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1

Original article Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts August 2000) Abstract -- The short-term actions of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts, and of isoquercitrin, flavonoid present in Equisetum arvense, on in vitro fermentation by rumen

Boyer, Edmond

2

A genomics resource for investigating regulation of essential oil production in Lavandula angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) as a model system for investigating molecular regulation of essential oil (a mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes)\\u000a production in plants. As an initial step toward building the necessary ‘genomics toolbox’ for this species, we constructed\\u000a two cDNA libraries from lavender leaves and flowers, and obtained sequence information for 14,213 high-quality expressed sequence\\u000a tags (ESTs).

Astrid Boecklemann; Grant N. Woronuk; Lukman Sarker; Soheil S. Mahmoud

2010-01-01

3

Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

2014-01-01

4

Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco  

PubMed Central

We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600?mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000?mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:22162677

Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

2012-01-01

5

Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.-a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties-since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health. PMID:24971151

Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

2014-01-01

6

Protein Drug Targets of Lavandula angustifolia on treatment of Rat Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Different treatment strategies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are being studied for treating or slowing the progression of AD. Many pharmaceutically important regulation systems operate through proteins as drug targets. Here, we investigate the drug target proteins in beta-amyloid (A?) injected rat hippocampus treated with Lavandula angustifolia (LA) by proteomics techniques. The reported study showed that lavender extract (LE) improves the spatial performance in AD animal model by diminishing A? production in histopathology of hippocampus, so in this study neuroprotective proteins expressed in A? injected rats treated with LE were scrutinized. Rats were divided into three groups including normal, A? injected, and A? injected that was treated with LE. Protein expression profiles of hippocampus tissue were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) method and dysregulated proteins such as Snca, NF-L, Hspa5, Prdx2, Apoa1, and Atp5a1were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. KEGG pathway and gene ontology (GO) categories were used by searching DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. All detected protein spots were used to determine predictedinteractions with other proteins in STRING online database. Different isoforms of important protein, Snca that exhibited neuroprotective effects by anti-apoptotic properties were expressed. NF-L involved in the maintenance of neuronal caliber. Hspa5 likewise Prdx2 displays as anti-apoptotic protein that Prdx2 also involved in the neurotrophic effects. Apoa1 has anti-inflammatory activity and Atp5a1, produces ATP from ADP. To sum up, these proteins as potential drug targets were expressed in hippocampus in response to effective components in LA may have therapeutic properties for the treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25561935

Zali, Hakimeh; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Akbar-zadeh Baghban, Alireza

2015-01-01

7

Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - Part 2: Echinacea purpurea-Lavandula angustifolia.  

PubMed

This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 2: Echinacea purpurea Moench-Lavandula angustifolia Mill. PMID:25600644

Gangemi, Sebastiano; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schmidt, Richard J

2015-04-01

8

Studies on the Effect of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) upon the Growth, Productivity and Quality of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have been conducted on the effect of the aerosol and soil heavy metal pollution upon the growth, development and quality of Lavandula angustifolia Mill, in field experiments, during the period of 1989-1992. Cultivars Hemus and Druzhba, which were used as experimental material, were grown in three different environments. The first was at a distance of 400 m from Non-Ferrous

Valcho D. Zheljazkov; Niels E. Nielsen

1996-01-01

9

Cardioprotective Effects of Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia on Isoproterenol-induced Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rat  

PubMed Central

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common presentation of the ischemic heart disease. Lavandula angustifolia is an herbaceous plant with antioxidative effects. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of lavandula angustifolia essential oil against isoproterenol-induced MI in rats. The dried sample was subjected to hydrodistillation by using a Clevenger and the oils were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of control, sham, isoproterenol and treatment with 5, 10, 20 mg/Kg of the essential oil. MI was induced by subcutaneous injection of Isoproterenol (100 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days at an interval of 24 h. The essential oil was given intraperitoneally every 24 h started at MI induction. Following anesthesia, hemodynamic parameters were measured. After sacrificing the animals, the hearts were removed to measure the heart to body weight ratio and histopathological examination. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in heart tissues for evaluating the activity of neutrophils and lipid peroxidation, respectively. The essential oil amended ECG pattern by suppressing ST-segment elevation and increasing R-amplitude. 10 mg/Kg of the essential oil significantly decreased heart to body weight ratio (P<0.001) and the elevation of MDA and MPO in myocardium, it also increased dp/dtmax from 2793 ± 210 to 4488 ± 253 mmHg/sec (P<0.001), and 20 mg/Kg of it significantly lowered LVEDP from 14 ± 3.43 to 4.3 ± 0.83 mmHg (P<0.001).The results demonstrated that L. angustifolia protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced MI that it could be related to its antioxidant properties. PMID:25561934

Ziaee, Mojtaba; Khorrami, Arash; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Nourafcan, Hassan; Amiraslanzadeh, Masoumeh; Rameshrad, Maryam; Garjani, Mehraveh; Garjani, Alireza

2015-01-01

10

The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (?FIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1?:?1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1?:?1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro

2013-01-01

11

Biochemical composition and antioxidant properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil are shielded by propolis against UV radiations.  

PubMed

UV radiations are principal causes of skin cancer and aging. Suntan creams were developed to protect epidermis and derma layers against photodegradation and photooxidation. The addition of antioxidant plant extracts (i.e. essential oil) to sunscreens is habitually performed, to increase their UV protective effects and to contrast pro-radical and cytotoxic compounds present in these solutions. According to these observations, in the present work, the alteration of chemical composition and bioactive properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil, exposed to UV light, was investigated. UV induced a significant deterioration of lavender oil biochemical profile. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of this solution, in in vitro tests and directly on B16-F10 melanoma cells, greatly decreased after UV treatment. Our results also showed that essential oil was shielded from UV stress by propolis addition. Even after UV treatment, bee glue highly protected lavender oil secondary metabolites from degradation and also preserved their antiradical properties, both in in vitro antioxidant assays and in cell oxidative damage evaluations. This research proposed propolis as highly efficient UV protective and antiradical additive for sunscreens, cosmetics and alimentary or pharmaceutical products containing plant extracts. PMID:24372191

Gismondi, Angelo; Angelo, Gismondi; Canuti, Lorena; Lorena, Canuti; Grispo, Marta; Marta, Grispo; Canini, Antonella; Antonella, Canini

2014-01-01

12

Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts and isoquercitrin on the fermentation of diets varying in forage contents by rumen microorganisms in batch culture.  

PubMed

The short-term actions of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts, and of isoquercitrin, flavonoid present in Equisetum arvense, on in vitro fermentation by rumen microbes were studied in batch culture. The orchard grass hay:barley ratios in the three experimental diets were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 on a DM basis. The production rates of all volatile fatty acids except isobutyrate were strongly influenced by the composition of the diet and to a lesser extent, by plant extracts, with significant interactions between both factors. When hay was the only substrate, the addition of L. officinalis and E. arvense enhanced the fermentation rate by 50%, through an increased release of acetate and propionate. On the contrary, with the two other diets, the fermentation rate was strongly lowered by isoquercitrin. Gas outputs were not significantly influenced by plant extracts. PMID:11140815

Broudiscou, L P; Lassalas, B

2000-01-01

13

Randomized Controlled Trial for Salvia sclarea or Lavandula angustifolia: Differential Effects on Blood Pressure in Female Patients with Urinary Incontinence Undergoing Urodynamic Examination  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inhalation of Salvia sclarea (clary sage; clary) or Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil vapors on autonomic nervous system activity in female patients with urinary incontinence undergoing urodynamic assessment. Study design, location, and subjects This study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial carried out in 34 female patients with urinary incontinence. Outcome measure The subjects were randomized to inhale lavender, clary, or almond (control) oil at concentrations of 5% (vol/vol) each. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and salivary cortisol were measured before and after inhalation of these odors for 60 minutes. Results The clary oil group experienced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure compared with the control (p=0.048) and lavender oil (p=0.026) groups, a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure compared with the lavender oil group (p=0.034) and a significant decrease in respiratory rate compared with the control group (p<0.001). In contrast, the lavender oil group tended to increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the control group. Compared with the control group, inhalation of lavender oil (p=0.045) and clary oil (p<0.001) resulted in statistically significant reductions in respiratory rate. Conclusions These results suggest that lavender oil inhalation may be inappropriate in lowering stress during urodynamic examinations, despite its antistress effects, while clary oil inhalation may be useful in inducing relaxation in female urinary incontinence patients undergoing urodynamic assessments. PMID:23360656

Lee, Yun Hee; Kang, Purum; You, Ji Hye; Park, Mira; Min, Sun Seek

2013-01-01

14

Anxiolytic-like effect of inhalation of essential oil from Lavandula officinalis: investigation of changes in 5-HT turnover and involvement of olfactory stimulation.  

PubMed

Essential oil extracted from Lavandula officinalis (LvEO) has a long history of usage in anxiety alleviation with good evidence to support its use. However, findings and information regarding the exact pathway involved and mechanism of action remain inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to (1) reveal the influence of olfactory stimulation, and (2) determine whether the serotonergic system is involved in the anxiolytic effect of LvEO when it is inhaled. To this end, we first compared the anxiety-related behaviors of normosmic and anosmic mice. LvEO inhalation caused notable elevation in anxiety-related parameters with or without olfactory perception, indicating that olfactory stimulation is not necessarily required for LvEO to be effective. Neurochemical analysis of the serotonin (5-HT) turnover rate, accompanied by EPM testing, was then performed. LvEO significantly increased the striatal and hippocampal levels of 5-HT and decreased turnover rates in accordance with the anxiolytic behavioral changes. These results, together with previous findings, support the hypothesis that serotonergic neurotransmission plays a certain role in the anxiolytic properties of LvEO. PMID:25230519

Takahashi, Mizuho; Yamanaka, Ayako; Asanuma, Chihiro; Asano, Hiroko; Satou, Tadaaki; Koike, Kazuo

2014-07-01

15

Protective Effect of Lavandula stoechas and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The authors aimed in the present study to assess the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (ROEO) and Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Essential oil samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Rats were divided into four groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy+ROEO (H+ROEO), healthy+LSEO (H+LSEO), diabetic+ROEO (D+ROEO), and diabetic+LSEO (D+LSEO). The use of GC-MS allowed to the identification of 15 and 22 compounds in ROEO and LSEO, respectively. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test showed that ROEO and LSEO had an important antioxidant capacity. In vivo, we initially found that ROEO and LSEO treatment protected against the decrease in alloxan-induced body weight gain, relative reproductive organ weights, testosterone level, as well as sperm quality decline. On the other hand, we showed that alloxan administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testis, epididymis, and sperm. More importantly, ROEO and LSEO treatment significantly protected against oxidative damage of the male reproductive organ systems in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggested that ROEO and LSEO exerted a potential protective effect against alloxan-induced reproductive function damage and oxidative stress in male rat. The beneficial effect of ROEO and LSEO might be related, in part, to their antioxidant properties. PMID:25105335

Sebai, Hichem; Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Gharbi, Najoua; Sakly, Mohsen

2015-02-01

16

Chromosome Karyotypes of Echinacea angustifolia var. angustifolia and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome karyotypes of the most commonly cultivated and medicinally used Echinacea taxa, E. angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia and E. purpurea (L.) Moench., were analyzed. The chromosomes of both taxa are medium in length, ranging from 4.12 to 5.83 µm in E. angustifolia var. angustifolia and 3.99 to 6.08 µm in E. purpurea. No abrupt length changes in the chromosomes were

Xiping Wang; Eatherley Hood; Meihua Wang; Richard Scalzo

17

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

18

Echinacea angustifolia: An Emerging Medicinal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Echinacea (Asteraceae) is native to North America and consists of nine species (McGregor 1968). E. angustifolia DC, a narrow leafed species, is distributed on barrens and dry prairies from Minnesota to Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, the Dakotas, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba (McGregor 1968; Kindscher 1989; Foster 1991). E. angustifolia grows lower and exhibits a smaller

Ali O. Sari; Mario R. Morales; James E. Simon

1999-01-01

19

Differential activity of autochthonous bacteria in controlling drought stress in native Lavandula and Salvia plants species under drought conditions in natural arid soil.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of autochthonous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria was studied in Lavandula dentata and Salvia officinalis growing in a natural arid Mediterranean soil under drought conditions. These bacteria identified as Bacillus megaterium (Bm), Enterobacter sp. (E), Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and Bacillus sp. (Bsp). Each bacteria has different potential to meliorate water limitation and alleviating drought stress in these two plant species. B. thuringiensis promoted growth and drought avoidance in Lavandula by increasing K content, by depressing stomatal conductance, and it controlled shoot proline accumulation. This bacterial effect on increasing drought tolerance was related to the decrease of glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) that resulted sensitive indexes of lower cellular oxidative damage involved in the adaptative drought response in B. thuringiensis-inoculated Lavandula plants. In contrast, in Salvia, having intrinsic lower shoot/root ratio, higher stomatal conductance and lower APX and GR activities than Lavandula, the bacterial effects on nutritional, physiological and antioxidant enzymatic systems were lower. The benefit of bacteria depended on intrinsic stress tolerance of plant involved. Lavadula demonstrated a greater benefit than Salvia to control drought stress when inoculated with B. thuringiensis. The bacterial drought tolerance assessed as survival, proline, and indolacetic acid production showed the potential of this bacteria to help plants to grow under drought conditions. B. thuringiensis may be used for Lavandula plant establishment in arid environments. Particular characteristic of the plant species as low shoot/root ratio and high stomatal conductance are important factors controlling the bacterial effectiveness improving nutritional, physiological, and metabolic plant activities. PMID:24337805

Armada, Elisabeth; Roldán, Antonio; Azcon, Rosario

2014-02-01

20

ORIGINAL PAPER Intercontinental dispersal of Typha angustifolia  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Intercontinental dispersal of Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia between Europe introduced. In North America, the cattails Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia, and their hybrid T. 9 glauca dispersal Á Typha angustifolia Á Typha latifolia Á Hybridization Á Microsatellites Á Chloroplast DNA Á

Row, Jeffrey R.

21

Drying of Echinacea angustifolia Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia roots were dried at 23, 30, 40, 50, and 60°C to determine the effect of drying on chemical constituency. During drying, the concentrations of the alkamides, cis or trans undeca-2-en 8, 10-diyonic acid isobutylamide and cis or trans dodeca-2E, 4E, 8Z, 10-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide, did not decrease at any of the drying temperatures as compared with roots dried

R. Kabganian; D. J. Carrier; S. Sokansanj

2003-01-01

22

officinalis) Abstract ITo  

E-print Network

--""."-- - -t- -- I ' REPORTS I Effects of Crowding on the Social Behavior of Cuttlefish (Se as to avoid oilier cuttlefish. Those in die small tank hovered more and sat on die bottom less, showed more-cultured cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) have been the that are sufficiently large to permit a s~udy of this kind; we

Boal, Jean

23

Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature.  

PubMed

The essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia L. and Mentha piperita L. were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major constituents were linalool (22.35%), linalyl acetate (21.80%), trans-ocimene (6.16%) and 4-terpineol (5.19%) for L. angustifolia and menthol (33.28%), menthone (22.03%), and menthyl acetate (6.40%) for M. piperita. In vitro antibacterial activity of both EOs against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus CECT 4459 showed high inhibition against S. aureus. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained with L. angustifolia (0.25 ?L/mL) against S. aureus; M. piperita exhibited a MIC of 0.50 ?L/mL against both microorganisms. Both EOs caused a significant decrease of bacterial growth in minced beef (p<0.05) stored at 9±1 °C. Minced beef treated with EOs showed the lowest TBARS values (lipid oxidation). Moreover, the results showed that the addition of EOs significantly extended fresh meat odor even at abuse temperature. PMID:22789458

Djenane, Djamel; Aïder, Mohammed; Yangüela, Javier; Idir, Lamia; Gómez, Diego; Roncalés, Pedro

2012-12-01

24

Calcium distribution and function in the glandular trichomes of Lavandula pinnata L.  

E-print Network

Calcium distribution and function in the glandular trichomes of Lavandula pinnata L. Shan (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Biology, Greensboro, NC 27402), Calcium­15. 2010.--Calcium distribution during peltate and capitate glandular trichome development in Lavandula

Kirchoff, Bruce K.

25

Lavandula species as accompanying plants in Cupressus replanting strategies: Effect on plant growth, mycorrhizal  

E-print Network

, mycorrhizal soil infectivity and soil microbial catabolic diversity Lahcen Ouahmane a,b , Mohamed Hafidi objective of this study was to measure the mycorrhizal dependencies of Cupressus and Lavandula species, to assess the contribution of Lavandula species to the mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI) and to determine

Thioulouse, Jean

26

[Rapid propagation of Echinacea angustifolia].  

PubMed

The embryo of Echinacea angustifolia was used for explants to induce shoots and callus on MS medium. The plantlets could produce from embryo directly and the shoots could be induced to form fasciculate buds through the callus differentiation. The green plantlets from embryo or fasciculated buds were used for rooting inducement. The experiment showed that the embryo pre-cultured at 4 degrees C and in dark for 7 days can germinate easier than at other cultural conditions; Treatment with low temperature and dark were favorable for growth of radicle and plumule and development of green plantlets; A single shoot could proliferate rapidly to form fasciculated buds by means of callus induction and differentiation; the optimal medium for growth and proliferate were MS + BA 1.0 mg/L + NAA 0.5 mg/L. With this method, the proliferous coefficient should be achieved 3.05. PMID:17918425

Ma, Lin

2007-06-01

27

Étude de six huiles essentielles : composition chimique et activité antibactérienne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les huiles essentielles sont utilisées en médecine traditionnelle pour leurs activités antiseptiques. Au cours de travaux\\u000a précédents, le genre Thymus avait montré de bons résultats comme antifongique. L’étude a été poursuivie sur l’activité antibactérienne.\\u000a Six huiles essentielles (Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula latifolia, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris chémotype carvacrol, Thymus zygis chémotype thymol) ont été testées sur deux souches: Escherichia

J. Kaloustian; J. Chevalier; C. Mikail; M. Martino; L. Abou; M.-F. Vergnes

2008-01-01

28

Effect of lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia) on cerebral edema and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke.  

PubMed

Lavender belongs to the family Labiatae and has a variety of cosmetic uses as well as therapeutic purposes in herbal medicine. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of lavender oil against brain edema and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke. Under Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1h in rats. Lavender oil (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg ip (and/or vehicle was injected at the onset of ischemia. Infarct size, cerebral edema, functional outcome, and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated using standard methods. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression of VEGF, Bax, and Bcl-2. Treatment with lavender oil at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly diminished infarct size, brain edema, and improved functional outcome after cerebral ischemia (P<0.001). Lavender oil (200 mg/kg) also reduced the content of malondialdehyde and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity (P<0.001). Although lavender oil enhanced VEGF expression (P=0.026), it could not decrease the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio (pro- to anti-apoptotic proteins) in the rat brain (P>0.05). The results indicated that lavender oil has neuroprotective activity against cerebral ischemia and alleviated neurological function in rats, and the mechanism may be related to augmentation in endogenous antioxidant defense, inhibiting oxidative stress, and increasing VEGF expression in the rat brain. However, lavender oil could not suppress the apoptosis pathway. PMID:24384140

Vakili, Abedin; Sharifat, Shaghayegh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza

2014-02-22

29

Echinacea angustifolia helpt niet bij verkoudheden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samenvatting  De indianen in Noord-Amerika gebruikten Echinacea angustifolia al meer dan twee eeuwen geleden bij allerlei infecties. Die traditie kwam 70 jaar geleden naar Europa. Echinacea werd vooral populair bij de behandeling van verkoudheden. Het ontbreken van doeltreffende preventieve en oorzakelijk gerichte\\u000a curatieve therapie droeg bij tot deze toepassing.

G. Laekeman

2006-01-01

30

The Biosynthetic Origin of Irregular Monoterpenes in Lavandula  

PubMed Central

Lavender essential oils are constituted predominantly of regular monoterpenes, for example linalool, 1,8-cineole, and camphor. However, they also contain irregular monoterpenes including lavandulol and lavandulyl acetate. Although the majority of genes responsible for the production of regular monoterpenes in lavenders are now known, enzymes (including lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS)) catalyzing the biosynthesis of irregular monoterpenes in these plants have not been described. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase cDNA, termed Lavandula x intermedia lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LiLPPS), through a homology-based cloning strategy. The LiLPPS ORF, encoding for a 305-amino acid long protein, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The approximately 34.5-kDa bacterially produced protein specifically catalyzed the head-to-middle condensation of two dimethylallyl diphosphate units to LPP in vitro with apparent Km and kcat values of 208 ± 12 ?m and 0.1 s?1, respectively. LiLPPS is a homodimeric enzyme with a sigmoidal saturation curve and Hill coefficient of 2.7, suggesting a positive co-operative interaction among its catalytic sites. LiLPPS could be used to modulate the production of lavandulol and its derivatives in plants through metabolic engineering. PMID:23306202

Demissie, Zerihun A.; Erland, Lauren A. E.; Rheault, Mark R.; Mahmoud, Soheil S.

2013-01-01

31

BREAKING SEED DORMANCY IN ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA AND ARROWLEAF BALSAMROOT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia and arrowleaf ba1samroot are valuable native plants that are difficult to germinate. Three hormones (kinetin, gibberelic acid, and ethylene) were tested along with a potassium nitrate treatment to evaluate their effect on breaking seed dormancy. Germination of E. angustifolia responded very strongly to treatment with ethephon (a source of ethylene), though field emergence was poorer than one would

Peter Sexton

32

Allelopathic potential of Echinacea angustifolia D.C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia D.C., the common purple coneflower of the western Great Plains, has been shown to produce many biologically active compounds. The allelopathic potential of water soluble and volatile compounds from E. angustifolia plants from three separate populations was examined. Lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa), the common allelopathy bioassay system, as well as seeds from two native species, Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

A. L. Viles; R. N. Reese

1996-01-01

33

Analysis of highly secondary-metabolite producing roots and flowers of two Echinacea angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia accessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia var. angustifolia (Asteraceae) is widely used in the nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical markets. Echinacoside, a phenol glycoside, is actually considered the marker compound and it is used for the assessment of quality of the roots. The plant material containing at least 1% of echinacoside is required by the market for the production of standardized extracts. The selection of

Dall’Acqua Stefano; Aiello Nicola; Scartezzini Fabrizio; Albertin Valentina; Innocenti Gabbriella

2010-01-01

34

Does Melissa Officinalis Cause Withdrawal or Dependence?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. Case report: In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms.

Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Demirda?, Arif; Akp?nar, Abdullah

2015-01-01

35

Agrobacterium?mediated transformation of lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavandin (Lavandula x Emeric ex Loiseleur) is an aromatic plant, the essential oil of which is widely used in the perfume, cosmetic, flavouring and pharmaceutical industries. The qualitative or quantitative modification of its terpenes-containing essential oil by genetic engineering could have important scientific and commercial applications. In this study, we report the first Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer into lavandin. The

Sandrine Dronne; Sandrine Moja; Frédéric Jullien; Françoise Berger

1999-01-01

36

In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants against selected foodborne pathogens.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth and survival of pathogenic microorganisms of significant importance in food hygiene and to determine whether the antimicrobial effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. MIC and MBC were determined by the tube dilution method. Essential oils from Thymus vulgaris from Spain and France, Salvia sclarea, Salvia officinalis, Salvia lavandulifolia, Lavandula latifolia, Lavandula angustifolia, three hybrids of Lavandula latifolia x Lavandula angustifolia (Lavandin 'Super', Lavandin 'Abrialis', and Lavandin 'Grosso'), Rosmarinus officinalis, Hissopus officinalis, and Satureja montana were evaluated. Inhibition ranged from the strong activity of Satureja montana and Thymus vulgaris (France) to no inhibition with Salvia sclarea and Hissopus officinalis for each of the test strains: Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b, and Staphylococcus aureus. Because some of the essential oils were highly inhibitory in small quantities to selected pathogenic microorganisms, they may provide alternatives to conventional antimicrobial additives in foods. PMID:15222560

Rota, C; Carramiñana, J J; Burillo, J; Herrera, A

2004-06-01

37

Immunoanalysis of dehydrins in Araucaria angustifolia embryos.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the dehydrin content of mature Araucaria angustifolia embryos, a species of endangered and economically important conifers, native to southern Brazil, northeastern Argentina, and eastern Paraguay. The A. angustifolia seeds have been categorized as recalcitrant. Dehydrins were studied by western blot analysis and in situ immunolocalization microscopy using antibodies raised against the K segment, a highly conserved lysine-rich 15-amino acid sequence extensively used to recognize proteins immunologically related to the dehydrin family. Western blot analysis of the heat-stable protein fraction, as estimated by 15 % SDS-PAGE, revealed three main bands of approximately 20-, 26-, and 29-kDa; when 17.5 % SDS-PAGE was used, each band resolved into two other bands. Two thermosensitive dehydrin bands of around 16 and 35 kDa were common to the axis and cotyledons, and another thermosensitive band, with molecular mass of approximately 10 kDa, was present in the cotyledons only. Following alkaline phosphatase (AP) treatment, a gel mobility shift was detected for each one of the four main bands that can be due to phosphorylation. Dehydrins were detected in all axis and cotyledon tissues using in situ immunolocalization microscopy. At the subcellular level, dehydrins were immunolocalized in the nuclei, protein bodies, and microbodies. In the nucleus, dehydrins were found to be associated with chromatin. We concluded that the gel mobility shift for the four main bands (probably due to phosphorylation), the presence of thermosensitive bands, and the specific localizations in nuclei and protein bodies provide key starting points to understand the function of dehydrins in the embryo cells of this species. PMID:23263687

Farias-Soares, Francine Lunardi; Burrieza, Hernán Pablo; Steiner, Neusa; Maldonado, Sara; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

2013-08-01

38

Micropropagation of Lavandula latifolia through nodal bud culture of mature plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultures of Lavandula latifolia Medicus were established from axillary buds of mature field-grown plants. Explants were initially cultured on media with two different macronutrient combinations and benzyladenine or kinetin added either individually or with naphthaleneacetic acid. Subsequently, explants were subcultured in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 20% coconut milk, 0.57 µM indoleacetic acid and 8.88 µM benzyladenine. Shoot proliferation

Miguel Carlos Sánchez-Gras; Maria del Carmen Calvo

1996-01-01

39

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of borneol dehydrogenase from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia.  

PubMed

Several varieties of Lavandula x intermedia (lavandins) are cultivated for their essential oils (EOs) for use in cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. These EOs are mainly constituted of monoterpenes including camphor, which contributes an off odor reducing the olfactory appeal of the oil. We have recently constructed a cDNA library from the glandular trichomes (the sites of EO synthesis) of L. x intermedia plants. Here, we describe the cloning of a borneol dehydrogenase cDNA (LiBDH) from this library. The 780 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encoded a 259 amino acid short chain alcohol dehydrogenase with a predicted molecular mass of ca. 27.5 kDa. The recombinant LiBDH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The bacterially produced enzyme specifically converted borneol to camphor as the only product with K(m) and k(cat) values of 53 ?M and 4.0 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The LiBDH transcripts were specifically expressed in glandular trichomes of mature flowers indicating that like other Lavandula monoterpene synthases the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The cloning of LiBDH has far reaching implications in improving the quality of Lavandula EOs through metabolic engineering. PMID:23058847

Sarker, Lukman S; Galata, Mariana; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

2012-12-15

40

[Chemical constituents of Nauclea officinalis].  

PubMed

In order to study the chemical constituents in the water extract of the stem of Nauclea officinalis, column chromatography over D101 macroporous resin and silica gel and an automatic purification system were used to isolate and purify the chemical constituents from the extract. Nine compounds were obtained. By analysis of the physicochemical properties and spectral data, their structures were identified as naucleamide G (1), 3, 4-dimethoxyphenol-beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), kelampayoside A (3), 3alpha, 5alpha-tetrahydrodeoxycordifoline lactam (4), naucleamide A-10-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), pumiloside (6), 3-epi-pumiloside (7), strictosamide (8) and vincosamide (9), separately. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, compound 2 was found in plants of the genus Nauclea for the first time, and compounds 3 and 4 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:23672026

Zhu, Fen-Xia; Wang, Jing-Jing; Song, Jie; Ding, Shu-Min; Jia, Xiao-Bin

2013-02-01

41

Desiccation tolerance during different desiccation strategies in A. angustifolia embryos  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is native to the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil and is an endangered species. The mature seeds are recalcitrant and have large embryos (about 2.5 cm in length) that contain more than 1 g H2O.g dry mass (dm)-1. Successful cryopreservation requires reduction of ...

42

Genetic Variation in Echinacea angustifolia Along a Climatic Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Backgrounds and Aims Echinacea angustifolia is a widespread species distributed throughout the Great Plains region of North America. Genetic differentiation among populations was investigated along a 1500 km north-south climatic gradient in North America, a region with no major geographical barriers. The objective of the study was to determine if genetic differentiation of populations could be explained by an

D. W. S TILL; D.-H. K IM; N. A OYAMA

2005-01-01

43

Methods to overcome seed dormancy in Echinacea angustifolia DC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some factors (light, prechilling, gibberellic acid, ethylene) affecting germination of seeds of Echinacea angustifolia DC. were investigated. Without any pretreatment, the seeds germinated better in darkness than in light, however, percentages germination were low in both cases. GA3 did not increase germination in light. Prechilling for 7–15 days in light or in darkness hardly affected percentage germination but significantly increased

M Macchia; L. G Angelini; L Ceccarini

2001-01-01

44

An Evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in Experimental Rhinovirus Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Echinacea has been widely used as an herbal remedy for the common cold, but efficacy studies have produced conflicting results, and there are a variety of echinacea products on the market with different phytochemical compositions. We evaluated the effect of chemically defined extracts from Echinacea angustifolia roots on rhinovirus infection. Methods Three preparations of echinacea, with distinct phytochemical profiles,

Ronald B. Turner; Rudolf Bauer; Karin Woelkart; Thomas C. Hulsey; J. David Gangemi

2005-01-01

45

Phytochemical variation within populations of Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative evaluation of phytochemical diversity in Echinaceaangustifolia DC. populations from different natural geographic areas supports the existence of distinct natural chemotypes within the species. Consumers, growers and manufacturers of phytomedicines are interested in chemotype identification for prediction of phytochemical content in cultivar development. Six month old E. angustifolia roots, grown from nine different wild seed sources in a controlled environment,

Shannon E. Binns; John T. Arnason; Bernard R. Baum

2002-01-01

46

Ethephon Promotes Germination of Echinacea angustifolia and E. pallida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds from fi ve lots each of Echinacea angustifolia DC and E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. were germinated in a growth chamber in light (40 µmol·m -2 ·s -1 ) or darkness at 25 o C for 16 to 20 days after soaking in 1 mM ethephon or water for 10 minutes or moist stratifi cation at 4 - 6 o

Richard Scalzo

47

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of Araucaria angustifolia from a native forest reserve and a reforested area in the State Park of Campos do Jordão were studied to determine the number and diversity of spore populations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and root colonization. Six randomly chosen plots (planted with 8- to 12-year-old plants) were delimited, four in the native forest and two in

Milene Moreira-Souza; Sandra F. B. Trufem; Sandra M. Gomes-da-Costa; Elke J. B. N. Cardoso

2003-01-01

48

Steroidal saponins from fresh stems of Dracaena angustifolia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Six new steroidal saponins (1-6), angudracanosides A-F, were isolated from fresh stems of Dracaena angustifolia, together with eight known compounds. The structures of compounds 1-6 were determined by detailed spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Antifungal testing of all compounds showed th...

49

Self-incompatibility of Zinnia angustifolia HBK (compositae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible light and UV epifluorescence microscopy were used to assess self-incompatibility (SI) in Zinnia angustifolia clones. Pistils were fixed 24 h after pollination and stained either with aniline blue in lactophenol (visible light microscopy) or decolorized aniline blue (fluorescence microscopy). Percentage of florets with embryos 21 days following pollination (% embryo set) was used as a control. Embryo set following

R. R. Samaha; T. H. Boyle; D. L. Mulcahy

1989-01-01

50

Volatile chemical composition and bioactivity of six essential oils against the stored food insect Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae).  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) of Achillea millefolium, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Lavandula angustifolia were analysed with GC-FID and GC-MS in order to define their aromatic profiles and then their toxicity and repellent activity against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae) with specific bioassays were evaluated. Results from topical applications on insects showed that all EOs had variable and significant insecticidal activity. Mortality rate never exceeded 76%. Results of repellency tests are indicated for M. communis and L. angustifolia EOs, displaying high repellent activity to S. zeamais adults. PMID:21861644

Bertoli, Alessandra; Conti, Barbara; Mazzoni, Valerio; Meini, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa

2012-01-01

51

Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.  

PubMed

The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated. PMID:23918183

Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

2013-11-01

52

Nystagmus and related phenomena in Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Intakte Exemplare vonSepia officinalis zeigen nach Drehung um alle drei Hauptachsen Augen- und Kopfbewegungen vom Typus des «Nach-Nystagmus». Diese postrotatorischen Reflexe können nicht optisch ausgelöst sein; sie beweisen vielmehr das Vorhandensein eines echten Rotationssinnes. Es wird angenommen, dass dieser auch hier seinen Sitz in den Statocysten mit ihren hochdifferenzierten Cristae hat.

S. Dijkgraaf; A. H. CONNEY; I. A. MICHAELSON; J. J. BURNS; J. Pharm

1963-01-01

53

Two new secoiridoid glycosides from Verbena officinalis.  

PubMed

Two new secoiridoid glycosides, verbenoside A (1) and verbenoside B (2), have been isolated from the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences, especially 1D, 2D NMR, and MS experiments. PMID:20706899

Xu, Wei; Xin, Fei; Sha, Yi; Fang, Jin; Li, Yu-Shan

2010-08-01

54

Central action of Araucaria angustifolia seed lectin in mice.  

PubMed

Possible central nervous system effects of the gymnosperm lectin from Araucaria angustifolia seeds were studied in seizure and open field tests. Male Swiss mice were administered saline (control), lectin (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg), flumazenil (1 mg/kg), or diazepam (1 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Lectin at the highest dose increased time to death in the pentylenetetrazole- and strychnine-induced seizure models as compared with control, but not in the pilocarpine model. In the open field test, lectin reduced locomotor activity at all doses tested, as did diazepam, when compared with control. These locomotor effects were reversed by flumazenil pretreatment. In conclusion, A. angustifolia lectin had a protective effect in the pentylenetetrazole- and strychnine-induced seizure models, suggestive of activity in the GABAergic and glycinergic systems, respectively, and also caused a reduction in animal movements, which was reversed by flumazenil, pointing to a depressant action mediated by a GABAergic mechanism. PMID:19446042

Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Lima, Silvane R; Soares, Paula Matias; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço; Lobato, Rodrigo de Freitas Guimarães; Vasconcelos, Germana Silva; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Bezerra, Eduardo Henrique Salviano; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Patrocínio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo

2009-07-01

55

Localization of Alkamides, Echinacoside and Cynarin with Echinacea angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkamides, echinacoside, and cynarin in parts of three year old Echinacea angustifolia plants were quantified in this study. A chloroform extract of the plant root yielded two alkamides: undeca-2E\\/Z-en 8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide (alkamide 1) and dodeca-2E, 4E, 8Z, 10E\\/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (alkamide 2). A relative distribution study indicated that the bark and secondary roots contained highest concentrations of echinacoside,

R. Kabganian; D. J. Carrier; P. A. Rose; S. R. Abrams; S. Sokhansanj

2003-01-01

56

Structural analysis of the polysaccharides from Echinacea angustifolia radix  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report the characterization by monosaccharide and linkage analyses and by NMR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography of the carbohydrate fraction extracted from Echinacea angustifolia radix. In addition, the products of endo-pectin lyase, endo-pectate lyase, endo-polygalacturonase, endo-galactanase, and endo-arabinase digestion were characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The data obtained during this study showed that the carbohydrate fraction

Rosaria Cozzolino; Paola Malvagna; Emanuela Spina; Andrea Giori; Nicola Fuzzati; Alessandro Anelli; Domenico Garozzo; Giuseppe Impallomeni

2006-01-01

57

Purification and biological effects of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) seed lectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the purification and characterization of a new N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-specific lectin from Araucaria angustifolia (AaL) seeds (Araucariaceae) and its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. AaL was purified using a combination of affinity chromatography on a chitin column and ion exchange chromatography on Sephacel-DEAE. The pure protein has 8.0kDa (SDS–PAGE) and specifically agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes, effect that was independent of the

Tatiane Santi-Gadelha; Carlos Alberto de Almeida Gadelha; Karoline Sabóia Aragão; Cec?´lia Carvalho de Oliveira; Mário Rogério Lima Mota; Raphaela Cardoso Gomes; Alana de Freitas Pires; Marcos Hikari Toyama; Daniela de Oliveira Toyama; Nylane Maria Nunes de Alencar; David Neil Criddle; Ana Maria Sampaio. Assreuy; Benildo Sousa. Cavada

2006-01-01

58

Leaf variations in Elaeagnus angustifolia related to environmental heterogeneity.  

PubMed

Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) is a Eurasian tree that has become naturalized and has invaded zones along watercourses in many arid and semiarid regions of the world. These habitats are characterized by vertical environmental gradients, thus trees must develop some plasticity to adapt to the wide range of site conditions. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that variations in leaf anatomy and morphology of E. angustifolia reflect their adaptability to the differences in the microclimate that occur within the canopy of single trees. Foliar architecture, blade and petiole epidermal and internal anatomy were examined in leaves at different canopy positions and related to environmental conditions. Upper sun-leaves are exposed to higher solar irradiance and lower air humidity and are smaller, more slender and thicker than the lower, half-exposed and shade-leaves. Color varies between the leaves at different levels, from silvery grey-green in the upper strata, to dark green in the lower one. Bicolor is more evident in half-exposed and shaded leaves. When compared with the lower half-exposed and shade-leaves, the upper leaves of E. angustifolia have a greater areole density, a higher mesophyll proportion and stomatal density. Trichomes are multicellular, pedestalled, stellate-branched or peltate and their form and density can be associated with leaf color and appearance. The slender petioles of the upper leaves have proportionally more epidermis, collenchyma and phloem and less parenchyma and xylem than those of lower leaves, when observed in transverse sections. Foliar morphological and anatomical variability in E. angustifolia may be considered an adaptive advantage that enables leaves to develop and function in habitats marked by strong variations of solar radiation, air temperature and humidity. PMID:11064038

Klich

2000-11-01

59

Steroidal Saponins from Fresh Stems of Dracaena angustifolia  

PubMed Central

Six new steroidal saponins (1-6), angudracanosides A-F, were isolated from fresh stems of Dracaena angustifolia (Agavaceae), together with eight known compounds. The structures of compounds 1-6 were determined by detailed spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Antifungal testing of all compounds showed that 6 and 7 were active against Cryptococcus neoformans with IC50s of 9.5 and 20.0 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:20718450

Min, Xu; Ying-Jun, Zhang; Xing-Cong, Li; Jacob, Melissa R.; Chong-Ren, Yang

2010-01-01

60

A micropropagation protocol for Cassia angustifolia Vahl. from root explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop a new micropropagation system for Cassia angustifolia Vahl., an important medicinal legume using root explant as starting material. Root explants taken from 30-day-old aseptic\\u000a seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different plant growth regulators: 6-benzyladenine\\u000a (BA), kinetin (Kn), and thidiazuron (TDZ). Organogenic nodular calli obtained on MS + TDZ

Shahina Parveen; Anwar Shahzad

2011-01-01

61

Carboxymethylation of Cassia angustifolia seed gum: synthesis and rheological study.  

