtrate, acevaltrate, didrovaltrate] in a study on\\u000a properties of productionin vitro (plant species, growth conditions, differentiation level, valepotriate content of the medium after growth). Thein vitro cultures were: callus cultures ofValeriana officinalis L., Valerianella locusta L. andCentranthus ruber L.DC.; a suspension culture ofValeriana officinalis L. and a root organ culture

  6. Effects of NaCl on growth, water status, N 2 fixation, and ion distribution in Pterocarpus officinalis seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maguy Dulormne; Olivia Musseau; Félix Muller; Armel Toribio; Amadou Bâ

    2010-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Fabaceae) dominates in the swamp forests of the Lesser Antilles, submitted to strong variations of soil salinity (30–445 mM).\\u000a This study aimed to assess the effect of salinity on growth, nodulation, N2 fixation, water status and ions content in P. officinalis and to clarify the mechanisms involved. Seedlings inoculated or not with two strains from areas of contrasting salinity

  7. Isolation and purification of honokiol and magnolol from cortex Magnoliae officinalis by high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Wang; Yuqiang Wang; Yanling Geng; Fuwei Li; Chengchao Zheng

    2004-01-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography was used to isolate and purify honokiol and magnolol from cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils.), a plant used in the traditional Chinese medicine. A crude sample, 150mg, was successfully separated with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (1:0.4:1:0.4, v\\/v), and the fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The separation produced 80

  8. Structure of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) under external stress in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vibrans, Alexander C; Sevegnani, Lúcia; Uhlmann, Alexandre; Schorn, Lauri A; Sobral, Marcos G; de Gasper, André L; Lingner, Débora V; Brogni, Eduardo; Klemz, Guilherme; Godoy, Marcela B; Verdi, Marcio

    2011-09-01

    This study is part of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina, conceived to evaluate forest resources, species composition and structure of forest remnants, providing information to update forest conservation and land use policy in Southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (95 000 km2). In accordance to the Brazilian National Forest Inventory (IFN-BR), the inventory applies systematic sampling, with 440 clusters containing four crosswise 1 000m2 plots (20 x 50m) each, located on a 10 x 10km grid overlaid to land use map based on classification of SPOT-4 images from 2005. Within the sample units, all woody individuals of the main stratum (DBH > or = 10cm) are measured and collected (fertile and sterile), if not undoubtedly identified in field. Regeneration stratum (height > 1.50m; DBH < 10cm) is registered in 100m2 in each sample unit. Floristic sampling includes collection of all fertile trees, shrubs and herbs within the sample unit and in its surroundings. This study performs analysis based on 92 clusters measured in 2008 within an area of 32320km2 of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia located at the state's high plateau (500m to 1 560m above sea level at 26 degrees 00'-28 degrees 30' S and 49 degrees 13'-51 degrees 23' W). Mean density (DBH > or = 10cm) is 578 individuals/ha (ranging from 85/ha to 1 310/ha), mean species richness in measured remnants is 35 (8 to 62), Shannon and Wiener diversity index (H') varies between 1.05 and 3.48. Despite high total species diversity (364 Magnoliophyta, five Coniferophyta and one tree fern) and relatively high mean basal area (25.75m2/ha, varying from 3.87 to 68.85m2/ha), the overwhelming majority of forest fragments are considered highly impacted and impoverished, mostly by logging, burning and extensive cattle farming, turning necessary more efficient protection measures. Basal area was considered an appropriate indicator for stand quality and conservation status. PMID:22017139

  9. Antioxidant effect and study of bioactive components of Valeriana sisymbriifolia and Nardostachys jatamansii in comparison to Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Dugaheh, Mehdi Ansari; Meisami, Faramarz; Torabian, Zahra; Sharififar, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    The roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been used as a substitute for valerian in Iranian traditions. Moreover, six species from Valeriana genus such as V. sisymbriifolia grow in Iran which has not been studied yet. We aimed to study of antioxidant effect of Valeriana officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Valeriana sisymbriifolia and comparing their content of valerenic acid and valepotriate. Antioxidant effect was evaluated using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition and beta carotene-bleaching assays. Identification of valepotriates was achieved using chemical and TLC method. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of valerenic acid was performed using TLC and spectrophotometry methods. Among the tested samples, V. Officinalis showed the highest DPPH inhibition effect with IC(50) value of 38mg/mL. All of the tested plants potentially inhibited beta-carotene oxidation. The calibration curve of authentic valerenic acid was linear in the range of 2-51 mg L(-1). The most and least amount of valepotraites was detectable in V. officinalis and V. sisymbriifolia respectively. Total valerenic acid in different plant species ranged from 0.02% in V. sisymbriifolia to 0.07% (w/w) in V. Officinalis. Our results indicated that all three tested plants contain different amount of valepotriates and valerenic acid. The highest percentage of valepotriates and valerenic acid was detectable in V. officinalis. Overall can conclude that N. jatamansii and V. sisymbriifolia would be a good candidate for substitutation of V. officinalis with noticeable antioxidant effect. PMID:23261727

  10. Ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced memory deficiency via its antineuroinflammatory and antiamyloidogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Hwan Mook; Lee, Kiho; Choi, Seok Hwa; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Jeong, Jea-Hwang; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

    2013-03-01

    Magnolia bark contains several compounds such as magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, obovatol, and other neolignan compounds. These compounds have been reported to have various beneficial effects in various diseases. There is sufficient possibility that ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis is more effective in amyloidogenesis via synergism of these ingredients. Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether the ethanol extract of M.?officinalis (10?mg/?kg in 0.05% ethanol) prevents memory dysfunction and amyloidogenesis in AD mouse model by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250?µg/?kg/day for seven times) injection. We found that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevented LPS-induced memory deficiency as well as inhibited the LPS-induced elevation of inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and activation of astrocytes and microglia. In particular, administration of M.?officinalis ethanol extract inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis, which resulted in the inhibition of amyloid precursor protein, beta-site amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving enzyme 1 and C99. Thus, this study shows that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevents LPS-induced memory impairment as well as amyloidogenesis via inhibition of neuroinflammation and suggests that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis might be a useful intervention for neuroinflammation-associated diseases such as AD. PMID:22628265

  11. Melissa officinalis L. decoctions as functional beverages: a bioactive approach and chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; ?iri?, Ana; Sokovi?, Marina; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-07-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) is a member of the Lamiaceae family with a long story of human consumption. It has been consumed for decades, directly in food and as a decoction or an infusion for its medicinal purposes. In this manuscript, a detailed chemical characterization of the decoction of this plant is described, encompassing antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activities. Rosmarinic acid and lithospermic acid A were the most abundant phenolic compounds. Quinic acid, fructose, glucose and ?-tocopherol were the most abundant within their groups of molecules. M. officinalis decoctions were active against a wide range of microorganisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium, and Penicillium funiculosum being the most sensitive bacteria and fungi, respectively. The growth inhibition of different human tumor cell lines (mainly MCF-7 and HepG2) was also observed, as also high free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. This manuscript highlights some beneficial effects of these functional beverages. PMID:26075899

  12. Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes with NGF-potentiating activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Chen, Li; Li, Bin; Yin, Hai-Long; Tian, Ying; Wang, Qiong; Xiao, Yan-Hua; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenal F (1), volvalerenal G (2) and volvalerenic acid D (3), along with five known compounds 4-8, were isolated from the CHCl? soluble partition of the ethanol extract of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, as well as mass spectrometry. The eight germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids showed nerve growth factor (NGF) potentiating activity, which mediates the neurite outgrowth in PC 12D cells. This study intends to reveal the chemical basis of the use of V. officinalis var. latiofolia as a dietary supplement. PMID:24241156

  13. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (P<0.01). however, S. officinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth. PMID:24146470

  14. In vitro inhibition of carcinogen-induced mutagenicity by Cassia occidentalis and Emblica officinalis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Trikha, P; Athar, M; Raisuddin, S

    2000-08-01

    Aqueous extracts of Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Leguminoceae) and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae) were screened for effectiveness in inhibiting mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the Ames test. Antimutagenicity was evaluated using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100. In the assay, metabolic activation of AFB1 (0.5 microg/plate) and B[a]P (1 microg/plate) was mediated by rat liver S9 preparation. Although both plants inhibited mutagenicity, E. officinalis had more inhibitory effect than C. occidentalis. Their action is possibly mediated through interactions with microsomal activating enzymes. Their inhibitory action on chromosomal aberrations together with present results suggest that these plants have potent antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities against mutagens requiring metabolic activation. PMID:10959548

  15. Indole Alkaloids of Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in 1 M HCl Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Awang, Khalijah; Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Osman, Hasnah

    2013-04-01

    The inhibition effect of mild steel (MS) corrosion in 1 M HCl was studied by the addition of indole alkaloids (crude) isolated from Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia ( A. latifolia) leaves at 303 K. Potentiodynamic polarization, impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses were used for this study. Results show that the isolated alkaloid extract of A. latifolia is a good inhibitor and exhibited maximum inhibition efficiency (above 80%) at concentrations between 3 and 5 mg/L. Polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitor does not alter the mechanism of either anodic or cathodic reactions and acted as mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies of both electrochemical techniques are found to be in good agreement and adsorption of inhibitor follows Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption of inhibitor over metal surface was well supported by the SEM studies, while FTIR studies evidenced the presence of indole alkaloids as green inhibitor that reduces the rate of corrosion.

  16. In vitro and in vivo immune stimulating effects of a new standardized Echinacea angustifolia root extract (Polinacea).

    PubMed

    Morazzoni, P; Cristoni, A; Di Pierro, F; Avanzini, C; Ravarino, D; Stornello, S; Zucca, M; Musso, T

    2005-07-01

    Polinacea is a new standardized hydroethanolic extract obtained from Echinacea angustifolia roots containing echinacoside (>4%), the high molecular weight polysaccharide IDN 5405 (>5%) and a isobutylamide fraction (<0.1%). For in vitro tests, a bacterial lipopolysaccharide-free (LPS-free) Polinacea has been prepared in order to avoid non-specific responses of immunocompetent cells. LPS-free Polinacea enhanced the immune functions as highlighted by the proliferation rate and gamma-interferon production in murine T-lymphocyte cell cultures stimulated by anti-CD3. LPS-free Polinacea did not have a direct role on macrophage response as measured in the nitric oxide production test using the J774 macrophage cells line. In vivo, Polinacea showed an immune stimulating activity by reducing the Candida albicans induced mortality both in normal and in cyclosporin A-treated mice. PMID:15949903

  17. Nuclear and mitochondrial genome instability induced by senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) aqueous extract in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Silva, C R; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Leităo, A C; Pádula, M

    2014-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (senna) is commonly used in self-medication and is frequently used to treat intestine constipation. A previous study involving bacteria and plasmid DNA suggested the possible toxicity of the aqueous extract of senna (SAE). The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge concerning SAE genotoxicity mechanisms because of its widespread use and its risks to human health. We investigated the impact of SAE on nuclear DNA and on the stability of mitochondrial DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wt, ogg1, msh6, and ogg1msh6) strains, monitoring the formation of petite mutants. Our results demonstrated that SAE specifically increased Can(R) mutagenesis only in the msh6 mutant, supporting the view that SAE can induce misincorporation errors in DNA. We observed a significant increase in the frequency of petite colonies in all studied strains. Our data indicate that SAE has genotoxic activity towards both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. PMID:25501195

  18. Electron-dense tracer evidence for a blood—brain barrier in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Abbott; M. Bundgaard

    1992-01-01

    Summary Electron-dense tracers were used to study the permeability of the blood—brain interface in a cephalopod mollusc, the cuttlefishSepia officinalis. Gel filtration established that horseradish peroxidase is a suitable tracer forin vivo injection, but microperoxidase is not, being subject to binding by plasma proteins. Perfusion-fixed brain vertical and optic lobes showed no endogenous peroxidatic activity. Horseradish peroxidase was injected intravenously,

  19. Behavioral aspects of sperm competition in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Sepioidea: Cephalopoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Hanlon; S. A. Ament; H. Gabr

    1999-01-01

    Sexual selection studies in cephalopods indicate that sperm competition is a central feature of their mating systems, yet\\u000a this has not been studied experimentally in any detail. In 1998 we staged 20 matings of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L., in the laboratory. Males rapidly initiated mating in the “head-to-head” position, with no apparent courtship. Mating\\u000a lasted an average of 10?min

  20. Effects of Crowding on the Social Behavior of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN GEARY BOAL; REBECCA A. HYLTON; SUSAN A. GONZALEZ; ROGER T. HANLON

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of crowding on cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), a benthic cephalopod, the behavior of captive-reared cuttlefish was monitored for a period of 1 month. One group of 6 cuttlefish was housed in a tank 6.1 m in diameter (4.87 m 2 per cuttlefish); another group of 6 was housed in a tank 1.5 m in diameter (0.29 m

  1. Social recognition using chemical cues in cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Boal; S. E. Marsh

    1998-01-01

    Forty-five full-sized, virgin cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus) were tested for social discriminations on the basis of chemical cues alone. Subjects were tested by placing them in the base of a Y-maze and permitting them to choose between the two arms of the maze, each arm with a different water supply. Each subject was tested three times: once with water from

  2. Carnosol and Carnosic Acids from Salvia officinalis Inhibit Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M.; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE2 synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE2 in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC50 values between 1.9 and 3.5 ?g/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC50 values of 5.0 ?M. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE2 generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC50 = 9.3 ?M). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF1?, 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B2] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE2 formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE2 formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis. PMID:22511203

  3. Carnosol and carnosic acids from Salvia officinalis inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE(2) synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE(2) in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE(2) synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC(50) values between 1.9 and 3.5 ?g/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC(50) values of 5.0 ?M. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE(2) generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC(50) = 9.3 ?M). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF(1?), 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B(2)] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE(2) formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE(2) formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis. PMID:22511203

  4. Germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Rui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2010-09-24

    Eight new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenals A-E (2-6) and volvalerenic acids A-C (7-9), along with four known compounds, were isolated from a chloroform extract of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. The structures and relative configurations of 2-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. The effects of all compounds isolated on acetylcholinesterase were evaluated. PMID:20812738

  5. The Essential Oil of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. Growing Wild in Western Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milica Pavlovic; Nada Kovacevic; Olga Tzakou; Maria Couladis

    2004-01-01

    The oil obtained by hydrodistillation from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l., growing wild on Tara Mountain (western Serbia), was analyzed by means of GC\\/MS. Fifty-three components, representing 90.7% of the oil, were identified. The main characteristic of this valerian essential oil was the presence of valerianol (57.3%) and bornyl acetate (11.3%).

