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1

Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total

Iuliana Spiridon; Svetlana Colceru; Narcis Anghel; Carmen Alice Teaca; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Alice Armatu

2011-01-01

2

Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.  

PubMed

The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides. PMID:21707233

Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

2011-10-01

3

Pharmacological profile of essential oils derived from Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis with anti-agitation properties: focus on ligand-gated channels.  

PubMed

Both Melissa officinalis (Mo) and Lavandula angustifolia (La) essential oils have putative anti-agitation properties in humans, indicating common components with a depressant action in the central nervous system. A dual radioligand binding and electrophysiological study, focusing on a range of ligand-gated ion channels, was performed with a chemically validated essential oil derived from La, which has shown clinical benefit in treating agitation. La inhibited [35S] TBPS binding to the rat forebrain gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor channel (apparent IC50 = 0.040 +/- 0.001 mg mL(-1)), but had no effect on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A 50:50 mixture of Mo and La essential oils inhibited [3H] flunitrazepam binding, whereas the individual oils had no significant effect. Electrophysiological analyses with rat cortical primary cultures demonstrated that La reversibly inhibited GABA-induced currents in a concentration-dependent manner (0.01-1 mg mL(-1)), whereas no inhibition of NMDA- or AMPA-induced currents was noted. La elicited a significant dose-dependent reduction in both inhibitory and excitatory transmission, with a net depressant effect on neurotransmission (in contrast to the classic GABA(A) antagonist picrotoxin which evoked profound epileptiform burst firing in these cells). These properties are similar to those recently reported for Mo. The anti-agitation effects in patients and the depressant effects of La we report in neural membranes in-vitro are unlikely to reflect a sedative interaction with any of the ionotropic receptors examined here. These data suggest that components common to the two oils are worthy of focus to identify the actives underlying the neuronal depressant and anti-agitation activities reported. PMID:18957173

Huang, Liping; Abuhamdah, Sawsan; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Dixon, Christine L; Elliot, Mark S J; Ballard, Clive; Holmes, Clive; Burns, Alistair; Perry, Elaine K; Francis, Paul T; Lees, George; Chazot, Paul L

2008-11-01

4

[Diuretic activity of the infusion of flowers from Lavandula officinalis].  

PubMed

The diuretic activity of an infusion of Lavandula officinalis was studied in the Wistar rat. Thus, the kinetics of hydroelectrolytic elimination in response to the oral administration of an infusion of pharmaceutical lavender flowers were measured in the rats. Experiments were completed under similar conditions using a synthetic pharmacological diuretic, Diamox. The aqueous extract of this aromatic plant accelerated the elimination of the water overload. At the peak of the diuretic response, urinary osmolarity was significantly less than that of controls (111+/-14 vs. 195+/-11 mosmol x kg(-1)). Sodium excretion was moderate following administration of the infusion when compared to the synthetic diuretic. The stability of the aldosterone concentrations in the plasma and the absence of correlation with plasma sodium concentrations, coupled with the observed clearance of the free water (0.055+/-0.007 vs. 0.045+/-0.012 mL x min(-1)) show that the increase in diuresis and the moderate increase in sodium excretion are of tubular origin. The result of the phytochemical analysis of hexane extracts in the infusion and in urine indicated that four or five chemical factors may be involved in the diuretic effect of lavender. PMID:12014366

Elhajili, M; Baddouri, K; Elkabbaj, S; Meiouat, F; Settaf, A

2001-01-01

5

Cloning and functional characterization of three terpene synthases from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia).  

PubMed

The essential oil of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is mainly composed of mono- and sesquiterpenes. Using a homology-based PCR strategy, two monoterpene synthases (LaLIMS and LaLINS) and one sesquiterpene synthase (LaBERS) were cloned from lavender leaves and flowers. LaLIMS catalyzed the formation of (R)-(+)-limonene, terpinolene, (1R,5S)-(+)-camphene, (1R,5R)-(+)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene and traces of alpha-phellandrene. The proportions of these products changed significantly when Mn(2+) was supplied as the cofactor instead of Mg(2+). The second enzyme LaLINS produced exclusively (R)-(-)-linalool, the main component of lavender essential oil. LaBERS transformed farnesyl diphosphate and represents the first reported trans-alpha-bergamotene synthase. It accepted geranyl diphosphate with higher affinity than farnesyl diphosphate and also produced monoterpenes, albeit at low rates. LaBERS is probably derived from a parental monoterpene synthase by the loss of the plastidial signal peptide and by broadening its substrate acceptance spectrum. The identification and description of the first terpene synthases from L. angustifolia forms the basis for the biotechnological modification of essential oil composition in lavender. PMID:17662687

Landmann, Christian; Fink, Barbara; Festner, Maria; Dregus, Márta; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Schwab, Wilfried

2007-09-15

6

Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill  

PubMed Central

Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.—a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties—since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health.

Emiliani, Giovanni; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

2014-01-01

7

Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.-a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties-since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health. PMID:24971151

Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

2014-01-01

8

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaf extracts and essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.  

PubMed

Extracts obtained from the leaves of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae) are used in Iranian folk medicine as remedies for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. For evaluation of its probable analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, hydroalcoholic extract, polyphenolic fraction and essential oil of the leaves of the herb were prepared and their analgesic effects were studied in mice using formalin and acetic acid-induced writhing tests. Carrageenan test in rats was used for assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of above-mentioned fractions. Results showed that while the hydroalcoholic extract (400-1600 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited only the second phase of formalin test, the polyphenolic fraction (800 and 1600 mg/kg, p.o.) and essential oil (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) suppressed both phases. In acetic acid-induced writhing test, polyphenolic fraction (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) and essential oil (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal constrictions. Essential oil at a dose of 200mg/kg also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Results of the present study confirm the traditional use of Lavandula angustifolia for the treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions and calls for further investigations to determine the active chemical constituent(s). PMID:14522434

Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Ghannadi, Alireza; Sharif, Badie

2003-11-01

9

The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (?FIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1?:?1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1?:?1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender.

de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro

2013-01-01

10

The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (?FIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1?:?1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1?:?1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro; van Vuuren, Sandy

2013-01-01

11

Biochemical composition and antioxidant properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil are shielded by propolis against UV radiations.  

PubMed

UV radiations are principal causes of skin cancer and aging. Suntan creams were developed to protect epidermis and derma layers against photodegradation and photooxidation. The addition of antioxidant plant extracts (i.e. essential oil) to sunscreens is habitually performed, to increase their UV protective effects and to contrast pro-radical and cytotoxic compounds present in these solutions. According to these observations, in the present work, the alteration of chemical composition and bioactive properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil, exposed to UV light, was investigated. UV induced a significant deterioration of lavender oil biochemical profile. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of this solution, in in vitro tests and directly on B16-F10 melanoma cells, greatly decreased after UV treatment. Our results also showed that essential oil was shielded from UV stress by propolis addition. Even after UV treatment, bee glue highly protected lavender oil secondary metabolites from degradation and also preserved their antiradical properties, both in in vitro antioxidant assays and in cell oxidative damage evaluations. This research proposed propolis as highly efficient UV protective and antiradical additive for sunscreens, cosmetics and alimentary or pharmaceutical products containing plant extracts. PMID:24372191

Angelo, Gismondi; Lorena, Canuti; Marta, Grispo; Antonella, Canini

2014-01-01

12

Chemical and biological characterization of cinnamic acid derivatives from cell cultures of lavender (Lavandula officinalis) induced by stress and jasmonic acid.  

PubMed

Cell cultures of lavender (Lavandula officinalis) were analyzed for the metabolite profile under normal growth conditions and under stress as well as after jasmonic acid treatment. The main compound synthesized was rosmarinic acid, which was also secreted into the culture medium. Different solvent extraction methods at different pH values altered the profile slightly. Anoxic stress induced the synthesis of a cinnamic acid derivative, which was identified as caffeic acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Caffeic acid was also induced after treatment of the cell cultures with jasmonic acid. Although the antioxidative activity of both compounds, rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid, was confirmed in an assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), it was demonstrated that both substances have a low cytotoxic potential in vitro using acute myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cells. The potential of the system for finding new bioactive compounds is discussed. PMID:15137835

Nitzsche, Astrid; Tokalov, Sergey V; Gutzeit, Herwig O; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

2004-05-19

13

Cloning, functional characterization and genomic organization of 1,8-cineole synthases from Lavandula.  

PubMed

Several members of the genus Lavandula produce valuable essential oils (EOs) that are primarily constituted of the low molecular weight isoprenoids, particularly monoterpenes. We isolated over 8,000 ESTs from the glandular trichomes of L. x intermedia flowers (where bulk of the EO is synthesized) to facilitate the discovery of genes that control the biosynthesis of EO constituents. The expression profile of these ESTs in L. x intermedia and its parents L. angustifolia and L. latifolia was established using microarrays. The resulting data highlighted a differentially expressed, previously uncharacterized cDNA with strong homology to known 1,8-cineole synthase (CINS) genes. The ORF, excluding the transit peptide, of this cDNA was expressed in E. coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography and functionally characterized in vitro. The ca. 63 kDa bacterially produced recombinant protein, designated L. x intermedia CINS (LiCINS), converted geranyl diphosphate (the linear monoterpene precursor) primarily to 1,8-cineole with K ( m ) and k ( cat ) values of 5.75 ?M and 8.8 × 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. The genomic DNA of CINS in the studied Lavandula species had identical exon-intron architecture and coding sequences, except for a single polymorphic nucleotide in the L. angustifolia ortholog which did not alter protein function. Additional nucleotide variations restricted to L. angustifolia introns were also observed, suggesting that LiCINS was most likely inherited from L. latifolia. The LiCINS mRNA levels paralleled the 1,8-cineole content in mature flowers of the three lavender species, and in developmental stages of L. x intermedia inflorescence indicating that the production of 1,8 cineole in Lavandula is most likely controlled through transcriptional regulation of LiCINS. PMID:22592779

Demissie, Zerihun A; Cella, Monica A; Sarker, Lukman S; Thompson, Travis J; Rheault, Mark R; Mahmoud, Soheil S

2012-07-01

14

The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of 10 plant species from interior Portugal were analyzed for their activity towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and their antioxidant activity. Of these, Melissa officinalis, Paronychia argentea, Sanguisorba minor, Hypericum undulatum and Malva silvestris are used in herbal medicine, Laurus nobilis and Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata also

A. Ferreira; C. Proença; M. L. M. Serralheiro; M. E. M. Araújo

2006-01-01

15

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

16

Isolation and functional characterization of a ?-cadinol synthase, a new sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula angustifolia.  

PubMed

In this paper we characterize three sTPSs: a germacrene D (LaGERDS), a (E)-?-caryophyllene (LaCARS) and a ?-cadinol synthase (LaCADS). ?-cadinol synthase is reported here for the first time and its activity was studied in several biological models including transiently or stably transformed tobacco species. Three dimensional structure models of LaCADS and Ocimum basilicum ?-cadinene synthase were built by homology modeling using the template structure of Gossypium arboreum ?-cadinene synthase. The depiction of their active site organization provides evidence of the global influence of the enzymes on the formation of ?-cadinol: instead of a unique amino-acid, the electrostatic properties and solvent accessibility of the whole active site in LaCADS may explain the stabilization of the cadinyl cation intermediate. Quantitative PCR performed from leaves and inflorescences showed two patterns of expression. LaGERDS and LaCARS were mainly expressed during early stages of flower development and, at these stages, transcript levels paralleled the accumulation of the corresponding terpene products (germacrene D and (E)-?-caryophyllene). By contrast, the expression level of LaCADS was constant in leaves and flowers. Phylogenetic analysis provided informative results on potential duplication process leading to sTPS diversification in lavender. PMID:24078339

Jullien, Frédéric; Moja, Sandrine; Bony, Aurélie; Legrand, Sylvain; Petit, Cécile; Benabdelkader, Tarek; Poirot, Kévin; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Guitton, Yann; Nicolè, Florence; Baudino, Sylvie; Magnard, Jean-Louis

2014-01-01

17

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELDING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LAVENDER (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the experiment conducted in 2003-2006 was to estimate the effect of dose of nitrogen on yielding and antioxidant activity of lavender. The experiment was established in one factorial design in four replications and plot area 3.0 m2. Nitrogen was supplied in three different rates: as a preplant dose 50 kg N·ha-1, or split application 100 (50 +

Anita Biesiada; Anna Sokó; Alicja Kucharska

18

Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature.  

PubMed

The essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia L. and Mentha piperita L. were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major constituents were linalool (22.35%), linalyl acetate (21.80%), trans-ocimene (6.16%) and 4-terpineol (5.19%) for L. angustifolia and menthol (33.28%), menthone (22.03%), and menthyl acetate (6.40%) for M. piperita. In vitro antibacterial activity of both EOs against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus CECT 4459 showed high inhibition against S. aureus. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained with L. angustifolia (0.25 ?L/mL) against S. aureus; M. piperita exhibited a MIC of 0.50 ?L/mL against both microorganisms. Both EOs caused a significant decrease of bacterial growth in minced beef (p<0.05) stored at 9±1 °C. Minced beef treated with EOs showed the lowest TBARS values (lipid oxidation). Moreover, the results showed that the addition of EOs significantly extended fresh meat odor even at abuse temperature. PMID:22789458

Djenane, Djamel; Aïder, Mohammed; Yangüela, Javier; Idir, Lamia; Gómez, Diego; Roncalés, Pedro

2012-12-01

19

Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils and methanol extracts of three wild Lavandula L. species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of essential oil composition, polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of Lavandula coronopifolia, Lavandula multifida and Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas were reported. Qualitative and quantitative variations in the composition of oils according to species were shown. Lavandula coronopifolia's oil was characterised by high proportions of trans-?-ocimene (26.9%), carvacrol (18.5%), ?-bisabolene (13.1%) and myrcene (7.5%). The main components of

C. Messaoud; H. Chograni; M. Boussaid

2011-01-01

20

Effect of lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia) on cerebral edema and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke.  

PubMed

Lavender belongs to the family Labiatae and has a variety of cosmetic uses as well as therapeutic purposes in herbal medicine. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of lavender oil against brain edema and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke. Under Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1h in rats. Lavender oil (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg ip (and/or vehicle was injected at the onset of ischemia. Infarct size, cerebral edema, functional outcome, and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated using standard methods. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression of VEGF, Bax, and Bcl-2. Treatment with lavender oil at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly diminished infarct size, brain edema, and improved functional outcome after cerebral ischemia (P<0.001). Lavender oil (200 mg/kg) also reduced the content of malondialdehyde and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity (P<0.001). Although lavender oil enhanced VEGF expression (P=0.026), it could not decrease the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio (pro- to anti-apoptotic proteins) in the rat brain (P>0.05). The results indicated that lavender oil has neuroprotective activity against cerebral ischemia and alleviated neurological function in rats, and the mechanism may be related to augmentation in endogenous antioxidant defense, inhibiting oxidative stress, and increasing VEGF expression in the rat brain. However, lavender oil could not suppress the apoptosis pathway. PMID:24384140

Vakili, Abedin; Sharifat, Shaghayegh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza

2014-02-22

21

CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA, A VERSATILE MEDICINAL CROP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassia angustifolia (senna), a native plant of Yemen, Somalia and Arabia and now cultivated in other parts of the world, has a variety of medicinal uses in Unani as well as other traditional systems of medicine. The plant is mainly valued for its cathartic properties and is specially useful in habitual constipation. The laxative principles sennoside A and sennoside B,

Y. C. TRIPATHI

1999-01-01

22

Allelopathic potential of Echinacea angustifolia D.C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia D.C., the common purple coneflower of the western Great Plains, has been shown to produce many biologically active compounds. The allelopathic potential of water soluble and volatile compounds from E. angustifolia plants from three separate populations was examined. Lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa), the common allelopathy bioassay system, as well as seeds from two native species, Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

A. L. Viles; R. N. Reese

1996-01-01

23

Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.  

PubMed

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. PMID:20657443

de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

2010-06-01

24

Impact of alfalfa mosaic virus subgroup I and II isolates on terpene secondary metabolism of Lavandula vera D.C., Lavandula× alardii and eight cultivars of L. hybrida Rev  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavandula vera D.C., Lavandula×alardii and eight different L. hybrida Rev. cultivars cultivated at the Herb Garden of Casola Valsenio (Italy), found naturally infected by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), have been evaluated for the influence of their pathologic status on essential oil biosynthesis and quality. The viral disease, consisting of a “yellow mosaic” on leaves and stems, was identified by means

Renato Bruni; Maria Grazia Bellardi; Giuseppe Parrella; Alberto Bianchi

2006-01-01

25

The Biosynthetic Origin of Irregular Monoterpenes in Lavandula  

PubMed Central

Lavender essential oils are constituted predominantly of regular monoterpenes, for example linalool, 1,8-cineole, and camphor. However, they also contain irregular monoterpenes including lavandulol and lavandulyl acetate. Although the majority of genes responsible for the production of regular monoterpenes in lavenders are now known, enzymes (including lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS)) catalyzing the biosynthesis of irregular monoterpenes in these plants have not been described. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase cDNA, termed Lavandula x intermedia lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LiLPPS), through a homology-based cloning strategy. The LiLPPS ORF, encoding for a 305-amino acid long protein, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The approximately 34.5-kDa bacterially produced protein specifically catalyzed the head-to-middle condensation of two dimethylallyl diphosphate units to LPP in vitro with apparent Km and kcat values of 208 ± 12 ?m and 0.1 s?1, respectively. LiLPPS is a homodimeric enzyme with a sigmoidal saturation curve and Hill coefficient of 2.7, suggesting a positive co-operative interaction among its catalytic sites. LiLPPS could be used to modulate the production of lavandulol and its derivatives in plants through metabolic engineering.

Demissie, Zerihun A.; Erland, Lauren A. E.; Rheault, Mark R.; Mahmoud, Soheil S.

2013-01-01

26

Antibacterial potential from Indian Suregada angustifolia.  

PubMed

Phytochemical analysis of the leaves from Indian Suregada angustifolia (Baill. ex Muell. Arg.) Airy Shaw (Euphorbiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of six known compounds, viz. friedelin, epi-friedelinol, n-octacosanol, alpha-amyrin, beta-sitosterol and beta-sitosterol-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Aqueous (room temperature, boiled and autoclaved) and various solvent (methanol, chloroform and hexane) extracts of leaves were tested against 12 human pathogenic bacteria by the agar well-diffusion method. Aqueous extracts did not express any activity. Antibacterial activity was recorded in the order of methanol, hexane and chloroform extracts. Maximum activity recorded against Staphylococcus aureus (skin infections) in methanol and hexane extracts and moderate activity recorded against diarrhoea causing bacteria, Vibrio vulnificus (hexane extract) and Vibrio cholerae (chloroform extract). PMID:15878247

Venkatesan, M; Viswanathan, M B; Ramesh, N; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P

2005-07-14

27

Comparison of antioxidant activity of clove ( Eugenia caryophylata Thunb) buds and lavender ( Lavandula stoechas L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of water and ethanol extracts of clove (Eugenia carophyllata) buds and lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) was studied. The antioxidant properties of both extracts of clove and lavender were evaluated using different antioxidant tests; reductive potential, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. The both extracts of clove and lavender exhibited strong total antioxidant

Ìlhami Gülçin; ?. Güngör ?at; ?ükrü Beydemir; Mahfuz Elmasta?; Ö. ?rfan Küfrevio?lu

2004-01-01

28

Ethnopharmacological evaluation of the anticonvulsant, sedative and antispasmodic activities of Lavandula stoechas L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavandula stoechas L. (Lamiaceae) has been used for a long time in traditional medicine as an anticonvulsant and antispasmodic. The aqueous-methanolic extract of L. stoechas flowers (LS) was studied for its possible anticonvulsant and antispasmodic activities. When tested in mice, LS (600 mg\\/kg) significantly reduced the severity and increased the latency of convulsions induced by pentylene tetrazole (PTZ). LS likewise

A. H Gilani; N Aziz; M. A Khan; F Shaheen; Q Jabeen; B. S Siddiqui; J. W Herzig

2000-01-01

29

Agrobacterium?mediated transformation of lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavandin (Lavandula x Emeric ex Loiseleur) is an aromatic plant, the essential oil of which is widely used in the perfume, cosmetic, flavouring and pharmaceutical industries. The qualitative or quantitative modification of its terpenes-containing essential oil by genetic engineering could have important scientific and commercial applications. In this study, we report the first Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer into lavandin. The

Sandrine Dronne; Sandrine Moja; Frédéric Jullien; Françoise Berger

1999-01-01

30

Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils and methanol extracts of three wild Lavandula L. species.  

PubMed

A comparative study of essential oil composition, polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of Lavandula coronopifolia, Lavandula multifida and Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas were reported. Qualitative and quantitative variations in the composition of oils according to species were shown. Lavandula coronopifolia's oil was characterised by high proportions of trans-?-ocimene (26.9%), carvacrol (18.5%), ?-bisabolene (13.1%) and myrcene (7.5%). The main components of L. multifida oil are carvacrol (65.1%) and ?-bisabolene (24.7%). Lavandula stoechas oil is rich in fenchone (34.3%) and comphor (27.4%). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents also significantly varied among species. Lavandula coronopifolia exhibits the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (31.3?mg GAE?g(-1) and 16.3?mg RE?g(-1), respectively), followed by L. multifida (30.8?mg GAE?g(-1) and 12.3?mg RE?g(-1)). Methanolic extracts and essential oils displayed significant antioxidant activities. The level of antioxidant capacity varied according to extracts and species. PMID:22117129

Messaoud, C; Chograni, H; Boussaid, M

2012-11-01

31

Self-incompatibility of Zinnia angustifolia HBK (compositae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible light and UV epifluorescence microscopy were used to assess self-incompatibility (SI) in Zinnia angustifolia clones. Pistils were fixed 24 h after pollination and stained either with aniline blue in lactophenol (visible light microscopy) or decolorized aniline blue (fluorescence microscopy). Percentage of florets with embryos 21 days following pollination (% embryo set) was used as a control. Embryo set following

R. R. Samaha; T. H. Boyle; D. L. Mulcahy

1989-01-01

32

Steroidal saponins from Smilax officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new steroidal saponins were isolated from the rhizomes of Smilax officinalis. The structures of these saponins were established by extensive spectral data, hydrolysis and chemical correlation as sarsasapogenin 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-d-glucopyranoside, neotigogenin 3-O-?-d- glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-d-glucopyranoside and 25S-spirostan-6?-ol 3-O-?-d- glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-d-glucopyranoside. Acid hydrolysis of the latter compound gave a sapogenin which has a new orientation of an hydroxyl on the steroidal skeleton. A route

Ribson Roney Bernardo; Antonio Ventura Pinto; JoséPaz Parente

1996-01-01

33

A randomized, controlled cross-over trial of dermally-applied lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) oil as a treatment of agitated behaviour in dementia  

PubMed Central

Background Lavender essential oil shows evidence of sedative properties in neurophysiological and animal studies but clinical trials of its effectiveness as a treatment of agitation in people with dementia have shown mixed results. Study methods have varied widely, however, making comparisons hazardous. To help remedy previous methodological shortcomings, we delivered high grade lavender oil in specified amounts to nursing home residents whose agitated behaviours were recorded objectively. Methods 64 nursing home residents with frequent physically agitated behaviours were entered into a randomized, single-blind cross-over trial of dermally-applied, neurophysiologically active, high purity 30% lavender oil versus an inactive control oil. A blinded observer counted the presence or absence of target behaviours and rated participants’ predominant affect during each minute for 30 minutes prior to exposure and for 60 minutes afterwards. Results Lavender oil did not prove superior to the control oil in reducing the frequency of physically agitated behaviours or in improving participants’ affect. Conclusions Studies of essential oils are constrained by their variable formulations and uncertain pharmacokinetics and so optimal dosing and delivery regimens remain speculative. Notwithstanding this, topically delivered, high strength, pure lavender oil had no discernible effect on affect and behaviour in a well-defined clinical sample. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12609000569202)

2013-01-01

34

Leaf variations in Elaeagnus angustifolia related to environmental heterogeneity.  

PubMed

Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) is a Eurasian tree that has become naturalized and has invaded zones along watercourses in many arid and semiarid regions of the world. These habitats are characterized by vertical environmental gradients, thus trees must develop some plasticity to adapt to the wide range of site conditions. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that variations in leaf anatomy and morphology of E. angustifolia reflect their adaptability to the differences in the microclimate that occur within the canopy of single trees. Foliar architecture, blade and petiole epidermal and internal anatomy were examined in leaves at different canopy positions and related to environmental conditions. Upper sun-leaves are exposed to higher solar irradiance and lower air humidity and are smaller, more slender and thicker than the lower, half-exposed and shade-leaves. Color varies between the leaves at different levels, from silvery grey-green in the upper strata, to dark green in the lower one. Bicolor is more evident in half-exposed and shaded leaves. When compared with the lower half-exposed and shade-leaves, the upper leaves of E. angustifolia have a greater areole density, a higher mesophyll proportion and stomatal density. Trichomes are multicellular, pedestalled, stellate-branched or peltate and their form and density can be associated with leaf color and appearance. The slender petioles of the upper leaves have proportionally more epidermis, collenchyma and phloem and less parenchyma and xylem than those of lower leaves, when observed in transverse sections. Foliar morphological and anatomical variability in E. angustifolia may be considered an adaptive advantage that enables leaves to develop and function in habitats marked by strong variations of solar radiation, air temperature and humidity. PMID:11064038

Klich

2000-11-01

35

Development of mucilage cells of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The roles of mucilage cells were investigated through morphological and cytological analysis during leaf development in young\\u000a Araucaria angustifolia plants. Differentiation began in leaf primordia in the shoot apex, when the young cells underwent a greater increase in volume\\u000a in comparison with other mesophyll cells. The mucilage polysaccharides were synthesized by dictyosomes, from where they were\\u000a taken by large vesicles

A. A. Mastroberti; J. E. de Araujo Mariath

2008-01-01

36

Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.  

PubMed

The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated. PMID:23918183

Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

2013-11-01

37

Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) susceptibility to Cunila angustifolia essential oil.  

PubMed

The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), is an insect that lives in poultry houses, and high infestations may cause economic losses to producers. The control of this insect is usually done with insecticides; however, many of these chemicals have no effect on lesser mealworm. Therefore, control alternatives are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Cunila angustifolia (Benth) oil on larvae and adults of A. diaperinus. In vitro tests used larvae and adults of A. diaperinus distributed in petri dishes with 0, 1, 5, and 10% of oil in a single dose. In vivo tests were performed in poultry houses with five treatments: 0, 5, and 10% and chemical insecticide (cypermethrin) in a single application, and a group with 5% of oil applied twice 15 d apart. In vitro, oil bioactivity showed an efficacy of 100% both for larvae and adults, when tested at concentrations of 5 and 10%. A reduced number of larvae were observed using 1% of oil; however, it was not effective against adults as compared with the control group. In vivo, the oil effectiveness against lesser mealworm was verified by larva and adult reduction in all concentrations compared with control (0%) throughout the experiments, with better efficacy when used at 5% with two applications. Therefore, we concluded that the oil of C. angustifolia has larvicidal and insecticidal effect against A. diaperinus larvae and adults, in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24191374

Do Prado, Geisa Percio; Stefani, Lenita Moura; Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Smaniotto, Lisonéia Fiorentini; Garcia, Flávio Roberto Mello; De Moura, Neusa Fernandes

2013-09-01

38

Development of mucilage cells of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae).  

PubMed

The roles of mucilage cells were investigated through morphological and cytological analysis during leaf development in young Araucaria angustifolia plants. Differentiation began in leaf primordia in the shoot apex, when the young cells underwent a greater increase in volume in comparison with other mesophyll cells. The mucilage polysaccharides were synthesized by dictyosomes, from where they were taken by large vesicles and released into a cavity formed by detachment of the tonoplast, which was separated from the cytoplasm. At the end of differentiation, the cell was completely filled with mucilage, a gel consisting of a denser reticular structure surrounding less dense regions. The nucleus and cytoplasm were degenerated in mature cells. The A. angustifolia mucilage cells presented some cytological resemblances to the mucilage cells of members of some dicotyledonous families; however, differences in the dictyosomes and the secretion route were observed. Translocation and water storage of solutes was suggested by the use of the hydroxy pyrenetrisulfonic acid tri-sodium salt apoplastic tracer. The tonoplast detachment, dechromatinization, nuclear condensation, and general degeneration of the membrane systems observed during maturity indicated a programmed cell death process, one not yet described for angiosperm mucilage cells. PMID:18239849

Mastroberti, A A; Mariath, J E de Araujo

2008-01-01

39

Final Report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel Amended Safety Assessment of Calendula officinalis—Derived Cosmetic Ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies

F. Alan Andersen; Wilma F. Bergfeld; Donald V. Belsito; Ronald A. Hill; Curtis D. Klaassen; Daniel C. Liebler; James G. Marks; Ronald C. Shank; Thomas J. Slaga; Paul W. Snyder

2010-01-01

40

Biosorption of Cr (VI) by Typha angustifolia: Mechanism and responses to heavy metal stress.  

PubMed

In this study, Typha angustifolia was proven to have an excellent accumulation ability in high concentrations of wastewater solutions having Cr (VI) concentrations up to 30mgL(-1) for 20 days (74% of removal efficiency). Synchrotron microfocus micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) mapping showed that the uptaken Cr was mainly enriched in the outer layer of the roots and a small portion of it was uniformly distributed in the fronds. The total proteins, soluble sugars, and malondialdehyde in T. angustifolia increased when the concentration of Cr (VI) increased from 9 to 30mgL(-1). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) assay showed that no lignifications were observed when Cr was absorbed by T. angustifolia. It was concluded that T. angustifolia can uptake Cr by means of surface layer absorption and transportation, and alleviate stresses associated with the sorption of Cr (VI) by thickening of cell walls or secretion of chemical substances. PMID:24485750

Chen, Ya-Li; Hong, Xiao-Qing; He, Hui; Luo, Hong-Wei; Qian, Ting-Ting; Li, Ru-Zhong; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

2014-05-01

41

Acylated flavonol glycosides from the flower of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.  

PubMed

Seven acylated flavonol glycosides named elaeagnosides A-G, in addition to seven known flavonoids were isolated from the flowers of Elaeagnus angustifolia. Their structures were elucidated by different spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR experiments and HR-ESI-MS analysis. In order to identify natural antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor agents, the abilities of these flavonoids to scavenge the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and to inhibit tyrosinase activity were evaluated. Results revealed that two of these compounds had significant anti-oxidant effect and one compound showed weak tyrosinase-inhibitory activity compared with kojic acid, quercetin, or ascorbic acid, which were used as positive control. PMID:24746259

Bendaikha, Sarah; Gadaut, Méredith; Harakat, Dominique; Magid, Alabdul

2014-07-01

42

Neuroprotective and Neurological Properties of Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective\\u000a effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase\\u000a enzymes and affinity to the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor). The results suggest that the plant has a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect on

Víctor López; Sara Martín; Maria Pilar Gómez-Serranillos; Maria Emilia Carretero; Anna K. Jäger; Maria Isabel Calvo

2009-01-01

43

The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal.  

PubMed

Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of 10 plant species from interior Portugal were analyzed for their activity towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and their antioxidant activity. Of these, Melissa officinalis, Paronychia argentea, Sanguisorba minor, Hypericum undulatum and Malva silvestris are used in herbal medicine, Laurus nobilis and Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata also as aromatics. Melissa officinalis and Mentha suaveolens showed AChE inhibitory capacity higher then 50% in the essential oil fraction. Laurus nobilis, Hypericum undulatum, and Sanguisorba minor showed a high inhibition value of AChE in the ethanolic fraction, 64% (1 mg ml(-1)) 68% (0.5 mg ml(-1)), and 78% (1 mg ml(-1)), respectively. Higher values of AChE inhibitory activity were found using decoctions of Lavandula pedunculata, Mentha suaveolens and Hypericum undulatum, 68, 69 and 82% (at a concentration of 5mg dry plant ml(-1) of assay), respectively. The free radical scavenger activity was higher for the polar extracts. In the water extracts most of the plants showed values around 90%. When antioxidant activity was measured with the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay high activity (65-95%) was also found in the water extracts. Hypericum undulatum, Melissa officinalis and Laurus nobilis showed both high AChE inhibitory capacity and antioxidant activity. PMID:16737790

Ferreira, A; Proença, C; Serralheiro, M L M; Araújo, M E M

2006-11-01

44

Roles of Emblica officinalis in Medicine - A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis (Amla) are widely used in the Indian system of medicine and believed to increase defense against diseases. This article discuses and summarizes important medicinal values of Emblica officinalis (EO). In this communication, we reviewed the applications of EO in cancer, diabetis, liver treatment, heart disease, ulcer, anemia and various other diseases. The use of EO as antioxidant, immunomodulatory,

K. H. Khan

2009-01-01

45

Endothelium-dependent induction of vasorelaxation by Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis in rat isolated thoracic aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, vasorelaxant effect produced by the aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis (MOO) (Lamiaceae) and its possible mechanism in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine were examined. In the first series of experiments, effect of MOO on the baseline and phenylephrine (10?5M) precontracted arteries was investigated, while in the second group of experiments, endothelium

S. Ersoy; I. Orhan; N. N. Turan; G. ?ahan; M. Ark; F. Tosun

2008-01-01

46

Microscopic characters of the leaf and stem of Lavandula dentata L. (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Lavandula dentata L. is an aromatic plant used in folk medicine for different purposes and, for this reason, phytochemical surveys have been carried out in the search for bioactive substances aiming to support its uses. Since there is little knowledge on the structural aspects of L. dentata, this work has studied the anatomical characters of the leaf and stem using light and scanning electron microscopy, in order to assist the species identification. As a result, there are different types of trichomes: capitate glandular with uni- or bicellular head, peltate glandular with multicellular head, and branched non-glandular. The leaf is hypostomatic showing diacytic stomata. The epidermis is uniseriate and coated with striate cuticle. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the midrib is concave-convex and traversed by a single collateral vascular bundle. The stem is quadrangular and has alternating strands of collenchyma and cortical parenchyma as well as a typical endodermis in the cortex. The phloem and xylem cylinders are traversed by narrow rays and there is an incomplete sclerenchymatic sheath adjoining the phloem. These results are a novelty for the species and contribute to distinguish it from other lavenders. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:647-652, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24861363

do Rocio Duarte, Márcia; Carvalho de Souza, Danielle

2014-08-01

47

Mercury uptake and distribution in Lavandula stoechas plants grown in soil from Almadén mining district (Spain).  

PubMed

This work studies mercury root uptake by Lavandula stoechas var. Kew Red (lavender) and the distribution of this metal through the plant under greenhouse conditions along three consecutive seasons. Mercury concentration in plant tissues and in the different products obtained from lavender plants (essential oil, toilet water and in lavender tea) was assessed in order to evaluate the possible cultivation of lavender as a profitable alternative land use to mercury mining in the Almadén area once the mine had been closed down. Mercury concentration in useful parts of the plant was low (0.03-0.55 mg kg(-1)). Likewise, the essential oil, toilet water and tea obtained from these plants presented very low mercury levels, below the detection limit of the used equipment (<0.5 microg kg(-1)). In the case of the obtained tea, according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization, the maximum daily intake of it without intoxication risk would be 85.2l. So, although other sources of mercury intake should also be considered in order to elaborate a complete toxicological risk assessment. Lavender data, obtained under this greenhouse working conditions, shows that lavender cultivation could be an alternative crop in the Almadén area. PMID:19699252

Sierra, M J; Millán, R; Esteban, E

2009-11-01

48

Microbial degradation of mefenoxam in rhizosphere of Zinnia angustifolia.  

PubMed

The fate of the fungicide mefenoxam was studied in a containerized rhizosphere system. The rhizosphere system used Zinnia angustifolia (Tropic Snow) in a bark/sand potting mix and was compared to bulk potting mix (no plants). Rhizosphere microbial populations were allowed to establish for 3 weeks prior to fungicide addition (20 microg per g mix). Mefenoxam and degradation product concentrations were determined by High HPLC or capillary electrophoresis after extraction. Seventy eight percent of the fungicide originally applied to the rhizosphere was degraded after 21 days compared to 44% in bulk system (no plant). The primary degradation product was the free acid N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-DL-alanine, which accounted for 71% of the applied parent chemical after 30 days. N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-acetamide was also detected, but in lesser amounts. Bacterial populations in the rhizosphere increased during the 30-day period, which correlated with an increase in degradation of the parent compound. Pure cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Chrysobacterium indologenes isolated from the rhizosphere system could degrade the applied fungicide (10 microg/ml) almost completely to the free acid within 54 h. PMID:11482644

Pai, S G; Riley, M B; Camper, N D

2001-08-01

49

Structural Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides Extracted from the Pulp of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.  

PubMed

In this study, two polysaccharides (Elaeagnus angustifolia L. polysaccharide-1 (PEA-1) and PEA-2) were prepared from Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Then, the preliminary structure and antioxidant activities of all the samples were investigated. The results showed that the average molecular weights for PEA-1 and PEA-2 were 9113 and 5020 Da, respectively. And, PEA-1 was mainly composed of rhamnose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, respectively. The components of PEA-2 were rhamnose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, respectively. Moreover, the Antioxidant assays demonstrated that PEA-1 possessed of strong free radicals scavenging activity and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities, suggesting that PEA-1 could potentially be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:24972139

Chen, Qingqing; Chen, Juncheng; Du, Hongtao; Li, Qi; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Gechao; Liu, Hong; Wang, Junru

2014-01-01

50

Arabinogalactan-proteins from cell suspension cultures of Araucaria angustifolia.  