PubMed

The seeds of Cassia angustifolia are a rich source of galactomannan gum. The seed gums possess a wide variety of industrial applications. To utilize C. angustifolia seed gum for broader industrial applications, the carboxymethyl-Cassia angustifolia seed gum (CM-CAG) was synthesized. The gum was etherified with sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) in a methanol-water system in presence of alkali (NaOH) at different reaction conditions. The variables studied includes alkali concentration, SMCA concentration, methanol:water ratio, liquor:gum ratio, reaction temperature and time. The extent of carboxymethylation was determined as degree of substitution (DS). The optimum conditions for preparing CM-CAG (DS=0.474) comprised 0.100 mol of NaOH, 0.05 mol of SMCA, 80% of methanol:water ratio (as % methanol) and liquor:gum ratio (v/w) of 10:1 at 75 °C for 60 min using 0.03 mol (as AGU) of CAG. Rheological studies showed CM-CAG to exhibit non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour, relatively high viscosity, cold water solubility and solution stability. PMID:25498663

Rajput, Gaurav; Pandey, I P; Joshi, Gyanesh

2015-03-01

62

In vitro culture of lavenders (Lavandula spp.) and the production of secondary metabolites.  

PubMed

Lavenders (Lavandula spp., Lamiaceae) are aromatic ornamental plants that are used widely in the food, perfume and pharmaceutical industries. The large-scale production of lavenders requires efficient in vitro propagation techniques to avoid the overexploitation of natural populations and to allow the application of biotechnology-based approaches for plant improvement and the production of valuable secondary metabolites. In this review we discuss micropropagation methods that have been developed in several lavender species, mainly based on meristem proliferation and organogenesis. Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation (establishment, shoot multiplication, root induction and acclimatization) and requisites for plant regeneration trough organogenesis, as an important step for the implementation of plant improvement programs, were revised. We also discuss different methods for the in vitro production of valuable secondary metabolites, focusing on the prospects for highly scalable cultures to meet the market demand for lavender-derived products. PMID:23022737

Gonçalves, Sandra; Romano, Anabela

2013-01-01

63

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Lavandula coronopifolia essential oil against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of the essential oil (EO) of Lavandula coronopifolia from Morocco and to evaluate its in vitro antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical infections. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by a broth micro-well dilution method using multiresistant clinical isolates of 11 pathogenic bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Providencia rettgeri, Citrobacter freundii, Hafnia alvei, Salmonella spp., Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The main compounds of the oil were carvacrol (48.9%), E-caryophyllene (10.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.7%). The oil showed activity against all tested strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging between 1% and 4%. For most of the strains, the MIC value was equivalent to the minimal bactericidal concentration value, indicating a clear bactericidal effect of L. coronopifolia EO. PMID:25174508

Ait Said, L; Zahlane, K; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Romane, A; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

2015-03-01

64

Effect of heat shock on ultrastructure and calcium distribution in Lavandula pinnata L. glandular trichomes.  

PubMed

The effects of heat shock (HS) on the ultrastructure and calcium distribution of Lavandula pinnata secretory trichomes are examined using transmission electron microscopy and potassium antimonate precipitation. After 48-h HS at 40°C, plastids become distorted and lack stroma and osmiophilic deposits, the cristae of the mitochondria become indistinct, the endoplasmic reticulum acquires a chain-like appearance with ribosomes prominently attached to the lamellae, and the plasma and organelle membranes become distorted. Heat shock is associated with a decrease in calcium precipitates in the trichomes, while the number of precipitates increases in the mesophyll cells. Prolonged exposure to elevated calcium levels may be toxic to the mesophyll cells, while the lack of calcium in the glands cell may deprive them of the normal protective advantages of elevated calcium levels. The inequality in calcium distribution may result not only from uptake from the transpiration stream, but also from redistribution of calcium from the trichomes to the mesophyll cells. PMID:22418827

Huang, S S; Kirchoff, B K; Liao, J P

2013-02-01

65

A new triterpenoid from Verbena officinalis L.  

PubMed

To investigate the chemical constituents of Verbena officinalis L., five triterpenoid constituents were isolated and elucidated as 3?,19,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, namely, 4-epi-barbinervic acid (1), 2?,3?-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 3?,24-dihydroxyurs-12-en- 28-oic acid (3), 3?,24-dihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), using spectroscopic methods and comparing with published data. Compounds 2 and 4 were obtained from V. officinalis for the first time, and compound 1 is a new triterpenoid compound, which exhibits significantly higher antitumor activity against human hepatoma cell line Bel 7402 in vitro than the blank control. PMID:23061751

Shu, Ji-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Qun; Chou, Gui-Xin

2013-01-01

66

[Fumaria officinalis (fumitory)--clinical applications].  

PubMed

Fumaria officinalis-fumitory or earth smoke-is a medicinal plant which has long had a role to play in empirical medicine in numerous countries. A review of the literature, however, reveals very few studies that support its use for dermatological indications (milk crust, eczema, scabies, etc.) or as a diuretic or laxative. This contrasts with its use to treat functional diseases of the biliary system. Although no placebo-controlled studies have been done, a number of empirical reports, clinical case reports and animal experimental studies have been published. Accordingly, in Germany, Fumaria officinalis is approved for the indication "colicky pain affecting the gallbladder and biliary system, together with the gastrointestinal tract". PMID:7672742

Hentschel, C; Dressler, S; Hahn, E G

1995-07-10

67

[Monomeric Indole Alkaloids from Kopsia officinalis.].  

PubMed

Ten monomeric indole alkaloids have been identified from the roots of KOPSIA OFFICINALIS. Four of them are known: (-)-kopsinine 1, (+)-5,22-dioxokopsane 2, (-)-tetrahydroalstonine 4, and (-)-quebrachamine 3; and six are new: (-)-isoeburnamine 5 (enantiomer of the known alkaloid (+)-isoeburnamine), (-)-N-methoxycarbonyl-12-methoxykopsinaline 7, (-)-N-methoxycarbonyl-11,12-methylenedioxy kopsinaline 8, (-)-N-methoxycarbonyl-11,12-dimethoxykopsinaline 9, (-)-11,12-methylenedioxykopsinaline 10, and (-)-12-methoxykopsinaline 11. PMID:17404997

Feng, X Z; Kan, C; Potier, P; Kan, S K; Lounasmaa, M

1983-08-01

68

Genetic and clonal diversity of two cattail species, Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia (Typhaceae), from Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic and clonal diversity vary between two closely related cattail species ( Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia) from Ukraine. This diversity was calculated from microsatellite data. Forty-eight percent of the total variation was partitioned between species, which formed distinct clusters in a dendrogram with no indication of hybrid populations. Typha angustifolia had higher heterozygosity at the species (Hes 5 0.66)

O. V. Tsyusko; MICHAEL H. SMITH; R EBECCA R. SHARITZ; TRAVIS C. GLENN

2005-01-01

69

Effect of chemical and physical factors to improve the germination rate of Echinacea angustifolia seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Echinacea angustifolia are known for their deep dormancy. In this paper, we studied the responses of E. angustifolia seeds to some chemical and physical factors, such as scarification, chilling (5°C) period, light and applied BA (6-benzylaminopurine), GA3 (gibberellic acid) and sound stimulation. When the seed coat layers were removed, the germination rate grew up from 6 to 20%

Duan Chuanren; Wang Bochu; Liu Wanqian; Chen Jing; Lian Jie; Zhao Huan

2004-01-01

70

Can Kalmia angustifolia interference to black spruce (Picea mariana) be explained by allelopathy?  

E-print Network

Can Kalmia angustifolia interference to black spruce (Picea mariana) be explained by allelopathy of Kalmia angustifolia (Ericaceae) to the growth and establishment of black spruce (Picea mariana) has been to its colonization. The questions addressed in this paper are (i) Is Kalmia interference to black spruce

Mallik, Azim U.

71

Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) essential oils attenuate hyperglycemia and protect against oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background The present study described the phytochemical profile of Lavandula stoechas essential oils, collected in the area of Ain-Draham (North-West of Tunisia), as well as their protective effects against alloxan-induced diabetes and oxidative stress in rat. Methods Essential oils samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC–MS. Rats were divided into four groups: Healthy Control (HC); Diabetic Control (DC); Healthy?+?Essential Oils (H?+?EO) and Diabetic?+?Essential Oils (D?+?EO). Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities were evaluated after subacute intraperitoneally injection of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) to rats during 15 days. Results The principal compounds detected are: D-Fenchone (29.28%), ?-pinene (23.18%), Camphor (15.97%), Camphene (7.83%), Eucapur (3.29%), Limonene, (2.71%) Linalool, (2.01%) Endobornyl Acetate (1.03%). The essential oils also contained smaller percentages of Tricyclene, Cymene, Delta-Cadinene, Selina-3,7(11)-diene. Furthermore, we found that Lavandula stoechas essential oils significantly protected against the increase of blood glucose as well as the decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities induced by aloxan treatment. Subacute essential oils treatment induced a decrease of lipoperoxidation as well as an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Conclusions These findings suggested that lavandula stoechas essential oils protected against diabetes and oxidative stress induced by alloxan treatment. These effects are in partly due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:24373672

2013-01-01

72

Two new iridoids from Verbena officinalis L.  

PubMed

Two new iridoids, 3-(5-(methoxycarbonyl)-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)butanoic acid, named verbeofflin I (1), and 7-hydroxydehydrohastatoside (2), were isolated from the aerial part of Verbena officinalis L, along with three known iridoids, verbenalin (3), 3,4-dihydroverbenalin (4), hastatoside (5) by means of various column chromatography steps. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. Verbeofflin I (1) is the new class of secoiridoid in the family Verbenaceae. PMID:25045888

Shu, Jicheng; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao

2014-01-01

73

Karyotype rearrangements and telomere analysis in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) strains collected on Lavandula sp. plants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Karyotype analysis of nine strains of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776), collected on Lavandula sp. plants, evidenced showed that five of them had a standard 2n = 12 karyotype, one possessed a fragmentation of the X chromosome occurring at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one and three strains had a chromosome number 2n = 11 due to a non-reciprocal translocation of an autosome A3 onto an A1 chromosome. Interestingly, the terminal portion of the autosome A1 involved in the translocation was the same in all the three strains, as evidenced by FISH with the histone cluster as a probe. The study of telomeres in the Myzus persicae strain with the X fission evidenced that telomerase synthesised de novo telomeres at the breakpoints resulting in the stabilization of the chromosomal fragments. Lastly, despite the presence of a conserved telomerase, aphid genome is devoid of genes coding for shelterin, a complex of proteins involved in telomere functioning frequently reported as conserved in eukaryotes. The absence of this complex, also confirmed in the genome of other arthropods, suggests that the shift in the sequence of the telomeric repeats has been accompanied by other changes in the telomere components in arthropods in respect to other metazoans. PMID:25610541

Mandrioli, Mauro; Zanasi, Federica; Manicardi, Gian Carlo

2014-01-01

74

A comparison of wound healing following treatment with Lavandula x allardii honey or essential oil.  

PubMed

The increased interest in complementary therapies has led to the investigation of products traditionally believed to have a beneficial effect in wound healing. Two such products are honey and lavender essential oil. In this study a rat excisional wound model was used to investigate the action of Lavandula x allardii honey and essential oil, and a standard therapeutic honey (Medihoney). Four 8 mm wounds were created surgically on the dorsal surface of each rat and honey or essential oil applied to the wounds twice a day for 4 days. Wound healing was analysed by wound contraction and capillary volume at 5 and 12 days post-surgery. Although no statistically significant difference in wound contraction was observed for the essential oil or honey treated wounds relative to the untreated control, both honeys were shown to reduce the capillary volume in the wound site at day 12 with no difference between the honeys (control 154 +/- 14 microm(3) vs L. x allardii honey 77 +/- 18 microm(3) and Medihoney 89 +/- 39 microm(3), p < 0.001; mean +/- SD). This suggests that scar maturation in these animals was more advanced than in other groups. These data suggest that L. x allardii honey, but not essential oil, has a beneficial action in wound healing. PMID:16807876

Lusby, Patricia E; Coombes, Alex L; Wilkinson, Jenny M

2006-09-01

75

Biosorption of Cr (VI) by Typha angustifolia: mechanism and responses to heavy metal stress.  

PubMed

In this study, Typha angustifolia was proven to have an excellent accumulation ability in high concentrations of wastewater solutions having Cr (VI) concentrations up to 30 mg L(-1) for 20 days (74% of removal efficiency). Synchrotron microfocus micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) mapping showed that the uptaken Cr was mainly enriched in the outer layer of the roots and a small portion of it was uniformly distributed in the fronds. The total proteins, soluble sugars, and malondialdehyde in T. angustifolia increased when the concentration of Cr (VI) increased from 9 to 30 mg L(-1). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) assay showed that no lignifications were observed when Cr was absorbed by T. angustifolia. It was concluded that T. angustifolia can uptake Cr by means of surface layer absorption and transportation, and alleviate stresses associated with the sorption of Cr (VI) by thickening of cell walls or secretion of chemical substances. PMID:24485750

Chen, Ya-Li; Hong, Xiao-Qing; He, Hui; Luo, Hong-Wei; Qian, Ting-Ting; Li, Ru-Zhong; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

2014-05-01

76

Resprouting of Echinacea angustifolia Augments Sustainability of Wild Medicinal Plant Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resprouting of\\u000a Echinacea angustifolia\\u000a Augments Sustainability of Wild Medicinal Plant Populations. Overharvest of wild Echinacea species root has been a significant concern to the herbal industry. Harvesters of wild Echinacea angustifolia showed us that even after harvesting the top 15 to 20 cm of root, some plants resprout. We marked locations of harvested\\u000a plants at sites in Kansas and Montana and

Kelly Kindscher; Dana M. Price; Lisa Castle

2008-01-01

77

Purification and biological effects of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) seed lectin  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the purification and characterization of a new N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-specific lectin from Araucaria angustifolia (AaL) seeds (Araucariaceae) and its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. AaL was purified using a combination of affinity chromatography on a chitin column and ion exchange chromatography on Sephacel-DEAE. The pure protein has 8.0 kDa (SDS-PAGE) and specifically agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes, effect that was independent of the presence of divalent cations and was inhibited after incubation with glucose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. AaL showed antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, shown by scanning electron microscopy. AaL, intravenously injected into rats, showed anti-inflammatory effect, via carbohydrate site interaction, in the models of paw edema and peritonitis. This lectin can be used as a tool for studying bacterial infections and inflammatory processes.

Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal da Parai'ba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, Parai'ba (Brazil); Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal da Parai'ba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, Parai'ba (Brazil); Aragao, Karoline Saboia [Departamento de Bioqui'mica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, s/n, Bloco 907, 60.455-970, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Carvalho de Oliveira, Ceci'lia [Departamento de Bioqui'mica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, s/n, Bloco 907, 60.455-970, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Lima Mota, Mario Rogerio [Instituto Superior de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceara, Av. Paranjana 1700, 60740-000, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Gomes, Raphaela Cardoso [Instituto Superior de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceara, Av. Paranjana 1700, 60740-000, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Freitas Pires, Alana de [Instituto Superior de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceara, Av. Paranjana 1700, 60740-000, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Toyama, Marcos Hikari; Oliveira Toyama, Daniela de [Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Nunes de Alencar, Nylane Maria [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Porangabucu, 60.451-970, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Criddle, David Neil [MRC Secretory Control Research Group, Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio [Instituto Superior de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceara, Av. Paranjana 1700, 60740-000, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)]. E-mail: assreuy@uece.br; Cavada, Benildo Sousa [Departamento de Bioqui'mica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, s/n, Bloco 907, 60.455-970, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)]. E-mail: bscavada@ufc.br

2006-12-01

78

Experimental anti-ulcer activity of Veronica officinalis L. extracts.  

PubMed

In indomethacin-induced ulcers in albino rats, the anti-ulcerogenic effects of some extracts prepared from Veronica officinalis L. were investigated. The extracts had a significant anti-ulcerogenic activity. In ulcer healing experiments performed in rats by administering reserpine, the extracts were found to enhance the regeneration of the gastric mucosa. These results seem to confirm the popular observations according to which the decoction from Veronica officinalis L. possessed useful properties in the treatment of gastric ulcers. PMID:4021513

Scarlat, M; Sandor, V; T?ma?, M; Cuparencu, B

1985-05-01

79

Iboga-Type Alkaloids from Ervatamia officinalis.  

PubMed

Seven new iboga-type alkaloids, ervaoffines A-D (1-4), (7S)-3-oxoibogaine hydroxyindolenine (5), ibogaine-5,6-dione (6), and 19-epi-5-oxovoacristine (7), and 10 known alkaloids were isolated from Ervatamia officinalis. The absolute configurations of 1-7 were determined through X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analyses. Ervaoffines A and B represent the first iboga-type pseudoindoxyl alkaloids in which the C-2 spiro carbon configuration is opposite to that of other members of this class, such as iboluteine (8). The relationship between the absolute configuration of the spiro carbons and the Cotton effect in the ECD spectrum is established for the first time for iboga-type pseudoindoxyl and oxindole alkaloids. Additionally, a plausible biogenetic pathway for these alkaloids is proposed. PMID:25093992

Tang, Ben-Qin; Wang, Wen-Jing; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Yang, Ting-Ting; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

2014-08-01

80

Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)  

DOEpatents

cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

1999-01-01

81

Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat memory dysfunction for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Aqueous and methanolic extracts of 11 plants, used in Danish folk medicine for improvement of memory and cognition, and 3 Corydalis species were tested for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using the Ellman colorimetric method. Significant inhibitory activity in dose-dependent manner was observed for extracts of Corydalis cava, Corydalis intermedia, Corydalis solida ssp. laxa and Corydalis solida ssp. slivenensis. Extracts of Ruta graveolens, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Petroselinum crispum and Mentha spicata exhibited moderate inhibition of the enzyme, defined as more than 15% at 0.1 mg/ml. PMID:16280217

Adsersen, Anne; Gauguin, Bente; Gudiksen, Lene; Jäger, Anna K

2006-04-01

82

Comparison of EDTA and Citric Acid-Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals in Artificially Metal Contaminated Soil by Typha Angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of EDTA and citric acid (CA) addition in improving phytoextraction of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Cr from artificially contaminated soil by T. angustifolia. T. angustifolia showed the remarkable resistance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom including chlorosis and necrosis when exposed to metal stress. EDTA-addition significantly reduced plant

Dawood Muhammad; Fei Chen; Jing Zhao; Guoping Zhang; Feibo Wu

2009-01-01

83

ANÁLISIS CUANTITATIVOS DE LOS PRINCIPALES CONSTITUYENTES QUÍMICOS DE RAÍCES DE Echinacea purpurea Y E. angustifolia PRODUCIDAS EN COSTA RICA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative analyses of the main che- mical constituents in the roots of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia produced in Cos- ta Rica. Free phenylpropanoids (chlorogenic and cichoric acids), and a glycosidic (echinecoside), as well as the alkamides, present in root extracts of the medicinal plants Echinacea purpureaand E. angustifolia produced in 3 different locations of Costa Rica (Los Santos at

Jorge Loaiza; Roberto Valverde; Gerardo Rodríguez; Jorge Molina

84

Repellent effects of the essential oil of Lavendula angustifolia against adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes.  

PubMed

The repellent effects of the essential oil of Lavendula angustifolia on adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes was studied at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20% v/v. A suitable tick climbing bioassay based on the questing behaviour of ticks was used to test for repellency. High percentage repellency (range 70-100) was shown at all concentrations of the essential oil of L. angustifolia, although at 5% v/v it only persisted for the first 40 minutes compared with 120 minutes at other concentrations (10 and 20% v/v). The repellent strength of L. angustifolia compared well (P > 0.05) with that of DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), a commercial reference repellent, for the 2-hour period of the study. PMID:18237038

Mkolo, M N; Magano, S R

2007-09-01

85

Monoicy in A. angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze (Araucariaceae): I. Morphological aspects of the reproductive structures.  

PubMed

Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze is a dioecious conifer species native of Brazil. The rare occurrence of monoiceous specimens have been attributed to pathogenic infections or other injuries in adult trees. Here, the morphological characteristics of male and female cones and pollen grains of a monoiceous A. angustifolia are described. Male and female cones and pollen grains presented normal morphology, lacking any sort of injuries or infection and suggesting the existence of further grounds for the occurrence of monoicy in this conifer species. PMID:19893896

Stefenon, Valdir M; Caprestano, Clarissa A

2009-12-01

86

Arabinogalactan-proteins from cell suspension cultures of Araucaria angustifolia.  

PubMed

Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), found in the culture medium of suspension cells of Araucaria angustifolia grown in plant growth regulator-free and plant growth regulator-containing BM media, BM0 and BM2, respectively, were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. The concentrated extracellular fractions (CEFs), obtained from suspension cell cultures grown for 20 days in BM0 and BM2 media yielded two fractions, CEF-0 and CEF-2, respectively. CEF-0 and CEF-2 was submitted to selective precipitation using the beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent (beta-GlcY) to isolate AGPs for structural characterization; this yielded fractions designated CEF-0YPF and CEF-2YPF, respectively. The monosaccharide composition analysis established that samples were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and uronic acid in a molar ratio 3:37:55:5 (CEF-0YPF) and 1:37:58:4 (CEF-2YPF), although trace amounts (<0.5 mol%) of Xyl were also found. Methylation analysis of CEF-YPF fractions showed similar results for both CEF-0YPF and CEF-2YPF, with non-reducing terminal units of Araf, Arap, Galp, Rhap and Xylp, as well as 3-O-substituted and 5-O-substituted Araf units and 3-O-substituted, 6-O-substituted and 3,6-di-O-substituted Galp units. The amino acid composition analysis established Ser, Ala, and Hyp as major amino acids in both samples. In conclusion, this investigation has shown that CEF-0YPF and CEF-2YPF contain macromolecules having typical AGP characteristics, including a Hyp/Ala/Ser-rich protein moiety, a (1-->3) and/or (1-->6) linked beta-d-galactopyranosyl main chain substituted by Gal, Ara, Rha and Xyl residues, and binding affinity for beta-GlcY and monoclonal anti-AGP antibodies. PMID:20488499

Maurer, Juliana Bello Baron; Bacic, Antony; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Donatti, Lucélia; Zawadzki-Baggio, Selma Faria; Pettolino, Filomena Angela

2010-08-01

87

ELECTROMYOGRAPHY OF THE FIN MUSCULATURE OF THE CUTTLEFISH SEPIA OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The musculature of the fins of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) was studied with electromyography to test predictions of the functional role of the various muscle masses. Previous research had shown the fins to consist of a tightly packed, three-dimensional array of muscle with distinct zones of anaerobic glycolytic and oxidative muscle fibres. In addition, a network of

WILLIAM M. KIER; KATHLEEN K. SMITH; JALEEL A. MIYAN

1989-01-01

88

Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate. PMID:23738442

Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

2013-04-01

89

Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrati...

90

The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method. PMID:25598636

Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza

2015-01-01

91

SpringPlantSale SpringPlantSale  

E-print Network

Bleeding Heart, Pink Echinacea purpurea 'Double Decker' Coneflower, Purple Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum Hibiscus 'Fireball' Rose Mallow Juncus effusus 'Frenzy' Corkscrew Rush, Variegated Lavandula angustifolia

Shyy, Wei

92

Genetic diversity and biogeographic determinants of population structure in Araucaria angustifolia Bert. O Ktze.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is a dioecious conifer that plays an important social and economic role, especially in the South region of Brazil. Due to changes in land use and over- harvesting of seeds and timber, the species is now listed as critically endangered (IUCN 3.1). There have been...

93

Effect of Atropa belladonna and Echinacea angustifolia in homeopathic dilution on experimental peritonitis.  

PubMed

Atropa belladonna and Echinacea angustifolia have been used in homeopathy as modulators of inflammatory processes, in simple potency or 'accord of potencies', as recommended by homotoxicology. We evaluated their effects on leukocyte migration and macrophage activity induced by experimental peritonitis in vivo. Mice were injected (i.p.) with LPS (1.0mg/kg) and treated (0.3ml/10g/day, s.c.) with different commercial forms of these medicines. Echinacea angustifolia D4--a simple potency preparation--and Belladonna Homaccord, Belladonna Injeel, Belladonna Injeel Forte, Echinacea Injeel and Echinacea Injeel Forte--all in 'accord of potencies'--were tested. The association of A. belladonna and E. angustifolia in 'accord of potencies' produced an increase of polymorphonuclear cell migration (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 0.03) and a decrease of mononuclear cell percentages (Kruskal-Wallis, P < or = 0.04), when compared with control, mainly in preparations containing low potencies. The proportion of degenerate leukocytes was lower in the treated groups, compared to a control group (P < or = 0.05). The treated groups showed increased phagocytosis (P < or = 0.05), mainly in preparations containing high potencies. Our results suggest that A. belladonna and E. angustifolia, when prepared in 'accord of potencies', modulate peritoneal inflammatory reaction and have a cytoprotective action on leukocytes. PMID:15532698

Pedalino, C M V; Perazzo, F F; Carvalho, J C T; Martinho, K S; Massoco, C de O; Bonamin, L V

2004-10-01

94

Style Persistence, Pollen Limitation, and Seed Set in the Common Prairie Plant Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen limitation of seed set in flowering plants has important ramifications for the population dynamics, evolution, and conservation of plant populations. I conducted a pollen addition and exclusion experiment demonstrating that style persistence signifies pollen limitation in the narrow-leaved purple coneflower Echinacea angustifolia, a species native to the North American prairie and plains. I developed a measure of style persistence,

Stuart Wagenius

2004-01-01

95

Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Alkamides From the Roots of Echinacea angustifolia in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkamides are suspected to contribute to the activity ofEchinacea preparations. They are mainly derived from undeca- and dodecanoic acid and differ in the degree of unsaturation and the configuration of the double bonds. In total, 6 alkamides have been isolated from the roots ofEchinacea angustifolia as major lipophilic constituents and have been investigated regarding their pharmacokinetics. A sensitive and specific

Karin Woelkart; Christoph Koidl; Andrea Grisold; J. David Gangemi; Ronald B. Turner; Egon Marth; Rudolf Bauer

2005-01-01

96

Floral Structure and Dynamics of Nectar Production in Echinacea pallida var. angustifolia (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive structure of the disk florets of Echinacea pallida var. angustifolia (Asteraceae) in relation to insect pollination was investigated using light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. The study of this self-incompatible species emphasized pollen production, pollen-stigma interactions, transmitting tissue, and vasculature within the style. Nectary structure and nectar production dynamics were also examined. Produced in the fused anther tubes,

2008-01-01

97

Ethylene, light-, and prechill-enhanced germination of Echinacea angustifolia seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia DC., the common coneflower of the western Great Plains, is difficult to propagate by achenes due to inherent seed dormancy. The effects of light and prechilling on seed germination were examined, alone and combined with scarification (mechanical, acid) and ethylene (ethephon) treatments. The results showed that a 2-week prechill treatment combined with ethephon and continuous light, followed by

S. M. J. Feghahati; R. N. Reese

1994-01-01

98

Fertility of Echinacea angustifolia Moench and Linum usitatissimum L. After Herbicide Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the influence of the herbicide Roundup® on reproductive processes of Echinacea angustifolia Moench and Linum usitatissimum L. The plants with the flowers and fruits at various developmental stages were treated with Roundup 360 SL at 1% concentration. The effects on microsporogenesis, pollen viability, megasporogenesis, embryo sac development, embryo-genesis and endosperm development were

Romana Izmai?ow; Maria Paj?k

2002-01-01

99

Cryopreservation of embryogenic cell lines of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is native to the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil and is an endangered species. Mature embryos of this conifer are large (about 3 cm in length), contain more than 1 g H2O/ g dry mass, and are killed by drying. These morphological and physiological traits make i...

100

Seed crop size variation in the dominant South American conifer Araucaria angustifolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal variation in seed crop size of the long-lived pioneer conifer Araucaria angustifolia was studied in subtropical South America. We evaluated the expectations that: 1) A. angustifolia presents highly variable seed production (mast seeding behavior); 2) A. angustifolia has endogenous cycles of reproduction of two or three years; 3) There is a tendency for a high seed production year to be followed by an unusually low production year; 4) populations show synchrony in seed production at a geographical scale; 5) seed crop size is influenced by distinct climatic factors occurring during "key" reproductive stages and 6) as an expression of plant productivity, seed crop size should depend on integrated resource availability during the reproductive cycle. We obtained data from two distinct sources: 1) seed harvesting records from a private forest (14 years), and 2) commercial data from 22 municipalities in the Rio Grande do Sul State. Expectations 1, 2, 3 and 5 were not met, while expectations 4 and 6 were supported by the data. A. angustifolia showed environmentally triggered, continuous, moderately fluctuating, and regionally synchronous reproduction. Seed set seems to track variations in resource abundance as well as respond continuously to improved opportunities for successful regeneration.

Souza, Alexandre F.; Uarte de Matos, Daniele; Forgiarini, Cristiane; Martinez, Jaime

2010-01-01

101

Growth responses of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) to inoculation with the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus clarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia, Araucariaceae) is one of the few native gymnosperms from southern Brazil. In Rio Grande do Sul, it occurs mainly in the highlands of the planalto region, as a tree-component of the mixed ombrophyllous forests. The species is valuable for its wood, edible seeds, and ornamental use, and is today listed as a threatened species. This tree-species

Roberta B Zandavalli; Lúcia R Dillenburg; Paulo Vitor D de Souza

2004-01-01

102

New species of Stropharia from Araucaria angustifolia forests of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Two new agaric species of Stropharia are described from Araucaria angustifolia (Brazilian pine) forests of southern Brazil. Stropharia agaricoides presents Agaricus-like basidiomes, small basidiospores (5-7 microm long) and pyriform cheilochrysocystidia. Stropharia venusta is characterized by the reddish to pinkish pileus, large basidiospores (12-15 microm long) and subclavate cheiloleptocystidia. PMID:19623934

da Silva, Paula Santos; Cortez, Vagner Gularte; da Silveira, Rosa Mara Borges

2009-01-01

103

Distinction of Araucaria angustifolia seeds from different locations in Brazil by a specific DNA sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil pine (Araucaria angustifolia [Bert.] O. Ktze.) used to be a forest-dominating tree in areas above 500 m between 18° and 30° of southern latitude in Brazil. Due to severe clear cutting in the nineteenth and twentieth century, only small local remnants of this landscape-forming conifer are left. Larger attempts at reforestation of grassland areas with this tree in the

R. Hampp; A. Mertz; R. Schaible; M. Schwaigerer; U. Nehls

2000-01-01

104

SENSITIVITY OF ARAUCARIA ANGUSTIFOLIA EMBRYOS TO LOW WATER CONTENTS AND TEMPERATURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A. angustifolia (Bertoloni.) Otto Kuntze seeds (Brazilian pine) limits our ability to conserve genetic resources of this important species in ex situ genebanks. As initial steps in developing storage protocols, we studied the interaction of water content and temperature on embryo survival. Embryos w...

105

Efficient plant regeneration from multiple shoots formed in the leaf-derived callus of Lavandula vera, using the “open culture system”  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop an efficient procedure for plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus of Lavandula vera DC, the production of multiple shoots and the formation of roots from these shoots were studied. When calli were cultured in a medium with 4.0×10?7M N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N?-phenylurea (CPPU), urea-type cytokinin, multiple shoots were obtained from the greenish surface of the callus efficiently at a rate of 52.2%.

M Tsuro; M Koda; M Inoue

2000-01-01

106

Comparison of Elaeagnus angustifolia Extract and Sildenafil Citrate on Female Orgasmic Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Orgasmic disorder can create a feeling of deprivation and failure and provide mental problems, incompatibility and marital discord. This study aimed to compare the effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia flower extract and sildenafil citrate on female orgasmic disorder in women in 2013. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 125 women between 18-40 years old who suffered from orgasmic disorder were divided into three E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate and control groups. The data were gathered using Female Sexual Function Index and through measurement of TSH and prolactin. The first intervention group had to consume 4.5 gr E. angustifolia extract in two divided doses for 35 days and the second one had to use 50 mg sildenafil citrate tablets for 4 weeks one hour before their sexual relationship. However, the control group had to consume the placebo. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni posthoc test and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results The frequency of orgasmic disorder before the intervention was 41.5%, 40.5%, and 57.1% in E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate, and control groups, respectively (p=0.23). However, these measures were respectively 29.3%, 16.7%, and 50% after the intervention (p=0.004). A significant difference between the two groups regarding sexual satisfaction after the intervention (p=0.003) compared to the beginning of the study (p=0.356). Besides, the highest reduction of changes after the intervention (58.82%) was observed in the sildenafil citrate group. Conclusion Both E. angustifolia extract and sildenafil citrate were effective in reduction of the frequency of orgasmic disorder in women. PMID:25473627

Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Zeinalzadeh, Sanaz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Sayadi, Mehrab

2014-01-01

107

Establishment of in vitro tissue cultures from Echinacea angustifolia D.C. adult plants for the production of phytochemical compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of in vitro cultures of Echinacea angustifolia D.C. was obtained directly from sections of flower stalks of adult plants. The shoot formation was obtained from this plant material placed on a modified MS basal medium named CH supplemented with 0.5mgL?1 6-benzylaminopurine (BA). The in vitro propagation procedure of E. angustifolia consisted of three distinct phases: an initial regeneration

M. Lucchesini; A. Bertoli; A. Mensuali-Sodi; L. Pistelli

2009-01-01

108

Isolation of chemically induced mutants in borage ( Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 ?6,9,12) has been reported to be helpful in the treatment of a wide range of disorders. Borage\\u000a (Borago officinalis L.) is an annual plant of renewed interest because the seeds are an important source of GLA. The failure to retain mature\\u000a seeds until harvest limits the total seed and GLA yield per plant and is the

A. De Haro-Bailón; M. Del Rio

1998-01-01

109

BLOOD GAS TRANSPORT IN THE CEPHALOPOD, SEPIA OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Blood gas transport was studied in unrestrained free-swimming cuttle- fish, Sepia officinalis, following cannulations of an efferent branchial (arterial) vessel and the vena cava cephalica with indwelling catheters. In well-aerated water the arterial pOi averaged about ioo-oo mmHg and was fully saturated with O2. Mixed venous pOi varied between 17 and 40 mmHg, typically corresponding to blood O2 utilizations

KJELL JOHANSEN; OLE BRIX; GUNNAR LYKKEBOE

1982-01-01

110

Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation of three new phytoconstituents, identified as n-hexacos-2-enyl-1,5-olide (altheahexacosanyl lactone), 2beta-hydroxycalamene (altheacalamene) and 5,6-dihydroxycoumarin-5-dodecanoate-6beta-D-glucopyranoside (altheacoumarin glucoside), along with the known phytoconstituents lauric acid, beta-sitosterol and lanosterol. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical reactions. PMID:20803381

Rani, Sunita; Khan, Suroor A; Ali, M

2010-09-01

111

Antioxidant and antifungal activity of Verbena officinalis L. leaves.  

PubMed

The scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and the antifungal effect against chloroform, ethyl acetate and 50% methanolic extracts of Verbena officinalis leaves were investigated. The activity of different fractions of 50% methanolic extract and some isolated compounds were also investigated. The results suggest that 50% methanolic extract and caffeoyl derivatives could potentially be considered as excellent and readily available sources of natural antifungal and antioxidant compounds. PMID:18498054

Casanova, E; García-Mina, J M; Calvo, M I

2008-09-01

112

Volatiles From Leaves and Flowers of Borage (Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils obtained from the fresh leaves and flowers of Borago officinalis collected in the region of Amdoun (northwestern Tunisia) were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified. The oil yields expressed on a dry weight basis were 0.14% and 0.24% for the leaves and flowers, respectively. The main compound determined in flower and leaf oil

Baya Mhamdi; Wissem A. Wannes; Wissal Dhiffi; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

113

In vitro antioxidant activity of Valeriana officinalis against different neurotoxic agents.  

PubMed

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerian) is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep. Although V. officinalis have been well documented as promising pharmacological agent; the exact mechanisms by which this plant act is still unknown. Limited literature data have indicated that V. officinalis extracts can exhibit antioxidant properties against iron in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However, there is no data available about the possible antioxidant effect of V. officinalis against other pro-oxidants in brain. In the present study, the protective effect of V. officinalis on lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by different pro-oxidant agents with neuropathological importance was examined. Ethanolic extract of valerian (0-60 microg/ml) was tested against quinolinic acid (QA); 3-nitropropionic acid; sodium nitroprusside; iron sulfate (FeSO4) and Fe2+/EDTA induced LPO in rat brain homogenates. The effect of V. officinalis in deoxyribose degradation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also investigated. In brain homogenates, V. officinalis inhibited thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by all pro-oxidants tested in a concentration dependent manner. Similarly, V. officinalis caused a significant decrease on the LPO in cerebral cortex and in deoxyribose degradation. QA-induced ROS production in cortical slices was also significantly reduced by V. officinalis. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in modulating LPO induced by different pro-oxidant agents. These data may imply that V. officinalis extract, functioning as antioxidant agent, can be beneficial for reducing insomnia complications linked to oxidative stress. PMID:19191025

Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Fachinetto, Roselei; Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Felix Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda Berenice; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

2009-08-01

114

An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.  

PubMed

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life. PMID:20874226

Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

2010-12-01

115

Ethylene-, light-, and prechill-enhanced germination of Echinacea angustifolia seeds  

SciTech Connect

Echinacea angustifolia DC., the common coneflower of the western Great Plains, is difficult to propagate by achenes due to inherent seed dormancy. The effects of light and prechilling on seed germination were examined, alone and combined with scarification (mechanical, acid) and ethylene (ethephon) treatments. The results showed that a 2-week prechill treatment combined with ethephon and continuous light, followed by a 2-week germination period in light (16 hours per day) at 25 C, could induce >95% seed germination in E. angustifolia. This was a significantly higher percentage of germination over a shorter period of time than any other method examined or previously described. This treatment also synchronized germination, with most viable seeds germinating in <1 week after being placed at 25 C in the light. Chemical name used: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).

Feghahati, S.M.J.; Reese, R.N. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). Dept. of Biology and Microbiology)

1994-07-01

116

Presence of monoterpene synthase in four Labiatae species and Solid-Phase Microextraction- Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis of their aroma profiles  

PubMed Central

Background: The family Lamiaceae (Labiatae) has included some medicinal plants. some monoterpene synthases, including linalool and limonene synthases, have been cloned and functionally characterized from several plants of Labiatae family. Materials and Methods: In this study, presence of linalool and limonene synthases, in four species of Labiatae family including Nepeta cataria, Lavandula angustifolia, Hyssopus officinalis and Salvia sclarea has been determined by molecular biological techniques together with the Head space SPME – GC-MS analysis of the aroma profile of these species. Results: Indicated that none of the plant species produced distinguishable bands with primer pairs related to d-limonene synthase. Distinguishable bands around 1800 bp in cDNA samples of L. angustifolia, H. officinalis and S. sclarea were observed regarding to the presence of linalool synthase. Head space SPME-GC-MS analysis of the aroma profiles of the above-mentioned plants showed that linalool (31.0%), linalyl acetate (18.2%), were found as the major compounds of L. angustifolia, while geraniol (5.5%), nerol (34.0%) and ?- citral (52.0%) were identified as the main compounds of the N. cataria. The major components of H. officinalis and S. sclarea oils were determined as cis-pinocamphone (57.3%), and linalool (19.0%), linalyl acetate (51.5%), respectively. Conclusion: H. officinalis was rich of cyclic monoterpenes, L. angustifolia, N. cataria and S. sclarea showed considerable amount of linear monoterpenes. The aroma profile of the above-mentioned plants contained low concentration of sesquiterpenes except N. cataria, which indicated no sesquiterpene. The profiles of the main components of these plants are in agreement with molecular assays. PMID:24761118

Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Haddadi, Azita; Amin, Gholamreza; Nikan, Marjan; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbass

2014-01-01

117

Morphology and anatomy of Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida and Parthenium integrifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Echinacea species are native to the Atlantic drainage area of the United States of America and Canada. They have been introduced as\\u000a cultivated medicinal plants in Europe. Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida are the species most often used medicinally due to their immune-stimulating properties. This review is focused on morphological\\u000a and anatomical characteristics of E. purpurea, E.