  6. Insecticidal Compounds against Drosophila Melanogaster from Cornus Officinalis Sieb. Et Zucc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuo Miyazawa; Jun Anzai; Jun Fujioka; Yukio Isikawa

    2003-01-01

    Dimethyl malate (1) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (2) were isolated as insecticidal compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation from MeOH extract of the fruits of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. Insecticidal activity against larvae of D. melanogaster was demonstrated: 1 and 2 gave the LC50 value of 6.15 and 11.8 µmol\\/mL of diet concentration, respectively. Acute toxicity against adults of D. melanogaster, 1

  7. Antioxidant Effects of Different Extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romaiana Picada Pereira; Roselei Fachinetto; Alessandro de Souza Prestes; Robson Luiz Puntel; Gloria Narjara Santos da Silva; Berta Maria Heinzmann; Ticiane Krapf Boschetti; Margareth Linde Athayde; Marilise Escobar Bürger; Ademir Farias Morel; Vera Maria Morsch; Joăo Batista Teixeira Rocha

    2009-01-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence\\u000a of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate\\u000a the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The

  8. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, Joăo Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18853256

  9. Anti-oedematous activities of the main triterpendiol esters of marigold ( Calendula officinalis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Zitterl-Eglseer; S Sosa; J Jurenitsch; M Schubert-Zsilavecz; R Della Loggia; A Tubaro; M Bertoldi; C Franz

    1997-01-01

    Separation and isolation of the genuine faradiol esters (1,2) from flower heads of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae) could be achieved by means of repeated column chromatography (CC) and HPLC for the first time. Structure elucidation of faradiol-3-myristic acid ester 1, faradiol-3-palmitic acid ester 2 and ?-taraxasterol 3 has been also performed, without any previous degradation by means of MS,

  10. Marigold ( Calendula officinalis L.) oleoresin: Solubility in SC-CO 2 and composition profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leandro Danielski; Louisiane F. V. Bresciani; Haiko Hense; Rosendo A. Yunes; Sandra R. S. Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    The solubility of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) oleoresin in supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and the composition profile of the extracts obtained using different extraction methods were investigated. Supercritical experiments were performed at different temperature (20–40°C) and pressure (120–200bar) levels. The oleoresin solubility in SC-CO2 was determined through the dynamic method using low solvent flow rates (0.79–1.67gCO2\\/min), by assuming that the solvent

  11. Experimental data and modeling the supercritical fluid extraction of marigold ( Calendula officinalis) oleoresin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliane M. Z. Michielin; Leandro Danielski; Sandra R. S. Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    The fixed bed extraction of marigold (Calendula officinalis) oleoresin with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The operating conditions studied were: pressures ranging from 12 to 20MPa and temperatures from 293 to 313K, indicating solvent densities ranging from 666 to 938kgCO2\\/m3, and solvent flow rate varying from 1.3×10?5 to 5.0×10?5kgCO2\\/s. The results show an increase in the extraction rate,

  12. Metabolism of [3- 3 H]oleanolic acid in Calendula officinalis L. roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dariusz Ruszkowski; Anna Szakiel; Wirginia Janiszowska

    2003-01-01

    The radioactive precursor, [3-3H]oleanolic acid was administrated to excised roots from four weeks old Calendula officinalis L. plants. Transformations of this compound into two series of its glycosides, i.e. glucosides and glucuronides were investigated. For the first time it has been shown that both series of oleanolic acid glycosides\\u000a are synthesized in roots of young marigold plants. The pathway of

  13. The influence of Calendulae officinalis flos extracts on cell cultures, and the chromatographic analysis of extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Matysik; M. Wójciak-Kosior; R. Paduch

    2005-01-01

    Three extracts of Calendulae officinalis flos (Asteraceae): heptane, ethyl acetate and methanol were introduced to a human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells culture and a culture of human breast cancer cells (T47D), cell culture collection ECACC number 85102201. The ethyl acetate but not the heptane and methanol extracts in concentrations above 25?g\\/mL, can stimulate cell proliferation and cellular metabolism by increase

  14. Analysis of Carotenoid Composition in Petals of Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanae KISHIMOTO; Takashi MAOKA; Katsuhiko SUMITOMO; Akemi OHMIYA

    2005-01-01

    Nineteen carotenoids were identified in extracts of petals of orange- and yellow-flowered cultivars of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.). Ten carotenoids were unique to orange-flowered cultivars. The UV-vis absorption maxima of these ten carotenoids were at longer wavelengths than that of flavoxanthin, the main carotenoid of calendula petals, and it is clear that these carotenoids are responsible for the orange color

  15. Preparative purification of the major anti-inflammatory triterpenoid esters from Marigold ( Calendula officinalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamburger; S. Adler; D. Baumann; A. Förg; B. Weinreich

    2003-01-01

    A method for the efficient preparative purification of faradiol 3-O-laurate, palmitate and myristate, the major anti-inflammatory triterpenoid esters in the flower heads of the medicinal plant Calendula officinalis has been developed. Gram quantities of the individual compounds were obtained with 96 to 98% purity by a combination of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), normal-phase and reversed-phase column chromatography. During the work-up

  16. A new oleanene glucuronide having a branched-chain sugar from Melilotus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Udayama, M; Kinjo, J; Yoshida, N; Nohara, T

    1998-03-01

    A new oleanene glucuronide called melilotus-saponin O1 (1) was isolated together with three known ones from the roots of Melilotus officinalis (L.) PALLAS (Leguminosae). The structure of 1 was determined to be 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1--> 3)]- beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl soyasapogenol B by spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:9549893

  17. Production of rosmarinic acid from perfusion culture of Anchusa officinalis in a membrane-aerated bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wen Su; Arthur E. Humphrey

    1991-01-01

    Summary In this study, a perfusion fermentation ofAnchusa officinalis was carried out in a stirred tank bioreactor integrated with an internal cross-flow filter. Bubble-free aeration via microporous membrane fibers was used to provide oxygen. A two-stage culture was successfully conducted in this reactor without filter fouling. In a 17 day fermentation, a cell density of 26 g dw\\/I and a

  18. High density cultivation of Anchusa officinalis in a stirred-tank bioreactor with in situ filtration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Su; F. Lei; N. P. Kao

    1995-01-01

    Previously, Su et al. [Biotechnol Bioeng 42: 884–890 (1993)] reported improved production of rosmarinic acid by Anchusa officinalis in shake-flask cultures using a cultivation strategy that involved intermittent medium exchange. Implementation of this cultivation strategy in 2.5-1 stirred-tank bioreactor cultures is investigated in the present study. Intermittent cell\\/medium separation in the bioreactor was accomplished by means of automated in situ

  19. Rosmarinic acid formation and differential expression of tyrosine aminotransferase isoforms in Anchusa officinalis cell suspension cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajime Mizukami; Brian E. Ellis

    1991-01-01

    Time-course changes in rosmarinic acid (RA) formation and activities of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) isoforms were examined in Anchusa officinalis suspension cultures. Three TAT isoforms (TAT-1, TAT-3, TAT-4) were resolved by Mono-Q anion-exchange column chromatography. The proportion of the TAT-3 activity within the total TAT activity remained high regardless of the growth stage of the cultured cells. TAT-1 activity was positively

  20. Investigation of ?-Linolenic Acid and Stearidonic Acid Biosynthesis During a Life Cycle of Borago officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathrin Stähler; Siew-Young Quek; Matthew R. Miller

    This study investigated the levels of ?-linolenic (GLA, 18:3n-6) and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) in various parts of the\\u000a borage plant (Borago officinalis L.) to elucidate ?6-desaturase activity. Lipid class and fatty acid (FA) composition during germination of the seeds and\\u000a FA composition of various borage parts were determined as well as FA compositions of neutral lipids (NL), polar lipids

  1. Lipid components of borage ( Borago officinalis L.) seeds and their changes during germination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. J. Namal Senanayake; Fereidoon Shahidi

    2000-01-01

    The changes in composition of total and neutral lipids (NL) as well as glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seeds, germinated in the dark at 25°C for 10 d, were studied. Total lipids constituted 34.0% of the dry matter of borage seeds. During germination, the content\\u000a of total lipids was decreased by 95%. NL accounted for

  2. Is self-compatibility the main breeding system in borage (Borago officinalis L.)?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Montaner; E. Floris; J. M. Alvarez

    2000-01-01

    The polygenic postzygotic self-incompatible system reported in borage (Borago officinalis L.) is refuted. The behaviour of pollen tubes after self- and cross-pollination, analysis of the crossability coefficient,\\u000a seed set after continuous generations of self-pollination and the effects of inbreeding depression in borage were studied.\\u000a Evidence of self-compatibility was established. The influence of protandry in a self-compatible system is also discussed.

  3. Identification of two markers linked to the sex locus in dioecious Asparagus officinalis plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Gao; R. L. Li; Sh. F. Li; Ch. L. Deng; S. P. Li

    2007-01-01

    One hundred decamer primers of random-amplified polymorphic DNA were tested on dioecious Asparagus officinalis plants to identify sex-linked molecular markers. One primer (S368) produced two markers (S368-928 and S368-1178) in female\\u000a plants. These two DNA markers were identified in 30 male and female plants, respectively, and a S368-928 marker was proved\\u000a to be linked to the female sex locus. The

  4. Survival of cultured cells and somatic embryos of Asparagus officinalis cryopreserved by vitrification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Uragami; A. Sakai; M. Nagai; T. Takahashi

    1989-01-01

    Cultured cells and somatic embryos derived from the mesophyll tissue of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) were cryopreserved by vitrification. The vitrification solution (PVS) contains (w\\/v) 22% glycerol, 15% ethylene glycol, 15% propylene glycol and 7% DMSO in Murashige-Skoog medium enriched with 0.5M sorbitol. After initial cryoprotection with sorbitol supplemented MS medium containing 12% ethylene glycol, cells or embryos were exposed

  5. T-DNA Organization in Tumor Cultures and Transgenic Plants of the Monocotyledon Asparagus officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benny Bytebier; Francine Deboeck; Henri de Greve; Marc van Montagu; Jean-Pierre Hernalsteens

    1987-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis was the first monocotyledonous plant from which hormone-independent and opine-producing crown gall tissue could be isolated. We confirm by DNA hybridization that tumor lines obtained after infection of this plant by Agrobacterium strains harboring wild-type nopaline and octopine tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids are stably transformed and contain transferred DNA (T-DNA) segments identical to the T-DNA found in dicotyledonous plants.