PubMed

Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), found in the culture medium of suspension cells of Araucaria angustifolia grown in plant growth regulator-free and plant growth regulator-containing BM media, BM0 and BM2, respectively, were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. The concentrated extracellular fractions (CEFs), obtained from suspension cell cultures grown for 20 days in BM0 and BM2 media yielded two fractions, CEF-0 and CEF-2, respectively. CEF-0 and CEF-2 was submitted to selective precipitation using the beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent (beta-GlcY) to isolate AGPs for structural characterization; this yielded fractions designated CEF-0YPF and CEF-2YPF, respectively. The monosaccharide composition analysis established that samples were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and uronic acid in a molar ratio 3:37:55:5 (CEF-0YPF) and 1:37:58:4 (CEF-2YPF), although trace amounts (<0.5 mol%) of Xyl were also found. Methylation analysis of CEF-YPF fractions showed similar results for both CEF-0YPF and CEF-2YPF, with non-reducing terminal units of Araf, Arap, Galp, Rhap and Xylp, as well as 3-O-substituted and 5-O-substituted Araf units and 3-O-substituted, 6-O-substituted and 3,6-di-O-substituted Galp units. The amino acid composition analysis established Ser, Ala, and Hyp as major amino acids in both samples. In conclusion, this investigation has shown that CEF-0YPF and CEF-2YPF contain macromolecules having typical AGP characteristics, including a Hyp/Ala/Ser-rich protein moiety, a (1-->3) and/or (1-->6) linked beta-d-galactopyranosyl main chain substituted by Gal, Ara, Rha and Xyl residues, and binding affinity for beta-GlcY and monoclonal anti-AGP antibodies. PMID:20488499

Maurer, Juliana Bello Baron; Bacic, Antony; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Donatti, Lucélia; Zawadzki-Baggio, Selma Faria; Pettolino, Filomena Angela

2010-08-01

51

Mycorrhizal dependency of a representative plant species in mediterranean shrublands ( Lavandula spica L.) as a key factor to its use for revegetation strategies in desertification-threatened areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavender plants (Lavandula spp.) are small woody shrubs which belong to the natural succession in certain plant communities of semiarid mediterranean ecosystems in the southeast of Spain and they thrive in areas which are threatened by desertification. Lavender plants form arbuscular mycorrhizas and have been described as mycorrhizal-dependent species, but they are also known to display a stimulated root phosphatase

Rosario Azcón; José M. Barea

1997-01-01

52

Some Mediterranean plant species ( Lavandula spp. and Thymus satureioides ) act as potential ‘plant nurses’ for the early growth of Cupressus atlantica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mycorrhizal status of several representative shrub species (Lavandula spp. and Thymus satureioides) in Moroccan semiarid ecosystems, was evaluated as well as their contribution to the mycorrhizal potential of the soil. Furthermore, the rhizosphere soils collected under these target species were tested for their influence on the growth of Cupressus atlantica, a tree species whose natural stands has declined in

L. Ouahmane; R. Duponnois; M. Hafidi; M. Kisa; A. Boumezouch; J. Thioulouse; C. Plenchette

2006-01-01

53

Essential oils composition of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Labill.) Markgraf (Apocynaceae – Periplocoideae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of roots, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island has been obtained by hydrodistillation and its composition analysed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 86 volatile compounds. Branches showed the higher diversity with 57 compounds followed by fruits with 33, roots with 23, flowers with 16 and

P. Zito; M. Sajeva; M. Bruno; S. Rosselli; A. Maggio; F. Senatore

2012-01-01

54

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Typha angustifolia pollen grains extracts in experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and 70% methanolic extracts of pollen grains of Typha angustifolia. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats were used for the study. The acute anti-inflammatory activity of pollen grains of T. angustifolia was studied using the carrageenan as phlogistic agent, whereas its chronic anti-inflammatory effect was investigated by the percentage inhibition of cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Results: Both aqueous and 70% methanolic extracts of pollen grains of T. angustifolia showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema as compared to the control (P<0.001). It was observed that both the extracts at dose of 125 mg/kg inhibited the granuloma formation by 44.30% which is higher than at dose of 500, 250 mg/kg, thus causing a significant (P<0.001) non-dose-related inhibition of granuloma formation. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that extracts of pollen grains of T. angustifolia are effective in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and thus support its traditional utilization.

Varpe, Saroj S.; Juvekar, Archana R.; Bidikar, Mukta P.; Juvekar, Parikshit R.

2012-01-01

55

Neuroprotective and neurological properties of Melissa officinalis.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase enzymes and affinity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor). The results suggest that the plant has a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect on hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in PC12 cells. The radical scavenging properties were also investigated in cells and in cell free systems, where this plant was shown to be a good free radical scavenger. The MAO-A bioassay was also performed to detect possible antidepressant activities demonstrating that both extracts inhibited this enzyme, which has a key role in neurotransmitters metabolism. However, no activity was detected in the acetylcholinesterase and GABA assays. In general, the methanolic extract was more effective than the aqueous. PMID:19760174

López, Víctor; Martín, Sara; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar; Carretero, Maria Emilia; Jäger, Anna K; Calvo, Maria Isabel

2009-11-01

56

New iridoid glycoside from Gratiola officinalis.  

PubMed

A new iridoid glycoside, 1?,6?-di-O-trans-cinnamoyl-9-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-iridene-5?-ol (1), along with four known compounds loliolide (2), ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), betulinic acid (4), and ?-amyrin (5), was isolated from the aerial parts of Gratiola officinalis L. The structure of the new compound was deduced on the basis of 1D ¹H and ¹³C NMR and 2D HMQC, HMBC, and COSY experiments, and mass spectrometric techniques (EI-MS and HR-EI-MS). The relative configuration of 1 was assigned by comparative analysis of the NMR spectral data with known analogs, together with NOESY experiments. PMID:23134347

Ali, Liaqat; Rizvi, Tania Shamim; Ahmad, Manzoor; Shaheen, Farzana

2012-01-01

57

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica—effectiveness for dyslipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats induced hyperlipidemia. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was significantly inhibited in rats fed E. officinalis flavonoids. But increase of this enzyme was observed in rats administered M. indica flavonoids. LCAT showed elevated levels in rats fed flavonoids from E. officinalis and M. indica.

L Anila; N. R Vijayalakshmi

2002-01-01

58

Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-³H)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root

R. Croteau; H. El-Bialy; S. S. Dehal

1987-01-01

59

Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g-1. The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%), camphor (17.1%), ?-pinene (12.3%), limonene (6.23%), camphene (6.00%) and linalool (5.70%). The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP) and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3) using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Jabbar, Abdul; Mahboob, Shahid; Nigam, Poonam Singh

2010-01-01

60

Flavonoids and phenolic compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

A new flavonoid, 6''-O-(E)-feruloylhomoplantaginin (1), and 14 known compounds, 6''-O-(E)-feruloylnepitrin (2), 6''-O-(E)-p-coumaroylnepitrin (3), 6-methoxyluteolin 7-glucopyranoside (4), luteolin 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronide (5), luteolin 3'-O-(3''-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucuronide (6), kaempferol (7), luteolin (8), genkwanin (9), and ladanein (10), together with 1-O-feruloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (11), 1-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranose (12), rosmarinic acid (13), carnosic acid (14), and carnosol (15), were isolated from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis . The structures were established on the basis of NMR spectroscopic methods supported by HRMS. All isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity in human cancer cell lines (HepG2, COLO 205, and HL-60) and for anti-inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Among them, compounds 14 and 15 were modestly active in the inhibition of nitrite production in macrophages, followed by compounds 8 and 5. Compounds 14 and 15 were more effective as an antiproliferative agent in HL-60 cells with IC(50) values of 1.7 and 5.5 microM, followed by compounds 8 and 7 with IC(50) of 39.6 and 82.0 microM, respectively. In addition, compounds 14 and 15 showed potent antiproliferative effects on COLO 205 cells with IC(50) values of 32.8 and 29.9 microM, respectively. PMID:20397728

Bai, Naisheng; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Lai, Ching-Shu; Shao, Xi; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang

2010-05-12

61

Microbial growth and nitrogen retention in litter of Phragmites australis compared to Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tidal marshes of the northeast US, replacement of native cattail (Typha angustifolia) by the common reed (Phragmites australis) is widespread, and reed is often the target of removal efforts. Reed sequesters nearly twice the amount of nitrogen per\\u000a unit marsh area in living aboveground tissue compared to cattail. Microbial decay processes immobilize additional nitrogen\\u000a or return this organic nitrogen

Stuart E. G. Findlay; Susan Dye; Kevin A. Kuehn

2002-01-01

62

Isolation and characterization of the Larix gmelinii ANGUSTIFOLIA ( LgAN ) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN), a plant homolog of C-terminal binding protein, controls the polar elongation of leaf cells and the trichome-branching pattern\\u000a in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, degenerate PCR was used to isolate an ortholog of AN, referred to as LgAN, from larch (Larix gmelinii). The LgAN cDNA is predicted to encode a protein of 646 amino acids that shows

Xiaofei Lin; Naoko Minamisawa; Katsuaki Takechi; Wenbo Zhang; Hiroshi Sato; Susumu Takio; Hirokazu Tsukaya; Hiroyoshi Takano

2008-01-01

63

Germination of Deyeuxia angustifolia as affected by soil type, burial depth, water depth and oxygen level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deyeuxia angustifolia is a dominant species in the Sanjiang Plain, the largest freshwater marsh wetland in China. However, this species has declined\\u000a because of great environment changes. In the effects of sea-level rise and greenhouse gas, magnitude and frequency of flood\\u000a and rate of deposit in wetland increased greatly. Thus, in this paper, effects of soil environment (soil type, burial

Youzhi Li; Canming Zhang; Yonghong Xie; Fen Liu

2009-01-01

64

Weinmannia marquesana var. angustifolia (Cunoniaceae), a new variety from the Marquesas Islands  

PubMed Central

Abstract Weinmannia marquesana F. Br. var. angustifolia Lorence & W. L. Wagner, var. nov., a new variety with narrow, simple leaves endemic to Tahuata, Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) is described and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is similar to the other two varieties of this species by having simple leaves, but this new variety has much narrower leaf blades, and it resembles Weinmannia tremuloides in having narrow leaf blades but differs by having simple, not trifoliolate leaves.

Lorence, David H.; Wagner, Warren L.

2011-01-01

65

Effect of chemical and physical factors to improve the germination rate of Echinacea angustifolia seeds.  

PubMed

Seeds of Echinacea angustifolia are known for their deep dormancy. In this paper, we studied the responses of E. angustifolia seeds to some chemical and physical factors, such as scarification, chilling (5 degrees C) period, light and applied BA (6-benzylaminopurine), GA3 (gibberellic acid) and sound stimulation. When the seed coat layers were removed, the germination rate grew up from 6 to 20% (incubated in light) and the mean time germination (MTG) was reduced from 18 to 6.6 days. On the basis of layers-removed, chilling and continuous light gave significantly higher germination rate (up to 70%). Compare the data of seeds chilled by 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 days, the maximum germination rate (up to 70%) achieved at 18-days chilling treatment. Further increases in the chilling period could slightly improve germination. Exogenous application of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mg/L GA3 or BA in the previous pretreatment increased germination to 78, 90 and 84% or 76, 86 and 84%, respectively. Obviously, the best concentration of GA or BA is 0.3 mg/L. And the GA3 or BA treatment shortened the MTG to about 4 days. The influence of sound stimulation was also tested in the experiment. The result showed that one 100 dB and 1000 Hz sound wave (sine-wave) was beneficial to the germination of E. angustifolia seeds. PMID:15342019

Chuanren, Duan; Bochu, Wang; Wanqian, Liu; Jing, Chen; Jie, Lian; Huan, Zhao

2004-09-01

66

Changes in morphological phenotypes and essential oil components in lavandin ( Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loisel.) transformed with wild-type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairy roots were induced from leaf-derived calli of lavandin (Lavandula×intermedia Emeric ex Loisel.) by infection with wild-type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, A-5 (MAFF 02-10265) and A-13 (MAFF 02-10266). A-5-inoculated calli formed hairy roots more efficiently than A-13 ones. The transgenic shoots could be obtained from hairy root segments mediated by each Agrobacterium strain. However, different plant growth regulators were required

Masato Tsuro; Hiroyuki Ikedo

2011-01-01

67

Sulfur cycle in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang plain, Northeast China.  

PubMed

The sulfur cycle and its compartmental distribution within an atmosphere-plant-soil system was studied using a compartment model in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast China. The results showed that in the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem, soil was the main storage compartment and current hinge of sulfur in which 98.4% sulfur was accumulated, while only 1.6% sulfur was accumulated in the plant compartment. In the plant subsystem, roots and litters were the main storage compartment of sulfur and they remained 83.5% of the total plant sulfur. The calculations of sulfur turnover through the compartments of the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem demonstrated that the above-ground component took up 0.99 gS/m2 from the root, of which 0.16 gS/m2 was translocated to the roots and 0.83 gS/m2 to the litter. The roots took in 1.05 gS/m2 from the soil, subsequent translocation back to the soil accounted for 1.31 gS/m2, while there was 1.84 gS/m2 in the litter and the net transfer of sulfur to the soil was more than 0.44 gS/(m2 x a). The emission of H2S from the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere was 1.83 mgS/(m2 x a), while carbonyl sulfide (COS) was absorbed by the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem from the atmosphere at the rate of 1.76 mgS/(m2 x a). The input of sulfur by the rainfall to the ecosystem was 4.85 mgS/m2 during the growing season. The difference between input and output was 4.78 mgS/m2, which indicated that sulfur was accumulated in the ecosystem and may cause wetland acidify in the future. PMID:18575133

Liu, Jingshuang; Li, Xinhua

2008-01-01

68

Micropropagation of Melissa officinalis L. through proliferation of axillary shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoots were differentiated in cotyledonary nodes of 10 d old seedlings of Melissa officinalis, cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0-4 mg\\/l). The production of shoots was further induced in subcultures of the original expiant, after the first harvest of shoots (stump), using similar conditions. The highest average number of shoots in the two inoculations was obtained with

A. C. Tavares; M. C. Pimenta; M. T. Gonçalves

1996-01-01

69

Melissa officinalis, L.: study of antioxidant activity in supercritical residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical CO2 extraction of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.) at pressures from 10 to 18 MPa and at temperatures of 308–313 K was studied. The antioxidant activity of lemon balm extracts, obtained from solid residues of supercritical extraction and from raw lemon balm leaves, was performed using the Rancimat method. The best protection factor curve was obtained when extracts

M. A Ribeiro; M. G Bernardo-Gil; M. M Esqu??vel

2001-01-01

70

Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC–MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon

P. Schnitzler; A. Schuhmacher; A. Astani; Jürgen Reichling

2008-01-01

71

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory guided fractionation of Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant Melissa officinalis L. has been used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Based on its traditional medicinal use, it was assessed for its clinical efficacy in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s patients. The plant was effective in the management of the disease. Therefore, based on this result, a similar plant extract was prepared in order to be screened

Keyvan Dastmalchi; Velimatti Ollilainen; Petri Lackman; Gustav Boije af Gennäs; H. J. Damien Dorman; Päivi P. Järvinen; Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma; Raimo Hiltunen

2009-01-01

72

Electrophoretic and immunochemical study of collagens from Sepia officinalis cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretic and Western blot studies were conducted on collagen fractions extracted from Sepia officinalis (cuttlefish) cartilage using a modified salt precipitation method developed for the isolation of vertebrate collagens. The antibodies used had been raised in rabbit against the following types of collagen: Sepia I-like; fish I; human I; chicken I, II, and IX; rat V; and calf IX and

C Rigo; D. J Hartmann; A Bairati

2002-01-01

73

Presence of monoterpene synthase in four Labiatae species and Solid-Phase Microextraction- Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis of their aroma profiles  

PubMed Central

Background: The family Lamiaceae (Labiatae) has included some medicinal plants. some monoterpene synthases, including linalool and limonene synthases, have been cloned and functionally characterized from several plants of Labiatae family. Materials and Methods: In this study, presence of linalool and limonene synthases, in four species of Labiatae family including Nepeta cataria, Lavandula angustifolia, Hyssopus officinalis and Salvia sclarea has been determined by molecular biological techniques together with the Head space SPME – GC-MS analysis of the aroma profile of these species. Results: Indicated that none of the plant species produced distinguishable bands with primer pairs related to d-limonene synthase. Distinguishable bands around 1800 bp in cDNA samples of L. angustifolia, H. officinalis and S. sclarea were observed regarding to the presence of linalool synthase. Head space SPME-GC-MS analysis of the aroma profiles of the above-mentioned plants showed that linalool (31.0%), linalyl acetate (18.2%), were found as the major compounds of L. angustifolia, while geraniol (5.5%), nerol (34.0%) and ?- citral (52.0%) were identified as the main compounds of the N. cataria. The major components of H. officinalis and S. sclarea oils were determined as cis-pinocamphone (57.3%), and linalool (19.0%), linalyl acetate (51.5%), respectively. Conclusion: H. officinalis was rich of cyclic monoterpenes, L. angustifolia, N. cataria and S. sclarea showed considerable amount of linear monoterpenes. The aroma profile of the above-mentioned plants contained low concentration of sesquiterpenes except N. cataria, which indicated no sesquiterpene. The profiles of the main components of these plants are in agreement with molecular assays.

Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Haddadi, Azita; Amin, Gholamreza; Nikan, Marjan; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbass

2014-01-01

74

An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.  

PubMed

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life. PMID:20874226

Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

2010-12-01

75

Antinociceptive and free radical scavenging activities of alkaloids isolated from Lindera angustifolia Chen.  

PubMed

Lindera angustifolia Chen is a folk medicine used for the treatment of contusions-induced swelling, rheumatic pains and bellyache in south and the middle part of China. Phytochemical studies showed that aporphine and benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids are the characteristic constituents of this plant. In this study, we evaluated the antinociceptive and free radical scavenging properties of six aporphine and two benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids isolated from the root of Lindera angustifolia. All alkaloids except magnocurarine exhibited remarkable radical scavenging effects (36-90% scavenging at 25-100microg/ml) in DPPH radical scavenging test, among them norisocorydine showed the hightest activity (SC(50): 14.1microg/ml). Antinociceptive activities were tested by using acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin test at dose of 20mg/kg. Norisocorydine exhibited the highest antinociceptive ability with 83.5% writhing inhibition. Boldine, norboldine showed significant antinociceptive activity with 76.3% and 74.6% writhing inhibition respectively. Indomethacin was used as positive control, which showed 67.8% writhing inhibition at dose of 10mg/kg. Most of the compounds, except N-ethoxycarbonyllaurotetanine and magnocurarine, could significantly inhibit the phase I reaction (P<0.01), and all of them inhibited the phase II reaction (P<0.001) in the formalin tests (indomethacin and morphine were used as positive drugs). The antinociceptive effects exhibited a structure-activity relationship similar to that of the free radical scavenging activities. Above results suggested that the alkaloids from the root of Lindera angustifolia possess both free radical scavenging and antinociceptive activities, and the antinociceptive activity seems to be related to the free radical scavenging effect. PMID:16513307

Zhao, Qizhi; Zhao, Yimin; Wang, Kejun

2006-07-19

76

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in Turkey.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the dried leaves and flowers of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas were separately identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. The main components were alpha-fenchone (41.9 +/- 1.2%), 1,8-cineole (15.6 +/- 0.8%), camphor (12.1 +/- 0.5%), and viridiflorol (4.1 +/- 0.4%) in the leaves; and alpha-fenchone (39.2 +/- 0.9%), myrtenyl acetate (9.5 +/- 0.4%), alpha-pinene (6.1 +/- 0.09%), camphor (5.9 +/- 0.05%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8 +/- 0.1%) in the flowers. Overall, 55 and 66 constituents were identified in the leaf and flower essential oils representing more than 90% and 94% of the total, respectively. In addition, the essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticandidal activities by broth microdilution. The flower essential oil was found to be relatively more active than the leaf oil towards the tested pathogenic microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to the flower oil (MIC = 31.2 microg/mL). The oils, evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity using a TLC-DPPH assay, were inactive at a concentration of 2 mg/mL. PMID:19731612

Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Demirci, Betül; Ye?ilada, Erdem; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

2009-07-01

77

Essential oils from wild populations of Algerian Lavandula stoechas L.: composition, chemical variability, and in vitro biological properties.  

PubMed

In an effort to develop local productions of aromatic and medicinal plants, a comprehensive assessment of the composition and biological activities of the essential oils (EOs) extracted from the aerial flowering parts of wild growing Lavandula stoechas L. collected from eleven different locations in northern Algeria was performed. The oils were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, and 121 compounds were identified, accounting for 69.88-91.2% of the total oil compositions. The eleven oils greatly differed in their compositions, since only 66 compounds were common to all oils. Major EO components were fenchone (2; 11.27-37.48%), camphor (3, 1.94-21.8%), 1,8-cineole (1; 0.16-8.71%), and viridiflorol (10; 2.89-7.38%). The assessed in vitro biological properties demonstrated that the DPPH-based radical-scavenging activities and the inhibition of the ?-carotene/linoleic acid-based lipid oxidation differed by an eight-fold factor between the most and the least active oils and were linked to different sets of molecules in the different EOs. The eleven EOs exhibited good antimicrobial activities against most of the 16 tested strains of bacteria, filamentous fungi, and yeasts, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.16 to 11.90?mg/ml. PMID:21560242

Benabdelkader, Tarek; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Guitton, Yann; Jullien, Frédéric; Maitre, Dany; Casabianca, Hervé; Legendre, Laurent; Kameli, Abdelkrim

2011-05-01

78

Comparative antimicrobial activities of Emblica officinalis and Ocimum sanctum.  

PubMed

The aqueous and successive extracts of the fruit pulp of Emblica officinalis and fresh leaves and stems of Ocimum sanctum were prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The successive extracts such as petroleum ether,chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were prepared by successive solvent extraction method and aqueous extract by maceration process and screened for antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, gram negative bacteria E.coli and fungal strains of Candida species by using agar cup plate method. The extracts showed different degree of activity against pathogenic microbes. The results obtained were compared with standard drugs Amoxicillin (10?g) and Amphotericin B(10?g). The methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was found to be more effective than the leaf and stem extracts of Ocimum sanctum in inhibiting all the microbial strains. PMID:22557261

Vijayalakshmi, S; Arunkumar, V; Anju, D; Gunasundari, P; Moorthy, P; Chandrasekharan, A K

2007-10-01

79

Small brown planthopper resistance loci in wild rice (Oryza officinalis).  

PubMed

Host-plant resistance is the most practical and economical approach to control the rice planthoppers. However, up to date, few rice germplasm accessions that are resistant to the all three kinds of planthoppers (1) brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål), (2) the small brown planthopper (SBPH; Laodelphax striatellus Fallen), and (3) the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) have been identified; consequently, the genetic basis for host-plant broad spectrum resistance to rice planthoppers in a single variety has been seldom studied. Here, one wild species, Oryza officinalis (Acc. HY018, 2n = 24, CC), was detected showing resistance to the all three kinds of planthoppers. Because resistance to WBPH and BPH in O. officinalis has previously been reported, the study mainly focused on its SBPH resistance. The SBPH resistance gene(s) was (were) introduced into cultivated rice via asymmetric somatic hybridization. Three QTLs for SBPH resistance detected by the SSST method were mapped and confirmed on chromosomes 3, 7, and 12, respectively. The allelic/non-allelic relationship and relative map positions of the three kinds of planthopper resistance genes in O. officinalis show that the SBPH, WBPH, and BPH resistance genes in O. officinalis were governed by multiple genes, but not by any major gene. The data on the genetics of host-plant broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers in a single accession suggested that the most ideally practical and economical approach for rice breeders is to screen the sources of broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers, but not to employ broad spectrum resistance gene for the management of planthoppers. Pyramiding these genes in a variety can be an effective way for the management of planthoppers. PMID:24504629

Zhang, Weilin; Dong, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ma, Bojun; Ma, Rongrong; Huang, Fudeng; Wang, Changchun; Hu, Haitao; Li, Chunshou; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

2014-06-01

80

The effect of triacontanol on micropropagationof balm, Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triacontanol, a long-chain primary alcohol was found to be an effective growth regulator in the micropropagation of balm,\\u000a Melissa officinalis. In both the multiplication and the rooting phase, concentrations of 2, 5, 10 and 20??g triacontanol per liter were applied.\\u000a After 4 weeks of culture, the fresh weight of shoots was measured in the multiplication phase and root formation, photosynthetic

Á. Tantos; A. Mészáros; J. Kissimon; G. Horváth; T. Farkas

1999-01-01

81

Lemon Balm ( Melissa officinalis ) Stalk: Chemical Composition and Fiber Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the potentials of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) stalk (LBS), a massive waste part of medicinal plant, for pulp and papermaking by assessing its fiber characteristics\\u000a and chemical composition. In addition, LBS properties were compared with some important agro-residues such as bagasse stalk\\u000a (BS), cotton stalk (CS) and tobacco stalk (TS). There is no information about suitability

Yahya Hamzeh; Fatemeh Amani

2011-01-01

82

HPLC ANALYSIS OF PHENOLIC ACIDS IN MELISSA OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and effective HPLC assay for determination of the main phenolic acids (rosmarinic, caffeic, protocatechuic) that were isolated from medicinal plant Melissa officinalis has been developed. The main goal of this work was to test and evaluate the liquid extraction procedure for plant samples. As the effective extraction media, mixtures of methanol-water and methanol-water (pH 2.5) were chosen. The

Alicia Caniova; Eva Brandsteterova

2001-01-01

83

Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation of three new phytoconstituents, identified as n-hexacos-2-enyl-1,5-olide (altheahexacosanyl lactone), 2beta-hydroxycalamene (altheacalamene) and 5,6-dihydroxycoumarin-5-dodecanoate-6beta-D-glucopyranoside (altheacoumarin glucoside), along with the known phytoconstituents lauric acid, beta-sitosterol and lanosterol. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical reactions. PMID:20803381

Rani, Sunita; Khan, Suroor A; Ali, M

2010-09-01

84

Volatiles From Leaves and Flowers of Borage (Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils obtained from the fresh leaves and flowers of Borago officinalis collected in the region of Amdoun (northwestern Tunisia) were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified. The oil yields expressed on a dry weight basis were 0.14% and 0.24% for the leaves and flowers, respectively. The main compound determined in flower and leaf oil

Baya Mhamdi; Wissem A. Wannes; Wissal Dhiffi; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

85

Isolation of chemically induced mutants in borage ( Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 ?6,9,12) has been reported to be helpful in the treatment of a wide range of disorders. Borage\\u000a (Borago officinalis L.) is an annual plant of renewed interest because the seeds are an important source of GLA. The failure to retain mature\\u000a seeds until harvest limits the total seed and GLA yield per plant and is the

A. De Haro-Bailón; M. Del Rio

1998-01-01

86

Antioxidant and Antifungal Activity of Verbena officinalis L. Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and the antifungal effect against chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate and 50% methanolic extracts of Verbena officinalis leaves were investigated. The activity of different fractions of 50% methanolic extract and some isolated compounds were\\u000a also investigated. The results suggest that 50% methanolic extract and caffeoyl derivatives could potentially be considered\\u000a as excellent and readily available

E. Casanova; J. M. García-Mina; M. I. Calvo

2008-01-01

87

In vitro antioxidant activity of Valeriana officinalis against different neurotoxic agents.  

PubMed

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerian) is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep. Although V. officinalis have been well documented as promising pharmacological agent; the exact mechanisms by which this plant act is still unknown. Limited literature data have indicated that V. officinalis extracts can exhibit antioxidant properties against iron in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However, there is no data available about the possible antioxidant effect of V. officinalis against other pro-oxidants in brain. In the present study, the protective effect of V. officinalis on lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by different pro-oxidant agents with neuropathological importance was examined. Ethanolic extract of valerian (0-60 microg/ml) was tested against quinolinic acid (QA); 3-nitropropionic acid; sodium nitroprusside; iron sulfate (FeSO4) and Fe2+/EDTA induced LPO in rat brain homogenates. The effect of V. officinalis in deoxyribose degradation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also investigated. In brain homogenates, V. officinalis inhibited thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by all pro-oxidants tested in a concentration dependent manner. Similarly, V. officinalis caused a significant decrease on the LPO in cerebral cortex and in deoxyribose degradation. QA-induced ROS production in cortical slices was also significantly reduced by V. officinalis. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in modulating LPO induced by different pro-oxidant agents. These data may imply that V. officinalis extract, functioning as antioxidant agent, can be beneficial for reducing insomnia complications linked to oxidative stress. PMID:19191025

Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Fachinetto, Roselei; Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Felix Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda Berenice; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

2009-08-01

88

Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student’s t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect.

Feliu-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, Cesar

2013-01-01

89

Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student's t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect. PMID:23844268

Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

2013-01-01

90

Purification of alkylamides from Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell. Roots by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.  

PubMed

High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was used for the separation of alkylamides from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell. For this purpose, the alkylamides were extracted with hexane and subjected to semipreparative HSCCC using a two-phase solvent system consisting of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water (4:1:2:1). The lower aqueous phase was used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 3 mL/min and a rotary speed of 1000 rpm. This procedure led to the isolation of four pure alkylamides, that is, dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (38.9 mg, 97% purity), dodeca-2E,4E,8Z-trienoic acid isobutylamide (4.4 mg, 92% purity), dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid isobutylamide (3.2 mg, 99% purity), and dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid 2-methylbutylamide (0.3 mg, 92% purity). The identity and purity of the isolated alkylamides were confirmed by LC-ESI-MS and (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR data. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid 2-methylbutylamide in E. angustifolia roots. PMID:21190380

Lopes-Lutz, Daise; Mudge, Elizabeth; Ippolito, Robert; Brown, Paula; Schieber, Andreas

2011-01-26

91

Nocturnal versus diurnal CO2 uptake: how flexible is Agave angustifolia?  

PubMed Central

Agaves exhibit the water-conserving crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthetic pathway. Some species are potential biofuel feedstocks because they are highly productive in seasonally dry landscapes. In plants with CAM, high growth rates are often believed to be associated with a significant contribution of C3 photosynthesis to total carbon gain when conditions are favourable. There has even been a report of a shift from CAM to C3 in response to overwatering a species of Agave. We investigated whether C3 photosynthesis can contribute substantially to carbon uptake and growth in young and mature Agave angustifolia collected from its natural habitat in Panama. In well-watered plants, CO2 uptake in the dark contributed about 75% of daily carbon gain. This day/night pattern of CO2 exchange was highly conserved under a range of environmental conditions and was insensitive to intensive watering. Elevated CO2 (800 ppm) stimulated CO2 fixation predominantly in the light. Exposure to CO2-free air at night markedly enhanced CO2 uptake during the following light period, but CO2 exchange rapidly reverted to its standard pattern when CO2 was supplied during the subsequent 24h. Although A. angustifolia consistently engages in CAM as its principal photosynthetic pathway, its relatively limited photosynthetic plasticity does not preclude it from occupying a range of habitats, from relatively mesic tropical environments in Panama to drier habitats in Mexico.

Winter, Klaus; Garcia, Milton; Holtum, Joseph A. M.

2014-01-01

92

The role of gene flow in shaping genetic structures of the subtropical conifer species Araucaria angustifolia.  

PubMed

The morphological features of pollen and seed of Araucaria angustifolia have led to the proposal of limited gene dispersal for this species. We used nuclear microsatellite and AFLP markers to assess patterns of genetic variation in six natural populations at the intra- and inter-population level, and related our findings to gene dispersal in this species. Estimates of both fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) and migration rate suggest relatively short-distance gene dispersal. However, gene dispersal differed among populations, and effects of more efficient dispersal within population were observed in at least one stand. In addition, even though some seed dispersal may be aggregated in this principally barochorous species, reasonable secondary seed dispersal, presumably facilitated by animals, and overlap of seed shadows within populations is suggested. Overall, no correlation was observed between levels of SGS and inbreeding, density or age structure, except that a higher level of SGS was revealed for the population with a higher number of juvenile individuals. A low estimate for the number of migrants per generation between two neighbouring populations implies limited gene flow. We expect that stepping-stone pollen flow may have contributed to low genetic differentiation among populations observed in a previous survey. Thus, strategies for maintenance of gene flow among remnant populations should be considered in order to avoid degrading effects of population fragmentation on the evolution of A. angustifolia. PMID:18426482

Stefenon, V M; Gailing, O; Finkeldey, R

2008-05-01

93

Sphaeralcic acid and tomentin, anti-inflammatory compounds produced in cell suspension cultures of Sphaeralcea angustifolia.  

PubMed

Sphaeralcea angustifolia, an endangered plant species in Mexico, is employed to treat inflammatory processes and as a wound healing remedy. Scopoletin (1) was reported as one of the main bioactive compounds in this plant. Here, we isolated and identified compounds with anti-inflammatory properties from the suspension-cultured cells of S. angustifolia. The CH2Cl2?:?CH3OH extract of the cells exhibited anti-inflammatory properties in acute inflammation models. Two compounds were isolated, 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, named tomentin (2), and 2-(1,8-dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-6-methyl-7-methoxy)-naphthoic acid, denominated as sphaeralcic acid (3). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses. The anti-inflammatory effects of both compounds were also evaluated. At a dose of 45?mg/kg, compound 2 inhibited the formation of ?-carrageenan footpad edema at 58?%, and compound 3 at 66?%. Local application of compound 2 (225?mM per ear) or 3 (174?mM per ear) inhibited the phorbol ester-induced auricular edema formation by 57?% or 86?%, respectively. The effect of compound 3 was dose-dependent and the ED50 was 93?mM. PMID:24488717

Pérez-Hernández, Juanita; González-Cortazar, Manasés; Marquina, Silvia; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Meckes-Fischer, Mariana; Tortoriello, Jaime; Cruz-Sosa, Francisco; Nicasio-Torres, María del Pilar

2014-02-01

94

Identification and elimination of bacterial contamination during in vitro propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth  

PubMed Central

Background: Guadua angustifolia Kunth is a very important bamboo species with significant utility in pharmaceutical, paper, charcoal, and construction industries. Microbial contamination is a major problem encountered during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. Objective: This study has been designed to analyze the identity of contaminating bacteria and to develop the strategy to eliminate them during micropropagation of Guadua. Materials and Methods: We isolated and consequently analyzed partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify two contaminating bacteria as (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis. In addition, we also- performed antibiotic sensitivity testing on these bacterial isolates. Results: We identified kanamycin and streptomycin sulfate as potentially useful antibiotics in eliminating the contaminating bacteria. We grew shoots on multiplication medium containing BAP (2 mg/l) and adenine sulfate (10 mg/l) supplemented with kanamycin (10 ?g/ml) for 10 days and transferred them to fresh medium without antibiotics and found that bacterial growth was inhibited. Moreover, we observed intensive formation of high-quality shoots. Streptomycin sulfate also inhibited bacterial growth but at higher concentration. We also demonstrated that shoots grown in streptomycin sulfate tended to be shorter and had yellow leaves. Conclusion: Thus, we have developed a novel strategy to identify and inhibit intriguing microbial contaminations of (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This would improve in vitro establishment of an important bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth for large scale propagation.

Nadha, Harleen Kaur; Salwan, Richa; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

2012-01-01

95

Effect of exogenous phosphorus addition on soil respiration in Calamagrostis angustifolia freshwater marshes of Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to wetland ecosystems. However, little is known about the effect of P enrichment on soil respiration in these ecosystems. To understand the effect of P enrichment on soil respiration, we conducted a field experiment in Calamagrostis angustifolia-dominated freshwater marshes, the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. We investigated soil respiration in the first growing season after P addition at four rates (0, 1.2, 4.8 and 9.6 g P m -2 year -1). In addition, we also examined aboveground biomass, soil labile C fractions (dissolved organic C, DOC; microbial biomass C, MBC; easily oxidizable C, EOC) and enzyme activities (invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities) following one year of P addition. P addition decreased soil respiration during the growing season. Dissolved organic C in soil pore water increased after P addition at both 5 and 15 cm depths. Moreover, increased P input generally inhibited soil MBC and enzyme activities, and had no effects on aboveground biomass and soil EOC. Our results suggest that, in the short-term, soil respiration declines under P enrichment in C. angustifolia-dominated freshwater marshes of Northeast China, and its extent varies with P addition levels.

Song, Changchun; Liu, Deyan; Song, Yanyu; Yang, Guisheng; Wan, Zhongmei; Li, Yingchen; Xu, Xiaofeng

2011-03-01

96

Isolation, selection and characterization of root-associated growth promoting bacteria in Brazil Pine (Araucaria angustifolia).  

