Science.gov

Sample records for offshore oil spills

  1. Offshore oil spill response practices and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Cai, Qinhong; Lin, Weiyun; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu

    2016-09-15

    Offshore oil spills are of tremendous concern due to their potential impact on economic and ecological systems. A number of major oil spills triggered worldwide consciousness of oil spill preparedness and response. Challenges remain in diverse aspects such as oil spill monitoring, analysis, assessment, contingency planning, response, cleanup, and decision support. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current situations and impacts of offshore oil spills, as well as the policies and technologies in offshore oil spill response and countermeasures. Correspondingly, new strategies and a decision support framework are recommended for improving the capacities and effectiveness of oil spill response and countermeasures. In addition, the emerging challenges in cold and harsh environments are reviewed with recommendations due to increasing risk of oil spills in the northern regions from the expansion of the Arctic Passage. PMID:27393213

  2. Development of an oil spill forecast system for offshore China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zexun; An, Wei

    2015-12-01

    An oil spill forecast system for offshore China was developed based on Visual C++. The oil spill forecast system includes an ocean environmental forecast model and an oil spill model. The ocean environmental forecast model was designed to include timesaving methods, and comprised a parametrical wind wave forecast model and a sea surface current forecast model. The oil spill model was based on the "particle method" and fulfills the prediction of oil particle behavior by considering the drifting, evaporation and emulsification processes. A specific database was embedded into the oil spill forecast system, which contained fundamental information, such as the properties of oil, reserve of emergency equipment and distribution of marine petroleum platform. The oil spill forecast system was successfully applied as part of an oil spill emergency exercise, and provides an operational service in the Research and Development Center for Offshore Oil Safety and Environmental Technology.

  3. Development of an oil spill forecast system for offshore China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zexun; An, Wei

    2016-07-01

    An oil spill forecast system for offshore China was developed based on Visual C++. The oil spill forecast system includes an ocean environmental forecast model and an oil spill model. The ocean environmental forecast model was designed to include timesaving methods, and comprised a parametrical wind wave forecast model and a sea surface current forecast model. The oil spill model was based on the "particle method" and fulfills the prediction of oil particle behavior by considering the drifting, evaporation and emulsification processes. A specific database was embedded into the oil spill forecast system, which contained fundamental information, such as the properties of oil, reserve of emergency equipment and distribution of marine petroleum platform. The oil spill forecast system was successfully applied as part of an oil spill emergency exercise, and provides an operational service in the Research and Development Center for Offshore Oil Safety and Environmental Technology.

  4. 75 FR 21648 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial... Part 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities.'' DATES: Submit written comments... collection of information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 253, Oil Spill...

  5. 75 FR 60097 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... oil spill and to develop options to guard against, and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills... mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. Tentative Agenda... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department...

  6. 75 FR 69652 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... oil spill and to develop options to guard against, and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills... mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. Tentative Agenda... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department...

  7. 75 FR 37783 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... spill and develop options to guard against, and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling...

  8. 78 FR 25472 - Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore... requirements for 30 CFR 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. DATES: Submit written... CFR Part 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. Forms: BOEM-1016, 1017,...

  9. 75 FR 65309 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ..., and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. The... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling...

  10. 75 FR 47584 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ..., and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. The... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting for the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling...

  11. 78 FR 66763 - Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities; Submitted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... applicants can pay for cleanup and damages resulting from oil spills and other hydrocarbon discharges that... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore... requirements for 30 CFR 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities, as well as the...

  12. 75 FR 29397 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... options for guarding against, and mitigating the impact of, oil spills associated with offshore drilling... established the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... with their ongoing activities in response to the oil spill, shall provide the Commission...

  13. 75 FR 39518 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ..., 2010, of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, (75 FR... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling; Correction AGENCY: Office...: Christopher A. Smith, (202) 586-0716. Corrections In the Federal Register of June 30, 2010, in FR Doc....

  14. Development and application of oil-spill risk assessment model for offshore pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan; Wang, Jia; Wei, Wenpu; Yang, Yong; An, Wei

    2014-06-01

    To the potential oil-spill risk caused by offshore pipeline more attention has been paid after the Dalian oil spill incident from oil-pipeline explosion. Since then an issue about how to prevent and control the sudden oil-spill from the offshore pipeline has been raised. In this paper, we proposed an optimized model to analyze the main causes (probability) of spill and the consequence with the fuzzy comprehensive assessment model. Considering the complicated assessment process for oil-spill, the assessment factor system involving the spill probability and consequence was established based on the operative manual and statistic leakage/damage data of offshore pipeline in order to estimate the integrated spill risk score automatically. The evaluated factors of spill probability could be grouped into five aspects: corrosion, fatigue, national damage, third party, and operational fault; the consequence evaluated factors of spill included hazard of oil and impact-controlling capability. With some modifications based on experts' opinions, each of the evaluated factors in our work was developed with a relative weight and evaluation criterion. A test example for an offshore pipeline in the Bohai waters was described to show how the model can be used for an actual case in more detail. By using the oil-spill risk assessment model, it is easy to determine the risk level associated with the ongoing activity and management level and hence to take the risk mitigation action immediately.

  15. An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Gail S; Racine, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, particularly in cold-water regions. We investigated the response of small spills (<7.95m(3)) at offshore production platforms in Newfoundland, a region recognized for seabird diversity and abundance. In three environmental assessments for oil production operations Environment Canada requested monitoring and mitigation of small spills potentially impacting seabird populations; suggestions supported by two independent reviews. An industry spill response plan states that operators would collect systematic observations on spills and deploy countermeasures where possible. Operators' spill reports were obtained under an Access to Information request. There were 220 daytime spills with sheens (out of 381 spills; 1997-2010). Of these, six reported time to oil dispersion and eleven the presence or absence of seabirds. Industry self-reporting has not permitted an evaluation of the impact of chronic oil spills on seabirds. We recommend that independent observers be placed on platforms to systematically collect data on spills and seabirds. PMID:27131965

  16. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  17. 46 CFR 126.225 - Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... oil spill response vessel certification. 126.225 Section 126.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 126.225 Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel... also be certificated as an oil spill response vessel....

  18. 46 CFR 126.225 - Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... oil spill response vessel certification. 126.225 Section 126.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 126.225 Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel... also be certificated as an oil spill response vessel....

  19. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills ...

  20. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  1. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to provide scientific support to the U.S. Coast Guard officers in charge of response operations. In addition ... NOAA Responds to Oil Spills While the U.S. Coast Guard oversees all responses to oil spills and chemical ...

  2. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills can also affect human health. These effects can depend on what kind of oil was spilled and where (on land, in a river, or in the ocean). Other factors include what kind of exposure and how much ...

  3. 75 FR 56526 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...This notice announces an open meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the Commission). The Commission was organized pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) (the Act). The Act requires that agencies publish these notices in the Federal Register. The Charter of the Commission can be found at: http://......

  4. 46 CFR 126.225 - Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel certification. 126.225 Section 126.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 126.225 Alternate tonnage for...

  5. For oil spills, no slick solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Oil spills from tankers and offshore wells are getting bigger and more numerous. Oil spill cleanup technology is hard-pressed to keep up with the problem. The use of skimming devices, sorbents and chemical agents, and microorganisms to control oil spills is described. The environmental effects of oil spills are briefly discussed.

  6. A Monte Carlo simulation based two-stage adaptive resonance theory mapping approach for offshore oil spill vulnerability index classification.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Chen, Bing; Li, Zelin; Zheng, Xiao; Wu, Hongjing; Jing, Liang; Lee, Kenneth

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, a Monte Carlo simulation based two-stage adaptive resonance theory mapping (MC-TSAM) model was developed to classify a given site into distinguished zones representing different levels of offshore Oil Spill Vulnerability Index (OSVI). It consisted of an adaptive resonance theory (ART) module, an ART Mapping module, and a centroid determination module. Monte Carlo simulation was integrated with the TSAM approach to address uncertainties that widely exist in site conditions. The applicability of the proposed model was validated by classifying a large coastal area, which was surrounded by potential oil spill sources, based on 12 features. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the classification process was affected by multiple features instead of one single feature. The classification results also provided the least or desired number of zones which can sufficiently represent the levels of offshore OSVI in an area under uncertainty and complexity, saving time and budget in spill monitoring and response. PMID:25044043

  7. The changing Arctic and its effects on the development of Norway and Russia's offshore oil-spill prevention policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Two very different nations are joined with a northern border and have worked together for decades to manage shared Arctic affairs, yet have very disparate approaches to policy development. Increased access to the Arctic and the push to develop its resources has also created a requirement for developing national policies to address the possibilities of oil spill response and remediation. Norway and Russia are the significant regional powers, with a shared arctic boundary, yet substantially differing approaches to policy development and implementation. We are exploring the variations in their approaches to Arctic offshore oil-spill policy development, in the context of policy informed by economic, social, and physical sciences.