  6. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from protoplasts of asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisato Kunitake; Masahiro Mii

    1990-01-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic calli of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Mary Washington and cultured in 1\\/2 MS medium with 1 mg\\/l NAA, 0.5 mg\\/l zeatin, 1 g\\/l L-glutamine, 0.6 M glucose and 0.1% Gellan Gum. Protoplasts started to divide after 3–4 d of culture and formed visible colonies after 30 d of culture. The percentage of colony formation (plating

  7. Isolation of a Novel Deoxyribonuclease with Antifungal Activity from Asparagus officinalis Seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hexiang Wang; T. B. Ng

    2001-01-01

    A deoxyribonuclease distinct from the previously isolated asparagus ribosome-inactivating proteins, possessing a molecular weight of 30 kDa and requiring a pH of 7.5 for optimum hydrolytic activity toward herring sperm DNA, was isolated from Asparagus officinalis seeds. The isolation procedure involved extraction with saline, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE–cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose,

  8. A method to produce encapsulatable units for synthetic seeds in Asparagus officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanji Mamiya; Yuji Sakamoto

    2001-01-01

    A method to produce encapsulatable units for synthetic seeds was developed in Asparagus officinalis L. Encapsulatable units with high conversion ability in non-sterile soil were produced from somatic embryos by a pre-encapsulation culture. The synthetic seeds containing somatic embryos without the pre-encapsulation culture did not germinate in soil. When the pre-encapsulation culture medium did not contain growth regulators, the roots

  9. Aflp markers tightly linked to the sex locus in Asparagus officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stella Marie Reamon-Büttner; Jörg Schondelmaier; Christian Jung

    1998-01-01

    Nine AFLP markers linked to the sex locus in Asparagus officinalis L. have been identified by non-radioactive AFLP technique and bulked segregant analysis. A composite map of one F2 and two F1 populations identified three very tightly linked markers. These markers did not give recombinants in the three different populations and mapped 0.5, 0.7 and 1 cM to the sex

  10. Improved culture conditions for somatic embryogenesis from Asparagus officinalis L. using an aseptic ventilative filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeo Saito; Shuji Nishizawa; Shigeo Nishimura

    1991-01-01

    Calli were induced from the crown of seedlings or lateral bud of young spears of Asparagus officinalis L. on Linsmaier and Skoog's (LS) solid-medium supplemented with 5 µ M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Embryogenic callus was selected from induced calli and proliferated in LS liquid medium supplemented with 5 µ M 2,4-D. Non-vitrified somatic embryos were formed and efficiently developed into

  11. A genetic map of Asparagus officinalis based on integrated RFLP, RAPD and AFLP molecular markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Spada; E. Caporali; G. Marziani; P. Portaluppi; F. M. Restivo; F. Tassi; A. Falavigna

    1998-01-01

    An integrated genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. has been constructed on the basis of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and isoenzyme markers. The segregation analysis of the polymorphic\\u000a markers was carried out on the progeny of five different crosses between male and female doubled-haploid clones generated\\u000a by anther culture. A total of 274 markers have been organized to

  12. AFLP-derived STS markers for the identification of sex in Asparagus officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Reamon-Büttner; C. Jung

    2000-01-01

    For a simple, rapid and PCR-based screening of sex in the cultivated asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), we developed five STS markers from previously mapped, low-copy, sex-linked AFLP markers. A male\\/female PCR assay was\\u000a feasible with these STS markers either by direct amplification or by digestion with restriction enzymes. Similar to the AFLP\\u000a markers from which they were derived, STS4150.1, STS4150.2,

  13. Evidence for in vitro induced mutation which improves somatic embryogenesis in Asparagus officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Delbreil; M. Jullien

    1994-01-01

    Summary  Somatic embryogenesis from different genotypes of Asparagus officinalis L. could be obtained by in vitro culture of shoot apices. Apices were first cultured on an auxin-rich inducing medium and then transferred onto a hormone-free development medium. All genotypes tested in this way produced a few somatic embryos. In some experiments, during the development phase, a new kind of friable highly

  14. Electroporation modulates the embryogénie responses of asparagus ( asparagus officinalis l.) microspores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Delaitre; S. Ochatt; E. Deleury I

    2001-01-01

    Summary  Microspores of three genotypes ofAsparagus officinalis L. were mechanically isolated without affecting their viability and were submitted to electric fields in order to modulate\\u000a their competence for embryogenesis. When a constant pulse length and various field strengths (250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, and\\u000a 2000 V\\/cm) were tested, the viability of electro-treated microspores decreased as the field strength increased, for all

  15. Interactions of ancymidol with sucrose and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid in promoting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) somatic embryogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Li; D. J. Wolyn

    1997-01-01

    Interactions of varying ancymidol concentrations with those of ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or sucrose in embryo induction medium were related to the production and development of asparagus\\u000a (Asparagus officinalis L.) somatic embryos, and to the ability of these embryos to germinate. A significant sucrose×ancymidol interaction was observed\\u000a only for the production of bipolar embryos; 4% sucrose with 0.75 mg l–1 ancymidol

  16. Identification and nanoentrapment of polyphenolic phytocomplex from Fraxinus angustifolia: in vitro and in vivo wound healing potential.

    PubMed

    Moulaoui, Kenza; Caddeo, Carla; Manca, Maria Letizia; Castangia, Ines; Valenti, Donatella; Escribano, Elvira; Atmani, Djebbar; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the polyphenolic composition of Fraxinus angustifolia leaf and bark extracts, and to evaluate their efficacy in wound healing. Quercetin, catechin, rutin and tannic acid were identified as the main components of the extracts. In order to improve their skin bioavailability, the polyphenolic phytocomplexes were incorporated in different nanovesicles, namely ethosomes and phospholipid vesicles containing Transcutol(®) P (Trc) or ethylene glycol (EG). The latter had never been used before as a component of phospholipid vesicles, and it was found to play a key role in improving extract efficacy in wound healing. Results of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) showed that ethosomes and EG-PEVs were small, monodispersed, unilamellar vesicles, while Trc-PEVs were larger, less homogeneously dispersed and multilamellar, with a large bilayer thickness. Free extracts did not show relevant ability to protect in vitro human keratinocytes from H2O2 damages, while when entrapped in nanovesicles, they significantly inhibited H2O2 stress damages, probably related to a higher level of cell uptake. On the other hand, in vivo results showed that the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were provided by the phytocomplexes in EG-PEVs, which favoured wound healing. Moreover, non-entrapped F. angustifolia extracts showed a marginal effect, comparable to that of free quercetin dispersion (control). In conclusion, our results depict that these extracts may find potential applications in biomedicine. PMID:25462238

  17. Effect of transient oxic conditions on the composition of the nitrate-reducing community from the rhizosphere of Typha angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Brunel, B; Janse, J D; Laanbroek, H J; Woldendorp, J W

    1992-07-01

    Within a nitrate-reducing bacterial community, a niche differentiation between denitrifying and nitrate ammonifying bacteria may be determinated by a complex of environmental parameters, such as the availability of carbon, nitrate, and oxygen. Hence, oxygen- and carbon-releasing aerenchymatous plants may affect the composition of the nitrate-reducing community in waterlogged sediment. The composition of the nitrate-reducing community in the rhizosphere of the aerenchymatous plant species Typha angustifolia was compared with the community in nonrhizospheric sediment. All three functional groups (NO2 (-) accumulators, N2O producers, and presumed NH4 (+) producers) were present at both sites with an ratio of 36:45:12 and 43:22:18 for nonrhizospheric and rhizospheric sediments, respectively. Most of the isolated were gram-negative, and approximately 50% of these strains demonstrated an obligatory oxidative metabolism.In the absence of nitrate, Enterobacteriaceae (belonging to the NO2 (-) accumulating group) became dominant during enrichment of bacteria from the rhizosphere of T. angustifolia in a chemostat with glycerol (20 mM) as substrate, both under strictly anoxic and transient oxic conditions. Addition of nitrate to the chemostats led to the predominance of denitrifying pseudomonads, irrespective of the presence or absence of oxygen. However, in the presence of nitrate under anoxic conditions, enterobacteria persisted in the medium together with pseudomonads.It was concluded that oxidative bacteria such as pseudomonads are the better competitors for limiting amounts of glycerol, provided oxygen or nitrate is present. In the absence of these electron acceptors, fermentative bacteria become dominant. PMID:24193039

  18. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T

    2006-05-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains. PMID:16376404

  19. Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K; Kubin, Z J; Shepherd, J N; Ettinger, R H

    2010-07-01

    Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular and widely available herbal supplement, primarily used to treat insomnia and anxiety. Until recently, its mechanism of action has remained unknown. Neurobiological research has begun to show that the herb, with its active valerenic acid, interacts with the GABA(A)-ergic system, a mechanism of action similar to the benzodiazepine drugs. This series of experiments sought to corroborate these findings with behavioral measures, compare them to the benzodiazepine diazepam, and to analyze the chemical composition of Valeriana officinalis. Rats were administered either ethanol (1 ml/kg), diazepam (1mg/kg), valerian root extract (3 ml/kg), valerenic acid (3mg/kg), or a solution of valerenic acid and exogenous GABA (75 microg/kg and 3.6 microg/kg, respectively) and assessed for the number of entries and time spent on the open arms of an elevated plus maze. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in anxious behavior when valerian extract or valerenic acid exposed subjects were compared to the ethanol control group. The evidence supports Valeriana officinalis as a potential alternative to the traditional anxiolytics as measured by the elevated plus maze. PMID:20042323

  20. Cytoprotective effect of Valeriana officinalis extract on an in vitro experimental model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    de Oliveria, Dięgo Madureira; Barreto, George; De Andrade, Deyse Valverde G; Saraceno, Ezequiel; Aon-Bertolino, Laura; Capani, Francisco; Dos Santos El Bachá, Ramon; Giraldez, Lisandro Diego

    2009-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most important neurodegenerative worldwide disorders. The potential cytoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Valeriana officinalis on rotenone-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were demonstrated. The cytotoxicity, cell viability and analysis of cellular morphology were performed by MTT-tetrazole (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and phase contrast microscopy, respectively. Significant changes in the cellular morphology, and condensation of the cell body could be observed when cells were treated with 300 nM rotenone for 48 h. Three different concentrations of Valeriana officinalis extract were used (0.049, 0.098 and 0.195 mg/mL). These extracts brought about an increase of 7.0 +/- 1.3%, 14.5 +/- 1.3% and 14.5 +/- 3.2% in cell viability. Our results indicated that neuroprotector action of the Valeriana officinalis extract provides support for later studies as they help understanding this drug for the development of cytoprotective various therapies in PD. PMID:18512151

  1. Shh and Pax6 have unconventional expression patterns in embryonic morphogenesis in Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Navet, Sandra; Andouche, Aude; Baratte, Sébastien; Bonnaud, Laure

    2009-10-01

    Cephalopods show a very complex nervous system, particularly derived when compared to other molluscs. In vertebrates, the setting up of the nervous system depends on genes such as Shh and Pax6. In this paper we assess Shh and Pax6 expression patterns during Sepia officinalis development by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In vertebrates, Shh has been shown to indirectly inhibit Pax6. This seems to be the case in cephalopods as the expression patterns of these genes do not overlap during S. officinalis development. Pax6 is expressed in the optic region and brain and Shh in gut structures, as already seen in vertebrates and Drosophila. Thus, both genes show expression in analogous structures in vertebrates. Surprisingly, they also exhibit unconventional expressions such as in gills for Pax6 and ganglia borders for Shh. They are also expressed in many cephalopods' derived characters among molluscs as in arm suckers for Pax6 and beak producing tissues, nuchal organ and neural cord of the arms for Shh. This new data supports the fact that molecular control patterns have evolved with the appearance of morphological novelties in cephalopods as shown in this new model, S. officinalis. PMID:19683074

  2. Disinfectant properties of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Mohamed; Yangui, Thabčt; Sayadi, Sami; Dhouib, Abdelhafidh

    2009-11-01

    The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation of the aerial part of Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Sfax gardens, Tunisia. The obtained oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 44 compounds were identified. Strong bactericidal and fungicidal effects were shown using the NCCLS broth dilution, EN 1275 and EN 1276 standard methods. The minimal cidal concentrations (MCCs) values ranged from 0.031 to 0.25 microLmL(-1). The essential oils concentrations of 0.5% and 1% (v/v) resulted in a reduction in viability higher than 5 and 4 log units per mL for the standard bacteria and fungi, respectively, within a contact time of 5 min. Using an air sampler and an aroma dispenser, vaporisation of 0.25 mLm(-3) of S. officinalis essential oils resulted in (72%, 73% and 70%) and (54%, 55% and 55%) reduction of the total microbial count and the total count of yeasts and moulds, after a residence time of 1h, 6h and 24h in a selected testing room, respectively. S. officinalis essential oils showed a potent vapour activity against a panel of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. This supported their use as a natural eco-friendly disinfectant to manage airborne microbes. PMID:19682532

  3. Identification of Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract as the most potent anti-inflammatory of four plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Walker, Joel M; Maitra, Amarnath; Walker, Jessica; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam M; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory potential of a Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract solely or in combination with extracts prepared from either Polygonum aviculare L., Sambucus nigra L., or Isodon japonicus L. in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) and human U-937 monocytes, as cell models of periodontal disease. HGF-1 and U-937 cells were incubated with LPS from either Porphyromonas gingivalis or Escherichia coli together with the four plant extracts alone or in combination. Secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines from HGF-1 and U-937 cells was measured by means of a multiplexed bead assay system. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract, at concentrations of 1 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL, reduced interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from HGF-1 cells to 72.5 ± 28.6% and reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion from U-937 cells to 8.87 ± 7.97% compared to LPS-treated cells (100%). The other three extracts also reduced secretion of these inflammatory markers but were not as effective. Combination of 9 ?g/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 1 ?g/mL of each of the other extracts maintained the anti-inflammatory effect of Magnolia officinalis L. extract. Combination of 5 ?g/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 5 ?g/mL Isodon japonicus L. extract also maintained the anti-inflammatory potential of the Magnolia officinalis L. extract, whereas increasing concentrations of any of the other plant extracts in the combination experiments reduced the Magnolia officinalis L. extract efficacy in U-937 cells. PMID:23711140