PubMed

Araucaria angustifolia, a unique species of this genus that occurs naturally in Brazil, has a high socio-economic and environmental value and is critically endangered of extinction, since it has been submitted to intense predatory exploitation during the last century. Root-associated bacteria from A. angustifolia were isolated, selected and characterized for their biotechnological potential of growth promotion and biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi. Ninety-seven strains were isolated and subjected to chemical tests. All isolates presented at least one positive feature, characterizing them as potential PGPR. Eighteen isolates produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 27 were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate, 21 isolates were presumable diazotrophs, with pellicle formation in nitrogen-free culture medium, 83 were phosphatases producers, 37 were positive for siderophores and 45 endospore-forming isolates were antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogen of conifers. We also observed the presence of bacterial strains with multiple beneficial mechanisms of action. Analyzing the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of these isolates, it was possible to characterize the most effective isolates as belonging to Bacillaceae (9 isolates), Enterobacteriaceae (11) and Pseudomonadaceae (1). As far as we know, this is the first study to include the species Ewingella americana as a PGPR. PMID:21596540

Ribeiro, Carlos Marcelo; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

2012-01-20

97

Nocturnal versus diurnal CO2 uptake: how flexible is Agave angustifolia?  

PubMed

Agaves exhibit the water-conserving crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthetic pathway. Some species are potential biofuel feedstocks because they are highly productive in seasonally dry landscapes. In plants with CAM, high growth rates are often believed to be associated with a significant contribution of C3 photosynthesis to total carbon gain when conditions are favourable. There has even been a report of a shift from CAM to C3 in response to overwatering a species of Agave. We investigated whether C3 photosynthesis can contribute substantially to carbon uptake and growth in young and mature Agave angustifolia collected from its natural habitat in Panama. In well-watered plants, CO2 uptake in the dark contributed about 75% of daily carbon gain. This day/night pattern of CO2 exchange was highly conserved under a range of environmental conditions and was insensitive to intensive watering. Elevated CO2 (800 ppm) stimulated CO2 fixation predominantly in the light. Exposure to CO2-free air at night markedly enhanced CO2 uptake during the following light period, but CO2 exchange rapidly reverted to its standard pattern when CO2 was supplied during the subsequent 24h. Although A. angustifolia consistently engages in CAM as its principal photosynthetic pathway, its relatively limited photosynthetic plasticity does not preclude it from occupying a range of habitats, from relatively mesic tropical environments in Panama to drier habitats in Mexico. PMID:24648568

Winter, Klaus; Garcia, Milton; Holtum, Joseph A M

2014-07-01

98

Capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of Salvia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and infusion of Salvia officinalis leaves have been widely applied in traditional medicine since ancient times and nowadays subjected to extensive research of their antibacterial, antiviral and cytotoxic properties. This paper shows chemical composition data of S. officinalis leaves essential oil isolated by steam distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Also, the paper presents the chemical content of

Valeria Radulescu; Silvia Chiliment; Eliza Oprea

2004-01-01

99

Efeito cicatrizante e atividade antibacteriana da Calendula officinalis L. cultivada no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healing effect and antibacterial activity of Calendula officinalis L. cultivated in Brazil. Since ancient history medicinal properties are attributed to flowers of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae), mainly concerning its healing activity. Studies about the general activity of medicinal plants in healing wounds have been conducted without specifying in which healing phase the plant acts. In this work, the anti-inflammatory and

Patologia Geral

100

Glandular trichomes of Rosmarinus officinalis L.: Anatomical and phytochemical analyses of leaf volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis is known for the production of volatile compounds used in medicinal and food preparations. Leaves of R. officinalis are densely covered with capitate and peltate glandular trichomes where biosynthesis of volatiles mainly occurs. This study aims to conduct a morphological assessment to identify anatomical characteristics of both leaves and trichomes, as well as a chemical analysis of leaf

Yilan Fung Boix; Cristiane Pimentel Victório; Anna Carina Antunes Defaveri; Rosani Do Carmo De Oliveira Arruda; Alice Sato; Celso Luiz Salgueiro Lage

2011-01-01

101

Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis  

SciTech Connect

The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-/sup 3/H)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess ..beta..-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2(U-/sup 14/C)campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C/sub 14/ to C/sub 20/) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots.

Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

1987-07-01

102

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. Methods The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. Results Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. Conclusion Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in interfering with rheumatoid arthritis complications of the bone skeleton leading to joint destruction, and preventing and reducing osteoporosis. Accordingly, we suggest the application of Emblica officinalis extracts as an alternative tool for therapy applied to bone diseases.

Penolazzi, Letizia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Zennaro, Margherita; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto

2008-01-01

103

Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses.  

PubMed

Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon balm oil, the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, on herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of balm oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at high dilutions of 0.0004% and 0.00008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil,plaque formation was significantly reduced by 98.8% for HSV-1 and 97.2% for HSV-2, higher concentrations of lemon balm oil abolished viral infectivity nearly completely. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of this essential oil, time-on-addition assays were performed. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with balm oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Melissa oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus lemon balm oil is capable of exerting a direct antiviral effect on herpesviruses. Considering the lipophilic nature of lemon balm essential oil, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Melissa officinalis oil might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections. PMID:18693101

Schnitzler, P; Schuhmacher, A; Astani, A; Reichling, Jürgen

2008-09-01

104

Growth inhibition of an Araucaria angustifolia (Coniferopsida) fungal seed pathogen, Neofusicoccum parvum, by soil streptomycetes  

PubMed Central

Background Araucariaceae are important forest trees of the southern hemisphere. Life expectancy of their seedlings can largely be reduced by fungal infections. In this study we have isolated and characterized such a fungus and investigated the potential of Streptomyces Actinobacteria from the respective rhizosphere to act as antagonists. Results The pathogenic fungus from Araucaria angustifolia seeds was identified by morphological markers (pore-associated Woronin-bodies) as belonging to the Pezizomycotina. Molecular data identified the fungus as Neofusicoccum parvum (Botryosphaeriaceae). Co-cultures on agar of this fungus with certain streptomycete isolates from the rhizosphere, and from the surface of Araucaria roots significantly reduced the growth of the fungus. HPLC analysis of the agar yielded streptomycete-specific exudate compounds which were partly identified. There were differences in compounds between single (bacteria, fungus) and dual cultures (bacteria?+?fungus). Conclusion Streptomycetes from the rhizosphere of Araucariaceae produce exudates which can suppress the development of pathogenic fungi in their seeds.

2013-01-01

105

Gas chromatographic method for determination of uracil herbicides in roots of Echinacea angustifolia Moench (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

A GC/NPD method and a rapid screening TLC method were developed for the simultaneous determination of uracil herbicide residues (bromacil, lenacil, terbacil) in the roots of Echinacea angustifolia Moench (Asteraceae). The uracil herbicide residues were extracted into acetone. After evaporation of acetone from the acetone-water extract the residue was dissolved in water-methanol (5:1 v/v). Cyclohexane was used for removal of the non-polar co-extractives in the sample matrix. After separation of the cyclohexane phase the uracil herbicide residues were extracted into chloroform. This extract was purified on a Florisil column, and residues were eluted with dichloromethane-acetone (9:1, v/v). The cleaned up extract was analysed by the GC/NPD method on a capillary column DB-1 using atrazine as internal standard. A minimum recovery of 70% was attained for contamination levels of 0.02-0.40 mg kg(-1). PMID:9535186

Tekel, J; Tahotná, S; Vaverková, S

1998-01-01

106

Differential patterns of morphological and molecular hybridization between Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Oleaceae) in eastern and western France.  

PubMed

We examined large-scale patterns of morphology, genetic structure and ecological correlates of Fraxinus excelsior and the closely related species Fraxinus angustifolia in France, in order to determine the degree of hybridization between them. We sampled 24 populations in two putative hybrid zones (Loire and Saône), and five control populations of each species. We measured foliar characteristics of adult trees and used five nuclear microsatellites as molecular markers. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that the two species differ in morphology, but that intermediate types are common in the Loire region but less frequent in the Saône region. Bayesian population assignment identified one F. angustifolia and two F. excelsior gene pools. Most Loire individuals clustered genetically with the F. angustifolia gene pool. In contrast, the Saône region presented individuals belonging mostly to F. excelsior pools, although the F. angustifolia type was frequent in certain populations. The lowest F(ST) values were found between the Loire and F. angustifolia controls that also exhibited no significant isolation by distance. The proportion of the F. angustifolia gene pool in each locality was negatively correlated with winter temperatures, suggesting that a cold climate may be limiting. Hybridization is probably favoured by the intermediate climatic conditions in the Loire region that allow both species to occur, but is somewhat hampered by the harsher winters in the Saône area where morphological introgression has apparently not yet occurred. PMID:16968268

Fernandez-Manjarres, J F; Gerard, P R; Dufour, J; Raquin, C; Frascaria-Lacoste, N

2006-10-01

107

The antioxidant and Flavonoids contents of Althaea officinalis L. flowers based on their color  

PubMed Central

Objective: There has been a growing interest in finding plants with biological active ingredients for medicinal application. Materials and Methods: Three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis (A. officinalis) flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total antioxidant activity and ?avonoids content. Results: The reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white. Conclusion: Findings suggest that the dark color can serve as an indicator of antioxidant content of the plant. Flavonoid content was highest in white flower thus this result indicated that flowers with light color can be considered for medicinal uses.

Sadighara, Parisa; Gharibi, Soraya; Moghadam Jafari, Amir; Jahed Khaniki, Golamreza; Salari, Samira

2012-01-01

108

[Determination of polysaccharide from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis how and its trace elements analysis].  

PubMed

Polysaccharide was extracted from morinda officinalis how by back-flowing with 80% ethanol for 1 h, and the method of improved phenol-sulfuric acid spectroscopy was adopted to determine the content of morinda officinalis how polysaccharide. As for its trace elements, the atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to detect the content of Zn, Fe and Cu, which were compared with its fake; and cold atomic fluorometry was applied to determine the trace mercury. The results were satisfactory, which can give reference about the effective components of morinda officinalis how, and will help to exploit it. PMID:16544510

Wu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Jie; Wu, Yu-Ming; Liu, Li-E; Zhang, Hong-Quan

2005-12-01

109

Effects of Chemically Characterized Fractions from Aerial Parts of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia on Myelopoiesis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Echinacea species are used for beneficial effects on immune function, and various prevalent phytochemicals have immunomodulatory effects. Using a commercial E. purpurea (L.) Moench product, we have evaluated the myelopoietic effect on bone marrow of rats treated with various extracts and correlated this with their chemical class composition. Granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) from femurs of female Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed at 24 h after 7 daily oral treatments. A 75% ethanolic extract at 50 mg dried weight (derived from 227 mg aerial parts) per kg body weight increased GM-CFCs by 70% but at 100 mg/kg was without effect. Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of E. angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia and E. purpurea from the US-DA North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station increased GM-CFCs by 3- and 2-fold, respectively, at 200 mg/kg (~ 1400 mg/kg plant material). Extract from another USDA E. angustifolia was inactive. Proton and APT NMR, MS, and TLC indicated alkylamides and caffeic-acid derivatives (CADs) present in ethanolic extracts of both the commercial and USDA-derived material. Cichoric and caftaric acids were prominent in both E. purpurea ethanolic extracts but absent in E. angustifolia. Aqueous extract of the commercial material exhibited polysaccharide and CAD signatures and was without effect on GM-CFCs. A methanol-CHCl3 fraction of commercial source, also inactive, was almost exclusively 1:4 nonanoic:decanoic acids, which were also abundant in commercial ethanolic extract but absent from USDA material. In conclusion, we have demonstrated an ethanol-extractable myelostimulatory activity in Echinacea aerial parts that, when obtained from commercial herbal supplements, may be antagonized by medium-chain fatty acids presumably derived from a non-plant additive.

Ramasahayam, Sindhura; Baraka, Hany N.; Abdel Bar, Fatma M.; Abuasal, Bilal S.; Widrlechner, Mark P.; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Meyer, Sharon A.

2013-01-01

110

Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. PMID:12031432

Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

2002-06-01

111

Thesinine-4?- O-?- d-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4?-O-?-d-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of dried seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

Martina Herrmann; Holger Joppe; Gerhard Schmaus

2002-01-01

112

Pharmacological basis for the use of Borago officinalis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyIn this study, we investigated the crude extract of Borago officinalis leaves (Bo.Cr) for its antispasmodic, bronchodilator, vasodilator and cardio-depressant activities to rationalize some of the traditional uses.

Anwarul Hassan Gilani; Samra Bashir; Arif-ullah Khan

2007-01-01

113

Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 microg/ml) of volatile oils were examined. Experiments were carried out using HEp-2 cells. M. officinalis volatile oil was found to be non-toxic to HEp-2 cells up to a concentration of 100 micro/ml. It was, however, found to be slightly toxic at a concentration over of 100 microg/ml. The antiviral activity of non-toxic concentrations against HSV-2 was tested. The replication of HSV-2 was inhibited, indicating that the M. officinalis L. extract contains an anti-HSV-2 substance. PMID:15636181

Allahverdiyev, A; Duran, N; Ozguven, M; Koltas, S

2004-11-01

114

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica-effectiveness for dyslipidemia.  

PubMed

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats induced hyperlipidemia. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was significantly inhibited in rats fed E. officinalis flavonoids. But increase of this enzyme was observed in rats administered M. indica flavonoids. LCAT showed elevated levels in rats fed flavonoids from E. officinalis and M. indica. The degradation and elimination of cholesterol was highly enhanced in both the groups. In E. officinalis, the mechanism of hypolipidemic action is by the concerted action of inhibition of synthesis and enhancement of degradation. In the other group (M. indica) inhibition of cholesterogenesis was not encountered but highly significant degradation of cholesterol was noted, which may be the pivotal factor for hypolipidemic activity in this case. Though the mechanisms differ in the two cases, the net effect is to lower lipid levels. PMID:11744299

Anila, L; Vijayalakshmi, N R

2002-01-01

115

Composition of the Essential Oil from Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in Slovak Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Melissa officinalis L. c. v. citra cultivated at Nitra locality (Slovak Republic) was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. M. officinalis oil was found to contain geranial (33.60%), neral (22.18%), citronellal (11.30%), caryophyllene oxide (8.35%), geranyl acetate (5.89%), and ?-caryophyllene (4.20%) as the major components. More than 50 components were identified in the oil.

Magda Hollá; Emil Svajdlenka; Jozef Tekel; Stefánia Vaverková; Emil Havránek

1997-01-01

116

Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200?g\\/ml) of volatile oils were examined.

A. Allahverdiyev; N. Duran; M. Ozguven; S. Koltas

2004-01-01

117

Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relaxant effect of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis and its main component, citral, on rat isolated ileum contractions was evaluated. M. officinalis essential oil (MOEO) inhibited the response to KCl (80 mM), ACh (320 nM) and 5-HT (1.28 ?M) in a concentration-dependent manner with a IC50 of approximately 20 ng\\/ml. Citral also had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on

H. Sadraei; A. Ghannadi; K. Malekshahi

2003-01-01

118

Saponins in Calendula officinalis L. – Structure, Biosynthesis, Transport and Biological Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in research on Calendula officinalis L. saponins performed in Department of Plant Biochemistry at Warsaw University are reviewed. Calendula officinalis, a well known medicinal plant, contains significant amounts of oleanane saponins, which form two distinct series of related\\u000a compounds, called “glucosides” and “glucuronides” according to the structure of the respective precursor. Both series differ\\u000a in the pathway of their

Anna Szakiel; Dariusz Ruszkowski; Wirginia Janiszowska

2005-01-01

119

Aerobiological and clinical aspects of Parietaria officinalis in the area of Thessaloniki, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We collected the daily pollen samples during a 3-year period (Febr '87–Dec '89), using a Burkard volumetric trap, located on a high level area in the center of the city.Parietaria officinalis pollen was not differentiated under microscope from the other Urticaceae but through phenological criteria. The patients included in the detection of the sensitivity toP. officinalis pollen came from the

Dimitrios Gioulekas; Georgios Chatzigeorgiou; Despina Papakosta; Elias Eleftherochorinos; Frits Th. Spieksma

1991-01-01

120

Pressurized fluid extraction of essential oil from Lavandula hybrida using a modified supercritical fluid extractor and a central composite design for optimization.  

PubMed

Essential oil components were extracted from lavandin (Lavandula hybrida) flowers using pressurized fluid extraction. A central composite design was used to optimize the effective extraction variables. The chemical composition of extracted samples was analyzed by a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector column. For achieving 100% extraction yield, the temperature, pressure, extraction time, and the solvent flow rate were adjusted at 90.6°C, 63 bar, 30.4 min, and 0.2 mL/min, respectively. The results showed that pressurized fluid extraction is a practical technique for separation of constituents such as 1,8-cineole (8.1%), linalool (34.1%), linalyl acetate (30.5%), and camphor (7.3%) from lavandin to be applied in the food, fragrance, pharmaceutical, and natural biocides industries. PMID:22740257

Kamali, Hossein; Jalilvand, Mohammad Reza; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin

2012-06-01

121

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit extract.  

PubMed

In this study, probable antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit components, were evaluated. For evaluation of antinociceptive effects, the chronic (formalin test) and acute (tail-flick) pain models of rats were used. For the anti-inflammatory effects, the paw inflammation model was used through subcutaneous injection of 5% formalin to the paw of male rats. Water extracts of the fruit and its components in the single dose were assessed through comparison with the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of sodium salicylate (SS) as a positive control. Administration of 300 mg/kg of SS (i.p.) had no effect on tail flick latency, while 1000 mg/kg of total (i.p. and p.o.) and endocarp (i.p.) extract, increased this latency (P<0.01, P<0.001, respectively), which was not reversed by naloxone (2 mg/kg). In the formalin test, SS (300 mg/kg, i.p.) and the extract (1000 mg/kg, p.o. ) alleviated the animals nociception in the second phase, while in the first phase they were not effective. The total and endocarp extracts (1000 mg/kg, i.p.) showed a significant effect on both phases (P<0.01, P<0.001, respectively) which was also not reversed by naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.). In the acute anti-inflammatory test, the total extract and the aqueous extract of individual fruit components showed a significant effect (P<0.001). This anti-inflammatory effect was not significant compared with the anti-inflammatory effect of SS. Because of the extract effect on the tail-flick latency and both phases of the formalin test, the site of its analgesic action is probably central, and the mechanism of antinociceptive action of the extract are not related to the opioid system. Our phytochemical studies indicated that aqueous extract of E. angustifolia fruit contains flavonoids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. PMID:10967484

Ahmadiani, A; Hosseiny, J; Semnanian, S; Javan, M; Saeedi, F; Kamalinejad, M; Saremi, S

2000-09-01

122

Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2?000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida

2013-01-01

123

Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) possesses antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects, and so may provide a possible therapeutic alternative for chronic liver disease. The effect produced by a methanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis on CCl(4)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats was investigated using both prevention and reversion models. Over the course of the development of cirrhosis, the increased enzymatic activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminotransferase, and the rise in bilirubin levels caused by CCl(4) administration, were prevented by Rosmarinus officinalis co-administration. When the cirrhosis by oxidative stress was evaluated as an increase on liver lipoperoxidation, total lipid peroxides, nitric oxide in serum, and loss of erythrocyte plasma membrane stability, R. officinalis was shown to prevent such alterations. On cirrhotic animals treated with CCl(4), histological studies showed massive necrosis, periportal inflammation and fibrosis which were modified by R. officinalis. These benefits on experimental cirrhosis suggest a potential therapeutic use for R. officinalis as an alternative for liver cirrhosis. PMID:19827016

Gutiérrez, Rosalinda; Alvarado, José L; Presno, Manuel; Pérez-Veyna, Oscar; Serrano, Carmen J; Yahuaca, Patricia

2010-04-01

124

Steroidal saponins from Asparagus officinalis and their cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

Two oligofurostanosides were isolated from the seeds of Asparagus officinalis L and their structures characterized as 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1-->4))-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R) -22 alpha-methoxyfurost-5-ene-3 beta,26-diol(methyl protodioscin) and its corresponding 22 alpha-hydroxy analogue (protodioscin). The structural identification was performed using detailed analysis of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra including two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy (COSY, HMQC, NOESY and HMBC), and chemical conversions. These two compounds have been shown to inhibit the growth of human leukemia HL-60 cells in culture and macromolecular synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis was found to be irreversible. PMID:9225609

Shao, Y; Poobrasert, O; Kennelly, E J; Chin, C K; Ho, C T; Huang, M T; Garrison, S A; Cordell, G A

1997-06-01

125

Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.  

PubMed

This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

2013-02-01

126

Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia Inhibits Germ Tube and Biofilm Formation by C. albicans  

PubMed Central

The virulence factors of Candida albicans are germ tube and biofilm formation, adherence to host tissues, and production of hydrolytic enzymes. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia extract on the germ tube and biofilm formation of C. albicans. Serum containing the three subinhibitory concentrations of leaf extract was inoculated with C. albicans, incubated, and viewed under a light microscope. Number of cells with germ tube was recorded and the results were analysed using Scheffe test for pairwise comparison. Biofilms were grown on coverslips in the presence of plant extracts and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Planktonic cells were grown in the presence of plant extract for 6?h and processed for electron microscopy (TEM). The crude plant extract significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the germ tube formation of C. albicans at 3.125 (85.36%), 1.56 (61.91%), and 0.78?mg/mL (26.27%) showing a concentration dependent effect. SEM results showed concentration dependent reduction in biofilm and hyphae formation. TEM results showed that the plant extract caused damage to the cell wall and cell membrane. DVA extract has ability to reduce virulence of C. albicans by inhibiting germ tube and biofilm formation through damage to the cell wall. Therefore, it has therapeutic potential.

Naicker, Serisha Devi

2013-01-01

127

Phytochemicals from Kaempferia angustifolia Rosc. and Their Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical investigation on rhizomes of Kaempferia angustifolia has afforded a new abietene diterpene, kaempfolienol (1) along with crotepoxide (2), boesenboxide (3), 2?-hydroxy-4,4?,6?-trimethoxychalcone (4), zeylenol (5), 6-methylzeylenol (6), (24S)-24-methyl-5?-lanosta-9(11), 25-dien-3?-ol (7), sucrose, ?-sitosterol, and its glycoside (8). The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, and NMR). Isolation of 6-methylzeylenol (6), (24S)-24-methyl-5?-lanosta-9(11), 25-dien-3?-ol (7), and ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (8) from this plant species has never been reported previously. The spectroscopic data of (7) is firstly described in this paper. Cytotoxic screening indicated that most of the pure compounds tested showed significant activity with (4) showing the most potent activity against HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines. However, all extracts and most of the pure compounds tested were found to be inactive against HT-29 (human colon cancer) and HeLa (human cervical cancer) cell lines. Similarly, none of the extracts or compounds showed activity in the antimicrobial testing.

Tang, Sook Wah; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Yeap, Yunie Soon Yu; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Cheng Lian Ee, Gwendoline

2014-01-01

128

Effects of spacing and post-planting treatments on survival and growth of Fraxinus angustifolia seedlings.  

PubMed

This study was conducted at a bottomland hardwood site with heavy textured soil in Akyazi, Turkey to determine the effect of initial spacing (3.0 x 3.0, 3.0 x 2.0, 2.5 x 1.6 and 2.5 x 1.2 m) and post-planting treatments (untreated check, moving, hoeing, disking, and hoeing plus disking) on early survival and growth of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. One-year old bare-root seedlings (70 +/- 5 cm in height) were hand-planted in December 2004. Through three years survival was perfect with a rate of 98% in all treatments. Spacing and the interaction between spacing and post-planting treatment did not significantly affect seedling growth through three years. However height and diameter growth increased overtime and differed significantly among post-planting treatments. The hoeing and hoeing plus disking treatments gave the highest growth, and resulted in about 31% increase in diameter and height increment, and in total diameter and height about 20%. These results suggest that post-planting treatments on bottomland sites with heavy textured soil give promising results. PMID:21186728

Cicek, Emrah; Yilmaz, Faruk; Tilki, Fahrettin; Cicek, Nurten

2010-07-01

129

Temporal cline in a hybrid zone population between Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.  

PubMed

The two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash) and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash) have a broad contact zone in France where they hybridize. However, little is known about the local structure of hybrid zone populations and the isolation mechanisms. We assessed the potential effect of floral phenology on the structure of a riparian ash hybrid zone population in central France. The distribution of flowering times was unimodal and lay between the flowering periods of the two species. Using microsatellite markers, we detected isolation by time, which has possibly originated from assortative mating. Multivariate analyses indicated that morphological variation is not distributed at random with respect to flowering times. Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed that temporal and spatial patterns were tightly linked. Interestingly, despite the fact that the population shows isolation by time, neighbourhood size and historical dispersal variance (sigma = 63 m) are similar to those detected in pure stands of F. excelsior where individuals flower rather synchronously and hermaphrodites are not the most frequent sexual type. Trees flowering at intermediate dates, which comprised the majority of the population, produced on average more flowers and fruits. We detected no significant differences in floral parasite infections relative to reproductive timing, although there was a tendency for late flowering trees to suffer from more gall attack. We discuss the impact of temporal variation in fitness traits and their possible role in the maintenance of the hybrid zone. PMID:17032264

Gerard, Pierre R; Fernandez-Manjarres, Juan F; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie

2006-10-01

130

Patterns of genetic diversity in southern and southeastern Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze relict populations  

PubMed Central

Habitat fragmentation and a decrease in population size may lead to a loss in population genetic diversity. For the first time, the reduction in genetic diversity in the northernmost limit of natural occurence (southeastern Brazil) of Araucaria angustifolia in comparison with populations in the main area of the species continuous natural distribution (southern Brazil), was tested. The 673 AFLPs markers revealed a high level of genetic diversity for the species (Ht = 0.27), despite anthropogenic influence throughout the last century, and a decrease of H in isolated populations of southeastern Brazil (H = 0.16), thereby indicating the tendency for higher genetic diversity in remnant populations of continuous forests in southern Brazil, when compared to natural isolated populations in the southeastern region. A strong differentiation among southern and southeastern populations was detected (AMOVA variance ranged from 10%-15%). From Bayesian analysis, it is suggested that the nine populations tested form five “genetic clusters” (K = 5). Five of these populations, located in the northernmost limit of distribution of the species, represent three “genetic clusters”. These results are in agreement with the pattern of geographic distribution of the studied populations.

2009-01-01

131

Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia Inhibits Germ Tube and Biofilm Formation by C. albicans.  

PubMed

The virulence factors of Candida albicans are germ tube and biofilm formation, adherence to host tissues, and production of hydrolytic enzymes. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia extract on the germ tube and biofilm formation of C. albicans. Serum containing the three subinhibitory concentrations of leaf extract was inoculated with C. albicans, incubated, and viewed under a light microscope. Number of cells with germ tube was recorded and the results were analysed using Scheffe test for pairwise comparison. Biofilms were grown on coverslips in the presence of plant extracts and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Planktonic cells were grown in the presence of plant extract for 6?h and processed for electron microscopy (TEM). The crude plant extract significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the germ tube formation of C. albicans at 3.125 (85.36%), 1.56 (61.91%), and 0.78?mg/mL (26.27%) showing a concentration dependent effect. SEM results showed concentration dependent reduction in biofilm and hyphae formation. TEM results showed that the plant extract caused damage to the cell wall and cell membrane. DVA extract has ability to reduce virulence of C. albicans by inhibiting germ tube and biofilm formation through damage to the cell wall. Therefore, it has therapeutic potential. PMID:24223612

Naicker, Serisha Devi; Patel, Mrudula

2013-01-01

132

Endothelium-dependent induction of vasorelaxation by Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis in rat isolated thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

In the current study, vasorelaxant effect produced by the aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis (MOO) (Lamiaceae) and its possible mechanism in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine were examined. In the first series of experiments, effect of MOO on the baseline and phenylephrine (10(-5)M) precontracted arteries was investigated, while in the second group of experiments, endothelium intact or endothelium denuded effect was determined. The agents used were N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME), an irreversible inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, indomethacin (10 microM), a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, and glibenclamide (10 microM), an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker. The extract was found to exert a vasorelaxant effect and rosmarinic acid quantity, the characteristic compound of the plant, was analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (18.75%), and was further confirmed by LC-MS analysis giving a prominent [M(+1)] molecular ion peak at m/z 365. Total phenol amount in the extract was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (0.284 mg/mg extract). Vasorelaxant effect of the extract was entirely dependent on the presence of endothelium and was abolished by pretreatment with L-NAME, whereas pretreatment with indomethacin and glibenclamide reduced the relaxation to a minor extent. Rosmarinic acid was also tested in the same manner as the extract and was found to exert vasorelaxant effect. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of MOO vasodilates via nitric oxide pathway with the possible involvement of prostacycline and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) pathways as well. PMID:18606529

Ersoy, S; Orhan, I; Turan, N N; Sahan, G; Ark, M; Tosun, F

2008-12-01

133

In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

2013-01-01

134

Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

2010-11-01

135

FACTORES QUE INFLUYEN SOBRE LA EMERGENCIA DE PLÁNTULAS DE BORRAJA (BORAGO OFFICINALIS L.) FACTORS INFLUENCING BORAGE (BORAGO OFFICINALIS L.) SEEDLING EMERGENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Borago officinalis L. seeds and the whole plant are used as medicinal plants. Gamma linolenic acid, an important essential fatty acid from the omega-6 family is present in its seeds. Objectives: To analyze the effect of the seeding depth, seed maturity, germination promoters, and\\/or stratification on the emergence percentage, vigor index and time to reach a 50% emergence were

Alejandro Solís; Rosemarie Wilckens; Maritza Tapia; Susana Fischer; Daniel Sorlino; Marisol Berti

136

Polyamines, IAA and ABA during germination in two recalcitrant seeds: Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant growth regulators play an important role in seed germination. However, much of the current knowledge about their function during seed germination was obtained using orthodox seeds as model systems, and there is a paucity of information about the role of plant growth regulators during germination of recalcitrant seeds. In the present work, two endangered woody species with recalcitrant seeds, Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm), native to the Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil, were used to study the mobilization of polyamines (PAs), indole-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. Methods Data were sampled from embryos of O. odorifera and embryos and megagametophytes of A. angustifolia throughout the germination process. Biochemical analyses were carried out in HPLC. Key Results During seed germination, an increase in the (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio was recorded in embryos in both species. An increase in IAA and PA levels was also observed during seed germination in both embryos, while ABA levels showed a decrease in O. odorifera and an increase in A. angustifolia embryos throughout the period studied. Conclusions The (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio could be used as a marker for germination completion. The increase in IAA levels, prior to germination, could be associated with variations in PA content. The ABA mobilization observed in the embryos could represent a greater resistance to this hormone in recalcitrant seeds, in comparison to orthodox seeds, opening a new perspective for studies on the effects of this regulator in recalcitrant seeds. The gymnosperm seed, though without a connective tissue between megagametophyte and embryo, seems to be able to maintain communication between the tissues, based on the likely transport of plant growth regulators.

Pieruzzi, Fernanda P.; Dias, Leonardo L. C.; Balbuena, Tiago S.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; dos Santos, Andre L. W.; Floh, Eny I. S.

2011-01-01

137

Determination of Uracil Herbicide Residues and Components in Essential Oil of Melissa officinalis L. in Its Main Development Phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uracil herbicide residues were studied in the medicinal plant lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. c.v. citra) grown under standard agrochemical conditions. The residues from the uracil herbicides bromacil, lenacil, and terbacil were determined at selected phases of flower development. In addition the main components of the M. officinalis oil were determined by GC\\/MS at the same stages of development such

Jozef Tekel; Magda Hollá; Stefánla Vaverková; Emil Svajdlenka

1997-01-01

138

In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), used in traditional Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely accepted as one of the medicinal herb with the highest antioxidant activity. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the possible actions of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis on glucose homeostasis and antioxidant defense in rabbits. In the first set

Tülay Bak?rel; Utku Bak?rel; Oya Üstüner Kele?; Sinem Güne? Ülgen; Hasret Yardibi

2008-01-01

139

Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress and Evaluation of Embilica Officinalis and Stressroak in Broilers  

PubMed Central

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity was studied in broilers, and efficacy of Emblica officinalis (500 ppm in feed), vitamin E (300 ppm in feed), and stressroak (1 g/kg feed) were evaluated for prophylactic and therapeutic management of Cd toxicity. One-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into eight groups consisting of 10 chicks in each. Groups 1 and 2 were maintained as plain control and Cd (100 ppm in feed) toxic control (for six weeks). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were maintained on a combination of Cd (100 ppm in feed) and Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak for six weeks. Groups 6, 7, and 8 were maintained with Cd for the first four weeks and on Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak during the subsequent two weeks without Cd. Body weights, feed consumed, Feed conversion ratio (FCR), and glulathione (GSH) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased, whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and concentration of Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in toxic control group. After treatment with Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in groups 6, 7, and 8 during last two weeks and discontinuation of Cd, the parameters revealed improvement. From this study, it is concluded that Cd induces toxicity by oxidative stress, and supplementing Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in feed is useful in preventing and treating the toxicity.

Swapna, G.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Reddy, A. Rajasekhar

2010-01-01

140

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

141

Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization  

PubMed Central

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds.

Gallo, Loreana; Ramirez-Rigo, Maria Veronica; Pina, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucala, Veronica

2012-01-01

142

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

143

Local intranasal immunotherapy with allergen in powder in atopic patients sensitive to Parietaria officinalis pollen.  

PubMed

Local Intranasal Immunotherapy (LII) is a new approach to the treatment of allergic rhinitis due to the pollen of Parietaria officinalis. The aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of LII and to determine the proper doses. Twenty adult patients all presenting a sensitization to the pollen of Parietaria officinalis were randomly divided into two groups: 15 received the treatment and five were the control group. Treatment started before the beginning of the pollinic season of Parietaria officinalis and continued during the season. The extract used was an active extract of macronized powder Parietaria officinalis pollen in increasing doses. Doses were determined periodically with specific nasal provocation tests. Results in the treated group compared to the control group were statistically significant if one considers the increase in threshold sensitivity in the nasal provocation test, the diminution of clinical symptomatology and the quantity of drug required to control symptoms in the treated group. The side effects were few; it was only in one case that the treatment had to be interrupted. LII for allergic rhinitis due to the pollen of Parietaria officinalis seems an effective and practicable method even during the pollinic season. PMID:7582157

Ariano, R; Panzani, R C; Chiapella, M; Augeri, G; Falagiani, P

1995-01-01

144

Valeriana officinalis ameliorates vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in rats.  

PubMed

Oral movements are associated with important neuropathologies as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. However, until this time, there has been no known efficacious treatment, without side effects, for these disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of V. officinalis, a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V. officinalis (in the drinking water, starting 15 days before the administration of the reserpine). VCMs, locomotor activity and oxidative stress measurements were evaluated. Furthermore, we carried out the identification of valeric acid and gallic acid by HPLC in the V. officinalis tincture. Our findings demonstrated that reserpine caused a marked increase on VCMs and the co-treatment with V. officinalis was able to reduce the intensity of VCM. Reserpine did not induce oxidative stress in cerebral structures (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra). However, a significant positive correlation between DCF-oxidation (an estimation of oxidative stress) in the cortex and VCMs (p < 0.05) was observed. Moreover, a negative correlation between Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in substantia nigra and the number of VCMs was observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, V. officinalis had behavioral protective effect against reserpine-induced VCMs in rats; however, the exact mechanisms that contributed to this effect have not been completely understood. PMID:21476069

Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Wagner, Caroline; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

2011-11-01

145

Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits  

PubMed Central

Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1–10 ?g/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 ?g/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 106 cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean survival time (MST) lifespan, reduction in the solid tumor volume, and also the reversal of altered hematological parameters almost equal to normal. The methanolic extract (100–200 mg/kg/day orally) was found to be cytotoxic on human cancer cell lines. In addition, the methanolic extract had an antioxidant effect as reflected by a decrease in LPO, GST, and GPx (oxidant enzymes), and an increase in SOD and catalase.

Shivhare, Shaktikumar C.; Patidar, Arjun O.; Malviya, K. G.; Shivhare-Malviya, K. K.

2011-01-01

146

Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits.  

PubMed

Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1-10 ?g/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 ?g/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 10(6) cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean survival time (MST) lifespan, reduction in the solid tumor volume, and also the reversal of altered hematological parameters almost equal to normal. The methanolic extract (100-200 mg/kg/day orally) was found to be cytotoxic on human cancer cell lines. In addition, the methanolic extract had an antioxidant effect as reflected by a decrease in LPO, GST, and GPx (oxidant enzymes), and an increase in SOD and catalase. PMID:22529657

Shivhare, Shaktikumar C; Patidar, Arjun O; Malviya, K G; Shivhare-Malviya, K K

2011-07-01

147

Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis.  

PubMed

Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, we sought to evaluate if calendula could be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease Two groups of hearts were used: the treated rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulfate 1.2, and glucose 10) for 15 min prior to subjecting the heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNF?. The results further strengthen the concept of using natural products in degeneration diseases like ischemic heart disease. PMID:20874690

Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Das, Dipak K

2010-12-01

148

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory guided fractionation of Melissa officinalis L.  