Ingrid Mistríková; Štefánia Vaverková

2007-01-01

118

Ethnobotany of purple coneflower ( Echinacea angustifolia , Asteraceae) and Other Echinacea Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purple coneflower, Echinacea angustifolia, was the most widely used medicinal plant of the Plains Indians. It was used\\u000a for a variety of ailments, including toothache, coughs, colds, sore throats, snakebite, and as a painkiller. H. C. F. Meyer\\u000a used it as a patent medicine in the 1870s and introduced it to the medical profession. Recent scientific research (mostly\\u000a German)

Kelly Kindscher

1989-01-01

119

Gas chromatographic method for determination of uracil herbicides in roots of Echinacea angustifolia Moench (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GC\\/NPD method and a rapid screening TLC method were developed for the simultaneous determination of uracil herbicide residues (bromacil, lenacil, terbacil) in the roots of Echinacea angustifolia Moench (Asteraceae). The uracil herbicide residues were extracted into acetone. After evaporation of acetone from the acetone-water extract the residue was dissolved in water-methanol (5:1 v\\/v). Cyclohexane was used for removal of

Štefánia Vaverková

1998-01-01

120

One hundred years of Echinacea angustifolia harvest in the smoky hills of Kansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia DC. (Asteraceae) is a major North American medicinal plant that has been harvested commercially in north-central Kansas for 100\\u000a years, making it one of the longest documented histories of large-scale commercial use of a native North American medicina\\u000a herb. We have compiled historical market data and relate it to harvest pressure on wildEchinacea populations. Interviews with local harvesters

Dana M. Price; Kelly Kindscher

2007-01-01

121

Phenylpropanoid derivatives and biflavones at different stages of differentiation and development of Araucaria angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical investigations carried out with tissues at different developmental stages of Araucaria angustifolia established the presence of E and Z isomers of octadecyl p-coumarate and octadecyl ferulate in undifferentiated callus; in the seedling stems, the source of explants, three biflavones of the amentoflavone-type were isolated, whereas the diterpene, trans-communic acid, was obtained from the seedling roots. Adult stems accumulated the

Fabiana N Fonseca; Ari J. S Ferreira; Patricia Sartorelli; Norberto P Lopes; Eny I. S Floh; Walter Handro; Massuo J Kato

2000-01-01

122

Internal Genetic Structure and Outcrossing Rate in a Natural Population of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal genetic structure and outcrossing rate of a population of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze were investigated using 16 allozyme loci. Estimates of the mean number of alleles per loci (1.6), percentage of polymorphic loci (43.8%), and expected genetic diversity (0.170) were similar to those obtained for other gymnosperms. The analysis of spatial autocor- relation demonstrated the presence of

ADELAR MANTOVANI; L. PATRICIA C. MORELLATO; MAURICIO S. DOS REIS

2006-01-01

123

Free Amino Acid, Protein and Water Content Changes Associated with Seed Development in Araucaria angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free amino acid, protein, water and dry matter contents were determined during the seed development of Araucaria angustifolia. Soluble and insoluble proteins in the mature seed represent 4.2 % of the fresh matter. The embryonic axis stored the greatest\\u000a amount of soluble proteins, while cotyledons both with the embryonic axis showed the largest quantities of insoluble proteins\\u000a in the

L. V. Astarita; E. I. S. Floh; W. Handro

2003-01-01

124

Polyamine effects on growth and endogenous hormones levels in Araucaria angustifolia embryogenic cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to determine the effects of exogenous polyamines (PAs) supplemented into a BM medium free\\u000a of plant growth regulators (PGR), on the endogenous PAs, IAA and ABA contents and growth of A. angustifolia embryogenic cultures. The addition of PAs to the PGR-free BM medium, enhanced the growth of embryogenic cultures. PAs endogenous\\u000a metabolism was

Neusa Steiner; Vanildo Silveira; Eny I. S. Floh; Miguel P. Guerra

2007-01-01

125

Benthic community structure in stands of Typha angustifolia and herbicide-treated and untreated Phragmites australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared benthic community structure among stands of Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaf cattail) and herbicide-treated (Glypro) and untreated Phragmites australis (common reed) over two summers in a Lake Erie coastal wetland (i.e., drowned river mouth). Both macrophytes are invasives,\\u000a but only Phragmites is currently controlled by herbicides because of its reputed “undesirable” effects on wetland community structure and function.\\u000a Macroinvertebrate diversity

Amy E. Kulesza; Joseph R. Holomuzki; David M. Klarer

2008-01-01

126

Induction of drought tolerance by paclobutrazol and irrigation deficit in Phillyrea angustifolia during the nursery period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phillyrea angustifolia is a native Mediterranean species, which has recently been considered suitable for landscaping purposes. We hypothesize that hardening plants in the nursery could increase their tolerance of drought after transplanting. The effects of paclobutrazol (PBZ) and different irrigation regimes applied to seedlings planted in 4.5-L plastic pots were investigated. PBZ was applied as a substrate drench at 0mLL?1

J. A. Fernández; L. Balenzategui; S. Bañón; J. A. Franco

2006-01-01

127

Potential of Typha angustifolia for phytoremediation of heavy metals from aqueous solution of phenol and melanoidin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typha angustifolia was evaluated for various heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) bioremediation potential from aqueous solution containing variable concentrations of phenol (100–800mgl?1) and melanoidin (2500–8500 Co–Pt) at 20, 40, and 60 days. The concentration of phenol (200–400mgl?1) along with melanoidin 2500 Co–Pt showed optimum for phytoremediation of tested heavy metals, while, higher concentrations of melanoidin (5600–8500

Ram Chandra; Sangeeta Yadav

2010-01-01

128

The feeding and conversion of leaf litter by the pillbug armadillo officinalis (isopoda, oniscidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and food conversion of the pillbug Armadillo officinalis Duméril 1816, fed on the leaves of Myoporum serratum or Carthamus lanatus for 30 days, were determined. A steady increase in the body mass of A. officinalis fed on either diet was observed during the initial 15 days of the experimental period, with a decrease thereafter. A sigmoid growth pattern

G. Achuthan Nair; Mahmoud Mahdy Fadiel

1991-01-01

129

Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences a case study using  

E-print Network

Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences ­ a case study Journal of Marine Science, 60: 1149­1158. The spatial and temporal distribution patterns of cuttlefish

Pierce, Graham

130

ORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Lydia M. Ma The camouflaging abilities of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) are remarkable and well known. It is commonly believed that cuttlefish--although color blind--actively match various colors of their immediate surroundings, yet

Hanlon, Roger T.

131

Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay  

E-print Network

Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard to the cuttlefishÕs visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration

Hanlon, Roger T.

132

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding  

E-print Network

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding of Sussex, Brighton, UK Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show of natural substrates that cuttlefish cue on visually are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify

Hanlon, Roger T.

133

Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food pathways  

E-print Network

1 Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food.envpol.2004.07.010 #12;2 ABSTRACT The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was selected as a model cephalopod to study PCB bioaccumulation via seawater, sediments and food. Newly hatched, juvenile cuttlefish were exposed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Kendra coloration Cephalopod a b s t r a c t Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, commonly use their visually. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three

California at Irvine, University of

135

Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203  

E-print Network

1 Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203 Hg the juvenile common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis following exposures via seawater and food28 using sensitive radiotracer technique (203 Hg). The cuttlefish readily concentrated 203 Hg when29 exposed via seawater

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

136

First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

1 First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Thomas in the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis via maternal transfer, using radiotracer techniques (110m Ag, 241 Am, 109 Cd, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 54 Mn, 75 Se and 65 Zn). The cuttlefish was fed daily

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

Valeriana officinalis attenuates the rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 ?M) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). PMID:23639798

Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

2013-07-01

138

Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of alkamides from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia in humans.  

PubMed

Alkamides are suspected to contribute to the activity of Echinacea preparations. They are mainly derived from undeca- and dodecanoic acid and differ in the degree of unsaturation and the configuration of the double bonds. In total, 6 alkamides have been isolated from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia as major lipophilic constituents and have been investigated regarding their pharmacokinetics. A sensitive and specific method has been developed for the identification and quantification of these alkamides in human plasma using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. The method was applied to analyze plasma samples obtained from a randomized, open, single-dose, crossover study after oral administration of a 60% ethanolic extract from the roots of E. angustifolia to 11 healthy subjects. The maximum concentration of dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamides, the main alkamides in the roots of E. angustifolia, appeared already after 30 minutes and was 10.88 ng/mL for the 2.5-mL dose. PMID:15901750

Woelkart, Karin; Koidl, Christoph; Grisold, Andrea; Gangemi, J David; Turner, Ronald B; Marth, Egon; Bauer, Rudolf

2005-06-01

139

Ethephon Promotes Germination of Echinacea angustifolia and E. pallida in Darkness.  

PubMed

Seeds from five lots each of Echinacea angustifolia DC, and E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. were germinated in a growth chamber in light (40 ?mol·m(-2)· s(-1)) or darkness at 25 °C for 16 to 20 d after soaking in 1 mM ethephon or water for 10 min, or moist stratification at 4 - 6 °C for two weeks. Either light or ethephon promoted seed germination of E. angustifolia and E. pallida, in comparison with darkness in nine of ten lots. Ethephon in the dark had similar or greater germination percentages than water with light. Ethephon with light improved germination in three of ten lots compared with ethephon in the dark. The effect of cold, moist stratification in comparison with darkness varied by seed lot. Five lots of E. purpurea (L.) Moench were tested; however, no treatment differences were measured. The finding that ethethon promoted E. angustifolia and E. pallida seed germination in darkness could be useful in the cultivation of these two species. Chemical name used: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon). PMID:17075609

Qu, Luping; Wang, Xiping; Hood, Eatherley; Scalzo, Richard

2004-08-01

140

Effect of chemical and physical factors to improve the germination rate of Echinacea angustifolia seeds.  

PubMed

Seeds of Echinacea angustifolia are known for their deep dormancy. In this paper, we studied the responses of E. angustifolia seeds to some chemical and physical factors, such as scarification, chilling (5 degrees C) period, light and applied BA (6-benzylaminopurine), GA3 (gibberellic acid) and sound stimulation. When the seed coat layers were removed, the germination rate grew up from 6 to 20% (incubated in light) and the mean time germination (MTG) was reduced from 18 to 6.6 days. On the basis of layers-removed, chilling and continuous light gave significantly higher germination rate (up to 70%). Compare the data of seeds chilled by 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 days, the maximum germination rate (up to 70%) achieved at 18-days chilling treatment. Further increases in the chilling period could slightly improve germination. Exogenous application of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mg/L GA3 or BA in the previous pretreatment increased germination to 78, 90 and 84% or 76, 86 and 84%, respectively. Obviously, the best concentration of GA or BA is 0.3 mg/L. And the GA3 or BA treatment shortened the MTG to about 4 days. The influence of sound stimulation was also tested in the experiment. The result showed that one 100 dB and 1000 Hz sound wave (sine-wave) was beneficial to the germination of E. angustifolia seeds. PMID:15342019

Chuanren, Duan; Bochu, Wang; Wanqian, Liu; Jing, Chen; Jie, Lian; Huan, Zhao

2004-09-01

141

Structural and component characterization of meristem cells in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze zygotic embryo.  

PubMed

Araucaria angustifolia, the Brazilian pine, is an endangered native conifer with economic and ecological importance. The female cone develops seeds containing the zygotic embryo, which, at cotyledonary stage, shows well-developed meristems. Little is known about the structure of gymnosperm meristems. In the present work, the composition and morphological organization of Araucaria angustifolia shoot and root apical meristems were studied during embryo development, using histochemical and microscope analyses. Histochemical evaluation revealed the presence of cellulose within the cell wall, cells with the presence of total proteins that react with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, starch grains, and large nuclei with evident nucleoli in the cytoplasm. Scanning electron microscopy showed apical meristem surface morphology, and both scanning and transmission microscopy revealed a thin and irregular cell wall with plasmodesmata and within the cells, mitochondria, many vacuoles, lipid bodies, Golgi bodies, and many amyloplasts with endoplasmic reticulum surrounding them and large nuclei. Similar to angiosperm cells, A. angustifolia meristem cells exhibit pluripotent characteristics, such as apparatus for intercellular communication and differentiation. PMID:23014896

Rogge-Renner, Gladys D; Steiner, Neusa; Schmidt, Eder C; Bouzon, Zenilda L; Farias, Francine L; Guerra, Miguel P

2013-06-01

142

Diversity and biotransformative potential of endophytic fungi associated with the medicinal plant Kadsura angustifolia.  

PubMed

This study investigated the diversity and host component-transforming activity of endophytic fungi in medicinal plant Kadsura angustifolia. A total of 426 isolates obtained were grouped into 42 taxa belonging to Fungi Imperfecti (65.96%), Ascomycota (27.00%), Zygomycota (1.64%), Basidiomycota (0.47%) and Mycelia Sterilia (4.93%). The abundance, richness, and species composition of endophytic assemblages were significantly dependent on the tissue and the sampling site. Many phytopathogenic species associated with healthy K. angustifolia were found prevalent. Among them, Verticillium dahliae was dominant with 16.43% abundance. From 134 morphospecies selected, 39 showed remarkable biocatalytic activity and were further identified as species belonging to the genera Colletotrichum, Eupenicillium, Fusarium, Hypoxylon, Penicillium, Phomopsis, Trametes, Trichoderma, Umbelopsis, Verticillium and Xylaria on the basis of the sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). The results obtained in this work show that K. angustifolia is an interesting reservoir of pathogenic fungal species, and could be a community model for further ecological and evolutionary studies. Additionally, the converting potency screening of some endophytic fungi from this specific medicinal plant may provide an interesting niche on the search for novel biocatalysts. PMID:25530313

Huang, Qian; An, Hongmei; Song, Hongchuan; Mao, Hongqiang; Shen, Weiyun; Dong, Jinyan

2015-01-01

143

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. Methods The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. Results Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. Conclusion Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in interfering with rheumatoid arthritis complications of the bone skeleton leading to joint destruction, and preventing and reducing osteoporosis. Accordingly, we suggest the application of Emblica officinalis extracts as an alternative tool for therapy applied to bone diseases. PMID:18973662

Penolazzi, Letizia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Zennaro, Margherita; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto

2008-01-01

144

Phytoremediation of CD, CR, CU, MN, FE, NI, PB and ZN from Aqueous Solution Using Phragmites Cummunis, Typha Angustifolia and Cyperus Esculentus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative bioaccumulation pattern and ultra structural changes were studied in Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus in mixed metals solution of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). P. cummunis was observed to be a shoot accumulator for Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, T. angustifolia

Ram Chandra; Sangeeta Yadav

2011-01-01

145

Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. PMID:23827646

Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

2014-01-01

146

Iridoids and sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

Two new iridoids, volvaltrates A and B (1 and 2), and three new sesquiterpenoids, E-(-)-3beta,4beta-epoxyvalerenal (3), E-(-)-3beta,4beta-epoxyvalerenyl acetate (4), and mononorvalerenone (5), together with five known iridoids and two known sesquiterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis. The structures and relative configurations of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence. Compound 1 was an unusual iridoid with an oxygen bridge connecting C-3 and C-10, forming a cage-like structure, and compound 5 was a mononorsesquiterpenoid. PMID:19691292

Wang, Peng-Cheng; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, He-Zhong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

2009-09-01

147

Accumulation of heavy metals in Typha angustifolia (L.) and Potamogeton pectinatus (L.) living in Sultan Marsh (Kayseri, Turkey).  

PubMed

Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu) were measured in bottom sediments, water and Typha angustifolia and Potamogeton pectinatus in Sultan Marsh. Sultan Marsh is one of the largest and most important wetlands in Turkey, Middle East and Europe, embodying saline and fresh water ecosystems and providing a shelter for 426 bird species. The organs of T. angustifolia have a larger quantity of the measured elements than the P. pectinatus. Considerably higher contents of Cd were found rather than in helophytes (P. pectinatus) in submerged plant (= emergent, T. angustifolia) species. The percentage of Cd in plant tissues points to a certain degree of water pollution in Sultan Mash. Analyses of water, bottom sediments and plant samples indicated that the Marsh were polluted with Pb, Cd, and partly with Cu and Zn. All sampling sites in the study area basin are generally more or less polluted when compared with the control values. Strong positive correlation was found between concentrations of Pb in water and in plants. Ni and Pb were accumulated by plants at a higher rate from bottom sediments than from water. Leaves of T. angustifolia accumulated less heavy metal than the corresponding roots. There was a significant relationship between Cd concentration in samples of plants and water pH value. It has been found that the tissues of T. angustifolia accumulate more heavy metals than the tissues of P. pectinatus. Therefore, all plants can be used as a biological indicator while determining environmental pressures; however, T. angustifolia is proved more appropriate for such studies. PMID:15234165

Demirezen, Dilek; Aksoy, Ahmet

2004-08-01

148

Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) - Hyptis suaveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia - incorporated in protein baits was evaluated against Bactrocera oleae, a worldwide pest of olive fruits. In laboratory conditions, all the tested EOs showed dose-dependent toxicity on B. oleae, with mortality rates ranging from 12% (EO concentration: 0.01% w:v) to 100% (EO concentration: 1.75% w:v). Semi-field results highlighted the toxicity of L. angustifolia and H. suaveolens EOs, which exerted more than 60% of flies mortality at a concentration of 1.75% (w:v). Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry analyses of the three EOs showed that H. suaveolens EO was dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main chemical class in R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs plus food bait against the olive fruit fly in the open field. PMID:23594314

Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Lenzi, Gabriele; Flamini, Guido; Francini, Alessandra; Cioni, Pier Luigi

2013-01-01

149

Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

2009-01-01

150

Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.  

PubMed

Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2?mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5?-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500?µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5?-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5?µg/mL and 5??M, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth. PMID:22517595

Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

2013-02-01

151

Biflavonoids from Araucaria angustifolia protect against DNA UV-induced damage.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet radiation is one of the most deleterious forms of radiation to terrestrial organisms and is involved in formation of mutagenic pyrimidine dimers and oxidized nucleotides. The biflavonoid fraction (BFF), extracted from needles of Araucaria angustifolia was capable of protecting calf thymus DNA from damage induced by UV radiation. This occurred through prevention of cyclobutane thymine dimer and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine formation, this being quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in a multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) and by HPLC-coulometric detection, respectively. PMID:19349053

Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Kato, Massuo J; Di Mascio, Paolo

2009-03-01

152

Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-? release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile. PMID:23017402

Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tomic, Goran; Nikolic, Ivana; Nerantzaki, Alexandra A; Sayyad, Nisar; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

2013-01-01

153

Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. PMID:12031432

Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

2002-06-01

154

Thesinine-4?- O-?- d-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4?-O-?-d-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of dried seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

Martina Herrmann; Holger Joppe; Gerhard Schmaus

2002-01-01

155

Pharmacological basis for the use of Borago officinalis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyIn this study, we investigated the crude extract of Borago officinalis leaves (Bo.Cr) for its antispasmodic, bronchodilator, vasodilator and cardio-depressant activities to rationalize some of the traditional uses.

Anwarul Hassan Gilani; Samra Bashir; Arif-ullah Khan

2007-01-01

156

1H and 13C NMR signal assignment of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis L. (Papaveraceae).  

PubMed

The NMR signal assignments of a series of structurally divergent benzylisoquinolines isolated from Fumaria officinalis L. (Fumariaceae, Papaverales), namely adlumine, corlumine, corydamine, cryptopine, fumarophycine, O-methylfumarophycine, hydrastine, parfumine, protopine and sinactine, are presented. PMID:15366062

Seger, Christoph; Sturm, Sonja; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Ellmerer, Ernst; Stuppner, Hermann

2004-10-01

157

Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naïve and scopolamine-treated rats  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50–400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naïve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naïve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naïve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD. PMID:25657779

Soodi, M.; Naghdi, N.; Hajimehdipoor, H.; Choopani, S.; Sahraei, E.

2014-01-01

158

Phenolic and flavonoid content of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (leaf and flower)  

PubMed Central

Objectives : Leaves and flowers of Elaeagnus angustifolia contain phenolic and flavonoid compounds. These compounds have antioxidant properties that protect cells from oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to determine and analyze total phenolic and flavonoid content of leaves and flowers in two E. angustifolia variants using different solvents (ethanol and methanol). Materials and Methods: Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the plant leaves and flowers were prepared. Experiments were carried out to measure their phenolic and flavonoid content using two solvents. Data were analyzed using Instat-N software. Results: Results showed that the amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in both ethanolic and methanolic extracts was higher in Fariman variant compared with Mashhad variant. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Fariman variant had the highest amount of phenolic compound (10.91±0.18, 10.28± 0.36 mg GAE/100gFW, respectively) and also the highest amounts of flavonoids (5.80±0.10, 3.36±0.05 mgQE/100gFW, respectively). Phenolic and flavonoids compounds were better extracted using methanol and ethanol solvent. Conclusions: In both varieties and solvents, the amount of phenolic and flavonoids compounds in leaves were higher than flowers. In addition, the phenolic and flavonoids compounds were higher in Fariman compared to Mashhad variants PMID:25068137

Saboonchian, Fereshte; Jamei, Rashid; Hosseini Sarghein, Siavash

2014-01-01

159

Purification of alkylamides from Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell. Roots by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.  

PubMed

High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was used for the separation of alkylamides from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell. For this purpose, the alkylamides were extracted with hexane and subjected to semipreparative HSCCC using a two-phase solvent system consisting of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water (4:1:2:1). The lower aqueous phase was used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 3 mL/min and a rotary speed of 1000 rpm. This procedure led to the isolation of four pure alkylamides, that is, dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (38.9 mg, 97% purity), dodeca-2E,4E,8Z-trienoic acid isobutylamide (4.4 mg, 92% purity), dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid isobutylamide (3.2 mg, 99% purity), and dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid 2-methylbutylamide (0.3 mg, 92% purity). The identity and purity of the isolated alkylamides were confirmed by LC-ESI-MS and (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR data. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid 2-methylbutylamide in E. angustifolia roots. PMID:21190380

Lopes-Lutz, Daise; Mudge, Elizabeth; Ippolito, Robert; Brown, Paula; Schieber, Andreas

2011-01-26

160

Differential proteome analysis of mature and germinated embryos of Araucaria angustifolia.  

PubMed

Araucaria angustifolia is an endangered Brazilian native conifer tree. The aim of the present work was to identify differentially expressed proteins between mature and germinated embryos of A. angustifolia, using one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis approaches followed by protein identification by tandem mass spectrometry. The identities of 32 differentially expressed protein spots from two dimensional gel maps were successfully determined, including proteins and enzymes involved in storage mobilization such as the vicilin-like storage protein and proteases. A label free approach, based on spectral counts, resulted in detection of 10 and 14 mature and germinated enriched proteins, respectively. Identified proteins were mainly related to energetic metabolism pathways, translational processes, oxidative stress regulation and cellular signaling. The integrated use of both strategies permitted a comprehensive protein expression overview of changes in germinated embryos in relation to matures, providing insights into the this process in a recalcitrant seed species. Applications of the data generated on the monitoring and control of in vitro somatic embryos were discussed. PMID:21276992

Balbuena, Tiago S; Jo, Leonardo; Pieruzzi, Fernanda P; Dias, Leonardo L C; Silveira, Vanildo; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Junqueira, Magno; Thelen, Jay J; Shevchenko, Andrej; Floh, Eny I S

2011-04-01

161

Isolation, selection and characterization of root-associated growth promoting bacteria in Brazil Pine (Araucaria angustifolia).  

PubMed

Araucaria angustifolia, a unique species of this genus that occurs naturally in Brazil, has a high socio-economic and environmental value and is critically endangered of extinction, since it has been submitted to intense predatory exploitation during the last century. Root-associated bacteria from A. angustifolia were isolated, selected and characterized for their biotechnological potential of growth promotion and biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi. Ninety-seven strains were isolated and subjected to chemical tests. All isolates presented at least one positive feature, characterizing them as potential PGPR. Eighteen isolates produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 27 were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate, 21 isolates were presumable diazotrophs, with pellicle formation in nitrogen-free culture medium, 83 were phosphatases producers, 37 were positive for siderophores and 45 endospore-forming isolates were antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogen of conifers. We also observed the presence of bacterial strains with multiple beneficial mechanisms of action. Analyzing the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of these isolates, it was possible to characterize the most effective isolates as belonging to Bacillaceae (9 isolates), Enterobacteriaceae (11) and Pseudomonadaceae (1). As far as we know, this is the first study to include the species Ewingella americana as a PGPR. PMID:21596540

Ribeiro, Carlos Marcelo; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

2012-01-20

162

Annual Production of Decomposer Fungi Associated With Standing-Dead Litter of Typha angustifolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial decomposition of standing-dead plant litter is an important process in wetlands dominated by emergent macrophytes. We determined the annual fungal biomass (ergosterol) and production (14C-acetate incorporation) associated with decaying standing litter (leaves and shoots) of the emergent macrophyte Typha angustifolia in small lake littoral wetland in southeastern Michigan. Mean annual detrital mass of standing-dead leaf and shoot litter was 656±238 g/m2 (range 284-873) and 1184±280 g/m2 (range 522-1525), respectively, during study period. Mean annual fungal biomass associated with decaying standing litter was 46 and 15 g/m2 for leaves and shoots, respectively. Annual fungal biomass production associated with leaves and shoots was 168 and 78 g/m2, respectively, with maximum production /m2 occurring during the summer season. These production estimates account for diel periodicity in water availability and the consequent periodicity in microbial activities that are characteristic of the standing litter environment. A partial organic matter budget constructed for this littoral wetland indicates that 9.4% of the annual aboveground production of T. angustifolia went into the production of fungal biomass. These results provide additional evidence indicating considerable carbon flow from emergent plant matter to fungal decomposers while in the standing-decay phase.

Ohsowski, B. M.; Collins, M. D.; Tarry, D.; Francoeur, S. N.; Neely, R. K.; Kuehn, K. A.

2005-05-01

163

Identification and elimination of bacterial contamination during in vitro propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth  

PubMed Central

Background: Guadua angustifolia Kunth is a very important bamboo species with significant utility in pharmaceutical, paper, charcoal, and construction industries. Microbial contamination is a major problem encountered during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. Objective: This study has been designed to analyze the identity of contaminating bacteria and to develop the strategy to eliminate them during micropropagation of Guadua. Materials and Methods: We isolated and consequently analyzed partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify two contaminating bacteria as (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis. In addition, we also- performed antibiotic sensitivity testing on these bacterial isolates. Results: We identified kanamycin and streptomycin sulfate as potentially useful antibiotics in eliminating the contaminating bacteria. We grew shoots on multiplication medium containing BAP (2 mg/l) and adenine sulfate (10 mg/l) supplemented with kanamycin (10 ?g/ml) for 10 days and transferred them to fresh medium without antibiotics and found that bacterial growth was inhibited. Moreover, we observed intensive formation of high-quality shoots. Streptomycin sulfate also inhibited bacterial growth but at higher concentration. We also demonstrated that shoots grown in streptomycin sulfate tended to be shorter and had yellow leaves. Conclusion: Thus, we have developed a novel strategy to identify and inhibit intriguing microbial contaminations of (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This would improve in vitro establishment of an important bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth for large scale propagation. PMID:22701279

Nadha, Harleen Kaur; Salwan, Richa; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

2012-01-01

164

Identification of Verbena officinalis based on ITS sequence analysis and RAPD-derived molecular markers.  

PubMed

Verbenae herba is a widely used drug and consists of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae). Until now, the identification has been performed based on morphological and phytochemical analyses, which are not reliable enough to distinguish Verbena officinalis from other relevant species of the genus Verbena. Hence, impurities and adulterants, negatively influencing the therapeutic effect of the drug, may remain undetected. In an attempt to generate an accurate authentication method we used two different DNA-based approaches: comparison of ITS sequences and molecular markers (RAPD). Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of V. officinalis from the rest of the genus despite the intraspecific variation existing within V. officinalis. The application of the two independent methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, however, a SCAR marker and primers for HRM were derived from the RAPD results. The SCAR marker could distinguish V. officinalis from all other verbena species except its closest relative V. hastata, while discrimination of V. officinalis even from V. hastata was unproblematic with HRM. PMID:19350481

Ruzicka, Joana; Lukas, Brigitte; Merza, Lina; Göhler, Irina; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Novak, Johannes

2009-09-01

165

Variations in growth and reproduction within populations of two rhizomatous plant species: Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal excavations of ramet systems in overlapping natural populations of Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia revealed intrapopulation variation in ramet size and reproduction. Reproductive “states” were recognized based on whether or not a ramet had flowered and the number of offspring ramets it possessed. As the growing season progressed, the populations became increasingly heterogeneous in their reproductive-state composition with the

James B. Grace; Robert G. Wetzel

1982-01-01

166

Modulation of ovine neutrophil function and apoptosis by standardized extracts of Echinacea angustifolia, Butea frondosa and Curcuma longa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired neutrophil function has been associated with increased infectious diseases in ruminants. Attachment of neutrophils to endothelium and superoxide production is critical features of their immune activity. Once the infection is cleared, programmed cell death ensures the rapid resolution of inflammation. To develop new natural therapeutics for ruminants, standard extracts of Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea™), Butea frondosa and Curcuma longa (Curcuvet™)

Maura Farinacci; Monica Colitti; Bruno Stefanon

2009-01-01

167

Effetti immunostimolanti in vitro ed in vivo di un nuovo estratto standardizzato di Echinacea angustifolia radice (Polinacea TM )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polinacea TM è un nuovo estratto idroalcolico standardizzato ottenuto dalle radici di Echinacea angustifolia contenente echinacoside (> 4%), un polisaccaride con elevato peso molecolare identificato come IDN 5405 (> 5%) ed una frazione isobutilamidica (< 0,1%). Per i test in vitro è stata preparata Polinacea TM priva di lipopolisaccaridi batterici (LPS-free) al fine di evitare risposte non specifiche delle cellule

P. Morazzoni; A. Cristoni; F. Di Pierro; C. Avanzino; D. Ravarino; S. Stornello; M. Zucca; T. Musso

2005-01-01

168

A comparative study for the estimation of dynamical drying behavior of Echinacea angustifolia: regression analysis and neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia is a root with curative properties and with immunological and pharmaceutical applications after drying. Studies of its drying kinetics have been limited in the past. This paper presents thin-layer drying kinetics of these roots and a comparative study between regression analysis and a multilayer feed-forward neural network to estimate their dynamic drying behavior. Experiments were performed at drying

Koksal Erenturk; Saliha Erenturk; Lope G. Tabil

2004-01-01

169

Mitochondria and redox homoeostasis as chemotherapeutic targets of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze in human larynx HEp-2 cancer cells.  

PubMed

Natural products are among one of the most promising fields in finding new molecular targets in cancer therapy. Laryngeal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers affecting the head and neck regions, and is associated with high morbidity rate if left untreated. The aim of this study was to examine the antiproliferative effect of Araucaria angustifolia on laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cells. The results showed that A. angustifolia extract (AAE) induced a significant cytotoxicity in HEp-2 cells compared to the non-tumor human epithelial (HEK-293) cells, indicating a selective activity of AAE for the cancer cells. A. angustifolia extract was able to increase oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, and the production of nitric oxide, along with the depletion of enzymatic antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the tumor cell line. Moreover, AAE was able to induce DNA damage, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. A significant increase in the Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), Bax, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage expression were also found. These effects could be related to the ability of AAE to increase the production of reactive oxygen species through inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity and ATP production by the tumor cells. The phytochemical analysis of A. angustifolia, performed using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) in MS and MS/MS mode, showed the presence of dodecanoic and hexadecanoic acids, and phenolic compounds, which may be associated with the chemotherapeutic effect observed in this study. PMID:25770932

Branco, Cátia Dos Santos; Lima, Émilin Dreher de; Rodrigues, Tiago Selau; Scheffel, Thamiris Becker; Scola, Gustavo; Laurino, Claudia Cilene Fernandes Correia; Moura, Sidnei; Salvador, Mirian

2015-04-25

170

Sea Level Rise and Climate Change Effects on Marsh Plants Spartina Alterniflora and Typha Angustifolia Using Mesocosms  

EPA Science Inventory

A four month experiment using greenhouse mesocosms was conducted to analyze the effect of sea level rise and climate change on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail). Our goal was to examine the effects of three differen...

171

Antiinflammatory activity and chemical composition of extracts of Verbena officinalis.  

PubMed

In an attempt to locate the biologically active fraction(s) of the plant Verbena officinalis Linn. (Verbenaceae), a preliminary screening of successive petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of aerial parts for antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan paw oedema model was carried out. All three extracts were found to exhibit antiinflammatory activity with the chloroform extract being the most active. Chemical investigations of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts led to the isolation of beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, 3-epiursolic acid, 3-epioleanolic acid, and minor triterpenoids of derivatives of ursolic acid and oleanolic acids. Chromatographic purification of the methanol extract yielded two iridoid glucosides, verbenalin and hastatoside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside, verbascoside and beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside. PMID:10960904

Deepak, M; Handa, S S

2000-09-01

172

Sesquiterpenoids and lignans from the roots of Valeriana officinalis L.  

PubMed

Two new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids, valerol A (1) and kessyl 3-acetate (2), together with nine known compounds, valeracetate (3), anismol A (4), orientalol C (5), spatulenol (6), 4?,10?-epoxyaromadendrane (7), (+)-8-hydroxypinoresinol (8), pinorespiol (9), pinoresinol 4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (10), and 8-hydroxypinoresinol 4'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (11) were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis. The structures and relative configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR). These compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. PMID:22006719

Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Rui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Liu, Yu-Qing; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Jiang, He-Zhong; Chen, Zhong-Quan; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

2011-10-01

173

FACTORES QUE INFLUYEN SOBRE LA EMERGENCIA DE PLÁNTULAS DE BORRAJA (BORAGO OFFICINALIS L.) FACTORS INFLUENCING BORAGE (BORAGO OFFICINALIS L.) SEEDLING EMERGENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Borago officinalis L. seeds and the whole plant are used as medicinal plants. Gamma linolenic acid, an important essential fatty acid from the omega-6 family is present in its seeds. Objectives: To analyze the effect of the seeding depth, seed maturity, germination promoters, and\\/or stratification on the emergence percentage, vigor index and time to reach a 50% emergence were

Alejandro Solís; Rosemarie Wilckens; Maritza Tapia; Susana Fischer; Daniel Sorlino; Marisol Berti

174

Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).  

PubMed

Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

Rajashekhara, N; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, Parameshwar P

2013-10-01

175

Hydrophobic modification of cellulose isolated from Agave angustifolia fibre by graft copolymerisation using methyl methacrylate.  

PubMed

Graft copolymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto Agave angustifolia was conducted with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as the redox initiator. The maximum grafting efficiency was observed at CAN and MMA concentrations of 0.91×10(-3) and 5.63×10(-2)M, respectively, at 45°C for 3h reaction time. Four characteristic peaks at 2995, 1738, 1440, and 845cm(-1), attributed to PMMA, were found in the IR spectrum of grafted cellulose. The crystallinity index dropped from 0.74 to 0.46, while the thermal stability improved upon grafting. The water contact angle increased with grafting yield, indicating increased hydrophobicity of cellulose. SEM images showed the grafted cellulose to be enlarged and rougher. The changes in the physical nature of PMMA-grafted cellulose can be attributed to the PMMA grafting in the amorphous regions of cellulose, causing it to expand at the expense of the crystalline component. PMID:25857961

Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan; Mohamed, Faizal

2015-07-10

176

Use of a standardized extract from Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea) for the prevention of respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

Echinacea preparations are extensively used for the prevention and the management of the common cold. Despite this popularity, the clinical studies on Echinacea have produced mixed results, possibly in part because of the poor characterization of the extracts investigated and the use of different species and/or plant parts for the preparations investigated in the various trials. To address this issue, Polinacea, a highly standardized extract from a well-defined botanical source (roots of Echinacea angustifolia) with a specific phytochemical profile (presence of the complex polysaccharide IDN5405, the phenylethanoid echinacoside, and substantial lack of alkamides) was developed. We have studied whether Polinacea could enhance the immune response subsequent to the influenza vaccination, and whether the use of this preparation could translate into a decreased morbidity from influenza. The preliminary results were encouraging, and suggest that Polinacea could be used for improving the immune response to influenza vaccine. PMID:22502621

Di Pierro, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Ferrara, Tarcisio; Togni, Stefano

2012-03-01

177

The endocannabinoid system as a target for alkamides from Echinacea angustifolia roots.  

PubMed

Alkamides are the major lipophilic constituents of Echinacea angustifolia roots. Due to their structural similarity with anandamide, we have evaluated their ability to bind to rodent cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 by a standard receptor binding assay using [(3)H]CP-55,940 as a radioligand. The alkamides exhibited selective affinity especially to CB2 receptors and can therefore be considered as CB ligands. Most of the alkamides showed good metabolic stability as indicated by the similarity between affinity to CB1 determined in the presence/absence of the protease inhibitor PMSF. It is suggested that CB2 interactions may be the molecular mode of action of Echinacea alkamides as immunomodulators. PMID:16142631

Woelkart, Karin; Xu, Wei; Pei, Ying; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Picone, Robert P; Bauer, Rudolf

2005-08-01

178

Development and evaluation of microsatellite markers for a native prairie perennial, Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci for the native prairie perennial Echinacea angustifolia were developed and evaluated for future use in population structure and paternity studies. • Methods and Results: A total of 50 trinucleotide microsatellite regions were identified though an enrichment protocol that prescreens for microsatellite repeats before ligating into a vector. Of these, 11 loci were polymorphic and in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in three populations with varying numbers of plants. The loci had between three and 14 alleles and collectively provided high paternity exclusion probabilities. • Conclusions: These sets of microsatellite primers will provide researchers and land managers with valuable information on the population genetic structure and gene flow between fragmented prairie populations. PMID:25202499

Ison, Jennifer L.; Wagenius, Stuart; Reitz, Diedre; Ashley, Mary V.

2013-01-01

179

Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)  

PubMed Central

Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

Rajashekhara, N.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, Parameshwar P.

2013-01-01

180

Growth inhibition of an Araucaria angustifolia (Coniferopsida) fungal seed pathogen, Neofusicoccum parvum, by soil streptomycetes  

PubMed Central

Background Araucariaceae are important forest trees of the southern hemisphere. Life expectancy of their seedlings can largely be reduced by fungal infections. In this study we have isolated and characterized such a fungus and investigated the potential of Streptomyces Actinobacteria from the respective rhizosphere to act as antagonists. Results The pathogenic fungus from Araucaria angustifolia seeds was identified by morphological markers (pore-associated Woronin-bodies) as belonging to the Pezizomycotina. Molecular data identified the fungus as Neofusicoccum parvum (Botryosphaeriaceae). Co-cultures on agar of this fungus with certain streptomycete isolates from the rhizosphere, and from the surface of Araucaria roots significantly reduced the growth of the fungus. HPLC analysis of the agar yielded streptomycete-specific exudate compounds which were partly identified. There were differences in compounds between single (bacteria, fungus) and dual cultures (bacteria?+?fungus). Conclusion Streptomycetes from the rhizosphere of Araucariaceae produce exudates which can suppress the development of pathogenic fungi in their seeds. PMID:23866024

2013-01-01

181

Nitrogen fixation by Elaeagnus angustifolia in the reclamation of degraded croplands of Central Asia.  