  4. Valeriana officinalis does not alter the orofacial dyskinesia induced by haloperidol in rats: role of dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Fachinetto, Roselei; Villarinho, Jardel G; Wagner, Caroline; Pereira, Romaiana P; Avila, Daiana Silva; Burger, Marilise E; Calixto, Joăo Batista; Rocha, Joăo B T; Ferreira, Juliano

    2007-10-01

    Chronic treatment with classical neuroleptics in humans can produce a serious side effect, known as tardive dyskinesia (TD). Here, we examined the effects of V. officinalis, a medicinal herb widely used as calming and sleep-promoting, in an animal model of orofacial dyskinesia (OD) induced by long-term treatment with haloperidol. Adult male rats were treated during 12 weeks with haloperidol decanoate (38 mg/kg, i.m., each 28 days) and with V. officinalis (in the drinking water). Vacuous chewing movements (VCMs), locomotor activity and plus maze performance were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment produced VCM in 40% of the treated rats and the concomitant treatment with V. officinalis did not alter either prevalence or intensity of VCMs. The treatment with V. officinalis increased the percentage of the time spent on open arm and the number of entries into open arm in the plus maze test. Furthermore, the treatment with haloperidol and/or V. officinalis decreased the locomotor activity in the open field test. We did not find any difference among the groups when oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment significantly decreased [(3)H]-dopamine uptake in striatal slices and V. officinalis was not able to prevent this effect. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanism involving the reduction of dopamine transport in the maintenance of chronic VCMs in rats. Furthermore, chronic treatment with V. officinalis seems not produce any oxidative damage to central nervous system (CNS), but it also seems to be devoid of action to prevent VCM, at least in the dose used in this study. PMID:17669571

  5. Acid-base regulatory ability of the cephalopod (Sepia officinalis) in response to environmental hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Gutowska, Magdalena A; Melzner, F; Langenbuch, M; Bock, C; Claireaux, G; Pörtner, H O

    2010-03-01

    Acidification of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions is a currently developing scenario that warrants a broadening of research foci in the study of acid-base physiology. Recent studies working with environmentally relevant CO(2) levels, indicate that some echinoderms and molluscs reduce metabolic rates, soft tissue growth and calcification during hypercapnic exposure. In contrast to all prior invertebrate species studied so far, growth trials with the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis found no indication of reduced growth or calcification performance during long-term exposure to 0.6 kPa CO(2). It is hypothesized that the differing sensitivities to elevated seawater pCO(2) could be explained by taxa specific differences in acid-base regulatory capacity. In this study, we examined the acid-base regulatory ability of S. officinalis in vivo, using a specially modified cannulation technique as well as (31)P NMR spectroscopy. During acute exposure to 0.6 kPa CO(2), S. officinalis rapidly increased its blood [HCO(3)(-)] to 10.4 mM through active ion-transport processes, and partially compensated the hypercapnia induced respiratory acidosis. A minor decrease in intracellular pH (pH(i)) and stable intracellular phosphagen levels indicated efficient pH(i) regulation. We conclude that S. officinalis is not only an efficient acid-base regulator, but is also able to do so without disturbing metabolic equilibria in characteristic tissues or compromising aerobic capacities. The cuttlefish did not exhibit acute intolerance to hypercapnia that has been hypothesized for more active cephalopod species (squid). Even though blood pH (pHe) remained 0.18 pH units below control values, arterial O(2) saturation was not compromised in S. officinalis because of the comparatively lower pH sensitivity of oxygen binding to its blood pigment. This raises questions concerning the potentially broad range of sensitivity to changes in acid-base status amongst invertebrates, as well as to the underlying mechanistic origins. Further studies are needed to better characterize the connection between acid-base status and animal fitness in various marine species. PMID:19838713

  6. Influęncia do horário de colheita e secagem de folhas no óleo essencial de melissa (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivada em dois ambientesa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. FONTES; CARVALHO FILHO; P. B. ALVES; R. SILVA-MANN; M. O. RODRIGUES; Bairro Jardim; Rosa Elze

    Influence of harvest times and drying of leaves on the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in two environments. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of harvest times and drying of leaves on content and chemical composition of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in greenhouse and field. The assay was conducted at the

  7. Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinmi Lee; Kyungsil Chae; Juran Ha; Byung-Young Park; Hee Suk Lee; Sunhyo Jeong; Min-Young Kim; Michung Yoon

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are suggested to be involved in the regulation of hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia iwayomogi, improves lipid metabolism, body weight gain and adiposity and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is associated with these events. Mice

  8. Application of the threshold of toxicological concern approach for the safety evaluation of calendula flower ( Calendula officinalis) petals and extracts used in cosmetic and personal care products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Re; D. Mooney; E. Antignac; E. Dufour; I. Bark; V. Srinivasan; G. Nohynek

    2009-01-01

    Calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) (CF) has been used in herbal medicine because of its anti-inflammatory activity. CF and C. officinalis extracts (CFE) are used as skin conditioning agents in cosmetics. Although data on dermal irritation and sensitization of CF and CFE’s are available, the risk of subchronic systemic toxicity following dermal application has not been evaluated. The threshold of toxicological

  9. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) explains interspecific crossability between the garden asparagus (A. officinalis) and other Asparagus species.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Shosei; Konno, Itaru; Kanno, Akira

    2012-02-01

    The genus Asparagus comprises approximately 200 species, some of which are commercially cultivated, such as the garden asparagus (A. officinalis). Many Asparagus species, including A. officinalis, are dioecious and have been grouped into a subgenus distinct from that of hermaphroditic species. Although many interspecific crossings have been attempted to introduce useful traits into A. officinalis, only some of the dioecious species were found to be cross-compatible with A. officinalis. Here, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine whether interspecific crossability is proportional to the genetic distance between the crossing pairs and to further clarify the evolutionary history of the Asparagus genus. A clade with all cross-compatible species and no cross-incompatible species was recovered in the phylogenetic tree based on analyses of non-coding cpDNA regions. In addition, a sex-linked marker developed for A. officinalis amplified a male-specific region in all cross-compatible species. The phylogenetic analyses also provided some insights about the evolutionary history of Asparagus; for example, by indicating that the genus had its origin in southern Africa, subsequently spreading throughout the old world through intensive speciation and dispersal. The results also suggest that dioecious species were derived from a single evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism in Asparagus. These findings not only contribute towards the understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus but may also facilitate future interspecific hybridization programs involving Asparagus species. PMID:21947345

  10. An examination of hybridization between the cattail species typha latifolia and typha angustifolia using random amplified polymorphic DNA and chloroplast DNA markers

    PubMed

    Kuehn; Minor; White

    1999-12-01

    Typha glauca represents a significant portion of the biomass of the wetlands surrounding the Great Lakes, USA. It is generally accepted to be a form of hybrid between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia, which itself appears to be an exotic introduction from Europe. Based on morphological and isozyme data, conflicting theories have been proposed for the hybrid nature of T. glauca: it has been described as a hybrid swarm, a distinct hybrid species and an F1 hybrid. Therefore, we developed random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and chloroplast DNA markers, specific to the parental species, to assess hybrids. Ten RAPD primers gave 17 fragments specific to T. angustifolia and 13 fragments specific to T. latifolia. All of the interspecific hybrids contained each of the species-specific markers, indicating an F1 hybrid status. Furthermore, all hybrids tested contained the T. angustifolia chloroplast haplotype, which is consistent with differential interspecific crossing success found previously. Additional confirmation of an F1 hybrid status was gained by examining seedlings from T. glauca. These progeny were expected to be advanced-generation hybrids, as opposed to the F1 hybrid parent. Analysis of the seedlings revealed segregating marker patterns consistent with patterns observed in experimental advanced-generation hybrids, although these advanced hybrids do not appear to be a significant part of mature stands. Our data do not provide support for extensive gene flow between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia. However, our results suggest that hybridization between the native and introduced Typha species has impacted the native population through the spread of the F1 hybrid, T. glauca. PMID:10632850

  11. Heavy metals accumulation and ecophysiological effect on Typha angustifolia L. and Cyperus esculentus L. growing in distillery and tannery effluent polluted natural wetland site, Unnao, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangeeta Yadav; Ram Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Distillery and tanneries are major source of heavy metals pollution in natural wetland sites in India. Present study deals\\u000a with the heavy metals accumulation potential of Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus growing in distillery and tannery effluent polluted wetland sites. The metal accumulation pattern in both macrophytes showed\\u000a direct correlation with the metal content in sediments. Both macrophytes were observed

  12. Estimating nitrogen budgets of Typha angustifolia by considering the regrowth shoot productivity and nitrogen content after harvesting aerial organs in different growing seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shamal Chandra Das; Norio Tanaka

    2007-01-01

    A dynamic model that includes regrowth after harvesting aerial shoots of an emergent macrophyte, Typha angustifolia L., was applied to evaluate the nitrogen (N) budget and the N uptake by the plant from sediment in Shibakawa Pond, Japan.\\u000a Under natural conditions (control\\/uncut stands), the analysis showed that the annual uptake of N from sediment was 26.6 gN\\/m2 and harvesting Typha shoots

  13. Kocuria palustris sp. nov, and Kocuria rhizophila sp. nov., isolated from the rhizoplane of the narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabor KOV; Jutta Burghardt; Silke Pradella; Peter Schumann; Erko Stackebrandt

    Two Gram-positive, aerobic spherical actinobacteria were isolated from the rhizoplane of narrow-leaved cattail (lypha angustifolia) collected from a floating mat in the Soroksdr tributary of the Danube river, Hungary. Sequence comparisons of the 16s rDNA indicated these isolates to be phylogenetic neighbours of members of the genus Kocuria, family Micrococcaceae, in which they represent two novel lineages. The phylogenetic distinctness

  14. Effects of a standardized purified dry extract from Echinacea angustifolia on proliferation and interferon gamma secretion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dairy heifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Wu; Alessandro Nardone; Nicola Lacetera

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to ascertain whether a standardized extract from Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea™) affects proliferation and interferon gamma (IFN-?) secretion in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).PBMC from six Holstein heifers were incubated with 0, 6.3, 20, 60, or 180?g\\/ml of the tested compound. Proliferation was stimulated by concanavalin A (ConA) or pokeweed-mitogen (PWM). Secretion of IFN-? was stimulated

  15. Characterization of fungal soil communities by F-RISA and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from Araucaria angustifolia forest soils after replanting and wildfire disturbances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Patreze; E. N. De Paulo; A. P. Martinelli; E. J. B. Cardoso; S. M. Tsai

    2009-01-01

    The Fungal Ribosomallntergenic Spacer Analysis (F-RlSA) was used to characterize soil fungal communities from three Cecosystems\\u000a ofAraucaria angustifolia from Brazil: a native forest and two replanted forest ecosystems, one of them with a past history of wildfire. The arbuscular\\u000a mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) infection was evaluated inAraucaria roots of 18-monthold axenic plants previously inoculated with soils collected from those areas in

  16. Growth Characteristics of Introduced Green Ash ( Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and Narrow-leaved Ash ( F. angustifolia L.) in Lowland Forest Region in Croatia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kremer; J. Cavlovic; M. Bozic

    2006-01-01

    American ash and green ash were used about 100 years ago in the lowland regions of Croatia to afforest and fill the depressions\\u000a where narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) could not survive. The growth of mean stand trees of green ash and narrow-leaved ash were studied in 14 sites (a systematic\\u000a sample of 0.03 ha circular plots). A total of 212 trees

  17. Metabolomic analysis reveals that the accumulation of specific secondary metabolites in Echinacea angustifolia cells cultured in vitro can be controlled by light.

    PubMed

    Guarnerio, Chiara Francesca; Fraccaroli, Marica; Gonzo, Irene; Pressi, Giovanna; Dal Toso, Roberto; Guzzo, Flavia; Levi, Marisa

    2012-02-01

    Echinacea angustifolia cell suspension cultures are usually grown and maintained in the dark, but we also exposed cells to light for one culture cycle (14 days) and then compared the metabolomes of dark-grown and illuminated cells by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among 256 signals, we putatively identified 159 molecules corresponding to 56 different metabolites plus their fragments, adducts and isotopologs. The E. angustifolia metabolome consisted mainly of caffeic acid derivatives, comprising (a) caffeic acid conjugated with tartaric, quinic and hexaric acids; and (b) caffeic acid conjugated with hydroxytyrosol glycosides (e.g., echinacoside, verbascoside and related molecules). Many of these metabolites have not been previously described in E. angustifolia, which currently lacks detailed metabolic profiles. Exposure to light significantly increased the levels of certain caffeic acid derivatives (particularly caffeoylquinic acids and hydroxytyrosol derivatives lacking rhamnose residues) and reduced the level of hydroxytyrosol derivatives with rhamnose residues, revealing that light specifically inhibits the rhamnosylation of caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides. These results are significant because they suggest that the metabolic profile of cell cultures can be manipulated by controlling simple environmental variables such as illumination to modulate the levels of potentially therapeutic compounds. PMID:22009052

  18. A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

    2013-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

  19. Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.