PubMed

The plant Melissa officinalis L. has been used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Based on its traditional medicinal use, it was assessed for its clinical efficacy in mild to moderate Alzheimer's patients. The plant was effective in the management of the disease. Therefore, based on this result, a similar plant extract was prepared in order to be screened for bioactivities which are relevant in Alzheimer's disease therapy. The extract was recently screened for antioxidant activity and it showed a wide range of antioxidant properties. Another important bioactivity is acetylcholinesterase inhibition, which the extract was screened for in the current investigation. The extract was capable of inhibiting the enzyme in a time and dose-dependent manner. Activity of the extract at 10 min was estimated as 1.72+/-0.16 microg equivalents of physostigmine/mg of the extract. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory guided fractionation of the extract was then carried out. Most of the fractions showed inhibitory activity and were more potent than the extract. The contents of the most potent fraction were identified as cis- and trans-rosmarinic acid isomers and a rosmarinic acid derivative using LC-DAD-ESI-MS and NMR methods. PMID:19070498

Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Lackman, Petri; Boije af Gennäs, Gustav; Dorman, H J Damien; Järvinen, Päivi P; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Hiltunen, Raimo

2009-01-15

149

Acylated iridoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia resulted in the isolation and characterization of six new acylated iridoids, (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-8-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (1), (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (2), (5S,8S,9S)-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (3), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-1,3-diol (4), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-1,3-isovaleroxy-?4,11-1,3-diol (5), and (5S,6S,8S,9R)-3-isovaleroxy-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-1,3-diol (6). Their structures were determined mainly by 1D and 2D?NMR spectroscopic techniques. We also report herein for the first time the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 1. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated against A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma), SK-BR-3 (human breast carcinoma), and HepG2 (human hepatoma) cell lines. Compound 6 showed weak cell growth inhibition of A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2 cells. PMID:22872588

Han, Zhu-zhen; Yan, Zhao-hui; Liu, Qing-xin; Hu, Xian-qing; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-liang; Zhang, Wei-dong

2012-10-01

150

Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants. PMID:25026727

Nurzy?ska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

2014-05-01

151

Electrophoretic and immunochemical study of collagens from Sepia officinalis cartilage.  

PubMed

Electrophoretic and Western blot studies were conducted on collagen fractions extracted from Sepia officinalis (cuttlefish) cartilage using a modified salt precipitation method developed for the isolation of vertebrate collagens. The antibodies used had been raised in rabbit against the following types of collagen: Sepia I-like; fish I; human I; chicken I, II, and IX; rat V; and calf IX and XI. The main finding was that various types of collagen are present in Sepia cartilage, as they are in vertebrate hyaline cartilage. However, the main component of Sepia cartilage is a heterochain collagen similar to vertebrate type I, and this is associated with minor forms similar to type V/XI and type IX. The cephalopod type I-like heterochain collagen can be considered a first step toward the evolutionary development of a collagen analogous to the typical collagen of vertebrate cartilage (type II homochain). The type V/XI collagen present in molluscs, and indeed all phyla from the Porifera upwards, may represent an ancestral collagen molecule conserved relatively unchanged throughout evolution. Type IX-like collagen seems to be essential for the formation of cartilaginous tissue. PMID:12204335

Rigo, C; Hartmann, D J; Bairati, A

2002-08-15

152

Emblica officinalis Gaertn and serum cholesterol level in experimental rabbits.  

PubMed Central

Twelve albino rabbits of either sex weighing 1.0-1.25 kg were fed a standard laboratory diet of green grass and sattu (roasted Bengal gram). After a 2-week run-in period their serum cholesterol levels were estimated. All animals were now fed 0.5 g cholesterol and 1.0 g clarified butter daily and were not divided into 3 groups of 4 animals each. While all received the standard cholesterol-rich diet, Group A animals received no additional substances, animals in Group B were each fed 10 mg vitamin C daily, while those in Group C were each given 1.0 g fresh Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn). Mean serum cholesterol levels in all three groups rose to significantly higher levels by the end of the second week. There was a further rise by the end of the third and fourth weeks in Groups A and B. However, animals in Group C (i.e. those given Amla) showed significantly lower mean serum cholesterol levels at the end of the second week than their counterparts in Groups A and B. At the end of the third and fourth weeks the differences were even more pronounced.

Mishra, M.; Pathak, U. N.; Khan, A. B.

1981-01-01

153

Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Inflammatory Responses  

PubMed Central

Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-?B activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1? production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation.

Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

2013-01-01

154

Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.  

PubMed

Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-?B activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1? production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

2013-04-01

155

Study on in-vivo anti-tumor activity of Verbena officinalis extract.  

PubMed

We investigated the anti-tumor effects of Verbena officinalis extract on H22 tumor-bearing mice and its effect on immune function. Mice model of H22 solid tumor was established, the mice were divided into five groups and administered the extract, later, tumors were removed and inhibition rates were calculated; spleens were removed and spleen indices were calculated, and the sheep red blood cell-delayed-type hypersensitivity (SRBC-DTH) and the serum hemolysin level were determined. The Verbena officinalis extract had anti-tumor effect, with the inhibition rate reaching 38.78%, it also increased the spleen index to a certain extent, in addition, the changes in DTA and HA were not obvious compared with the model group. The Verbena officinalis extract had in vivo anti-tumor effect, while causing no damage on the immune function. PMID:24146482

Kou, Wei-Zheng; Yang, Jun; Yang, Qing-Hui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Fen; Xu, Su-Ling; Liu, Jing

2013-01-01

156

Comparison of the diversity of root-associated bacteria in Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia L. in artificial wetlands.  

PubMed

Common reed (Phragmites australis) and narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) are two plant species used widely in artificial wetlands constructed to treat wastewater. In this study, the community structure and diversity of root-associated bacteria of common reed and narrow-leaved cattail growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, were investigated using 16S rDNA library and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. Root-associated bacterial diversity was higher in common reed than in narrow-leaved cattail. In both plant species, the dominant root-associated bacterial species were Alpha, Beta and Gamma Proteobacteria, including the genera Aeromonas, Hydrogenophaga, Ideonella, Uliginosibacterium and Vogesella. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae and Spirochaetes were only found in the roots of common reed. Comparing the root-associated bacterial communities of reed and cattail in our system, many more species of bacteria related involved in the total nitrogen cycle were observed in reed versus cattail, while species involved in total phosphorus and organic matter removal were mainly found in cattail. Although we cannot determine their nutrient removal capacity separately, differences in the root-associated bacterial communities may be an important factor contributing to the differing water purification effects mediated by T. angustifolia and P. australis wetlands. Thus, further work describing the ecosystem functions of these bacterial species is needed, in order to fully understand how effective common reed- and narrow-leaved cattail-dominated wetlands are for phytoremediation. PMID:23504190

Li, Yan Hong; Zhu, Jing Nan; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Yin; Liu, Min; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Qiang

2013-08-01

157

Protective effect of Emblica officinalis (amla) on isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla, is an important medicinal plant reputed for its dietary and therapeutic uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of E. officinalis against isoproterenol (ISP)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats and elucidate the possible mechanism involved. Rats were administered E. officinalis (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (normal saline) for 30 days, with concurrent subcutaneous injections of ISP (85 mg/kg, at 24 h interval) on 29th and 30th day. ISP-induced cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, contractility (+LVdP/dt) and relaxation (-LVdP/dt) along with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. ISP significantly (p < 0.05) decreased antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and myocyte-injury-specific marker enzymes, creatine phosphokinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase in heart. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of reduced glutathione and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances along with histopathological alteration has further indicated the oxidative damage of myocardium. However, pretreatment with E. officinalis exhibited restoration of hemodynamic and left ventricular function along with significant preservation of antioxidants, myocytes-injury-specific marker enzymes and significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, histopathological salvage of myocardium reconfirmed the protective effects of E. officinalis. Results of the present study demonstrate cardioprotective potential of E. officinalis attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by favorable improvement in hemodynamic, contractile function and tissue antioxidant status. PMID:22033422

Ojha, Shreesh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

2012-06-01

158

Enrichment of Echinacea angustifolia with Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 increased anti-inflammatory potential through interference with cox-2 enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 were previously found to be partially responsible for Echinacea angustifolia anti-inflammatory properties. This study further tested their importance using the inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. angustifolia extracts, phytochemical enriched fractions, or pure synthesized standards. Molecular targets were probed using microarray, qRT-PCR, Western blot, and enzyme assays. Fractions with these phytochemicals were more potent inhibitors of LPS-induced PGE(2) production than E. angustifolia extracts. Microarray did not detect changes in transcripts with phytochemical treatments; however, qRT-PCR showed a decrease in TNF-alpha and an increase of iNOS transcripts. LPS-induced COX-2 protein was increased by an E. angustifolia fraction containing Bauer ketone 23 and by pure phytochemical. COX-2 activity was decreased with all treatments. The phytochemical inhibition of PGE(2) production by Echinacea may be due to the direct targeting of COX-2 enzyme. PMID:20681645

Lalone, Carlie A; Huang, Nan; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Yum, Man-Yu; Singh, Navrozedeep; Hauck, Cathy; Nikolau, Basil J; Wurtele, Eve S; Kohut, Marian L; Murphy, Patricia A; Birt, Diane F

2010-08-11

159

Enrichment of Echinacea angustifolia with Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 increased anti-inflammatory potential through interfering with COX-2 enzyme activity  

PubMed Central

Bauer alkylamide 11 and ketone 23 were partially responsible for Echinacea angustifolia anti-inflammatory properties previously. This study further tested their importance using the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. angustifolia extracts, phytochemical enriched fractions, or pure synthesized standards. Molecular targets were probed using microarray, qRT-PCR, western blot, and enzyme assays. Fractions with these phytochemicals were more potent inhibitors of LPS induced PGE2 production than E. angustifolia extracts. Microarray did not detect changes in transcripts with phytochemical treatments; however qRT-PCR showed decrease in TNF-? and increase of iNOS transcripts. LPS induced COX-2 protein was increased by an E. angustifolia fraction containing Bauer ketone 23 and by pure phytochemical. COX-2 activity was decreased with all treatments. The phytochemical inhibition of PGE2 production by Echinacea may be due to the direct targeting of COX-2 enzyme.

LaLone, Carlie A.; Huang, Nan; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Yum, Man-Yu; Singh, Navrozedeep; Hauck, Cathy; Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve S.; Kohut, Marian L.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Birt, Diane F.

2013-01-01

160

Differential patterns of morphological and molecular hybridization between Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Oleaceae) in eastern and western France  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined large-scale patterns of morphology, genetic structure and ecological correlates of Fraxinus excelsior and the closely related species Fraxinus angustifolia in France, in order to determine the degree of hybridization between them. We sampled 24 populations in two putative hybrid zones (Loire and Saône), and five control populations of each species. We measured foliar characteristics of adult trees and

J. F. F ERNANDEZ-MANJAR; P. R. G ERARD; J. DUFOUR; C. RAQUIN; N. FRASCARIA-LAC OSTE

161

Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).  

PubMed Central

Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. Images Fig. 2.

Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

1983-01-01

162

Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).  

PubMed

Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. PMID:6667259

Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

1983-12-15

163

Chemical composition, seasonal variability, and antifungal activity of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas essential oils from stem/leaves and flowers.  

PubMed

Essential oils from the stems/leaves (L) and flowers (F) of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in southern Sardinia (Italy) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector and ion trap mass spectrometry. The major compound was fenchone, accounting for, on average, 52.60% in L and 66.20% in F, followed by camphor (13.13% versus 27.08%, in L and F, respectively). F essential oil yields (volume per dry weight) decreased from the beginning to the end of the flowering stage, whereas L yields remained constant during the year. The nine main compounds derived from two different subpathways, A and B. The compounds that belong to the same subpathway showed a similar behavior during the year. The essential oils were tested for their antifungal activity using the paper disk diffusion method. The essential oils tested were effective on the inactivation of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum and less effective against Aspergillus flavus. Among the single compounds tested, fenchone, limonene, and myrtenal appeared to be the more effective on the inhibition of R. solani growth. PMID:16756368

Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessi, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

2006-06-14

164

Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP.  

PubMed

Two natural extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Nutrox) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Meliox) showing a potential antioxidant activity, have been evaluated and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (Butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) and a control batch. Pork meat patties were made by addition of the mentioned compounds, cooked and packed in modified atmosphere and stored under illumination for 6 days. A descriptive sensory analysis was also conducted. The patties with natural extracts showed higher a*-values (P<0.001) than control and BHT samples. Cooked pork hardness was the lowest for Meliox batch after 0 and 3 days of storage in comparison with the rest of the batches. Nutrox batch showed the lowest TBARS values and hexanal content (P<0.05) throughout the storage period. The batches with natural antioxidants produced the highest concentrations of free thiol groups after 0 and 3 days. Differences in sensory attributes among batches were not detected by the judge panel. PMID:21345605

Lara, M S; Gutierrez, J I; Timón, M; Andrés, A I

2011-07-01

165

How sensitive is Melissa officinalis to realistic ozone concentrations?  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.; Lamiaceae) was exposed to realistic ozone (O3) dosages (80 ppb for 5 h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 regimes. Temporal alterations of different ecophysiological, biochemical and structural parameters were investigated in order to test if this species can be considered as an O3-bioindicator regarding changes in background concentrations. At the end of ozone exposure, the plants did not exhibit any visible foliar symptoms, as only at microscopic level a small number of dead cells were found. Photosynthetic processes, however, were significantly affected. During and after the treatment, ozone induced a reduction in CO2 fixation capacity (up to 52% after 12 h from the beginning of the treatment) due to mesophyllic limitations. Intercellular CO2 concentration significantly increased in comparison to controls (+90% at the end of the post-fumigation period). Furthermore impairment of carboxylation efficiency (-71% at the end of the post-fumigation period compared to controls in filtered air) and membrane damage in terms of integrity (as demonstrated by a significant rise in solute leakage) were observed. A regulatory adjustment of photosynthetic processes was highlighted during the post-fumigation period by the higher values of qNP and (1-q(P)) and therefore suggests a tendency to reduce the light energy used in photochemistry at the expense of the capacity to dissipate the excess as excitation energy. In addition, the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the de-epoxidation index increased, showing a rearrangement of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus and a marked activation of photoprotective mechanisms. PMID:24321873

Döring, Anne Sarah; Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

2014-01-01

166

Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials.  

PubMed

The use of plants is as old as the mankind. Natural products are cheap and claimed to be safe. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) is a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. It is used for flavouring food, a beverage drink, as well as in cosmetics; in folk.medicine it is used as an antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhoea, in relieving respiratory disorders and to stimulate growth of hair. Extract of rosemary relaxes smooth muscles of trachea and intestine, and has choleretic, hepatoprotective and antitumerogenic activity. The most important constituents of rosemary are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These compounds have antioxidant effect. The phenolic compound, rosmarinic acid, obtains one of its phenolic rings from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Relatively large-scale production of rosmarinic acid can be obtained from the cell culture of Coleus blumei Benth when supplied exogenously with phenylalanine and tyrosine. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and from the skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotriene B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and inhibits the complement system. It is concluded that rosemary and its constituents especially caffeic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic acid have a therapeutic potential in treatment or prevention of bronchial asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, hepatotoxicity, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility. PMID:10641130

al-Sereiti, M R; Abu-Amer, K M; Sen, P

1999-02-01

167

Nitrogen cycling of atmosphere-plant-soil system in the typical Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China.  

PubMed

The nitrogen (N) distribution and cycling of atmosphere-plant-soil system in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland (TMCW) and marsh meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland (MMCW) in the Sanjiang plain were studied by a compartment model. The results showed that the N wet deposition amount was 0.757 gN/(m2 x a), and total inorganic N (TIN) was the main body (0.640 gN/(m2 x a). The ammonia volatilization amounts of TMCW and MMCW soils in growing season were 0.635 and 0.687 gN/m2, and the denitrification gaseous lost amounts were 0.617 and 0.405 gN/m2, respectively. In plant subsystem, the N was mainly stored in root and litter. Soil organic N was the main N storage of the two plant-soil systems and the proportions of it were 93.98% and 92.16%, respectively. The calculation results of N turnovers among compartments of TMCW and MMCW showed that the uptake amounts of root were 23.02 and 28.18 gN/(m2 x a) and the values of aboveground were 11.31 and 6.08 gN/(m2 x a), the re-translocation amounts from aboveground to root were 5.96 and 2.70 gN/(m2 x a), the translocation amounts from aboveground living body to litter were 5.35 and 3.38 gN/(m2 x a), the translocation amounts from litter to soil were larger than 1.55 and 3.01 gN/(m2 x a), the translocation amounts from root to soil were 14.90 and 13.17 gN/(m2 x a), and the soil (0-15 cm) N net mineralization amounts were 1.94 and 0.55 gN/(m2 x a), respectively. The study of N balance indicated that the two plant-soil systems might be situated in the status of lacking N, and the status might induce the degradation of C. angustifolia wetland. PMID:17966856

Sun, Zhi-gao; Liu, Jing-shuang

2007-01-01

168

Protective effects of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. in cyclophosphamide-treated mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most popular alkylating anticancer drugs in spite of its toxic side effects including immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity, mutagenicity and a host of others. The present study was undertaken to assess the protective effects of total aqueous extract of a medicinal plant, Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) in mice treated with CP. These protective effects were studied

R. Haque; B. Bin-Hafeez; I. Ahmad; S. Parvez; S. Pandey; S. Raisuddin

2001-01-01

169

Extraction and Liquid Membrane Preconcentration of Rosmarinic Acid from Lemon Balm (Melissa Officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid membrane separation technique was applied for the recovery and preconcentration of rosmarinic acid from aqueous extract of dried leaves of Balm lemon (Melissa officinalis L.). Among several studied organic solvents, diisopropyl ether and ethylacetate appeared to be appropriate membrane liquids for recovery and selective preconcentration of the acid. The difference in pH values between the two aqueous solutions was

Lubomir Boyadzhiev; Valentina Dimitrova

2006-01-01

170

INVESTIGATIONS ON THE IN VITRO MORPHOGENETIC REACTION OF MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents some preliminary results concerning the in vitro initiation of Melissa officinalis species and the morphogenetic reaction of some explants on several hormonal formuli of the basal Murashige-Skoog medium. We recommended some medium formuli that are effective for this species' micropropagation as well as the appropriate accommodation to septic conditions of the neoplantlets obtained in vitro and for

GOGU I. GHIORGHI; DIANA ELENA; T. MAFTEI; DANIELA N. NICU

171

Oil of Melissa officinalis L., as Affected by Storage and Herb Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of the fresh and dried herb Melissa officinalis L., grown in Egypt were subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 60 constituents separated, 21 were identified. The oil consisted mainly of geranial, neral, citronellal, caryophyllene oxide, ?-caryophyllene and geraniol. Drying the herb prior to distillation did not change the qualitative composition of the oil, but the relative amount

A. S. Shabby; S. El-Gengaihi; M. Khattab

1995-01-01

172

Improved in vitro culture and micropropagation of different Melissa officinalis L. genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. is widely cultivated in the world and Iran as well, due to its useful application in medicine. In order to establish a stable and high frequency of regeneration system with 4 landrace collected from different climate in Iran, major parameters such as regeneration rate, rooting percentage, shooting and proliferation rate were investigated. Statistical analysis of results showed

H. Meftahizade; H. Moradkhani; B. Naseri; M. Lofti; A. Naseri

173

Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration

D. O Kennedy; Andrew B Scholey; N. T. J Tildesley; E. K Perry; K. A Wesnes

2002-01-01

174

Response surface optimised extraction and chromatographic purification of rosmarinic acid from Melissa officinalis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) leaves with aqueous methanol was optimised using response surface methodology. Fifteen runs were conducted following a Box-Behnken design (BBD) followed by ridge analysis using the concentration of methanol, the extraction temperature and time as the independent variables and taking the extraction yield of RA from lemon balm as the response variable. The optimal

Sooah Kim; Eun Ju Yun; Jin Seop Bak; Hojoung Lee; Sung Joon Lee; Cheong Tae Kim; Jong-Hoon Lee; Kyoung Heon Kim

2010-01-01

175

Composition of the Essential Oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of dried herb of Melissa officinalis L. grown in Cuba was subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 28 constituents separated, 17 were identified (88% of the oil composition). The oil consisted mainly of neral (29–9%) and geranial (41.0%).

Jorge A. Pino; Aristides Rosado; Victor Fuentes

1999-01-01

176

Solvent extraction study of antioxidants from Balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, the extraction of antioxidants from Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) leaves with ethanol is presented. Effects of particle size, amount of solvent and temperature on the extraction rates and concentrations of antioxidants in the extracts were studied and kinetics was determined. Individual antioxidants (carnosic, ursolic and oleanolic acids) were identified by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that

Špela Stangler Herodež; Majda Hadolin; Mojca Škerget; Željko Knez

2003-01-01

177

Chromatographic Determination of Derivatives of p?Hydroxybenzoic Acid in Melissa officinalis by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fast method for the determination of phenolic compounds–benzoic acids in Melissa officinalis. Soxhlet extraction has been optimized for the isolation of benzoic acids (gallic acid, p?hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid) from plant material. The conditions of Soxhlet extraction, such as solvent composition and extraction time were studied. The efficient extraction

Gabriela Karasová; Jozef Lehotay

2005-01-01

178

Effects of lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) extract on germination and seedling growth of six plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The n-hexane-, acetone- and water-soluble fractions obtained from an aqueous acetone extract of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) shoots inhibited the germination and the growth of roots and shoots of cockscomb (Amaranthus caudatus L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The inhibitory activity of the

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi

2001-01-01

179

Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81),

G. Mazzanti; L. Battinelli; C. Pompeo; A. M. Serrilli; R. Rossi; I. Sauzullo; F. Mengoni; V. Vullo

2008-01-01

180

Cloning and characterisation of rosmarinic acid synthase from Melissa officinalis L.  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant mainly due to two groups of compounds, the essential oil and the phenylpropanoid derivatives. The prominent phenolic compound is rosmarinic acid (RA), an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. RA shows a number of interesting biological activities. Rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS; 4-coumaroyl-CoA:hydroxyphenyllactic acid hydroxycinnamoyltransferase) catalyses the ester formation. Cell cultures of M. officinalis have been established in order to characterise the formation of RA in an important diploid medicinal plant. RAS activity as well as the expression of the RAS gene are closely correlated with the accumulation of RA in suspension cultures of M. officinalis. The RAS cDNA and gene (MoRAS) were isolated. The RAS gene was shown to be intron-free. MoRAS belongs to the BAHD superfamily of acyltransferases. Southern-blot analysis suggests the presence of only one RAS gene copy in the M. officinalis genome. The enzyme was characterised with respect to enzyme properties, substrate preferences and kinetic data in crude plant extracts and as heterologously synthesised protein from Escherichia coli. PMID:21354582

Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

2011-05-01

181

Comparison of Several Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Benzoic Acid Derivatives from Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several extraction techniques, such as Soxhlet extraction, solid phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer, matrix solid phase dispersion, and supercritical fluid extraction were evaluated for the isolation and purification of phenolic compounds, e.g., benzoic acids from natural samples of Melissa officinalis. The extracts of benzoic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in reversed phase modus (C18 column)

Gabriela Karasová; Jozef Lehotay; Ewa K?odzinska; Bogus?aw Buszewski

2006-01-01

182

Matrix solid-phase dispersion for the liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic acids in Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was used for sample preparation of plant material (Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm) prior to liquid chromatography of rosmarinic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids, phenolic compounds present in this herb. Different MSPD sorbents and various elution agents were tested and the optimal extraction conditions determined with the aim to obtain extraction recoveries greater than 90% for all analytes.

Alica Žiaková; Eva Brandšteterová; Eva Blahová

2003-01-01

183

Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

The essential oil and infusion of Salvia officinalis leaves have been widely applied in traditional medicine since ancient times and nowadays subjected to extensive research of their antibacterial, antiviral and cytotoxic properties. This paper shows chemical composition data of S. officinalis leaves essential oil isolated by steam distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Also, the paper presents the chemical content of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion. The volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion were isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction with hexane and dichloromethane. SPE was carried out on 500 mg octadecylsilane (C18) cartridges and elution with dichloromethane. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed with hexane and dichloromethane. The essential oil in dichloromethane and infusion extracts in hexane and dichloromethane were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The quantitative results obtained by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction showed that SPE on C18 performed the highest recovery of the volatile compounds from infusion sample. PMID:14971492

Radulescu, Valeria; Chiliment, Silvia; Oprea, Eliza

2004-02-20

184

Calendula officinalis—production potential and crop agronomy in southern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in Calendula officinalis L. as an industrial oil crop has developed from the discovery that it has a seed-oil content of around 20%, of which up to 60% is calendic acid, a useful industrial feedstock. An EU AIR project `vegetable oils with specific fatty acids', is in progress to further develop this and other species. The first 2 years

H. T. H Cromack; J. M Smith

1998-01-01

185

Seeding date and nitrogen fertilization effects on the performance of borage ( Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, borage (Borago officinalis L.) has been the subject of increasing agricultural interest because of the potential market for gamma linolenic acid (GLA), an unusual fatty acid extracted from the seed. GLA is an omega-6 essential fatty acid which has been identified as having several beneficial therapeutic effects such as treatment of atopic eczema, diabetes, cyclic mastalgia, heart disease, arthritis,

R El Hafid; S. F Blade; Y Hoyano

2002-01-01

186

Effect of harvesting time on phenolic compounds and antiradical scavenging activity of Borago officinalis seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borage seeds (Borago officinalis L.) were sampled in Amdoun region (North of Tunisia) during their ripening stage in order to analyse their phenolic compounds and to ascertain their antiradical scavenging activity. The harvesting time effect on some physical properties of borage seed was significant. The increase of dry weight (from 10 to 90%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that

B. Mhamdi; W. Aidi Wannes; J. Sriti; I. Jellali; R. Ksouri; B. Marzouk

2010-01-01

187

Determination of honokiol and magnolol in Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection has been employed for the determination of honokiol and magnolol in Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (i.e. Magnolia Bark) for the first time. Effects of several important factors such as the concentration and the acidity of the running buffer, separation voltage, injection time, and detection potential were investigated to acquire the optimum conditions. The detection electrode was

Gang Chen; Xuejiao Xu; Yizhun Zhu; Luyan Zhang; Pengyuan Yang

2006-01-01

188

The susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains to essential oils of Rormarinus officinalis and Eucalyptus globulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils are frequently used for flavour and fragrance in the perfume, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils obtained by steam distillation of Rosmarinus officinalis L and Eucalyptus globules collected in south Morocco was studied by micro-atmospheric technique against Escherichia coli CIP54127

K. Mounchid; F. Bourjilat; N. Dersi; T. Aboussaouira; A. Rachidai; A. Tantaoui-Elaraki

189

Solid–liquid extraction of protopine from Fumaria officinalis L.—Experimental study and process optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of the protopine batch extraction from Fumaria officinalis was studied by experimental design. Several parameters were first studied in order to measure their influence on batch extraction thus enabling to choose the most accurate model. A response surface method design that allows investigating the simultaneous variations of the three main parameters (percentage of ethanol in solvent, temperature, solid–liquid weight

Lovasoa Rakotondramasy-Rabesiaka; Jean-Louis Havet; Catherine Porte; Henri Fauduet

2008-01-01

190

SUPERCRITICAL CO2, HYDRODISTILLATION EXTRACTIONS OF SALVIA OFFICINALIS L. INFLUENCE OF EXTRACTION PROCESS ON ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a perennial woody shrub, cultivated in the Mediterranean countries, mainly to obtain dried leaves used as raw material in medicine, perfumery and food industry. The aim of this paper is to compare the antioxidant properties and the chemical composition of essentials oils obtain by two extraction process: the hydrodistillation and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

S. FELLAH; P. N. DIOUF; M. PETRISSANS; D. BARTH; M. ROMDHANE; D. PERRIN; M. ABDERRABBA

191

Melissa officinalis Extract Inhibits Attachment of Herpes Simplex Virus in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs for antiherpetic agents, since the herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. Methods: An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis as well as phenolic extract compounds, i.e. caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against

Akram Astani; Jürgen Reichling; Paul Schnitzler

2012-01-01

192

Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopic Study of Size-Controlled Ink Particles Isolated from Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paramagnetic properties of size-controlled ink particles isolated from the ink sacs of Sepia officinalis were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Both the size-controlled ink particles and synthetic melanins seemingly yielded similar ESR spectra consisting of a singlet with a slightly asymmetrical signal. However, the progressive microwave power saturation revealed a clear difference between their paramagnetic behaviors. In

Toshihiko Matsuura; Shingo Watanabe; Sei-ichi Akutagawa; Yuhei Shimoyama; Takanori Kobayashi; Yoshihiro Taya; Takashi Ueno

2010-01-01

193

Effect of drying methods on nutritional composition of dehydrated aonla fruit ( Emblica officinalis Garten) during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aonla fruit (Emblica officinalis Garten) cv. Chakaiya was dried using four different methods viz., osmo-air drying, direct sun drying, indirect solar drying and oven drying. The osmo-air drying method was found to be the best method for drying of aonla because of better retention of nutrients like ascorbic acid and sugars. The level of antinutrients like tannins was also found

Pragati; S. S. Dhawan

2003-01-01

194

Antioxidant action of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis in hypercholesterolemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral administration of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis at a dose of 10 mg kg?1 body weight day?1 showed significant antioxidant action in cholesterol-fed experimental rats. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids was investigated on the basis of their effects on the activities of oxidative free radical scavenging enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase,

L. Anila; N. R. Vijayalakshmi

2003-01-01

195

Indole Alkaloids of Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in 1 M HCl Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhibition effect of mild steel (MS) corrosion in 1 M HCl was studied by the addition of indole alkaloids (crude) isolated from Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia ( A. latifolia) leaves at 303 K. Potentiodynamic polarization, impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses were used for this study. Results show that the isolated alkaloid extract of A. latifolia is a good inhibitor and exhibited maximum inhibition efficiency (above 80%) at concentrations between 3 and 5 mg/L. Polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitor does not alter the mechanism of either anodic or cathodic reactions and acted as mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies of both electrochemical techniques are found to be in good agreement and adsorption of inhibitor follows Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption of inhibitor over metal surface was well supported by the SEM studies, while FTIR studies evidenced the presence of indole alkaloids as green inhibitor that reduces the rate of corrosion.

Raja, Pandian Bothi; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Awang, Khalijah; Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Osman, Hasnah

2013-04-01

196

Pharmaco-physio-psychologic effect of Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment using an essential oil from Lavendula angustifolia.  

PubMed

Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment, Shirodhara, involves the use of medicated herbal sesame oils. In our previous reports, we found that Shirodhara with plain sesame oil induced anxiolysis and an altered state of consciousness (ASC) in healthy subjects. We studied the pharmaco-physio-psychologic effect of Shirodhara with medicated sesame oil including an essential oil from Lavendula angustifolia (lavender) in the present study. Sixteen (16) healthy females (38 +/- 8 years old) were assigned at random to three treatments applied by a robotic oil-dripping system: plain sesame oil (plain Shirodhara), medicated sesame oil with a 0.3 volume % of lavender essential oil (lavender Shirodhara), or the control supine position. Psychophysiologic parameters including the heart rate, skin temperature of the dorsum of hands and feet, as well as anxiety and ASC were monitored, and the rates of change of these items were calculated to assess the psychophysiologic changes brought about by Shirodhara. Lavender Shirodhara showed potent anxiolytic and ASC-inducing or promoting effects, and induced the largest increase in foot skin temperature. The correlation between anxiolysis and ASC, as well as the correlation between these psychologic effects and the elevated foot skin temperature were larger in the lavender Shirodhara than in the other two conditions. It was speculated that the psycho-physiologic effects of lavender Shirodhara would be brought about by three mechanisms: (1) the well-known relaxing action of essential oils from L. angustifolia mediated by olfactory nerves, (2) the pharmacologic action of substances absorbed through the skin or mucosa in the sesame oil or lavender essential oil, and (3) the physiologic effect of sesame oil dripped on the forehead induced by the somato-autonomic reflex through thermosensors or pressure sensors in the skin or hair follicles via the trigeminal cranial nerve. The complicated pharmaco-physio-psychologic action of Ayurvedic oil treatment may provide a useful model for future pharmaco-physio-psychotherapy. PMID:18990044

Xu, Fenghao; Uebaba, Kazuo; Ogawa, Hiroko; Tatsuse, Takeshi; Wang, Bing-Hong; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Venkatraman, Sonia

2008-10-01

197

Activation of soil respiration and shift of the microbial population balance in soil as a response to Lavandula stoechas essential oil.  

PubMed

Lavandula stoechas, a native plant of Greece, is rich in essential oil and fenchone is its major constituent. We examined the effect of the essential oil and its main constituents on soil metabolism and microbial growth. Addition of the essential oil or fenchone to soil samples induced a remarkable increase in soil respiration. This was accompanied by an increase in the soil bacterial population of three orders of magnitude. This sizable population was not qualitatively similar to that of the control soil samples. One bacterial strain dominated soil samples treated with L. stoechas essential oil or fenchone. By use of the disk diffusion assay, we evaluated the capacity of three bacterial strains that we isolated from the soil samples, as well as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis (reference strains), to grow in the presence of the essential oil and three of its main constituents (fenchone, cineol, alpha-pinene). The substances tested did not inhibit the growth of the strain found to dominate the bacterial populations of treated soil samples; they severely inhibited B. subtilis. The other two isolated strains could also grow in liquid cultures in the presence of different quantities of essential oil or fenchone. Addition of fenchone at the end of the exponential phase increased the cell numbers of the strain that dominated the bacterial populations of treated soil samples, indicating use of the substrate added. On the basis of these results, we propose a scheme of successional stages during the decomposition process of the rich-in-essential-oil litter of aromatic plants that abound in the Mediterranean environment. PMID:12035924

Vokou, D; Chalkos, D; Karamanlidou, G; Yiangou, M

2002-04-01

198

Metabolite profiling of sucrose effect on the metabolism of Melissa officinalis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sugar on plant metabolism, which is known to be similar to hormone-like signaling, was metabolomically studied\\u000a using Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). The metabolite profiles of M. officinalis treated with sucrose were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA).\\u000a A total of 64 metabolites from various chemical classes including alcohols, amines, amino acids, fatty

Sooah Kim; Min Hye Shin; Eun Ju Yun; Hojoung Lee; Kyoung Heon Kim

2011-01-01

199

Isolation and purification of honokiol and magnolol from cortex Magnoliae officinalis by high-speed counter-current chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-speed counter-current chromatography was used to isolate and purify honokiol and magnolol from cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils.), a plant used in the traditional Chinese medicine. A crude sample, 150mg, was successfully separated with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (1:0.4:1:0.4, v\\/v), and the fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The separation produced 80

Xiao Wang; Yuqiang Wang; Yanling Geng; Fuwei Li; Chengchao Zheng

2004-01-01

200

Ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced memory deficiency via its antineuroinflammatory and antiamyloidogenic effects.  

PubMed

Magnolia bark contains several compounds such as magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, obovatol, and other neolignan compounds. These compounds have been reported to have various beneficial effects in various diseases. There is sufficient possibility that ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis is more effective in amyloidogenesis via synergism of these ingredients. Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether the ethanol extract of M.?officinalis (10?mg/?kg in 0.05% ethanol) prevents memory dysfunction and amyloidogenesis in AD mouse model by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250?µg/?kg/day for seven times) injection. We found that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevented LPS-induced memory deficiency as well as inhibited the LPS-induced elevation of inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and activation of astrocytes and microglia. In particular, administration of M.?officinalis ethanol extract inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis, which resulted in the inhibition of amyloid precursor protein, beta-site amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving enzyme 1 and C99. Thus, this study shows that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevents LPS-induced memory impairment as well as amyloidogenesis via inhibition of neuroinflammation and suggests that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis might be a useful intervention for neuroinflammation-associated diseases such as AD. PMID:22628265

Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Hwan Mook; Lee, Kiho; Choi, Seok Hwa; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Jeong, Jea-Hwang; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

2013-03-01

201

Emblica officinalis Garten fruits extract ameliorates reproductive injury and oxidative testicular toxicity induced by chlorpyrifos in male rats.  

PubMed

Organophosphate pesticides have destroying properties on male reproduction and chlorpyrifos adversely affects the male reproductive system. Emblica offcinalis Garten plays a vital role to challenge many diseases in human body. We investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the male reproductive system of adult rats (Wistar Strain) exposed to widely used organophosphate pesticide, Chlorpyrifos, and tried to establish the ameliorative properties of Emblica officinalis Garten with respect to reproductive reconstruction in them. Rats were divided into 2 groups, control group and experimental group, and the experimental group was divided into 3 groups (G1-G3). All the groups had 5 rats each. Control group received water, experimental group, G1, received 20 mg/kg bw/day Emblica officinalis Garten, G2 received 12 mg/kg bw/day chlorpyrifos and G3 received 12 mg chlorpyrifos with 20 mg Emblica officinalis Garten /kg bw/day. Treatment was done orally from 30 days. Thereafter body weight, male reproductive organs weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, ACP, ALP, total protein, uric acid and testis and serum testosterone level were determined using standard methods. The changes recorded are indicative of infertility in male rats because of chlorpyrifos exposure. When the subjects were treated with Emblica officinalis Garten in conjunction with chlorpyrifos, these parameters exhibited recovery and when treated with Emblica officinalis Garten alone, these parameters were more or less near to the control group. This highlights the debilitating effect of chlorpyrifos and scavenging property of Emblica officinalis Garten. PMID:24255841

Dutta, Abir Lal; Sahu, Chitta Ranjan

2013-01-01

202

Heavy metals accumulation and ecophysiological effect on Typha angustifolia L. and Cyperus esculentus L. growing in distillery and tannery effluent polluted natural wetland site, Unnao, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillery and tanneries are major source of heavy metals pollution in natural wetland sites in India. Present study deals\\u000a with the heavy metals accumulation potential of Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus growing in distillery and tannery effluent polluted wetland sites. The metal accumulation pattern in both macrophytes showed\\u000a direct correlation with the metal content in sediments. Both macrophytes were observed

Sangeeta Yadav; Ram Chandra

2011-01-01

203

[Royleanones in the roots of Salvia officinalis L. of domestic provenance and their antimicrobial activity].  