PubMed

Extensive degradation of irrigated croplands, due to increasing soil salinity and depletion of soil nutrient stocks, is a major problem in Central Asia (CA), one of the largest irrigated areas in the world. To assess the potential for improving the productive capacity of degraded lands by afforestation, we examined N(2) fixation of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. in mixed plantations with non-fixing Populus euphratica Oliv. and Ulmus pumila L. Fixation of N(2) was quantified by the (15)N natural abundance technique based on both foliar and whole-plant sampling during five consecutive growing seasons. Despite elevated root-zone soil salinity (6-10 dS m(-1)) and deficiency in plant-available P (4-15 mg kg(-1)), N(2) fixation (%Ndfa) increased from an initial value of 20% to almost 100% over 5 years. Within each growing season, %Ndfa steadily increased and peaked in the fall. Annual N(2) fixation, determined using foliar delta(15)N, initially averaged 0.02 Mg ha(-1), peaked at 0.5 Mg ha(-1) during the next 2 years and thereafter stabilized at 0.3 Mg ha(-1). Estimates based on whole-plant delta(15)N were <10% lower than those based on foliar delta(15)N. The increase in plant-available soil N was significantly higher in E. angustifolia plots than in P. euphratica and U. pumila plots. Increases in the concentrations of organic C (19%), total N (21%) and plant-available P (74%) in the soil were significant irrespective of tree species. This improvement in soil fertility is further evidence that afforestation with mixed-species plantations can be a sustainable land use option for the degraded irrigated croplands in CA. PMID:19324691

Khamzina, Asia; Lamers, John P A; Vlek, Paul L G

2009-06-01

182

Synthetic seed production and physio-biochemical studies in Cassia angustifolia Vahl. - a medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Synthetic seed technology is an alternative to traditional micropropagation for production and delivery of cloned plantlets. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating nodal segments of C. angustifolia in calcium alginate gel. 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2 · 2H2O were found most suitable for encapsulation of nodal segments. Synthetic seeds cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with thidiazuron (5.0 ?M) + indole-3-acetic acid (1.0 ?M) produced maximum number of shoots (10.9 ± 0.78) after 8 weeks of culture exhibiting (78%) in vitro conversion response. Encapsulated nodal segments demonstrated successful regeneration after different period (1-6 weeks) of cold storage at 4 °C. The synthetic seeds stored at 4 °C for a period of 4 weeks resulted in maximum conversion frequency (93%) after 8 weeks when placed back to regeneration medium. The isolated shoots when cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.0 ?M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), produced healthy roots and plantlets with well-developed shoot and roots were successfully hardened off in plastic pots containing sterile soilrite inside the growth chamber and gradually transferred to greenhouse where they grew well with 85% survival rate. Growth performance of 2 months old in vitro-raised plant was compared with in vivo seedlings of the same age. Changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate (PN), superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in C. angustifolia indicated the adaptation of micropropagated plants to ex vitro conditions. PMID:25194738

Bukhari, N A W; Siddique, Iram; Perveen, K; Siddiqui, I; Alwahibi, M S

2014-09-01

183

EXTRACTION ET ETUDE DES HUILES ESSENTIELLES DE LA SALVIA OFFICINALIS.L CUEILLIE DANS DEUX REGIONS DIFFERENTES DE LA TUNISIE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction and a study of essential oils of Salvia officinalis from two different regions in Tunisia. The composition of the essential oils of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis, obtained by hydrodistillation, collected from two areas in Tunisia, was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The essential oils of the organic phase and those extracted from the aqueous phase, obtained from

S. FELLAH; M. ROMDHANE; M. ABDERRABA

184

Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the1 common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: radiotracer experiments2  

E-print Network

1 Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the1 common cuttlefish Sepia of the eggs of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (50 d29 at 17°C). 203 Hg and 210 Pb were accumulated).55 In the English Channel, the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis lives offshore during the56 winter season

Boyer, Edmond

185

Novel neuroprotective effects of the aqueous extracts from Verbena officinalis Linn.  

PubMed

Verbena officinialis Linn. (Verbenaceae) is a perennial plant which has been used as herbal medicine or health supplement in both Western and Eastern countries for centuries. It has been used to treat acute dysentery, enteritis, amenorrhea and depression. In view of its wide array of biological effects, we hypothesized that V. officinalis can exert cytoprotective effects on cells of the central nervous system. Pre-treatment of aqueous extracts of V. officinalis significantly attenuated the toxicity of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide and reducing agent dithiothreitol in primary cultures of cortical neurons. As extracellular accumulation of Abeta peptide is an important cytotoxic factor involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have further explored its neuroprotective effect against Abeta. Treatment of V. officinalis attenuated Abeta-triggered DEVD- and VDVAD-cleavage activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies elucidated that phosphorylation of both interferon-inducing protein kinase (PKR) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was attenuated in Abeta-treated neurons. Taken together, we have proved our hypothesis by showing the novel neuroprotective effects of V. officinalis. As V. officinalis has long been used for many years to be a folk medicine, our study may provide a lead for its potential to be a neuroprotective agent against neuronal loss in AD. PMID:16406021

Lai, Sau-Wan; Yu, Man-Shan; Yuen, Wai-Hung; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

2006-05-01

186

Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization  

PubMed Central

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

2012-01-01

187

Valeriana officinalis ameliorates vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in rats.  

PubMed

Oral movements are associated with important neuropathologies as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. However, until this time, there has been no known efficacious treatment, without side effects, for these disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of V. officinalis, a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V. officinalis (in the drinking water, starting 15 days before the administration of the reserpine). VCMs, locomotor activity and oxidative stress measurements were evaluated. Furthermore, we carried out the identification of valeric acid and gallic acid by HPLC in the V. officinalis tincture. Our findings demonstrated that reserpine caused a marked increase on VCMs and the co-treatment with V. officinalis was able to reduce the intensity of VCM. Reserpine did not induce oxidative stress in cerebral structures (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra). However, a significant positive correlation between DCF-oxidation (an estimation of oxidative stress) in the cortex and VCMs (p < 0.05) was observed. Moreover, a negative correlation between Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in substantia nigra and the number of VCMs was observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, V. officinalis had behavioral protective effect against reserpine-induced VCMs in rats; however, the exact mechanisms that contributed to this effect have not been completely understood. PMID:21476069

Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Wagner, Caroline; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

2011-11-01

188

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

189

Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis. PMID:25780826

Felšöciová, So?a; Ka?ániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Vukovi?, Nenad; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Rovná, Katarina; Stri?ík, Michal; Hajduová, Zuzana

2015-02-24

190

Composition of volatile in micropropagated and field grown aromatic plants from Tuscany Islands.  

PubMed

Aromatic plant species present in the natural Park of Tuscany Archipelago are used as flavoring agents and spices, as dietary supplements and in cosmetics and aromatherapy. The plants are usually collected from wild stands, inducing a depletion of the natural habitat. Therefore, micropropagation of these aromatic plants can play a role in the protection of the natural ecosystem, can guarantee a massive sustainable production and can provide standardized plant materials for diverse economical purposes. The aim of this study is to compare the volatile organic compounds produced by the wild plants with those from in vitro plantlets using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) followed by capillary gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Typical plants of this natural area selected for this work were Calamintha nepeta L., Crithmum maritimum L., Lavandula angustifolia L., Myrtus communis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Satureja hortensis L. Different explants were used: microcuttings with vegetative apical parts, axillary buds and internodes. Sterilization percentage, multiplication rate and shoot length, as well as root formation were measured. The volatile aromatic profiles produced from in vitro plantlets were compared with those of the wild plants, in particular for C. maritimum, R. officinalis, S. officinalis and S. hortensis. This study indicated that the micropropagation technique can represent a valid alternative to produce massive and sterile plant material characterised by the same aromatic flavour as in the wild grown plants. PMID:23441303

Pistelli, Laura; Noccioli, Cecilia; D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

2013-01-01

191

Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.  

PubMed

This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

2013-02-01

192

Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanovi?, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gaji?, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

2014-01-01

193

Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants. PMID:25026727

Nurzy?ska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

2014-05-01

194

A simple and efficient DNA isolation method for Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

We report an efficient, simple, and cost-effective protocol for the isolation of genomic DNA from an aromatic medicinal plant, common sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Our modification of the standard CTAB protocol includes two polyphenol adsorbents (PVP 10 and activated charcoal), high NaCl concentrations (4 M) for removing polysaccharides, and repeated Sevag treatment to remove proteins and other carbohydrate contaminants. The mean DNA yield obtained with our Protocol 2 was 330.6 ?g DNA g(-1) of dry leaf tissue, and the absorbance ratios 260/280 and 260/230 nm averaged 1.909 and 1.894, respectively, revealing lack of contamination. PCR amplifications of one nuclear (26S rDNA) and one chloroplast (rps16-trnK) locus indicated that our DNA isolation protocol may be used in common sage and other aromatic and medicinal plants containing essential oil for molecular biologic and biotechnological studies and for population genetics, phylogeographic, and conservation surveys in which nuclear or chloroplast genomes would be studied in large numbers of individuals. PMID:22847363

Aleksi?, Jelena M; Stojanovi?, Danilo; Banovi?, Bojana; Jan?i?, Radiša

2012-12-01

195

Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses  

PubMed Central

Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-?B activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1? production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

2013-01-01

196

Acylated iridoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia resulted in the isolation and characterization of six new acylated iridoids, (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-8-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (1), (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (2), (5S,8S,9S)-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (3), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-1,3-diol (4), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-1,3-isovaleroxy-?4,11-1,3-diol (5), and (5S,6S,8S,9R)-3-isovaleroxy-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-1,3-diol (6). Their structures were determined mainly by 1D and 2D?NMR spectroscopic techniques. We also report herein for the first time the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 1. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated against A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma), SK-BR-3 (human breast carcinoma), and HepG2 (human hepatoma) cell lines. Compound 6 showed weak cell growth inhibition of A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2 cells. PMID:22872588

Han, Zhu-zhen; Yan, Zhao-hui; Liu, Qing-xin; Hu, Xian-qing; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-liang; Zhang, Wei-dong

2012-10-01

197

Study on in-vivo anti-tumor activity of Verbena officinalis extract.  

PubMed

We investigated the anti-tumor effects of Verbena officinalis extract on H22 tumor-bearing mice and its effect on immune function. Mice model of H22 solid tumor was established, the mice were divided into five groups and administered the extract, later, tumors were removed and inhibition rates were calculated; spleens were removed and spleen indices were calculated, and the sheep red blood cell-delayed-type hypersensitivity (SRBC-DTH) and the serum hemolysin level were determined. The Verbena officinalis extract had anti-tumor effect, with the inhibition rate reaching 38.78%, it also increased the spleen index to a certain extent, in addition, the changes in DTA and HA were not obvious compared with the model group. The Verbena officinalis extract had in vivo anti-tumor effect, while causing no damage on the immune function. PMID:24146482

Kou, Wei-Zheng; Yang, Jun; Yang, Qing-Hui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Fen; Xu, Su-Ling; Liu, Jing

2013-01-01

198

ESTs library from embryonic stages reveals tubulin and reflectin diversity in Sepia officinalis (Mollusca — Cephalopoda).  

PubMed

New molecular resources regarding the so-called “non-standard models” in biology extend the present knowledge and are essential for molecular evolution and diversity studies (especially during the development) and evolutionary inferences about these zoological groups, or more practically for their fruitful management. Sepia officinalis, an economically important cephalopod species, is emerging as a new lophotrochozoan developmental model. We developed a large set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryonic stages of S. officinalis, yielding 19,780 non-redundant sequences (NRS). Around 75% of these sequences have no homologs in existing available databases. This set is the first developmental ESTs library in cephalopods. By exploring these NRS for tubulin, a generic protein family, and reflectin, a cephalopod specific protein family,we point out for both families a striking molecular diversity in S. officinalis. PMID:22548232

Bassaglia, Yann; Bekel, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Andouche, Aude; Navet, Sandra; Bonnaud, Laure

2012-05-01

199

Optimization of culturing conditions for the production of biomass and phenolics from adventitious roots of Echinacea angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated different concentrations of auxins (1AA, IBA, NAA), the strength of the MS medium, sucrose and ammonium\\/nitrate\\u000a contents, initial medium pH, and inoculum size to determine their effects on biomass increase and the accumulation of total\\u000a phenols and flavonoids in adventitious roots ofEchinacea angustifolia. These roots were cultured under darkness in shake flasks for 4 weeks. IBA proved the

Chun-Hua Wu; Yaser Hassan Dewir; Eun-Joo Hahn; Kee-Yoeup Paek

2006-01-01

200

Effects of Chemically Characterized Fractions from Aerial Parts of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia on Myelopoiesis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Echinacea species are used for beneficial effects on immune function, and various prevalent phytochemicals have immunomodulatory effects. Using a commercial E. purpurea (L.) Moench product, we have evaluated the myelopoietic effect on bone marrow of rats treated with various extracts and correlated this with their chemical class composition. Granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) from femurs of female Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed at 24 h after 7 daily oral treatments. A 75% ethanolic extract at 50 mg dried weight (derived from 227 mg aerial parts) per kg body weight increased GM-CFCs by 70% but at 100 mg/kg was without effect. Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of E. angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia and E. purpurea from the US-DA North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station increased GM-CFCs by 3- and 2-fold, respectively, at 200 mg/kg (~ 1400 mg/kg plant material). Extract from another USDA E. angustifolia was inactive. Proton and APT NMR, MS, and TLC indicated alkylamides and caffeic-acid derivatives (CADs) present in ethanolic extracts of both the commercial and USDA-derived material. Cichoric and caftaric acids were prominent in both E. purpurea ethanolic extracts but absent in E. angustifolia. Aqueous extract of the commercial material exhibited polysaccharide and CAD signatures and was without effect on GM-CFCs. A methanol-CHCl3 fraction of commercial source, also inactive, was almost exclusively 1:4 nonanoic:decanoic acids, which were also abundant in commercial ethanolic extract but absent from USDA material. In conclusion, we have demonstrated an ethanol-extractable myelostimulatory activity in Echinacea aerial parts that, when obtained from commercial herbal supplements, may be antagonized by medium-chain fatty acids presumably derived from a non-plant additive. PMID:21870322

Ramasahayam, Sindhura; Baraka, Hany N.; Abdel Bar, Fatma M.; Abuasal, Bilal S.; Widrlechner, Mark P.; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Meyer, Sharon A.

2013-01-01

201

Effects of chemically characterized fractions from aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia on myelopoiesis in rats.  

PubMed

Echinacea species are used for beneficial effects on immune function, and various prevalent phytochemicals have immunomodulatory effects. Using a commercial E. purpurea (L.) Moench product, we have evaluated the myelopoietic effect on bone marrow of rats treated with various extracts and correlated this with their chemical class composition. Granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) from femurs of female Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed at 24 h after 7 daily oral treatments. A 75% ethanolic extract at 50 mg dried weight (derived from 227 mg aerial parts) per kg body weight increased GM-CFCs by 70% but at 100 mg/kg was without effect. Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of E. angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia and E. purpurea from the USDA North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station increased GM-CFCs by 3- and 2-fold, respectively, at 200 mg/kg (~1400 mg/kg plant material). Extract from another USDA E. angustifolia was inactive. Proton and APT NMR, MS, and TLC indicated alkylamides and caffeic-acid derivatives (CADs) present in ethanolic extracts of both the commercial and USDA-derived material. Cichoric and caftaric acids were prominent in both E. purpurea ethanolic extracts but absent in E. angustifolia. Aqueous extract of the commercial material exhibited polysaccharide and CAD signatures and was without effect on GM-CFCs. A methanol-CHCl3 fraction of commercial source, also inactive, was almost exclusively 1:4 nonanoic: decanoic acids, which were also abundant in commercial ethanolic extract but absent from USDA material. In conclusion, we have demonstrated an ethanolextractable myelostimulatory activity in Echinacea aerial parts that, when obtained from commercial herbal supplements, may be antagonized by medium-chain fatty acids presumably derived from a non-plant additive. PMID:21870322

Ramasahayam, Sindhura; Baraka, Hany N; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; Abuasal, Bilal S; Widrlechner, Mark P; Sayed, Khalid A El; Meyer, Sharon A

2011-11-01

202

In vitro and in vivo immune stimulating effects of a new standardized Echinacea angustifolia root extract (Polinacea™)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polinacea™ is a new standardized hydroethanolic extract obtained from Echinacea angustifolia roots containing echinacoside (>4%), the high molecular weight polysaccharide IDN 5405 (>5%) and a isobutylamide fraction (<0.1%). For in vitro tests, a bacterial lipopolysaccharide-free (LPS-free) Polinacea™ has been prepared in order to avoid non-specific responses of immunocompetent cells.LPS-free Polinacea™ enhanced the immune functions as highlighted by the proliferation rate

P. Morazzoni; A. Cristoni; F. Di Pierro; C. Avanzini; D. Ravarino; S. Stornello; M. Zucca; T. Musso

2005-01-01

203

Antioxidative responses of Echinacea angustifolia cultured roots to different levels of CO 2 in bioreactor liquid cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of CO2 levels (0.03, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5%) on growth and antioxidant responses in 5l bioreactor (working volume 4l) root suspension cultures of Echinacea angustifolia were studied. CO2 caused reduction in growth, malondialdehyde content (MDA), lipoxygenase (LOX, EC 1.13.11.13) activity and superoxide anion (O2?) accumulation along with high total phenols accumulation and pH levels. Maximal increases (37%)

Mohammad Babar Ali; Eun Joo Hahn; Kee-Yoeup Paek

2006-01-01

204

Adsorption of Cu(II) on Araucaria angustifolia wastes: Determination of the optimal conditions by statistic design of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastes of Araucaria angustifolia (named pinhão) natural (PW) and also loaded with Congo red (CRP) were tested as low-cost adsorbents for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions. In order to reduce the total number of experiments to achieve the best conditions of the batch adsorption procedure, three sets of statistical designs of experiments were carried-out for each adsorbent. Initially, a full

Eder C. Lima; Betina Royer; Júlio C. P. Vaghetti; Jorge L. Brasil; Nathalia M. Simon; Araci A. dos Santos; Flavio A. Pavan; Silvio L. P. Dias; Edílson V. Benvenutti; Edson Antônio da Silva

2007-01-01

205

Modulation of acute inflammation by a chitin-binding lectin from Araucaria angustifolia seeds via mast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a lectin (AaL) from seeds of Araucaria angustifolia were investigated in the model of rat paw edema. In vivo anti-and pro-inflammatory activities, role of sugar residues, inflammatory mediators and systemic toxicity were assessed. Intravenous injection of AaL (0.1–1 mg\\/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the dextran-induced increase in edema and vascular permeability, which were prevented by association of the lectin with

Mário R. L. Mota; David N. Criddle; Nylane M. N. Alencar; Raphaela C. Gomes; Ana V. P. Meireles; Tatiane Santi-Gadelha; Carlos A. A. Gadelha; Cecília C. Oliveira; Raquel G. Benevides; Benildo S. Cavada; Ana M. S. Assreuy

2006-01-01

206

Responses of Phradis parasitoids to volatiles of lavender, Lavendula angustifolia —a possible repellent for their host, Meligethes aeneus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hymenopterous parasitoids of herbivorous insects can be useful biocontrol agents in integrated pest management strategies.\\u000a However, the potential effects on these beneficials of new components in such strategies are often neglected. Essential oil\\u000a of lavender, Lavendula angustifolia (Miller) (Lamiaceae), has recently been identified as a potential repellent in new control strategies being developed for\\u000a the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus (Fabricius)

Samantha M. Cook; Martin Jönsson; Matthew P. Skellern; Darren A. Murray; Peter Anderson; Wilf Powell

2007-01-01

207

Aqueous extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. inhibits neutrophil influx and cytokine secretion.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis L. phenolic compounds have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, including its ability to treat inflammatory disorders. In this work, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of R. officinalis aqueous extract on neutrophil trafficking from the blood into an inflamed tissue, on cell-derived secretion of chemical mediators, and on oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats orally treated with the R. officinalis extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg). The leukocyte influx (optical microscopy), secretion of chemical mediators (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-?, interleukin 6 (IL-6), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the anti-oxidative profile (super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) spectrophotometry) were quantified in the inflamed exudate. N-Formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine-induced chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide-induced NO2 (-) production (Greiss reaction), and adhesion molecule expression (flow cytometry) were in vitro quantified using oyster glycogen recruited peritoneal neutrophils previous treated with the extract (1, 10, or 100 µg/mL). Animals orally treated with phosphate-buffered saline and neutrophils incubated with Hank's balanced salt solution were used as control. R. officinalis extract oral treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the neutrophil migration as well as decreased SOD, TBARS, LTB4, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-? levels in the inflamed exudate. In vitro treatment with R. officinalis decreased neutrophil chemotaxis, NO2 (-) production, and shedding of L-selectin and ?2 integrin expressions. Results here presented show that R. officinalis aqueous extract displays important in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory actions by blocking pathways of neutrophil migration and secretion, suggesting its therapeutic application to acute inflammatory reactions. PMID:25319517

Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira E; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto; de Melo, Illana Louise Pereira; Pedrosa, Gabriela Vieira; Genovese, Maria Ines; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

2015-01-01

208

Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Althaea officinalis radix hydroalcoholic extract.  

PubMed

The objectives were to study the potential of Althaea officinalis radix in production of silver NPs, and the effect of the extract ethanol concentration on the produced NPs. Seventy and ninety-six percent hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. The extract was concentrated by rotary evaporator and then freeze-dried. Silver ions were determined using atomic absorption analysis. The NPs were characterized by Nano-Zeta Sizer and TEM. Both of 70% and 96% of hydroalcoholic extracts of A. officinalis radix successfully synthesized spherical and poly-dispersed silver NPs. The conversion was fast and almost completed in 5 h. PMID:25058031

Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash

2014-07-24

209

Insecticidal activity of some essential oils against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis.  

PubMed

Thirty-four essential oils were tested for insecticidal activity (fumigation or topical application) against larvae Spodoptera littoralis. Twenty essential oils applied by fumigation were highly toxic to the third instar of S. littoralis larvae. Two essential oils Nepeta cataria and Thuja occidentalis were highly toxic, with LC50< or =10.0 ml/m3. Five essential oils Salvia sclarea, Thymus mastichina, Origanum majorana, Pogostemon cablin and Mentha pulegium were toxic with LC50 between 10.1 and 20.0 l ml/m3. Twenty-three essential oils were highly toxic to the third instar of S. littoralis larvae after topical application. Eight essential oils Mentha citrata, N. cataria, S. sclarea, O. vulgare, O. compactum, Melissa officinalis, T. mastichina, and Lavandula angustifolia were highly toxic with LD50 < or =0.05 microl/larvae. PMID:16236461

Pavela, Roman

2005-12-01

210

Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

2010-11-01

211

Flash-flood impacts cause changes in wood anatomy of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Quercus pyrenaica.  

PubMed

Flash floods may influence the development of trees growing on channel bars and floodplains. In this study, we analyze and quantify anatomical reactions to wounding in diffuse-porous (Alnus glutinosa L.) and ring-porous (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) trees in a Mediterranean environment. A total of 54 cross-sections and wedges were collected from trees that had been injured by past flash floods. From each of the samples, micro-sections were prepared at a tangential distance of 1.5 cm from the injury to determine wounding-related changes in radial width, tangential width and lumen of earlywood vessels, and fibers and parenchyma cells (FPC). In diffuse-porous A. glutinosa, the lumen area of vessels shows a significant (non-parametric test, P-value <0.05) decrease by almost 39% after wounding. For ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, significant decreases in vessel lumen area are observed as well by 59 and 42%, respectively. Radial width of vessels was generally more sensitive to the decrease than tangential width, but statistically significant values were only observed in F. angustifolia. Changes in the dimensions of earlywood FPC largely differed between species. While in ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica the lumen of FPC dropped by 22 and 34% after wounding, we observed an increase in FPC lumen area in diffuse-porous A. glutinosa of approximately 35%. Our data clearly show that A. glutinosa represents a valuable species for flash-flood research in vulnerable Mediterranean environments. For this species, it will be possible in the future to gather information on past flash floods with non-destructive sampling based on increment cores. In ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, flash floods leave less drastic, yet still recognizable, signatures of flash-flood activity through significant changes in vessel lumen area. In contrast, the use of changes in FPC dimensions appears less feasible for the determination of past flash-flood events as these two species do not react with the same intensity and clarity as A. glutinosa. PMID:20462937

Ballesteros, J A; Stoffel, M; Bollschweiler, M; Bodoque, J M; Díez-Herrero, A

2010-06-01

212

Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of six Mediterranean aromatic plants against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Laboratory bioassays on insecticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from six Mediterranean plants (Achillea millefolium, Lavandula angustifolia, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis, and Rosmarinus officinalis) were carried out against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. The chemical composition of the six EOs was also investigated. Results from applications showed that all tested oils had insecticidal activity, with differences in mortality rates as a function of both oil and dosage. At the highest dosage (300 ppm), EOs from H. italicum, A. millefolium, and F. vulgare caused higher mortality than the other three oils, with mortality rates ranging from 98.3% to 100%. M. communis EO induced only 36.7% larval mortality at the highest dosage (300 ppm), a similar value to those recorded at the same dosage by using R. officinalis and L. angustifolia (51.7% and 55%, respectively). Identified compounds ranged from 91% to 99%. The analyzed EOs had higher content of monoterpenoids (80-99%) than sesquiterpenes (1-15%), and they can be categorized into three groups on the basis of their composition. Few EOs showed the hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, and these volatile compounds were generally predominant in comparison with the oxygenated forms, which were detected in lower quantities only in H. italicum (1.80%) and in M. communis (1%). PMID:20697909

Conti, Barbara; Canale, Angelo; Bertoli, Alessandra; Gozzini, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

2010-11-01

213

Efficient shoot regeneration from internodal explants of Populus angustifolia, Populus balsamifera and Populus deltoids.  

PubMed

In the present study, interactions between the duration of treatment with auxin and different cytokinins and their effect on shoot regeneration were evaluated with the aim to establish a rapid and efficient in vitro regeneration method applicable to a variety of Populus species. Three different species, Populus angustifolia, P. balsamifera, and P. deltoids, were chosen for that purpose. We were successful in regenerating plantlets from stem and petiole explants from all three chosen species using a four-step simple procedure. The first step was callus induction when the explants were exposed to an auxin-rich medium for 0-20 days. During the second step, they were transferred onto a cytokinin-rich medium for shoot bud induction. In the third step, the shoots regenerated were transferred onto a medium with reduced levels of cytokinins to promote shoot proliferation and elongation; finally, in the fourth step, the shoots were rooted and acclimated. A short period (6-10 days) of time of exposure to auxin was sufficient for shoot regeneration. A culture time longer than ten days in callus induction medium drastically reduced the efficiency of shoot regeneration. Besides, cytokinin type and concentration also affected the frequency of shoot induction. A 0.2 mg/l concentration of 2,4-D for callus induction followed by 0.02 mg/l of Thidiazuron for shoot formation proved to be the best treatment for adventitious shoot bud multiplication, generating a maximum of 10-13 shoots of P. balsamifera and P. angustifolia in ten weeks. In contrast, for P. deltoids, a combination of 1.1mg/l 2,4-D, 1.0mg/l NAA, 0.1mg/l zeatin for callus induction followed by a combination of 1mg/l zeatin plus 1.0mg/l BA for shoot bud induction was found to be the most effective, generating on average 15 shoots over a period of ten weeks. PMID:21640207

Maheshwari, Priti; Kovalchuk, Igor

2011-10-01

214

How sensitive is Melissa officinalis to realistic ozone concentrations?  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.; Lamiaceae) was exposed to realistic ozone (O3) dosages (80 ppb for 5 h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 regimes. Temporal alterations of different ecophysiological, biochemical and structural parameters were investigated in order to test if this species can be considered as an O3-bioindicator regarding changes in background concentrations. At the end of ozone exposure, the plants did not exhibit any visible foliar symptoms, as only at microscopic level a small number of dead cells were found. Photosynthetic processes, however, were significantly affected. During and after the treatment, ozone induced a reduction in CO2 fixation capacity (up to 52% after 12 h from the beginning of the treatment) due to mesophyllic limitations. Intercellular CO2 concentration significantly increased in comparison to controls (+90% at the end of the post-fumigation period). Furthermore impairment of carboxylation efficiency (-71% at the end of the post-fumigation period compared to controls in filtered air) and membrane damage in terms of integrity (as demonstrated by a significant rise in solute leakage) were observed. A regulatory adjustment of photosynthetic processes was highlighted during the post-fumigation period by the higher values of qNP and (1-q(P)) and therefore suggests a tendency to reduce the light energy used in photochemistry at the expense of the capacity to dissipate the excess as excitation energy. In addition, the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the de-epoxidation index increased, showing a rearrangement of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus and a marked activation of photoprotective mechanisms. PMID:24321873

Döring, Anne Sarah; Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

2014-01-01

215

Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.

Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.

2009-01-01

216

Flower Size Variation in Rosmarinus officinalis: Individuals, Populations and Habitats  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Flowers are relatively invariant organs within species, but quantitative variation often exists among conspecifics. These variations represent the raw material that natural selection can magnify, eventually resulting in morphological divergence and diversification. This paper investigates floral variability in Rosmarinus officinalis, a Mediterranean shrub. • Methods Nine populations were selected in three major southern Spanish habitats (coast, lowland and mountains) along an elevation gradient. Flower samples from randomly chosen plants were collected from each population, and a total of 641 flowers from 237 shrubs were weighed while still fresh to the nearest 0·1 mg. Leaves from the same plants were also measured. Variations among habitats, sites and plants were explored with general linear model ANOVA. Leaf–flower covariation was also investigated. • Key Results Most (58 %) mass in flowers was accounted for by the corolla, whose linear dimensions correlated directly with flower mass. Averaged over plants, the mass of a flower varied between 12 mg and 38 mg. Habitat, site (within habitat) and shrub identity had significant effects on mass variance. Flowers from the coast were the smallest (17 mg) and those from the mountains the largest (25 mg on average). A pattern of continuously increasing flower size with elevation emerged which was largely uncoupled from the geographical pattern of leaf size variation. • Conclusions As regards flower size, a great potential to local differentiation exists in Rosmarinus. Observed divergences accord with a regime of large-bodied pollinator selection in the mountains, but also with resource–cost hypotheses on floral evolution that postulate that reduced corollas are advantageous under prevailingly stressful conditions. PMID:15585545

HERRERA, JAVIER

2004-01-01

217

Shampoo-Clay Heals Diaper Rash Faster Than Calendula Officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background: Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. Patients and Methods: A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests and risk ratio. Results: Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusions: S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O. PMID:25414900

Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

2014-01-01

218

Fungi threatening the cultivation of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in south-eastern Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

S u m m a r y In 2004-2006 there were studies conducted on fungi colonizing and harming different parts of plants on plantations of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grouped in south-eastern Poland. Fungi were isolated from roots, the stem base and leaves. The surface was disinfected by means of a mineral medium. Fungi from genera Fusarium, Rhizoctonia solani, Phoma

BEATA ZIMOWSKA

219

Allozyme differentiation in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic–Mediterranean area has recently been proposed as a new phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance of genetic differentiation patterns observed in several marine species. However, additional taxa need to be studied to establish the phylogeographical relationship between the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Eleven samples of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis around the Iberian Peninsula, one from the Canary Islands, and

Marcos Pérez-Losada; Ángel Guerra; Andrés Sanjuan

1999-01-01

220

Changes in composition of digestive gland and mantle muscle of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis during starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the biochemical composition of the digestive gland and in the proteins of the mantle muscle of Sepia officinalis L, collected in September 1989 from the Ria de Vigo (northwest Spain), were measured during periods of 2, 4, 10 and >53 d starvation. The digestive gland lost weight faster than the rest of the body throughout the whole period

B. G. Castro; J. L. Garrido; C. G. Sotelo

1992-01-01

221

Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to

Lydia M. Mäthger; Alexandra Barbosa; Simon Miner; Roger T. Hanlon

2006-01-01

222

Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth, Survival and Condition of Adult Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of artificial diets on growth and body condition of adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis were tested in two experiments. Supplemented prepared diets (fish myofibrillar protein concentrate) were fed during a 30-day and a 21-day experiments. Growth, feeding rate and food conversion of group-reared cuttlefish were analyzed. The first of these experiments tested four artificial diets, made with increasing levels

Pedro M. Domingues; Paul F. Dimarco; Jose P. Andrade; Phillip G. Lee

2005-01-01

223

A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Je´re´my Enault1 migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones the identification of sex pheromones, 576 59-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from a single cDNA library

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids and Coumarins from the Roots of Althaea officinalis.  

PubMed

From the roots of ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS two flavonoid glycosides were separated. Phenolic acids and coumarins were investigated chromatographically. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR) as hypolaetin 8-glucoside and the new flavonoid sulphate - isoscutellarein 4'-methyl ether 8-glucoside-2''-SO (3)K. PMID:17226162

Gudej, J

1991-06-01

225

Size-dependent pollination efficiency in Anchusa officinalis (Boraginaceae) : causes and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bumblebees foraging on the self-incompatible Anchusa officinalis fly between near neighbour plants and between near neighbour inflorescences within plants. Although many-flowered plants attracted most bumblebees these plants received fewer visits on a per flower basis than smaller plants, and each bumblebee visited a smaller proportion of the flowers. The calculated effective visitation rate per flower was highest on plants of

Stefan Andersson

1988-01-01

226

[Urine metabonomic study of intervention effects of Morinda officinalis how. on 'kidney-yang deficiency syndrome'].  

PubMed

To investigate the intervention effects of Morinda officinalis How. on 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' induced by hydrocortisone in rats, the metabolic profiles of rat urine were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to study the trajectory of urinary metabolic phenotype of rats with 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' under administration of M. officinalis at different time points. Meanwhile, the intervention effects of M. officinalis on urinary metabolic potential biomarkers associated with 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' were also discussed. The experimental results showed that in accordance to the increased time of administration, an obvious tendency was observed that clustering of the treatment group moved gradually closed to that of the control group. Eight potential biomarkers including citrate, succinate, alpha-ketoglutarate, lactate, betaine, sarcosine, alanine and taurine were definitely up- or down-regulated. In conclusion, the effectiveness of M. oficinalis on 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' is proved using the established metabonomic method and the regulated metabolic pathways involve energy metabolism, transmethylation and transportation of amine. Meanwhile, the administration of M. officinalis can alleviate the kidney impairment induced by 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome'. PMID:24475714

Zou, Zhong-jie; Xie, Yuan-yuan; Gong, Meng-juan; Han, Bin; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang

2013-11-01

227

Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

228

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible

Letizia Penolazzi; Ilaria Lampronti; Monica Borgatti; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Margherita Zennaro; Roberta Piva; Roberto Gambari

2008-01-01

229

Seeding date and nitrogen fertilization effects on the performance of borage ( Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, borage (Borago officinalis L.) has been the subject of increasing agricultural interest because of the potential market for gamma linolenic acid (GLA), an unusual fatty acid extracted from the seed. GLA is an omega-6 essential fatty acid which has been identified as having several beneficial therapeutic effects such as treatment of atopic eczema, diabetes, cyclic mastalgia, heart disease, arthritis,

R El Hafid; S. F Blade; Y Hoyano

2002-01-01

230

Effect of harvesting time on phenolic compounds and antiradical scavenging activity of Borago officinalis seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borage seeds (Borago officinalis L.) were sampled in Amdoun region (North of Tunisia) during their ripening stage in order to analyse their phenolic compounds and to ascertain their antiradical scavenging activity. The harvesting time effect on some physical properties of borage seed was significant. The increase of dry weight (from 10 to 90%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that

B. Mhamdi; W. Aidi Wannes; J. Sriti; I. Jellali; R. Ksouri; B. Marzouk

2010-01-01

231

Calendula officinalis—production potential and crop agronomy in southern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in Calendula officinalis L. as an industrial oil crop has developed from the discovery that it has a seed-oil content of around 20%, of which up to 60% is calendic acid, a useful industrial feedstock. An EU AIR project `vegetable oils with specific fatty acids', is in progress to further develop this and other species. The first 2 years

H. T. H Cromack; J. M Smith

1998-01-01

232

Glandular hairs and essential oils in micropropagated plants of Salvia officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micropropagation of Salvia officinalis L. (the common sage) plants to verify their ability to produce the typical volatile oil is described. The morphology of the glandular hairs and the chemical composition of the essential oils from in vitro shoots and micropropagated plants have been studied. For comparative purposes, volatile constituents from field grown mother plants and derived rooted cuttings have

Pinarosa Avato; Irene Morone Fortunato; Claudia Ruta; Roberta D’Elia

2005-01-01

233

Growth and calcification in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis under elevated seawater pCO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification and associated changes in seawater carbonate chemistry negatively influence calcification processes and depress metabolism in many calcifying marine invertebrates. We present data on the cephalopod mollusc Sepia officinalis, an invertebrate that is capable of not only maintaining calcification, but also growth rates and metabolism when exposed to elevated par- tial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2). During a 6

Magdalena A. Gutowska; Hans O. Pörtner; Frank Melzner

2008-01-01

234

Ocean acidification and temperature rise: effects on calcification during early development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

Ocean acidification and temperature rise: effects on calcification during early development officinalis. Egg swelling increased in response to acidification or warming, leading to an increase in egg acidification; global warming; Ca-45 hal-00855750,version1-30Aug2013 #12;INTRODUCTION Marine calcifying

Boyer, Edmond

235

The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

2014-01-01

236

Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.  

PubMed

Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria. PMID:22594260

Stefanovi?, Olgica D; Stanojevi?, Dragana D; Comi?, Ljiljana R

2012-01-01

237

Protective effects of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. in cyclophosphamide-treated mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most popular alkylating anticancer drugs in spite of its toxic side effects including immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity, mutagenicity and a host of others. The present study was undertaken to assess the protective effects of total aqueous extract of a medicinal plant, Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) in mice treated with CP. These protective effects were studied

R. Haque; B. Bin-Hafeez; I. Ahmad; S. Parvez; S. Pandey; S. Raisuddin

2001-01-01

238

Pimenta officinalis Lindl. (pimento, myrtle pepper) from early modern latrines in Gdansk (northern Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits, seeds and embryos of Pimenta officinalis Lindl. syn. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae) have been found in Gdansk (northern Poland) in latrines dated to the 18th century. This is one of the first few records of allspice from European archaeobotanical material. The paper presents morphological criteria used for the identification of allspice or myrtle pepper remains and briefly summarises

Monika Badura

2003-01-01

239

Behavioural responses of juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to local water movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological studies have shown that the epidermal head and arm lines in cephalopods are a mechanoreceptive system that is similar to the fish and amphibian lateral lines (Budelmann BU, Bleckmann H. 1988. A lateral line analogue in cephalopods: Water waves generate microphonic potentials in the epidermal head lines of Sepia officinalis and Lolliguncula brevis. J. Comp. Physiol. A 164:1–5.); however,

Spogmai Komak; Jean G. Boal; Ludovic Dickel; Bernd U. Budelmann

2005-01-01

240

Melissa officinalis Extract Inhibits Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. Methods Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (P<0.001), 44.09±12.01 µm in the low-dose group (P?=?0.016), and 51.00±12.37 µm in the control group. The proportion of CNV lesions with clinically significant fluorescein leakage was 9.2% in rats treated with high-dose M. officinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, P<0.001). The levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. Meanwhile, M. officinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. Conclusions Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV formation in rats. Inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9 via anti-oxidative activity may underlie this effect. PMID:25314292

Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun Beom; Yu, Hyeong Gon

2014-01-01

241

In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301

Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

2013-01-01

242

Environmental heterogeneity explains the genetic structure of Continental and Mediterranean populations of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.  