    PubMed

    Ka?ániová, Miroslava; Vukovi?, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vat?ák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 ?L.mL(-1)-0.39 ?L.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 ?L.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties were different in particular plant species. The highest% of inhibition after 30 min. of reaction was observed at Origanum vulgare (93%), Satureia montana (90.66%) and Lavandula augustifolia (90.22%). PMID:24813985

  20. Protective effect of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract against Mn-induced oxidative stress in chronically exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Martins, Eduarda N; Pessano, Naira T C; Leal, Luiza; Roos, Daniel H; Folmer, Vanderlei; Puntel, Gustavo O; Rocha, Joăo Batista Teixeira; Aschner, Michael; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Puntel, Robson Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for biological systems; however occupational exposure to high levels of this metal may lead to neurodegenerative disorders, resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). While its mechanisms of neurotoxicity have yet to be fully understood, oxidative stress plays a critical role. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis in attenuating Mn-induced brain oxidative stress in mice. Sixteen male mice were randomly divided into two groups and treated for 3 months: the first group consumed tap water (control group) and the second group was treated with Mn (50 mg/kg/day for habituation during the first 15 days followed by 100 mg/kg/day for additional 75 days) in the drinking water. After 3 months both groups were sub divided (n=4 per group) and treated for additional 3 months with Mn and/or M. officinalis in the drinking water. The first group (control) was treated with water and served as control; the second group (M. officinalis) was treated with M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day); the third group was treated with Mn (100 mg/kg/day); the fourth group (Mn+M. officinalis) was treated with both Mn and M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day each). Mn-treated mice showed a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels (a marker of oxidative stress) in both the hippocampus and striatum. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in total thiol content in the hippocampus and a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the hippocampus, striatum, cortex and cerebellum. Co-treatment with M. officinalis aqueous extract in Mn-treated mice significantly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities and attenuated the oxidative damage (TBARS and decreased total thiol levels). These results establish that M. officinalis aqueous extract possesses potent antioxidative properties, validating its efficacy in attenuating Mn-induced oxidative stress in the mouse brain. PMID:22020131

  1. The W-shaped pupil in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis): functions for improving horizontal vision.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Hĺkansson, Jonas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2013-05-01

    The eyes of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) have a modified horizontal slit-pupil with a distinctive W-shape in bright light, while in darkness the pupil is circular. Two suggestions have previously been made for a function of the W-shape: (1) camouflaging the eye; (2) providing distance information. Since neither of these suggestions can fully explain the function of this pupil across the entire visual field, particularly the frontal and caudal periphery, we re-addressed the question of its functional significance. We took infra-red images of the eyes of live S. officinalis at different light intensities and from different viewing angles. This allowed us to determine the shape and light-admitting area of the pupil for different parts of the visual field. Our data show that the W-shaped pupil projects a blurred "W" directly onto the retina and that it effectively operates as vertical slits for the frontal and caudal parts of the visual field. We also took images of the natural habitat of S. officinalis and calculated the average vertical brightness distribution in the visual habitat. Computing a retinal illumination map shows that the W-shaped pupil is effective in balancing a vertically uneven light field: The constricted pupil reduces light from the dorsal part of the visual field significantly more than it reduces light from the horizontal band. This will cut the amount of direct sunlight that is scattered by the lens and ocular media, and thus improve image contrast particularly for the dimmer parts of the scene. We also conclude that the pupil provides even attenuation along the horizontal band, whereas a circular pupil would attenuate the image relatively more in the important frontal and caudal periphery of the visual field. PMID:23474299

  2. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis on the survivability of random-patterned skin flaps: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ince, Bilsev; Yildirim, Alpagan Mustafa; Okur, Mehmet Ihsan; Dadaci, Mehmet; Yoruk, Ebru

    2015-04-01

    Improving survival of skin flaps used in soft-tissue reconstruction is clinically an important goal, and several systemic and local agents have been used for this purpose. However, a substance that prevents the flap necrosis has not yet been defined. This study aimed to investigate whether a Rosmarinus officinalis extract could improve the skin flap survival. In this study, 21 Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Rectangular 8 × 2 cm random-pattern flaps were elevated from the back of the rats. Group I was considered the control group. In Group II, a 0.5-cc of Rosmarinus officinalis oil was applied with an ear bud to the flap area 30 minutes before the flap elevation. After suturing the flaps to their location, the oil was administered twice a day for a week. In Group III, 0.5 cc of the oil was applied twice a day to the area that was elevated for a week until surgery. At the end of the week, the flaps were sutured to their location, and wiped postoperatively twice a day for a week with the oil. Mean percentage of these areas was found to be 29.81%, 58.99%, and 67.68% in Group I, Group II, and Group III, respectively. The mean percentage of the flap survival areas and vessel diameters were significantly greater in the Groups II and III than in the control group (p < 0.05). The results revealed that the topical use of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract can increase the flap survivability. PMID:24702647

  3. Componential profile and amylase inhibiting activity of phenolic compounds from Calendula officinalis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-?-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase. PMID:24683352

  4. Componential Profile and Amylase Inhibiting Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Calendula officinalis L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Olennikov, Daniil N.; Kashchenko, Nina I.

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6?-O-vanilloyl-?-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6??-acetyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase. PMID:24683352

  5. In vivo and in vitro lipid accumulation in Borago officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Whipkey; James E. Simon; Jules Janick

    1988-01-01

    Seeds of 13 accessions of borage (Borago officinalis) varied in total fatty acid content from 28.6 to 35.1% seed weight, with linoleic, ?-linolenic, oleic and palmitic as the\\u000a predominant fatty acids, averaging 38.1%, 22.8%, 16.3% and 11.3% of total fatty acids, respectively. There was an inverse\\u000a relation between ?-linolenic acid (25.0 to 17.6%) and oleic acid (14.5 to 21.3%). Fatty

  6. In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

    2011-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC??) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 ?g/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000??g/mL. The IC?? of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9??g/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection. PMID:21476887

  7. Protonophoric and uncoupling activity of royleanones from Salvia officinalis and euvimals from Eucalyptus viminalis.

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, Nikolay A; Arkhipov, Vladimir V; Foigel, Alexander G; Shipulina, Liudmila D; Fomkina, Maria G

    2003-12-01

    The mechanism of action of quinones from the roots of Salvia officinalis L. (royleanones) and terpenoid phenolaldehydes from the leaves of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. (euvimals) was studied. Royleanones and euvimals displayed marked protonophoric activity on artificial bilayer lipid membranes in vitro, and exerted an uncoupling action on oxidative phosphorylation in isolated rat liver mitochondria. The results suggest that biological membranes are the primary targets of royleanones and euvimals, and the protonophoric activity may contribute to the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties of these compounds. PMID:14669263

  8. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Honokiol and Magnolol in Magnolia Officinalis by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Y. C. Chou; T. H. Tsai; M. F. Lin; C. F. Chen

    1996-01-01

    A simple and rapid capillary electrophoretic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of honokiol and magnolol in Magnolia officinalis extracts and dextrorphan was used as the internal standard. The running buffer was composed of 22.5 mM Na2HPO4 and 10 mM Na2B4O7 (pH 9.1–9.2). The linear calibration range was 2 – 20 ?g\\/mL for honokiol and 5–50 ?g\\/mL for magnolol.

  10. Identification of Sensory-Active Phytochemicals in Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from raw and cooked asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), respectively, followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed the chemical structures of nine bitter tasting mono- and bidesmotic saponins as well as the previously not reported 1,2-dithiolan-4-carboxylic acid 6-D-?/?-glucopyranose ester exhibiting an interesting buttery mouth-coating effect. Sensory studies showed that the orosensation imparted by this sulfur compound was reminiscent to that of melting butter and revealed an orosensory recognition threshold of 276.8 ?mol/L. PMID:23136992

  11. A new steroidal saponin from the dried stems of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhouxuan; Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

    2010-04-01

    Yamogenin II (1), a new steroidal saponin with a unique aglycone moiety, and (25S)-spirostan-5-ene-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), were isolated from the dried stems of Asparagus officinalis L. The structure of 1 was assessed by spectroscopial analysis as (25S)-spirostan-5-ene-3beta,21-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:19751809

  12. Steroids from the roots of Asparagus officinalis and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue-Feng; Lin, Yu-Ying; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2008-06-01

    One new (Sarsasapogenin O) and seven known steroids were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including various 2D-NMR techniques, hydrolysis, and by comparison of spectral data of known compounds. These compounds together with nine steroids which were previously isolated from this plant, were tested for cytotoxic activity. Among them, eight compounds displayed significant cytotoxicities against human A2780, HO-8910, Eca-109, MGC-803, CNE, LTEP-a-2, KB and mouse L1210 tumor cells. PMID:18713412

  13. Modulation of ovine neutrophil function and apoptosis by standardized extracts of Echinacea angustifolia, Butea frondosa and Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Farinacci, Maura; Colitti, Monica; Stefanon, Bruno

    2009-04-15

    Impaired neutrophil function has been associated with increased infectious diseases in ruminants. Attachment of neutrophils to endothelium and superoxide production is critical features of their immune activity. Once the infection is cleared, programmed cell death ensures the rapid resolution of inflammation. To develop new natural therapeutics for ruminants, standard extracts of Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea), Butea frondosa and Curcuma longa (Curcuvet) were first evaluated on ovine neutrophil functions. Curcuvet strongly reduced PMA-stimulated adhesion and superoxide production. Polinacea and B. frondosa extract also reduced these functions, but with less efficacy than Curcuvet. We analyzed the effect of extracts on spontaneous apoptosis and gene expression in neutrophils aged in vitro for up to 22h. IL8 is critical for neutrophil recruitment and the immune response; Bcl2-related proteins, Bcl2A1 and Bax, are key regulators of neutrophil fate. Spontaneous apoptosis strongly increased in ovine neutrophils cultured for 22h (T22), accompanied by an upregulation of IL8 and a decreased Bcl2A1:Bax ratio. Curcuvet stimulated spontaneous apoptosis and inhibited IL8 and Bcl2A1 gene expression at T22, whereas Polinacea and B. frondosa extract inhibited spontaneous apoptosis and stimulated IL8 expression at T22. These results suggest that Curcuvet has antiinflammatory activity, whereas Polinacea and B. frondosa have an immunomodulatory action on sheep neutrophils. PMID:19128841

  14. The effect of plant inbreeding and stoichiometry on interactions with herbivores in nature: Echinacea angustifolia and its specialist aphid.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Caroline E; Hangelbroek, Helen H; Wagenius, Stuart; Stanton-Geddes, John; Shaw, Ruth G

    2011-01-01

    Fragmentation of once widespread communities may alter interspecific interactions by changing genetic composition of interacting populations as well as their abundances and spatial distributions. In a long-term study of a fragmented population of Echinacea angustifolia, a perennial plant native to the North American prairie, we investigated influences on its interaction with a specialist aphid and tending ants. We grew plant progeny of sib-matings (I), and of random pairings within (W) and between (B) seven remnants in a common field within 8 km of the source remnants. During the fifth growing season, we determined each plant's burden of aphids and ants, as well as its size and foliar elemental composition (C, N, P). We also assayed composition (C, N) of aphids and ants. Early in the season, progeny from genotypic classes B and I were twice as likely to harbor aphids, and in greater abundance, than genotypic class W; aphid loads were inversely related to foliar concentration of P and positively related to leaf N and plant size. At the end of the season, aphid loads were indistinguishable among genotypic classes. Ant abundance tracked aphid abundance throughout the season but showed no direct relationship with plant traits. Through its potential to alter the genotypic composition of remnant populations of Echinacea, fragmentation can increase Echinacea's susceptibility to herbivory by its specialist aphid and, in turn, perturb the abundance and distribution of aphids. PMID:21935460

  15. An exploratory study into the putative prebiotic activity of fructans isolated from Agave angustifolia and the associated anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Allsopp, Philip; Possemiers, Sam; Campbell, David; Oyarzábal, Iván Saldańa; Gill, Chris; Rowland, Ian

    2013-08-01

    Linear inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics have a putative role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, whereas relatively little is known about branched fructans. This study aims to investigate the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of branched fructans derived from Agave angustifolia Haw, using the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) model. The proximal, transverse and distal vessels were used to investigate fructan fermentation throughout the colon and to assess the alterations of the microbial composition and fermentation metabolites (short chain fatty acids and ammonia). The influence on bioactivity of the fermentation supernatant was assessed by MTT, Comet and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), respectively. Addition of Agave fructan to the SHIME model significantly increased (P < 0.05), bifidobacteria populations (proximal and transverse), SCFA concentrations (proximal, transverse and distal) and decreased ammonia concentrations in the distal vessel. Furthermore, the fermentation supernatant significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TER of a Caco-2 cell monolayer (%) and decreased fluorescein-based paracellular flux, suggesting enhanced barrier function and reduced epithelial barrier permeability (proximal and distal vessel). While cytotoxicity and genotoxicity remained unaltered in response to the presence of Agave fructans. To conclude, branched Agave fructans show indications of prebiotic activity, particularly in relation to colon health by exerting a positive influence on gut barrier function, an important aspect of colon carcinogenesis. PMID:23714623

  16. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat

    PubMed Central

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant’s leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive. PMID:24250620

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens.