  8. 78 FR 47723 - Information Collection: Forms for Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... CFR 553 (78 FR 25472). The BOEM uses the information collected under these regulations to verify... applicants can pay for cleanup and damages resulting from oil spills and other hydrocarbon discharges...

  9. 40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facilities. 112.11 Section... drilling, production, or workover facilities. If you are the owner or operator of an offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facility, you must: (a) Meet the general requirements listed under § 112.7, and...

  10. 40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facilities. 112.11 Section... drilling, production, or workover facilities. If you are the owner or operator of an offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facility, you must: (a) Meet the general requirements listed under § 112.7, and...

  11. 40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facilities. 112.11 Section... drilling, production, or workover facilities. If you are the owner or operator of an offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facility, you must: (a) Meet the general requirements listed under § 112.7, and...

  12. 40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facilities. 112.11 Section... drilling, production, or workover facilities. If you are the owner or operator of an offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facility, you must: (a) Meet the general requirements listed under § 112.7, and...

  13. 40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and... Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facilities. 112.11 Section 112.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  14. Monitoring Recovery of Prince William Sound, Alaska, Following the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Bioavailability of PAH in Offshore Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Jerry M.; Boehm, Paul D.; Kropp, Roy K.; Stubblefield, William A.; Page, David S.

    2004-11-02

    We determined the bioavailability to sediment dwelling marine worms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with offshore sediments from 3 spill path and 3 non-spill path areas of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, 12 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The PAHs in sediments from 4 sites sampled in 2001 were primarily from a regional natural petrogenic background derived from organic-rich shales and natural oil seeps associated with sources southeast of PWS. Pyrogenic (combustion) PAHs, primarily from former human and industrial activities, were more abundant than petrogenic PAHs in nearshore sediments from 2 bays associated with past and current human activities. We performed sediment bioaccumulation tests with the six sediments and polychaete worms according to standard EPA protocols. All the PAHs had a very low bioavailability, as indicated by low values for biota/sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) in the worms. Mean BSAFs for total PAHs (sum of 41 analyte groups) ranged from 0.002 to 0.009. The worms exposed to spill path and non-spill path sediments bioaccumulated small amounts of 4- and 5-ring PAHs, particularly fluoranthene and pyrene; these higher molecular weight PAHs are responsible for induction of mixed function oxygenase (MFO) activity in marine fish, birds, and mammals. These results may help to explain in part why fish from throughout PWS exhibit induced MFO activity. Elevated levels of MFO activity cannot be used as evidence of recent exposure by marine fish, birds, and mammals in the sound to Exxon Valdez oil.

  15. Utilisation of the GMES Sentinel satellites for off-shore platform oil spills and gas flaring monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Erasmo, Daniele; Casadio, Stefano; Cardaci, Massimo; Del Frate, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    Oil spills and gas flaring are serious issues for ecosystem, economy and people working on the extraction sites. Oil spill is known. Gas Flaring is the disposal of poison waste gases generated in the oil extraction process. High volumes (every year gas flaring burns worldwide the equivalent of 25% of the overall gas burned in Europe), significantly contributing to the global carbon emission budget (0.5% of total, 2008). European and worldwide legislation pays an increasing attention to it. Our Sentinel1 and 3 SAR and SLSTR usage for this objective won the GMES Masters 2012 IDEAS Challenge. In this study, we use SAR and infrared/thermal (SLSTR) data to identify unexpected misbehaviours of oil platforms, like switch on of the flare and oil spill in the ocean. On one side, the detection and characterization of gas flaring is achieved by analysing the infrared/thermal radiances measured by the SLSTR instrument on-board SENTINEL-3. This technique has been developed and tested using the ENVISAT Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) dataset and proved to be adequate for long term monitoring of oil extraction for both off-shore and in-shore drilling stations. The spatial/temporal coverage provided by SENTINEL-3 will allow an unprecedented daily monitoring of the oil extraction platforms. On the other side, the detection of oil spills and ships can be performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Both for oil spills and ships, many techniques have been published in the dedicated literature and validated to make the process of detection from SAR automatic. The extension of these techniques to the future SENTINEL-1 data is feasible. The service is mainly addressed to governments (in charge of controlling respect of the rules), civil protection authorities (to promote prevention of pollution damages), oil companies (that want to prove their respect of rules and attention to the environment), and ONGs (involved in the monitoring of the environment). The methodology applied

  16. Understanding oil spills and oil spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The volume contains individual sections that outline what oil spills are, their potential effects on the environment, how they are cleaned up, and how various agencies prepare for spills before they happen.

  17. A three-step model to assess shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills: the South Aegean (Crete) as an analogue for confined marine basins.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tiago M; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George

    2014-09-15

    This study combines bathymetric, geomorphological, geological data and oil spill predictions to model the impact of oil spills in two accident scenarios from offshore Crete, Eastern Mediterranean. The aim is to present a new three-step method of use by emergency teams and local authorities in the assessment of shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills. The three-step method comprises: (1) real-time analyses of bathymetric, geomorphological, geological and oceanographic data; (2) oil dispersion simulations under known wind and sea current conditions; and (3) the compilation of final hazard maps based on information from (1) and (2) and on shoreline susceptibility data. The results in this paper show that zones of high to very-high susceptibility around the island of Crete are related to: (a) offshore bathymetric features, including the presence of offshore scarps and seamounts; (b) shoreline geology, and (c) the presence near the shore of sedimentary basins filled with unconsolidated deposits of high permeability. Oil spills, under particular weather and oceanographic conditions, may quickly spread and reach the shoreline 5-96 h after the initial accident. As a corollary of this work, we present the South Aegean region around Crete as a valid case-study for confined marine basins, narrow seaways, or interior seas around island groups. PMID:25113103

  18. Distribution of hydrocarbons released during the 2010 MC252 oil spill in deep offshore waters.

    PubMed

    Spier, Chelsea; Stringfellow, William T; Hazen, Terry C; Conrad, Mark

    2013-02-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform on April 20th, 2010 resulted in the second largest oil spill in history. The distribution and chemical composition of hydrocarbons within a 45 km radius of the blowout was investigated. All available certified hydrocarbon data were acquired from NOAA and BP. The distribution of hydrocarbons was found to be dispersed over a wider area in subsurface waters than previously predicted or reported. A deepwater hydrocarbon plume predicted by models was verified and additional plumes were identified. Because the samples were not collected systematically, there is still some question about the presence and persistence of an 865 m depth plume predicted by models. Water soluble compounds were extracted from the rising oil in deepwater, and were found at potentially toxic levels outside of areas previously reported to contain hydrocarbons. Application of subsurface dispersants was found to increase hydrocarbon concentration in subsurface waters. PMID:23202654

  19. Oil spill modeling in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea in support of accelerated offshore oil and gas exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Since the discovery of major reserves in the Israeli exclusive economic zone (EEZ) 6 years ago, exploration and drilling for natural gas and oil have proceeded at an accelerated pace. As part of the licensing procedure for drilling, an environmental impact assessment and an emergency response plan must be presented to the authorities, which include several prespecified oil spill simulations. In this study, the MEDSLIK oil spill model has been applied for this purpose. The model accounts for time-dependent advection, dispersion, and physiochemical weathering of the surface slick. It is driven by currents produced by high-resolution dynamic downscaling of ocean reanalysis data and winds extracted from global atmospheric analyses. Worst case scenarios based on 30-day well blowouts under four sets of environmental conditions were simulated for wells located at 140, 70, and 20 km off the coast of central Israel. For the well furthest from the coast, the amount of oil remaining in the surface slick always exceeds the amount deposited on the coast. For the mid-distance well, the cases were evenly split. For the well closest to the coast, coastal deposition always exceeds the oil remaining in the slick. Additional simulations with the wind switched off helped highlight the importance of the wind in evaporation of the oil and in transporting the slick toward the southeastern coast.