PubMed

Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data analyses based on nuclear microsatellite loci, multivariate statistics on environmental data and ecological niche modelling (ENM). We identified a geographic structure with a high genetic diversity and low differentiation in the Continental region, which contrasted with the significantly lower genetic diversity and higher population divergence in the Mediterranean region. The positive and significant correlation between environmental and genetic distances after controlling for geographic distance suggests an important influence of ecological divergence of the sites in shaping genetic variation. The ENM provided support for niche differentiation between the populations from the Continental and Mediterranean regions, suggesting that contemporary populations may represent two divergent ecotypes. Ecotype differentiation was also supported by multivariate environmental and genetic distance analyses. Our results suggest that despite extensive gene flow in continental areas, long-term stability of heterogeneous environments have likely promoted genetic divergence of ashes in this region and can explain the present-day genetic variation patterns of these ancient populations. PMID:22905171

Temunovi?, Martina; Franji?, Jozo; Satovic, Zlatko; Grgurev, Marin; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie; Fernández-Manjarrés, Juan F

2012-01-01

243

Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia Inhibits Germ Tube and Biofilm Formation by C. albicans  

PubMed Central

The virulence factors of Candida albicans are germ tube and biofilm formation, adherence to host tissues, and production of hydrolytic enzymes. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia extract on the germ tube and biofilm formation of C. albicans. Serum containing the three subinhibitory concentrations of leaf extract was inoculated with C. albicans, incubated, and viewed under a light microscope. Number of cells with germ tube was recorded and the results were analysed using Scheffe test for pairwise comparison. Biofilms were grown on coverslips in the presence of plant extracts and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Planktonic cells were grown in the presence of plant extract for 6?h and processed for electron microscopy (TEM). The crude plant extract significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the germ tube formation of C. albicans at 3.125 (85.36%), 1.56 (61.91%), and 0.78?mg/mL (26.27%) showing a concentration dependent effect. SEM results showed concentration dependent reduction in biofilm and hyphae formation. TEM results showed that the plant extract caused damage to the cell wall and cell membrane. DVA extract has ability to reduce virulence of C. albicans by inhibiting germ tube and biofilm formation through damage to the cell wall. Therefore, it has therapeutic potential. PMID:24223612

Naicker, Serisha Devi

2013-01-01

244

Proliferative activity of Echinacea angustifolia root extracts on cancer cells: Interference with doxorubicin cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin is an anticancer drug that causes apoptosis in cells, but cardiotoxicity limits the cumulative dose that can remain in the blood. Echinacea extracts have been prescribed to supplement cancer chemotherapy. In a recent study, it was reported that Echinacea purpurea extracts protected noncancerous cells from apoptosis. Our study aimed to determine interference with doxorubicin chemotherapy, and if fractions and compounds from Echinacea angustifolia roots protected the cells. Cervical and breast cancer cells were treated with the Echinacea samples and doxorubicin. At 0.05 and 0.5 microM doxorubicin concentration, cynarine increased HeLa cell growth by 48-125% and 29-101%, respectively (p<0.01). At 0.05 microM doxorubicin concentration, chicoric acid increased cell growth by 23-100% (p<0.01). When MCF-7 cells were treated with Echinacea and doxorubicin, the ethyl acetate fraction increased cell growth by 20-25%, and chicoric acid increased cell growth by 10-15%. Cynarine showed proliferative activity on HeLa cells, but showed antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 cells. Results indicate that phenolic compounds are responsible for proliferative activity. Studies with individual compounds show that chicoric acid and cynarine interfered with cells treated with 0.5 microM doxorubicin. The results of this study show that Echinacea herbal medicines affect cell proliferation despite cancer treatment, and that herbal medicines require further study with respect to anticancer drugs. PMID:17193302

Huntimer, Eric D; Halaweish, Fathi T; Chase, Christopher C L

2006-06-01

245

Evaluation of inflorescence visitors as pollinators of Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae): comparison of techniques.  

PubMed

Inflorescences (heads or capitula) of the putative self-incompatible species, purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia (DC) Cronq. (Asteraceae)), were visited by insects representing the Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, in accordance with a generalist pollination syndrome. Measurement of the effectiveness of insect species as pollinators was accomplished by permitting solitary visits to receptive, central disc florets of virgin (previously bagged) heads. Four parameters were quantified: total stigmatic pollen load and proportion of pollen grains germinated, numbers of pollen tubes at style bases, and percentages of total receptive florets that had retracted (shrivelled) styles. Quantifying total and germinated pollen grains proved ineffective, partly owing to the tendency of self-pollen to initiate pollen tubes. The most effective pollinators were Apidae, especially bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (mean: 39 - 61% of styles retracted). Other noteworthy pollinators were cloudless sulfur butterflies (Phoebis sennae L.--Pieridae; mean 47% of style bases with pollen tubes), golden blister beetles (Epicauta ferruginea Say--Meloidae; 44%), and grasshopper bee flies (Systoechus vulgaris Loew--Bombyliidae; 22%). Sunflower leafcutter bees (Megachile pugnata Say) were less effective (4% of styles retracted). Promisingly, analysis of the proportion of retracted styles provided similar results to the established technique of pollen-tube quantification, but had the significant advantages of being completed more rapidly, without a microscope, and in the field. The quantitative technique of retracted-style analysis appears well suited for prompt measurement of inflorescence-visiting insects as pollinators of many asteraceans. PMID:24224247

Wist, Tyler J; Davis, Arthur R

2013-10-01

246

Changes in the 2-DE protein profile during zygotic embryogenesis in the Brazilian Pine (Araucaria angustifolia).  

PubMed

Araucaria angustifolia is the only native conifer of economic importance in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Due to a clear-cutting form of exploitation this species has received the status of vulnerable. The aim of this work was to investigate and characterize changes in protein expression profile during seed development of this endangered species. For this, the proteome of developing seeds was characterized by 2-DE and LC-MS/MS. Ninety six proteins were confidently identified and classified according to their biological function and expression profile. Overaccumulated proteins in early seed development indicated a higher control on oxidative stress metabolism during this phase. In contrast, highly expressed proteins in late stages revealed an active metabolism, leading to carbon assimilation and storage compounds accumulation. Comprehensive protein expression profiles and identification of overaccumulated proteins provide new insights into the process of embryogenesis in this recalcitrant species. Considerations on the improvement and control of somatic embryogenesis through medium manipulation and protein markers screening using data generated are also discussed. PMID:19367732

Balbuena, Tiago S; Silveira, Vanildo; Junqueira, Magno; Dias, Leonardo L C; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Shevchenko, Andrej; Floh, Eny I S

2009-04-13

247

Patterns of genetic diversity in southern and southeastern Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze relict populations.  

PubMed

Habitat fragmentation and a decrease in population size may lead to a loss in population genetic diversity. For the first time, the reduction in genetic diversity in the northernmost limit of natural occurence (southeastern Brazil) of Araucaria angustifolia in comparison with populations in the main area of the species continuous natural distribution (southern Brazil), was tested. The 673 AFLPs markers revealed a high level of genetic diversity for the species (Ht = 0.27), despite anthropogenic influence throughout the last century, and a decrease of H in isolated populations of southeastern Brazil (H = 0.16), thereby indicating the tendency for higher genetic diversity in remnant populations of continuous forests in southern Brazil, when compared to natural isolated populations in the southeastern region. A strong differentiation among southern and southeastern populations was detected (AMOVA variance ranged from 10%-15%). From Bayesian analysis, it is suggested that the nine populations tested form five "genetic clusters" (K = 5). Five of these populations, located in the northernmost limit of distribution of the species, represent three "genetic clusters". These results are in agreement with the pattern of geographic distribution of the studied populations. PMID:21637518

de Souza, Maria Isabel Ferreira; Salgueiro, Fabiano; Carnavale-Bottino, Mariana; Félix, Durvalina Benedita; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Bittencourt, Juliana Vitoria Messias; Margis, Rogério

2009-07-01

248

Antioxidant activity and low cytotoxicity of extracts and isolated compounds from Araucaria angustifolia dead bark.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of the extract and its relevant fraction as well as isolated compounds from the dead bark of Araucaria angustifolia are presented. This tree represents the Mixed Ombrophile Forest, which is endangered due to extensive logging. The dead bark of Araucaria is naturally discarded by the tree, and its hydroalcoholic crude extract has exhibited protective qualities against stress induced by H(2)O(2) in cell culture. Using several in vitro models, here we describe the antioxidant potential of the crude extract and its component ethyl acetate fraction and also of some compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. We provide the first description of the isolation of two natural product afzelechin derivatives. The extract and isolated compounds, particularly epiafzelechin protocatechuate (5), displayed very high antioxidant activity, as did compound 4, quercetin, which is well known for its antioxidant properties. In a DPPH assay, compound 5 exhibited an IC(50) of 0.7 ?M; in a lipid peroxidation assay; IC(50) values of 21 ?M and 35 ?M were obtained when the oxidation was induced by UV and ascorbate free radicals, respectively. PMID:21208522

Seccon, Andrea; Rosa, Daniela W; Freitas, Rilton A; Biavatti, Maique W; Creczynski-Pasa, Tania B

2010-01-01

249

The involvement of PUMP from mitochondria of Araucaria angustifolia embryogenic cells in response to cold stress.  

PubMed

In this study, the responses of plant uncoupling mitochondrial protein (PUMP) and alternative oxidase (AOX) in mitochondria from embryogenic cells of A. angustifolia subjected to cold stress (4°C for 24 h or 48 h) is reported. In the mitochondria of stressed cells, PUMP activity increased by approximately 45% (at 24h and 48 h), which was determined by measuring the oxygen consumption after the addition of linoleic acid and the inhibition by BSA and ATP. PUMP activation was confirmed using transmembrane electrical potential (??) assays. Immunoblot assays showed an increase of PUMP expression by 40% and 150% after 24h and 48 h of cold stress, respectively. AOX activity, measured under conditions similar to those of the PUMP assays, was only slightly increased in the mitochondria from stressed cells (at 24h and 48 h), as demonstrated by oxygen consumption experiments. Cell viability was unaffected by cold stress, indicating that the effects on PUMP and AOX were not caused by cell death. These results show that the main response of this gymnosperm to cold stress is the activation of PUMP, which suggests that this protein may be involved in the control of reactive oxygen species generation, which has been previously associated with this condition. PMID:23116675

Valente, Caroline; Pasqualim, Patrícia; Jacomasso, Thiago; Maurer, Juliana Bello Baron; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Carnieri, Eva Gunilla Skare; Cadena, Sílvia Maria Suter Correia

2012-12-01

250

ANGUSTIFOLIA, a plant homolog of CtBP/BARS, functions outside the nucleus.  

PubMed

CtBP/BARS is a unique protein family in having quite diversified cellular functions, intercellular localizations, and developmental roles. ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) is the sole homolog of CtBP/BARS from Arabidopsis thaliana, although it has plant AN-specific motifs and a long C-terminus. Previous studies suggested that AN would function in the nucleus as a transcriptional co-repressor, as CtBPs function in animals; however, precise verification has been lacking. In this paper, we isolated a homologous gene (MAN) of AN from liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. Transformation of the Arabidopsis an-1 mutant with 35S-driven MAN completely complemented the an-1 phenotype, although it lacks the putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) that exists in AN proteins isolated from other plant species. We constructed several plasmids for expressing modified ANs with amino acid substitutions in known motifs. The results clearly indicated that modified AN with mutations in the putative NLS-like domain could complement the an-1 phenotype. Therefore, we re-examined localization of AN using several techniques. Our results demonstrated that AN localizes on punctuate structures around the Golgi, partially overlapping with a trans-Golgi network resident, which highlighted an unexpected link between leaf development and membrane trafficking. We should reconsider the roles and evolutionary traits of AN based on these findings. PMID:21801251

Minamisawa, Naoko; Sato, Mayuko; Cho, Kiu-Hyung; Ueno, Hanako; Takechi, Katsuaki; Kajikawa, Masataka; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Ohyama, Kanji; Toyooka, Kiminori; Kim, Gyung-Tae; Horiguchi, Gorou; Takano, Hiroyoshi; Ueda, Takashi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

2011-12-01

251

Phytochemicals from Kaempferia angustifolia Rosc. and Their Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical investigation on rhizomes of Kaempferia angustifolia has afforded a new abietene diterpene, kaempfolienol (1) along with crotepoxide (2), boesenboxide (3), 2?-hydroxy-4,4?,6?-trimethoxychalcone (4), zeylenol (5), 6-methylzeylenol (6), (24S)-24-methyl-5?-lanosta-9(11), 25-dien-3?-ol (7), sucrose, ?-sitosterol, and its glycoside (8). The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, and NMR). Isolation of 6-methylzeylenol (6), (24S)-24-methyl-5?-lanosta-9(11), 25-dien-3?-ol (7), and ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (8) from this plant species has never been reported previously. The spectroscopic data of (7) is firstly described in this paper. Cytotoxic screening indicated that most of the pure compounds tested showed significant activity with (4) showing the most potent activity against HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines. However, all extracts and most of the pure compounds tested were found to be inactive against HT-29 (human colon cancer) and HeLa (human cervical cancer) cell lines. Similarly, none of the extracts or compounds showed activity in the antimicrobial testing. PMID:25057485

Tang, Sook Wah; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Yeap, Yunie Soon Yu; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Cheng Lian Ee, Gwendoline

2014-01-01

252

Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract.  

PubMed

A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. PMID:25710891

Ramesh, P S; Kokila, T; Geetha, D

2015-05-01

253

Yield of Cassia angustifolia in combination with different tree species in a silvi-herbal trial under hot arid conditions in India.  

PubMed

A silvi-herbal trial was conducted in the hot arid region of India to study the performance of a shrub (Cassia angustifolia) in combination with different tree species. The study area was frequented by frost. Leaf yield of C. angustifolia under different treatments was estimated. It was found that the shrubs produced a significantly higher yield of leaves in the vicinity of the tree species as compared to the shrubs at a far distance from the trees. This was perhaps because of more protection of crops near the canopy of the plants during frosts. The yield was not much affected by the variation of tree species indicating that the effect of tree-shrub combination was not profound. C. angustifolia as inter-crop provides support to the farming system by way of conferring stability and generating assured income. PMID:12653282

Arya, Ranjana

2003-01-01

254

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding Edges and Contrast of Objects in Natural Substrate Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show disruptive body patterns for camouflage. This response is evoked when the size of the gravel is equivalent to the area of the \\

CHUAN-CHIN CHIAO; EMMA J. KELMAN; ROGER T. HANLON

255

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

2008-01-01

256

Effect of body mass, temperature and food deprivation on oxygen consumption rate of common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictions of short and long term changes in Sepia officinalis metabolism are useful, since this species is both economically important for aquaculture and also is an ideal experimental\\u000a laboratory organism. In this study standard and routine oxygen consumption rates of newly hatched and juvenile laboratory\\u000a raised cuttlefish S. officinalis ranging between 0.04 and 18.48 g dry body mass (Dm), were measured

Panagiotis Grigoriou; Christopher Allan Richardson

2009-01-01

257

A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta  

PubMed Central

Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

Rajashekhara, N.; Sharma, P. P.

2010-01-01

258

A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.  

PubMed

Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

2010-10-01

259

Polyamines, IAA and ABA during germination in two recalcitrant seeds: Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant growth regulators play an important role in seed germination. However, much of the current knowledge about their function during seed germination was obtained using orthodox seeds as model systems, and there is a paucity of information about the role of plant growth regulators during germination of recalcitrant seeds. In the present work, two endangered woody species with recalcitrant seeds, Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm), native to the Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil, were used to study the mobilization of polyamines (PAs), indole-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. Methods Data were sampled from embryos of O. odorifera and embryos and megagametophytes of A. angustifolia throughout the germination process. Biochemical analyses were carried out in HPLC. Key Results During seed germination, an increase in the (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio was recorded in embryos in both species. An increase in IAA and PA levels was also observed during seed germination in both embryos, while ABA levels showed a decrease in O. odorifera and an increase in A. angustifolia embryos throughout the period studied. Conclusions The (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio could be used as a marker for germination completion. The increase in IAA levels, prior to germination, could be associated with variations in PA content. The ABA mobilization observed in the embryos could represent a greater resistance to this hormone in recalcitrant seeds, in comparison to orthodox seeds, opening a new perspective for studies on the effects of this regulator in recalcitrant seeds. The gymnosperm seed, though without a connective tissue between megagametophyte and embryo, seems to be able to maintain communication between the tissues, based on the likely transport of plant growth regulators. PMID:21685432

Pieruzzi, Fernanda P.; Dias, Leonardo L. C.; Balbuena, Tiago S.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; dos Santos, André L. W.; Floh, Eny I. S.

2011-01-01

260

Antioxidant effect and study of bioactive components of Valeriana sisymbriifolia and Nardostachys jatamansii in comparison to Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

The roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been used as a substitute for valerian in Iranian traditions. Moreover, six species from Valeriana genus such as V. sisymbriifolia grow in Iran which has not been studied yet. We aimed to study of antioxidant effect of Valeriana officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Valeriana sisymbriifolia and comparing their content of valerenic acid and valepotriate. Antioxidant effect was evaluated using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition and beta carotene-bleaching assays. Identification of valepotriates was achieved using chemical and TLC method. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of valerenic acid was performed using TLC and spectrophotometry methods. Among the tested samples, V. Officinalis showed the highest DPPH inhibition effect with IC(50) value of 38mg/mL. All of the tested plants potentially inhibited beta-carotene oxidation. The calibration curve of authentic valerenic acid was linear in the range of 2-51 mg L(-1). The most and least amount of valepotraites was detectable in V. officinalis and V. sisymbriifolia respectively. Total valerenic acid in different plant species ranged from 0.02% in V. sisymbriifolia to 0.07% (w/w) in V. Officinalis. Our results indicated that all three tested plants contain different amount of valepotriates and valerenic acid. The highest percentage of valepotriates and valerenic acid was detectable in V. officinalis. Overall can conclude that N. jatamansii and V. sisymbriifolia would be a good candidate for substitutation of V. officinalis with noticeable antioxidant effect. PMID:23261727

Dugaheh, Mehdi Ansari; Meisami, Faramarz; Torabian, Zahra; Sharififar, Fariba

2013-01-01

261

Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by chalepin and pseudane IX isolated from Ruta angustifolia leaves.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among global populations, with an estimated number of infected patients being 170 million. Approximately 70-80% of patients acutely infected with HCV will progress to chronic liver disease, such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. New therapies for HCV infection have been developed, however, the therapeutic efficacies still need to be improved. Medicinal plants are promising sources for antivirals against HCV. A variety of plants have been tested and proven to be beneficial as antiviral drug candidates against HCV. In this study, we examined extracts, their subfractions and isolated compounds of Ruta angustifolia leaves for antiviral activities against HCV in cell culture. We isolated six compounds, chalepin, scopoletin, ?-fagarine, arborinine, kokusaginine and pseudane IX. Among them, chalepin and pseudane IX showed strong anti-HCV activities with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC??) of 1.7 ± 0.5 and 1.4 ± 0.2 ?g/ml, respectively, without apparent cytotoxicity. Their anti-HCV activities were stronger than that of ribavirin (2.8 ± 0.4 ?g/ml), which has been widely used for the treatment of HCV infection. Mode-of-action analyses revealed that chalepin and pseudane IX inhibited HCV at the post-entry step and decreased the levels of HCV RNA replication and viral protein synthesis. We also observed that arborinine, kokusaginine and ?-fagarine possessed moderate levels of anti-HCV activities with IC?? values being 6.4 ± 0.7, 6.4 ± 1.6 and 20.4 ± 0.4 ?g/ml, respectively, whereas scopoletin did not exert significant anti-HCV activities at 30 ?g/ml. PMID:25454460

Wahyuni, Tutik Sri; Widyawaruyanti, Aty; Lusida, Maria Inge; Fuad, Achmad; Soetjipto; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Aoki, Chie; Hotta, Hak

2014-12-01

262

Chemical composition and glycemic index of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) seeds.  

PubMed

The seeds of Parana pine (Araucaria brasiliensis syn. Araucaria angustifolia), named pinhão, are consumed after cooking and posterior dehulling, or they are used to prepare a flour employed in regional dishes. Native people that live in the South of Brazil usually consume baked pinhão. As a result of cooking, the white seeds become brown on the surface due to the migration of some tinted compounds present in the seed coat. In this work, the proximate composition, minerals, flavonoids, and glycemic index (GI) of cooked and raw pinhão seeds were compared. No differences in moisture, lipids, soluble fiber, and total starch after boiling were found. However, the soluble sugars and P, Cu, and Mg contents decreased, probably as a consequence of leaching in the cooking water. Also, the boiling process modified the profile of the phenolic compounds in the seeds. No flavonols were detected in raw pinhão seeds. The internal seed coat had a quercetin content five times higher than that of the external seed coat; also, quercetin migrated into the seed during cooking. The internal seed coat had a high content of total phenolics, and seeds cooked in normal conditions (with the seed coat) showed a total phenolics content five times higher than that of seeds cooked without the seed coat. Cooking was then extremely favorable to pinhão seeds bioactive compounds content. The carbohydrate availability was evaluated in a short-term assay in humans by the GI. The GI of pinhão seeds cooked with the coat (67%) was similar to that of the seeds cooked without a coat (62%) and lower than bread, showing that cooking does not interfere with starch availability. The low glycemic response can be partly due to its high content of resistant starch (9% of the total starch). PMID:15161207

Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; De Menezes Wenzel, Elizabete; Genovese, Maria Inés; Colli, Célia; De Souza Gonçalves, Alessandra; Lajolo, Franco Maria

2004-06-01

263

Paenibacillus typhae sp. nov., isolated from roots of Typha angustifolia L.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain xj7(T), was isolated from roots of Typha angustifolia L. growing in Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China. The isolate was identified as a member of the genus Paenibacillus based on phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference. The novel strain was spore-forming, motile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Optimal growth of strain xj7(T) occurred at 28-30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Diphosphatidylglycerol was the most abundant polar lipid and occurred along with phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid and three unknown aminophospholipids. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acid components were anteiso-C15?:?0 (56.1?%), iso-C16?:?0 (9.1?%), C16?:?0 (8.0?%), iso-C14?:?0 (6.3?%) and iso-C15?:?0 (5.1?%). The G+C content of genomic DNA was 47.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain xj7(T) fell within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Paenibacillus, its closest neighbours were Paenibacillus borealis KK19(T) (97.5?%) and Paenibacillus durus DSM 1735(T) (97.1?%). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain xj7(T) and P. borealis KK19(T) and between strain xj7(T) and P. durus DSM 1735(T), were both 35?%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain xj7(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus typhae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is xj7(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.11012(T)?=?DSM 25190(T)). PMID:22707528

Kong, Bi He; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Min; Liu, Yang; Liu, Lei; Li, Chun Li; Yu, Rong; Li, Yan Hong

2013-03-01

264

Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family  

PubMed Central

Background: Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Results: The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g-1 of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. Conclusion: M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid . PMID:22438661

Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali

2012-01-01

265

Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (P<0.01). however, S. officinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth. PMID:24146470

Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

2013-01-01

266

Enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Cornus officinalis.  

PubMed

Process of enzyme assisted extraction (EAE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The influence of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. Results showed that the optimal conditions were compound enzyme amount of 2.15%, extraction pH of 4.2, extraction temperature of 55 °C and extraction time of 97 min. Under these conditions, the COP yield was 9.29±0.31%, which was well in agreement with the value predicted by the model. The three methods, EAE, hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for extracting COP by RSM were further compared. Results showed that EAE had the largest yield of polysaccharides with lower equipment cost. PMID:23987388

You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping

2013-10-15

267

Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes with NGF-potentiating activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia.  

PubMed

Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenal F (1), volvalerenal G (2) and volvalerenic acid D (3), along with five known compounds 4-8, were isolated from the CHCl? soluble partition of the ethanol extract of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, as well as mass spectrometry. The eight germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids showed nerve growth factor (NGF) potentiating activity, which mediates the neurite outgrowth in PC 12D cells. This study intends to reveal the chemical basis of the use of V. officinalis var. latiofolia as a dietary supplement. PMID:24241156

Chen, Heng-Wen; Chen, Li; Li, Bin; Yin, Hai-Long; Tian, Ying; Wang, Qiong; Xiao, Yan-Hua; Dong, Jun-Xing

2013-01-01

268

Growing environment and nutrient availability affect the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.  

PubMed

Medicinal plant production is different from other agricultural production systems in that the plants are grown for the production of specific phytochemical(s) for human use. To address this need, a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant, controlled-environment production system was developed for production of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia. Within the prototype facility, the growing systems, nutrient availability, water and physical environment were highly controlled. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of different hydroponic systems, nutrient solution NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratios and mild water stress on the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea plants. The deep-flow solution culture system in which the plant roots were continuously immersed in the nutrient solutions was optimum for the growth of E. purpurea. Higher concentrations of caftaric acid, cynarin and echinacoside were produced in E. angustifolia plants grown in the soil-based growing media while the plants grown in the deep-flow solution system had higher levels of cichoric acid. Altering the NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratio or limited water stress did not have any significant effect on the phytochemical content of Echinacea plants. Echinacea plants grown in the controlled environment systems had higher or similar amounts of cynarin, caftaric acid, echinacoside and cichoric acid as previously reported in the literature for both field-cultivated and wild-harvested Echinacea plants. This growing system offers the advantages of year-round crop production with minimal contamination by environmental pollutants and common microbes. PMID:17054043

Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Saxena, Praveen K

2006-12-01

269

Glutathione improves early somatic embryogenesis in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert) O. Kuntze by alteration in nitric oxide emission.  

PubMed

In this work, it was observed a straight relationship between the manipulation of the reduced glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio, nitric oxide emission and quality and number of early somatic embryos in Araucaria angustifolia, a Brazilian endangered native conifer. In low concentrations GSH (0.01 and 0.1mM) is a potential NO scavenger in the culture medium. Furthermore, it can increase the number of early SE formed in cell suspension culture media in a few days. However, the maintenance in this low redox state lead to a loss of early somatic embryos polarization. In gelled culture medium, high levels of GSH (5mM) allows the development of globular embryos presenting a high NO emission on embryo apex, stressing its importance in the differentiation and cell division. Taken together these results indicate that the modification of the embryogenic cultures redox state might be an effective strategy to develop more efficient embryogenic systems in A. angustifolia. PMID:22921001

Vieira, Leila do Nascimento; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; de Freitas Fraga, Hugo Pacheco; Dos Santos, André Luis Wendt; Steinmacher, Douglas André; Schlogl, Paulo Sérgio; Silveira, Vanildo; Steiner, Neusa; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

2012-10-01

270

The periodic wetting of leaves enhances water relations and growth of the long-lived conifer Araucaria angustifolia.  

PubMed

The importance of foliar absorption of water and atmospheric solutes in conifers was recognised in the 1970s, and the importance of fog as a water source in forest environments has been recently demonstrated. Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) is an emergent tree species that grows in montane forests of southern Brazil, where rainfall and fog are frequent events, leading to frequent wetting of the leaves. Despite anatomical evidence in favour of leaf water absorption, there is no information on the existence and physiological significance of a such process. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the use of atmospheric water by leaves takes place and is physiologically relevant for the species, by comparing growth, water relations and nutritional status between plants grown under two conditions of soil water (well-watered and water-stressed plants) and three types of leaf spraying (none, water and nutrient solution spray). Leaf spraying had a greater effect in improving plant water relations when plants were under water stress. Plant growth was more responsive to water available to the leaves than to the roots, and was equally increased by both types of leaf spraying, with no interaction with soil water status. Spraying leaves with nutrient solution increased shoot ramification and raised the concentrations of N, P, K, Zn, Cu and Fe in the roots. Our results provide strong indications that water and nutrients are indeed absorbed by leaves of A. angustifolia, and that this process might be as important as water uptake by its roots. PMID:22672733

Cassana, F F; Dillenburg, L R

2013-01-01

271

Micropropagation and validation of genetic and biochemical fidelity amongst regenerants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl employing RAPD marker and HPLC.  

PubMed

In vitro protocol has been established for clonal propagation of Cassia angustifolia Vahl which is an important source of anticancerous bioactive compounds, sennoside A and B. Nodal explants excised from field raised elite plant (showing optimum level of sennoside A and B) of C. angustifolia when reared on Murashige and Skoog's medium augmented with different cytokinins, viz. N(6)-benzyladenine (BA), N(6)-(2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP) and 6-furfuryl aminopurine (Kn) differentiated multiple shoots in their axils. Of the three cytokinins, BA at 5 ?M proved optimum for differentiating multiple shoots in 95 % cultures with an average of 9.14 shoots per explant within 8 weeks of culture. Nearly, 95 % of the excised in vitro shoots rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with 10 ?M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The phenotypically similar micropropagated plants were evaluated for their genetic fidelity employing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eleven individuals, randomly chosen amongst a population of 120 regenerants were compared with the donor plant. A total of 36 scorable bands, ranging in size from 100 to 1,000 bp were generated amongst them by the RAPD primers. All banding profiles from micropropagated plants were monomorphic and similar to those of mother plant proving their true to the type nature. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography evaluation of the sennoside A and B content amongst leaves of the mature regenerants and the elite mother plant too revealed consistency in their content. PMID:25320475

Chetri, Siva K; Sardar, Pratima Rani; Agrawal, Veena

2014-10-01

272

Meiotic restitution mechanisms involved in the formation of 2n pollen in Agave tequilana Weber and Agave angustifolia Haw.  

PubMed

A cytological analysis of the microsporogenesis was carried out in the Agave tequilana and A. angustifolia species. Several abnormalities such as chromosomal bridges, lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, monads, dyads and triads were found. The morphological analysis of the pollen, together with the above-mentioned 2n microspores, allowed us to confirm the presence of 2n pollen as well as its frequency. In both A. tequilana and A. angustifolia two different mechanisms were observed: the first mechanism, a failure in the cytokinesis in meiosis II caused the formation of dyads with two 2n cells and triads containing two n cells and one 2n cell; the second mechanism, involves an abnormal spindle, which caused the formation of triads with two n cells and one 2n cell. Likewise, the presence of monads was detected in both species, these, might be caused by a failure of the cytokinesis in both meiotic divisions. This is the first report about the presence of a Second Division Restitution mechanism (SDR) which causes the formation of 2n pollen in the genus Agave. The genetic implications of the presence of 2n pollen in the genus Agave are discussed. PMID:23961348

Gómez-Rodríguez, Víctor Manuel; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamín; Barba-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

273

Comparison of the diversity of root-associated bacteria in Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia L. in artificial wetlands.  

PubMed

Common reed (Phragmites australis) and narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) are two plant species used widely in artificial wetlands constructed to treat wastewater. In this study, the community structure and diversity of root-associated bacteria of common reed and narrow-leaved cattail growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, were investigated using 16S rDNA library and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. Root-associated bacterial diversity was higher in common reed than in narrow-leaved cattail. In both plant species, the dominant root-associated bacterial species were Alpha, Beta and Gamma Proteobacteria, including the genera Aeromonas, Hydrogenophaga, Ideonella, Uliginosibacterium and Vogesella. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae and Spirochaetes were only found in the roots of common reed. Comparing the root-associated bacterial communities of reed and cattail in our system, many more species of bacteria related involved in the total nitrogen cycle were observed in reed versus cattail, while species involved in total phosphorus and organic matter removal were mainly found in cattail. Although we cannot determine their nutrient removal capacity separately, differences in the root-associated bacterial communities may be an important factor contributing to the differing water purification effects mediated by T. angustifolia and P. australis wetlands. Thus, further work describing the ecosystem functions of these bacterial species is needed, in order to fully understand how effective common reed- and narrow-leaved cattail-dominated wetlands are for phytoremediation. PMID:23504190

Li, Yan Hong; Zhu, Jing Nan; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Yin; Liu, Min; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Qiang

2013-08-01

274

Investigation of ?-Linolenic Acid and Stearidonic Acid Biosynthesis During a Life Cycle of Borago officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the levels of ?-linolenic (GLA, 18:3n-6) and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) in various parts of the\\u000a borage plant (Borago officinalis L.) to elucidate ?6-desaturase activity. Lipid class and fatty acid (FA) composition during germination of the seeds and\\u000a FA composition of various borage parts were determined as well as FA compositions of neutral lipids (NL), polar lipids

Kathrin Stähler; Siew-Young Quek; Matthew R. Miller

275

Lipid components of borage ( Borago officinalis L.) seeds and their changes during germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in composition of total and neutral lipids (NL) as well as glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seeds, germinated in the dark at 25°C for 10 d, were studied. Total lipids constituted 34.0% of the dry matter of borage seeds. During germination, the content\\u000a of total lipids was decreased by 95%. NL accounted for

S. P. J. Namal Senanayake; Fereidoon Shahidi

2000-01-01

276

Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments were performed to determine the level of social recognition in captive-reared adult cuttlefish,Sepia officinalisL. No evidence of discrimination of familiar from unfamiliar individuals was found in either females or males. Despite good evidence for mate guarding, no recognition of individual mates was found. Within sex classes, associations between freely moving animals were not different from random (f–f, f–m

JEAN GEARY BOAL

1996-01-01

277

Effects of Crowding on the Social Behavior of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effect of crowding on cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), a benthic cephalopod, the behavior of captive-reared cuttlefish was monitored for a period of 1 month. One group of 6 cuttlefish was housed in a tank 6.1 m in diameter (4.87 m 2 per cuttlefish); another group of 6 was housed in a tank 1.5 m in diameter (0.29 m

JEAN GEARY BOAL; REBECCA A. HYLTON; SUSAN A. GONZALEZ; ROGER T. HANLON

1999-01-01

278

Behavioral aspects of sperm competition in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Sepioidea: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection studies in cephalopods indicate that sperm competition is a central feature of their mating systems, yet\\u000a this has not been studied experimentally in any detail. In 1998 we staged 20 matings of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L., in the laboratory. Males rapidly initiated mating in the “head-to-head” position, with no apparent courtship. Mating\\u000a lasted an average of 10?min

R. T. Hanlon; S. A. Ament; H. Gabr

1999-01-01

279

Electron-dense tracer evidence for a blood—brain barrier in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Electron-dense tracers were used to study the permeability of the blood—brain interface in a cephalopod mollusc, the cuttlefishSepia officinalis. Gel filtration established that horseradish peroxidase is a suitable tracer forin vivo injection, but microperoxidase is not, being subject to binding by plasma proteins. Perfusion-fixed brain vertical and optic lobes showed no endogenous peroxidatic activity. Horseradish peroxidase was injected intravenously,

N. J. Abbott; M. Bundgaard

1992-01-01

280

Phenolic antioxidant compounds produced by in vitro shoots of sage ( Salvia officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were established under four different cytokinin supplementations by culturing nodal segments excised from aseptically germinated seedlings. The highest rates of shoot proliferation and linear shoot growth occurred with the supplementation of 1.5 mg\\/l benzyladenine and 0.05 mg\\/l dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. However, under these conditions, the specific production of total antioxidant phenolics was the

Paula C Santos-Gomes; Rosa M Seabra; Paula B Andrade; Manuel Fernandes-Ferreira

2002-01-01

281

Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract of Verbena officinalis L.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activity of a 50% methanol extract of the leaves of Verbena officinalis L. was investigated on topical and oral administration. In the TPA-induced ear inflammation model, the extract showed a high reduction of edema, but in the carrageenin-induced rat paw edema the effect observed was less at the two doses employed. These results confirm the use of this plant in folk medicine as a topical anti-inflammatory, herbal drug. PMID:23196030

Calvo, M I; Vilalta, N; San Julián, A; Fernández, M

1998-12-01

282

Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds,\\u000a the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds,\\u000a two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL),\\u000a were investigated in suspension cultures of

Corinna Weitzel; Maike Petersen

2010-01-01

283

Is self-compatibility the main breeding system in borage (Borago officinalis L.)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polygenic postzygotic self-incompatible system reported in borage (Borago officinalis L.) is refuted. The behaviour of pollen tubes after self- and cross-pollination, analysis of the crossability coefficient,\\u000a seed set after continuous generations of self-pollination and the effects of inbreeding depression in borage were studied.\\u000a Evidence of self-compatibility was established. The influence of protandry in a self-compatible system is also discussed.

C. Montaner; E. Floris; J. M. Alvarez

2000-01-01

284

Comparative Responses of Borago officinalis and Echium vulgare to Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of organic and mineral nitrogen, phosphorus, and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield, and fixed oil content of borage (Borago officinalis L.) and viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare L.) plants were studied in two field experiments. Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate at 0.75 and 110 kg N hectare; phosphorus as calcium super-phosphate at 50 and 75 kg P2O5 hectare; compost at 1.32

S. F. Hendawy; S. El-Gengaihi

2010-01-01

285

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-04-01

286

Germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.  

PubMed

Eight new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenals A-E (2-6) and volvalerenic acids A-C (7-9), along with four known compounds, were isolated from a chloroform extract of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. The structures and relative configurations of 2-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. The effects of all compounds isolated on acetylcholinesterase were evaluated. PMID:20812738

Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Rui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

2010-09-24

287

Soil chemical limitations to growth and development of Veronica officinalis L. and Carex pilulifera L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veronica officinalis and Carex pilulifera, widespread plants of acid soils in Europe, were grown in 50 soils of natural and seminatural ecosystems representing a wide\\u000a range of soil chemical properties. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse at a soil moisture content of 55–65% WHC,\\u000a ca. 60% R.H. of the air, temperature 14–16C at night and 19–21C by day; additional

Germund Tyler

1996-01-01

288

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

PubMed Central

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

2012-01-01

289

Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between

Jose A. Manzanera; Maria F. Martínez-Chacón

2007-01-01

290

Range dynamics and invasive tendencies in Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia in eastern North America derived from herbarium and pollen records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typha species are increasingly considered invasive weeds in wetlands of eastern North America. Typha angustifolia and T. × glauca are often seen as more invasive than T. latifolia, but there are few comparative biogeographic data on these three species. We examined 1,127 Typha specimens archived in major herbaria to map changes in the distributions of these species since the late-19th

Jessica G. Shih; Sarah A. Finkelstein

2008-01-01

291

Modelling of the long-term competition between Typha angustifolia and Typha latifolia in shallow water — effects of eutrophication, latitude and initial advantage of belowground organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic growth model was developed for Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia that took account of their vertical productive structures, life cycle, shoot height, leaf area and aboveground biomass. The model successfully simulated the seasonal variation of the aboveground and belowground biomass for two monospecific stands at 43°N and 47°N and the total biomass for one competitive stand at 42°N

Norio Tanaka; Takashi Asaeda; Atsushi Hasegawa; Katsutoshi Tanimoto

2004-01-01

292

Increased production of antigen-specific immunoglobulins G and M following in vivo treatment with the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Hydrastis canadensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of immunomodulatory effects have been attributed to the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis); however, little is known about whether treatment with these plants can enhance antigen-specific immunity. We investigated the antigen-specific in vivo immunomodulatory potential of continuous treatment with Echinacea and Goldenseal root extract over a period of 6 weeks using rats that were injected

Jalees Rehman; Jennifer M Dillow; Steve M Carter; James Chou; Brian Le; Alan S Maisel

1999-01-01

293

Enrichment of Echinacea angustifolia with Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 increased anti-inflammatory potential through interference with cox-2 enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 were previously found to be partially responsible for Echinacea angustifolia anti-inflammatory properties. This study further tested their importance using the inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. angustifolia extracts, phytochemical enriched fractions, or pure synthesized standards. Molecular targets were probed using microarray, qRT-PCR, Western blot, and enzyme assays. Fractions with these phytochemicals were more potent inhibitors of LPS-induced PGE(2) production than E. angustifolia extracts. Microarray did not detect changes in transcripts with phytochemical treatments; however, qRT-PCR showed a decrease in TNF-alpha and an increase of iNOS transcripts. LPS-induced COX-2 protein was increased by an E. angustifolia fraction containing Bauer ketone 23 and by pure phytochemical. COX-2 activity was decreased with all treatments. The phytochemical inhibition of PGE(2) production by Echinacea may be due to the direct targeting of COX-2 enzyme. PMID:20681645

Lalone, Carlie A; Huang, Nan; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Yum, Man-Yu; Singh, Navrozedeep; Hauck, Cathy; Nikolau, Basil J; Wurtele, Eve S; Kohut, Marian L; Murphy, Patricia A; Birt, Diane F

2010-08-11

294

Polyamine effects on the endogenous polyamine contents, nitric oxide release, growth and differentiation of embryogenic suspension cultures of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work we determined the effects of exogenous polyamines (PAs), supplemented to the culture medium, on the endogenous PA contents, nitric oxide (NO) release, culture growth and organization of proembryogenic masses (PEMs), in embryogenic suspension cultures of Araucaria angustifolia. We observed that PAs (Putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)) had a different effect on growth, morphological evolution

Vanildo Silveira; Ni Ni Tun; Günther F. E. Scherer; Walter Handro; Miguel P. Guerra; Eny I. S. Floh

2006-01-01

295

Indole-3-acetic acid producing root-associated bacteria on growth of Brazil Pine (Araucaria angustifolia) and Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii).  