    PubMed

    Efstratiou, Efstratios; Hussain, Abdullah I; Nigam, Poonam S; Moore, John E; Ayub, Muhammad A; Rao, Juluri R

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole. PMID:22789794

  18. Aspects of the stock dynamics and exploitation of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), in the English Channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Dunn

    1999-01-01

    Basic biological parameters of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, in the English Channel are described from samples of commercial and research vessel landings made between April 1994 and September 1995. There was a significant difference between the length–weight relationship of male and female cuttlefish. Growth of both sexes was rapid and seasonal during the last 12 months of life. Males grew faster

  19. Development of new quality index method (QIM) schemes for cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of sensory schemes for freshness grading of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) based on the recent quality index method (QIM). As preliminary work, four storage experiments were performed to choose the relevant sensory parameters for building the schemes. From an initial large set of parameters, some were chosen to be attributes

  20. The effects of crowding on growth of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 reared at two temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Forsythe; Phillip Lee; Leigh Walsh; Tara Clark

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of crowding (stocking density) on food consumption and growth of juvenile Sepia officinalis reared at 17 and 25 °C. Two groups of 75 cuttlefish each were reared in closed seawater systems with water temperatures of 17 and 25 °C. Each group was subdivided into two treatments (three replicates per treatment):

  1. Sensory, microbiological, physical and chemical properties of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii) stored in ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas; Micaela Mota; Judite Lapa-Guimarăes; Jana Pickova; Andreia Lindo; Teresa Silva

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize whole raw cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) during storage in ice through sensory, microbiological, chemical and physical analyses. The recently developed Quality Index Method (QIM) tables for these species were used for sensory analysis. Shelf-life of whole cuttlefish and shortfin squid were estimated as around 10 and 9 days,

  2. Extensive population subdivision of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) around the Iberian Peninsula indicated by microsatellite DNA variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Pérez-Losada; A Guerra; G R Carvalho; A Sanjuan; P W Shaw

    2002-01-01

    The Atlantic Ocean-Mediterranean Sea junction has been proposed as an important phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance in genetic patterns observed at allozyme, mtDNA and microsatellite DNA markers in several marine species. This study presents microsatellite DNA data for a mobile invertebrate species in this area, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, allowing comparison of this relatively new class of DNA

  3. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  4. Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: A morphological and biochemical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bolkent; R. Yanardag; Omur Karabulut-Bulan; B. Yesilyaprak

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a

  5. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  6. Heavy Metal and Microbial Contamination of Valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) Roots Grown in Soil Treated with Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Weightman

    2007-01-01

    Contamination with heavy metals and microbes of roots of Valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) grown in either unamended soil (US) or sewage sludge-amended soil (SSAS) were studied in two seasons in the UK. The concentrations of heavy metals found in the washed roots from SSAS were greater than the concentrations found in roots from the US plots by 480, 2800, 215,

  7. Extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. show anxiolytic and antidepressant effects but neither sedative nor myorelaxant properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Hattesohl; Björn Feistel; Hartwig Sievers; Romanus Lehnfeld; Mirjam Hegger; Hilke Winterhoff

    2008-01-01

    Extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. are used for treating mild sleep disorders and nervous tension. Despite intensive research efforts, the pharmacological actions accounting for the clinical efficacy of valerian remain unclear. Thus, it was the aim of this study to evaluate CNS-related effects of different valerian extracts using behavioral paradigms (mice and rats). Following oral administration two commercially available

  8. Changes in valerenic acids content of valerian root ( Valeriana officinalis L. s.l.) during long-term storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. H. Wills; D. Shohet

    2009-01-01

    Dried valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root powder was stored at 5, 14 and 30°C under low, moderate and high humidity conditions for 6 months, and the level of the valerenic acids monitored on a monthly basis. From an initial moisture content of 5g\\/kg, the moisture level during storage decreased in root powder stored at low humidity and increased during storage at

  9. Morphology of Eogystia sibirica (Alphéraky) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) attacking Asparagus officinalis in northern China with descriptions of its immature stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Tian; Bao-zhen Hua; Hui-jie Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The carpenter moth Eogystia sibirica (Alphéraky) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) is a serious pest of the garden asparagus Asparagus officinalis (family Liliaceae) in northern China, with its larvae boring in the stem and roots, frequently causing significant damage to the plant. All the life stages of the pest, including egg, larva, pupa and adult, are described and illustrated in detail. The ovoid

  10. Patterns of genetic diversity and biogeographical history of the tropical wetland tree, Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.), in the Caribbean basin.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Ocasio, E; Aide, T M; McMillan, W O

    2002-04-01

    Studies examining intraspecific variation in plant species with widespread distributions and disjunct populations have mainly concentrated on temperate species. Here, we determined the genetic structure of a broadly distributed wetland tropical tree, Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.), from eight Neotropical populations using amplified length fragment polymorphisms (AFLP). AFLPs proved highly variable with almost half (48%) of the genetic variation at these loci occurring among individuals within populations. Nonetheless, there was a strong geographical pattern in the distribution of AFLP variation within P. officinalis. Caribbean and continental populations fell into two well-defined genetic clusters supported by the presence of a number of unique AFLP bands. Within these two regions, there were also strong genetic differences among populations, caused mainly by frequency differences in AFLP bands, making it difficult to determine the evolutionary relationships among populations. In addition, our analysis of P. officinalis revealed striking differences in the levels of AFLP variation among the eight populations sampled. In general, Caribbean populations had lower genetic diversity than continental populations. Moreover, there was a clear loss in AFLP diversity with distance from the continent among Caribbean populations. The overall genetic pattern within P. officinalis suggests that past colonization history, coupled with genetic drift within local populations, rather than contemporary gene flow are the major forces shaping variation within this species. PMID:11972756

  11. Effects of auxins and cytokinins on growth and rosmarinic acid formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. De-Eknamkul; B. E. Ellis

    1985-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis required exogenous phytohormones for their normal growth. Cell lysis was observed at the third passage in a hormone-free medium. Using hormone — depleted cells, the effects of auxins (2,4-D, NAA, IAA and CFP) and cytokinins (BA, kinetin, and zeatin) on cell growth and RA production were investigated. All auxins tested could maintain growth and

  12. Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

    Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

  13. First Field Trials of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) in Andalusia (Southern Spain) as a Source of “Biological” Gamma Linolenic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gálvez; A. De Haro

    2002-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is cultivated in the north of Spain for fresh edible production and is gathered from natural populations for its fresh flowers with saline, cucumber-like flavor. It is considered as a weed in the rest of Spain. Nevertheless, the agroecological mediterranean conditions in the south of Spain are adequate for growing borage as an oilseed crop for

  14. Growth and yield response of calendula (Calendula officinalis) to sowing date in the northern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) seed is a rich source of the conjugated C18:3 fatty acid calendic acid and can serve as a replacement for VOCs in many industrial chemicals such as paints, coatings and adhesives. Calendula is widely adapted to temperate climates and may be a beneficial rotationa...

  15. Antidepressant-like effects of the mixture of honokiol and magnolol from the barks of Magnolia officinalis in stressed rodents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qun Xu; Li-Tao Yi; Ying Pan; Xing Wang; Yu-Cheng Li; Jian-Mei Li; Cai-Ping Wang; Ling-Dong Kong

    2008-01-01

    Honokiol and magnolol are the main constituents simultaneously identified in the barks of Magnolia officinalis, which have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of mental disorders including depression. In the present study, we reported on the antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of the mixture of honokiol and magnolol in well-validated models of depression in rodents: forced

  16. Effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium on conversion of somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanji Mamiya; Yuji Sakamoto

    2000-01-01

    The effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium were studied to produce plants from somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L. There was a significant difference among concentrations of sugar but not among kinds of sugar tested in the present experiment in growth of shoots and roots. When the sucrose concentrations were 10, 30, or 50gl?1, the fresh weight

  17. Physical, chemical, histological and microbiological changes in fresh green asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis, L.) stored in modified atmosphere packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Villanueva; M. D. Tenorio; M. Sagardoy; A. Redondo; M. D. Saco

    2005-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been used to increase the shelf life of the green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L.), meeting the market demand for fresh high quality products available annually and without the use of additives whenever possible.Green asparagus spears were stored under three different conditions until they were not fit for consumption: refrigeration at 2 °C, MAP at 2

  18. Development of male and female flower in Asparagus officinalis. Search for point of transition from hermaphroditic to unisexual developmental pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Caporali; A. Carboni; M. G. Galli; G. Rossi; A. Spada; G. P. Marziani Longo

    1994-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is a dioecious plant. The flowers start to develop as hermaphrodites and later become unisexual. In female flowers the stamens degenerate, while in male flowers the ovary stops growing without degenerating. We have examined young asparagus flowers using SEM and optical microscopy in order to determine the exact moment of transition from hermaphroditic to unisexual development. We defined

  19. Cornus officinalis Methanol Extract Upregulates Melanogenesis in Melan-a Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-01-01

    Cornus officinalis is widely distributed in Korea, and its fruit has been used to make as herbal drug for traditional medicine in Korea, Japan, and China because of its tonic, analgesic, and diuretic properties. However, the effects of C. officinalis methanol extract (COME) on melanogenesis remain poorly understood. We evaluated the melanogenic capability of COME in melan-a cells, which are immortalized mouse melanocytes. COME increased melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with 12.5 ?g/mL of COME significantly increased melanin content by 36.1% (p < 0.001) to a level even higher than that (31.6%) of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine, a well-known pigmentation agent. COME also upregulated tyrosinase activity and its messenger RNA and protein expression. In addition, COME upregulated the expression of tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-M messenger RNA expression. These results imply that COME may be appropriate for development as a natural product to treat hair graying.

  20. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Oryza officinalis Leaf Transcriptome by Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ying; Xu, Si; Jing, Xiang; Meng, Lu; Qin, Zongyan

    2015-01-01

    Although endeavors have been made to identify useful wild rice genes that can be used to improve cultivated rice, the virtual reservoir of genetic variation hidden within the wild relatives of cultivated rice is largely untapped. Here, using next-generation sequencing technology, we investigated the leaf transcriptome of a wild rice O. officinalis with CC genome. Approximately 23 million reads were produced in the species leaf transcriptome analysis and de novo assembly methods constructed 68,132 unigenes. Functional annotations for the unigenes were conducted using sequence similarity comparisons against the following databases: the nonredundant nucleotide database, the nonredundant protein database, the SWISS-PROT database, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins database, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, the Gene Ontology Consortium database, and the InterPro domains database. In addition, a total of 476 unigenes related to disease resistance were identified in O. officinalis, and these unigenes can serve as important genetic resources for cultivated rice breeding and quality improvement. The present study broadens our understanding of the genetic background of non-AA genomic wild rice species and it also provides a bridge to extend studies to other Oryza species with CC genomes. PMID:25713814

  1. New protocols to improve the deposition and hatching of Sepia officinalis' eggs.

    PubMed

    Barile, Nadia B; Cappabianca, Sabatino; Antonetti, Luigi; Scopa, Mariaspina; Nerone, Eliana; Mascilongo, Giuseppina; Recchi, Sara; D'Aloise, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was the development of hatching protocols in controlled conditions to obtain juveniles, in order to restock and increase the resource of Sepia officinalis. The study was divided into the following phases: development and application of artificial surfaces at specific sites of the Molise coast in Italy; induction of eggs hatching and juveniles maintenance under controlled condition; juveniles introduction into specific sites and assessment their increment; experimental data elaboration. The obtained results concerned both the effectiveness of the artificial surfaces tasted during the study and the importance of the recovery of the eggs laid on artificial surfaces (artefacts and fishing gear) for preservation and the management of the Sepia officinalis resource. The induction tests conducted on eggs hatching under controlled conditions confirmed what described in the extant literature. Water salinity was detected as the only limiting factor, with values ? 20% related to the absence of hatching. The described practices for harvesting and induction of hatching for the production of juvenile cuttlefish may be endorsed by the operators at relatively low cost and throughout the year, with obvious economic benefits. PMID:24362778

  2. Production of Sterilizing Agents from Calendula officinalis Extracts Optimized by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Goktas, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Bilgesu; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce hand sterilizing liquid and wet wipes with the extracts of Calendula officinalis. Since this plant has well known antimicrobial activity due to its phytochemical constituents, the increase in the extraction yield was chosen as the principle part of the production process. To achieve the maximum yield, parameters of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and time were studied. The optimum conditions were determined by response surface methodology as 41°C, 7?h, and 3.3?g/200?mL for temperature, time, and solid-to-liquid ratio, respectively. The yield achieved at those conditions was found to be 90 percent. The highest amounts of flavonoids were detected at optimum, whereas the highest triterpene and saponin constituents were determined at different design points. The microbial efficiencies of extracts were determined by the inhibition of the growth of selected microorganisms. Different dilution rates and interaction times were used as parameters of inhibition. Not any of the constituent but symbiotic relation in-between reached the highest inhibition of 90 percent. The pH values of the extracts were 5.1 to 5.4. As a result, the extraction of Calendula officinalis at the optimum conditions can be used effectively in the production of wet wipes and hand sterilizing liquid.

  3. Analysis of Transposable Elements in the Genome of Asparagus officinalis from High Coverage Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

  4. Morph-ratio variation, population size and female reproductive success in distylous Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae).