  20. Oil Spill Cleanup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  1. Oil spill responses R D

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhardt, F.R.; Nordvik, A.B.; Giammona, C.P.; Aurand, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC) was created as an industry response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The charter of MSRC includes as one of the primary functions the implementation of a spill response R D program to enhance future oil spill response decision-making. Funding for the program is provided largely by the Marine Preservation Association as part of an annual operating grant from that industry organization to MSRC. Research and development at MSRC is considered the key element in improving the future capability of MSRC and other oil spill responders. The major focus of the R D program is to advance knowledge and the technology needed to contain, clean up, and mitigate spills of persistent petroleum products in coastal and offshore waters while minimizing damage to marine and coastal resources and human health. The R D program is solidly in place today with more than 30 projects underway supporting more than $10 million targeted for research. By the end of 1994, more than 60 contracts will have been activated, and the results of many of these projects will be published.

  2. Exploring Oil Spills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities in which elementary and middle school students work together to gain environmental awareness about oil spills. Involves students experiencing a simulated oil spill and attempting to clean it up. Discusses the use of children's literature after the activity in evaluation of the activity. (JRH)

  3. Oil recovery; Technology that tames large spills

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that the threat of oil spills is growing with the increasing use of larger tankers, the expansion of offshore oil exploration, and-as was demonstrated recently in the Persian Gulf-the dangers of war and terrorism. Aware of the environmental havoc that massive spills can cause, engineers are working hard to devise effective methods of scooping oil from the water's surface and cleaning contaminated shorelines. Techniques are being developed, which combine mechanical, chemical, and biological processes to contain spills.

  4. 75 FR 54354 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ..., Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities, Extension of a Collection; Submitted for... paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 CFR part 253, ``Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for... CFR 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. Forms: MMS-1016, MMS-1017,...

  5. Oil spill response group aiming for full operation

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, P.

    1991-12-02

    In 15 months the first national oil spill cleanup organization plans to be in operation at sites around the U.S. coast. This paper reports that the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC), financed by major oil companies, plans to begin full operation Feb. 18, 1993. It is considering starting limited operations in selected regions before then. Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, an American Petroleum Institute task force proposed creation of a private offshore oil spill response agency. Individual oil companies then began a nonprofit firm that has evolved into MSRC. MSRC has a clearly defined role: It exists to sponsor oil spill research and to respond to catastrophic spills from offshore pipelines, platforms, rigs and tankers, carrying the oil of its sponsoring companies.

  6. How Are Oil Spills Treated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmore, William

    2005-01-01

    No two oil spills are the same. Logistically, oil spills are a nightmare because they are unanticipated and uncontrolled events. Oil spills present a threat to wildlife and coastal resources, concerning everyone from local residents to state environmental agencies and the federal government. Thousands of people may be involved in a significant…

  7. 3 CFR 13543 - Executive Order 13543 of May 21, 2010. National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) develop options for guarding against, and mitigating the impact of, oil spills associated with offshore... Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling 13543 Order 13543 Presidential... Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling By the authority vested in me as President by...

  8. OIL SPILL CLEANUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. uring biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic con...

  9. Oil spill clean up

    SciTech Connect

    Claxton, L.D.; Houk, V.S.; Williams, R.; Kremer, F.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. During biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic constituents to toxic species. Also, toxic compounds refractory to biological degradation may compromise the effectiveness of the treatment technique. In the study, the Salmonella mutagenicity assay showed that both the Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its weathered counterpart collected from oil-impacted water were weakly mutagenic. Results also showed that the mutagenic components were depleted at a faster rate than the overall content of organic material.

  10. A predictive ocean oil spill model

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, J.; Barnette, D.; Papodopoulos, P.; Schaudt, K.; Szabo, D.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Initially, the project focused on creating an ocean oil spill model and working with the major oil companies to compare their data with the Los Alamos global ocean model. As a result of this initial effort, Los Alamos worked closely with the Eddy Joint Industry Project (EJIP), a consortium oil and gas producing companies in the US. The central theme of the project was to use output produced from LANL`s global ocean model to look in detail at ocean currents in selected geographic areas of the world of interest to consortium members. Once ocean currents are well understood this information could be used to create oil spill models, improve offshore exploration and drilling equipment, and aid in the design of semi-permanent offshore production platforms.

  11. Oil spill environmental forensics: the Hebei Spirit oil spill case.

    PubMed

    Yim, Un Hyuk; Kim, Moonkoo; Ha, Sung Yong; Kim, Sunghwan; Shim, Won Joon

    2012-06-19

    After the Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) in December 2007, mixtures of three types of Middle East crude oil (total 12,547 kL) were stranded along 375 km of coastline in Western Korea. Emergency responses together with 1.3 million volunteers' activity rapidly removed ca. 20% of spilled oil but the lingering oils have been found along the heavily impacted shorelines for more than 4 years. The HSOS was the worst oil spill case in Republic of Korea, and there were many issues and lessons to be shared. In this study, we summarized some of the oil spill environmental forensic issues that were raised after the HSOS. Rapid screening using on-site measurement, long-term monitoring of multimedia, fingerprinting challenges and evaluation of the extent of the submerged oil were introduced, which supported decision making process of oil spill cleanup, mitigation of debates among stakeholders and provided scientific backgrounds for reasonable compensation. PMID:22582823

  12. Oil Spill Cleanup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  13. 30 CFR 253.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 253.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  14. 30 CFR 553.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 553.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  15. 30 CFR 253.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 253.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill...

  16. 30 CFR 553.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 553.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  17. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Related Requirements for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a)...

  18. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE... oil spill occurs? (a) You must immediately notify the National Response Center (1-800-424-8802) if...

  19. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Related Requirements for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a)...

  20. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Health Journal Articles on Oil Dispersants and Invertebrates, Seawater, Plants and Environment PubMed - Biomedical journal literature ... of Health Journal Articles on Oil Spills and Invertebrates, Seawater, Plants and Environment PubMed - Biomedical journal literature ...

  1. MODELING METHODOLOGIES FOR OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil spilled into aquatic environments is subject to a number of fates, including natural dispersion, emulsification and weathering. An oil slick moves due to the inherent spreading of the oil, currents, winds and waves. All of these processes influence the impacts of the oil on...

  2. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  3. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar utilized to track oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliaccio, Maurizio; Nunziata, Ferdinando; Brown, Carl E.; Holt, Benjamin; Li, Xiaofeng; Pichel, William; Shimada, Masanobu

    2012-04-01

    The continued demand for crude oil and related petroleum products along with the resulting upward spiral of the market price of oil have forced oil exploration and production companies to seek out new reserves farther offshore and in deeper waters. The United States is among the top five nations globally in terms of estimated offshore oil reserves and petroleum production. Yet deepwater drilling to extract these reserves is a major engineering challenge for oil companies. Moreover, such drilling activity also comes with a significant environmental risk, and the extremely high pressures associated with deepwater oil wells mean that the mitigation of accidental releases from a deepwater spill is truly a challenging endeavor.

  4. Oil Spills and Spills of Hazardous Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The stated purpose of this publication is to describe some of the more significant spill incidents and the mechanisms, both managerial and technological, to deal with them. This publication is targeted for school, general public, and other such audiences. Sections include effects of spills, prevention of spills, responding to spills, spill…

  5. 30 CFR 253.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... estimate for the first 24 hours. (2) 40 CFR Part 112—Oil Pollution Prevention; or (3) 49 CFR Part 194... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount...

  6. 30 CFR 553.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that you estimate for the first 24 hours. (2) 40 CFR part 112—Oil Pollution Prevention; or (3) 49 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability...

  7. 30 CFR 553.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that you estimate for the first 24 hours. (2) 40 CFR part 112—Oil Pollution Prevention; or (3) 49 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability...

  8. 76 FR 77128 - Alternate Tonnage Threshold for Oil Spill Response Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 126 RIN 1625-AB82 Alternate Tonnage Threshold for Oil Spill Response... International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969, for Oil Spill Response Vessels (OSRVs), which... owners and operators of offshore supply vessels (OSVs) that may result in an increase in oil...