PubMed

Araucaria forests in Brazil today correspond to only 0.7 % of the original 200 km(2) of natural forest that covered a great part of the southern and southeastern area of the Atlantic Forest and, although Araucaria angustifolia is an endangered species, illegal exploitation is still going on. As an alternative to the use of hardwoods, Pinus elliottii presents rapid growth and high tolerance to climatic stress and low soil fertility or degraded areas. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of IAA-producing bacteria on the development of A. angustifolia and P. elliottii. We used five bacterial strains previously isolated from the rhizosphere of A. angustifolia, which produce quantities of IAA ranging from 3 to 126 ?g mL(-1). Microbiolized seeds were sown in a new gnotobiotic system developed for this work, that allowed the quantification of the plant hormone IAA produced by bacteria, and the evaluation of its effect on seedling development. Also, it was shown that P. elliottii roots were almost as satisfactory as hosts for these IAA producers as A. angustifolia, while different magnitudes of mass increases were found for each species. Thus, we suggest that these microbial groups can be helpful for the development and reestablishment of already degraded forests and that PGPR isolated from Araucaria rhizosphere have the potential to be beneficial in seedling production of P. elliottii. Another finding is that our newly developed gnotobiotic system is highly satisfactory for the evaluation of this effect. PMID:24481491

Gumiere, Thiago; Ribeiro, Carlos Marcelo; Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro Figueiredo; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

2014-04-01

296

Shh and Pax6 have unconventional expression patterns in embryonic morphogenesis in Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).  

PubMed

Cephalopods show a very complex nervous system, particularly derived when compared to other molluscs. In vertebrates, the setting up of the nervous system depends on genes such as Shh and Pax6. In this paper we assess Shh and Pax6 expression patterns during Sepia officinalis development by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In vertebrates, Shh has been shown to indirectly inhibit Pax6. This seems to be the case in cephalopods as the expression patterns of these genes do not overlap during S. officinalis development. Pax6 is expressed in the optic region and brain and Shh in gut structures, as already seen in vertebrates and Drosophila. Thus, both genes show expression in analogous structures in vertebrates. Surprisingly, they also exhibit unconventional expressions such as in gills for Pax6 and ganglia borders for Shh. They are also expressed in many cephalopods' derived characters among molluscs as in arm suckers for Pax6 and beak producing tissues, nuchal organ and neural cord of the arms for Shh. This new data supports the fact that molecular control patterns have evolved with the appearance of morphological novelties in cephalopods as shown in this new model, S. officinalis. PMID:19683074

Navet, Sandra; Andouche, Aude; Baratte, Sébastien; Bonnaud, Laure

2009-10-01

297

Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats.  

PubMed

Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular and widely available herbal supplement, primarily used to treat insomnia and anxiety. Until recently, its mechanism of action has remained unknown. Neurobiological research has begun to show that the herb, with its active valerenic acid, interacts with the GABA(A)-ergic system, a mechanism of action similar to the benzodiazepine drugs. This series of experiments sought to corroborate these findings with behavioral measures, compare them to the benzodiazepine diazepam, and to analyze the chemical composition of Valeriana officinalis. Rats were administered either ethanol (1 ml/kg), diazepam (1mg/kg), valerian root extract (3 ml/kg), valerenic acid (3mg/kg), or a solution of valerenic acid and exogenous GABA (75 microg/kg and 3.6 microg/kg, respectively) and assessed for the number of entries and time spent on the open arms of an elevated plus maze. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in anxious behavior when valerian extract or valerenic acid exposed subjects were compared to the ethanol control group. The evidence supports Valeriana officinalis as a potential alternative to the traditional anxiolytics as measured by the elevated plus maze. PMID:20042323

Murphy, K; Kubin, Z J; Shepherd, J N; Ettinger, R H

2010-07-01

298

Structure of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) under external stress in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study is part of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina, conceived to evaluate forest resources, species composition and structure of forest remnants, providing information to update forest conservation and land use policy in Southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (95 000 km2). In accordance to the Brazilian National Forest Inventory (IFN-BR), the inventory applies systematic sampling, with 440 clusters containing four crosswise 1 000m2 plots (20 x 50m) each, located on a 10 x 10km grid overlaid to land use map based on classification of SPOT-4 images from 2005. Within the sample units, all woody individuals of the main stratum (DBH > or = 10cm) are measured and collected (fertile and sterile), if not undoubtedly identified in field. Regeneration stratum (height > 1.50m; DBH < 10cm) is registered in 100m2 in each sample unit. Floristic sampling includes collection of all fertile trees, shrubs and herbs within the sample unit and in its surroundings. This study performs analysis based on 92 clusters measured in 2008 within an area of 32320km2 of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia located at the state's high plateau (500m to 1 560m above sea level at 26 degrees 00'-28 degrees 30' S and 49 degrees 13'-51 degrees 23' W). Mean density (DBH > or = 10cm) is 578 individuals/ha (ranging from 85/ha to 1 310/ha), mean species richness in measured remnants is 35 (8 to 62), Shannon and Wiener diversity index (H') varies between 1.05 and 3.48. Despite high total species diversity (364 Magnoliophyta, five Coniferophyta and one tree fern) and relatively high mean basal area (25.75m2/ha, varying from 3.87 to 68.85m2/ha), the overwhelming majority of forest fragments are considered highly impacted and impoverished, mostly by logging, burning and extensive cattle farming, turning necessary more efficient protection measures. Basal area was considered an appropriate indicator for stand quality and conservation status. PMID:22017139

Vibrans, Alexander C; Sevegnani, Lúcia; Uhlmann, Alexandre; Schorn, Lauri A; Sobral, Marcos G; de Gasper, André L; Lingner, Débora V; Brogni, Eduardo; Klemz, Guilherme; Godoy, Marcela B; Verdi, Marcio

2011-09-01

299

Acid-base regulatory ability of the cephalopod (Sepia officinalis) in response to environmental hypercapnia.  

PubMed

Acidification of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions is a currently developing scenario that warrants a broadening of research foci in the study of acid-base physiology. Recent studies working with environmentally relevant CO(2) levels, indicate that some echinoderms and molluscs reduce metabolic rates, soft tissue growth and calcification during hypercapnic exposure. In contrast to all prior invertebrate species studied so far, growth trials with the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis found no indication of reduced growth or calcification performance during long-term exposure to 0.6 kPa CO(2). It is hypothesized that the differing sensitivities to elevated seawater pCO(2) could be explained by taxa specific differences in acid-base regulatory capacity. In this study, we examined the acid-base regulatory ability of S. officinalis in vivo, using a specially modified cannulation technique as well as (31)P NMR spectroscopy. During acute exposure to 0.6 kPa CO(2), S. officinalis rapidly increased its blood [HCO(3)(-)] to 10.4 mM through active ion-transport processes, and partially compensated the hypercapnia induced respiratory acidosis. A minor decrease in intracellular pH (pH(i)) and stable intracellular phosphagen levels indicated efficient pH(i) regulation. We conclude that S. officinalis is not only an efficient acid-base regulator, but is also able to do so without disturbing metabolic equilibria in characteristic tissues or compromising aerobic capacities. The cuttlefish did not exhibit acute intolerance to hypercapnia that has been hypothesized for more active cephalopod species (squid). Even though blood pH (pHe) remained 0.18 pH units below control values, arterial O(2) saturation was not compromised in S. officinalis because of the comparatively lower pH sensitivity of oxygen binding to its blood pigment. This raises questions concerning the potentially broad range of sensitivity to changes in acid-base status amongst invertebrates, as well as to the underlying mechanistic origins. Further studies are needed to better characterize the connection between acid-base status and animal fitness in various marine species. PMID:19838713

Gutowska, Magdalena A; Melzner, F; Langenbuch, M; Bock, C; Claireaux, G; Pörtner, H O

2010-03-01

300

Use of rotary shadowing electron microscopy to investigate the collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix of cuttle-fish ( Sepia officinalis) and chicken cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collagen fibrils isolated from sternal cartilage of chick embryo and chondrocranium of cuttle-fish (Sepia officinalis) were examined with the electron microscope after rotary shadowing. The aim was to determine whether collagen fibrils from S. officinalis cartilage contained collagen molecules similar to the type IX collagen of vertebrate cartilage. Cartilage from both sources presented a highly variable appearance and only occasionally

C. Rigo; A. Bairati

1998-01-01

301

Temperature and pCO2 effect on the bioaccumulation of radionuclides and1 trace elements in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis2  

E-print Network

in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis2 3 T. Lacoue-Labarthe1,2,3,* , S. Martin2, , F of the common cuttlefish Sepia42 officinalis. The lowered accumulation of essential 60 Co and 54 Mn of an enhanced swelling of the cuttlefish egg under elevated CO2.48 49 Keywords: cephalopod, ocean acidification

302

The genetics and conservation of Araucaria angustifolia: I. Genetic structure and diversity of natural populations by means of non-adaptive variation in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to generate information relative to the allele distribution and dynamics within and among populations of Araucaria angustifolia, a naturally-occurring conifer in the south of Brazil, being known popularly as \\

Neiva Maria Frizon Auler; Maurício Sedrez dos Reis; Miguel Pedro Guerra; Rubens Onofre Nodari

2002-01-01

303

Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candida albicans. Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris.  

PubMed

The antifungal effect of the essential oil from Satureja montana L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lavandula hybrida Reverchon, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merril and Perry, Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and six chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris L. on Candida albicans growth were studied. The most efficiency was obtained with the essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (MIC 80% = 0.016 microL/mL and Kaff = 296 microL/mL). The presence in the culture medium of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 microg/mL) and amphotericin B involved a decrease of the MIC 80% of amphotericin B. In contrast, the combination of amphotericin B and low concentrations (0.00031-0.0025 microg/mL) of essential oil was antagonistic. The strongest decrease (48%) of the MIC 80% was obtained with medium containing 0.2 microL/mL of essential oil. These results signify that the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype potentiates the antifungal action of amphotericin B suggesting a possible utilization of this essential oil in addition to antifungal drugs for the treatment of mycoses. PMID:15742351

Giordani, R; Regli, P; Kaloustian, J; Mikaïl, C; Abou, L; Portugal, H

2004-12-01

304

Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2013-01-01

305

A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?  

PubMed Central

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

2013-01-01

306

The larva of Aphylla protracta (Hagen, 1859), and a redescription of the larva of A. angustifolia Garrison, 1986 (Odonata: Gomphidae).  

PubMed

The larva of Aphylla protracta is described and figured. It is characterized by 3rd antennomere subcylindrical, flattened on ventral surface, 4.2 times longer than its widest part. Abdomen with dorsal protuberances well developed on S2-4, reduced on S5, vestigial or absent on S6-9; lateral spines lacking entirely, tergites 5-8 with minute reddish setae, tergite 9 with abundant, small, reddish setae on most of its surface and the whole posterior margin; S10 cylindrical, very long, five times longer than its base, much longer than S6+7+8+9. Also, a redescription and figures of A. angustifolia are provided, and a comparison of both species is made. Mainly differences between both species were found in abdominal dorsal protuberances and the presence/absence of small setae on abdominal tergites. PMID:25543796

Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo

2014-01-01

307

In vitro and in vivo immune stimulating effects of a new standardized Echinacea angustifolia root extract (Polinacea).  

PubMed

Polinacea is a new standardized hydroethanolic extract obtained from Echinacea angustifolia roots containing echinacoside (>4%), the high molecular weight polysaccharide IDN 5405 (>5%) and a isobutylamide fraction (<0.1%). For in vitro tests, a bacterial lipopolysaccharide-free (LPS-free) Polinacea has been prepared in order to avoid non-specific responses of immunocompetent cells. LPS-free Polinacea enhanced the immune functions as highlighted by the proliferation rate and gamma-interferon production in murine T-lymphocyte cell cultures stimulated by anti-CD3. LPS-free Polinacea did not have a direct role on macrophage response as measured in the nitric oxide production test using the J774 macrophage cells line. In vivo, Polinacea showed an immune stimulating activity by reducing the Candida albicans induced mortality both in normal and in cyclosporin A-treated mice. PMID:15949903

Morazzoni, P; Cristoni, A; Di Pierro, F; Avanzini, C; Ravarino, D; Stornello, S; Zucca, M; Musso, T

2005-07-01

308

Indole Alkaloids of Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in 1 M HCl Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhibition effect of mild steel (MS) corrosion in 1 M HCl was studied by the addition of indole alkaloids (crude) isolated from Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia ( A. latifolia) leaves at 303 K. Potentiodynamic polarization, impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses were used for this study. Results show that the isolated alkaloid extract of A. latifolia is a good inhibitor and exhibited maximum inhibition efficiency (above 80%) at concentrations between 3 and 5 mg/L. Polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitor does not alter the mechanism of either anodic or cathodic reactions and acted as mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies of both electrochemical techniques are found to be in good agreement and adsorption of inhibitor follows Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption of inhibitor over metal surface was well supported by the SEM studies, while FTIR studies evidenced the presence of indole alkaloids as green inhibitor that reduces the rate of corrosion.

Raja, Pandian Bothi; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Awang, Khalijah; Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Osman, Hasnah

2013-04-01

309

Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis on the survivability of random-patterned skin flaps: An experimental study.  

PubMed

Improving survival of skin flaps used in soft-tissue reconstruction is clinically an important goal, and several systemic and local agents have been used for this purpose. However, a substance that prevents the flap necrosis has not yet been defined. This study aimed to investigate whether a Rosmarinus officinalis extract could improve the skin flap survival. In this study, 21 Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Rectangular 8 × 2 cm random-pattern flaps were elevated from the back of the rats. Group I was considered the control group. In Group II, a 0.5-cc of Rosmarinus officinalis oil was applied with an ear bud to the flap area 30 minutes before the flap elevation. After suturing the flaps to their location, the oil was administered twice a day for a week. In Group III, 0.5 cc of the oil was applied twice a day to the area that was elevated for a week until surgery. At the end of the week, the flaps were sutured to their location, and wiped postoperatively twice a day for a week with the oil. Mean percentage of these areas was found to be 29.81%, 58.99%, and 67.68% in Group I, Group II, and Group III, respectively. The mean percentage of the flap survival areas and vessel diameters were significantly greater in the Groups II and III than in the control group (p < 0.05). The results revealed that the topical use of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract can increase the flap survivability. PMID:24702647

Ince, Bilsev; Yildirim, Alpagan Mustafa; Okur, Mehmet Ihsan; Dadaci, Mehmet; Yoruk, Ebru

2015-04-01

310

Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.  

PubMed

Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl?, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC?? value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC?? 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC?? 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC?? 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC?? 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause. PMID:23670626

Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

2013-06-01

311

Emergence of sensory structures in the developing epidermis in sepia officinalis and other coleoid cephalopods.  

PubMed

Embryonic cuttlefish can first respond to a variety of sensory stimuli during early development in the egg capsule. To examine the neural basis of this ability, we investigated the emergence of sensory structures within the developing epidermis. We show that the skin facing the outer environment (not the skin lining the mantle cavity, for example) is derived from embryonic domains expressing the Sepia officinalis ortholog of pax3/7, a gene involved in epidermis specification in vertebrates. On the head, they are confined to discrete brachial regions referred to as "arm pillars" that expand and cover Sof-pax3/7-negative head ectodermal tissues. As revealed by the expression of the S. officinalis ortholog of elav1, an early marker of neural differentiation, the olfactory organs first differentiate at about stage 16 within Sof-pax3/7-negative ectodermal regions before they are covered by the definitive Sof-pax3/7-positive outer epithelium. In contrast, the eight mechanosensory lateral lines running over the head surface and the numerous other putative sensory cells in the epidermis, differentiate in the Sof-pax3/7-positive tissues at stages ?24-25, after they have extended over the entire outer surfaces of the head and arms. Locations and morphologies of the various sensory cells in the olfactory organs and skin were examined using antibodies against acetylated tubulin during the development of S. officinalis and were compared with those in hatchlings of two other cephalopod species. The early differentiation of olfactory structures and the peculiar development of the epidermis with its sensory cells provide new perspectives for comparisons of developmental processes among molluscs. PMID:24549606

Buresi, Auxane; Croll, Roger P; Tiozzo, Stefano; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

2014-09-01

312

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin–Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g-1 and 51 mgGAE g-1 in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10-3, 103×10-3, 25×10-3 mg mL-1 respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10-3mg mL-1). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100-1g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL-1). Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use. PMID:24312758

Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

2011-01-01

313

In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.  

PubMed

Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC??) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 ?g/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000??g/mL. The IC?? of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9??g/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection. PMID:21476887

Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

2011-01-01

314

Identification of Sensory-Active Phytochemicals in Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from raw and cooked asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), respectively, followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed the chemical structures of nine bitter tasting mono- and bidesmotic saponins as well as the previously not reported 1,2-dithiolan-4-carboxylic acid 6-D-?/?-glucopyranose ester exhibiting an interesting buttery mouth-coating effect. Sensory studies showed that the orosensation imparted by this sulfur compound was reminiscent to that of melting butter and revealed an orosensory recognition threshold of 276.8 ?mol/L. PMID:23136992

Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

2012-12-01

315

In vivo and in vitro lipid accumulation in Borago officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of 13 accessions of borage (Borago officinalis) varied in total fatty acid content from 28.6 to 35.1% seed weight, with linoleic, ?-linolenic, oleic and palmitic as the\\u000a predominant fatty acids, averaging 38.1%, 22.8%, 16.3% and 11.3% of total fatty acids, respectively. There was an inverse\\u000a relation between ?-linolenic acid (25.0 to 17.6%) and oleic acid (14.5 to 21.3%). Fatty

Anna Whipkey; James E. Simon; Jules Janick

1988-01-01

316

Selected Kinetic Properties of Polyphenol Oxidase Extracted from Rosmarinus Officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase from Rosmarinus officinalis L. (PPO, EC 1:14:18.1) was extracted and partially purified by using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and dialysis. Stable and highly active PPO extracts were obtained using 0.5% (w\\/v) PEG and 0.5% (w\\/v) Triton X-100 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer 7.0. KM values were found to be as 14.3 mM for catechol. Four isoenzymes of Rosemary PPO were

Tulin Aydemir

2010-01-01

317

Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

2014-05-01

318

Componential Profile and Amylase Inhibiting Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Calendula officinalis L. Leaves  

PubMed Central

An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6?-O-vanilloyl-?-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6??-acetyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase. PMID:24683352

Olennikov, Daniil N.; Kashchenko, Nina I.

2014-01-01

319

Apoptosis-inducing effects of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil in glioblastoma multiforme cells.  

PubMed

Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are not effective. This study investigated the activity of the M. officinalis essential oil (EO) and its major component (citral) in GBM cell lines. Both EO and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Antioxidant prevented citral-induced death, indicating its dependence on the production of reactive oxygen species. Citral downmodulated the activity and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). These results show that EO, through its major component, citral, may be of potential interest for the treatment of GBM. PMID:24745610

Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz de; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Guimarães, Lívia Paes Tavares Pacheco; Rocha, Gleice da Graça; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

2014-07-01

320

University of California Botanical Garden, 200 Centennial Drive, Berkeley, CA 94720-5045 Phone: 510-643-2755 Fax: 510-642-5045 Website: http://botanicalgarden.berkeley.edu  

E-print Network

Siskiyou 13 California Wyethia angustifolia mules ears Chaparral 12B, 29 California Romneya coulteri powder blue short and in tuffets 861 Rose Garden 857, 861 Garden of Old Roses Echinacea purpurea Hybrid Perpetual 860 & 861 Garden of Old Roses Lavandula angustifolia cultivar Hidcote Hidcote Dwarf

Herr, Amy E.

321

Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar (Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as\\u000a ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between\\u000a environmental parameters and

Jose A. Manzanera; Maria F. Martínez-Chacón

2007-01-01

322

Effects of different fire intensities on chemical and biological soil components and related feedbacks on a Mediterranean shrub ( Phillyrea angustifolia L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 2000, six plots of Mediterranean maquis in the Castel Volturno Nature Reserve were burnt at two intensity levels to\\u000a examine the effects of fire intensities on chemical and biological soil components and their relationships with ecophysiological\\u000a processes of Phillyrea angustifolia L. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, as well as P availability, were higher in burnt plots than in

Francesca Capogna; Anna M. Persiani; Oriana Maggi; Giuseppina Dowgiallo; Gigliola Puppi; Fausto Manes

2009-01-01

323

Effects of a standardized purified dry extract from Echinacea angustifolia on proliferation and interferon gamma secretion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dairy heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to ascertain whether a standardized extract from Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea™) affects proliferation and interferon gamma (IFN-?) secretion in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).PBMC from six Holstein heifers were incubated with 0, 6.3, 20, 60, or 180?g\\/ml of the tested compound. Proliferation was stimulated by concanavalin A (ConA) or pokeweed-mitogen (PWM). Secretion of IFN-? was stimulated

Hua Wu; Alessandro Nardone; Nicola Lacetera

2009-01-01

324

Patterns of pollen and seed dispersal in a small, fragmented population of the wind-pollinated tree Araucaria angustifolia in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity analysis based on eight microsatellite loci was used to investigate pollen and seed dispersal patterns of the dioecious wind-pollinated tree, Araucaria angustifolia. The study sites were a 5.4 ha isolated forest fragment and a small tree group situated 1.7 km away, located in Paran? State, Brazil. In the forest fragment, 121 males, 99 females, 66 seedlings and 92 juveniles

J V M Bittencourt; A M Sebbenn

2007-01-01

325

Statistical design of experiments as a tool for optimizing the batch conditions to Cr(VI) biosorption on Araucaria angustifolia wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the total number of experiments for achieving the best conditions for Cr(VI) uptake using Araucaria angustifolia (named pinhão) wastes as a biosorbent, three statistical design of experiments were carried out. A full 24 factorial design with two blocks and two central points (20 experiments) was experimented (pH, initial metallic ion concentration—Co, biosorbent concentration—X and time of

Jorge L. Brasil; Ricardo R. Ev; Caroline D. Milcharek; Lucas C. Martins; Flavio A. Pavan; Araci A. dos Santos; Silvio L. P. Dias; Jairton Dupont; Caciano P. Zapata Noreña; Eder C. Lima

2006-01-01

326

Quantification of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Elaeagnus angustifolia L. on salt-affected irrigated croplands using two 15 N isotopic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Afforestation with fast growing N-fixing trees is an option for ecological restoration of highly-salinized irrigated croplands,\\u000a but information about the N-fixing capability of trees on saline soils is sparse. The 15N-enrichment technique (15NET) and the A value (AV) method were used to quantify in lysimeters the proportion of atmospheric N2 (%Ndfa) fixed by Elaeagnus angustifolia L., with a reference to

D. Djumaeva; J. P. A. Lamers; C. Martius; A. Khamzina; N. Ibragimov; P. L. G. Vlek

2010-01-01

327

Biochemical characterization, cDNA cloning, and molecular modeling of araujiain aII, a papain-like cysteine protease from Araujia angustifolia latex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Araujiain aII, the protease with highest specific activity purified from latex of Araujia angustifolia (Apocynaceae), shows optimum proteolytic activity at alkaline pH, and it is completely inhibited by the irreversible inhibitor\\u000a of cysteine proteases trans-epoxysucciny-l-leucyl-amido(4-guanidino) butane. It exhibits esterolytic activity on several N-?-Cbz-amino acid p-nitrophenyl esters with a preference for Gln, Ala, and Gly derivatives. Kinetic enzymatic assays were performed

Walter D. Obregón; Daniela Lufrano; Constanza S. Liggieri; Sebastián A. Trejo; Sandra E. Vairo-Cavalli; Francesc X. Avilés; Nora S. Priolo

328

Kocuria palustris sp. nov, and Kocuria rhizophila sp. nov., isolated from the rhizoplane of the narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Gram-positive, aerobic spherical actinobacteria were isolated from the rhizoplane of narrow-leaved cattail (lypha angustifolia) collected from a floating mat in the Soroksdr tributary of the Danube river, Hungary. Sequence comparisons of the 16s rDNA indicated these isolates to be phylogenetic neighbours of members of the genus Kocuria, family Micrococcaceae, in which they represent two novel lineages. The phylogenetic distinctness

Gabor KOV; Jutta Burghardt; Silke Pradella; Peter Schumann; Erko Stackebrandt

329

Heavy metals accumulation and ecophysiological effect on Typha angustifolia L. and Cyperus esculentus L. growing in distillery and tannery effluent polluted natural wetland site, Unnao, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillery and tanneries are major source of heavy metals pollution in natural wetland sites in India. Present study deals\\u000a with the heavy metals accumulation potential of Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus growing in distillery and tannery effluent polluted wetland sites. The metal accumulation pattern in both macrophytes showed\\u000a direct correlation with the metal content in sediments. Both macrophytes were observed

Sangeeta Yadav; Ram Chandra

2011-01-01

330

A statistical model of fracture for a 2D hexagonal mesh: the Cell Network Model of Fracture for the bamboo Guadua angustifolia  

E-print Network

A 2D, hexagonal in geometry, statistical model of fracture is proposed. The model is based on the drying fracture process of the bamboo Guadua angustifolia. A network of flexible cells are joined by brittle junctures of different Young moduli that break at a fixed threshold in tensile force. The system is solved by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM). The distribution of avalanche breakings exhibits a power law with exponent -2.93(9), in agreement with the random fuse model.

G. Villalobos; D. L. Linero; J. D. Munoz

2010-02-22

331

Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat  

PubMed Central

Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant’s leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive. PMID:24250620

Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

2013-01-01

332

Metabolomic analysis reveals that the accumulation of specific secondary metabolites in Echinacea angustifolia cells cultured in vitro can be controlled by light.  

PubMed

Echinacea angustifolia cell suspension cultures are usually grown and maintained in the dark, but we also exposed cells to light for one culture cycle (14 days) and then compared the metabolomes of dark-grown and illuminated cells by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among 256 signals, we putatively identified 159 molecules corresponding to 56 different metabolites plus their fragments, adducts and isotopologs. The E. angustifolia metabolome consisted mainly of caffeic acid derivatives, comprising (a) caffeic acid conjugated with tartaric, quinic and hexaric acids; and (b) caffeic acid conjugated with hydroxytyrosol glycosides (e.g., echinacoside, verbascoside and related molecules). Many of these metabolites have not been previously described in E. angustifolia, which currently lacks detailed metabolic profiles. Exposure to light significantly increased the levels of certain caffeic acid derivatives (particularly caffeoylquinic acids and hydroxytyrosol derivatives lacking rhamnose residues) and reduced the level of hydroxytyrosol derivatives with rhamnose residues, revealing that light specifically inhibits the rhamnosylation of caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides. These results are significant because they suggest that the metabolic profile of cell cultures can be manipulated by controlling simple environmental variables such as illumination to modulate the levels of potentially therapeutic compounds. PMID:22009052

Guarnerio, Chiara Francesca; Fraccaroli, Marica; Gonzo, Irene; Pressi, Giovanna; Dal Toso, Roberto; Guzzo, Flavia; Levi, Marisa

2012-02-01

333

Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm. PMID:22540963

2012-01-01

334

Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

2014-01-01

335

How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. PMID:24484956

Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

2014-03-01

336

Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor distribution in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

The immune system of cephalopods remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specific activity of immune enzymes in epithelial barriers, circulatory and digestive systems of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Three enzyme groups with putative functions in immunity were investigated: phenoloxidases (POs), lysozymes and protease inhibitors (PIs). Consistent with a role in immunity, highest PO activities were found in the integument as well as the respiratory and circulatory organs under zymogenic (proPO) and active form. Surprisingly, high PO activities were also found in the digestive gland and its appendages. Similarly, high lysozyme activities were detected in the integument and circulatory organs, but also in the posterior salivary glands, highlighting the implication of this antibacterial enzyme group in most tissues exposed to the environment but also within the circulatory system. Albeit highest in digestive organs, the ubiquitous detection of PI activity in assayed compartments suggests immune function(s) in a wide range of tissues. Our study reports proPO/PO, lysozyme and PI distributions in S. officinalis body compartments for the first time, and thus provides the fundamental basis for a better understanding of the humoral immune system in cephalopods as well as invertebrates. PMID:24813822

Le Pabic, Charles; Safi, Georges; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Robin, Jean-Paul; Koueta, Noussithé

2014-01-01

337

The extraction process optimization of antioxidant polysaccharides from Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) roots.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10-90°C) and time (6-30h), particle size (6-24mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10-50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R(2) values (>0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the most significant (P<0.05) extraction conditions that affect the yield and antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides were the main effect of extraction temperature and the interaction effect of the particle size and W/S ratio. The optimum conditions to maximize yield (10.80%) and antioxidant activity (84.09%) for polysaccharides extraction from A. officinalis roots were extraction temperature 60.90°C, extraction time 12.01h, particle size 12.0mm and W/S ratio of 40.0. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, indicating the models suitability for optimizing the polysaccharides extraction conditions. PMID:25603144

Pakrokh Ghavi, Peyman

2015-04-01

338

Effects of differential extraction of Verbena officinalis on rat models of inflammation, cicatrization and gastric damage.  

PubMed

Verbena officinalis L. is used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, skin burns, abrasions, and gastric diseases. Extracts obtained with different solvents (methanol, VoME; enriched flavonoids, VoEF; supercritical CO2, VoCO2) were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and cicatrizing activities. Additionally, the antioxidant capacity was determined in vitro. In order to confirm the activities investigated, histological observations were performed. All extracts induce a remarkable anti-inflammatory activity. The gastric damage is significantly reduced by all extracts administered, whereby the most pronounced protection is observed for the VoCO2 and VoEF extracts. Finally, a wound healing effect is obtained particularly by the CO2 extract, suggesting the presence of some lipophilic active principles. Histological evidence confirms the results evaluated with the animal procedures. The results obtained after oral administration of V. officinalis extracts are also in agreement with the antioxidant capacity evaluated in vitro, confirming the relationship between pharmacological activities and antiradical efficacy. PMID:17354166

Speroni, E; Cervellati, R; Costa, S; Guerra, M C; Utan, A; Govoni, P; Berger, A; Müller, A; Stuppner, H

2007-03-01

339

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Verbena officinalis L.  

PubMed

Verbena officinalis has traditionally been used in herbal medicine in Navarra, Spain, in the treatment of topical inflammation. Due to the anti-inflammatory activity of Verbena officinalis 50% methanolic extract in i.p. and topical administration, the effects of several formulations were prepared and studied using carrageenan-induced edema and formalin testing. Piroxicam gel and methyl salicylate ointment were studied as positive control for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, respectively. The edema inhibition of the preparations containing extract at the doses of 1-3% w/w were significantly different from the control group. The anti-inflammatory effect of VO-3% was similar to the effect of piroxicam gel 3 h after carrageenan injection. The analgesic activity of topical preparation with more than 2.5% w/w was observed in the early phase. This activity was observed in concentrations of more than 2% w/w in the late phase. The topical analgesic activity of the extract was less than the analgesic activity of methyl salicylate ointment. PMID:16723201

Calvo, M I

2006-10-11

340

High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.  

PubMed

Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and ?-pinene, ?-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/?-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study. PMID:23081929

Jug-Dujakovi?, Marija; Risti?, Mihailo; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Daji?-Stevanovi?, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Han?evi?, Katarina; Radi?, Tomislav; Satovi?, Zlatko

2012-10-01

341

Establishment of Salvia officinalis L. hairy root cultures for the production of rosmarinic acid.  

PubMed

Shoots of Salvia officinalis, a medicinally important plant, were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains ATCC 15834 and A4 which led to the induction of hairy roots in 57% and 37% of the explants, respectively. Seven lines of hairy roots were established in WP liquid medium under light and dark conditions. The transformed nature of the root lines was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using rolB and rolC specific primers. Transformed root cultures of Salvia officinalis showed variations in biomass and rosmarinic acid production depending on the bacterial strain used for transformation and the root line analyzed. Both parameters (growth and rosmarinic acid content) of ATCC 15834-induced lines were significantly higher than the A4-induced lines. The maximum accumulation of rosmarinic acid (about 45 mg g(-1) of dry weight) was achieved by hairy root line 1 (HR-1) at the end of the culture period (45-50 days). The level was significantly higher than that found in untransformed root culture (19 mg g(-10 of dry wt). PMID:16869492

Grzegorczyk, Izabela; Królicka, Aleksandra; Wysoki?ska, Halina

2006-01-01

342

Subcellular localization and function of melanogenic enzymes in the ink gland of Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed Central

The ink gland of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis has traditionally been regarded as a convenient model system for investigating melanogenesis. This gland has been shown to contain a variety of melanogenic enzymes including tyrosinase, a dopachrome-rearranging enzyme and peroxidase. However, whether and to what extent these enzymes co-localize in the melanogenic compartments and interact is an open question. Using polyclonal antibodies that recognize the corresponding Sepia proteins, we have been able to demonstrate that peroxidase has a different subcellular localization pattern from tyrosinase and dopachrome-rearranging enzyme. Whereas peroxidase is located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and in the matrix of premelanosomes and melanosomes, tyrosinase and dopachrome-rearranging enzyme are present in the rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi transport system, at the level of trans-Golgi cisternae, trans-Golgi network and coated vesicles, and in melanosomes on pigmented granules. These results fill a longstanding gap in our knowledge of the melanin-producing system in Sepia and provide the necessary background for dissection at the molecular level of the complex interaction between melanogenic enzymes. Moreover, the peculiar and complex organization of melanin in an invertebrate such as Sepia officinalis is surprising and could provide the basis for understanding the process in more evolved systems such as that of mammals. PMID:9169609

Palumbo, A; di Cosmo, A; Gesualdo, I; Hearing, V J

1997-01-01

343

Improved neuroprotective effects by combining Bacopa monnieri and Rosmarinus officinalis supercritical CO2 extracts.  

PubMed

Ethnobotanical evidence suggests that herbs such as brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) may possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. We compared the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of supercritical extract of Bacopa monnieri and rosemary antioxidant extract obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis as well as their combination to examine the effects on human glial (U-87 MG) and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cells. Bacopa monnieri extract, rosemary antioxidant extract, and their combination (1:1) are not cytotoxic in both glial and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell lines up to 200 ?g/mL concentration. The combination of extracts of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant has better antioxidant potential and antilipid peroxidation activity than either agent alone. Although the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant showed almost similar inhibition of phospho tau expression as Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract alone, the combination has better inhibitory effect on amyloid precursor protein synthesis and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in hypothalamus cells than single agents. These results suggest that the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant is more neuroprotective than Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract. PMID:24647092

Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Escalon, Enrique; Melnick, Steven J

2014-04-01

344

De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Oryza officinalis Leaf Transcriptome by Using RNA-Seq  

PubMed Central

Although endeavors have been made to identify useful wild rice genes that can be used to improve cultivated rice, the virtual reservoir of genetic variation hidden within the wild relatives of cultivated rice is largely untapped. Here, using next-generation sequencing technology, we investigated the leaf transcriptome of a wild rice O. officinalis with CC genome. Approximately 23 million reads were produced in the species leaf transcriptome analysis and de novo assembly methods constructed 68,132 unigenes. Functional annotations for the unigenes were conducted using sequence similarity comparisons against the following databases: the nonredundant nucleotide database, the nonredundant protein database, the SWISS-PROT database, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins database, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, the Gene Ontology Consortium database, and the InterPro domains database. In addition, a total of 476 unigenes related to disease resistance were identified in O. officinalis, and these unigenes can serve as important genetic resources for cultivated rice breeding and quality improvement. The present study broadens our understanding of the genetic background of non-AA genomic wild rice species and it also provides a bridge to extend studies to other Oryza species with CC genomes. PMID:25713814

Bao, Ying; Xu, Si; Jing, Xiang; Meng, Lu; Qin, Zongyan

2015-01-01

345

Morph-ratio variation, population size and female reproductive success in distylous Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

Theory predicts that morph ratios in heterostylous populations are governed by negative frequency-dependent selection typically resulting in equal morph ratios at equilibrium. Previous work on the distylous perennial herb Pulmonaria officinalis, however, showed asymmetric mating between floral morphs and a weak self-incompatibility system, with the long-styled morph (L-morph) producing significantly higher seed set following intramorph crosses and even selfing than the short-styled morph (S-morph), two aspects thought to affect female fecundity and morph-ratio variation. Here, we evaluated morph ratios and population size of all known P. officinalis populations in the northern part of Belgium. Morph ratios deviated significantly from 1:1 (range 0.09-1 L-morph frequency, mean = 0.58). Relative fecundity of the S-morph (i.e. mean seed set of the S-morph/mean seed set of the L-morph) was on average 0.73, was positively related to the frequency of the L-morph, and reached 1 (similar levels of female fecundity) at an average L-morph frequency of 0.66 in the population. As some small populations had the S-morph in majority, our results suggest that local morph ratios are influenced both by the relative fecundity of L- and S-morph individuals and by stochastic processes in small populations. PMID:18631213

Brys, R; Jacquemyn, H; Beeckman, T

2008-09-01

346

New protocols to improve the deposition and hatching of Sepia officinalis' eggs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was the development of hatching protocols in controlled conditions to obtain juveniles, in order to restock and increase the resource of Sepia officinalis. The study was divided into the following phases: development and application of artificial surfaces at specific sites of the Molise coast in Italy; induction of eggs hatching and juveniles maintenance under controlled condition; juveniles introduction into specific sites and assessment their increment; experimental data elaboration. The obtained results concerned both the effectiveness of the artificial surfaces tasted during the study and the importance of the recovery of the eggs laid on artificial surfaces (artefacts and fishing gear) for preservation and the management of the Sepia officinalis resource. The induction tests conducted on eggs hatching under controlled conditions confirmed what described in the extant literature. Water salinity was detected as the only limiting factor, with values ? 20% related to the absence of hatching. The described practices for harvesting and induction of hatching for the production of juvenile cuttlefish may be endorsed by the operators at relatively low cost and throughout the year, with obvious economic benefits. PMID:24362778

Barile, Nadia B; Cappabianca, Sabatino; Antonetti, Luigi; Scopa, Mariaspina; Nerone, Eliana; Mascilongo, Giuseppina; Recchi, Sara; D'Aloise, Antonio

2013-01-01

347

A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521

2014-01-01

348

Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

2010-01-01

349

Analysis of Transposable Elements in the Genome of Asparagus officinalis from High Coverage Sequence Data  

PubMed Central

Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

2014-01-01

350

Production of extracellular exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1 using root tubers of Asparagus officinalis.  