PubMed

The reported investigation of the constituents of the petroleum ether extract of the root of Salvia officinalis L. confirmed the presence of the following diterpene quinones: 12.hydroxy-8, 12-abietadiene-11, 14-dione (royleanone), 7 alpha, 12-dihydroxy-8.12-abistadiene-11-14-dione (horminone) and 7 alpha-acetoxy-12-hydroxy-8, 12-abietadiene-11,14-dione (7-O-acetylhorminone). The compounds were identified on the basic of the interpretation of results of spectral analysis. Isolated royleanones show antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). A study of abietate diterpenoids in the root of Salvia officinalis L. of Slovak provenance has been performed for the first time. PMID:9011311

Masterová, I; Misíková, E; Sirotková, L; Vaverková, S; Ubik, K

1996-09-01

204

Purification and spectroscopic studies on catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).  

PubMed

A catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) moCO which only catalyzes the oxidation of catechols to quinones without hydroxylating tyrosine was purified. The molecular mass of the M. officinalis enzyme of 39,370 Da was obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry and the isoelectric point was determined to be 3.4. Addition of 2 eq. H(2)O(2) to the enzyme leads to oxy catechol oxidase. In the UV/Vis spectrum two new absorption bands occur at 343 nm (?=8510 M(-1)cm(-1)) and 580 nm (?=580 M(-1)cm(-1)) due to O(2)(2-)Cu (II) charge transfer transitions in accordance with the oxy forms of other type 3 copper proteins. The N-terminal sequence has been determined by Edman degradation to NPVQAPELDKCGTAT, exhibiting a proline at the second and sixth position conserved in other polyphenol oxidases. PMID:22727580

Rompel, Annette; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Molitor, Christian; Krebs, Bernt

2012-09-01

205

Enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Cornus officinalis.  

PubMed

Process of enzyme assisted extraction (EAE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The influence of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. Results showed that the optimal conditions were compound enzyme amount of 2.15%, extraction pH of 4.2, extraction temperature of 55 °C and extraction time of 97 min. Under these conditions, the COP yield was 9.29±0.31%, which was well in agreement with the value predicted by the model. The three methods, EAE, hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for extracting COP by RSM were further compared. Results showed that EAE had the largest yield of polysaccharides with lower equipment cost. PMID:23987388

You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping

2013-10-15

206

Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of ethanol (EEO) and aqueous (AEO) extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits in several experimental models. A single oral dose of EEO and AEO (500 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant reduction in brewer's yeast induced hyperthermia in rats. EEO and AEO also elicited pronounced inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice in the analgesic test. Both, EEO and AEO did not show any significant analgesic activity in the tail-immersion test. These findings suggest that extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits possessed potent anti-pyretic and analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and amino acids, which may be responsible for anti-pyretic and analgesic activities. PMID:15374611

Perianayagam, James B; Sharma, S K; Joseph, Aney; Christina, A J M

2004-11-01

207

Effects of s. Officinalis L. Radix triterpene glycosides on innate immunity factors.  

PubMed

The effects of triterpene glycosides (saponins) extracted from Saponaria officinalis L. radices, on the cellular and humoral innate immunity factors were studied. Saponins stimulated the phagocytic, bactericidal, and adhesion activities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Optimal conditions of saponin treatment (dose and duration) were determined for mice. Saponins promoted the maturation of human peripheral blood dendritic cells, which was proven by high expression of CD83 (terminal differentiation marker) and CD86 (bone-stimulating molecule) and of HLA-DR and HLA-ABC molecules on the cell membrane. Saponins modulated the production of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-4, IL-6, and IFN-? in cultured peripheral blood intact cells. The results help to understand some mechanisms of the effects of saponins extracted from Saponaria officinalis L. radix on the cellular and humoral factors of innate immunity and demonstrate good prospects of their practical use. PMID:24771377

Kuznetsova, T A; Ivanushko, L A; Makarenkova, I D; Cherevach, E I; Ten'kovskaya, L A

2014-01-01

208

Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidative activity of a lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf material of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) was extracted with 450ml\\/l aqueous ethanol by medium pressure liquid–solid extraction. The total phenolic content of the extract was estimated as gallic acid equivalents by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method and a qualitative–quantitative compositional analysis was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. The lemon balm extract contained

Keyvan Dastmalchi; H. J. Damien Dorman; Päivi P. Oinonen; Yusrida Darwis; Into Laakso; Raimo Hiltunen

2008-01-01

209

Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon Balm): In Vitro Culture and the Production and Analysis of Volatile Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The genus Melissa belongs to the family Labiatae (Lamiaceae) and comprises erect branched herbs with crenate opposite leaves and a two-lipped\\u000a corolla. It includes very few species, which chiefly occur in many parts of Europe and Asia. For the European region two individual\\u000a species are differentiated by the Flora Europaea (Tutin et al. 1972): M. officinalis L. (comprising the two

W. Schultze; S. Hose; A. Abou-Mandour; F.-C. Czygan

210

Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds,\\u000a the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds,\\u000a two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL),\\u000a were investigated in suspension cultures of

Corinna Weitzel; Maike Petersen

2010-01-01

211

Antioxidant Effects of Different Extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence\\u000a of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate\\u000a the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The

Romaiana Picada Pereira; Roselei Fachinetto; Alessandro de Souza Prestes; Robson Luiz Puntel; Gloria Narjara Santos da Silva; Berta Maria Heinzmann; Ticiane Krapf Boschetti; Margareth Linde Athayde; Marilise Escobar Bürger; Ademir Farias Morel; Vera Maria Morsch; João Batista Teixeira Rocha

2009-01-01

212

Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.  

PubMed

Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18853256

Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

2009-05-01

213

Carnosol and Carnosic Acids from Salvia officinalis Inhibit Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE2 synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE2 in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC50 values between 1.9 and 3.5 ?g/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC50 values of 5.0 ?M. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE2 generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC50 = 9.3 ?M). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF1?, 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B2] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE2 formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE2 formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis.

Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M.; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

2012-01-01

214

The physical map of the chloroplast DNA from Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Asparagus consists of 100–300 species of both dioecious and hermaphrodite plants. Since there are diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid plants in this genus, RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis of chloroplast DNA (ctDNA) is suitable for examining the phylogenetic relationships. We have constructed a physical map of the ctDNA of garden asparagus (A. officinalis L. cv Mary Washington 500

Y.-O. Lee; A. Kanno; T. Kameya

1996-01-01

215

Comparative Responses of Borago officinalis and Echium vulgare to Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of organic and mineral nitrogen, phosphorus, and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield, and fixed oil content of borage (Borago officinalis L.) and viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare L.) plants were studied in two field experiments. Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate at 0.75 and 110 kg N hectare; phosphorus as calcium super-phosphate at 50 and 75 kg P2O5 hectare; compost at 1.32

S. F. Hendawy; S. El-Gengaihi

2010-01-01

216

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

PubMed Central

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

2012-01-01

217

Investigation of ?-Linolenic Acid and Stearidonic Acid Biosynthesis During a Life Cycle of Borago officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the levels of ?-linolenic (GLA, 18:3n-6) and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) in various parts of the\\u000a borage plant (Borago officinalis L.) to elucidate ?6-desaturase activity. Lipid class and fatty acid (FA) composition during germination of the seeds and\\u000a FA composition of various borage parts were determined as well as FA compositions of neutral lipids (NL), polar lipids

Kathrin Stähler; Siew-Young Quek; Matthew R. Miller

218

Lipid components of borage ( Borago officinalis L.) seeds and their changes during germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in composition of total and neutral lipids (NL) as well as glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seeds, germinated in the dark at 25°C for 10 d, were studied. Total lipids constituted 34.0% of the dry matter of borage seeds. During germination, the content\\u000a of total lipids was decreased by 95%. NL accounted for

S. P. J. Namal Senanayake; Fereidoon Shahidi

2000-01-01

219

Essential oils from normal and hairy roots of Valeriana officinalis var. sambucifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the steam-distilled oil from the roots of 9-month-old field-grown Valeriana officinalis var. sambucifolia was analysed and compared with that from Agrobacterium-mediated transformed roots of the same species. Capillary GC and GC-MS studies revealed that the normal oil contained bornyl acetate (13.3%) and valerenal (12.4%) and the transformed oil kessane derivatives, tentatively identified as kessyl alcohol (10.5%) and

François Gränicher; Philippe Christen; Ilias Kapetanidis

1995-01-01

220

Effect of gibberellic acid on the growth of main shoot and axillary branches in Calendula officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis L. bears a short main axis and branches of several orders. The upper axillary branches grow vigorously whereas the lower\\u000a branches remain arrested at different levels. Foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA3) stimulated the elongation of the main shoot and of the upper few primary axillary branches (PAB’s). The length of the main\\u000a axis nearly doubled 10 days

H Y Mohan Ram; Usha Mehta

1978-01-01

221

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity.  

PubMed

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-01-01

222

Survival of cultured cells and somatic embryos of Asparagus officinalis cryopreserved by vitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured cells and somatic embryos derived from the mesophyll tissue of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) were cryopreserved by vitrification. The vitrification solution (PVS) contains (w\\/v) 22% glycerol, 15% ethylene glycol, 15% propylene glycol and 7% DMSO in Murashige-Skoog medium enriched with 0.5M sorbitol. After initial cryoprotection with sorbitol supplemented MS medium containing 12% ethylene glycol, cells or embryos were exposed

A. Uragami; A. Sakai; M. Nagai; T. Takahashi

1989-01-01

223

The effects of drying on the chemical components of essential oils of Calendula officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis is a medicinal plant whose essential oils are used for various purposes. The oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves, dry leaves and fresh flowers of the herb yielding 0.06, 0.03 and 0.09%, respectively. The analysis of the oils by GC-MS revealed a total of 30, 21 and 24 compounds from the fresh leaves, dry leaves and

Okoh O. O; Sadimenko A. P; Asekun O. T; Afolayan A. J

2008-01-01

224

HPLC analysis of carotenoids in four varieties of Calendula officinalis L. flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis L. is a medicinal plant that accumulates large amounts of carotenoids in its inflorescences. The yellow-to-orange colour of inflorescences is mostly due to carotenoids and the shade is dependent on pigments content and profile.We investigated the carotenoid content and profile in four selected varieties of Calendula: Double Esterel Orange, Radio Extra Selected, Bonbon Abricot and Double Esterel Jaune.

Adela Pintea; Constantin Bele; Sanda Andrei; Carmen Socaciu

225

Drought effects on polyphenol composition and antioxidant activities in aerial parts of Salvia officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salvia officinalis L. is a medicinal plant containing several compounds with important pharmacological activity. In this study, we investigated\\u000a the effects of water deficit (moderate and severe water deficits) on the contents of total and individual polyphenols of the\\u000a aerial parts. Also, we studied the effect of drought on the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts. Our results showed\\u000a that water

Iness Bettaieb; Ibtissem Hamrouni-Sellami; Soumaya Bourgou; Ferid Limam; Brahim Marzouk

2011-01-01

226

Evaluation of antioxidant profile and activity of amalaki (Emblica officinalis) , spirulina and wheat grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of amalki (Emblica officinalis), spirulina and wheatgrass were prepared and analyzed for antioxidant\\u000a vitamin content (vitamin C and E), total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant status, reducing power and effect on glutathione\\u000a S-transferase (GST) activity were evaluated in vitro. Vitamin C content of crude amalaki powder was found to be 5.38 mg\\/g,\\u000a while very less amount 0.22 mg\\/g

Vasudha Shukla; Manish Vashistha; Som Nath Singh

2009-01-01

227

Composition and insect attracting activity of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

The essential oil and a number of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in solvents of increasing polarity were isolated, and their components identified and tested as pest control agents. Ethanol and acetone extracts attract grape berry moth Lobesia botrana. However, none of the extracts had a significant effect on western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, which is attracted by 1,8-cineole, a major essential oil component. PMID:15839484

Katerinopoulos, Haralambos E; Pagona, Georgia; Afratis, Athanasios; Stratigakis, Nicolaos; Roditakis, Nikolaos

2005-01-01

228

Diversity of centromeric repeats in two closely related wild rice species, Oryza officinalis and Oryza rhizomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oryza officinalis (CC, 2n=24) and Oryza rhizomatis (CC, 2n=24) belong to the Oryza genus, which contains more than 20 identified wild rice species. Although much has been known about the molecular composition\\u000a and organization of centromeres in Oryza sativa, relatively little is known of its wild relatives. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a 126-bp centromeric\\u000a satellite (CentO-C)

Weidong Bao; Wenli Zhang; Qiuying Yang; Yu Zhang; Bin Han; Minghong Gu; Yongbiao Xue; Zhukuan Cheng

2006-01-01

229

Role of root hydrophobic barriers in salt exclusion of a mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis.  

PubMed

Salt exclusion at the roots and salt secretion in the leaves were examined in a mangrove, Avicennia officinalis. The non-secretor mangrove Bruguiera cylindrica was used for comparative study of hydrophobic barrier formation in the roots. Bypass flow was reduced when seedlings were previously treated with high salt concentration. A biseriate exodermis was detected in the salt-treated roots, along with an enhanced deposition of hydrophobic barriers in the endodermis. These barriers reduced Na(+) loading into the xylem, accounting for a 90-95% salt exclusion in A.?officinalis. Prominent barriers were found in the roots of B.?cylindrica even in the absence of salt treatment. A cytochrome?P450 gene that may regulate suberin biosynthesis was up-regulated within hours of salt treatment in A.?officinalis roots and leaves, corresponding with increased suberin deposition. X-ray microanalysis showed preferential deposition of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the root cortex compared with the stele, suggesting that the endodermis is the primary site of salt exclusion. Enhanced salt secretion and increased suberin deposition surrounding the salt glands were seen in the leaves with salt treatment. Overall, these data show that the deposition of apoplastic barriers increases resistance to bypass flow leading to efficient salt exclusion at the roots in mangroves. PMID:24417377

Krishnamurthy, Pannaga; Jyothi-Prakash, Pavithra A; Qin, Lin; He, Jie; Lin, Qingsong; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash P

2014-07-01

230

Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress. Methods We examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured. Results Cytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 ?g/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P<0.05). Melissa treatment decrease caspase3 activity (P<0.05) and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.01). Melissa oil has also inhibited malon dialdehyde level and attenuated decrease of Antioxidant Capacity in the hippocampus. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? and HIF-1? mRNA levels were highly increased after ischemia and treatment with Melissa significantly suppressed HIF-1? gene expression (P<0.05). Discussion Results showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury.

2012-01-01

231

Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as "erva-cidreira" or "melissa", it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Angela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

2011-04-01

232

Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as “erva-cidreira” or “melissa”, it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance.

de Carvalho, Natalia Cassettari; Correa-Angeloni, Maria Julia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patricia; Rossatto, Angela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

2011-01-01

233

Neuroprotective Properties of Melissa Officinalis L. Extract Against Ecstasy-Induced Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Melissa officinalis, a major antioxidant plant, against neuron toxicity in hippocampal primary culture induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy, one of the most abused drugs, which causes neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess mitochondrial activity, reflecting cell survival. Caspase-3 activity assay and Hoechst / propiedium iodide (PI) staining were done to show apoptotic cell death. Results: A high dose of ecstasy caused profound mitochondrial dysfunction, around 40% less than the control value, and increased apoptotic neuronal death to around 35% more than the control value in hippocampal neuronal culture. Co-treatment with Melissa officinalis significantly reversed these damages to around 15% and 20% respectively of the MDMA alone group, and provided protection against MDMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in neurons. Conclusion: Melissa officinalis has revealed neuroprotective effects against apoptosis induced by MDMA in the primary neurons of hippocampal culture, which could be due to its free radical scavenging properties and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory effects.

Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Pasbakhsh, Parichehr; Akbari, Mohammad; Shokri, Saeed; Ghahremani, Mohammadhosein; Amin, Gholamreza; Kashani, Iraj; Azami Tameh, Abolfazl

2011-01-01

234

The antiinflammatory potential of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis L. in rat.  

PubMed

Antiinflammatory effects of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis were evaluated in carrageenan and cotton pellet induced acute and chronic inflammatory animal model. Fractions of E. officinalis containing free (FPEO) and bounded (BPEO) phenolic compounds were assessed by HPLC technique. The free and bound phenolic compounds were studied for their acute and chronic antiinflammatory activity at dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg. The carrageenan induced acute inflammation was assessed by measuring rat paw volume at different time of intervals. Further, cotton pellet induced chronic inflammation was assessed by granulomatous tissue mass estimation along with the estimation of tissue biomarker changes (i.e. lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase and plasma extravasation). The results indicated that in both acute and chronic inflammation, FPEO and BPEO show reduction in the inflammation, but significant effects was observed only at high doses of both fractions which was comparable to diclofenac treated group. In conclusion, phenolic compounds of E. officinalis may serve as potential herbal candidate for amelioration of acute and chronic inflammation due to their modulatory action of free radicals. PMID:20596897

Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Sood, Shailja; Singla, Sumeet Kumar

2011-12-01

235

Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of Melissa officinalis L. extracts.  

PubMed

The aromatic herb Melissa officinalis L. can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and as a phytochemical. Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water extracts of M. officinalis L. extracts were investigated. The results of antioxidative activity, obtained by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, confirmed that investigated extracts suppressed the formation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and lipid peroxyl radicals in all investigated systems in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities (SA(DPPH) = SA(OH) = 100%) were achieved in the presence of n-butanol extract at concentrations of 0.4 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The highest lipid peroxyl scavenging activity (93.20%) was observed at a higher concentration (5 mg/mL) of n-butanol extract in the lipid peroxidation system. The most effective antibacterial activities were expressed by petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts on Sarcina lutea. Chloroform extract showed the strongest antiproliferative effect with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 0.09 mg/mL and 0.10 mg/mL for HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. The present study demonstrated the high phenolic content and radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of extracts of M. officinalis L. originating from Serbia. PMID:18361749

Canadanovi?-Brunet, Jasna; Cetkovi?, Gordana; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas, Vesna; Bogdanovi?, Gordana; Mandi?, Anamarija; Markov, Sinisa; Cvetkovi?, Dragoljub; Canadanovi?, Vladimir

2008-03-01

236

 Isolation, purifi cation and characterisation of transglutaminase from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves.  

PubMed

 Background. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a spice and medicinal herb widely used around the world of the natural antioxidants, and it has been widely accepted as one of the spices with the highest antioxidant activity. Transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13: TGase) is an enzyme capable of catalysing acyl transfer reactions by introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, as well as peptides and various primary amines. TGase activity in plants was first observed in pea seedlings, and subsequently found in organs of both lower and higher plants. Recently. TGase has captured researchers' interest due to its attractive potential application in food industries. Therefore, the objectives of this study are isolation and purification of TGase from new plant source rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves at the laboratory scale. Moreover, investigation of the biochemical properties of the purified TGase to provide a suitable TGase enzyme for food industry applications are in focus. Material and methods. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves was used as a new plant source to TGase. The biochemical characteristics of the crude and purified enzyme were determined. Results. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) TGase was purified to homogeneity by successive three purification steps including ammonium sulfate precipitatation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column and Size exclusion column chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. Under experimental conditions. 20-30% of ammonium sulfate saturation in the enzyme solution had a high yield of enzyme activity could be obtained. The purified enzyme from the Sephadex G-100 column had 21.35% yield with increased about 7.31 in purification fold. Rosemary TGase exhibited optimum activity at pH 7.0 and 55°C for the catalytic reaction of hydroxylarnine and Z-Gln-Gly. The purified TGase almost maintained full activity after incubation for 15 ruin up to 60°C and it was completely inactivated at 85°C. The rosemary TGase was stimulated at 2-6 rnM CaCl2 concentrations while it lost about 5-20% from its activity by increasing CaCl2 concentration. Sodium chloride (2-14%) shows no noticeable inhibition of the purified TGase activity. Mg+2, Ba+2 were acivited by the purified TGase while it was str ongly inhibited by Fe+2, moderately by Cir2 and Mn+2. Conclusion. This paper reports on the purification and characterisation of TGase from newly isolated plant, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves. Finding results of the TGase properties make this enzyme a good candidate for application in the food industry. However, additional work is required to increase activity yield during extraction and purification for commercial scale of TGase from this plant. PMID:24887942

El-Hofi, Mahmoud; Ibrahim, Osama; Ismail, Azza; Nour, Maher

2014-07-01

237

Influência do horário de colheita e secagem de folhas no óleo essencial de melissa (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivada em dois ambientesa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of harvest times and drying of leaves on the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in two environments. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of harvest times and drying of leaves on content and chemical composition of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in greenhouse and field. The assay was conducted at the

S. FONTES; CARVALHO FILHO; P. B. ALVES; R. SILVA-MANN; M. O. RODRIGUES; Bairro Jardim; Rosa Elze

238

Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are suggested to be involved in the regulation of hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia iwayomogi, improves lipid metabolism, body weight gain and adiposity and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is associated with these events. Mice

Jinmi Lee; Kyungsil Chae; Juran Ha; Byung-Young Park; Hee Suk Lee; Sunhyo Jeong; Min-Young Kim; Michung Yoon

2008-01-01

239

Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) explains interspecific crossability between the garden asparagus (A. officinalis) and other Asparagus species.  

PubMed

The genus Asparagus comprises approximately 200 species, some of which are commercially cultivated, such as the garden asparagus (A. officinalis). Many Asparagus species, including A. officinalis, are dioecious and have been grouped into a subgenus distinct from that of hermaphroditic species. Although many interspecific crossings have been attempted to introduce useful traits into A. officinalis, only some of the dioecious species were found to be cross-compatible with A. officinalis. Here, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine whether interspecific crossability is proportional to the genetic distance between the crossing pairs and to further clarify the evolutionary history of the Asparagus genus. A clade with all cross-compatible species and no cross-incompatible species was recovered in the phylogenetic tree based on analyses of non-coding cpDNA regions. In addition, a sex-linked marker developed for A. officinalis amplified a male-specific region in all cross-compatible species. The phylogenetic analyses also provided some insights about the evolutionary history of Asparagus; for example, by indicating that the genus had its origin in southern Africa, subsequently spreading throughout the old world through intensive speciation and dispersal. The results also suggest that dioecious species were derived from a single evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism in Asparagus. These findings not only contribute towards the understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus but may also facilitate future interspecific hybridization programs involving Asparagus species. PMID:21947345

Kubota, Shosei; Konno, Itaru; Kanno, Akira

2012-02-01

240

ANGUSTIFOLIA is a central component of tissue morphogenesis mediated by the atypical receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG  

PubMed Central

Background During plant tissue morphogenesis cells have to coordinate their behavior to allow the generation of the size, shape and cellular patterns that distinguish an organ. Despite impressive progress the underlying signaling pathways remain largely unexplored. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG (SUB) is involved in signal transduction in several developmental processes including the formation of carpels, petals, ovules and root hair patterning. The three STRUBBELIG-LIKE MUTANT (SLM) genes DETORQUEO (DOQ), QUIRKY (QKY) and ZERZAUST (ZET) are considered central elements of SUB-mediated signal transduction pathways as corresponding mutants share most phenotypic aspects with sub mutants. Results Here we show that DOQ corresponds to the previously identified ANGUSTIFOLIA gene. The genetic analysis revealed that the doq-1 mutant exhibits all additional mutant phenotypes and conversely that other an alleles show the slm phenotypes. We further provide evidence that SUB and AN physically interact and that AN is not required for subcellular localization of SUB. Conclusions Our data suggest that AN is involved in SUB signal transduction pathways. In addition, they reveal previously unreported functions of AN in several biological processes, such as ovule development, cell morphogenesis in floral meristems, and root hair patterning. Finally, SUB and AN may directly interact at the plasma membrane to mediate SUB-dependent signaling.

2013-01-01

241

Inhibitory Effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia on the Virulence Properties of the Oral Pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis  

PubMed Central

Aim. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA) on the virulence properties of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis implicated in periodontal diseases. Methods. S. mutans was cultured in tryptone broth containing a crude leaf extract of DVA for 16 hours, and the pH was measured after 10, 12, 14, and 16?h. Biofilms of S. mutans were grown on glass slides for 48 hours and exposed to plant extract for 30 minutes; the adherent cells were reincubated and the pH was measured at various time intervals. Minimum bactericidal concentration of the extracts against the four periodontal pathogens was determined. The effect of the subinhibitory concentration of plant extract on the production of proteinases by P. gingivalis was also evaluated. Results. DVA had no effect on acid production by S. mutans biofilms; however, it significantly inhibited acid production in planktonic cells. Periodontal pathogens were completely eliminated at low concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.02?mg/mL of crude plant extracts. At subinhibitory concentrations, DVA significantly reduced Arg-gingipain (24%) and Lys-gingipain (53%) production by P. gingivalis (P ? 0.01). Conclusions. These results suggest that DVA has the potential to be used to control oral infections including dental caries and periodontal diseases.

Owotade, Foluso John

2013-01-01

242

Pre-culturing of nodal explants in thidiazuron supplemented liquid medium improves in vitro shoot multiplication of Cassia angustifolia.  

PubMed

An in vitro propagation system for Cassia angustifolia Vahl. has been developed. Due to the presence of sennosides, the demand of this plant has increased manyfold in global market. Multiple shoots were induced by culturing nodal explants excised from mature plants on a liquid Murashige and Skoog [8] medium supplemented with 5-100 ?M of thidiazuron (TDZ) for different treatment duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d). The optimal level of TDZ supplemented to the culture medium was 75 ?M for 12 d induction period followed by subculturing in MS medium devoid of TDZ as it produced maximum regeneration frequency (87%), mean number of shoots (9.6 ± 0.33) and shoot length (4.4 ± 0.46 cm) per explant. A culture period longer than 12 d with TDZ resulted in the formation of fasciated or distorted shoots. Ex vitro rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of regenerated shoots was dipped in 200 ?M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for half an hour followed by their transplantation in plastic pots filled with sterile soilrite where 85% plantlets grew well and all exhibited normal development. The present findings describe an efficient and rapid plant regeneration protocol that can further be used for genetic transformation studies. PMID:24013898

Siddique, I; Abdullwahab Bukhari, N; Perveen, K; Siddiqui, I; Anis, M

2013-09-01

243

Inhibitory Effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia on the Virulence Properties of the Oral Pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis.  

PubMed

Aim. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA) on the virulence properties of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis implicated in periodontal diseases. Methods. S. mutans was cultured in tryptone broth containing a crude leaf extract of DVA for 16 hours, and the pH was measured after 10, 12, 14, and 16?h. Biofilms of S. mutans were grown on glass slides for 48 hours and exposed to plant extract for 30 minutes; the adherent cells were reincubated and the pH was measured at various time intervals. Minimum bactericidal concentration of the extracts against the four periodontal pathogens was determined. The effect of the subinhibitory concentration of plant extract on the production of proteinases by P. gingivalis was also evaluated. Results. DVA had no effect on acid production by S. mutans biofilms; however, it significantly inhibited acid production in planktonic cells. Periodontal pathogens were completely eliminated at low concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.02?mg/mL of crude plant extracts. At subinhibitory concentrations, DVA significantly reduced Arg-gingipain (24%) and Lys-gingipain (53%) production by P. gingivalis (P ? 0.01). Conclusions. These results suggest that DVA has the potential to be used to control oral infections including dental caries and periodontal diseases. PMID:24223061

Patel, Mrudula; Naidoo, Roxanne; Owotade, Foluso John

2013-01-01

244

In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration via indirect organogenesis from petiole explants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.-a potential medicinal plant.  

PubMed

An effective protocol was developed for in vitro regeneration of the Cassia angustifolia via indirect organogenesis from petiole explants excised from 21-day-old axenic seedlings. Organogenic callus were induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5.0 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 2.5 µM thidiazuron (TDZ). Adventitious shoot regeneration was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM TDZ as it induced 8.5?±?0.98 shoots in 85% cultures. The number of shoots and shoot length was significantly enhanced when cultures were subcultured on auxin-cytokinin-containing medium. The highest number of shoots (12.5?±?1.10) and shoot length (4.3?±?0.20 cm) was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM TDZ and 1.5 µM indole-3-acetic acid. Regenerated shoots were rooted best on MS medium supplemented with 10.0 µM indole-3-butyric acid followed by their transfer to liquid MS filter paper bridge medium. The plants were successfully hardened off in sterile soilrite followed by their establishment in garden soil with 70% survival rate. The plants showed normal morphological characteristics similar to the field grown plants. PMID:20461494

Siddique, Iram; Anis, M; Aref, I M

2010-11-01

245

Chemical compositions and antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens.  

PubMed

Chemical compositions and inhibitory effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz & P. H. Davis), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. After the essential oils were applied on the foodborne pathogens at doses of 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 80 microL/mL, the resultant numbers of cells surviving were counted. Results revealed that all essential oils exhibited a very strong antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria (P < 0.05). Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed that carvacrol (68.23%), 1,8-cineole (60.72%), fenchone (55.79%), and trans-anethole (85.63%) were the predominant constituents in Turkish oregano, bay laurel, Spanish lavender, and fennel essential oils, respectively. PMID:15612826

Dadalioglu, Itir; Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir

2004-12-29

246

Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.

Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2013-01-01

247

A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?  

PubMed Central

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos.

Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Lena; Bouteau, Francois

2013-01-01

248

A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases in osmoregulation?  

PubMed

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

2013-11-01

249

Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.  

PubMed

In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 ?L.mL(-1)-0.39 ?L.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 ?L.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties were different in particular plant species. The highest% of inhibition after 30 min. of reaction was observed at Origanum vulgare (93%), Satureia montana (90.66%) and Lavandula augustifolia (90.22%). PMID:24813985

Ka?ániová, Miroslava; Vukovi?, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vat?ák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

2014-01-01

250

Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. Results: The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0±28.3) and (225.0±21.2) ?g/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0±2.0) ?g/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0±1.0) ?g/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. Conclusions: The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects.

Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

2014-01-01

251

Protective effect of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract against Mn-induced oxidative stress in chronically exposed mice.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for biological systems; however occupational exposure to high levels of this metal may lead to neurodegenerative disorders, resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). While its mechanisms of neurotoxicity have yet to be fully understood, oxidative stress plays a critical role. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis in attenuating Mn-induced brain oxidative stress in mice. Sixteen male mice were randomly divided into two groups and treated for 3 months: the first group consumed tap water (control group) and the second group was treated with Mn (50 mg/kg/day for habituation during the first 15 days followed by 100 mg/kg/day for additional 75 days) in the drinking water. After 3 months both groups were sub divided (n=4 per group) and treated for additional 3 months with Mn and/or M. officinalis in the drinking water. The first group (control) was treated with water and served as control; the second group (M. officinalis) was treated with M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day); the third group was treated with Mn (100 mg/kg/day); the fourth group (Mn+M. officinalis) was treated with both Mn and M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day each). Mn-treated mice showed a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels (a marker of oxidative stress) in both the hippocampus and striatum. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in total thiol content in the hippocampus and a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the hippocampus, striatum, cortex and cerebellum. Co-treatment with M. officinalis aqueous extract in Mn-treated mice significantly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities and attenuated the oxidative damage (TBARS and decreased total thiol levels). These results establish that M. officinalis aqueous extract possesses potent antioxidative properties, validating its efficacy in attenuating Mn-induced oxidative stress in the mouse brain. PMID:22020131

Martins, Eduarda N; Pessano, Naira T C; Leal, Luiza; Roos, Daniel H; Folmer, Vanderlei; Puntel, Gustavo O; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Aschner, Michael; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Puntel, Robson Luiz

2012-01-01

252

Photosynthetic capacity in relation to nitrogen in the canopy of a Quercus robur, Fraxinus angustifolia and Tilia cordata flood plain forest.  

PubMed

We measured gas exchange and various leaf parameters of ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) in the high canopy and of lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) in the lower canopy of a planted, 120-year-old floodplain forest in southern Moravia, Czech Republic. The high-canopy leaves of F. angustifolia and Q. robur had nitrogen concentrations on a leaf area basis (N(area)) that were twice those of low-canopy leaves of T. cordata. Upper-canopy leaves of F. angustifolia had a photosynthetic rate at light saturation (A(max)) of about 16 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1), whereas A(max) of the upper-canopy foliage of Q. robur achieved only about two thirds of this value. Contrary to previous investigations of photosynthetic performance in monospecific stands, leaves of the uppermost branches of T. cordata at 15-m height had the highest A(max) and transpiration rate among the species studied. Water-use efficiency (WUE) was low in T. cordata at 15-m canopy height, whereas WUE was significantly higher for Q. robur leaves at 27-m height than for the other species. Leaves of T. cordata at 15-m height showed the strongest relationship between A(max) and N(area) (R2 = 0.90) followed by F. angustifolia (R2 = 0.69). The strong correlation between photosynthesis and nitrogen concentration in T. cordata at 15 m, together with the steep regression slope for the A(max):N(area) relationship, indicated that nitrogen allocation to the photosynthetic apparatus resulted in high nitrogen-use efficiency of light-saturated photosynthesis (PNUE). Despite differences in PNUE among species, PNUE was fairly constant for leaves sampled from the same canopy position, suggesting that single-leaf parameters are matched to optimize PNUE for prevailing light conditions. High PNUE in T. cordata at 15 m partially compensated for the species' subordinate position in the canopy, and may be an important mechanism for its coexistence in highly structured vegetation. PMID:11305457

Kazda, M; Salzer, J; Reiter, I

2000-09-01

253

The physical map of the chloroplast DNA from Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The genus Asparagus consists of 100-300 species of both dioecious and hermaphrodite plants. Since there are diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid plants in this genus, RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis of chloroplast DNA (ctDNA) is suitable for examining the phylogenetic relationships. We have constructed a physical map of the ctDNA of garden asparagus (A. officinalis L. cv 'Mary Washington 500 W') using five restriction endonucleases, namely, BamHI, PstI, SalI, HindIII, and XhoI. Asparagus ctDNA was digested with restriction enzymes and cloned into plasmid and ? phage vectors, and a clone bank was constructed that covered 70% of the genome. A physical map was constructed by Southern hybridization of total DNA from asparagus with homologous and heterologous probes. The asparagus ctDNA was about 155 kb long and it contained two inverted repeats (23kb each) separated by a large single-copy region (90kb) and a small single-copy region (19kb). Fifteen genes, encoding photosynthesis-related proteins, rDNAs, and tRNAs, were localized on the physical map of asparagus ctDNA. Comparing the length and the gene order of asparagus ctDNA with that of other plants, we found that asparagus ctDNA was similar to tobacco ctDNA but different from rice ctDNA. The restriction patterns of the ctDNAs from several varieties of A. officinalis and three species of Asparagus were analyzed. The restriction patterns of the varieties of A. officinalis were very similar, but polymorphisms were detected among the three species of Asparagus. PMID:24166110

Lee, Y O; Kanno, A; Kameya, T

1996-01-01

254

Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The variation in the chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis , growing in different habitats, was studied. GC-MS analysis revealed 57 compounds representing 94.68-96.80% of total oils. The major components were alpha-thujone (11.55-19.23%), viridiflorol (9.94-19.46%), 1,8-cineole (8.85-15.60%), camphor (5.08-15.06%), manool (5.52-13.06%), beta-caryophyllene (2.63-9.24%), alpha-humulene (1.93-8.94%), and beta-thujone (5.45-6.17%), showing significant differences between different collection sites. Analysis of some representative polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed using postdistilled dry samples. Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the prevalent compounds of S. officinalis methanolic extracts. The results revealed differences in the polyphenolic composition and also exhibited antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities at different magnitudes of potency. However, within the used methods, only the DPPH(*) assay showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in free radical scavenging activity among samples collected in different regions. Plants collected in the coastal regions Soliman and Kelibia accumulate more polyphenolic compounds, known to be responsible for the main antioxidant activity of sage (rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid), than those growing inland at Bou Arada and Sers. Moreover, the former presented a higher radical-scavenging activity. The methanolic extracts of postdistilled S. officinalis might be valuable antioxidant natural sources and seemed to be applicable in both the health medicine and food industries. PMID:19886685

Ben Farhat, Mouna; Jordán, María J; Chaouech-Hamada, Rym; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sotomayor, Jose A

2009-11-11

255

Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.  

PubMed

Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl?, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC?? value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC?? 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC?? 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC?? 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC?? 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause. PMID:23670626

Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

2013-06-01

256

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin–Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g-1 and 51 mgGAE g-1 in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10-3, 103×10-3, 25×10-3 mg mL-1 respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10-3mg mL-1). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100-1g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL-1). Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use.

Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

2011-01-01

257

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran.  

PubMed

Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin-Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g(-1) and 51 mgGAE g(-1) in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10(-3), 103×10(-3), 25×10(-3) mg mL(-1) respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10(-3)mg mL(-1)). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100(-1)g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL(-1)). Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use. PMID:24312758

Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

2011-01-01

258

Emergence of sensory structures in the developing epidermis in sepia officinalis and other coleoid cephalopods.  