  9. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  10. Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oil Spills URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oil Spills - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oil Spills URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oil Spills - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  13. Lecithins - promising oil spill cleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    A new, non-polluting method of cleaning up oil spills at sea as well as on land has been developed by researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Their technique is based on the use of lecithins, a byproduct of producing edible oils from plants. Lecithin molecules are hydrophyllic at one end and lipophilic at their tail ends. When they come into contact with water, they organize themselves into bilayers whose heads all face the water and whose tails are all directed towards each other. These bilayers form particles called liposomes that, when spread on water fouled by oil spills, change the properties of the oil thereby stopping the spreading and breaking it down into sticky droplets that continue to float on the surface and can be easily collected. The treatment is said to be effective in both fresh and salt water and is almost temperature and pH independent. Another beneficial effect is that the physical change generated by liposomes in the spilled oil improves the ability of oil-eating bacteria in the water to remove some of the spill by bioremediation.

  14. In-Situ Burning of Spilled Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Alan A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews in-situ burning with particular emphasis on how it can be applied in water-related oil spill situations. Presents and discusses the use of nomograms and development of techniques cited for safe and effective ignition and controlled burning of spilled oil. Includes representative oil spill scenarios and possible responses. (15 references)…

  15. OIL SPILL AND OIL POLLUTION REPORTS AUGUST 1975 - OCTOBER 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    The August 1975 - October 1975 Oil Spill and Oil Pollution Reports is the fifth quarterly compilation of oil spill events and oil pollution report summaries. Presented in the report are: (a) Summaries of oil spill events; (b) summaries and bibliographic literature citations; (c) ...

  16. OIL SPILL AND OIL POLLUTION REPORTS, FEBRUARY 1976 - APRIL 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    The February 1976 - April 1976 Oil Spill and Oil Pollution Reports is the seventh quarterly compilation of oil spill events and oil pollution report summaries. Presented in the report are: (a) summaries of oil spill events; (b) summaries and bibliographic literature citations; (c...

  17. OIL SPILL AND OIL POLLUTION REPORTS, MAY 1975-JULY 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    The May 1975 - July 1975 Oil Spill and Oil Pollution Reports is the fourth quarterly compilation of oil spill events and oil pollution report summaries. Presented in the report are: (a) summaries of oil spill events; (b) summaries and bibliographic literature citations; (c) summa...

  18. OIL SPILL AND OIL POLLUTION REPORTS, MAY 1976-JULY 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    The May 1976 - July 1976 Oil Spill and Oil Pollution Report is the eighth quarterly compilation of oil spill events and oil pollution report summaries. Presented in the report are: (a) summaries of oil spill events; (b) summaries and bibliographic literature citations; (c) summar...

  19. OIL SPILL AND OIL POLLUTION REPORTS, AUGUST 1976-OCTOBER 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    The August 1976 - October 1976 Oil Spill and Oil Pollution Reports is the ninth quarterly compilation of oil spill events and oil pollution report summaries. Presented in the report are: (a) summaries of oil spill events; (b) summaries and bibliographic literature citations; (c) ...

  20. 30 CFR 553.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? 553.14 Section 553.14 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 553.14 How do I determine...

  1. 30 CFR 553.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information? 553.5 Section 553.5 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 553.5 What is the...

  2. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46 Section 254.46 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Related Requirements for Outer Continental...

  3. Oil spill cleanup using graphene.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Z; Abdala, Ahmed A

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we study the use of thermally reduced graphene (TRG) for oil spill cleanup. TRG was synthesized by thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide and characterized by X-ray diffusion, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, elemental analysis, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement. Various aspects of the sorption process have been studied including the sorption capacity, the recovery of the adsorbed oil, and the recyclability of TRG. Our results shows that TRG has a higher sorption capacity than any other carbon-based sorbents, with sorption capacity as high as 131 g of oil per gram TRG. With recovery of the sorbed oil via filtration and reuse of TRG for up to six cycles, 1 g of TRG collectively removes approximately 300 g of crude oil. Moreover, the effects of TRG bulk density, pore volume, and carbon/oxygen ratio and the oil viscosity on the sorption process are also discussed. PMID:23093418

  4. MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2016-04-01

    MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments Robin Lardner and George Zodiatis Oceanography Center, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus MEDSLIK is a well established 3D oil spill model that predicts the transport, fate and weathering of oil spills and is used by several response agencies and institutions around the Mediterranean, the Black seas and worldwide. MEDSLIK has been used operationally for real oil spill accidents and for preparedness in contingency planning within the framework of pilot projects with REMPEC-Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea and EMSA-European Maritime Safety Agency. MEDSLIK has been implemented in many EU funded projects regarding oil spill predictions using the operational ocean forecasts, as for example the ECOOP, NEREIDs, RAOP-Med, EMODNET MedSea Check Point. Within the frame of MEDESS4MS project, MEDSLIK is at the heart of the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction system. The MEDSLIK oil spill model contains among other, the following features: a built-in database with 240 different oil types characteristics, assimilation of oil slick observations from in-situ or aerial, to correct the predictions, virtual deployment of oil booms and/or oil skimmers/dispersants, continuous or instantaneous oil spills from moving or drifting ships whose slicks merge can be modelled together, multiple oil spill predictions from different locations, backward simulations for tracking the source of oil spill pollution, integration with AIS data upon the availability of AIS data, sub-surface oil spills at any given water depth, coupling with SAR satellite data. The MEDSLIK can be used for operational intervention for any user-selected region in the world if the appropriate coastline, bathymetry and meteo-ocean forecast files are provided. MEDSLIK oil spill model has been extensively validated in the Mediterranean Sea, both in real oil spill incidents (i.e. during the Lebanese oil pollution crisis in

  5. OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION - AN ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported are the results of an environmental review of emission sources and emissions associated with U.S. offshore oil and gas exploration, drilling, and production. In the information reviewed, greatest environmental concern was with accidental spills of oil that can occur duri...

  6. Physical oceanography of oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S.P. )

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of petroleum products and crude oil from ship accidents and damaged platforms into the ocean remains a significant problem. Weather systems of nearly all sizes and time scales may have strong effects on oil slick movement and dispersal. Thunderstorms, local weather systems, mid-latitude high- and low-pressure systems, tropical cyclones, and the trade winds and prevailing westerlies of the planetary wind system are all potentially important agents in the movement and dispersal of oil slicks. Currents driven by these wind systems are influenced by the rotation of the earth, which causes them to veer to the right of the wind in the northern hemisphere. Wind shifts or sudden decreases in wind stress induce circular or inertial oscillations whose period varies with latitude. Near the shore these effects are severely damped by the blocking action of the coast, causing the flow to run more or less parallel to the coastal boundary. All these effects will in turn exert significant control over the movement of entrained oil slicks. In the near-field region of an oil spill tidal currents can also be of considerable importance. Rotary currents, characteristic of open-shelf waters and effective dispersal agents of oil, arise from the influence of the rotation of the earth on the tidal current. Another such interaction between rotation of the earth and the tide produces Kelvin waves, which result in unusually high tidal ranges along the coast to the right of the tidal wave propagation. Both effects have been important in recent oil spills. All these oceanographic processes, reviewed in this talk, have played key roles in major spills over the last 15 years from the Torrey Canyon to the Mega-Borg.

  7. Oil spill protector

    SciTech Connect

    Gwinn, C.M.

    1993-06-08

    An apparatus for limiting and containing liquid spills from leaking vessels that navigate the water ways is described, comprising: (a) a protective sheeting that is thin, flexible and waterproof which covers the vessel from side to side and underneath the vessel, and spans from the bow to the stern of the vessel, for keeping the leaking contents of the vessel from leaking into the surrounding waters; (b) a means for storing the protective sheeting when the protective sheeting is no longer needed, whereby the means for storing is attached to one side of the vessel and spans the full width of the protective sheeting from the bow to the stern of the vessel, and the means for storing is powered; (c) cables attached to the edge of the protective sheeting, at different points, for the purpose of enabling the protective sheeting to be deployed, and to assist in the support of the protective sheeting when the protective sheeting is deployed; (d) a means for pulling the protective sheeting from storage, for deployment from one side of the vessel to the other side of the vessel; (e) a stem sealing unit for sealing the protective sheeting to the stern of the vessel completely around the hull of the vessel for the prevention of the leakage of unwanted liquid into surrounding waters, whereby the stern sealing unit is attached to the hull of the vessel, near the stern and just before the propulsion screw of the vessel, and spanning down the hull and underneath the hull and up the other side of the hull of the vessel, whereby upon deployment of the protective sheeting one of the cables is used to guide the end of the protective sheeting, to be sealed, into the stern sealing unit; and (f) a bow scaling unit for sealing the protective sheeting which covers the bow of the vessel, whereby the bow sealing unit fits over the front edge of the protective sheeting from the top to the bottom, thereby preventing the leakage of unwanted liquid into the surrounding waters.