PubMed

Root tubers of Asparagus officinalis were used as a source of raw inulin for the production of exoinulinase (EC 3.2.1.7) from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1. Root extract prepared at 10kg/cm2 pressure for 10min showed maximum inulinase production. Medium components and process parameters were standardized to improve the enzyme production. Inulinase yield of 40.2IU/mL in a medium containing raw inulin (3.5%), beef extract (2%), SDS (0.001%), Mn2+ (2.0mM), Mg2+ (1.5mM), Co2+ (2mM) and pH 6.5 has been obtained under agitation (150rpm) after 60h of incubation at 30 degrees C at shake flask level. After optimization, the enzyme production was 4.8 times more than the basal medium. To test the feasibility of raw inulin from A. officinalis for the production of inulinase, trials were also made in a bioreactor (1.5L). Inulinase activity of 50.2IU/mL was obtained from raw inulin (4.0%) under agitation (200rpm) and aeration (0.75vvm) at 30 degrees C after 60h of fermentation. Inulinase yield in bioreactor was almost six times higher than the basal medium used initially in shake flask. PMID:18280145

Singh, R S; Bhermi, H K

2008-10-01

351

Apoptotic effect of hot water extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. in human oral cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Sanguisorba officinalis L. has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat diseases including diarrhea, chronic intestinal infections, duodenal ulcers and bleeding. This study examined the antiproliferative effects and apoptotic activity of hot water extract of S. officinalis L. (HESO) on HSC4 and HN22 human oral cancer cells. The effects of HESO were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-20yl)-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay, 4?-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and western blot analysis. HESO was found to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in HSC4 and HN22 oral cancer cells. HESO downregulated myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in HSC4 cells and was associated with the activation of Bak, resulting in Bak oligomerization on the mitochondrial outer membrane. HESO did not alter Mcl-1 expression in HN22 cells, but it decreased Sp1 expression. The downregulation of Sp1 by HESO in HN22 cells resulted in a decrease in survivin, a downstream target protein of Sp1. These results suggested that HESO inhibited the growth of oral cancer through either Mcl-1 or Sp1, indicating that HESO may serve as a potential drug candidate against oral cancer. PMID:23741248

SHIN, JI-AE; KIM, JUN-SUNG; KWON, KI-HAN; NAM, JEONG-SEOK; JUNG, JI-YOUN; CHO, NAM-PYO; CHO, SUNG-DAE

2012-01-01

352

Sponging up metals: Bacteria associated with the marine sponge Spongia officinalis.  

PubMed

The present study explored the bacteria of the sponge Spongia officinalis in a metal-polluted environment, using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, culture-dependent approaches and in situ hybridization. The sponge samples collected over three consecutive years in the Western Mediterranean Sea contained high concentrations of zinc, nickel, lead and copper determined by ICP-MS. DGGE signatures indicated a sponge specific bacterial association and suggested spatial and temporal variations. The bacterial culturable fraction associated with S. officinalis and tolerant to heavy metals was isolated using metal-enriched microbiological media. The obtained 63 aerobic strains were phylogenetically affiliated to the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. All isolates showed high tolerances to the selected heavy metals. The predominant genus Pseudovibrio was localized via CARD-FISH in the sponge surface tissue and validated as a sponge-associated epibiont. This study is the first step in understanding the potential involvement of the associated bacteria in sponge's tolerance to heavy metals. PMID:25575352

Bauvais, Cléa; Zirah, Séverine; Piette, Laurie; Chaspoul, Florence; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Gallice, Philippe; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Pérez, Thierry; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

2015-03-01

353

Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: A morphological and biochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a

S. Bolkent; R. Yanardag; Omur Karabulut-Bulan; B. Yesilyaprak

2005-01-01

354

Extensive population subdivision of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) around the Iberian Peninsula indicated by microsatellite DNA variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic Ocean-Mediterranean Sea junction has been proposed as an important phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance in genetic patterns observed at allozyme, mtDNA and microsatellite DNA markers in several marine species. This study presents microsatellite DNA data for a mobile invertebrate species in this area, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, allowing comparison of this relatively new class of DNA

M Pérez-Losada; A Guerra; G R Carvalho; A Sanjuan; P W Shaw

2002-01-01

355

Sensory, microbiological, physical and chemical properties of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii) stored in ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to characterize whole raw cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) during storage in ice through sensory, microbiological, chemical and physical analyses. The recently developed Quality Index Method (QIM) tables for these species were used for sensory analysis. Shelf-life of whole cuttlefish and shortfin squid were estimated as around 10 and 9 days,

Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas; Micaela Mota; Judite Lapa-Guimarães; Jana Pickova; Andreia Lindo; Teresa Silva

2008-01-01

356

Development of new quality index method (QIM) schemes for cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of sensory schemes for freshness grading of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) based on the recent quality index method (QIM). As preliminary work, four storage experiments were performed to choose the relevant sensory parameters for building the schemes. From an initial large set of parameters, some were chosen to be attributes

Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas

2006-01-01

357

The effects of crowding on growth of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 reared at two temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of crowding (stocking density) on food consumption and growth of juvenile Sepia officinalis reared at 17 and 25 °C. Two groups of 75 cuttlefish each were reared in closed seawater systems with water temperatures of 17 and 25 °C. Each group was subdivided into two treatments (three replicates per treatment):

John Forsythe; Phillip Lee; Leigh Walsh; Tara Clark

2002-01-01

358

Aspects of the stock dynamics and exploitation of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), in the English Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic biological parameters of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, in the English Channel are described from samples of commercial and research vessel landings made between April 1994 and September 1995. There was a significant difference between the length–weight relationship of male and female cuttlefish. Growth of both sexes was rapid and seasonal during the last 12 months of life. Males grew faster

M. R. Dunn

1999-01-01

359

Antidepressant-like effects of the mixture of honokiol and magnolol from the barks of Magnolia officinalis in stressed rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honokiol and magnolol are the main constituents simultaneously identified in the barks of Magnolia officinalis, which have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of mental disorders including depression. In the present study, we reported on the antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of the mixture of honokiol and magnolol in well-validated models of depression in rodents: forced

Qun Xu; Li-Tao Yi; Ying Pan; Xing Wang; Yu-Cheng Li; Jian-Mei Li; Cai-Ping Wang; Ling-Dong Kong

2008-01-01

360

Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

361

First Field Trials of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) in Andalusia (Southern Spain) as a Source of “Biological” Gamma Linolenic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is cultivated in the north of Spain for fresh edible production and is gathered from natural populations for its fresh flowers with saline, cucumber-like flavor. It is considered as a weed in the rest of Spain. Nevertheless, the agroecological mediterranean conditions in the south of Spain are adequate for growing borage as an oilseed crop for

C. Gálvez; A. De Haro

2002-01-01

362

Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

363

Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

2007-01-01

364

Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.  

PubMed

In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 ?L.mL(-1)-0.39 ?L.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 ?L.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties were different in particular plant species. The highest% of inhibition after 30 min. of reaction was observed at Origanum vulgare (93%), Satureia montana (90.66%) and Lavandula augustifolia (90.22%). PMID:24813985

Ka?ániová, Miroslava; Vukovi?, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vat?ák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

2014-01-01

365

Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model  

PubMed Central

The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-?. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025

MA, XIAOJUAN; MA, XIUMIN; MA, ZHIXING; WANG, JING; SUN, ZHAN; YU, WENYAN; LI, FENGSEN; DING, JIANBING

2014-01-01

366

Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.  

PubMed

Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. PMID:20688230

Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

2010-10-01

367

Isolation and Identification of a Novel Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-amide-Related Peptide Inhibiting the Motility of the Mature Oviduct in the Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henry J., P. Favrel and E. Boucaud-Camou. Isolation and identification of a novel APGW-amide-related peptide inhibiting the motility of the mature oviduct in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis. Peptides 18(10) 1469–1474, 1997.—A novel myotropic neuropeptide was isolated from 110 optic lobes (OL) of mature females of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. by mean of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peptide

Joel Henry; Pascal Favrel; Eve Boucaud-Camou

1997-01-01

368

Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (?D, ?18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high ? values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, ? 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near the adjacent tidal creek. Nonetheless, 18O-enriched stem water and low d-excess values suggested that Pterocarpus officinalis relies primarily on water accessed from unsaturated soil mounds that surround the tree and that are subject to evaporation, as opposed to groundwater at depth. This observation provides further insight to the adaptation mechanisms of Pterocarpus officinalis to survive in flooded ecosystems. In summary, our work demonstrates that for preventing saltwater intrusion, the amount of rainfall and freshwater inflow is more important than the sea level or the existence of an overland hydrological connection to the ocean.

Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

2014-06-01

369

Inhibitory Effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia on the Virulence Properties of the Oral Pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis  

PubMed Central

Aim. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA) on the virulence properties of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis implicated in periodontal diseases. Methods. S. mutans was cultured in tryptone broth containing a crude leaf extract of DVA for 16 hours, and the pH was measured after 10, 12, 14, and 16?h. Biofilms of S. mutans were grown on glass slides for 48 hours and exposed to plant extract for 30 minutes; the adherent cells were reincubated and the pH was measured at various time intervals. Minimum bactericidal concentration of the extracts against the four periodontal pathogens was determined. The effect of the subinhibitory concentration of plant extract on the production of proteinases by P. gingivalis was also evaluated. Results. DVA had no effect on acid production by S. mutans biofilms; however, it significantly inhibited acid production in planktonic cells. Periodontal pathogens were completely eliminated at low concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.02?mg/mL of crude plant extracts. At subinhibitory concentrations, DVA significantly reduced Arg-gingipain (24%) and Lys-gingipain (53%) production by P. gingivalis (P ? 0.01). Conclusions. These results suggest that DVA has the potential to be used to control oral infections including dental caries and periodontal diseases. PMID:24223061

Owotade, Foluso John

2013-01-01

370

ANGUSTIFOLIA is a central component of tissue morphogenesis mediated by the atypical receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG  

PubMed Central

Background During plant tissue morphogenesis cells have to coordinate their behavior to allow the generation of the size, shape and cellular patterns that distinguish an organ. Despite impressive progress the underlying signaling pathways remain largely unexplored. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG (SUB) is involved in signal transduction in several developmental processes including the formation of carpels, petals, ovules and root hair patterning. The three STRUBBELIG-LIKE MUTANT (SLM) genes DETORQUEO (DOQ), QUIRKY (QKY) and ZERZAUST (ZET) are considered central elements of SUB-mediated signal transduction pathways as corresponding mutants share most phenotypic aspects with sub mutants. Results Here we show that DOQ corresponds to the previously identified ANGUSTIFOLIA gene. The genetic analysis revealed that the doq-1 mutant exhibits all additional mutant phenotypes and conversely that other an alleles show the slm phenotypes. We further provide evidence that SUB and AN physically interact and that AN is not required for subcellular localization of SUB. Conclusions Our data suggest that AN is involved in SUB signal transduction pathways. In addition, they reveal previously unreported functions of AN in several biological processes, such as ovule development, cell morphogenesis in floral meristems, and root hair patterning. Finally, SUB and AN may directly interact at the plasma membrane to mediate SUB-dependent signaling. PMID:23368817

2013-01-01

371

The effect of plant inbreeding and stoichiometry on interactions with herbivores in nature: Echinacea angustifolia and its specialist aphid.  

PubMed

Fragmentation of once widespread communities may alter interspecific interactions by changing genetic composition of interacting populations as well as their abundances and spatial distributions. In a long-term study of a fragmented population of Echinacea angustifolia, a perennial plant native to the North American prairie, we investigated influences on its interaction with a specialist aphid and tending ants. We grew plant progeny of sib-matings (I), and of random pairings within (W) and between (B) seven remnants in a common field within 8 km of the source remnants. During the fifth growing season, we determined each plant's burden of aphids and ants, as well as its size and foliar elemental composition (C, N, P). We also assayed composition (C, N) of aphids and ants. Early in the season, progeny from genotypic classes B and I were twice as likely to harbor aphids, and in greater abundance, than genotypic class W; aphid loads were inversely related to foliar concentration of P and positively related to leaf N and plant size. At the end of the season, aphid loads were indistinguishable among genotypic classes. Ant abundance tracked aphid abundance throughout the season but showed no direct relationship with plant traits. Through its potential to alter the genotypic composition of remnant populations of Echinacea, fragmentation can increase Echinacea's susceptibility to herbivory by its specialist aphid and, in turn, perturb the abundance and distribution of aphids. PMID:21935460

Ridley, Caroline E; Hangelbroek, Helen H; Wagenius, Stuart; Stanton-Geddes, John; Shaw, Ruth G

2011-01-01

372

The Effect of Plant Inbreeding and Stoichiometry on Interactions with Herbivores in Nature: Echinacea angustifolia and Its Specialist Aphid  

PubMed Central

Fragmentation of once widespread communities may alter interspecific interactions by changing genetic composition of interacting populations as well as their abundances and spatial distributions. In a long-term study of a fragmented population of Echinacea angustifolia, a perennial plant native to the North American prairie, we investigated influences on its interaction with a specialist aphid and tending ants. We grew plant progeny of sib-matings (I), and of random pairings within (W) and between (B) seven remnants in a common field within 8 km of the source remnants. During the fifth growing season, we determined each plant's burden of aphids and ants, as well as its size and foliar elemental composition (C, N, P). We also assayed composition (C, N) of aphids and ants. Early in the season, progeny from genotypic classes B and I were twice as likely to harbor aphids, and in greater abundance, than genotypic class W; aphid loads were inversely related to foliar concentration of P and positively related to leaf N and plant size. At the end of the season, aphid loads were indistinguishable among genotypic classes. Ant abundance tracked aphid abundance throughout the season but showed no direct relationship with plant traits. Through its potential to alter the genotypic composition of remnant populations of Echinacea, fragmentation can increase Echinacea's susceptibility to herbivory by its specialist aphid and, in turn, perturb the abundance and distribution of aphids. PMID:21935460

Wagenius, Stuart; Stanton-Geddes, John; Shaw, Ruth G.

2011-01-01

373

Modulation of ovine neutrophil function and apoptosis by standardized extracts of Echinacea angustifolia, Butea frondosa and Curcuma longa.  

PubMed

Impaired neutrophil function has been associated with increased infectious diseases in ruminants. Attachment of neutrophils to endothelium and superoxide production is critical features of their immune activity. Once the infection is cleared, programmed cell death ensures the rapid resolution of inflammation. To develop new natural therapeutics for ruminants, standard extracts of Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea), Butea frondosa and Curcuma longa (Curcuvet) were first evaluated on ovine neutrophil functions. Curcuvet strongly reduced PMA-stimulated adhesion and superoxide production. Polinacea and B. frondosa extract also reduced these functions, but with less efficacy than Curcuvet. We analyzed the effect of extracts on spontaneous apoptosis and gene expression in neutrophils aged in vitro for up to 22h. IL8 is critical for neutrophil recruitment and the immune response; Bcl2-related proteins, Bcl2A1 and Bax, are key regulators of neutrophil fate. Spontaneous apoptosis strongly increased in ovine neutrophils cultured for 22h (T22), accompanied by an upregulation of IL8 and a decreased Bcl2A1:Bax ratio. Curcuvet stimulated spontaneous apoptosis and inhibited IL8 and Bcl2A1 gene expression at T22, whereas Polinacea and B. frondosa extract inhibited spontaneous apoptosis and stimulated IL8 expression at T22. These results suggest that Curcuvet has antiinflammatory activity, whereas Polinacea and B. frondosa have an immunomodulatory action on sheep neutrophils. PMID:19128841

Farinacci, Maura; Colitti, Monica; Stefanon, Bruno

2009-04-15

374

Optimization of the bamboo guadua angustifolia kunth in the elaboration of glued laminated elements for constructive use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bamboo is considered one of the best timber resources in the world because for its mechanical properties and high sustainability; this research aims to improve the mechanical properties of the laminated glued bamboo Guadua Angustifolia Kunth (GAK) for use as structural elements, starting from de very manufacture process; this is important because it is possible to observe variations in the flexural strength and the elastic modulus in GAK samples taken from different heights and thickness of the culm. In order to analyze the influence of these final mechanical properties variations in the laminated, the height of the culm where samples are extracted (cepa, basa and sobrebasa) it is taken as a variable from where different types of laminated were manufactured, seeking to make optimal the configuration based in the transversal section area and the material strength. Three assemblies were designed varying the overlap of the adhesion lines and it concluded that the highest strength average values were obtained in the laminated composites manufactured with samples taken from the bottom of the culm (basa), which is possible because in these elements there are less adhesion lines than the other ones (middle, top and mixed) or the better matching of themselves.

Díaz, G. A.; Cruz, R. A.; Chávez, A. M.

2013-11-01

375

ANGUSTIFOLIA3 Binds to SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes to Regulate Transcription during Arabidopsis Leaf Development[W  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional coactivator ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3) stimulates cell proliferation during Arabidopsis thaliana leaf development, but the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we show that inducible nuclear localization of AN3 during initial leaf growth results in differential expression of important transcriptional regulators, including GROWTH REGULATING FACTORs (GRFs). Chromatin purification further revealed the presence of AN3 at the loci of GRF5, GRF6, CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR2, CONSTANS-LIKE5 (COL5), HECATE1 (HEC1), and ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR4 (ARR4). Tandem affinity purification of protein complexes using AN3 as bait identified plant SWITCH/SUCROSE NONFERMENTING (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes formed around the ATPases BRAHMA (BRM) or SPLAYED. Moreover, SWI/SNF ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 73B (SWP73B) is recruited by AN3 to the promoters of GRF5, GRF3, COL5, and ARR4, and both SWP73B and BRM occupy the HEC1 promoter. Furthermore, we show that AN3 and BRM genetically interact. The data indicate that AN3 associates with chromatin remodelers to regulate transcription. In addition, modification of SWI3C expression levels increases leaf size, underlining the importance of chromatin dynamics for growth regulation. Our results place the SWI/SNF-AN3 module as a major player at the transition from cell proliferation to cell differentiation in a developing leaf. PMID:24443518

Vercruyssen, Liesbeth; Verkest, Aurine; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Heyndrickx, Ken S.; Eeckhout, Dominique; Han, Soon-Ki; Jégu, Teddy; Archacki, Rafal; Van Leene, Jelle; Andriankaja, Megan; De Bodt, Stefanie; Abeel, Thomas; Coppens, Frederik; Dhondt, Stijn; De Milde, Liesbeth; Vermeersch, Mattias; Maleux, Katrien; Gevaert, Kris; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej; Benhamed, Moussa; Wagner, Doris; Vandepoele, Klaas; De Jaeger, Geert; Inzé, Dirk

2014-01-01

376

Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis) 12  

PubMed Central

The camphor content of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves increases as the leaves expand, and the increase is roughly proportional to the number of filled peltate oil glands which appear on the leaf surface during the expansion process. 14CO2 is more rapidly incorporated into camphor and its direct progenitors in expanding leaves than in mature leaves, and direct in vitro measurement of the key enzymes involved in the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphor indicates that these enzymes, including the probable rate-limiting cyclization step, are at the highest levels during the period of maximum leaf expansion. These results clearly demonstrate that immature sage leaves synthesize and accumulate camphor most rapidly. Images PMID:16661761

Croteau, Rodney; Felton, Mark; Karp, Frank; Kjonaas, Robert

1981-01-01

377

Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects. PMID:25306360

Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2015-03-01

378

Chlorinated Coumarins from the Polypore Mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis, and their Activity Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds, 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The structures of the two isolates were deduced ab initio by spectroscopic methods and confirmed by chemical synthesis. In addition, an analogue of each was synthesized as of 7-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (3) and ethyl 7-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (4). All four compounds were characterized physicochemically, and their antimicrobial activity profiles revealed a narrow spectrum of activity with lowest MICs against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24087924

Hwang, Chang Hwa; Jaki, Birgit U.; Klein, Larry L.; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Napolitano, José G.; Fryling, Nicole A.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Cho, Sang Hyun; Stamets, Paul E.; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F.

2013-01-01

379

Compositions of the seed oil of the Borago officinalis from Iran.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the composition of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil, this research was performed under the field conditions at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones, Iran during the 2012 planting year. The oil yield of borage was 31.46% and 33.7% at Shahriyar and Garmsar zone, respectively, and nine and eight fatty acids were identified in the seed oil of borage at Shahriyar and Garmsar, respectively - palmitic, linoleic, stearic and ?-linolenic acids were dominant in the seed oil of borage from both zones. Unsaturated fatty acid content was more than the saturated fatty acids in both zones. The ratio of linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid in the borage cultivated at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones was 2.13 and 2.29. The fatty acid profile of Garmsar borage, oleic and oleic/linoleic acid ratio, increased. Locations with different ecological conditions resulted in changes in both seed oil content and fatty acid profile of borage. PMID:25360856

Morteza, Elham; Akbari, Gholam-Ali; Moaveni, Payam; Alahdadi, Iraj; Bihamta, Mohammad-Reza; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Joorabloo, Ali

2015-04-01

380

Development and Essential Oil Content of Secretory Glands of Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1  

PubMed Central

Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663786

Venkatachalam, K. V.; Kjonaas, Robert; Croteau, Rodney

1984-01-01

381

Hemocyte morphology and phagocytic activity in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).  

PubMed

Little is known about the immune system of cephalopods, in spite of their many highly derived characters within the molluscan clade, including a vertebrate-like high-pressure closed circulatory system. Further the economic importance of cephalopod fisheries, potential for aquaculture, and use as ecotoxicology models demand a thorough understanding of their immune system. In this study, we present a comprehensive characterization of hemocytes in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Cytological stainings, electron microscopy- and flow cytometry-observations highlight a single granulocyte population with various densities of eosinophilic granules and unstained vesicles. These hemocytes contain acid phosphatase-, lysozyme- and proPO system enzymes, and have high activity in bead phagocytosis assays. Interestingly, bead pre-incubation in plasma results in time-dependent aggregation perhaps resulting from hemocyanin-coating, and decrease in phagocytosis. This study provides the basis for understanding hemocyte-mediated immunity in the common cuttlefish, and essential background for future studies on cephalopod immunity. PMID:25066968

Le Pabic, Charles; Goux, Didier; Guillamin, Maryline; Safi, Georges; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Koueta, Noussithé; Serpentini, Antoine

2014-10-01

382

Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil inhibits in vivo and in vitro leukocyte migration.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), popularly known as rosemary, is used for food flavoring and in folk medicine as an antispasmodic, analgesic, antirheumatic, diuretic, and antiepileptic agent. Few studies have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary essential oil (REO). This study evaluated the effects of REO on leukocyte migration through in vivo leukocyte migration and in vitro chemotaxis assay. REO was analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectometry, and the main components identified were camphor (27.59%), 1,8-cineole (15.74%), ?-pinene (16.58%), and ?-myrcene (10.02%). In rats, administration of REO reduced the number of leukocytes that rolled, adhered, and migrated to the scrotal chamber after carrageenan injection. All doses of REO tested significantly inhibited leukocyte chemotaxis induced by casein. The effects of REO on leukocyte migration highlight an important mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of rosemary. PMID:21663474

Nogueira de Melo, Gessilda Alcantara; Grespan, Renata; Fonseca, Jefferson Pitelli; Farinha, Thiago Oliveira; Silva, Expedito Leite; Romero, Adriano Lopes; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

2011-09-01

383

Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.  

PubMed

In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively. PMID:25204856

He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

2015-01-01

384

Constituents of sage (Salvia officinalis) with in vitro affinity to human brain benzodiazepine receptor.  

PubMed

Benzodiazepine receptor binding assay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract from sage leaves ( Salvia officinalis L.) revealed three flavones and two abietane diterpenes functioning as benzodiazepine receptor-active components. Structural elucidation of the isolated pure compounds was performed by UV, EI-MS, ESI(pos)-MS/MS, as well as 1H- and 13C-NMR techniques. The flavones apigenin, hispidulin and cirsimaritin competitively inhibited 3H-flumazenil binding to the benzodiazepine receptor with IC50 values of 30, 1.3 and 350 microM, respectively. In addition, the affinities of the newly discovered diterpene receptor ligands, i. e., 7-methoxyrosmanol and galdosol, were characterized. 7-Methoxyrosmanol exhibited an IC50 value of 7.2 microM and galdosol showed the strongest binding activity to the benzodiazepine receptor with an IC50 value of 0.8 microM. PMID:12624814

Kavvadias, Dominique; Monschein, Vanessa; Sand, Philipp; Riederer, Peter; Schreier, Peter

2003-02-01

385

Simultaneous quantification of verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Attenuated-total-reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) in hyphenation with multivariate analysis was utilized to quantify verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method as a reference was established and validated. For both vibrational spectroscopic methods test-set and cross validation were performed. Different data-pre-treatments like SNV, 1st and 2nd derivative were applied to remove systematic errors and were evaluated. Quality parameters obtained for the test-set validation revealed that ATR-IR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.94, RPD=4.23; verbascoside: R(2)=0.93, RPD=3.63) has advantages over NIR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.91, RPD=3.75; verbascoside: R(2)=0.80, RPD=2.35) in the given application. PMID:23810849

Schönbichler, S A; Bittner, L K H; Pallua, J D; Popp, M; Abel, G; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

2013-10-01

386

Effect of extraction method on the yield of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm.  

PubMed

Optimal conditions for the extraction and analysis of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. have been determined. The following extraction methods were used: exhaustive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonication at 25 and 60 degrees C, microwave-assisted solvent extraction in open and closed systems, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In most cases the yields of furanocoumarins were highest using the ASE method. The effects of extracting solvent, temperature and time of extraction using this method were investigated. The highest yield of furanocoumarins by ASE was obtained with methanol at 100-130 degrees C for 10 min. The extraction yields of furanocoumarins from plant material by ultrasonication at 60 degrees C and microwave-assisted solvent extraction in an open system were comparable to the extraction yields obtained in the time- and solvent-consuming exhaustive process involving the Soxhlet apparatus. PMID:15508836

Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M; Petruczynik, A; Dragan, A; Wianowska, D; Dawidowicz, A L

2004-01-01

387

Subacute effect of cigarette smoke exposure in rats: protection by pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) extract.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the preventive effect of Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups as control, CS and CS + pot marigold (PM). The rats in the CS and CS + PM groups were subjected to CS for 1 h twice a day for 23 days. PM (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats in the CS + PM group by gavage, 1 h before each administration period. While malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl contents and reduced glutathione level of the CS group increased, their levels diminished by PM administration. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities and ?-carotene, vitamins A and C levels decreased in the CS group compared to control, however activities of these enzymes and concentration of vitamins were elevated by PM supplementation. This investigation showed that administration of PM supplied relative protection against subacute CS-induced cell injury. PMID:21505008

Ozkol, Halil; Tülüce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

2012-02-01

388

Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.  

PubMed

This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions. PMID:25627599

Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

2014-11-01

389

Quantification of Fumaria officinalis isoquinoline alkaloids by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using non-aqueous (NA) separation solutions combined with an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS and MS/MS) as detection device is presented for the separation, identification and quantification of isoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis. The best results were obtained with a mixture of acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) containing 60mM ammonium acetate and 2.2M acetic acid as running electrolyte and an applied voltage of 30 kV. Electrospray MS measurements were performed in the positive ionization mode with isopropanol-water (1:1, v/v) as sheath liquid at a flow rate of 3 microl/min. Alkaloids were detected as [M+H](+)-ions and showed typical fragmentation patterns in MS/MS experiments. The developed assay was used for the quantification of seven isoquinoline alkaloids representing different structural subtypes in Fumariae herba extracts and F. herba containing phytopharmaceuticals. PMID:16378615

Sturm, Sonja; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Stuppner, Hermann

2006-04-21

390

In vitro antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions extracted from Corallina officinalis.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides (F1, F2) from seaweed Corallina officinalis were isolated through anion-exchange column chromatography. Their chemical characteristics were determined by GC, HPLC, FT-IR and UV spectra. F1 and F2 contained only two monosaccharides, namely galactose and xylose. The antioxidant activities of F1, F2 and the de-sulfated polysaccharides (DF-1, DF-2) in vitro were investigated, including hydroxyl radicals scavenging effect, superoxide radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical activity and reducing power. As expected, antioxidant assay showed that the two sulfated polysaccharide fractions (F1, F2) possessed considerable antioxidant properties and had more excellent abilities than de-sulfated polysaccharides (DF-1, DF-2). PMID:21896282

Yang, Yuling; Liu, Dan; Wu, Jun; Chen, Yan; Wang, Shusheng

2011-12-01

391

Root colonization by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increases sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in Valeriana officinalis L.  

PubMed

In some medicinal plants a specific plant-fungus association, known as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, increases the levels of secondary plant metabolites and/or plant growth. In this study, the effects of three different AM treatments on biomass and sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in two IN VITRO propagated genotypes of valerian ( VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L., Valerianaceae) were investigated. Valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic acid levels were analyzed in the rhizome and in two root fractions. Two of the AM treatments significantly increased the levels of sesquiterpenic acids in the underground parts of valerian. These treatments, however, influenced the biomass of rhizomes and roots negatively. Therefore this observed increase was not accompanied by an increase in yield of sesquiterpenic acids per plant. Furthermore, one of the two genotypes had remarkably high hydroxyvalerenic acid contents and can be regarded as a hydroxyvalerenic acid chemotype. PMID:19809971

Nell, Monika; Wawrosch, Christoph; Steinkellner, Siegrid; Vierheilig, Horst; Kopp, Brigitte; Lössl, Andreas; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin

2010-03-01

392

Molecular cloning and characterization of drimenol synthase from valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis).  

PubMed

Drimenol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, and its derivatives display diverse bio-activities in nature. However, a drimenol synthase gene has yet to be identified. We identified a new sesquiterpene synthase cDNA (VoTPS3) in valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis). Purification and NMR analyses of the VoTPS3-produced terpene, and characterization of the VoTPS3 enzyme confirmed that VoTPS3 synthesizes (-)-drimenol. In feeding assays, possible reaction intermediates, farnesol and drimenyl diphosphate, could not be converted to drimenol, suggesting that the intermediate remains tightly bound to VoTPS3 during catalysis. A mechanistic consideration of (-)-drimenol synthesis suggests that drimenol synthase is likely to use a protonation-initiated cyclization, which is rare for sesquiterpene synthases. VoTPS3 can be used to produce (-)-drimenol, from which useful drimane-type terpenes can be synthesized. PMID:25447532

Kwon, Moonhyuk; Cochrane, Stephen A; Vederas, John C; Ro, Dae-Kyun

2014-12-20

393

The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis prevents depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. These results support the traditional belief on the about beneficial effects of V. officinalis in the nervous system. Moreover, further investigations are required in order to better understand this protective effect. PMID:24741277

Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

2014-01-01

394

Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.  

PubMed

The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 ?g/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05).These results suggested that the Bacillus strains isolated in this work may be further used as bioinoculants to improve the production of C. officinalis and other crop systems. PMID:24426149

Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

2013-12-01

395

Arm regeneration in two species of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis.  

PubMed

To provide quantitative information on arm regeneration in cuttlefish, the regenerating arms of two cuttlefish species, Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis, were observed at regular intervals after surgical amputation. The third right arm of each individual was amputated to ~10-20 % starting length. Arm length, suction cup number, presence of chromatophores, and behavioral measures were collected every 2-3 days over a 39-day period and compared to the contralateral control arm. By day 39, the regenerating arm reached a mean 95.5 ± 0.3 % of the control for S. officinalis and 94.9 ± 1.3 % for S. pharaonis. The process of regeneration was divided into five separate stages based on macroscopic morphological events: Stage I (days 0-3 was marked by a frayed leading edge; Stage II (days 4-15) by a smooth hemispherical leading edge; Stage III (days 16-20) by the appearance of a growth bud; Stage IV (days 21-24) by the emergence of an elongated tip; and Stage V (days 25-39) by a tapering of the elongated tip matching the other intact arms. Behavioral deficiencies in swimming, body postures during social communication, and food manipulation were observed immediately after arm amputation and throughout Stages I and II, returning to normal by Stage III. New chromatophores and suction cups in the regenerating arm were observed as early as Stage II and by Stage IV suction cup number equaled that of control arms. New chromatophores were used in the generation of complex body patterns by Stage V. These results show that both species of cuttlefish are capable of fully regenerating lost arms, that the regeneration process is predictable and consistent within and across species, and provide the first quantified data on the rate of arm lengthening and suction cup addition during regeneration. PMID:23982859

Tressler, Jedediah; Maddox, Francis; Goodwin, Eli; Zhang, Zhuobin; Tublitz, Nathan J

2014-03-01

396

Inhibitory mechanism of an extract of Althaea officinalis L. on endothelin-1-induced melanocyte activation.  

PubMed

It is known that expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) increases in the epidermis after UVB irradiation, and that this plays an important role during the induction of pigmentation both as a mitogen and as a melanogen for normal human melanocytes (NHMC). When ET-1 acts on NHMC via the endothelin B receptor (ET(B)R) on their cell surface, mobilization of intracellular calcium is induced, which is followed by activation of Raf-1 located upstream of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). We have continued the search for new agent which inhibit this calcium mobilization and we have found that an extract of Althaea officinalis L. has such an action. In this study, we investigated the precise inhibitory mechanism of this botanical extract on the ET-1-induced activation of melanocytes. Treatment of NHMC with this extract abrogated the stimulatory effect of ET-1 on proliferation and also on activation of MAPK in the intracellular signal transduction pathway, but did not affect the binding of ET-1 to the ET(B)R or the production of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate (IP3). Further, when this extract was used to treat normal human keratinocytes (NHKC), secretion of ET-1 by those cells was reduced. Taken together, these findings indicate that an extract of A. officinalis inhibits both the secretion of ET-1 from NHKC and the action of ET-1 on NHMC mainly by suppressing the ET-1-induced calcium mobilization without the modification of IP3 production, which in turn suggests that this extract is a useful ingredient for a whitening agent. PMID:11853172

Kobayashi, Akemi; Hachiya, Akira; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

2002-02-01

397

Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.  

PubMed

Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

2011-10-01

398

Photoprotective implications of leaf variegation in E. dens-canis L. and P. officinalis L.  

PubMed

Variegated leaves occur rarely in nature, but there are some species, primarily in the forest understory, that possess this characteristic. We recently studied two variegated plants: Erytronium dens-canis L., which is characterised by a pattern of red patches and Pulmonaria officinalis L., with light green spots. These non-green areas could attenuate light reaching mesophyll cells with respect to green sections. The aim of the study was to verify whether such red and light green parts are more photoprotected than green ones and if this trait could be of adaptive value. Red patches in E. dens-canis were due to a single layer of red cells in the upper parenchyma, which accumulated anthocyanins. Light green spots in P. officinalis were caused by the presence of loosely arranged cells instead of a well-established layer of packed cells in the palisade parenchyma. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was performed under light treatment, showing a greater decrease of photochemical efficiency in red and light green patches than in green sections. Differences in the extent of photochemical efficiency among patches were not attributable to different activation of the xanthophyll cycle. These observations failed to confirm our initial hypothesis, but they questioned the physiological reason for this higher sensitivity in red and light green patches of photosynthetic tissues. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was therefore performed in the field. The same pattern of photochemical efficiency was maintained only in E. dens-canis. The current results demonstrate that in both species the benefits of variegation, if any, are different from enhanced photosynthetic performance. PMID:18180073

Esteban, Raquel; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

2008-08-25

399

Cloning of two glutamate dehydrogenase cDNAs from Asparagus officinalis: sequence analysis and evolutionary implications.  

PubMed

Two different amplification products, termed c1 and c2, showing a high similarity to glutamate dehydrogenase sequences from plants, were obtained from Asparagus officinalis using two degenerated primers and RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). The genes corresponding to these cDNA clones were designated aspGDHA and aspGDHB. Screening of a cDNA library resulted in the isolation of cDNA clones for aspGDHB only. Analysis of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence from the full-length cDNA suggests that the gene product contains all regions associated with metabolic function of NAD glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH). A first phylogenetic analysis including only GDHs from plants suggested that the two GDH genes of A. officinalis arose by an ancient duplication event, pre-dating the divergence of monocots and dicots. Codon usage analysis showed a bias towards A/T ending codons. This tendency is likely due to the biased nucleotide composition of the asparagus genome, rather than to the translational selection for specific codons. Using principal coordinate analysis, the evolutionary relatedness of plant GDHs with homologous sequences from a large spectrum of organisms was investigated. The results showed a closer affinity of plant GDHs to GDHs of thermophilic archaebacterial and eubacterial species, when compared to those of unicellular eukaryotic fungi. Sequence analysis at specific amino acid signatures, known to affect the thermal stability of GDH, and assays of enzyme activity at non-physiological temperatures, showed a greater adaptation to heat-stress conditions for the asparagus and tobacco enzymes compared with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme. PMID:10791819

Pavesi, A; Ficarelli, A; Tassi, F; Restivo, F M

2000-04-01

400

The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats  

PubMed Central

Background: In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree. Aim: To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach. Results: Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates. Conclusion: Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective. PMID:25558167

Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B. K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

2014-01-01

401

Proteomic analysis and polyamines, ethylene and reactive oxygen species levels of Araucaria angustifolia (Brazilian pine) embryogenic cultures with different embryogenic potential.  

PubMed

Somatic embryogenesis is an important biotechnological tool in the large-scale propagation of elite genotypes and ex situ conservation of conifer species. Protocols for the induction and proliferation of embryogenic cultures (ECs) of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze) are well established, although the proper formation of mature somatic embryos (SEs) is still problematic. Thus, the identification of molecular markers for the screening of ECs able to respond to maturation conditions (abscisic acid and osmotic agents) is highly desirable. To develop molecular markers for the early detection of ECs able to develop well-formed SEs under maturation conditions, we analyzed the proteins found during the proliferation phase of A. angustifolia cell lines with different embryogenic capabilities, with one cell line being responsive to maturation conditions (R cell line), and one cell line that presented blocked development of SEs (B cell line). In addition, based on the peptides identified, polyamine levels (free and conjugate), ethylene production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) emission were analyzed using both EC lines (R and B cell lines). A marked difference in the biochemistry of ECs between these two cell lines was observed. Eleven proteins that were differentially expressed in the cell lines were identified by the combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Among these, S-adenosylmethionine synthase, the enzyme associated with polyamines and ethylene biosynthesis, was observed exclusively in the R cell line, while a protein linked to the oxidative stress subunit F of NADH dehydrogenase was observed exclusively in the B cell lines. Additionally, B cell lines showed higher levels of diamine putrescine and lower levels of ethylene. Higher values of ethylene and ROS were observed for the cell line that showed normal development of SEs. Altogether, our results open new perspectives in the optimization of culture conditions for A. angustifolia somatic embryogenesis, as well as establishing biochemical markers for the early selection of ECs during maturation trials. PMID:24327423

Jo, Leonardo; Dos Santos, Andre L W; Bueno, Caroline A; Barbosa, Heloisa R; Floh, Eny I S

2014-01-01

402

Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. Results: The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0±28.3) and (225.0±21.2) ?g/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0±2.0) ?g/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0±1.0) ?g/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. Conclusions: The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects. PMID:24599694

Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

2014-01-01

403

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

2012-01-01

404

Flavonoid distribution during the development of leaves, flowers, stems, and roots of Rosmarinus officinalis. postulation of a biosynthetic pathway.  