PubMed

Embryonic cuttlefish can first respond to a variety of sensory stimuli during early development in the egg capsule. To examine the neural basis of this ability, we investigated the emergence of sensory structures within the developing epidermis. We show that the skin facing the outer environment (not the skin lining the mantle cavity, for example) is derived from embryonic domains expressing the Sepia officinalis ortholog of pax3/7, a gene involved in epidermis specification in vertebrates. On the head, they are confined to discrete brachial regions referred to as "arm pillars" that expand and cover Sof-pax3/7-negative head ectodermal tissues. As revealed by the expression of the S. officinalis ortholog of elav1, an early marker of neural differentiation, the olfactory organs first differentiate at about stage 16 within Sof-pax3/7-negative ectodermal regions before they are covered by the definitive Sof-pax3/7-positive outer epithelium. In contrast, the eight mechanosensory lateral lines running over the head surface and the numerous other putative sensory cells in the epidermis, differentiate in the Sof-pax3/7-positive tissues at stages ?24-25, after they have extended over the entire outer surfaces of the head and arms. Locations and morphologies of the various sensory cells in the olfactory organs and skin were examined using antibodies against acetylated tubulin during the development of S. officinalis and were compared with those in hatchlings of two other cephalopod species. The early differentiation of olfactory structures and the peculiar development of the epidermis with its sensory cells provide new perspectives for comparisons of developmental processes among molluscs. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:3004-3019, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24549606

Buresi, Auxane; Croll, Roger P; Tiozzo, Stefano; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

2014-09-01

259

Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.  

PubMed

Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. PMID:20688230

Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

2010-10-01

260

Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil in Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells.  

PubMed

Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are not effective. This study investigated the activity of the M. officinalis essential oil (EO) and its major component (citral) in GBM cell lines. Both EO and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Antioxidant prevented citral-induced death, indicating its dependence on the production of reactive oxygen species. Citral downmodulated the activity and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). These results show that EO, through its major component, citral, may be of potential interest for the treatment of GBM. PMID:24745610

Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz de; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Guimarães, Lívia Paes Tavares Pacheco; Rocha, Gleice da Graça; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

2014-07-01

261

Componential Profile and Amylase Inhibiting Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Calendula officinalis L. Leaves  

PubMed Central

An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6?-O-vanilloyl-?-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6??-acetyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.

Olennikov, Daniil N.; Kashchenko, Nina I.

2014-01-01

262

Protective effect of polysaccharides from morinda officinalis on bone loss in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

In order to examine the effect of polysaccharides from morinda officinalis (MOP) on bone quality of osteoporosis rats. The osteoporosis in rats was induced by ovariectomy, and MOP (100 or 300 mg/kg) was orally administrated once daily. The animals were assessed 30 days after the operation for bone mineral density, serum cytokines level and mineral element concentration. MOP administration in rats resulted in an increase in bone mineral density and mineral element concentration, a decrease in serum cytokines level, which indicated that MOP administration may play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. PMID:18638500

MengYong, Zhu; CaiJiao, Wang; HuSheng, Zhang; XianWu, Pei; JianMin, Fen

2008-10-01

263

Antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of an acidic polysaccharide from Morinda officinalis.  

PubMed

An acidic polysaccharide APMO was isolated from Morinda officinalis by alkaline solvent extraction followed by fractionation treatments. Its antioxidant activities were evaluated by various methods in vitro, APMO presented excellent capability in scavenging DPPH radicals, chelating ferrous ions and inhibiting hemolysis of rats erythrocyte induced by H2O2, which was stronger than those of Vc at high concentration. Moreover, APMO displayed moderate reducing power. Physicochemical characteristics of APMO were observed by a combination of chemical and instrumental analysis. APMO predominantly consisted of galacturonic acid, arabinose and galactose. Galacturonic acid was assigned to be 1?4 glycosyl linkage in the skeleton of APMO. PMID:23511058

Zhang, Hualin; Li, Jun; Xia, Jingmin; Lin, Sanqing

2013-07-01

264

Cytoprotective Effect of Valeriana officinalis Extract on an In Vitro Experimental Model of Parkinson Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson?s disease (PD) is one of the most important neurodegenerative worldwide disorders. The potential cytoprotective\\u000a effects of aqueous extract of Valeriana officinalis on rotenone-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were demonstrated. The cytotoxicity, cell viability and\\u000a analysis of cellular morphology were performed by MTT-tetrazole (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)\\u000a assay and phase contrast microscopy, respectively. Significant changes in the cellular morphology, and

Diêgo Madureira de Oliveria; George Barreto; Deyse Valverde G. De Andrade; Ezequiel Saraceno; Laura Aon-Bertolino; Francisco Capani; Ramon Dos Santos El Bachá; Lisandro Diego Giraldez

2009-01-01

265

In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.  

PubMed

Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC??) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 ?g/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000??g/mL. The IC?? of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9??g/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection. PMID:21476887

Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

2011-01-01

266

In vivo and in vitro lipid accumulation in Borago officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of 13 accessions of borage (Borago officinalis) varied in total fatty acid content from 28.6 to 35.1% seed weight, with linoleic, ?-linolenic, oleic and palmitic as the\\u000a predominant fatty acids, averaging 38.1%, 22.8%, 16.3% and 11.3% of total fatty acids, respectively. There was an inverse\\u000a relation between ?-linolenic acid (25.0 to 17.6%) and oleic acid (14.5 to 21.3%). Fatty

Anna Whipkey; James E. Simon; Jules Janick

1988-01-01

267

Simultaneous Determination of Honokiol and Magnolol in Magnolia Officinalis by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and rapid capillary electrophoretic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of honokiol and magnolol in Magnolia officinalis extracts and dextrorphan was used as the internal standard. The running buffer was composed of 22.5 mM Na2HPO4 and 10 mM Na2B4O7 (pH 9.1–9.2). The linear calibration range was 2 – 20 ?g\\/mL for honokiol and 5–50 ?g\\/mL for magnolol.

Cynthia Y. C. Chou; T. H. Tsai; M. F. Lin; C. F. Chen

1996-01-01

268

Fertilization in Sepia officinalis: the first mollusk sperm-attracting peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg mass extract was used to characterize regulatory peptides, involved in the successive steps of egg-laying of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Among these peptides, a C-terminally amidated hexapeptide revealed a sperm-attracting activity. MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) and Edman degradation led to a peptide of m\\/z 596.6 and the following primary sequence: Pro–Ile–Asp–Pro–Gly–Val–CONH2. From concentrations

Céline Zatylny; Laure Marvin; Jean Gagnon; Joël Henry

2002-01-01

269

Identification of Sensory-Active Phytochemicals in Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from raw and cooked asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), respectively, followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed the chemical structures of nine bitter tasting mono- and bidesmotic saponins as well as the previously not reported 1,2-dithiolan-4-carboxylic acid 6-D-?/?-glucopyranose ester exhibiting an interesting buttery mouth-coating effect. Sensory studies showed that the orosensation imparted by this sulfur compound was reminiscent to that of melting butter and revealed an orosensory recognition threshold of 276.8 ?mol/L. PMID:23136992

Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

2012-12-01

270

Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

2014-05-01

271

Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat  

PubMed Central

Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant’s leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive.

Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

2013-01-01

272

Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole. PMID:22789794

Efstratiou, Efstratios; Hussain, Abdullah I; Nigam, Poonam S; Moore, John E; Ayub, Muhammad A; Rao, Juluri R

2012-08-01

273

Diversity and structure of landraces of Agave grown for spirits under traditional agriculture: A comparison with wild populations of A. angustifolia (Agavaceae) and commercial plantations of A. tequilana.  

PubMed

Traditional farming communities frequently maintain high levels of agrobiodiversity, so understanding their agricultural practices is a priority for biodiversity conservation. The cultural origin of agave spirits (mezcals) from west-central Mexico is in the southern part of the state of Jalisco where traditional farmers cultivate more than 20 landraces of Agave angustifolia Haw. in agroecosystems that include in situ management of wild populations. These systems, rooted in a 9000-year-old tradition of using agaves as food in Mesoamerica, are endangered by the expansion of commercial monoculture plantations of the blue agave variety (A. tequilana Weber var. Azul), the only agave certified for sale as tequila, the best-known mezcal. Using intersimple sequence repeats and Bayesian estimators of diversity and structure, we found that A. angustifolia traditional landraces had a genetic diversity (H(BT) = 0.442) similar to its wild populations (H(BT) = 0.428) and a higher genetic structure ((B) = 0.405; (B) =0. 212). In contrast, the genetic diversity in the blue agave commercial system (H(B) = 0.118) was 73% lower. Changes to agave spirits certification laws to allow the conservation of current genetic, ecological and cultural diversity can play a key role in the preservation of the traditional agroecosystems. PMID:21628200

Vargas-Ponce, Ofelia; Zizumbo-Villarreal, Daniel; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Coello-Coello, Julián; Colunga-Garcíamarín, Patricia

2009-02-01

274

Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

275

Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

2007-01-01

276

Effect of propagation method, plant density, and age on lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) herb and oil yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of cultivation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) in the Thrace region of north?western Turkey, which has a rich flora with many medicinal and aromatic plants. The study evaluated two propagation methods (cuttings with roots and seedlings) and three row spacings (40 × 20 cm, 40 × 30 cm, and 50

C. Saglam; I. Atakisi; H. Turhan; S. Kaba; F. Arslanoglu; F. Onemli

2004-01-01

277

Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: A morphological and biochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a

S. Bolkent; R. Yanardag; Omur Karabulut-Bulan; B. Yesilyaprak

2005-01-01

278

Effect of drying on the volatile constituents of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.) and sage ( Salvia officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The losses of volatile constituents in herbs and spices depend mainly on drying parameters and biological characteristics of the plants. In the present study, two methods were applied in the analysis of the effect of drying on the aroma constituents of the widely used herbs thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The volatile constituents of herbs (fresh,

P. R. Venskutonis

1997-01-01

279

First Field Trials of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) in Andalusia (Southern Spain) as a Source of “Biological” Gamma Linolenic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is cultivated in the north of Spain for fresh edible production and is gathered from natural populations for its fresh flowers with saline, cucumber-like flavor. It is considered as a weed in the rest of Spain. Nevertheless, the agroecological mediterranean conditions in the south of Spain are adequate for growing borage as an oilseed crop for

C. Gálvez; A. De Haro

2002-01-01

280

Antidepressant-like effects of the mixture of honokiol and magnolol from the barks of Magnolia officinalis in stressed rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honokiol and magnolol are the main constituents simultaneously identified in the barks of Magnolia officinalis, which have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of mental disorders including depression. In the present study, we reported on the antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of the mixture of honokiol and magnolol in well-validated models of depression in rodents: forced

Qun Xu; Li-Tao Yi; Ying Pan; Xing Wang; Yu-Cheng Li; Jian-Mei Li; Cai-Ping Wang; Ling-Dong Kong

2008-01-01

281

Characterization of Essential Oils from Three Italian Ecotypes of Hyssop [Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Godron) Briq.  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Italian strains of hyssop wildly grown in different natural habitats of the Abruzzi region (Central Italy) and classified as Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus, were characterized on the basis of their essential oil composition. The oils were obtained by steam distillation of the fresh aerial parts of the plants and analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Thirty-three compounds were identified.

R. Piccaglia; L. Pace; F. Tammaro

1999-01-01

282

Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Rosmarinus officinalis (Labiatae) essential oil in mammalian cells in vivo.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) oil is widely used by the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries as a fragrance component of soaps, creams, lotions, and perfumes. Although it is popular, potential harmful side-effects of the oil have been described. We investigated the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of essential oil of R. officinalis in rodents, using comet, micronucleus and chromosome aberration assays. The animals were treated by gavage with one of three dosages of rosemary oil (300, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg). Liver and peripheral blood cells were collected from Swiss mice 24 h after treatment for the comet assay (genotoxicity endpoint), along with bone marrow cells for the micronucleus test (mutagenicity endpoint). Bone marrow cells were collected from Wistar rats 24 h after oil treatment for the micronucleus and chromosome aberration assays. Based on the comet assay, all three doses of rosemary oil induced significant increases in DNA damage in the mouse cells. There was a significant increase in micronucleated cells and chromosome aberrations only at the two higher doses. We conclude that rosemary essential oil provokes genotoxic and mutagenic effects when administered orally. PMID:21038297

Maistro, E L; Mota, S F; Lima, E B; Bernardes, B M; Goulart, F C

2010-01-01

283

Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.  

PubMed

Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

2014-01-01

284

Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L.  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds, the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds, two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL), were investigated in suspension cultures of lemon balm. MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 cDNAs were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the enzymes characterised. Expression analysis of both genes showed a correlation with the enzyme activities and rosmarinic acid content during a cultivation period of the suspension culture. Southern-blot analysis suggested the presence of most probably two gene copies in the M. officinalis genome of both PAL and 4CL. The genomic DNA sequences of MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 were amplified and sequenced. MoPAL1 contains one phase 2 intron of 836 bp at a conserved site, whilst Mo4CL1 was devoid of introns. PMID:20563822

Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

2010-08-01

285

In vitro amoebicidal activities of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites.  

PubMed

Amoebic keratitis is difficult to treat without total efficacy in some patients because of cysts, which are less susceptible than trophozoites to the usual treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro amoebicidal activity of the methanolic extracts of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis. In the presence of methanolic extracts (ranging from 1.0 to 32.0 mg/ml), numbers of the viable Acanthamoe castellanii trophozoites and cysts were decreased during the experimental process. Both extracts showed a time- and dose-dependent amoebicidal action on the trophozoites and cysts. Among the extracts tested, S. cuneifolia showed the strongest amoebicidal effect on the trophozoites and cysts. In the presence of 32 mg/ml extract, no viable trophozoites were observed within 24 h. At the same concentration value, the extract was found effective against the cysts at a rate of 46.3% within 72 h of the experimental process. At 16 mg/ml extract concentration, no viable trophozoites were also observed in the 24th hour of the experiment. At the end of the experimental process, 34.7% of the cysts were killed by the extract. M. officinalis showed moderate amoebicidal effect. At the concentration of 32 mg/ml, 44.3% and 30.0% of the trophozoites and cysts were killed by the extract, respectively. Results obtained from these concentration values were found statistically different in terms of their actions both on trophozoites and cysts (p<0.05). PMID:22160280

Malatyali, E; Tepe, B; Degerli, S; Berk, S

2012-06-01

286

How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. PMID:24484956

Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

2014-03-01

287

New protocols to improve the deposition and hatching of Sepia officinalis' eggs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was the development of hatching protocols in controlled conditions to obtain juveniles, in order to restock and increase the resource of Sepia officinalis. The study was divided into the following phases: development and application of artificial surfaces at specific sites of the Molise coast in Italy; induction of eggs hatching and juveniles maintenance under controlled condition; juveniles introduction into specific sites and assessment their increment; experimental data elaboration. The obtained results concerned both the effectiveness of the artificial surfaces tasted during the study and the importance of the recovery of the eggs laid on artificial surfaces (artefacts and fishing gear) for preservation and the management of the Sepia officinalis resource. The induction tests conducted on eggs hatching under controlled conditions confirmed what described in the extant literature. Water salinity was detected as the only limiting factor, with values ? 20% related to the absence of hatching. The described practices for harvesting and induction of hatching for the production of juvenile cuttlefish may be endorsed by the operators at relatively low cost and throughout the year, with obvious economic benefits. PMID:24362778

Barile, Nadia B; Cappabianca, Sabatino; Antonetti, Luigi; Scopa, Mariaspina; Nerone, Eliana; Mascilongo, Giuseppina; Recchi, Sara; D'Aloise, Antonio

2013-01-01

288

Methanol extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. with cytotoxic activity against PC3 human prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Sanguisorba officinalis is a natural plant that has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Several studies have reported that its extracts exhibit anticancer, antioxidative and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. However, the effects of this plant on human prostate cancer cells have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and underlying mechanisms of a methanol extract of Sanguisorba officinalis (MESO) in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. MESO significantly decreased cell growth and induced apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. MESO decreased the expression levels of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), a Bcl?2?like anti-apoptotic protein that is highly expressed in various cancer cell lines. Expression levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax were increased by MESO whereas those of Bak and Bcl-xL were unchanged. In addition, MESO induced the oligomerization of Bax in the mitochondrial outer membrane. These results suggest that MESO inhibits the growth of prostate cancer cells and induces apoptotic cell death by the downregulation of Mcl-1 protein expression and the oligomerization of Bax. Therefore, MESO has potential as a drug candidate for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:22710351

Choi, Eun-Sun; Kim, Jun-Sung; Kwon, Ki-Han; Kim, Hyng-Seop; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

2012-09-01

289

A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny.

2014-01-01

290

Hepato and reno protective action of Calendula officinalis L. flower extract.  

PubMed

Flower extract of C. officinalis L. was evaluated for its protective effect against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The activities of serum marker enzymes of liver injury like glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which were increased by CCl4 injection was found to be significantly reduced by the pretreatment of the flower extract at 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The lipid peroxidation in liver, the marker of membrane damage and the total bilirubin content in serum were also found to be at significantly low level in the extract pretreated group, indicating its protective role. The kidney function markers like urea and creatinine were significantly increased in cisplatin treated animals. However, their levels were found to be lowered in the extract pretreated groups (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight). Moreover, cisplatin induced myelosuppression was ameliorated by the extract pretreatment. Treatment with the extract produced enhancement of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase and catalase and glutathione. Results suggest a protective role of the flower extract of C. officinalis against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Extract has been found to contain several carotenoids of which lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene predominates. Possible mechanism of action of the flower extract may be due to its antioxidant activity and reduction of oxygen radicals. PMID:19405380

Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Ramadasan

2009-03-01

291

Morph-ratio variation, population size and female reproductive success in distylous Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

Theory predicts that morph ratios in heterostylous populations are governed by negative frequency-dependent selection typically resulting in equal morph ratios at equilibrium. Previous work on the distylous perennial herb Pulmonaria officinalis, however, showed asymmetric mating between floral morphs and a weak self-incompatibility system, with the long-styled morph (L-morph) producing significantly higher seed set following intramorph crosses and even selfing than the short-styled morph (S-morph), two aspects thought to affect female fecundity and morph-ratio variation. Here, we evaluated morph ratios and population size of all known P. officinalis populations in the northern part of Belgium. Morph ratios deviated significantly from 1:1 (range 0.09-1 L-morph frequency, mean = 0.58). Relative fecundity of the S-morph (i.e. mean seed set of the S-morph/mean seed set of the L-morph) was on average 0.73, was positively related to the frequency of the L-morph, and reached 1 (similar levels of female fecundity) at an average L-morph frequency of 0.66 in the population. As some small populations had the S-morph in majority, our results suggest that local morph ratios are influenced both by the relative fecundity of L- and S-morph individuals and by stochastic processes in small populations. PMID:18631213

Brys, R; Jacquemyn, H; Beeckman, T

2008-09-01

292

Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor distribution in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

The immune system of cephalopods remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specific activity of immune enzymes in epithelial barriers, circulatory and digestive systems of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Three enzyme groups with putative functions in immunity were investigated: phenoloxidases (POs), lysozymes and protease inhibitors (PIs). Consistent with a role in immunity, highest PO activities were found in the integument as well as the respiratory and circulatory organs under zymogenic (proPO) and active form. Surprisingly, high PO activities were also found in the digestive gland and its appendages. Similarly, high lysozyme activities were detected in the integument and circulatory organs, but also in the posterior salivary glands, highlighting the implication of this antibacterial enzyme group in most tissues exposed to the environment but also within the circulatory system. Albeit highest in digestive organs, the ubiquitous detection of PI activity in assayed compartments suggests immune function(s) in a wide range of tissues. Our study reports proPO/PO, lysozyme and PI distributions in S. officinalis body compartments for the first time, and thus provides the fundamental basis for a better understanding of the humoral immune system in cephalopods as well as invertebrates. PMID:24813822

Le Pabic, Charles; Safi, Georges; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Robin, Jean-Paul; Koueta, Noussithé

2014-01-01

293

Chemical composition and biological activities of Calamintha officinalis Moench essential oil.  

PubMed

Calamintha officinalis Moench essential oil is used in cooking as an aromatic herb and also to improve the flavor and fragrance of several pharmaceutical products. The essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation (5?mL/kg), was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Sixty-four components were identified, constituting 99.7% of the total oil. The major component was found to be carvone (38.7%), followed by neo-dihydrocarveol (9.9%), dihydrocarveol acetate (7.6%), dihydrocarveol (6.9%), 1,8 cineole (6.4%), cis-carvyl acetate (6.1%), and pulegone (4.1%). The essential oil showed antifungal and antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, it presented a very low toxicity both in vivo (50% lethal dose >100?mg/kg) and in vitro in the Artemia salina test (50% lethal concentration >500??L/mL). C. officinalis essential oil, in rodents, produces the typical effects in behavior of a nonselective central nervous system-depressant drug; it potentiates the hypnotic effects of sodium pentobarbital, decreasing the induction time and enhancing the sleeping time. Moreover, it produces a decrease in body temperature and a protection against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions. PMID:21142949

Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tzakou, Olga; Nostro, Antonia; Zimbalatti, Vincenzo; Galati, Enza Maria

2011-03-01

294

Analysis of Transposable Elements in the Genome of Asparagus officinalis from High Coverage Sequence Data  

PubMed Central

Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant.

Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

2014-01-01

295

Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

2014-01-01

296

Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities.

Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

2014-01-01

297

Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts. PMID:12063567

Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Martello, Dino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Jabbar, Shaila; Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin Kabir; Datta, Bidduyt Kanti; Gambari, Roberto

2002-07-01

298

Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia.\\u000a Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which\\u000a Cyracos®, a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos® contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was

Julien Cases; Alvin Ibarra; Nicolas Feuillère; Marc Roller; Samir G. Sukkar

299

Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent  

PubMed Central

Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ?3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ? 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups – test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0.05), whereas, the control group showed no reduction in scores when the baseline scores were compared with the third month scores. Also, when scaling was performed during the third month (second visit), there was statistically significant reduction in the scores of all parameters, when the third month scores were compared with the sixth month scores in both groups (P < 0.05), but the test group showed a significantly greater reduction in the PI, GI, SBI, and OHI-S scores compared to those of the control group. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that calendula mouthwash is effective in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis adjunctive to scaling.

Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

2013-01-01

300

The comparison of in vivo antigenotoxic and antioxidative capacity of two propylene glycol extracts of Calendula officinalis (marigold) and vitamin E in young growing pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of Calendula officinalis propylene glycol extracts against oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake in young growing pigs. Forty young growing pigs were assigned to five treatment groups: control; oil (linseed oil supplementation); C. officinalis 1 and 2 groups (linseed oil plus 3 ml/day of C. officinalis propylene glycol extracts); and vitamin E group (linseed oil plus 100 mg/kg of vitamin E). Lymphocyte DNA fragmentation and 24-h urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion were measured to determine DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation was studied by analysing plasma and urine malondialdehyde (MDA), and urine isoprostane concentrations (iPF2?-VI), total antioxidant status of plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) assays. C. officinalis 1 (extract from petals) effectively protected DNA from oxidative damage. It indicated a numerical trend towards the reduction of plasma MDA and urinary iPF2?-VI excretion. Its effect was comparable with that of vitamin E. C. officinalis 2 (extract from flower tops) showed less antioxidant potential than the extract from petals. We can conclude that the amount of C. officinalis extracts proposed for internal use by traditional medicine protects the organism against DNA damage induced by high PUFA intake. PMID:18700847

Frankic, T; Salobir, K; Salobir, J

2009-12-01

301

Linkage Arrangement of RFLP loci in progenies from crosses between doubled haploid Asparagus officinalis L. clones.  

PubMed

A preliminary genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. (2n = 20) has been constructed on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and isozyme marker data. With DNA samples digested with either EcoRI or HindIII 61 out of 148 probes (41%) identified RFLPs in six families of doubled haploid lines obtained through anther culture. A higher level of polymorphism (65%) was observed when a single family was screened for RFLPs using six distinct restriction enzymes. Segregation analysis of the BC progenies (40-80 individuals) resulted in a 418-cM extended map comprising 43 markers: 39 RFLPs, three isozymes and one morphological (sex). These markers are clustered in 12 linkage groups and four of them exhibited significant deviations from the expected 1?1 ratio. One isozyme and three RFLP markers were assigned to the sex chromosome. PMID:24173793

Restivo, F M; Tassi, F; Biffi, R; Falavigna, A; Caporali, E; Carboni, A; Doldi, M L; Spada, A; Marziani, G P

1995-01-01

302

Subacute effect of cigarette smoke exposure in rats: protection by pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) extract.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the preventive effect of Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups as control, CS and CS + pot marigold (PM). The rats in the CS and CS + PM groups were subjected to CS for 1 h twice a day for 23 days. PM (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats in the CS + PM group by gavage, 1 h before each administration period. While malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl contents and reduced glutathione level of the CS group increased, their levels diminished by PM administration. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities and ?-carotene, vitamins A and C levels decreased in the CS group compared to control, however activities of these enzymes and concentration of vitamins were elevated by PM supplementation. This investigation showed that administration of PM supplied relative protection against subacute CS-induced cell injury. PMID:21505008

Ozkol, Halil; Tülüce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

2012-02-01

303

A new collagen from the extracellular matrix of Sepia officinalis cartilage.  

PubMed

Guanidinium chloride treatment of Sepia officinalis cartilage solubilized a component that contained hydroxyproline. Electron-microscopy observation of rotary-shadowed preparations of this component revealed it to consist of rod-like units themselves consisting of filaments. Dialysis of an acetic acid solution against ATP afforded polymeric aggregates consisting of a succession of two or three thick sections showing transverse electron-opaque banding, separated by thinner sections without banding. Electrophoresis produced a main band of about 140 kDa sensitive to bacterial collagenase. After reduction with mercaptoethanol, electrophoresis afforded a 40-kDa band. Pepsin digestion resulted in additional electrophoretic bands. These data suggest the presence of a collagen in Sepia cartilage with characteristics unlike those of any known collagen. PMID:12397379

Rigo, Cristina; Bairati, Aurelio

2002-11-01

304

Collagen fibrils of an invertebrate (Sepia officinalis) are heterotypic: immunocytochemical demonstration.  

PubMed

Collagen fibrils from the dermis of Sepia officinalis were processed for immunoelectron microscopy to reveal reactions to antibodies against mammalian types I, III, and V, teleost type I and cephalopod type I-like collagens, by single and double immunogold localization. The fibrils were observed: (a) in suspensions of prepared fibrils, (b) in ultrathin sections of embedded fibril preparations, and (c) in ultrathin sections of dermal tissue. Some samples were subjected to acetic acid or urea dissociation. It was found that collagen fibrils from Sepia dermis are heterotypic in that they are composed of type I-like and type V collagens. Type I-like collagen epitopes were present mainly at the periphery of the fibrils; type V collagen epitopes were present throughout the fibrils. This is the first demonstration that collagen fibrils from an invertebrate are heterotypic, suggesting that heterotypy may be an intrinsic characteristic of the fibrils of fibrillar collagens, independent of evolutionary or taxonomic status. PMID:15193644

Bairati, A; Gioria, M

2004-08-01

305

Simultaneous quantification of verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Attenuated-total-reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) in hyphenation with multivariate analysis was utilized to quantify verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method as a reference was established and validated. For both vibrational spectroscopic methods test-set and cross validation were performed. Different data-pre-treatments like SNV, 1st and 2nd derivative were applied to remove systematic errors and were evaluated. Quality parameters obtained for the test-set validation revealed that ATR-IR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.94, RPD=4.23; verbascoside: R(2)=0.93, RPD=3.63) has advantages over NIR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.91, RPD=3.75; verbascoside: R(2)=0.80, RPD=2.35) in the given application. PMID:23810849

Schönbichler, S A; Bittner, L K H; Pallua, J D; Popp, M; Abel, G; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

2013-10-01

306

Effect of extraction method on the yield of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm.  

PubMed

Optimal conditions for the extraction and analysis of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. have been determined. The following extraction methods were used: exhaustive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonication at 25 and 60 degrees C, microwave-assisted solvent extraction in open and closed systems, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In most cases the yields of furanocoumarins were highest using the ASE method. The effects of extracting solvent, temperature and time of extraction using this method were investigated. The highest yield of furanocoumarins by ASE was obtained with methanol at 100-130 degrees C for 10 min. The extraction yields of furanocoumarins from plant material by ultrasonication at 60 degrees C and microwave-assisted solvent extraction in an open system were comparable to the extraction yields obtained in the time- and solvent-consuming exhaustive process involving the Soxhlet apparatus. PMID:15508836

Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M; Petruczynik, A; Dragan, A; Wianowska, D; Dawidowicz, A L

2004-01-01

307

Scavenging and antioxidant activities of immunomodulating polysaccharides isolated from Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

Crude polysaccharides, isolated from the aerial parts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) by sequential extraction with water (A), hot ammonium oxalate (B), dimethyl sulfoxide (C), 1M (D) and 4M (E) potassium hydroxide solutions, and six ion-exchange fractions of A were examined for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of liposome lipid by hydroxyl radicals and to reduced DPPH radical content. The highest inhibition of liposome lipid peroxidation was found with crude polysaccharides A, B and D, antioxidant activities reached approximately 37%. The purified fractions A1 and A2 inhibited the liposome peroxidation to approximately 35%. However, the radical scavenging abilities of the most active crude polysaccharides A, B and C on DPPH radicals were found in the range 80-90%, while the most active purified fractions A3-A6 in three or fourfold doses achieved 75-92%. The least effective tested polysaccharides succeeded 20% inhibition using both methods. PMID:19014965

Capek, P; Machová, E; Turjan, J

2009-01-01

308

Novel jasmonate amino acid conjugates in Asparagus officinalis during harvest-induced and natural foliar senescence.  

PubMed

Five jasmonates, including novel tryptophan conjugates of jasmonic acid and dihydrojasmonic acid, were identified in extracts from spears of Asparagus officinalis L. by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Spears were harvested and were held dry or with bases immersed in water. The concentrations of jasmonic acid, dihydrojasmonic acid, their tryptophan conjugates, cucurbic acid and methyl jasmonate, were measured by ELISA in spears in the 10 d following harvest. A transient increase that occurred in all spear tips immediately following harvest in the concentration of jasmonates can be attributed to a wounding response. A second increase in the concentration of jasmonates occurred from 7 d after harvest but only in dry-treated spear tips indicating that jasmonates may have accumulated in response to water stress. Jasmonate levels were also monitored during natural foliar senescence. Increased levels of jasmonates occurred after the onset of senescence, implicating them as a consequence rather than a cause of senescence. PMID:11982942

Gapper, Nigel E; Norris, Gill E; Clarke, Sean F; Lill, Ross E; Jameson, Paula E

2002-01-01

309

Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes.

2013-01-01

310

Pharmacological and biological evaluation of extracts from Gratiola officinalis L. (Scrophulariaceae).  

PubMed

The crude extract of Gratiola officinalis and its n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were subjected to biological (Brine Shrimp Bioassay, Insecticidal and Phytotoxicity/Cytotoxic) and neuropharmacological (Head dip, Open field Forced swimming test, Sodium pentothal induced sleep) activities. Results obtained in this study indicated that at high concentration dose (1000?g/ml), all test samples showed 60-95% phytotoxicity. In crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous fractions produced more than 85% phytotoxicity. While low concentration (10?g/ml) dose showed 25-28% phytotoxicity in all test samples. The crude extract was devoid of any effect against the growth of Callosbruchus analis and Tribolium castaneum and caused 10 mortality of Rhyzopertha dominica. n-Hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions caused 50, 30, 40, 10 and 20% mortality respectively of C. analis where as chloroform, ethyl-acetate, aqueous and crude extract, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate fractions also caused low mortality (10%) of Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica respectively. In cytotoxic assay at 1000?g/ml concentration, n-butanol fraction produced 36.7% and the crude extract produced 13.3% mortality of brine shrimp, its aqueous fraction was inactive at all concentrations. The results of head dip, open field, mobility time and Pentothal Na induced sleep indicated that crude extract, n-butanol and ethylacetate fractions of G. officinalis had mild sedative effect. However aqueous fraction was found to produce a significant decrease in motor activities and potentiated the duration of sleep. PMID:22713957

Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammad, Noor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Ahmad, Manzoor; Habib, Salman

2012-07-01

311

Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.  

PubMed

The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 ?g/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05).These results suggested that the Bacillus strains isolated in this work may be further used as bioinoculants to improve the production of C. officinalis and other crop systems. PMID:24426149

Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

2013-12-01

312

Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.  

PubMed

Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

2011-10-01

313

[A new lupin alkaloid, (-)-leontalbinine N-oxide, in Sophora flavescens var. angustifolia seeds and its synthesis by biomimetic transformation from (+)-matrine N-oxide].  

PubMed

The possibility of the biomimetic transformation of (+)-matrine N-oxide, a main alkaloid in Sophora flavescens var. angustifolia, under various oxidative conditions was examined by the use of several metallic ions. When (+)-matrine N-oxide was warmed with FeSO4, or Fe(COOH)2 in MeOH-H2O at 40 degrees C, (-)-7, 11-didehydromatrine [(-)-leontalbinine], a minor alkaloid in the same plant, was obtained along with (+)-matrine. This selective formation of (-)-leontalbinine seems to be specific to the reaction of (+)-matrine N-oxide with ferrous reagents. In addition, the structure of the newly isolated minor lupin alkaloid from the seeds of S. flavescens. was determined as (-)-leontalbinine N-oxide from its spectral comparison with the authentic sample. PMID:8463957

Sekine, T; Saito, K; Minami, R; Arai, N; Suzuki, H; Koike, Y; Murakoshi, I

1993-01-01

314

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.  

PubMed

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

315

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height.

Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

316

Gamma-linolenic acid enrichment from Borago officinalis and Echium fastuosum seed oils and fatty acids by low temperature crystallization.  

PubMed

Solvent winterization of seed oil and free fatty acids (FFAs) was employed to obtain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3omega6) concentrates from seed oils of two Boraginaceae species, Echium fastuosum and Borago officinalis. Different solutions of seed oils and FFAs from these two oils at 10%, 20% and 40% (w/w) were crystallized at 4 degrees C, -24 degrees C and -70 degrees C, respectively, using hexane, acetone, diethyl ether, isobutanol and ethanol as solvents. Best results were obtained for B. officinalis FFAs in hexane, reaching a maximum GLA concentration of 58.8% in the liquid fraction (LF). In E. fastuosum, the highest GLA concentration (39.9%) was also achieved with FFAs in hexane. PMID:16233632

López-Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campra-Madrid, Pablo; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

2004-01-01

317

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C(8)mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid-liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

2012-01-01

318

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

2012-01-01

319

Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis  

PubMed Central

This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi-purified fractions (F1-F3) of the defensive secretion from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model and analgesic activity using the writhing test in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhibited interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Similarly the fraction F2 showed a partial protection of mice from PTZ-induced seizure and interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. The purification and the determination of chemical structure(s) of compound(s) of this active fraction are under investigation.

2012-01-01

320

Inhibitory and cytotoxic activities of salvia officinalis L. Extract on human lymphoma and leukemia cells by induction of apoptosis.  