    PubMed

    Brys, R; Jacquemyn, H; Beeckman, T

    2008-09-01

    Theory predicts that morph ratios in heterostylous populations are governed by negative frequency-dependent selection typically resulting in equal morph ratios at equilibrium. Previous work on the distylous perennial herb Pulmonaria officinalis, however, showed asymmetric mating between floral morphs and a weak self-incompatibility system, with the long-styled morph (L-morph) producing significantly higher seed set following intramorph crosses and even selfing than the short-styled morph (S-morph), two aspects thought to affect female fecundity and morph-ratio variation. Here, we evaluated morph ratios and population size of all known P. officinalis populations in the northern part of Belgium. Morph ratios deviated significantly from 1:1 (range 0.09-1 L-morph frequency, mean = 0.58). Relative fecundity of the S-morph (i.e. mean seed set of the S-morph/mean seed set of the L-morph) was on average 0.73, was positively related to the frequency of the L-morph, and reached 1 (similar levels of female fecundity) at an average L-morph frequency of 0.66 in the population. As some small populations had the S-morph in majority, our results suggest that local morph ratios are influenced both by the relative fecundity of L- and S-morph individuals and by stochastic processes in small populations. PMID:18631213

  5. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Verbena officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M I

    2006-10-11

    Verbena officinalis has traditionally been used in herbal medicine in Navarra, Spain, in the treatment of topical inflammation. Due to the anti-inflammatory activity of Verbena officinalis 50% methanolic extract in i.p. and topical administration, the effects of several formulations were prepared and studied using carrageenan-induced edema and formalin testing. Piroxicam gel and methyl salicylate ointment were studied as positive control for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, respectively. The edema inhibition of the preparations containing extract at the doses of 1-3% w/w were significantly different from the control group. The anti-inflammatory effect of VO-3% was similar to the effect of piroxicam gel 3 h after carrageenan injection. The analgesic activity of topical preparation with more than 2.5% w/w was observed in the early phase. This activity was observed in concentrations of more than 2% w/w in the late phase. The topical analgesic activity of the extract was less than the analgesic activity of methyl salicylate ointment. PMID:16723201

  6. Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

  7. Production of Sterilizing Agents from Calendula officinalis Extracts Optimized by Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Goktas, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Bilgesu; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce hand sterilizing liquid and wet wipes with the extracts of Calendula officinalis. Since this plant has well known antimicrobial activity due to its phytochemical constituents, the increase in the extraction yield was chosen as the principle part of the production process. To achieve the maximum yield, parameters of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and time were studied. The optimum conditions were determined by response surface methodology as 41°C, 7?h, and 3.3?g/200?mL for temperature, time, and solid-to-liquid ratio, respectively. The yield achieved at those conditions was found to be 90 percent. The highest amounts of flavonoids were detected at optimum, whereas the highest triterpene and saponin constituents were determined at different design points. The microbial efficiencies of extracts were determined by the inhibition of the growth of selected microorganisms. Different dilution rates and interaction times were used as parameters of inhibition. Not any of the constituent but symbiotic relation in-between reached the highest inhibition of 90 percent. The pH values of the extracts were 5.1 to 5.4. As a result, the extraction of Calendula officinalis at the optimum conditions can be used effectively in the production of wet wipes and hand sterilizing liquid. PMID:26064122

  8. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

  9. Establishment of Salvia officinalis L. hairy root cultures for the production of rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Grzegorczyk, Izabela; Królicka, Aleksandra; Wysoki?ska, Halina

    2006-01-01

    Shoots of Salvia officinalis, a medicinally important plant, were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains ATCC 15834 and A4 which led to the induction of hairy roots in 57% and 37% of the explants, respectively. Seven lines of hairy roots were established in WP liquid medium under light and dark conditions. The transformed nature of the root lines was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using rolB and rolC specific primers. Transformed root cultures of Salvia officinalis showed variations in biomass and rosmarinic acid production depending on the bacterial strain used for transformation and the root line analyzed. Both parameters (growth and rosmarinic acid content) of ATCC 15834-induced lines were significantly higher than the A4-induced lines. The maximum accumulation of rosmarinic acid (about 45 mg g(-1) of dry weight) was achieved by hairy root line 1 (HR-1) at the end of the culture period (45-50 days). The level was significantly higher than that found in untransformed root culture (19 mg g(-10 of dry wt). PMID:16869492

  10. Optimization of ultrasonic circulating extraction of polysaccharides from Asparagus officinalis using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingsheng; Kennedy, John F; Wang, Xiaodong; Yuan, Xiaofan; Zhao, Bing; Peng, Youshun; Huang, Yunxiang

    2011-08-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from Asparagus officinalis. A novel ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) technology was applied for the polysaccharide extraction. Three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize ultrasonic power, extraction time and the liquid-solid ratio to obtain a high polysaccharide yield. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic power was 600 W, extraction time was 46 min, the liquid-solid ratio was 35 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 3.134%, which was agreed closely to the predicted value. The average molecular weight of A. officinalis polysaccharide was about 6.18×10(4) Da. The polysaccharides were composed of glucose, fucose, arabinose, galactose and rhamnose in a ratio of 2.18:1.86:1.50:0.98:1.53. Compared with hot water extraction (HWE), UCE showed time-saving, higher yield and no influence on the structure of asparagus polysaccharides. The results indicated that ultrasonic circulating extraction technology could be an effective and advisable technique for the large scale production of plant polysaccharides. PMID:21549748

  11. Production of extracellular exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1 using root tubers of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Singh, R S; Bhermi, H K

    2008-10-01

    Root tubers of Asparagus officinalis were used as a source of raw inulin for the production of exoinulinase (EC 3.2.1.7) from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1. Root extract prepared at 10kg/cm2 pressure for 10min showed maximum inulinase production. Medium components and process parameters were standardized to improve the enzyme production. Inulinase yield of 40.2IU/mL in a medium containing raw inulin (3.5%), beef extract (2%), SDS (0.001%), Mn2+ (2.0mM), Mg2+ (1.5mM), Co2+ (2mM) and pH 6.5 has been obtained under agitation (150rpm) after 60h of incubation at 30 degrees C at shake flask level. After optimization, the enzyme production was 4.8 times more than the basal medium. To test the feasibility of raw inulin from A. officinalis for the production of inulinase, trials were also made in a bioreactor (1.5L). Inulinase activity of 50.2IU/mL was obtained from raw inulin (4.0%) under agitation (200rpm) and aeration (0.75vvm) at 30 degrees C after 60h of fermentation. Inulinase yield in bioreactor was almost six times higher than the basal medium used initially in shake flask. PMID:18280145

  12. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

  13. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-03-22

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

  14. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (˝MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. Results: The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0±28.3) and (225.0±21.2) ?g/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0±2.0) ?g/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0±1.0) ?g/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ˝MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. Conclusions: The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects. PMID:24599694

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of 3-O-[(6'-O-palmitoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl sitosterol] from Agave angustifolia on ear edema in mice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Valle, Elizabeth; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Salgado, Gabriela Rosas; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Ocampo, Martha Lucia Arenas; Aparicio, Antonio Jiménez; Tortoriello, Jaime; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico Agave angustifolia has traditionally been used to treat inflammation. The aim of this study was to measure the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract of A. angustifolia, the isolation and identification of active compounds. From the acetone extract two active fractions were obtained, (AsF13 and AaF16). For the characterization of pharmacological activity, the acute inflammatory model of mouse ear edema induced with TPA was used. The tissue exposed to TPA and treatments were subjected to two analysis, cytokine quantification (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-?) and histopathological evaluation. The active fraction (AaF16) consisted principally of 3-O-[(6'-O-palmitoyl)-?-D-glucopyranpsyl] sitosterol. In AaF13 fraction was identified ?-sitosteryl glucoside (2) and stigmasterol (3). The three treatments tested showed a concentration-dependent anti-inflammatory effect (AaAc Emax = 33.10%, EC50 = 0.126 mg/ear; AaF13 Emax = 54.22%, EC50 = 0.0524 mg/ear; AaF16 Emax = 61.01%, EC50 = 0.050 mg/ear). The application of TPA caused a significant increase on level of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF? compared with basal condition, which was countered by any of the experimental treatments. Moreover, the experimental treatments induced a significant increase in the levels of IL-4 and IL-10, compared to the level observed when stimulated with TPA. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory effect of Agave angustifolia, is associated with the presence of 3-O-[(6'-O-palmitoyl)-?-D-glucopyranosyl] sitosterol. PMID:25268718

  16. Alkamides from Echinacea angustifolia Interact with P-glycoprotein of primary brain capillary endothelial cells isolated from porcine brain blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Mahringer, Anne; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bauer, Rudolf; Fricker, Gert; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The blood-brain barrier prevents the passage of toxic compounds from blood circulation into brain tissue. Unfortunately, drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, brain tumors, and other diseases also do not cross the blood-brain barrier. In the present investigation, we used isolated porcine brain capillary endothelial cells and a flow cytometric calcein-AM assay to analyze inhibition of P-glycoprotein, a major constituent of the blood-brain barrier. We tested 8 alkamides isolated from Echinacea angustifolia and found that four of them inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated calcein transport in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells. PMID:23322561

  17. Dynamic Changes in ANGUSTIFOLIA3 Complex Composition Reveal a Growth Regulatory Mechanism in the Maize Leaf[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nelissen, Hilde; Eeckhout, Dominique; Demuynck, Kirin; Persiau, Geert; Walton, Alan; van Bel, Michiel; Vervoort, Marieke; Candaele, Jasper; De Block, Jolien; Aesaert, Stijn; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Goormachtig, Sofie; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van Leene, Jelle; Muszynski, Michael; Gevaert, Kris; Inzé, Dirk; De Jaeger, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Most molecular processes during plant development occur with a particular spatio-temporal specificity. Thus far, it has remained technically challenging to capture dynamic protein-protein interactions within a growing organ, where the interplay between cell division and cell expansion is instrumental. Here, we combined high-resolution sampling of the growing maize (Zea mays) leaf with tandem affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry. Our results indicate that the growth-regulating SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex associated with ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3) was conserved within growing organs and between dicots and monocots. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate the dynamics of the AN3-interacting proteins within the growing leaf, since copurified GROWTH-REGULATING FACTORs (GRFs) varied throughout the growing leaf. Indeed, GRF1, GRF6, GRF7, GRF12, GRF15, and GRF17 were significantly enriched in the division zone of the growing leaf, while GRF4 and GRF10 levels were comparable between division zone and expansion zone in the growing leaf. These dynamics were also reflected at the mRNA and protein levels, indicating tight developmental regulation of the AN3-associated chromatin remodeling complex. In addition, the phenotypes of maize plants overexpressing miRNA396a-resistant GRF1 support a model proposing that distinct associations of the chromatin remodeling complex with specific GRFs tightly regulate the transition between cell division and cell expansion. Together, our data demonstrate that advancing from static to dynamic protein-protein interaction analysis in a growing organ adds insights in how developmental switches are regulated. PMID:26036253

  18. Isolation and Identification of a Novel Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-amide-Related Peptide Inhibiting the Motility of the Mature Oviduct in the Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Henry; Pascal Favrel; Eve Boucaud-Camou

    1997-01-01

    Henry J., P. Favrel and E. Boucaud-Camou. Isolation and identification of a novel APGW-amide-related peptide inhibiting the motility of the mature oviduct in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis. Peptides 18(10) 1469–1474, 1997.—A novel myotropic neuropeptide was isolated from 110 optic lobes (OL) of mature females of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. by mean of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peptide

  19. Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Cases; Alvin Ibarra; Nicolas Feuillčre; Marc Roller; Samir G. Sukkar

    Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia.\\u000a Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which\\u000a Cyracos®, a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos® contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was

  20. A new extract of the plant calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Jiménez-Medina; Angel Garcia-Lora; Laura Paco; Ignacio Algarra; Antonia Collado; Federico Garrido

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phytopharmacological studies of different Calendula extracts have shown anti-inflamatory, anti-viral and anti-genotoxic properties of therapeutic interest. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities and in vivo anti-tumor effect of Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE), a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae). METHODS: An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by

  1. Formation and development of embryo and endosperm in intra- and inter-specific crosses of Asparagus officinalis and A. densiflorus cv. Sprengeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. N Marcellán; E. L Camadro

    1999-01-01

    Garden asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (2n=2x=20) is reproductively isolated from the related ornamental species Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop cv. Sprengeri (2n=6x=60) by incompatibility barriers at the pollen–stigma and pollen–style levels, plus stronger post-stylar barriers, which have not been described, in pollen–pistil-compatible genotypes. To study the latter, intra- and inter-specific crosses were made using 25 plants of A. officinalis and 29

  2. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ?3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ? 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups – test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0.05), whereas, the control group showed no reduction in scores when the baseline scores were compared with the third month scores. Also, when scaling was performed during the third month (second visit), there was statistically significant reduction in the scores of all parameters, when the third month scores were compared with the sixth month scores in both groups (P < 0.05), but the test group showed a significantly greater reduction in the PI, GI, SBI, and OHI-S scores compared to those of the control group. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that calendula mouthwash is effective in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis adjunctive to scaling. PMID:24554883

  3. Galega orientalis is more diverse than Galega officinalis in Caucasus--whole-genome AFLP analysis and phylogenetics of symbiosis-related genes.