PubMed

The distribution of seven flavonoids, eriocitrin, luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide, hesperidin, diosmin, isoscutellarein 7-O-glucoside, hispidulin 7-O-glucoside, and genkwanin, has been studied in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves, flowers, stems, and roots during plant growth. The maximum level reached by luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide in leaves during June-August suggests the existence of a delay between the activation of the enzymes involved in the flavanone and flavone biosynthesis. The presence of hesperidin and diosmin in the vascular system is significant, and hesperidin shows even higher levels than the phenolic diterpenes and rosmarinic acid. The distribution of flavonoids observed in R. officinalis suggests a functional and structural relationship between phytoregulators and flavonoids, where flavonoids would be "protectors" of the activity of phytoregulators. A hypothesis for the general pathway of biosynthesis of these compounds in plants of the family Labiatae is proposed. PMID:15291464

del Baño, María José; Lorente, Juan; Castillo, Julián; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Marín, María Piedad; Del Río, José Antonio; Ortuño, Ana; Ibarra, Isidro

2004-08-11

405

Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process. PMID:22315631

Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Lino Júnior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Paula, José Realino; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

2012-01-01

406

Gamma-linolenic acid enrichment from Borago officinalis and Echium fastuosum seed oils and fatty acids by low temperature crystallization.  

PubMed

Solvent winterization of seed oil and free fatty acids (FFAs) was employed to obtain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3omega6) concentrates from seed oils of two Boraginaceae species, Echium fastuosum and Borago officinalis. Different solutions of seed oils and FFAs from these two oils at 10%, 20% and 40% (w/w) were crystallized at 4 degrees C, -24 degrees C and -70 degrees C, respectively, using hexane, acetone, diethyl ether, isobutanol and ethanol as solvents. Best results were obtained for B. officinalis FFAs in hexane, reaching a maximum GLA concentration of 58.8% in the liquid fraction (LF). In E. fastuosum, the highest GLA concentration (39.9%) was also achieved with FFAs in hexane. PMID:16233632

López-Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campra-Madrid, Pablo; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

2004-01-01

407

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

408

Alkamides from Echinacea angustifolia Interact with P-glycoprotein of primary brain capillary endothelial cells isolated from porcine brain blood vessels.  

PubMed

The blood-brain barrier prevents the passage of toxic compounds from blood circulation into brain tissue. Unfortunately, drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, brain tumors, and other diseases also do not cross the blood-brain barrier. In the present investigation, we used isolated porcine brain capillary endothelial cells and a flow cytometric calcein-AM assay to analyze inhibition of P-glycoprotein, a major constituent of the blood-brain barrier. We tested 8 alkamides isolated from Echinacea angustifolia and found that four of them inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated calcein transport in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells. PMID:23322561

Mahringer, Anne; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bauer, Rudolf; Fricker, Gert; Efferth, Thomas

2013-03-01

409

Photosynthetic capacity in relation to nitrogen in the canopy of a Quercus robur, Fraxinus angustifolia and Tilia cordata flood plain forest.  

PubMed

We measured gas exchange and various leaf parameters of ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) in the high canopy and of lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) in the lower canopy of a planted, 120-year-old floodplain forest in southern Moravia, Czech Republic. The high-canopy leaves of F. angustifolia and Q. robur had nitrogen concentrations on a leaf area basis (N(area)) that were twice those of low-canopy leaves of T. cordata. Upper-canopy leaves of F. angustifolia had a photosynthetic rate at light saturation (A(max)) of about 16 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1), whereas A(max) of the upper-canopy foliage of Q. robur achieved only about two thirds of this value. Contrary to previous investigations of photosynthetic performance in monospecific stands, leaves of the uppermost branches of T. cordata at 15-m height had the highest A(max) and transpiration rate among the species studied. Water-use efficiency (WUE) was low in T. cordata at 15-m canopy height, whereas WUE was significantly higher for Q. robur leaves at 27-m height than for the other species. Leaves of T. cordata at 15-m height showed the strongest relationship between A(max) and N(area) (R2 = 0.90) followed by F. angustifolia (R2 = 0.69). The strong correlation between photosynthesis and nitrogen concentration in T. cordata at 15 m, together with the steep regression slope for the A(max):N(area) relationship, indicated that nitrogen allocation to the photosynthetic apparatus resulted in high nitrogen-use efficiency of light-saturated photosynthesis (PNUE). Despite differences in PNUE among species, PNUE was fairly constant for leaves sampled from the same canopy position, suggesting that single-leaf parameters are matched to optimize PNUE for prevailing light conditions. High PNUE in T. cordata at 15 m partially compensated for the species' subordinate position in the canopy, and may be an important mechanism for its coexistence in highly structured vegetation. PMID:11305457

Kazda, M; Salzer, J; Reiter, I

2000-09-01

410

A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of ?-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. PMID:24130010

Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

2013-10-01

411

Identification of the major compounds in extracts of Verbena officinalis L. (Verbenaceae) by HPLC with post-column derivatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A qualitative reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed for the analysis of 50% MeOH extracts ofVerbena officinalis L. (Verbenaceae) leaves. The method enables separation of the main constituents: iridoids, flavonoids and phenolic acid derivatives.\\u000a Simultaneous detection at different wavelengths, measurement of the UV spectrum of each separated compound during elution\\u000a and co-injection of reference substances facilitated easy and rapid identification

M. I. Calvo; A. San Julian; M. Fernández

1997-01-01

412

Somatic embryogenesis and in vitro rosmarinic acid accumulation in Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa leaf callus cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of explant age, plant growth regulators and culture conditions on somatic embryogenesis and rosmarinic acid production\\u000a from leaf explants of Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa plants collected in Greece was investigated. Embryogenic callus with numerous spherical somatic embryos could be induced\\u000a on explants derived from both species and cultured for 3 weeks on a Murashige and Skoog (MS)

S. Kintzios; A. Nikolaou; M. Skoula

1999-01-01

413

The influence of culture density and enriched environments on the first stage culture of young cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of Sepia officinalis hatchlings and juveniles at different densities and enriched environments was investigated. Experiments were conducted to\\u000a determine effects of culture density and the use of a substrate on growth and survival. Experiment I studied the effect of\\u000a three different densities (52, 515 and 1544 hatchlings m?2). Experiment II tested the effects of the enriched environment, using

António V. Sykes; Pedro M. Domingues; Maria Loyd; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

2003-01-01

414

Temperature-dependent oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current and the costs of ventilation in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier work found cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ventilatory muscle tissue to progressively switch to an anaerobic mode of energy production at critical temperatures (T\\u000a c) of 7.0 and 26.8°C. These findings suggested that oxygen availability limits thermal tolerance. The present study was designed to elucidate whether it is the ventilatory apparatus that sets critical temperature thresholds during acute thermal stress. Routine

Frank Melzner; Christian Bock; Hans O. Pörtner

2006-01-01

415

Experimental determination of the sorption isotherms of mint ( Mentha viridis), sage ( Salvia officinalis) and verbena ( Lippia citriodora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mint (Mentha viridis), verbena (Lippia citriodora) and sage (Salvia officinalis) are the most produced and consumed aromatic herbs in Morocco. The sorption isotherms of the three plants were determined within the range of 10–90% relative air humidity at three different temperatures (25°C, 40°C and 50°C), using saturated salt solutions method. Henderson's equation was fitted to the experimental data and the

M Kouhila; A Belghit; M Daguenet; B. C Boutaleb

2001-01-01

416

Verbena officinalis essential oil and its component citral as apoptotic-inducing agent in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

We evaluated the pro-apoptotic activity of Verbena officinalis essential oil and of its main component citral, on lymphocytes collected from normal blood donors and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The number of apoptotic cells was greater in CLL patients than in healthy subjects at all different times of incubation (4, 8 and 24 hours) for samples treated with Verbena officinalis essential oil (A) and citral (B) as well vs controls at different concentrations (0.1% and 0.01%). The greater pro-apoptotic ability was shown by both essential oil of Verbena officinalis and citral at lower concentrations (after 4 h A 0.1%: 17.8% vs 37.1%; A 0.01%: 15.8% vs 52%; B 0.1%: 18.4% vs 46.4%; B 0.01%: 15.8% vs 54.2%; after 8 h A 0.1%: 23% vs 38%; A 0.01%: 22.2% vs 55%; B 0.1%: 32% vs 42.2%; B 0.01%: 22% vs 54.3%; after 24 h A 0.1%: 5% vs 20.7%; A 0.01%: 25.8% vs 47.2%; B 0.1%: 18.4% vs 46.4%; B 0.01%: 15.8% vs 54.2%). Patients carrying deletion 17p13 (p53 mutation) showed a reduced ability to undergo apoptosis with respect to patients with other genomic aberrations or normal karyotype. The proapoptotic activity of Verbena officinalis essential oil and citral is thought to be due to a direct procaspase 3 activation. These data further support evidence that indicate natural compounds as a possible lead structure to develop new therapeutic agents. PMID:20074474

De Martino, L; D'Arena, G; Minervini, M M; Deaglio, S; Fusco, B M; Cascavilla, N; De Feo, V

2009-01-01

417

?-Linolenic acid enrichment from Borago officinalis and Echium fastuosum seed oils and fatty acids by low temperature crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent winterization of seed oil and free fatty acids (FFAs) was employed to obtain ?-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3?6) concentrates from seed oils of two Boraginaceae species, Echium fastuosum and Borago officinalis. Different solutions of seed oils and FFAs from these two oils at 10%, 20% and 40% (w\\/w) were crystallized at 4°C, ?24°C and ?70°C, respectively, using hexane, acetone, diethyl

Juan Carlos López-Martínez; Pablo Campra-Madrid; José Luis Guil-Guerrero

2004-01-01

418

Plant growth, essential oil yield and composition of sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) fruits cultivated under salt stress conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different NaCl concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100mM) on plant growth, essential oil production and composition of Salvia officinalis fruits. The first results showed that increasing NaCl levels to 100mM reduced significantly the plant growth by 65%. While, the essential oil yield increased significantly from control to 75mM and decreased

Mouna Ben Taarit; Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Mohamed Hammami; Mohamed Elyes Kchouk; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

419

Characterization of an Alien Chromosome of Oryza officinalis Transferred the Genomic and Cytological Environment of Oryza sativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distant hybridization between rice species and their genome interactions have become the hot points of genetic research. The\\u000a new formed hybrid was unstable and many of the alien chromosomes would be excluded out in the meiosis procedure. In this study,\\u000a we investigated the phenomenon that the monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Oryza officinalis (CC)–Oryza sativa (AA) inherited in the

Gang Li; Ming Tang; Wei Hu; Guangcun He; Hong Liu; Xuequn Liu; Rui Qin

2010-01-01

420

In vitro propagation of the Garden Heliotrope, Valeriana officinalis L.: influence of pre-chilling and light on seed germination.  

PubMed

Valeriana officinalis is an important medicinal herb commonly found in Kashmir valley. This study forms an important preliminary step for in-vitro micro propagation of V. officinalis from breaking the seed dormancy, inducing rapid seed germination and its subsequent micro propagation. We investigated the influence of pretreatment of V. officinalis seeds with reduced temperature and light on seed germination and in-vitro propagation. Culture of explants from cultivated seeds have demonstrated its potential for in vitro propagation and plantlet regeneration. Individual as well as combinations of treatments such as temperature and light availability influenced the germination of seeds variedly. Unchilled seeds of V. officinalis were given dip in GA3 (200 ppm) for 24, 48 and 120 h. Seeds treated with GA3 for 24 h and kept in darkness showed the best results, i.e. 48%. Seeds pretreated with GA3 for 120 h and incubated in dark showed 40% germination. Pre-chilling up to 72 h and kept in light showed maximum germination of 60% followed by 40% kept in darkness. Pre-chilling for 48 h resulted in 40 and 25% seed germination in light and darkness, respectively. GA3 pre-treatment for 72 h and 24 h pre chilling were most effective in inducing seed germination. Maximum shoot response was obtained on MS enriched with BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L) combinations using shoot tips as explants. Multiple shoot regeneration from shoot apices was recorded on BAP (1 mg/L) and BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L). PMID:25872250

Bhat, B; Sharma, V D

2015-03-01

421

Volvalerelactones A and B, two new sesquiterpenoid lactones with an unprecedented skeleton from Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.  

PubMed

Volvalerelactones A and B (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoid lactones with an unprecedented 3/7/6 tricyclic ring system, were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography, and the absolute configuration was assigned by computational methods. The possible biosynthetic pathways of 1 and 2 were also proposed. PMID:21591723

Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Chen, Rui; Ma, Qing-Yun; Dai, Hao-Fu; Liu, Yu-Qing; Xie, Ming-Jin; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

2011-06-17

422

Increasing sennoside yields in tinnevelly senna (Cassia angustifolia) I: effects of drought, foliar nitrogen spray and crop type.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the promise of Tinnevelly senna, Cassia angustifolia Vahl, as an alternative crop for stressful agroecosystems. Effects of drought, foliar nitrogen application and crop type on sennoside yields were studied with simultaneous measurements of net photosynthesis. Short term drought increased sennoside A + B concentration (% dw). After drought-induced morphological changes had occurred, long term drought did not influence sennoside A + B concentration but severe loss of leaf biomass caused 78% reduction of the sennoside yield per plant. Foliar nitrogen application increased the total sennoside A + B content per plant by 140% when the plants were not water stressed, but in severely droughted plants, no effect of foliar nitrogen application was detected. Although foliar nitrogen application increased sennoside A + B per plant, the sennoside concentration (% dw) decreased. The latter effect was still persistent three months after the nitrogen treatments were discontinued. In a comparison among three crop types of Tinnevelly senna, ratoon plants had the highest sennoside A + B concentration in leaves followed by seedlings and cuttings. However, seedlings produced the highest sennoside A + B yield per plant due to the higher leaf biomass. Except in long term drought, sennoside levels were higher in leaves with lower net photosynthesis, and were increased by treatments that induced physiological stress. Lower net photosynthesis occurred in short term and long term drought, and with deprivation of foliar nitrogen supplement. In contrast, sennoside yields per plant are readily increased by treatments that increase the total leaf biomass. Short term drought, nitrogen stress and ratooning are promising component technologies for field and on-farm investigations with the goal of increasing sennoside yields. PMID:17253262

Ratnayaka, H; Meurer-Grimes, B; Kincaid, D

1998-06-01

423

An HPLC-DAD Method for Simultaneous Quantitative Determination of Four Active Hydrophilic Compounds in Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex.  

PubMed

Magnoliae officinalis cortex (MOC), derived from Magnolia officinalis and its variation M. officinalis var. biloba, is an important traditional Chinese medicine. In our previous work, 11 hydrophilic ingredients of MOC were isolated and structurally elucidated and four, namely syringin (SG), magnoloside A (MA), magnoloside B (MB) and magnoflorine (MF), showed bioactive effects. Herein, we describe an HPLC-DAD method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of MA, MB, MF and SG in MOC for the first time. The chromatographic separation of samples was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) by gradient elution with water-acetic acid (pH 3.0) and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The wavelengths were set at 265 nm for MF and SG, and 328 nm for MA and MB. The average recovery of the four compounds was from 97.63 to 103.84%. Nearly 100 MOC samples harvested from eight habitats were analyzed in which the contents of the tested compound varied in the range of 0.016-0.350% (MF), 0.010-0.337% (SG), 0.017-3.009% (MB) and 0.077-2.529% (MA). The analysis also indicated that MOC contains a significant amount of phenylethanoid glycosides. This was an unexpected finding because previously lignan was considered to be the main component of MOC. PMID:25085894

Yan, Renyi; Yu, Shengxian; Liu, Hongliang; Xue, Zhenzhen; Yang, Bin

2015-04-01

424

Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a dose of 2 g/kg every day for 28, 14 days after experimental animals done hyperlipidemia. The degenerative changes were observed in hyperlipidemic rats, light and electron microscopically. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum cholesterol, total lipid, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a significant decrease in the levels of liver tissue glutathione (GSH), a significant increase in the levels of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) in this group. On the other hand, the administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract reduced total cholesterol, total lipid, ALT, AST and ALP levels in serum, and LPO levels in liver tissue, moreover increased glutathione levels in the tissue. As a result, it was suggested that Melissa officinalis L. extract exerted an hypolipidemic effect and showed a protective effect on the liver of hyperlipidemic rats. PMID:15946812

Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Karabulut-Bulan, Omur; Yesilyaprak, B

2005-07-14

425

Assessment of Eyebright (Euphrasia Officinalis L.) Extract Activity in Relation to Human Corneal Cells Using In Vitro Tests  

PubMed Central

Background: Euphrasia officinalis L. is an herb traditionally used in folk medicine, mainly in the treatment of eye disorders. Aims: The present study analyzed the activity of three extracts of E. officinalis L. (ethanol, ethyl acetate and heptane) on cultured human corneal epithelial cells (10.014 pRSV-T). Study Design: In vitro study. Methods: Toxicity, free radical scavenging activity and the immunomodulatory effects of the extracts were tested using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) or Neutral Red, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ELISA tests, respectively. Moreover, nitric oxide levels and cytoskeleton architecture were analyzed after corneal cell incubation with the plant extracts. Results: We show that the biological effect depended on both the concentration and the extraction solvent used. Heptane extracts, distinct from those in ethanol and ethyl acetate, were toxic to 10.014 pRSV-T cells at low concentrations (25 ?g/mL) and did not demonstrate free radical scavenging effects. All tested extracts decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?) and also anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression by human corneal cells when the extracts were added to the cell culture medium for 24 h. Conclusion: In conclusion, we show that the promising effects of the application of E. officinalis L. preparations as a supplementary therapy for eye disorders are associated with the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, not the heptane extract. PMID:25207164

Paduch, Roman; Wo?niak, Anna; Niedziela, Piotr; Rejdak, Robert

2014-01-01

426

Simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds in Verbena officinalis L. by using high-performance liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

Background: Verbena officinalis L., called mabiancao in Chinese, is derived from the aerial part of Herba Verbanae. It is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in China and northern Europe, which is widely used for clearing away heat and detoxicating, promoting blood circulation, and removing blood stasis. This paper describes a sensitive and specific assay for the determination of four bioactive compounds in V. officinalis L. Materials and Methods: In this paper, the four components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 ?m) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.1%, v/v) and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30°C with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 203, 238, and 331 nm. Results: All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ? 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and interday variations were less than 1.84%, and the average recoveries were 97.32–102.81% for analytes. Discussion and Conclusion: The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for comprehensive quality control for clinical use and modernization of V. officinalis L. PMID:22701291

Liu, Zhen; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Hanyu; Cao, Gang; Cong, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Yun; Cai, Bao-Chang

2012-01-01

427

Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), ?-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and ?-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC?? values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied. PMID:23240623

Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

2013-01-01

428

METODICA PER LO STUDIO DI ASPETTI BIORITMICI IN PIANTE DI INTERESSE OFFICINALE IN ITALIA NORD ORIENTALE  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIASSUNTO I1 presente lavoro si propone di fornire un contributo per un approc- cio metodologico a studi fito-fenologici. La ricerca ha preso in considera- zione il metodo di valutazione dei ritmi di crescita e di fioritura in nove specie di interesse officinale (Artemisia dracunculs, Althaea officinalis, Malva sylvestris, Melissa officinalis, Lavandula spica, Origanum majo- rana, Salvia sclarea, Thymus vulgaris, Tussilago

GIOVANNI CANIGLIA; ANDREA CAPPAI

429

Allelopathic effect of some essential oils and components on germination of weed species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, allelopathic effects of some essential oil plants (Carum carvi L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Lavandula stoechas L., Mentha spicata L.,Origanum onites L., Pimpinella anisum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Thymbra spicata L.) were investigated against some common weed species (Alcea pallida Waldst. & Kit., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Centaurea salsotitialis L., Raphanus raphanistrum

Sebile Azirak; Sengul Karaman

2008-01-01

430

Effect of bioclimatic area on the composition and bioactivity of Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of eight Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis L. populations (A-H) from different bioclimatic areas has been examined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The essential oils are characterised by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (58.2-71.7%) followed by monoterpene hydrocabons (15.1-26.7%). 1,8-Cineole, camphor, ?-pinene and borneol are the main representative components. The antioxidant activity was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), ferric reducing ability power assay and ?-carotene bleaching test. Samples showed antiradical activity by inhibiting DPPH radical with IC50 values ranging from 375.3 to 592.8 ?g mL(- 1) for samples F and A, respectively. Sample A also showed the most promising activity in ?-carotene bleaching test (IC50 of 31.9 ?g mL(- 1)). The essential oils were also screened for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity. Sample G showed the highest activity against AChE (IC50 of 64.7 ?g mL(- 1)) while sample D (IC50 of 29.5 ?g mL(- 1)) exhibited the most potent activity against BChE. PMID:25104041

Ben Jemia, Mariem; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes; Loizzo, Monica Rosa

2015-02-01

431

Lack of Nephroprotective Efficacy of Althaea Officinalis Flower Extract Against Gentamicin Renal Toxicity in Male Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Gentamicin (GM) is used as antibiotic for Gram-negative infections, but its administration is limited due to a side-effect of nephrotoxicity. It was attempted to investigate the effect of Althaea officinalis flower extract (AOFE) against nephrotoxicity induced by GM in male rats. Methods: 30-year-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group 1 as a negative control group received AOFE 250 mg/kg/day. Groups 2-5 received saline, AOFE 50 mg/kg/day, AOFE 250 mg/kg/day, and AOFE 500 mg/kg/day for 9 days, respectively, and GM (100 mg/kg/day) was added from the 3rd day on. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were obtained, animals were sacrificed, and the kidneys were removed immediately. Results: Gentamicin (in group 2) significantly increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine as well as the pathological damage score (P < 0.05) when compared with group 1. Low dose of AOFE did not decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by GM while the high dose of AOFE aggravated renal toxicity (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Although AOFE acts as an antioxidant, at the doses used in the current study did not ameliorate nephrotoxicity induced by GM. PMID:25538830

Talebi, Ardeshir; Karimi, Amirhossein; Ouguerram, Khadija; Vahidi-Ataabadi, Nasrin; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Mansouri, Azam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

2014-01-01

432

The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: a review.  

PubMed

Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb which is cultivated for medicinal and culinary uses, although it is commercially cultivated for borage seed oil. Borage seed oil is the plant rich in the gamma-linolenic acid (26%-38%) which is used as dietary or food supplement. Other than seed oil it contains a lot of fatty acids such as linoleic acid (35%-38%), oleic acid (16%-20%), palmitic acid (10%-11%), stearic acid (3.5%-4.5%), eicosenoic acid (3.5%-5.5%) and erucic acid (1.5%-3.5%). It is used for the treatment of various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema. In this study different aspects of borage such as plant characteristics, production, applications in traditional medicine, clinical considerations, its effects on patients' blood and urine biochemistry, and also the effect of the its products on liver and kidney performance tests are presented using published articles in scientific sites. PMID:25312125

Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

2014-09-01

433

Biochemical evaluation of borage (Borago officinalis) rosette leaves through their essential oil and fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

Borago officinalis rosette leaves were sampled in the region of Amdoun (Tunisia) during different stages of their development. Essential oil contents varied from 0.01% to 0.13% respectively in young and adult leaves. Twenty three volatile compounds were identified. Hydrocarbons, mainly represented by nonadecane (29.8%), tetracosane (11.3%) and heptacosane (4.7%), constituted the major class in the young leaves (45.8%), followed by aldehydes (22.4%). The percentages of these two classes decreased to reach respectively 15% and 8.1% in adult leaves in favour of alcohols (57.9%) where cis-3-hexenol (29.6%) and hexanol (14.5%) were the main compounds. Total fatty acids amounts increased from 5.03 mg/g DW in young leaves to 32.23 mg/g DW in adult ones. The predominant fatty acids were alpha-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), stearidonic (C18:4 n-3), gamma-linolenic (C18:3 n-6), palmitic (C16: 0) and linoleic (C18:2 n-6) acids. PMID:17722661

Mhamdi, Baya; Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Marzouk, Brahim

2007-06-01

434

Phytostabilization of amended soils polluted with trace elements using the Mediterranean shrub: Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

We evaluate the mid-term effects of two amendments and the establishment of R. officinalis on chemical and biochemical properties in a trace element contaminated soil by a mine spill and the possible use of this plant for stabilization purposes. The experiment was carried out using containers filled with trace element polluted soil, where four treatments were established: organic treatment (biosolid compost, OAR), inorganic treatment (sugar beet lime, IAR), control with plant (NAR) and control without plant (NA). Amendment addition and plant establishment contributed to restore soil chemical (pH, total organic carbon, and water soluble carbon) and biochemical properties (microbial biomass carbon and the enzymatic activities: aryl-sulphatase and protease). The presence of rosemary did not affect soluble (0.01 M CaCl2) Cd and Zn and decreased trace element EDTA extractability in amended soils. There were no negative effects found on plant growth and nutrient content on polluted soils (NAR, OAR, and IAR). Trace element contents were within normal levels in plants. Therefore, rosemary might be a reliable option for successful phytostablization of moderate trace element contaminated soils. PMID:19810354

Madejón, P; Burgos, P; Cabrera, F; Madejón, E

2009-08-01

435

Effect of different format-solvent rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen chicken nuggets quality.  

PubMed

Three kinds of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (powder-acetone, liquid-methanol, liquid-acetone) were used to examine the effects of format-solvent on the active compounds extracted (total phenolic, carnosol and carnosic acid content) and antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS). The results showed that both, as the format but also the solvent used, had significant effect on the parameters analyzed (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activity was found for the powder-acetone extract followed by the liquid methanol and liquid acetone extracts (p < 0.05). The effect of the three different extracts on the physical-chemical and sensory quality of frozen chicken nuggets was evaluated. At the dose proposed by the European Union Directive 2010/69/EU for the carnosic and carnosol compounds [150 ppm (mg/kg fat basic)], the format-solvent combination of the rosemary extracts used did not modify the chicken nuggets quality characteristics (pH, colour, sensory quality) and still underlines the effectiveness of these extracts. PMID:25442521

Rocío Teruel, M; Garrido, M Dolores; Espinosa, Miriam C; Linares, M Belén

2015-04-01

436

Metabolism of Monoterpenes in Cell Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1  

PubMed Central

Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from [U-14C]sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+)-camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+)-camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism. PMID:16667656

Falk, Kimberly L.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Croteau, Rodney

1990-01-01

437

Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5?~?8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P?

Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

2014-06-01

438

Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcripts differed by a single amino acid. The diverse camouflage and signalling body patterns of cephalopods are visually controlled, and these findings suggest a possible additional mechanism of light sensing and subsequent skin patterning. Cuttlefish, along with a number of other cephalopod species, have been shown to be colour-blind. Since the opsin in the fin is identical to that of the retina (?max = 492 nm), and the ventral transcripts are also unlikely to be spectrally different, colour discrimination by the skin opsins is unlikely. However, spectral discrimination could be provided by involving other skin structures (chromatophores and iridophores), which produce changeable colours and patterns. This ‘distributed sensing’ could supplement the otherwise visually driven dynamic camouflage system by assisting with colour or brightness matching to adjacent substrates. PMID:20392722

Mäthger, Lydia M.; Roberts, Steven B.; Hanlon, Roger T.

2010-01-01

439

An arabino(glucurono)xylan isolated from immunomodulatory active hemicellulose fraction of Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

From the aerial parts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) an arabino-(4-O-methyl-glucurono)-xylan (AGX) was isolated by alkaline extraction followed by precipitation with barium hydroxide solution. Polymer was isolated from sage as a light brown polysaccharide material of molecular mass (Mp) 84,000. Compositional analyses of sage AGX revealed xylose (81%), arabinose (10%), glucuronic acid (8%) and small amounts of hexoses (1%). Linkage sugar analyses showed the (1?4)-linked xylopyranosyl backbone with low degree of substitution (9-10%) at O-2 and O-3. Arabinofuranose residues were found as the terminal, 1,3-, 1,5- and 1,3,5-linked. NMR structural analyses of acidic oligomers, generated by partial acidic hydrolysis of AGX, confirmed a substitution of xylose residues by glucuronic acid and its 4-O-methyl derivate at O-2 at an average on every fourteenth xylose residue. NMR and FT-IR measurements, as well as a high negative optical rotation confirmed the ? configuration of glycosidic linkages in AGX backbone. PMID:23664938

Capek, P; Matulová, M

2013-08-01

440

Production of oleanolic acid glycosides by hairy root established cultures of Calendula officinalis L.  

PubMed

In order to initiate hairy root culture initiation cotyledons and hypocotyls of Calendula officinalis L. were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 or the same strain containing pCAMBIA 1381Z vector with ?-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of promoter of NIK (Nematode Induced Kinase) gene. The efficiency of induction of hairy roots reached 33.8% for cotyledons and 66.6% for hypocotyls together for both transformation experiments. Finally, eight control and nine modified lines were established as a long-term culture. The hairy root cultures showed the ability to synthesize oleanolic acid mainly (97%) as glycosides; control lines contained it at the average 8.42 mg ? g(-1) dry weight in tissue and 0.23 mg ? dm(-3) in medium; modified lines: 4.59 mg ? g(-1) for the tissue, and 0.48 mg ? dm(-3) for the medium. Additionally lines showed high positive correlation between dry/fresh weight and oleanolic acid concentration in tissue. Using the Killiani mixture in acidic hydrolysis of oleanolic acid glycosides released free aglycones that were partially acetylated in such conditions. PMID:24040627

D?ugosz, Marek; Wiktorowska, Ewa; Wi?niewska, Anita; P?czkowski, Cezary

2013-01-01

441

Functional identification of a delta8-sphingolipid desaturase from Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

The similarities between delta12- and delta5-fatty acyl desaturase sequences were used to construct degenerate primers for PCR experiments with cDNA transcribed from mRNA of developing borage seeds. Screening of a borage seed cDNA library with an amplified DNA fragment resulted in the isolation of a full-length cDNA corresponding to a deduced open-reading frame of 446 amino acids. The protein showed high similarity to plant delta8-sphingolipid desaturases as well as to the delta6-fatty acyl desaturase from Borago officinalis. The sequence is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain. Expression of this open-reading frame in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the formation of delta8-trans/cis-phytosphingenines not present in wild-type cells, as shown by HPLC analysis of sphingoid bases as their dinitrophenyl derivatives. GLC-MS analysis of the methylated di-O-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives confirmed the presence of delta8-stereoisomers of C18- and C20-phytosphingenine. Furthermore, Northern blotting showed that the gene encoding a stereo-unselective delta8-sphingolipid desaturase is primarily expressed in young borage leaves. PMID:11368168

Sperling, P; Libisch, B; Zähringer, U; Napier, J A; Heinz, E

2001-04-15

442

Biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in developing seeds of borage (Borago officinalis L.).  

PubMed

delta 6-desaturation of [14C]linoleoyl-CoA or [14C]oleoyl-CoA leading to the synthesis of gamma-linolenic acid was studied in vitro with microsomal fractions from developing seeds of Borago officinalis. Time course of the reaction, effects of protein and precursor concentrations and nucleotide requirements were examined. These parameters allowed us to improve the in vitro delta 6-desaturation assay. We observed that the precursors were acylated mainly in phosphatidylcholine, diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol, and then desaturated. NADH was absolutely required when [14C]oleoyl-CoA was the precursor, but not when [14C]linoleoyl-CoA was the precursor although it stimulated the reaction. The in vitro delta 6-desaturase activity was found mainly in phosphatidylcholine, associated with enriched endoplasmic reticulum membranes (ER) from embryos. No activity was observed in ER from seed coat or seedling. During maturation of the seeds, delta 6-desaturase reached its highest activity 14 to 16 days after pollination. PMID:8394742

Galle, A M; Joseph, M; Demandre, C; Guerche, P; Dubacq, J P; Oursel, A; Mazliak, P; Pelletier, G; Kader, J C

1993-08-20

443

Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of quercetagetin from Calendula officinalis extract.  

PubMed

A new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for quercetagetin was prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as the supporter. Acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and acetonitrile as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied to characterize the MMIPs, and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to analyze the target analytes. The selectivity of quercetagetin MMIPs was evaluated according to their recognition to template and its analogues. Excellent binding for quercetagetin was observed in MMIPs adsorption experiment, and the adsorption isotherm models analysis showed that the homogeneous binding sites were distributed on the surface of the MMIPs. The MMIPs were employed as adsorbents in solid phase extraction for the determination of quercetagetin in Calendula officinalis extracts. Furthermore, this method is fast, simple and could fulfill the determination and extraction of quercetagetin from herbal extract. PMID:25618718

Ma, Run-Tian; Shi, Yan-Ping

2015-03-01

444

Nitric oxide mediates the glutamate-dependent pathway for neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis chromatophore organs.  

PubMed

Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2)-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia. PMID:20516065

Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

2010-07-30

445

Evidence of early nervous differentiation and early catecholaminergic sensory system during Sepia officinalis embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Within Mollusca, cephalopods exhibit a particularly complex nervous system. The adult brain is formed from the fusion of several "typical" molluscan ganglia but it remains poorly understood how these ganglia emerge, migrate, and differentiate during embryogenesis. We studied the development of both central and peripheral nervous system by antibodies raised against alpha-tubulin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in Sepia officinalis embryos to visualize neurites and catecholamine-containing neurons, respectively. In early embryos, when organs start delineating, some ganglia already exhibited a significant fiber network. TH-like immunoreactivity was detected in these fibers and in some primary sensory neurons in the embryo periphery. These data attest to the occurrence of an early embryonic sensory nervous system, likely effective, transient in part, and in relation to the perception of external cues. Concerning the peripheral nervous network, the stellate ganglia emerged as a plexus of numerous converging axons from TH-like immunoreactive sensory cells, first at the mantle edge, and then in the whole mantle surface. Later, TH-immunopositive motor fibers, originating from the stellate ganglia, penetrated the circular muscles of the mantle. These patterns reveal the setup of a mantle midline with likely attractive and repulsive properties. Our findings seem to challenge the widespread, still accepted, view of a late differentiation of cephalopod ganglia, and provides significant data for further investigations about axonal guidance during cephalopod development. PMID:19795495

Baratte, S; Bonnaud, L

2009-12-01

446

Nitric Oxide Mediates the Glutamate-dependent Pathway for Neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis Chromatophore Organs  

PubMed Central

Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia. PMID:20516065

Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R.; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

2010-01-01

447

First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to provide a first insight on the incorporation of eight metals in the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis via maternal transfer, using radiotracer techniques ((110m)Ag, (241)Am, (109)Cd, (60)Co, (134)Cs, (54)Mn, (75)Se and (65)Zn). The cuttlefish was fed daily with radiolabelled crabs for two weeks; it then started to spawn every three days. Among the eight tracers, only (110m)Ag, (75)Se and (65)Zn were significantly transferred to the eggs. The radiotracer distribution among the egg compartments showed that (75)Se and (65)Zn were accumulated mainly in the vitellus whereas (110m)Ag was found in similar proportion in the vitellus and the eggshell. During the embryonic development, (75)Se and (65)Zn contained in the vitellus were progressively transferred to the embryo, likely to supply its metabolic needs in these essential elements. Although it has no known biological functions, Ag contained in both vitellus and eggshell was also transferred to the embryo. Overall, our results showed that transfer of Ag, Se, and Zn does actually occur from a female cuttlefish to its eggs, at least during the last two weeks before spawning. PMID:18342895

Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Warnau, Michel; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Jeffree, Ross; Bustamante, Paco

2008-01-01

448

Extraction of polysaccharides from Fomes officinalis Ames and their antitumor activity  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction parameters of Fomes officinalis Ames polysaccharides (FOAPs) and evaluate their antitumor activity. FOAPs were extracted using the hot water extraction, acid extraction and alkali extraction methods, respectively. Alcohol precipitation and acetone washes were conducted to separate and purify the FOAPs. The FOAP content was determined using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The effects of raw material particle size, extraction time and material-liquid ratio on the yield of FOAPs were investigated, and the effects of FOAPs on the immune function of S180 tumor-bearing mice and their antitumor activity were evaluated. The yield of FOAPs obtained with the hot water extraction method was higher compared with the yields of the other methods. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: a raw material particle size of 24 mesh; an extraction time of 2.5 h; and a material-liquid ratio of 1 g:12 ml. Under these conditions, the yield of FOAPs was 1.13%. FOAPs significantly inhibited tumor growth and enhanced the immune function in S180 tumor-bearing mice. FOAPs extracted using the hot water extraction method have antitumor activity. PMID:24137206

HU, MINGDONG; ZHANG, HUIFENG; FENG, BO; LIU, KE; GUO, SHUYING

2013-01-01

449

Sucrose incubation increases freezing tolerance of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) embryogenic cell suspensions.  

PubMed

The freezing tolerance of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) embryogenic cells, as determined by electrolyte leakage, was increased by the incubation of samples in medium containing 0.8 M sucrose. To elucidate the mechanism involved, we investigated the changes in soluble carbohydrates, cell ultrastructure and proteins accompanying the increase in freezing tolerance following incubation in sugar-rich medium. During sugar incubation, the intracellular sucrose content increased from 67 mol g-1FW to 429 mol g-1FW; it was also metabolized into fructose and glucose, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microscopy revealed that sugar incubation induced plasmolysis of embryogenic cells and drastic changes in cell ultrastructure with the appearance of rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Furthermore, immunoblotting analysis with anti-dehydrin antiserum revealed that a dehydrin-like protein appeared only when maximal freezing tolerance was induced by sugar incubation. These results suggest that freezing tolerance of asparagus embryogenic cells is increased by a complex mechanism involving notably changes in cell ultrastructure and accumulation of certain sugars and proteins during sugar incubation. PMID:12050778

Jitsuyama, Y; Suzuki, T; Harada, T; Fujikawa, S

2002-01-01

450

Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).  

PubMed

The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, ? carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian. PMID:24803690

Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

2014-05-01

451

Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in the health risks related to the use of herbal remedies. Although most consumers think that phytomedicines are safe and without side effects, interactions between complementary alternative and conventional medicines are being described. The aim of this clinical case report is to highlight the importance of the safe use of herbal remedies by providing a clinical interaction study between pharmaceutical medicines and herbal medicinal products. The case of a patient self-medicated with Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. while he was on lorazepam treatment is described. Handshaking, dizziness, throbbing and muscular fatigue were reported within the 32 h before clinical diagnosis. The analysis of family medical history ruled out essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease and other symptom-related pathologies. His medical history revealed a generalized anxiety disorder and medicinal plant consumption but no neurological disorder. Appropriate physical examination was carried out. An additive or synergistic effect is suspected to have produced these symptoms. The active principles of Valerian and passionflower might increase the inhibitory activity of benzodiazepines binding to the GABA receptors, causing severe secondary effects. Due to the increase in herbal product self-medication, the use of herbal remedies should be registered while taking the personal clinical history. Multidisciplinary teams should be created to raise studies on medicinal plants with impact on medical praxis. PMID:19441067

Carrasco, María Consuelo; Vallejo, José Ramón; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Peral, Diego; Martín, Miguel Angel; Altimiras, Jacinto

2009-12-01