PubMed

Purpose: Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma (Raji) and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937), Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A) and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) cell lines. Methods: The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Results: The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 ?g/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p<0.01), with ascending order of IC50 values in 24: KG-1A (214.377 ?g/ml), U937 (229.312 ?g/ml) and Raji (239.692 ?g/ml) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, paclitaxel (Toxol), confirming the tumour-selective cytotoxicity. The crude extract however did not exert any significant cytotoxic effect on normal cell line HUVEC (IC50>800 Ag/ml). Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. Conclusion: The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway. PMID:24312812

Zare Shahneh, Fatemeh; Valiyari, Samira; Baradaran, Behzad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Bandehagh, Ali; Azadmehr, Abass; Hajiaghaee, Reza

2013-01-01

321

Mechanisms involved in the antinociception caused by ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract from Melissa officinalis L. and of the rosmarinic acid in chemical behavioral models of nociception and investigates some of the mechanisms underlying this effect. The extract (3–1000 mg\\/kg), given orally (p.o.) 1 h prior to testing, produced dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain, with ID50 value of 241.9 mg\\/kg. In the

Giselle Guginski; Ana Paula Luiz; Morgana Duarte Silva; Murilo Massaro; Daniel Fernandes Martins; Juliana Chaves; Robson Willain Mattos; Damaris Silveira; Vânia M. M. Ferreira; João Batista Calixto; Adair R. S. Santos

2009-01-01

322

“High in omega-3 fatty acids” bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed.The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6\\/?-3 ratio from

Izaskun Berasategi; Sheila Legarra; Mikel García-Íñiguez de Ciriano; Sheyla Rehecho; Maria Isabel Calvo; Rita Yolanda Cavero; Íñigo Navarro-Blasco; Diana Ansorena; Iciar Astiasarán

2011-01-01

323

Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.This research was developed to evaluate the actions of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus upon contractile force (CF) and cardiac rate (CR).2.For the experiments in isolated heart, 21 male adult rats were used. The hearts were perfused according to Langendorff’s method. The records of CF and CR were obtained in control and

Ruth Gazola; Denise Machado; Campos Ruggiero; Glenan Singi; Mariângela Macedo Alexandre

2004-01-01

324

Inhibitory effects of Lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis, L.) extract on the formation of advanced glycation end products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a medicinal herb possessing functional compounds with unexplored anti-glycative action. The anti-glycative activity of Lemon balm extract was evaluated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)\\/glucose system. The level of glycation, conformational alterations and protein binding to RAGE receptors were assessed by specific fluorescence, Congo red binding assay, circular dichroism, ligand and Western blotting. Ethanol fractions

Mehran Miroliaei; Sima Khazaei; Sorour Moshkelgosha; Mansoureh Shirvani

2011-01-01

325

Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric Investigation of Essential Oils from Melissa officinalis ( Labiatae Family) and Pellargonium ssp. ( Geraniaceae Family)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work we report upon the development of a novel methodology based on electrospray (ESI) high capacity ion trap\\u000a (HCT) multistage mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS), for assessing the composition and structure of essential volatile oils. The method\\u000a was particularly applied to a native terpenoid mixture extracted from Melissa officinalis and different species of Pellargonium genus. Optimized ESI HCT MS

Claudia C. Toma; Ioan B. Pancan; Marius Chiri??; Florina M. Vata; Alina D. Zamfir

326

Comparison of rosmarinic acid content in commercial tinctures produced from fresh and dried lemon balm (Melissa officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To measure the rosmarinic acid content of eight commercial tinctures derived from fresh (n= 5) and dried (n=3) Melissa officinalis herb. Methods. Rosmarinic acid and the internal standard (esculin) were purchased from Aldrich Chemical Co. The column used was a Luna C18, 5 ?m (150 x 4.6 mm I.D., Phenomenex) maintained at ambient room temperature. The HPLC system consisted

Alberto Sanchez-Medina; Christopher J. Etheridge; Geoffrey E. Hawkes; Peter J. Hylands; Barbara A. Pendry; Michael J. Hughes; Olivia Corcoran

327

Alterations in cytosine methylation and species-specific transcription induced by interspecific hybridization between Oryza sativa and O. officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific hybridization and polyploidization may involve programmed genetic and epigenetic changes. In this study, we\\u000a used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) method to survey cytosine methylation alterations that occurred\\u000a in F1 hybrid and BC1 progeny following interspecific hybridization between Oryza sativa and O. officinalis. Across all 316 parental methylated sites, 25 (7.9%) cytosine methylation alterations were detected in the F1

Huajun Jin; Wei Hu; Zhe Wei; Linglin Wan; Gang Li; Guangxuan Tan; Lili Zhu; Guangcun He

2008-01-01

328

A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of ?-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. PMID:24130010

Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

2013-10-01

329

Somatic embryogenesis and in vitro rosmarinic acid accumulation in Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa leaf callus cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of explant age, plant growth regulators and culture conditions on somatic embryogenesis and rosmarinic acid production\\u000a from leaf explants of Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa plants collected in Greece was investigated. Embryogenic callus with numerous spherical somatic embryos could be induced\\u000a on explants derived from both species and cultured for 3 weeks on a Murashige and Skoog (MS)

S. Kintzios; A. Nikolaou; M. Skoula

1999-01-01

330

Changes in fatty acid and essential oil composition of sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) leaves under NaCl stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acids and essential oils from hydroponically cultivated Salvia officinalis leaves were analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Four different levels of NaCl (25, 50, 75 and 100mM) were applied. The first results showed that salt treatment reduced significantly the plant growth by 61% and the total fatty acids (TFA) content by 32% at 100mM NaCl. Alpha-linolenic, gadoleic, palmitic and oleic

Mouna Ben Taarit; Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Brahim Marzouk

2010-01-01

331

Seed bank dynamics of two obligate seeders, Cistus monspeliensis and Rosmarinus officinalis , in relation to time since fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species in Mediterranean-type ecosystems regenerate after fire by seed germination from soil seed banks. Seed bank dynamics\\u000a of two of those obligate seeders, Cistus monspeliensis and Rosmarinus officinalis, were investigated in relation to stand age since fire in southwestern Portugal. Soil seed density, annual seed input, annual\\u000a seed losses through germination and seed persistence were compared between species at

Adelaide S. Clemente; Francisco C. Rego; Otília A. Correia

2007-01-01

332

Instrumental neutron activation analysis of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula for trace element efficacy and safety.  

PubMed

To assess the efficacy and safety, essential (Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Se, Zn), toxic (As, Br, Hg, Sb,) and other elements (Ba, Ce, Cs, Eu, Rb, Sc) were determined in Emblica officinalis (EO), Terminalia belerica (TB) and Terminalia chebula (TC) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These herbs contain K as a major element, while Co, Cr and Na in EO, Fe, K and Mn in TB and Cl and Zn in TC are the highest. PMID:23608598

Waheed, S; Fatima, I

2013-07-01

333

The In Vitro Action of Essential Oils on Different Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal action of eight (Lavandula hybrid, Salvia officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Mentha piperita L., Coriandrum sativum L. and Laurus nobilis L.) essential oils was tested in vitro against Phytophtora cinnamomi Rads., Pyrenochaeta lycopersici Kleb. and Verticillium dahliae Kleb., using different concentrations (up to 1600 ppm). The fungistatic + fungicidal activity of the

Laura Giamperi; Daniele Fraternale; Donata Ricci

2002-01-01

334

Metabolite profiling of sucrose effect on the metabolism of Melissa officinalis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The effect of sugar on plant metabolism, which is known to be similar to hormone-like signaling, was metabolomically studied using Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). The metabolite profiles of M. officinalis treated with sucrose were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 64 metabolites from various chemical classes including alcohols, amines, amino acids, fatty acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, phosphates, and sugars were identified by GC-MS. Three groups treated with different sucrose concentrations were clearly separated by PCA of their metabolite profiles, indicating changes in the levels of many metabolites depending on the sucrose concentration. Metabolite profiling revealed that treatment with a higher sucrose level caused an increase in the levels of metabolites such as sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar phosphates, which are related to the glycolytic pathway of M. officinalis. Furthermore, proline and succinic acid, which are associated with the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, the shikimic acid pathway, and the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, also increased with increasing sucrose concentration. Therefore, these metabolic changes induced by sucrose ultimately led to the increased production of flavonoids such as caffeic acid via the biosynthetic pathway of phenylpropanoids. This study demonstrated that the abundance changes in some primary and secondary metabolites were somewhat interlocked with each other in response to sucrose. PMID:21301821

Kim, Sooah; Shin, Min Hye; Hossain, Md Aktar; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2011-04-01

335

Global profiling of ultraviolet-induced metabolic disruption in Melissa officinalis by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis contains various secondary metabolites that have health benefits. Generally, irradiating plants with ultraviolet (UV)-B induces the accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants. To understand the effect of UV-B irradiation on the metabolism of M. officinalis, metabolomics based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used in this study. The GC-MS analysis revealed 37 identified metabolites from various chemical classes, including alcohols, amino acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, and sugars. The metabolite profiles of the groups of M. officinalis irradiated with UV-B were separated and differentiated according to their irradiation times (i.e., 0, 1, and 2 h), using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), respectively. The PCA score plots of PC1 and PC2 showed that the three groups with different irradiation times followed a certain trajectory with increasing UV-B irradiation. HCA revealed that metabolic patterns differed among the three groups, and the 1 h-irradiated group was more similar to the control group (0 h) than the 2 h-irradiated group. In particular, UV-B irradiation of plants led to a decrease in sugars such as fructose, galactose, sucrose, and trehalose and an increase in metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, and the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study demonstrated that metabolite profiling with GC-MS is useful for gaining a holistic understanding of UV-induced changes in plant metabolism. PMID:22729379

Kim, Sooah; Yun, Eun Ju; Hossain, Md Aktar; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2012-08-01

336

Simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds in Verbena officinalis L. by using high-performance liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

Background: Verbena officinalis L., called mabiancao in Chinese, is derived from the aerial part of Herba Verbanae. It is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in China and northern Europe, which is widely used for clearing away heat and detoxicating, promoting blood circulation, and removing blood stasis. This paper describes a sensitive and specific assay for the determination of four bioactive compounds in V. officinalis L. Materials and Methods: In this paper, the four components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 ?m) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.1%, v/v) and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30°C with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 203, 238, and 331 nm. Results: All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ? 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and interday variations were less than 1.84%, and the average recoveries were 97.32–102.81% for analytes. Discussion and Conclusion: The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for comprehensive quality control for clinical use and modernization of V. officinalis L.

Liu, Zhen; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Hanyu; Cao, Gang; Cong, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Yun; Cai, Bao-Chang

2012-01-01

337

d-glucose as a modifying agent in gelatin/collagen matrix and reservoir nanoparticles for Calendula officinalis delivery.  

PubMed

Gelatin/Collagen-based matrix and reservoir nanoparticles require crosslinkers to stabilize the formed nanosuspensions, considering that physical instability is the main challenge of nanoparticulate systems. The use of crosslinkers improves the physical integrity of nanoformulations under the-host environment. Aldehyde-based fixatives, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have been widely applied to the crosslinking process of polymeric nanoparticles. However, their potential toxicity towards human beings has been demonstrated in many previous studies. In order to tackle this problem, d-glucose was used during nanoparticle formation to stabilize the gelatin/collagen-based matrix wall and reservoir wall for the deliveries of Calendula officinalis powder and oil, respectively. In addition, therapeutic selectivity between malignant and normal cells could be observed. The C. officinalis powder loaded nanoparticles significantly strengthened the anti-cancer effect towards human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells and human hepatoma SKHep1 cells when compared with the free powder. On the contrary, the nanoparticles did not show significant cytotoxicity towards normal esophageal epithelial NE3 cells and human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cells. On the basis of these evidences, d-glucose modified gelatin/collagen matrix nanoparticles containing C. officinalis powder might be proposed as a safer alternative vehicle for anti-cancer treatments. PMID:24657927

Lam, P-L; Kok, S H-L; Bian, Z-X; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Lee, K K-H; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

2014-05-01

338

Effects of extract of Buddleja officinalis on partial inflammation of lacrimal gland in castrated rabbits with dry eye  

PubMed Central

AIM To assess the effects of extract of Buddleja officinalis on tear secretion volume, tear film stability, expressions of TGF-?1, IL-1?, TNF-? in lacrimal gland of castrated rabbits with dry eye. METHODS A total of 30 victory rabbits were divided averagely into normal group(A), model group(B), therapy group with low dose extract of Buddleja officinalis (C), therapy group with high dose extract of Buddleja officinalis (D) and therapy group with genistein (E). The dry eye model was established with orchiectomy on Group B, C, D, E. Group C, D, E were administered intragastrically with corresponding dose extract of Buddleja officinalis or genistein for 30 days. All rabbits were detected with SIT. TGF-?1, IL-1?, TNF-? were detected with immunohistochemistry and the ultrastructure of lacrimal gland was observed under transmission electron microscope. RESULTS The SIT value of group C, D, E were respectively 13.167±4.957, 14.667±5.279, 8.667±0.516, obviously higher than that of group B 5.667±2.338 (P<0.01). The positive expression of IL-1? in acinar cell and glandular tube cell of group C, D were 0.470±0.048, 0.510±0.088, obviously lower than that of group B 0.770±0.118 (P<0.01). The positive expression of TNF-? of group C, D were 0.498±0.156, 0.435±0.069, obviously lower than that of group B 0.769±0.095 too (P<0.01). The positive expression of TGF-?1 of group C, D were 0.406±0.171, 0.497±0.147, obviously higher than that of group B 0.222±0.113(P<0.01). Any result of group C, D was positive compared with that of group E (P <0.05). Ultrastructure of the lacrimal gland of group C, D, E was well preserved, especially in D group it was remarkable. CONCLUSION The extract of Buddleja officinalis can adjust lacrimal gland partial inflammation of dry eye.

Yao, Xiao-Lei; Peng, Qing-Hua; Peng, Jun; Tan, Han-Yu; Wu, Quan-Long; Wu, Da-Li; Chen, Mei; Li, Chuan-Ke; Li, Dian; Zhu, Hui-An

2010-01-01

339

Quantification of canavanine, 2-aminoethanol, and cyanamide in Aphis craccivora and its host plants, Robinia pseudoacacia and Vicia angustifolia: effects of these compounds on larval survivorship of Harmonia axyridis.  

PubMed

The cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora that infests the black locust Robinia pseudoacacia shows toxicity to its predator, the multicolored Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis. In contrast, the same aphid species that infests the common vetch, Vicia angustifolia, is suitable prey for H. axyridis larvae. Previously, it was reported that the toxicity of A. craccivora infesting R. pseudoacacia was due to canavanine and 2-aminoethanol, but there was some doubt about the toxicity of these compounds and their concentrations in the aphids. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of cyanamide, canavanine, and 2-aminoethanol in A. craccivora infesting the two host plants. In the extracts of A. craccivora that infested either of the host plants, canavanine was undetectable, and 2-aminoethanol was detected at the concentration of 3.0-4.0 ?g/g fresh weight. Cyanamide was detected in the extract of A. craccivora that infested R. pseudoacacia (7.7 ?g/g fresh weight) but not in that infesting V. angustifolia. The toxicity of canavanine, 2-aminoethanol, and cyanamide was evaluated against H. axyridis larvae in a bioassay by using an artificial diet containing these compounds at various concentrations. Cyanamide exhibited 10-100 times stronger toxicity than canavanine and 2-aminoethanol. These results indicate that the toxicity is at least partly due to cyanamide, which is present in the toxic A. craccivora that infests R. pseudoacacia but absent from the non-toxic A. craccivora that infests V. angustifolia. PMID:23179101

Kamo, Tsunashi; Tokuoka, Yoshinori; Miyazaki, Masahisa

2012-12-01

340

Effect of Amla fruit (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on blood glucose and lipid profile of normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic and lipid-lowering properties of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. fruit in normal and diabetic human volunteers. The results indicated a significant decrease (P <  0.05) in fasting and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose levels on the 21st day in both normal and diabetic subjects receiving 1, 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder per day as compared with their baseline values. Significant (P <  0.05) decreases were also observed in total cholesterol and triglycerides in both normal and diabetic volunteers on day 21 that were given either 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder per day. However, diabetic volunteers receiving only 3 g E. officinalis powder exhibited a significant (P <  0.05) decrease in total lipids on day 21. Both normal and diabetic volunteers receiving 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder significantly (P <  0.05) improved high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lowered low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. PMID:21495900

Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Ramzan, Ayesha; Ali, Amanat; Ahmad, Maqsood

2011-09-01

341

Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant. PMID:19023806

Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

2008-01-01

342

Ambispora granatensis, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, associated with Asparagus officinalis in Andalucia (Spain).  

PubMed

A new dimorphic fungal species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycota, Ambispora granatensis, was isolated from an agricultural site in the province of Granada (Andalucía, Spain) growing in the rhizosphere of Asparagus officinalis. It was propagated in pot cultures with Trifolium pratense and Sorghum vulgare. The fungus also colonized Ri T-DNA transformed Daucus carota roots but did not form spores in these root organ cultures. The spores of the acaulosporoid morph are 90-150 ?m diam and hyaline to white to pale yellow. They have three walls and a papillae-like rough irregular surface on the outer surface of the outer wall. The irregular surface might become difficult to detect within a few hours in lactic acid-based mountings but are clearly visible in water. The structural central wall layer of the outer wall is only 0.8-1.5 ?m thick. The glomoid spores are formed singly or in small, loose spore clusters of 2-10 spores. They are hyaline to pale yellow, (25)40-70 ?m diam and have a bilayered spore wall without ornamentation. Nearly full length sequences of the 18S and the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene place the new fungus in a separate clade next to Ambispora fennica and Ambispora gerdemannii. The acaulosporoid spores of the new fungus can be distinguished easily from all other spores in genus Ambispora by the conspicuous thin outer wall. PMID:20952800

Palenzuela, Javier; Barea, José-Miguel; Ferrol, Nuria; Oehl, Fritz

2011-01-01

343

Essential oils produced by in vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

In vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were established under eight different hormonal supplementations and proliferated by subculture of nodal shoot segments. The respective essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were composed of more than 75 compounds, 65 of which were identified. The 10 major compounds were, by order of retention time, alpha-pinene (4.1-5.4%), camphene (6-7.1%), beta-pinene (9.3-14.5%), limonene (2-2.3%), 1,8-cineole (3.6-5.6%), (-)-thujone (13.2-16.1%), (+)-isothujone (6.6-7.4%), camphor (19.8-24%), alpha-humulene (5.1-6.8%), and manool (4.2-7.7%). Notwithstanding the eight different hormonal supplementations tested, the percentage composition of the shoot essential oils were kept in a narrow range of variation. However, the type and concentration of growth regulators apparently influenced the accumulation of essential oils. The highest accumulation of essential oils and the highest shoot biomass growth were obtained with 2.0 mg/L kinetin and 0.05 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. PMID:12670167

Santos-Gomes, Paula C; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

2003-04-01

344

Anti-proliferative effect of Melissa officinalis on human colon cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is consumed as a traditional herbal tea in the Mediterranean region. The cytotoxic effect of the 50% ethanolic and aqueous extract, determined by the MTT and NR assays, was evaluated in vitro on Human Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT-116), using Triton 10% as positive control. The 50% ethanolic extract showed significant differences after 72 h of treatment, reducing cell proliferation to values close to 40%, even the lowest dose tested (5 ?g/ml). In the MTT assay, the same extract caused the lowest cell viability with 13% at a concentration of 1,000 ?g/ml after 72 h of treatment, being a value lower than Triton 10%. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed evaluating the capacity of the extracts to scavenge ABTS and DPPH radicals, and IC(50) values were highly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of an anti-proliferative compound, rosmarinic acid. Its structural elucidation was performed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS analysis. High dose of rosmarinic acid (1,000 ?g/ml) was clearly cytotoxic against HCT-116 cells, with a significant decrease in cell number since the earliest time point (24 h). PMID:21964875

Encalada, Manuel Alejandro; Hoyos, Kelly Melissa; Rehecho, Sheyla; Berasategi, Izaskun; de Ciriano, Mikel García-Íñiguez; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Calvo, María Isabel

2011-11-01

345

Phenolic profiles of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial samples of Melissa officinalis L. infusions.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is normally consumed as an infusion and presents therapeutic properties, such as sedative, carminative and antispasmodic, also being included in some pharmaceutical preparations. The phenolic profiles of different samples of lemon balm, prepared as infusions, were evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The profiles were compared in order to understand the differences between cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial (bags and granulated) samples. All the samples showed a similar phenolic profile, presenting differences only in the quantities found of each compound. Rosmarinic acid was the most abundant compound, being higher in commercial samples, especially in tea bag sample (55.68mg/g of infusion) and lower in in vitro cultured sample (15.46mg/g). Moreover, dimers, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid were identified and quantified for the first time in lemon balm. Only one flavonoid, luteolin-3'-O-glucuronide was found in all the samples, ranging from 8.43mg/g in commercial granulate sample to 1.22mg/g in in vitro cultured sample. Overall, cultivated and in vitro cultured samples presented the lowest amounts of phenolic compounds (59.59 and 30.21mg/g, respectively); otherwise, commercial samples showed the highest contents (109.24mg/g for tea bag and 101.03mg/g for granulate sample). The present study shows that infusion of lemon balm can be a source of phenolic compounds, known for their bioactive effects. PMID:23017385

Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Dias, Maria Inês; Sousa, Maria João; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2013-01-01

346

Seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and biological properties in sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and ?-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:22344920

Generali?, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Surjak, Jana; Možina, Sonja Smole; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalini?, Ana; Simat, Vida; Katalini?, Višnja

2012-02-01

347

Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)  

SciTech Connect

Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

1990-08-01

348

Biochemical evaluation of borage (Borago officinalis) rosette leaves through their essential oil and fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

Borago officinalis rosette leaves were sampled in the region of Amdoun (Tunisia) during different stages of their development. Essential oil contents varied from 0.01% to 0.13% respectively in young and adult leaves. Twenty three volatile compounds were identified. Hydrocarbons, mainly represented by nonadecane (29.8%), tetracosane (11.3%) and heptacosane (4.7%), constituted the major class in the young leaves (45.8%), followed by aldehydes (22.4%). The percentages of these two classes decreased to reach respectively 15% and 8.1% in adult leaves in favour of alcohols (57.9%) where cis-3-hexenol (29.6%) and hexanol (14.5%) were the main compounds. Total fatty acids amounts increased from 5.03 mg/g DW in young leaves to 32.23 mg/g DW in adult ones. The predominant fatty acids were alpha-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), stearidonic (C18:4 n-3), gamma-linolenic (C18:3 n-6), palmitic (C16: 0) and linoleic (C18:2 n-6) acids. PMID:17722661

Mhamdi, Baya; Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Marzouk, Brahim

2007-06-01

349

Functional identification of a delta8-sphingolipid desaturase from Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

The similarities between delta12- and delta5-fatty acyl desaturase sequences were used to construct degenerate primers for PCR experiments with cDNA transcribed from mRNA of developing borage seeds. Screening of a borage seed cDNA library with an amplified DNA fragment resulted in the isolation of a full-length cDNA corresponding to a deduced open-reading frame of 446 amino acids. The protein showed high similarity to plant delta8-sphingolipid desaturases as well as to the delta6-fatty acyl desaturase from Borago officinalis. The sequence is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain. Expression of this open-reading frame in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the formation of delta8-trans/cis-phytosphingenines not present in wild-type cells, as shown by HPLC analysis of sphingoid bases as their dinitrophenyl derivatives. GLC-MS analysis of the methylated di-O-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives confirmed the presence of delta8-stereoisomers of C18- and C20-phytosphingenine. Furthermore, Northern blotting showed that the gene encoding a stereo-unselective delta8-sphingolipid desaturase is primarily expressed in young borage leaves. PMID:11368168

Sperling, P; Libisch, B; Zähringer, U; Napier, J A; Heinz, E

2001-04-15

350

Biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in developing seeds of borage (Borago officinalis L.).  

PubMed

delta 6-desaturation of [14C]linoleoyl-CoA or [14C]oleoyl-CoA leading to the synthesis of gamma-linolenic acid was studied in vitro with microsomal fractions from developing seeds of Borago officinalis. Time course of the reaction, effects of protein and precursor concentrations and nucleotide requirements were examined. These parameters allowed us to improve the in vitro delta 6-desaturation assay. We observed that the precursors were acylated mainly in phosphatidylcholine, diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol, and then desaturated. NADH was absolutely required when [14C]oleoyl-CoA was the precursor, but not when [14C]linoleoyl-CoA was the precursor although it stimulated the reaction. The in vitro delta 6-desaturase activity was found mainly in phosphatidylcholine, associated with enriched endoplasmic reticulum membranes (ER) from embryos. No activity was observed in ER from seed coat or seedling. During maturation of the seeds, delta 6-desaturase reached its highest activity 14 to 16 days after pollination. PMID:8394742

Galle, A M; Joseph, M; Demandre, C; Guerche, P; Dubacq, J P; Oursel, A; Mazliak, P; Pelletier, G; Kader, J C

1993-08-20

351

Dietary Supplementation of Calendula officinalis Counteracts the Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage Resulted from Aflatoxin  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant properties, and the hepatorenoprotective potential of Calendula officinalis extract against aflatoxins (AFs-) induced liver damage. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 6 weeks included the control; the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5?mg/kg diet); the groups treated orally with Calendula extract at low (CA1) and high (CA2) doses (500 and 1000?mg/kg?b.w); the groups treated orally with CA1 and CA2 one week before and during AFs treatment for other five weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract contained higher phenolic compounds and posses higher 1,1-diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the aqueous extract. Animals fed AFs-contaminated diet showed significant disturbances in serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, and the histological and histochemical pictures of the liver accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver. Calendula extract succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, decreased the oxidative stress, and improved the histological pictures in the liver of rats fed AFs-contaminated diet in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Calendula extract has potential hepatoprotective effects against AFs due to its antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activity.

Hamzawy, Mohamed A.; El-Denshary, Ezzeldein S. M.; Hassan, Nabila S.; Mannaa, Fathia A.; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A.

2013-01-01

352

Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves: the relevance of ursolic acid.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis L. leaves, obtained from four plant populations of different origin, were investigated for their topical anti-inflammatory properties. The n-hexane and the chloroform extracts dose-dependently inhibited the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice, the chloroform extracts being the most active. By contrast, the methanol extracts showed a very low effect and the essential oil was inactive. Chemical and pharmacological investigation of the most potent chloroform extract, issued from an autochthonous sage population grown in the submediterranean climatic region of Slovenia, revealed ursolic acid as the main component involved in its anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory effect of ursolic acid (ID50 = 0.14 microMoles/cm2) was two fold more potent than that of indomethacin (ID50 = 0.26 microMoles/cm2), which was used as a reference non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The content of ursolic acid in sage and sage-based remedies for the topical treatment of inflammatory diseases is proposed as a parameter for quality control purposes. PMID:11297842

Baricevic, D; Sosa, S; Della Loggia, R; Tubaro, A; Simonovska, B; Krasna, A; Zupancic, A

2001-05-01

353

Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in the health risks related to the use of herbal remedies. Although most consumers think that phytomedicines are safe and without side effects, interactions between complementary alternative and conventional medicines are being described. The aim of this clinical case report is to highlight the importance of the safe use of herbal remedies by providing a clinical interaction study between pharmaceutical medicines and herbal medicinal products. The case of a patient self-medicated with Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. while he was on lorazepam treatment is described. Handshaking, dizziness, throbbing and muscular fatigue were reported within the 32 h before clinical diagnosis. The analysis of family medical history ruled out essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease and other symptom-related pathologies. His medical history revealed a generalized anxiety disorder and medicinal plant consumption but no neurological disorder. Appropriate physical examination was carried out. An additive or synergistic effect is suspected to have produced these symptoms. The active principles of Valerian and passionflower might increase the inhibitory activity of benzodiazepines binding to the GABA receptors, causing severe secondary effects. Due to the increase in herbal product self-medication, the use of herbal remedies should be registered while taking the personal clinical history. Multidisciplinary teams should be created to raise studies on medicinal plants with impact on medical praxis. PMID:19441067

Carrasco, María Consuelo; Vallejo, José Ramón; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Peral, Diego; Martín, Miguel Angel; Altimiras, Jacinto

2009-12-01

354

Constituents of Asparagus officinalis evaluated for inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-2.  

PubMed

As part of a project directed toward the discovery of new cancer chemopreventive agents from plants, two new natural products, asparagusic acid anti-S-oxide methyl ester (1) and asparagusic acid syn-S-oxide methyl ester (2), a new acetylenic compound, 2-hydroxyasparenyn [3',4'-trans-2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-4-[5-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-3-penten-1-ynyl]-benzene] (3), as well as eleven known compounds, asparenyn (4), asparenyol (5), (+/-)-1-monopalmitin (6), ferulic acid (7), 1,3-O-di-p-coumaroylglycerol (8), 1-O-feruloyl-3-O-p-coumaroylglycerol (9), blumenol C, (+/-)-epipinoresinol, linoleic acid, 1,3-O-diferuloylglycerol, and 1,2-O-diferuloylglycerol, were isolated from an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Asparagus officinalis (Asparagus), using a bioassay based on the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against both cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, with the most active compound being linoleic acid. PMID:15080623

Jang, Dae Sik; Cuendet, Muriel; Fong, Harry H S; Pezzuto, John M; Kinghorn, A Douglas

2004-04-21

355

Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi of Emblica officinalis, an Ethnomedicinal Plant of India.  

PubMed

In the present study, an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes inhabiting Emblica officinalis has been made keeping in view the medicinal importance of the selected host plant in Indian traditional practices. A total of four endophytic fungi belonging to Phylum Ascomycetes were isolated from different parts of the plant which were characterized morphologically and by using rDNA-internal transcribed spacer. The most frequently isolated endophyte was Phomopsis sp. The antioxidant activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay, and total phenol were evaluated using ethanolic extract of endophytic fungi. DPPH activities in all the ethanolic extract increased with the increase in concentrations. Endophytes, Phomopsis sp. and Xylaria sp. showed highest antioxidant activity and also had the higher levels of phenolics. Antimicrobial activity of fungal extract were tested against four bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC730, Enteroccocus faecalis MTCC2729, Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi MTCC735 and Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC1925, and the fungus Candida albicans MTCC183. In general, the fungal extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms except E. coli. PMID:22783128

Nath, Archana; Raghunatha, Prajwal; Joshi, S R

2012-03-01

356

Alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rat liver microsomes: Protective effect of Emblica officinalis.  

PubMed

The protective effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced oxidative damage in liver microsomes was investigated in rats. EFE (250mg/kg b.wt/day) and alcohol (5g/kg b.wt/day, 20%, w/v) were administered orally to animals for 60 days. Alcohol administration significantly increased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls with decreased sulfhydryl groups in microsomes, which were significantly restored to normal levels in EFE and alcohol co-administered rats. Alcohol administration also markedly decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in the liver microsomes, which were prevented with EFE administration. Further, alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of cytochrome P-450, Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases and also membrane fluidity. But, administration of EFE along with alcohol restored the all above enzyme activities and membrane fluidity to normal level. Thus, EFE showed protective effects against alcohol-induced oxidative damage by possibly reducing the rate of lipid peroxidation and restoring the various membrane bound and antioxidant enzyme activities to normal levels, and also by protecting the membrane integrity in rat liver microsomes. In conclusion, the polyphenolic compounds including flavonoid and tannoid compounds present in EFE might be playing a major role against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rats. PMID:24393670

Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Hymavathi, Reddyvari; Maturu, Paramahamsa; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2014-06-01

357

Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered ‘objects’ and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We found that (i) edge information alone is sufficient to elicit the body pattern known as Disruptive, which is the camouflage response given when a whole object is present, and furthermore, isolated edges cause the same response; and (ii) cuttlefish can distinguish and respond to objects of the same mean luminance as the background. These observations emphasize the importance of discrete objects (bounded by edges) in the cuttlefish's choice of camouflage, and more generally imply that figure–ground segregation by cuttlefish is similar to that in vertebrates, as might be predicted by their need to produce effective camouflage against vertebrate predators.

Zylinski, S.; Osorio, D.; Shohet, A.J.

2008-01-01

358

Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant and Binding Activities and Spear Yield of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5?~?8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P?

Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

2014-06-01

359

Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered 'objects' and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We found that (i) edge information alone is sufficient to elicit the body pattern known as Disruptive, which is the camouflage response given when a whole object is present, and furthermore, isolated edges cause the same response; and (ii) cuttlefish can distinguish and respond to objects of the same mean luminance as the background. These observations emphasize the importance of discrete objects (bounded by edges) in the cuttlefish's choice of camouflage, and more generally imply that figure-ground segregation by cuttlefish is similar to that in vertebrates, as might be predicted by their need to produce effective camouflage against vertebrate predators. PMID:18990667

Zylinski, S; Osorio, D; Shohet, A J

2009-02-27

360

Metabolism of Monoterpenes in Cell Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1  

PubMed Central

Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from [U-14C]sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+)-camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+)-camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

Falk, Kimberly L.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Croteau, Rodney

1990-01-01

361

Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).  

PubMed

The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, ? carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian. PMID:24803690

Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

2014-05-01

362

Dietary intervention with narrow-leaved cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) prevents intestinal inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal epithelium that is driven by the intestinal immune system, oxidative stress and the loss of tolerance to the luminal microbiota. The use of dietary products containing ingredients such as fibres and carbohydrates and/or antioxidant compounds have been used as a therapeutic strategy for intestinal diseases because these products are considered effective in the modulation of the immune system and colonic microbiota. We investigated the beneficial effects of cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. In addition, we investigated the effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone, which is a reference drug that is used for treatment of human IBD. Methods The present study included the preparation of flour from rhizomes of cattail (Typha angustifolia L.); an evaluation of the qualitative phytochemical profile of cattail rhizomes; an evaluation of the efficacy of cattail rhizome flour in TNBS-induced rat colitis; an evaluation of the synergistic effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone; and macroscopic, clinical, biochemical, histopathological and microbiological studies to assess the healing effects of cattail rhizome flour and its synergistic effects in TNBS-induced rat colitis. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and ?2 tests. Results We tested several concentrations of cattail rhizome flour and found that dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour showed the best effects at reducing the extension of the lesion, the colon weight ratio, adherences to adjacent organs and diarrhoea. These effects were related to inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities and an attenuation of glutathione (GSH) depletion. The 10% cattail rhizome flour was as effective as prednisolone, and no synergistic effects were observed. Saponins, flavonoids and coumarins were detected in the rhizome flour. No changes were observed in the total number of lactic bacteria after dietary supplementation with cattail rhizome flour. Conclusions Dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour and its combination with prednisolone prevent TNBS-induced colonic damage in rats, but no synergistic effects were observed. The prevention of TNBS-induced colon damage was associated with an improvement in intestinal oxidative stress, which likely resulted from the antioxidant properties of the active compounds detected in the cattail rhizome. This protective effect was not related to an improvement in lactic bacteria counts.

2012-01-01

363

Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis.  

PubMed

The concentration of CO(2) in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO(2) emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO(2) concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO(2) concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO(2) concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO(2) and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO(2). Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO(2), while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO(2). The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO(2) due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO(2) are discussed. PMID:23314813

Hofmann, Laurie C; Straub, Sandra; Bischof, Kai

2013-02-01

364

Changes in polyamines, auxins and peroxidase activity during in vitro rooting of Fraxinus angustifolia shoots: an auxin-independent rooting model.  

PubMed

Among shoots of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl raised in vitro, 76% rooted after culture on root induction medium for 5 days in darkness followed by culture on root expression medium for 15 days in light. The addition of 20.7 microM indole-butyric acid (IBA) to the root induction medium did not significantly increase the rooting percentage (88%). Putrescine, spermidine, cyclohexylamine (CHA) and aminoguanidine (AG) enhanced rooting up to 100% (98.66% for AG), when applied during root induction in the absence of IBA, otherwise these compounds inhibited rooting, as did spermine and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) + difluoromethylarginine (DFMA). The root induction phase was characterized by a temporary increase in endogenous free indole-acetic acid (IAA) and putrescine concentrations during root induction, whereas the root expression phase was characterized by increased peroxidase activity and low concentrations of polyamines. These changes were specifically associated with the rooting process and did not depend on the presence of exogenous IBA, because application of exogenous IBA enhanced the amount of IAA in the cuttings but did not affect rooting or the pattern of changes in polyamines and peroxidase. The effects of CHA, AG and DFMO + DFMA on endogenous concentrations of auxins and polyamines highlight the close relationship between the effects of IAA and putrescine in root induction and suggest that polyamine catabolism has an important role in root formation and elongation. PMID:11446994

Tonon, G; Kevers, C; Gaspar, T

2001-07-01

365

Effects of a standardized purified dry extract from Echinacea angustifolia on proliferation and interferon gamma secretion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dairy heifers.  

PubMed

This study was performed to ascertain whether a standardized extract from Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea) affects proliferation and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC from six Holstein heifers were incubated with 0, 6.3, 20, 60, or 180 microg/ml of the tested compound. Proliferation was stimulated by concanavalin A (ConA) or pokeweed-mitogen (PWM). Secretion of IFN-gamma was stimulated by ConA. All concentrations of Polinacea exerted a mitogenic effect. With respect to control PBMC (0 microg/ml), the lowest and highest increase of proliferation were observed with Polinacea at 6.3 (2-fold increase) or 180 (10-fold increase) microg/ml, respectively. Polinacea at 180 microg/ml reduced ConA-driven proliferation, whereas at 20 and 60 microg/ml improved proliferation of PWM-stimulated PBMC. IFN-gamma secretion was not affected. In conclusion, Polinacea modulates bovine PBMC proliferation, and deserves to be tested in vivo to define conditions that may benefit from its utilization. PMID:19482325

Wu, Hua; Nardone, Alessandro; Lacetera, Nicola

2009-12-01

366

Kocuria palustris sp. nov. and Kocuria rhizophila sp. nov., isolated from the rhizoplane of the narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia).  

PubMed

Two Gram-positive, aerobic spherical actinobacteria were isolated from the rhizoplane of narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia) collected from a floating mat in the Soroksár tributary of the Danube river, Hungary. Sequence comparisons of the 16S rDNA indicated these isolates to be phylogenetic neighbours of members of the genus Kocuria, family Micrococcaceae, in which they represent two novel lineages. The phylogenetic distinctness of the two organisms TA68T and TAGA27T was supported by DNA-DNA similarity values of less than 55% between each other and with the type strains of Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae and Kocuria varians. Chemotaxonomic properties supported the placement of the two isolates in the genus Kocuria. The diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan is lysine, the interpeptide bridge is composed of three alanine residues. Predominant menaquinone was MK-7(H2). The fatty acid pattern represents the straight-chain saturated iso-anteiso type. Main fatty acid was anteiso-C15:0. The phospholipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown component. The DNA base composition of strains TA68T and TAGA27T is 69.4 and 69.6 mol% G+C, respectively. Genotypic, morphological and physiological characteristics are used to describe two new species of Kocuria, for which we propose the names Kocuria palustris, type strain DSM 11925T and Kocuria rhizophila, type strain DSM 11926T. PMID:10028258

Kovács, G; Burghardt, J; Pradella, S; Schumann, P; Stackebrandt, E; Màrialigeti, K

1999-01-01

367

Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection for the analysis of triacylglycerols in Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

An optimized 2-D liquid chromatography (LC×LC) set-up, based on the different selectivities of a silver ion (Ag) and a non-aqueous reversed phase (NARP), employed in the first (D1) and the second dimension (D2), respectively, in combination with evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD), has been developed for the analysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction in a Borago officinalis oil. The 2-D set-up, thanks to the complementary separation selectivity provided by the two columns, allowed to distribute 78 TAGs throughout the 2-D LC retention plane otherwise unachievable by 1-D LC. PMID:21413146

Mondello, Luigi; Beccaria, Marco; Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Giovanni; Dugo, Paola

2011-03-01

368

Lead Content in Pot Marigold ( Calendula officinalis L.) Inflorescences and Leaves: Impact of Precipitations and Vicinity of Motorway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace metal contamination is a major environmental and health problem virtually in all countries. The present study was aimed\\u000a to estimate the lead content of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences and leaves collected from a nonpolluted test field. The lead content in dry pot marigold inflorescences\\u000a was 9.34?±?0.79 µg\\/g, in dry leaves 11.57?±?0.47 µg\\/g, and in soil 0.649?±?0.012 µg\\/g. The distance of

Andres Meos; Tiiu Jüriado; Vallo Matto; Ain Raal

2011-01-01

369

Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.  