  8. NASA Satellites View Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA satellites are capturing images of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which began April 20, 2010, with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. This series of images shows a space...

  9. Satellites View Growing Gulf Oil Spill (Update)

    NASA Video Gallery

    On April 30, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, triggering the largest oil spill in U.S. history. The MODIS instrument, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, c...

  10. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  11. Approaches to sheltered-water oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.A.; Waldron, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    Technology has produced more effective and efficient oil removal equipment for on-water cleanup in the past five years. Much of the innovation has been to increase recovery capacity to meet the planning volumes required to government regulations. However, more than 95 percent of the spills are relatively small. Large equipment, often requiring large platforms, is not very useful and is difficult/expensive to operate on small spills. In addition, damage from spills results when oil impacts shorelines. The emphasis on spill response should address the ability of the equipment to remove oil in a nearshore environment. Clean Seas has been attempting to address this need since the Avila Pipeline spill in 1992, in which a 180 barrel spill resulted in about $18 million damage/cleanup cost.

  12. Combining molecular fingerprints with multidimensional scaling analyses to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected oils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyu; Chen, Changshu; Ye, Jianjun; Shen, Wenjie; Xiong, Xiaofei; Hu, Ping; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Sun, Yongge

    2015-04-15

    Oil fingerprints have been a powerful tool widely used for determining the source of spilled oil. In most cases, this tool works well. However, it is usually difficult to identify the source if the oil spill accident occurs during offshore petroleum exploration due to the highly similar physiochemical characteristics of suspected oils from the same drilling platform. In this report, a case study from the waters of the South China Sea is presented, and multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) is introduced to demonstrate how oil fingerprints can be combined with mathematical methods to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected sources. The results suggest that the MDS calculation based on oil fingerprints and subsequently integrated with specific biomarkers in spilled oils is the most effective method with a great potential for determining the source in terms of highly similar suspected oils. PMID:25765488

  13. Oil Spill Risk Analysis Model and Its Application to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Z.; Johnson, W. R.; Li, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The oil spill risk analysis (OSRA) model plays an essential role in analyzing oil spill risks in the U.S. continental shelf for the U.S. federal government. The OSRA model is driven by analyzed sea surface winds and model-generated ocean surface currents. Instead of focusing on individual oil spill events, the OSRA model examines oil spill risks over long periods of time, ranging from 5 years to decades. The OSRA model calculates thousands of hypothetical oil spill trajectories over U.S. continental shelf and tabulates the frequencies with which the simulated oil spills contact the geographic boundaries of designated natural resources within a specified number of days after the simulated spill events. As a result of a three-year effort, the model was completely updated and improved to meet the new challenges in the oil spill risk analyses. The updated OSRA model is more efficient in terms of computational time, is capable of producing results that are consistent with our previous analyses, and is more user-friendly by incorporating GIS tools. The combination of code parallelization, code optimization, and I/O optimization has greatly improved the computational efficiency. Applying the model to the Gulf of Mexico using 15 years of ocean currents and winds, we find that the newly improved OSRA model can provide important information on the behavior of oil spills more accurately and efficiently. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is unique and unprecedented in the Gulf of Mexico. Approximated 4.9 million barrels of oil were spilled into the U.S. water. The statistical patterns and results from the OSRA model are being compared with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Findings from this study will help in assessing the oil spill risks in the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    In 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil spill contaminated about 1,500 miles of Alaska`s coastline. It killed birds, mammals, and fish, and disrupted the ecosystem in the path of the oil. The Exxon Valdez Restoration Plan provides long-term guidance for restoring the resources and services injured by the oil spill. It contains policies for making restoration decisions and describes how restoration activities will be implemented.

  15. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  16. Oil-spill risk analysis: Central and western Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf, Lease Sales 139 and 141. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Lear, E.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf lands in the Gulf of Mexico for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. The report summarizes results of an oil spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Lease Sales 139 and 141.

  17. Remote oil spill sensing system (ROSSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fornaca, S.; Agravante, H.H.; Eberhard, C.; Hauss, B.I.

    1996-10-01

    To provide tactical information during an oil spill, TRW developed Remote Oil Spill Sensing System (ROSSS). It is an integrated system of airborne sensors for rapid in-situ surveillance and a ground system that provides data analysis and display support at the spill cleanup command center. It provides knowledge of precise location of oil spill and produces timely updates, which are critical for effective spill containment and cleanup operations. It is capable of distinguishing where the bulk of spill exists, which is key to directing cleanup efforts for maximum efficiency. Using a passive microwave radiometric imager as the primary sensor, it provides data acquisition capabilities in both day and night and through haze, fog, and light ram. The high-speed air-to-ground telemetry link permits timely delivery of surveyed data from the spill site to the ground system to aid in the planning and assessment of cleanup strategies. ROSSS has been in service since November, 1992, ready to respond in any oil spill emergencies along the U.S. West Coast. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Some factors affecting the oil-spill risk to sea otters in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, R.T.

    1984-10-01

    Sea otters in California, with their limited range and numbers, are exposed to the threat of oil spills from a number of sources including offshore oil and gas development, transportation of crude oil and refined products, and the bunker fuel of vessels transiting the otter range. This report explores some of the direct and indirect ways otters may be affected by oil spills, including hypothermia, pneumonia, toxic effects, and destruction of preferred prey. The report also examines the possibility of mitigating the effects of oil spills through spill containment and cleanup, otter capture, cleaning and rehabilitation, and otter relocation. The report concludes with a description of the amount of shoreline affected by some major spills in various parts of the world.

  19. The Great Oil Spill Cleanup Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Presents an exciting way to acquaint students with current methods to clean up oil spills. Students also have the freedom to create new clean-up methods as they think through the problem and experiment to find effective solutions. (PR)

  20. Simulation of impact of oil spill in the ocean--a case study of Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Verma, Parikshit; Wate, Satish R; Devotta, Sukumar

    2008-11-01

    To meet the growing energy demand worldwide, oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased rapidly both in onshore and offshore areas. The produced oil from the ocean bed is transported onshore either by ship or pipeline. This has increased the risk of oil spill in the coastal area. In order to prepare an emergency preparedness plan and to assess the magnitude of risk involved in transporting and offloading oil, oil spill simulation studies play an important role. This paper describes a simulation of oil spill in coastal bay of Arabian Gulf where new developments are taking place using MIKE 21 model. The developments include a diesel based thermal power plant near Sir Baniyas Island, which is an ecological fragile area. Based on the project activity, two probable scenarios, one for diesel leak (250 m3/h) for 1 h and the other for instantaneous spill (500 m3) are considered. The MIKE 21 model was calibrated for hydrodynamics using measured field data followed by diesel-spill simulation to track its movement in the Arabian Gulf. The results for both leak and instantaneous spill indicate that spilled diesel will not move towards the Sir Banyas Island and more than 45% of the diesel will be evaporated within 48 h of oil spill. Based on the results, a clean up and contingency plan is proposed to mitigate the adverse impacts arising due to diesel spill in the study area. PMID:18095178

  1. Earth Observation Services (Oil Spill Mapping)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An EOCAP project led Research Planning, Inc. to the development of advanced techniques for "environmental sensitivity" oil spill mapping. The new method incorporates satellite remote sensing and GIS technologies and was utilized to assess the damage potential of the Gulf war oil spill. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the, use of, NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  2. MODELING DISPERSANT INTERACTIONS WITH OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing a model called the EPA Research Object-Oriented Oil Spill Model (ERO3S) and associated databases to simulate the impacts of dispersants on oil slicks. Because there are features of oil slicks that align naturally with major concepts of object-oriented programmi...