    PubMed

    Osterman, J; Chizhevskaja, E P; Andronov, E E; Fewer, D P; Terefework, Z; Roumiantseva, M L; Onichtchouk, O P; Dresler-Nurmi, A; Simarov, B V; Dzyubenko, N I; Lindström, K

    2011-11-01

    Legume plants can obtain combined nitrogen for their growth in an efficient way through symbiosis with specific bacteria. The symbiosis between Rhizobium galegae and its host plant Galega is an interesting case where the plant species G. orientalis and G. officinalis form effective, nitrogen-fixing, symbioses only with the appropriate rhizobial counterpart, R. galegae bv. orientalis and R. galegae bv. officinalis, respectively. The symbiotic properties of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are well studied, but more information is needed on the properties of the host plants. The Caucasus region in Eurasia has been identified as the gene centre (centre of origin) of G. orientalis, although both G. orientalis and G. officinalis can be found in this region. In this study, the diversity of these two Galega species in Caucasus was investigated to test the hypothesis that in this region G. orientalis is more diverse than G. officinalis. The amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting performed here showed that the populations of G. orientalis and R. galegae bv. orientalis are more diverse than those of G. officinalis and R. galegae bv. officinalis, respectively. These results support the centre of origin status of Caucasus for G. orientalis at a genetic level. Analysis of the symbiosis-related plant genes NORK and Nfr5 reveals remarkable diversity within the Nfr5 sequence, although no evidence of adaptive evolution could be found. PMID:21980996

  4. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis prevents depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. These results support the traditional belief on the about beneficial effects of V. officinalis in the nervous system. Moreover, further investigations are required in order to better understand this protective effect. PMID:24741277

  5. Physiological perturbations in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis induced by subchronic exposure to dissolved zinc.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Caplat, Christelle; Lehodey, Jean-Paul; Dallas, Lorna; Koueta, Noussithé

    2015-06-30

    Although cephalopod early life stage development often occurs in coastal areas where contamination is real and continuous, the physiological perturbations induced by contaminants have been rarely investigated. This study focused on the Zn as it is one of the trace metals the most concentrated in coastal waters, worldwide. As Zn-tolerance limits were unknown in juvenile Sepia officinalis, the aim of this study was to estimate the threshold inducing mortality during the 2-first weeks post-hatching, and to determine its sensitivity using digestive and immune enzymatic assays, as well as growth and behavior follow-up during the first 5weeks post-hatching. Our study highlighted a Zn-mortality threshold lying between 185 and 230?gl(-1), and growth reductions occurring after 5-week at 108?gl(-1) and above, associated with enzymatic perturbations. These results underline a relatively important sensitivity of juvenile cuttlefish to Zn, pointed out by a wide diversity of biomarkers. PMID:25749315

  6. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV–visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin. PMID:22523455

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of drimenol synthase from valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Moonhyuk; Cochrane, Stephen A; Vederas, John C; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2014-12-20

    Drimenol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, and its derivatives display diverse bio-activities in nature. However, a drimenol synthase gene has yet to be identified. We identified a new sesquiterpene synthase cDNA (VoTPS3) in valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis). Purification and NMR analyses of the VoTPS3-produced terpene, and characterization of the VoTPS3 enzyme confirmed that VoTPS3 synthesizes (-)-drimenol. In feeding assays, possible reaction intermediates, farnesol and drimenyl diphosphate, could not be converted to drimenol, suggesting that the intermediate remains tightly bound to VoTPS3 during catalysis. A mechanistic consideration of (-)-drimenol synthesis suggests that drimenol synthase is likely to use a protonation-initiated cyclization, which is rare for sesquiterpene synthases. VoTPS3 can be used to produce (-)-drimenol, from which useful drimane-type terpenes can be synthesized. PMID:25447532

  8. Root colonization by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increases sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in Valeriana officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Nell, Monika; Wawrosch, Christoph; Steinkellner, Siegrid; Vierheilig, Horst; Kopp, Brigitte; Lössl, Andreas; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin

    2010-03-01

    In some medicinal plants a specific plant-fungus association, known as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, increases the levels of secondary plant metabolites and/or plant growth. In this study, the effects of three different AM treatments on biomass and sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in two IN VITRO propagated genotypes of valerian ( VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L., Valerianaceae) were investigated. Valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic acid levels were analyzed in the rhizome and in two root fractions. Two of the AM treatments significantly increased the levels of sesquiterpenic acids in the underground parts of valerian. These treatments, however, influenced the biomass of rhizomes and roots negatively. Therefore this observed increase was not accompanied by an increase in yield of sesquiterpenic acids per plant. Furthermore, one of the two genotypes had remarkably high hydroxyvalerenic acid contents and can be regarded as a hydroxyvalerenic acid chemotype. PMID:19809971

  9. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin. PMID:22523455

  10. Subacute effect of cigarette smoke exposure in rats: protection by pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) extract.

    PubMed

    Ozkol, Halil; Tülüce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the preventive effect of Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups as control, CS and CS + pot marigold (PM). The rats in the CS and CS + PM groups were subjected to CS for 1 h twice a day for 23 days. PM (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats in the CS + PM group by gavage, 1 h before each administration period. While malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl contents and reduced glutathione level of the CS group increased, their levels diminished by PM administration. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities and ?-carotene, vitamins A and C levels decreased in the CS group compared to control, however activities of these enzymes and concentration of vitamins were elevated by PM supplementation. This investigation showed that administration of PM supplied relative protection against subacute CS-induced cell injury. PMID:21505008

  11. Chlorinated Coumarins from the Polypore Mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis, and their Activity Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chang Hwa; Jaki, Birgit U.; Klein, Larry L.; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Napolitano, José G.; Fryling, Nicole A.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Cho, Sang Hyun; Stamets, Paul E.; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2013-01-01

    An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds, 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The structures of the two isolates were deduced ab initio by spectroscopic methods and confirmed by chemical synthesis. In addition, an analogue of each was synthesized as of 7-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (3) and ethyl 7-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (4). All four compounds were characterized physicochemically, and their antimicrobial activity profiles revealed a narrow spectrum of activity with lowest MICs against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24087924

  12. Purification of native dehydrin from Glycine Max cv., Pisum sativum, and Rosmarinum officinalis by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Herzer, Sibylle; Kinealy, Kyle; Asbury, Reid; Beckett, Phil; Eriksson, Kjell; Moore, Peter

    2003-04-01

    An improved method for the purification of dehydrin from soy (glycine max) is described. Acidic extraction of soy whey was followed by a three step chromatographic process: capture on copper charged Chelating Sepharose Big Beads, intermediate hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Source 15 PHE, and a polishing step on blue Sepharose. The 32-kDa native soy dehydrin was purified to a purity of greater than 98.5% with an overall recovery of 63%. When compared to a previously published purification procedure, recovery, time requirements, and sample preparation steps were improved. The developed method is readily scaleable. Preliminary results show that the process can be used for dehydrins from rosemary (Rosmarinum officinalis) and pea (Pisum sativum). PMID:12699686

  13. Anti-platelet fraction from Galega officinalis L. inhibits platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov; Tchorbanov, Bojidar

    2002-01-01

    A fraction from crude extract of Galega officinalis L. was purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25, Sepharose 4B, and ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose. The fraction with molecular weight 100-140 kDa appears to have a polysaccharide nature, including protein. The fraction inhibits platelet aggregation initiated by 25 microM adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), 100 microg/ml collagen, and 0.8 U/ml thrombin with the 50% inhibiting concentration (IC(50)) being 11.2 microg/ml for ADP, and the IC(100) being 15.1 microg/ml for collagen and IC(100) 19.6 microg/ml for thrombin. PMID:12639398

  14. Neuropharmacological actions of panchagavya formulation containing Emblica officinalis Gaerth and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn in mice.

    PubMed

    Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Avinash, K Dorle

    2004-05-01

    A panchagavya Ayurvedic formulation containing E. officinalis, G. glabra, and cow's ghee was evaluated for its effect on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, maximal electroshock-induced seizures, spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance (motor coordination) and antagonism to amphetamine in mice. The formulation (300, 500 mg/kg, po) produced a significant prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. The formulation also significantly antagonised the amphetamine induced hyper-locomotor activity (500, 750 mg/kg, po) and protected mice against tonic convulsions induced by maximal electroshock (500, 750 mg/kg, po). The formulation slightly prolonged the phases of seizure activity but did not protect mice against lethality induced by pentylenetetrazole. The formulation did not show neurotoxicity. The results suggest that the panchagavya formulation is sedative in nature. PMID:15233476

  15. Effects of macronutrients on growth and rosmarinic acid formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis.

    PubMed

    De-Eknamkul, W; Ellis, B E

    1985-04-01

    The influence of various macronutrients on growth and RA formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis has been investigated. Factors tested included sucrose concentration, alternate carbon sources, nitrate, phosphate and calcium concentration. The optimum concentration of sucrose was 3%. Fructose, glucose or their 1:1 mixture were also suitable carbon sources. The optimum concentrations of nitrate (15 mM), phosphate (3 mM) and calcium (0.25 mM) were, respectively, 3/5, 3x, and 1/4 those in normal B5 medium, when tested separately. These concentrations improved not only the yield of RA but also cell growth to a similar degree (10%-50%). Studies on the combined effects of these optimum macronutrient concentrations in B5 medium showed that RA production is inhibited by 2,4-D-containing revised medium but stimulated by NAA-containing revised medium. PMID:24253681

  16. Purification and characterization of prephenate aminotransferase from Anchusa officinalis cell cultures.

    PubMed

    De-Eknamkul, W; Ellis, B E

    1988-11-15

    Prephenate aminotransferase (PAT) from rosmarinic acid-producing cell cultures of Anchusa officinalis has been purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity using a combination of high-performance anion-exchange, chromatofocusing, and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme has a native molecular weight of 220,000 and subunit molecular weights of 44,000 and 57,000, indicating a possible alpha 2 beta 2 subunit structure. The purified PAT displays high affinity for prephenate (Km = 80 microM) but could also utilize other aromatic alpha-keto acids at less than 20% the rate with prephenate. L-Aspartate (Km = 80 microM) is about three times as effective as L-glutamate as amino-donor substrate. Anchusa PAT is not subject to feedback inhibition from L-phenylalanine or tyrosine, but its activity is affected by a rosmarinic acid metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. PMID:3196038

  17. Compositions of the seed oil of the Borago officinalis from Iran.

    PubMed

    Morteza, Elham; Akbari, Gholam-Ali; Moaveni, Payam; Alahdadi, Iraj; Bihamta, Mohammad-Reza; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Joorabloo, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil, this research was performed under the field conditions at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones, Iran during the 2012 planting year. The oil yield of borage was 31.46% and 33.7% at Shahriyar and Garmsar zone, respectively, and nine and eight fatty acids were identified in the seed oil of borage at Shahriyar and Garmsar, respectively - palmitic, linoleic, stearic and ?-linolenic acids were dominant in the seed oil of borage from both zones. Unsaturated fatty acid content was more than the saturated fatty acids in both zones. The ratio of linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid in the borage cultivated at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones was 2.13 and 2.29. The fatty acid profile of Garmsar borage, oleic and oleic/linoleic acid ratio, increased. Locations with different ecological conditions resulted in changes in both seed oil content and fatty acid profile of borage. PMID:25360856

  18. Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects. PMID:25306360

  19. Stable isotope records from Sepia officinalis—a key to understanding the ecology of belemnites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexfort, A.; Mutterlose, J.

    2006-07-01

    The stable isotope ratios (? 18O, ? 13C) of the aragonite of cuttlebones of Sepia officinalis were measured on a high resolution scale where every septum was measured. Our studies aim at understanding whether variations of the isotope signature are controlled by ontogenetic and/or ecological factors. Five specimens were reared from eggs under known water temperatures, a sixth specimen was caught in the German part of the North Sea. The data suggest that the oxygen isotope composition is in isotopic equilibrium with the surrounding seawater and reflects ambient temperature. Migration and seasonal temperature changes are visible in the acquired data set. The carbon isotope signature shows signs of biofractionation and no direct correlation to the oxygen signature as far as ontogeny and ecology are concerned.

  20. [Cloning and analyzing of the female-specific marker in the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Lu, Long Dou; Li, Rui Li; Gao, Wu Jun; Deng, Chuan Liang; Wang, Lian Jun

    2006-06-01

    Sex-linked molecular markers are being obtained, which would be essential to be used in the screening of different sex of dioecious plants at the seedling stage. Furthermore, it is important in cloning the gene related to the sex. In this study the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed with the objective to find markers linked to sex determination in Asparagus. A total of 100 primers were tested with the same PCR cycling procedure. A female-associated fragment with a length of about 867bp was generated with S12 primer. The fragment was cloned and sequenced, showing it is abundant in AT and contains 2 shorter open reading frames. In order to convert the RAPD marker into SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) marker, 24bp specific primers were constructed and used for PCR amplifying. The female-linked dominant SCAR marker was obtained, which would be efficient to identify the different sex of Asparagus officinalis L. PMID:16944605