PubMed

The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Pagonopoulou, Olga

2013-01-01

370

DNA isolation protocol for the medicinal plant lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a medicinal plant that is widely used as a sedative or calmant, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent and sleep aid. This has led to a high demand for lemon balm products, resulting in the extinction of this species in some of its natural habitats. Molecular techniques have increasingly been used in plant diversity conservation and isolation of PCR amplifiable genomic DNA is an important pre-requisite. Lemon balm contains high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides, which pose a major challenge for the isolation of high-quality DNA. We compared different genomic DNA extraction protocols, including traditional phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocols and two commercial kits for DNA purification for their ability to produce good-quality DNA from fresh leaves of five lemon balm genotypes. Quality and quantity of the DNA samples were determined using 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis and a spectrophotometer. The DNA purity was further confirmed by PCR amplification using barley retrotransposon LTR base primers. The spectral quality of DNA as measured by the A(260)/A(280) ratio ranged from 1.46 to 2.37. The Fermentase genomic DNA purification kit and the CTAB extraction protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate to overcome the high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides yielded high-quality DNA with a mean A(260)/A(280) ratio of 1.87. The quantity of DNA and its PCR purity were similar with all the protocols, but considering the time and cost required for extraction of DNA from a large number of samples, the CTAB protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate is suitable for lemon balm. PMID:22614273

Ghaffariyan, S; Mohammadi, S A; Aharizad, S

2012-01-01

371

GnRH in the brain and ovary of Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

We have cloned from brain, ovary and eggs of the cephalopod Sepia officinalis a 269-bp PCR product, which shares 100% sequence identity with the open reading frame of GnRH isoform isolated from Octopus vulgaris. Similar to Octopus, this sequence encodes a peptide that is organized as a preprohormone from which, after enzymatic cleavage, a dodecapeptide is released. Apart from its length, this peptide shares all the common features of vertebrate GnRHs. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses followed by sequencing have confirmed that the same peptide transcript is also present in the ovary, as well as in eggs released in the mantle cavity. The use of an antibody made specifically against the oct-GnRH has revealed that the peptide is localized in the dorso-lateral basal and olfactory lobes, the two neuropeptidergic centers controlling the activity of the gonadotropic optic gland. Immunoreactive nerve endings are also present on the glandular cells of the optic glands. These results confirm the fact that, regardless of the evolutionary distances among animal phyla, GnRH is an ancient peptide present also in invertebrates, and also reinforce the notion that, despite the name "gonadotropin releasing-hormone" was attributed according to its role in vertebrates, probably this family of peptides always had a role in the broad context of animal reproduction. The divergence and spread of several different isoforms of this peptide among animals seem to be balanced, in both invertebrates and vertebrates, by the class-specificity of the GnRH isoform involved in reproductive processes. PMID:18692104

Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lisa, Emilia; Di Cosmo, Anna

2009-03-01

372

Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, ?- and ?-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for ?-/?-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively). PMID:22196947

Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

2012-03-01

373

The isolation and characterization of ?-glucogallin as a novel aldose reductase inhibitor from Emblica officinalis.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a leading cause of new cases of blindness. The prevalence of diabetic eye disease is expected to continue to increase worldwide as a result of the dramatic increase in the number of people with diabetes. At present, there is no medical treatment to delay or prevent the onset and progression of cataract or retinopathy, the most common causes of vision loss in diabetics. The plant Emblica officinalis (gooseberry) has been used for thousands of years as a traditional Indian Ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of diabetes in humans. Extracts from this plant have been shown to be efficacious against the progression of cataract in a diabetic rat model. Aldose reductase (ALR2) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes including cataract and, therefore, has been a major drug target for the development of therapies to treat diabetic disease. Herein, we present the bioassay-guided isolation and structure elucidation of 1-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (?-glucogallin), a major component from the fruit of the gooseberry that displays selective as well as relatively potent inhibition (IC(50) = 17 µM) of AKR1B1 in vitro. Molecular modeling demonstrates that this inhibitor is able to favorably bind in the active site. Further, we show that ?-glucogallin effectively inhibits sorbitol accumulation by 73% at 30 µM under hyperglycemic conditions in an ex-vivo organ culture model of lenses excised from transgenic mice overexpressing human ALR2 in the lens. This study supports the continued development of natural products such as ?-glucogallin as therapeutic leads in the development of novel therapies to treat diabetic complications such as cataract. PMID:22485126

Puppala, Muthenna; Ponder, Jessica; Suryanarayana, Palla; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash; Petrash, J Mark; LaBarbera, Daniel V

2012-01-01

374

Effect of irrigation frequency and planting density on herbage biomass and oil production of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris) and hyssop ( Hyssopus officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was undertaken to determine the herbage biomass and oil production of thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linn.) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis Linn.) in 2003 and 2004 in the semi-arid region of Khorasan in Iran. The experiment was a split plot with three irrigation intervals as main plots and three planting densities as subplots, all of which replicated three times. Irrigation

H. R. Khazaie; F. Nadjafi; M. Bannayan

2008-01-01

375

Structural and floristic patterns in tropical swamp forests: A case study from the Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) forest in Guadeloupe, French West Indies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the coastal floodplains of most Caribbean islands, the monodominant Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. forest constitutes the typical vegetation of undisturbed freshwater to slightly brackish swamps. Key ecological determinants of floristic and structural variation were assessed in this forest where the dominant species contributes nearly 90% of the basal area. A field inventory was conducted in a 100-ha forest tract located

Jonathan Migeot; Daniel Imbert

2011-01-01

376

Effects of different rooting media and indole butyric acid on rooting of stem cuttings in sage (Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia triloba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different rooting media and IBA on rooting of sage stem cuttings. This research was conducted in the greenhouse of Uluda? University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops in 1999 and 2000. In this study, two sage species (Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia triloba L.) were grown at three

Oya Kaçar; Nedime Azkan; Nazan Çöplü

377

TLC-Based Start-to-End Method of Analysis of Selected Biologically Active Compounds Contained in Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is an herb native to the Mediterranean region and nowadays is cultivated in many parts of the world. This plant has been known and utilized for hundreds of years in natural medicine, due to its curative properties and good performance in combating various diseases. In spite of its well recognized curative potential, the chemical composition

Gabriela Grygierczyk; Mieczys?aw Sajewicz; Dorota Staszek; ?ukasz Wojtal; Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos; Teresa Kowalska

2009-01-01

378

Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. METHODS: The 70% methanol extracts were studied

Bibhabasu Hazra; Rhitajit Sarkar; Santanu Biswas; Nripendranath Mandal

2010-01-01

379

Combined application of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. to inhibit bacteria and autochthonous microflora associated with minimally processed vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) essential oils against bacteria associated to minimally processed vegetables using the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index, kill-time assay in vegetal broth and application in vegetable matrices. Moreover, it was determined chemical composition of the essential oils

Geíza Alves de Azeredo; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Pollyana Campos Nunes; Nelson Justino Gomes Neto; Maria Elieidy Gomes de Oliveira; Evandro Leite de Souza

2011-01-01

380

Antioxidant effect rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) extracts on TBARS and colour of model raw pork batters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbs and spices are traditional used as food ingredients as well as for their antioxidant properties. The objective of this work was to study the concentration of carnosol, rosmarinic and carnosic acids in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.), and their effect on the oxidation and colour of model pork batters. Extracts were obtained by maceration

E. Hernández-Hernández; E. Ponce-Alquicira; M. E. Jaramillo-Flores; I. Guerrero Legarreta

2009-01-01

381

Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential  

PubMed Central

Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide production using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. The main compounds of S. officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5–50.3%) and camphor (8.8–25.0%). The oils revealed antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64??L/mL. This is the first report addressing the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of S. officinalis oil. These findings demonstrated that bioactive concentrations of S. officinalis oils do not affect mammalian macrophages and keratinocytes viability making them suitable to be incorporated in skin care formulations for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes.

Abu-Darwish, M. S.; Cabral, C.; Ferreira, I. V.; Goncalves, M. J.; Cavaleiro, C.; Cruz, M. T.; Al-bdour, T. H.; Salgueiro, L.

2013-01-01

382

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans.

Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

2012-01-01

383

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans: a novel and alternative approach to suppress quorum-sensing mechanism.  

PubMed

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

Hasan, Sadaf; Danishuddin, Mohd; Adil, Mohd; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K; Khan, Asad U

2012-01-01

384

Salvia officinalis L.: composition and antioxidant-related activities of a crude extract and selected sub-fractions.  

PubMed

The composition and antioxidant properties of a methanol: acetic acid (99:1, v/v) soluble crude extract isolated from S. officinalis L. leaves through maceration and selected fractions isolated thereof are presented in this study. The total phenol content was estimated as gallic acid equivalents, whilst qualitative-quantitative phenolic content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Antioxidant evaluation consisted of ferric reductive capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging determinations. The crude extract contained hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids and diterpenoids, whilst caffeic acid, carnosic acid, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and rosmarinic acid were identified from their chromatographic and spectral characteristics and quantified from their respective calibration curves. The crude extract and sub-fractions demonstrated varying degrees of efficacy in the antioxidant-related assays used, except the n-hexane fraction, which was unable to reduce iron(III) at reasonable concentrations. Although the positive controls, ascorbic acid, BHA and BHT, were more potent than the S. officinalis samples, two fractions were significantly (p < 0.05) more potent iron(III) reducing agents than pycnogenol, a proanthocyanidin-rich commercial preparation. PMID:20923007

Ko?ar, Müberra; Dorman, H J Damien; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can; Hiltunen, Raimo

2010-09-01

385

New pharmacological properties of Medicago sativa and Saponaria officinalis saponin-rich fractions addressed to Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of the saponin-rich fractions (SFs) from Medicago sativa (aerial parts and roots) and Saponaria officinalis (used as a well-known source of plant saponins) against Candida albicans reference and clinical strains, their yeast-to-hyphal conversion, adhesion, and biofilm formation was investigated. Direct fungicidal/fungistatic properties of the tested phytochemicals used alone, as well as their synergy with azoles (probably resulting from yeast cell wall instability) were demonstrated. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time the ability of saponin-rich extracts of M. sativa and S. officinalis to inhibit C. albicans germ tube formation, limit hyphal growth, reduce yeast adherence and biofilm formation, and eradicate mature (24 h) Candida biofilm. Moreover, M. sativa SFs (mainly obtained from aerial parts), in the range of concentrations which were active modulators of Candida virulence factors, exhibited low cytotoxicity against the mouse fibroblast line L929. These properties seem to be very promising in the context of using plant-derived SFs as potential novel antifungal therapeutics supporting classic drugs or as ingredients of disinfectants. PMID:24850879

Sadowska, Beata; Budzy?ska, Aleksandra; Wi?ckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Paszkiewicz, Ma?gorzata; Stochmal, Anna; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Ró?alska, Barbara

2014-08-01

386

Vicianin hydrolase is a novel cyanogenic beta-glycosidase specific to beta-vicianoside (6-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) in seeds of Vicia angustifolia.  

PubMed

The cyanogenic disaccharide glycoside, vicianin [mandelonitrile beta-vicianoside (6-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside)], is accumulated in seeds of Vicia angustifolia var. segetalis. Vicianin hydrolase (VH) catalyzes the hydrolysis of vicianin into mandelonitrile and a disaccharide vicianose. VH was purified from the seeds using DEAE-, CM- and Con A-Sepharose chromatography, and the molecular mass of the purified VH was estimated to be 56 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified VH was determined, and a cDNA encoding VH was obtained. The deduced VH protein consists of a 509 amino acid polypeptide containing a putative secretion signal peptide. It shares about 50% identity with various kinds of plant beta-glycosidases including tea leaf beta-primeverosidase and furcatin hydrolase, and is classified in family 1 of the glycosyl hydrolases. The VH transcript was detected abundantly in seeds and moderately in flowers, but only slightly in leaves, stems and roots, indicating that the organ distribution of VH expression is similar to that of the substrate vicianin. The recombinant VH was produced in insect cells with a baculovirus system, and was compared with the native VH in terms of substrate specificity. Both enzymes hydrolyzed vicianin to release vicianose, demonstrating that VH is a disaccharide-specific beta-glycosidase. VH also hydrolyzed the mandelonitrile beta-glucoside prunasin to some extent but did not hydrolyze the gentiobioside amygdalin, both of which contain the same aglycone as vicianin. Thus, VH is a unique cyanogenic glycosidase showing high glycone specificity for the disaccharide vicianoside. PMID:17548373

Ahn, Young Ock; Saino, Hiromichi; Mizutani, Masaharu; Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Sakata, Kanzo

2007-07-01

387

Ecophysiological competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. used in plantations for the recovery of riparian vegetation.  

PubMed

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar (Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity. PMID:17849159

Manzanera, Jose A; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F

2007-12-01

388

Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity.

Manzanera, Jose A.; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F.

2007-12-01

389

Biochemical characterization, cDNA cloning, and molecular modeling of araujiain aII, a papain-like cysteine protease from Araujia angustifolia latex.  

PubMed

Araujiain aII, the protease with highest specific activity purified from latex of Araujia angustifolia (Apocynaceae), shows optimum proteolytic activity at alkaline pH, and it is completely inhibited by the irreversible inhibitor of cysteine proteases trans-epoxysucciny-L: -leucyl-amido(4-guanidino) butane. It exhibits esterolytic activity on several N-?-Cbz-amino acid p-nitrophenyl esters with a preference for Gln, Ala, and Gly derivatives. Kinetic enzymatic assays were performed with the thiol proteinase substrate p-Glu-Phe-Leu-p-nitroanilide (K (m) = 0.18 ± 0.03 mM, k (cat) = 1.078 ± 0.055 s(-1), k (cat)/K (m) = 5.99 ± 0.57 s(-1) mM(-l)). The enzyme has a pI value above 9.3 and a molecular mass of 23.528 kDa determined by mass spectrometry. cDNA of the peptidase was obtained by reverse transcription-PCR starting from total RNA isolated from latex. The deduced amino acid sequence was confirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. The N-terminus of the mature protein was determined by automated sequencing using Edman's degradation and compared with the sequence deduced from cDNA. The full araujiain aII sequence was thus obtained with a total of 213 amino acid residues. The peptidase, as well as other Apocynaceae latex peptidases, is a member of the subfamily C1A of cysteine proteases. The enzyme belongs to the alpha + beta class of proteins, with two disulfide bridges (Cys22-Cys63 and Cys56-Cys95) in the alpha domain, and another one (Cys150-Cys201) in the beta domain, as was suggested by molecular modeling. PMID:21424535

Obregón, Walter D; Lufrano, Daniela; Liggieri, Constanza S; Trejo, Sebastián A; Vairo-Cavalli, Sandra E; Avilés, Francesc X; Priolo, Nora S

2011-08-01

390

Echinacea species (Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.,Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench): a review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties of Echinacea species used medicinally. The Echinacea species Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida and Echinacea purpurea have a long history of medicinal use for a variety of conditions, particularly infections, and today echinacea products are among the best-selling herbal preparations in several developed countries. Modern interest in echinacea is focused on its immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. The chemistry of Echinacea species is well documented, and several groups of constituents, including alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives, are considered important for activity. There are, however, differences in the constituent profile of the three species. Commercial echinacea samples and marketed echinacea products may contain one or more of the three species, and analysis of samples of raw material and products has shown that some do not meet recognized standards for pharmaceutical quality. Evidence from preclinical studies supports some of the traditional and modern uses for echinacea, particularly the reputed immunostimulant (or immunomodulatory) properties. Several, but not all, clinical trials of echinacea preparations have reported effects superior to those of placebo in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. However, evidence of efficacy is not definitive as studies have included different patient groups and tested various different preparations and dosage regimens of echinacea. On the basis of the available limited safety data, echinacea appears to be well tolerated. However, further investigation and surveillance are required to establish the safety profiles of different echinacea preparations. Safety issues include the possibility of allergic reactions, the use of echinacea by patients with autoimmune diseases and the potential for echinacea preparations to interact with conventional medicines. PMID:16102249

Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A; Gibbons, Simon; Phillipson, J David

2005-08-01

391

The study protocol of a blinded randomised-controlled cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Increasingly more attention is being paid to alternative interventions that are associated with fewer risks than pharmacology. Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) has been thought, for centuries, to have soothing properties, but the existing evidence

Eva S van der Ploeg; Barbara Eppingstall; Daniel W O'Connor

2010-01-01

392

Separation of coumarins from Archangelica officinalis in high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography systems.  

PubMed

Complex, multicomponent mixtures are difficult to separate in a single chromatographic run. Therefore, the possibility to separate twelve coumarins from Archangelica officinalis was studied by combining a HPLC and a TLC system. HPLC optimized by the use of DryLab for Windows software was performed on RP-18 column and TLC was performed on silica plates. Fractions from the RP column were evaporated, applied on silica plate and developed in non-aqueous solvent. Possibilities of complete separation of investigated coumarins were discussed in RP and NP systems. The result of their complete separation was presented by HPLC chromatograms, DryLab simulated chromatograms and a video scan of TLC plate. PMID:10950277

Hawryl, M A; Soczewinski, E; Dzido, T H

2000-07-21

393

Anti-diabetic effects of the Indian indigenous fruit Emblica officinalis Gaertn: active constituents and modes of action.  

PubMed

Dietary constituents are shown to play an important role in the development of diabetes. Studies have shown that the fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, colloquially known as Indian gooseberry or amla and/or some of its important constituents (including gallic acid, gallotanin, ellagic acid and corilagin), possess anti-diabetic effects through their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Amla has also been reported to prevent/reduce hyperglycemia, cardiac complications, diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, cataractogenesis and protein wasting. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and preliminary. For the first time this review summarizes the anti-diabetic affects of amla and also addresses the mechanisms mediating these properties. PMID:24577384

D'souza, Jason Jerome; D'souza, Prema Pancy; Fazal, Farhan; Kumar, Ashish; Bhat, Harshith P; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2014-04-01

394

Bioassay-guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity.  

PubMed

A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. The methanol extract was identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of rat brain GABA transaminase (GABA-T), an enzyme target in the therapy of anxiety, epilepsy and related neurological disorders. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification and isolation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and the triterpenoids, ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) as active principles. Phytochemical characterization of the crude extract determined RA as the major compound responsible for activity (40% inhibition at 100 microg/mL) since it represented approximately 1.5% of the dry mass of the leaves. Synergistic effects may also play a role. PMID:19165747

Awad, Rosalie; Muhammad, Asim; Durst, Tony; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

2009-08-01

395

Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.  

PubMed

Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ?-6/?-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. PMID:24334039

Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

2014-03-01

396

Cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate to the sesquiterpene olefins humulene and caryophyllene by an enzyme system from sage (Salvia officinalis).  

PubMed

A soluble enzyme preparation obtained from sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves was shown to catalyze the divalent metal-ion dependent cyclization of trans, trans-farnesyl pyrophosphate to the macrocyclic sesquiterpene olefins humulene and caryophyllene. The identities of the biosynthetic products were confirmed by radiochromatographic analysis and by preparation of crystalline derivatives, and the specificity of labeling in the cyclization reaction was established by chemical degradation of the olefins derived enzymatically from [1-3H2]farnesyl pyrophosphate. These results constitute the first report on the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate to humulene and caryophyllene, two of the most common sesquiterpenes in nature, and the first description of a soluble sesquiterpene cyclase to be isolated from leaves of a higher plant. PMID:6486812

Croteau, R; Gundy, A

1984-09-01

397

Does kainic acid induce partial brain lesion in an invertebrate model: sepia officinalis? Comparison with electrolytic lesion.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the feasibility of excitotoxic lesions in the cuttlefish in the mapping of brain functions in Cephalopods. Adult animals were injected locally with a neurotoxin, kainic acid. The brain region receiving the neurotoxin was the vertical lobe, a key brain structure for learning and memory processes. Brain damage induced by these injections was evaluated using different histological stainings: hematoxilin-eosin, Fink-Heimer and DAPI. The results were compared with histological changes after electrolytic lesion of the vertical lobe. Neurodegeneration was revealed in and around the injection site: an intense area of proliferative cells, degenerating terminal axon ramifications and cell death. In comparison with electrolytic lesion, excitotoxic lesion displays important advantages, since fibres of passage are not destroyed by kainic acid injection, which induces only a restricted lesion and so is an appropriate method of investigating the role of the vertical lobe or other brain regions in a Cephalopod model, Sepia officinalis. PMID:18722358

Graindorge, Nicolas; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Chichery, Raymond; Dickel, Ludovic; Bellanger, Cécile

2008-10-31

398

Quality consistency evaluation of Melissa officinalis L. commercial herbs by HPLC fingerprint and quantitation of selected phenolic acids.  

PubMed

To evaluate the quality consistency of commercial medicinal herbs, a simple and reliable HPLC method with UV-vis detector was developed, both for fingerprint analysis and quantitation of some pharmacologically active constituents (marker compounds). Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) was chosen for this study because it is widely used as an aromatic, culinary and medicine remedy. About fifty peaks were found in each chromatogram of a lemon balm extract, including twelve satisfactorily resolved characteristic peaks. A reference chromatographic fingerprint for the studied medicinal herb was calculated using Matlab 9.1 software as a result of analysing all the 19 lemon balm samples obtained from 12 Polish manufacturers. The similarity values and the results of principal component analysis revealed that all the samples were highly correlated with the reference fingerprint and could be accurately classified in relation to their quality consistency. Next, a quantitation of selected phenolic acids in the studied samples was performed. The results have shown that the levels of phenolic acids, i.e. gallic, chlorogenic, syringic, caffeic, ferulic and rosmarinic were as follows (mg/g of dry weight): 0.001-0.067, 0.010-0.333, 0.007-0.553, 0.047-0.705, 0.006-1.589 and 0.158-48.608, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that rosmarinic acid occurs in M. officinalis at the highest level, whereas gallic acid in the lowest. A detailed inspection of these data has also revealed that reference chromatographic fingerprints combined with quantitation of pharmacologically active constituents of the plant could be used as an efficient strategy for monitoring of the lemon balm quality consistency. PMID:23770780

Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek

2013-09-01

399

Dichloromethane fraction of Melissa officinalis induces apoptosis by activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human leukemia cell lines.  

PubMed

Various components from medicinal plants are currently used in cancer therapy because of their apoptosis-inducing effects. The present study has aimed to investigate the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of Melissa officinalis on tumor cells. We prepared different fractions of this plant to investigate their inhibitory effects on two leukemia cell lines, Jurkat and K562. Fractions with the highest inhibitory effects were examined for induction of apoptosis by the annexin V/propidium iodide assay and cell cycle changes by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction evaluated the changes in expression of apoptosis-related genes. Among different fractions, dichloromethane and n-hexane dose-dependent showed the strongest inhibitory effects on both K562 and Jurkat cells. The dichloromethane fraction significantly induced apoptosis at concentration of 50 µg/ml on Jurkat (85.66?±?4.9%) and K562 cells (65.04?±?0.93%) at 24 h after treatment (p?officinalis had the ability to induce apoptosis and change apoptosis-related gene expression in leukemia cells. PMID:23432355

Ebrahimnezhad Darzi, Salimeh; Amirghofran, Zahra

2013-06-01

400

Sexual dimorphism of staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) affects pollinator behavior and seed set.  

PubMed

The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual dimorphism in plants without the confounding effects of genetic differences between separate male and female individuals. PMID:24690875

Davis, Sandra L; Dudle, Dana A; Nawrocki, Jenna R; Freestone, Leah M; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B; Britton, Michael M

2014-01-01

401

The interplay of pollination, costs of reproduction and plant size in maternal fertility limitation in perennial Paeonia officinalis.  

PubMed

Although several factors can limit female fertility in perennial plants, rarely have they been jointly studied in a single species over several years. In this study we experimentally manipulate seed production and simultaneously analyse the potential contribution of pollen limitation, costs of reproduction and plant size to variation in seed output over a 3-year period in the perennial herb Paeonia officinalis, in southern France. Since this rare species is threatened by forest closure in many sites we also examine the causes of female fertility variation in relation to habitat closure (open habitat vs. woodland). P. officinalis has a partial self-incompatibility system and only very low ability for autonomous self pollination in the absence of pollinators. However, supplementary pollination of individual plants in three consecutive years did not significantly increase seed production above natural levels. Forest closure was associated with a decline in ovule and seed production, which again was not due to pollen limitation since supplementary pollination had no significant effect on seed set in the woodland habitat. Comparison of the maternal fertility of plants which were previously excluded from reproduction with those which were hand pollinated to maximise seed set in two previous years produced no evidence that seed production in year three is limited by costs associated with prior reproduction. Likewise, flowering probability was not related to prior seed production but was however positively related to plant size. The absence of any influence of pollen limitation or prior reproduction on seed production suggests that sub-maximal seed production in long-lived perennial herbs may be part of a size-dependent strategy that maximises life-time seed production and fitness without compromising survival. PMID:17277927

Andrieu, Emilie; Debussche, Max; Galloni, Marta; Thompson, John D

2007-06-01

402

Variations in water status, gas exchange, and growth in Rosmarinus officinalis plants infected with Glomus deserticola under drought conditions.  

PubMed

The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus deserticola on the water relations, gas exchange parameters, and vegetative growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water stress was studied. Plants were grown with and without the mycorrhizal fungus under glasshouse conditions and subjected to water stress by withholding irrigation water for 14 days. Along the experimental period, a significant effect of the fungus on the plant growth was observed, and under water stress, mycorrhizal plants showed an increase in aerial and root biomass compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. The decrease in the soil water potential generated a decrease in leaf water potential (psi(l)) and stem water potential (psi(x)) of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, with this decrease being lower in mycorrhizal water-stressed plants. Mycorrhization also had positive effects on the root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of water stressed plants. Furthermore, mycorrhizal-stressed plants showed a more important decrease in osmotic potential at full turgor (psi(os)) than did non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants, indicating the capacity of osmotic adjustment. Mycorrhizal infection also improved photosynthetic activity (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) in plants under water stress compared to the non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants. A similar behaviour was observed in the photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) with this parameter being lower in non-mycorrhizal plants than in mycorrhizal plants under water stress conditions. In the same way, under water restriction, mycorrhizal plants showed higher values of chlorophyll content than did non-mycorrhizal plants. Thus, the results obtained indicated that the mycorrhizal symbiosis had a beneficial effect on the water status and growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water-stress conditions. PMID:15266714

Sánchez-Blanco, Ma Jesús; Ferrández, Trinitario; Morales, Ma Angeles; Morte, Asunción; Alarcón, Juan José

2004-06-01

403

Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Kurdistan, Iran by HS/SPME method and calculation of the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents of the essential oil of wild Melissa officinalis L. obtained from the Kurdistan province of Iran were extracted by headspace/solid-phase micro-extraction and were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Of a total of 14 compounds in the oil, 12 (85.7%) were identified. The main components were as follows: (E)-citral (37.2%), neral (23.9%) and citronellal (20.3%). Some physicochemical properties, such as the logarithm of calculated octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log?K (ow))(,) total biodegradation (TB (d) in mol?h(-1) and g?h(-1)), water solubility (S (w), mg?L(-1) at 25°C) and median lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)), were calculated for compounds 1-14 from M. officinalis L. PMID:21809949

Taherpour, Avat Arman; Maroofi, Hossein; Rafie, Zeinab; Larijani, Kambiz

2012-01-01

404

Composition of the fresh leaves and stems of Melissa officinalis and evaluation of skin irritation in a reconstituted human epidermis model.  

PubMed

The composition of a centrifuged product obtained from the fresh leaves and stems of Melissa officinalis and skin irritation in the reconstituted human epidermis (Episkin model) have been investigated in comparison to the EtOH-H(2)O (1:1) extract obtained by Soxhlet from the dried plant. Two new sulfated triterpenes (1 and 2) and two ionol derivatives have been isolated for the first time from Melissa officinalis together with caffeic and rosmarinic acids. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Both the centrifuged material and its major constituents neither affected cell viability nor caused the release of pro-inflammatory mediators or the decrease of trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in the reconstituted human epidermis. PMID:19653667

Mencherini, Teresa; Picerno, Patrizia; Russo, Paola; Meloni, Marisa; Aquino, Rita

2009-08-01

405

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF GALLIC ACID, ELLAGIC ACID AND ASCORBIC ACID IN EMBLICA OFFICINALIS AND IN UNANI POLYHERBAL FORMULATIONS BY VALIDATED HPLC METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple rapid and economic simultaneous HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantification of Gallic acid (GA), Ellagic acid (EA) and Ascorbic acid (AA), in Emblica officinalis Linn. (aamla) and in two poly herbal Unani formulations, containing aamla as an ingredient. Separation of was achieved on a reverse phase C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column with mobile phase 0.1% orthophosphoric

Mhaveer Singh; Y. T. Kamal; E. T. Tamboli; Rabea Parveen; Khalid M. Siddiqui; S. M. A. Zaidi; Sayeed Ahmad

2012-01-01

406

Modulation of Mood and Cognitive Performance Following Acute Administration of Single Doses of Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm) with Human CNS Nicotinic and Muscarinic Receptor-Binding Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) is a herbal medicine that has traditionally been attributed with memory-enhancing properties, but which is currently more widely used as a mild sedative and sleep aid. In a previous study it was demonstrated that a commercial Melissa extract led to dose-specific increases in calmness, and dose-dependent decrements in timed memory task performance. However, the extract utilized

D O Kennedy; G Wake; S Savelev; N T J Tildesley; E K Perry; K A Wesnes; A B Scholey

2003-01-01

407

Selenium, iodine, ?-3 PUFA and natural antioxidant from Melissa officinalis L.: A combination of components from healthier dry fermented sausages formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new formulation of dry fermented sausage, including ingredients that improve the nutritional and health benefits of this type of product is presented. Se yeast (2g\\/kg), iodized salt (26g\\/kg), linseed:algae (3:2) emulsion (62.5g\\/kg), and lyophilized water extract of Melissa officinalis L. as a source of natural antioxidants (686mg\\/kg), yielded dry fermented sausages with technological and sensory properties similar to traditional

Mikel García-Íñiguez de Ciriano; Eduardo Larequi; Sheyla Rehecho; Maria Isabel Calvo; Rita Yolanda Cavero; Íñigo Navarro-Blasco; Iciar Astiasarán; Diana Ansorena

2010-01-01

408

Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.F., (lemon) and Melissa officinalis, (balm) were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,N- diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (Deet) as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05) against the tested species, thus oils were more

MA Oshaghi; R Ghalandari; H Vatandoost; M Shayeghi; M Kamali-nejad; H Tourabi-Khaledi; M Abolhassani; M Hashemzadeh

409

Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Kurdistan, Iran by HS\\/SPME method and calculation of the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of the essential oil of wild Melissa officinalis L. obtained from the Kurdistan province of Iran were extracted by headspace\\/solid-phase micro-extraction and were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Of a total of 14 compounds in the oil, 12 (85.7%) were identified. The main components were as follows: (E)-citral (37.2%), neral (23.9%) and citronellal (20.3%).

Avat Taherpour; Hossein Maroofi; Zeinab Rafie; Kambiz Larijani

2011-01-01

410

Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Kurdistan, Iran by HS\\/SPME method and calculation of the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of the essential oil of wild Melissa officinalis L. obtained from the Kurdistan province of Iran were extracted by headspace\\/solid-phase micro-extraction and were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Of a total of 14 compounds in the oil, 12 (85.7%) were identified. The main components were as follows: (E)-citral (37.2%), neral (23.9%) and citronellal (20.3%).

Avat Taherpour; Hossein Maroofi; Zeinab Rafie; Kambiz Larijani

2012-01-01

411

The detection of radical scavenging compounds in crude extract of borage ( Borago officinalis L.) by using an on-line HPLC-DPPH method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid evaluation of antioxidant activity of crude borage (Borago officinalis L.) extract was determined by using DPPH free radical method. This borage extract resulted in a rapid decrease of the absorbance and showed very high hydrogen-donating capacity towards the 2,2?-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. A new HPLC-DPPH on-line method was applied for a screening of several radical scavenging components in this

Michael Murkovic

2002-01-01

412

Variability in the Content of Gamma-Linolenic Acid and Other Fatty Acids of the Seed Oil of Germplasm of Wild and Cultivated Borage (Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and six Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) accessions of cultivated and wild germplasm collections from different origins were evaluated for gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and other fatty acids and seeds characters. GLA showed an important range of variation, from 8.7% to 28.6% of the seed oil. Oleic, linoleic and erucic acid also showed wide ranges of variation. White flowered cultivated

Antonio De Haro; Vicente Domínguez; Mercedes del Río

2002-01-01

413

The effect of Morinda officinalis How, a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, on the DRL 72-s schedule in rats and the forced swimming test in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study observed the antidepressant-like action of the medicinal plant Morinda officinalis in the differential reinforcement of low rate 72-s (DRL 72-s) schedule, a behavioral screen selective and sensitive to antidepressant drugs, and the forced swimming test, a well-known animal model of depression. In the DRL 72-s schedule in rats, the plant extract (25–50 mg\\/kg), similar to clinically effective

Zhong-Qi Zhang; Li Yuan; Ming Yang; Zhi-Pu Luo; Yi-Min Zhao

2002-01-01

414

Effects of chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract on anxiety-like reactivity and on circadian and exploratory activities in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the effects of chronic (15 consecutive days of treatment) per os administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract (Cyracos®, Naturex) on anxiety-like reactivity in mice. As measured by HPLC, Cyracos® contains significant amounts of rosmarinic acid and the triterpenoids oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, which inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) activity and increase GABA levels in

Alvin Ibarra; Nicolas Feuillere; Marc Roller; Edith Lesburgere; Daniel Beracochea

2010-01-01

415

Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A ?-Induced Toxicity.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (A?) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on A?-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with A? and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against A?-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction. PMID:24250617

Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

2013-01-01

416

Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances.  

PubMed

Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia. Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which Cyracos(®), a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos(®) contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was a prospective, open-label, 15-day study to evaluate the efficacy of Cyracos(®) on stressed volunteers, who have mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Using clinician rating criteria, primary outcomes showed improvement of symptoms. Cyracos(®) reduced anxiety manifestations by 18% (p < 0.01), ameliorated anxiety-associated symptoms by 15% (p < 0.01) and lowered insomnia by 42% (p < 0.01). As much as 95% of subjects (19/20) responded to treatment, of which 70% (14/20) achieved full remission for anxiety, 85% (17/20) for insomnia, and 70% (14/20) for both. Our study demonstrates, for the first time that chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. relieves stress-related effects. It is critical that further studies incorporate a placebo and investigate physiological stress markers. PMID:22207903

Cases, Julien; Ibarra, Alvin; Feuillère, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sukkar, Samir G

2011-12-01

417

Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A ?-Induced Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (A?) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on A?-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with A? and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against A?-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction.

Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

2013-01-01

418

Transformation of Althaea officinalis L. by Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of transgenic roots expressing the anti-HIV microbicide cyanovirin-N.  

PubMed

The marshmallow plant (Althaea officinalis L.) has been used for centuries in medicine and other applications. Valuable secondary metabolites have previously been identified in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-generated transgenic 'hairy' roots in this species. In the present study, transgenic roots were produced in A. officinalis using A. rhizogenes. In addition to wild-type lines, roots expressing the anti-human immunodeficiency virus microbicide candidate, cyanovirin-N (CV-N), were generated. Wild-type and CV-N root lines were transferred to liquid culture and increased in mass by 49 and 19 % respectively over a 7 day culture period. In the latter, the concentration of CV-N present in the root tissue was 2.4 ?g/g fresh weight, with an average secretion rate into the growth medium of 0.02 ?g/ml/24 h. A. officinalis transgenic roots may therefore in the future be used not only as a source of therapeutic secondary metabolites, but also as an expression system for the production of recombinant pharmaceuticals. PMID:23852261

Drake, Pascal M W; de Moraes Madeira, Luisa; Szeto, Tim H; Ma, Julian K-C

2013-12-01

419

Emblica officinalis corrects functional, biochemical and molecular deficits in experimental diabetic neuropathy by targeting the oxido-nitrosative stress mediated inflammatory cascade.  

PubMed

Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus which affects more than 50% of diabetic patients. Diabetic neuropathic pain is amongst the most difficult types of pain to treat mainly due to the lack of understanding of its etiology and i