  3. Oil spill response: Countdown to readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    In the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, a task force representing America's oil industry set about studying the existing resources across the nation for responding to catastrophic oil spills. In June 1989 the task force reported that the capability did not exist in either government or industry to respond to a spill the magnitude of the one in Alaska. As a result of task force recommendations, 20 companies began the process that led to the creation of both the Marine Preservation Association (MPA) and the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MS-RC). The latter is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with 5 regional response centers around the US. Under the direction of the US Coast Guard, each of MSRC's five regions will provide a best-effort response to cleaning up spill of persistent (crude) oils that are beyond the capabilities of local spill response organizations. MSRC will work closely with both cooperatives and independent, commercial responders to maximize spill response effectiveness. The MPA and its member companies have committed more than $400 million for the acquisition of capital equipment for MSRC, an unprecedented record in American business history. MSRC is also involved in research programs concerning remote sensing, in-situ burning, dispersants, handling of recovered material, and shoreline countermeasures.

  4. 30 CFR 550.219 - What oil and hazardous substance spills information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What oil and hazardous substance spills information must accompany the EP? 550.219 Section 550.219 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents...

  5. Oil spill impact modeling: development and validation.

    PubMed

    French-McCay, Deborah P

    2004-10-01

    A coupled oil fate and effects model has been developed for the estimation of impacts to habitats, wildlife, and aquatic organisms resulting from acute exposure to spilled oil. The physical fates model estimates the distribution of oil (as mass and concentrations) on the water surface, on shorelines, in the water column, and in the sediments, accounting for spreading, evaporation, transport, dispersion, emulsification, entrainment, dissolution, volatilization, partitioning, sedimentation, and degradation. The biological effects model estimates exposure of biota of various behavior types to floating oil and subsurface contamination, resulting percent mortality, and sublethal effects on production (somatic growth). Impacts are summarized as areas or volumes affected, percent of populations lost, and production foregone because of a spill's effects. This paper summarizes existing information and data used to develop the model, model algorithms and assumptions, validation studies, and research needs. Simulation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill is presented as a case study and validation of the model. PMID:15511105

  6. Gulf Oil Spill Commission Report Calls for Major Drilling Safety Reforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-01-01

    The BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion and the resulting oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico last year were “foreseeable and preventable,” according to the report of a presidentially appointed commission, issued on 11 January, that recommended significant changes in U.S. government and industry practices to avoid future oil spill disasters. Among the recommendations of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling are that Congress and the Obama administration create an independent safety agency within the Department of the Interior (DOI) to oversee all aspects of offshore drilling safety and that the oil and gas industry establish a “safety institute” to develop and enforce safety standards.

  7. Advances in Remote Sensing for Oil Spill Disaster Management: State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology for Oil Spill Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Maya Nand; Levy, Jason; Gao, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the risk of oil spill disasters is essential for protecting the environment and reducing economic losses. Oil spill surveillance constitutes an important component of oil spill disaster management. Advances in remote sensing technologies can help to identify parties potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. Due to the large number of sensors currently available for oil spill surveillance, there is a need for a comprehensive overview and comparison of existing sensors. Specifically, this paper examines the characteristics and applications of different sensors. A better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of oil spill surveillance sensors will improve the operational use of these sensors for oil spill response and contingency planning. Laser fluorosensors were found to be the best available sensor for oil spill detection since they not only detect and classify oil on all surfaces but also operate in either the day or night. For example, the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) sensor was identified to be a valuable tool for oil spill surveillance. However, no single sensor was able to provide all information required for oil spill contingency planning. Hence, combinations of sensors are currently used for oil spill surveillance. Specifically, satellite sensors are used for preliminary oil spill assessment while airborne sensors are used for detailed oil spill analysis. While satellite remote sensing is not suitable for tactical oil spill planning it can provide a synoptic coverage of the affected area.

  8. Ecological Impacts during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest spill and response effort in United States history. Nearly 800 million L of oil was spilled in the Gulf of Mexico, and nearly 7 million L of chemical dispersants were applied in at the ocean surface and subsea1. The DWH spill ...

  9. EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL DISPERSANT TESTING REQUIREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program evaluates the cost effectiveness of the procedures for testing oil spill dispersants as specified in Annex X of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. The testing procedure is described in detail in the Standard Dispersant Effec...

  10. THE FEASIBILITY OF IDENTIFYING MYSTERY OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several off-the-shelf passive tagging techniques for identifying the origin of mystery oil spills were evaluated to determine the viability of enforcement provisions of Maine's Oil Conveyance Law. Duplicating the operating conditions experienced during every-day marine terminals ...

  11. Oil-spill risk analysis: Gulf of Mexico (Proposed Lease Sales 131/135/137) Outer Continental Shelf. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hannon, L.J.; LaBelle, R.P.; Lear, E.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf lands in the Gulf of Mexico for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. In evaluating the significance of accidental oil spills, it is important to remember that the occurrence of such spills is fundamentally probabilistic. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. The report summarizes results of an oil spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Lease Sales 131/135/137. The objective of this analysis was to estimate relative risks associated with oil and gas production for the proposed lease sales.

  12. Helping nature clean up oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, A.

    1996-11-01

    Oil spills are nothing new. In fact, for millions of years crude oil has been seeping up to the Earth`s surface, and for all that time Mother Nature has been on the job with microbes, or bacteria, to harmlessly convert the oil to water and carbon dioxide gas. Not all bacteria are bad. True, some can make us sick, however, the good ones help us bake bread, brew beer, and even clean up oil spills by a process known as biodegradation. Oil and bacteria don`t easily get together because oil and water don`t mix and bacteria prefer to stay in water. After some oil tankers spills in the English Channel 25 years ago, major oil companies (Arco, BP, Exxon, and others) developed oil dispersant products-specialized chemicals that make oils and sea water mix. The simplest examples of similar wetting agents are soaps and detergents. Now, thanks to dispersants, the natural bacteria at sea can easily get to the oil and the normally slow biodegradation process goes rather quickly.

  13. Remote sensing of marine oil spills and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Ma, Long; Yu, Shui-ming; Li, Chuan-long; Li, Qi-jun

    2008-11-01

    Remote sensing is an effective tool to monitor oil spills. The theory of oil spill remote sensing is based on the differences between oil slick and other environmental objects. For optical sensor, the ability of different bands to find oil film at sea is different. Oil spill object could be intensified by composing appropriate bands. In addition, image enhancements could also strengthen oil spill features. For SAR, image characteristics of oil spill are crucial to oil detection. Applications show that sensors loaded on satellite can find oil slick at sea. Optical sensor and SAR have their own advantages, and play different roles in oil spill remote sensing. It is necessary to integrate them to establish an all-weather, omnidirectional 3-D monitoring network for monitoring oil spills and illicit vessel discharges.

  14. OIL SPILL AND OIL POLLUTION REPORTS. VOLUME 5. NUMBER 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The November 1977-January 1978 issue begins Volume 5 of OIL SPILL AND OIL POLLUTION REPORTS, a quarterly compilation of abstracts of current oil pollution-related literature and research projects. Comprehensive coverage of terrestrial and aquatic oil pollution and its prevention ...

  15. Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-05-01

    Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are determined to move forward. The depressed price of oil does not encourage development but recently gas prices in the US have increased, making offshore gas development more feasible. Perhaps most significant is development and application of new technology and more intense management to make sure it works. The offshore oil companies and support industries have made significant technological advances, expending over and above the dollars paid in taxes, lease fees, and royalties. The ocean industries harbor a great reservoir of high technology knowledge. They have demonstrated the ability to successfully meet a vast array of challenges in exploring for, drilling, and producing oil and gas in extreme conditions. These facts beg the question as to the rational basis of each and every regulation and the ban on drilling.

  16. Tourism and its hypersensitivity to oil spills.

    PubMed

    Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles

    2015-02-15

    The sinking of the Don Pedro merchant ship in 2007 near the island of Ibiza is a good example of the extreme sensitivity of the tourism sector to oil spills. Despite the limited scale of the spill (only some 20 tonnes), its minimal ecological impact, and the rapid deployment of personnel and equipment to contain it, the accident nonetheless caused significant economic damage to the island's tourism sector. This particular case demonstrates the importance of the beach as a factor of production in the holiday tourism sector, and the capacity of even small amounts of oil to render it unusable and cause heavy losses to holiday firms. PMID:25561004

  17. Oil Spill! Student Guide and Teacher Guide. OEAGLS Investigation 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Ihle, Stephanie

    Presented in this unit are three activities concerning the causes and effects of oil spills and methods used to clean up these spills in the oceans and Great Lakes. Students construct and interpret a graph showing oil pollution sources. The students create and try to clean up a small-scale oil spill in a pan, and they compare the water quality of…

  18. 77 FR 60454 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... renewal of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory committee. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Court Order establishing the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council also requires a public advisory...

  19. 78 FR 54669 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: October 3, 2013...-5011. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee was created...

  20. Water programs: oil pollution prevention nontransportation-related onshore and offshore facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-20

    The US Environmental Protection Agency proposes to modify its existing regulation, which establishes requirements for Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans to prevent spills of oil by nontransportation-related onshore and offshore facilities (oil or gas drilling, production, or workover facilities) into US navigable waters. The proposal would apply to any offshore facility, which is subject to US jurisdiction and which is in, on, or under any waters, which has either spilled 13:1000 gal of oil in a single event, or has had two reportable oil spills of any size in any 12 mo period. The proposed revision also involves changes in the requirements for new facilities, SPCC Plan requirements, and others, which are discussed in detail. Comments must be received by 7/21/80.

  1. Oil spill dispersants: boon or bane?

    PubMed

    Prince, Roger C

    2015-06-01

    Dispersants provide a reliable large-scale response to catastrophic oil spills that can be used when the preferable option of recapturing the oil cannot be achieved. By allowing even mild wave action to disperse floating oil into tiny droplets (<70 μm) in the water column, seabirds, reptiles, and mammals are protected from lethal oiling at the surface, and microbial biodegradation is dramatically increased. Recent work has clarified how dramatic this increase is likely to be: beached oil has an environmental residence of years, whereas dispersed oil has a half-life of weeks. Oil spill response operations endorse the concept of net environmental benefit, that any environmental costs imposed by a response technique must be outweighed by the likely benefits. This critical review discusses the potential environmental debits and credits from dispersant use and concludes that, in most cases, the potential environmental costs of adding these chemicals to a polluted area are likely outweighed by the much shorter residence time, and hence integrated environmental impact, of the spilled oil in the environment. PMID:25938731

  2. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  3. A sustainable approach to controlling oil spills.

    PubMed

    Al-Majed, Abdul Aziz; Adebayo, Abdulrauf Rasheed; Hossain, M Enamul

    2012-12-30

    As a result of the huge economic and environmental destruction from oil spills, studies have been directed at improving and deploying natural sorbents which are not only the least expensive but also the safest means of spill control. This research reviews the limitations and environmental impact of existing cleanup methods. It also justifies the need for concerted research effort on oil spill control using natural and sustainable technology concepts. The article proposes future guidelines for the development of a sustainable cleanup technology. Finally, guidelines for the development of a new technology for the Middle East are proposed, which is the use of an abundant resource--date palm fibers--for such techniques. PMID:23037316

  4. The economy of oil spills: direct and indirect costs as a function of spill size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W

    2009-11-15

    As a rational basis for addressing both ecological and economic consequences of oil spills, a combination of simulating and estimating methods is proposed in this paper. An integration of the state-of-the-art oil spill contingency simulation system OSCAR with economic assessment method leads to realistic oil spill scenarios including their biological and economic impacts and the effort taken for combat as well as to an estimate for the total oil spill costs. In order to derive a simple function of total costs depending on few spill characteristics such as size, a number of hypothetical scenarios are simulated and evaluated for the German North Sea area. Results reveal that response costs of per unit oil spilled as well as integrated costs of oil released are simply characterized as two particular power-law functions of spill size. Such relationships can be straightforward transferred into decision making for efficient prevention and combat strategy in the study area. PMID:19576685

  5. OIL SPILL AND OIL POLLUTION REPORTS: AUGUST 1977-OCTOBER 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The August 1977 - October 1977 issue of Oil Spill and Oil Pollution Reports is a quarterly compilation of oil pollution publications and ongoing project summaries. Presented in the report are: (a) summaries and citations of published literature and patents; (b) summaries and stat...

  6. Aquatic oil spill cleanup using natural sorbents.

    PubMed

    Paulauskienė, Tatjana; Jucikė, Indrė

    2015-10-01

    One of the most popular transportation methods of crude oil is water transport, leading to potential spills of these pollutants in the seas and oceans and water areas of ports, during their extraction, transportation, transhipment and use. The growth of the Lithuanian economy and the expansion of competitiveness were hardly imagined without the development of the Klaipeda seaport. However, the intensity of shipping and the increase in cargo loading volumes at specialised terminals are associated with a higher risk of environmental pollution. To achieve a sustainable development of the seaport, it is necessary not only to ensure the prevention of potential water pollution but also, if necessary, to use environmentally friendly technology for pollution management. The work analyses the possibilities related to the collection of oil products from the water surface using natural sorbents (peat, wool, moss and straw) and their composites.The research of absorbed amount of crude oil and diesel fuel spilled on the water surface, while using sorbents and their composites, determined that sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 25-75 %) absorbs the major amount of both crude oil (60 % of the spilled volume) and diesel fuel (69 % of the spilled volume) comparing to single sorbents and sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 50-50 %). PMID:25994272

  7. Coast Guard's Response to Spilled Oil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, R. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The Coast Guard utilizes a number of monitoring detectors, sensors, and techniques to find, recover and identify oil spills. Discussed in this article are in-situ and airborne sensors, systems developed to provide clean-up capability such as air deployable anti-pollution transfer system (ADAPTS), and techniques which will determine the source of a…

  8. TECHNIQUES FOR MIXING DISPERSANTS WITH SPILLED OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effective use of some oil spill dispersants requires the addition of mixing energy to the dispersant-treated slick. Various methods of energy application have included the use of fire hose streams directed to the water surface, outboard motors mounted on work boats, and the f...

  9. Testing the Generalization Efficiency of Oil Slick Classification Algorithm Using Multiple SAR Data for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkan, C.; Osmanoglu, B.; Sunar, F.; Staples, G.; Kalkan, K.; Balık Sanlı, F.

    2012-07-01

    Marine oil spills due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, etc. are seriously affecting the fragile marine and coastal ecosystem and cause political and environmental concern. A catastrophic explosion and subsequent fire in the Deepwater Horizon oil platform caused the platform to burn and sink, and oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Today, space-borne SAR sensors are extensively used for the detection of oil spills in the marine environment, as they are independent from sun light, not affected by cloudiness, and more cost-effective than air patrolling due to covering large areas. In this study, generalization extent of an object based classification algorithm was tested for oil spill detection using multiple SAR imagery data. Among many geometrical, physical and textural features, some more distinctive ones were selected to distinguish oil and look alike objects from each others. The tested classifier was constructed from a Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Network trained by ABC, LM and BP optimization algorithms. The training data to train the classifier were constituted from SAR data consisting of oil spill originated from Lebanon in 2007. The classifier was then applied to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill data in the Gulf of Mexico on RADARSAT-2 and ALOS PALSAR images to demonstrate the generalization efficiency of oil slick classification algorithm.

  10. Cyber Physical Intelligence for Oil Spills (CPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lary, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences estimate 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into global waters every year. The effects of these spills include dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water. Deepwater horizon cost approximately $50 billion and severely challenged response capabilities. In such large spills optimizing a coordinated response is a particular challenge. This challenge can be met in a revolutionary new way by using an objectively optimized Cyber Physical Decision Making System (CPS) for rapid response products and a framework for objectively optimized decision-making in an uncertain environment. The CPS utilizes machine learning for the processing of the massive real-time streams of Big Data from comprehensive hyperspectral remote sensing acquired by a team of low-cost robotic aerial vehicles, providing a real-time aerial view and stream of hyperspectral imagery from the near UV to the thermal infrared, and a characterization of oil thickness, oil type and oil weathering. The objective decision making paradigm is modeled on the human brain and provides the optimal course trajectory for response vessels to achieve the most expeditious cleanup of oil spills using the available resources. In addition, oil spill cleanups often involve surface oil burns that can lead to air quality issues. The aerial vehicles comprehensively characterize air quality in real-time, streaming location, temperature, pressure, humidity, the abundance of 6 criterion pollutants (O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and H2S) and the full size distribution of airborne particulates. This CPS can be readily applied to other systems in agriculture, water conversation, monitoring of stream quality, air quality, diagnosing risk of wild fires, etc..

  11. Shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Zachary; Zengel, Scott; Baker, Mary; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-06-15

    We build on previous work to construct a comprehensive database of shoreline oiling exposure from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill by compiling field and remotely-sensed datasets to support oil exposure and injury quantification. We compiled a spatial database of shoreline segments with attributes summarizing habitat, oiling category and timeline. We present new simplified oil exposure classes for both beaches and coastal wetland habitats derived from this database integrating both intensity and persistence of oiling on the shoreline over time. We document oiling along 2113km out of 9545km of surveyed shoreline, an increase of 19% from previously published estimates and representing the largest marine oil spill in history by length of shoreline oiled. These data may be used to generate maps and calculate summary statistics to assist in quantifying and understanding the scope, extent, and spatial distribution of shoreline oil exposure as a result of the DWH incident. PMID:27098990

  12. Modeling VOC emissions and air concentrations from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R. ); Drivas, P.J. )

    1993-03-01

    During the two-week period following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) evaporated from the surface of the oil spill and were transported and dispersed throughout the region. To estimate the air concentrations of these VOCs, emissions and dispersion modeling was conducted for each hour during the first two weeks of the spill. A multicomponent evaporative emissions model was developed and applied to the oil spill; the model considered the evaporation of 15 specific compounds, including benzene and toluene. Both mass transfer from the surface of the spill and diffusion through the oil layer were considered in the emissions model. Maximum emissions of toluene were calculated to equal about 20,000 kg/hr, or about 5 g/m[sup 2] hr, at a time of eight hours after the initial oil spill. Meteorological data were acquired from sources and used to estimate hourly-averaged wind velocity over the spill. Air concentrations of specific components were calculated using the ATDL area source diffusion model and the Offshore and Coastal Dispersion (OCD) model. Maximum hourly-averaged concentrations were predicted not to exceed 10 ppmv for any compound. 24 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Artic oil-spill response guide for the alaskan beaufort sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Contents include--Federal Response Organization; Initial Response; Elements of Response; Detection and Surveillance, Oil-Spill Trajectory Models, Oil-Spill Containment, Oil-Spill Recovery, Transfer Equipment, Recovered Oil Storage Equipment, Oil-Spill Disposal, Personnel, Logistics, Well Control, Dispersants, Mechanics of Response, Oil Spill Response Scenarios; Appendices.

  14. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing. PMID:24759508

  15. Operational approach for oil spill monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, Gutemberg B.; Landau, Luiz; Tores, Audalio R., Jr.; Drumond, Jose A. L.; Fragoso, Mauricio R.; De Almeida, Ricardo C.; Cunha, Gerson G.; Pedroso, Enrico C.; Beisl, Carlos H.

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents the methodological approach of the oil spill monitoring system that is being put into operation by the National Petroleum Agency (NPA) in Brazil. The methodology is based on integrated analysis of multi-sensor data which includes satellites products, such as, GOES and AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature (SST), SeaWiFs chlorophyll concentration, QuikScat near sea surface wind field, GOES and AVHRR convective rain areas, and Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) data from RADARSAT-1 satellite. The methodology is implemented by means of a system composed by four subsystems called, data reception (SAR, GOES, NOAA and QuikScat), Integrator, hydrodynamic model and database. The methodology was applied to the accidental oil spill caused by PETROBRAS oil rig P-36. A RADARSAT-1 image was acquired during accident period at 21:07 (GMT) on 22nd of March 2001 and used. The results are presented and discussed.

  16. Oil-spill risk analysis: Cook inlet outer continental shelf lease sale 149. Volume 2: Conditional risk contour maps of seasonal conditional probabilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Marshall, C.F.; Anderson, C.M.; Lear, E.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in Cook Inlet for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. In evaluating the significance of accidental oil spills, it is important to remember that the occurrence of such spills is fundamentally probabilistic. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. This report summarizes results of an oil-spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Cook Inlet OCS Lease Sale 149. The objective of this analysis was to estimate relative risks associated with oil and gas production for the proposed lease sale. To aid the analysis, conditional risk contour maps of seasonal conditional probabilities of spill contact were generated for each environmental resource or land segment in the study area. This aspect is discussed in this volume of the two volume report.

  17. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work.

  18. Abundance and Size of Gulf Shrimp in Louisiana's Coastal Estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    van der Ham, Joris L.; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

  19. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

  20. Sea otter oil spill avoidance study

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.; Williams, T.M.; Awbrey, F.

    1988-04-01

    To determine whether acoustic, visual, or olfactory stimuli could be used to move sea otters out of an area in the event of an oil spill, the authors recorded the responses of sea otters to a variety of stimuli during captive studies in Alaska. These findings are similar to those of previous attempts to control the movements of sea otters and other marine mammals and birds. An alternative to herding is to capture otters in the vicinity of the spill and temporarily hold them in captivity. This approach is only practical if the number of otters in jeopardy is small (less than 60) and there is enough time to capture them. Based on the results of the study and previous attempts by the California Department of Fish and Game to herd sea otters, the authors do not think acoustic, visual, and olfactory stimuli are effective deterrents. In the absence of effective methods to keep sea otters out of an oil spill, the emphasis must remain on spill prevention, containment, and cleanup.

  1. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy. PMID:26105077

  2. Evaluating technologies of oil spill surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of oil in the marine environment imposes a broad spectrum of remote sensing requirements. At the US Coast Guard Research Development Center, the environmental safety branch is sponsoring oil spill remote sensing research in four areas of technology: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Frequency-scanning microwave radiometry (FSR), Laser fluorosensing (LFS), and Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagers. SAR technology uses sophisticated signal processing to overcome prior limitations, providing images of higher and more uniform spatial acuity which may enable interpreters to more-readily distinguish petroleum slicks from others. The ability to determine the distribution of oil thickness within a slick is necessary when an estimate of oil volume is desired. Scientists at MIT have formulated a new approach to radiometric oil thickness measurement that takes advantage of recent advances in electronic component technology. The initial data collected with a prototype FSR instrument have validated the FSR concept and more work is ongoing. The Coast Guard is co-funding a program to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of an airborne laser fluorosensor to support oil spill response operations. During a controlled test, the instrument successfully demonstrated an ability to detect oil on water, ice, and various beach surfaces. Additional testing included different oil types and allowed for weathering. Data analysis is ongoing. Recent developments in infrared imager technology have produced a wide variety of off-the-shelf, portable cameras that could potentially provide a rapid-response spill assessment capability. The R D Center has been involved in the testing of many of these sensors.

  3. ALASKAN OIL SPILL BIOMEDIATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development entered into a cooperative agreement with the Exxon Company to initiate a bioremediation study as part of an effort to clean up oil on the shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska. The presence of oil...

  4. Developing effective environmental and oil spill management for remote locations

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.P.; Wardrop, J.; Kilborn, A.

    1994-12-31

    Historically, Exploration and Production (E and P) operators` environmental philosophy was a consequence of environmental damages, actual and perceived, caused by hydrocarbon spills. Pertamina/Maxus Southeast Sumatra, Inc. (Maxus), the largest offshore E and P operator in Indonesia has adopted a proactive philosophy as they operate offshore production and shipping facilities immediately adjacent to the Pulau Seribu (Thousand Island) National Marine Park and approximately 30 kilometers from the Southeast Sumatra coast. These ecosystems are of great concern to Indonesia and Maxus as they comprise approximately 250 km of tropical, sparsely inhabited coastline, 106 coral and lagoon islands, and habitats for numerous endangered species. This paper describes the contract zone within which Maxus operates; the environmental risks associated with E and P in this region; and Maxus` response to management of those risks. A significant component of Maxus` overall response has been the ESACOC project (Environmental Sensitivity and Characterization of Crude) undertaken during 1993. ESACOC is described here in regard to the use and interrelation of remote sensing, in-depth laboratory studies, and development of new sensitivity rankings techniques into one computer program for effective environmental and oil spill management. ESACOC illustrates the synthesis of seemingly diverse and unrelated data to develop an effective environmental management plan.

  5. Sea otter oil-spill mitigation study

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.; Thomas, J.; Williams, T.M.; Kastelein, R.; Cornell, L.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of existing capture, transport, cleaning, and rehabilitation methods and develop new methods to reduce the impact of an accidental oil spill to California sea otters, resulting from the present conditions or from future Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development in State or Federal waters. In addition, the study investigated whether or not a systematic difference in thermal conductivity existed between the pelts of Alaska and California Sea otters. This was done to assure that conclusions drawn from the oiling experiments carried out at Hubbs Marine Research Institute, Tetra Tech, Inc. contributed to the overall study by preparing a literature review and report on the fate and effects of oil dispersants and chemically dispersed oil.

  6. 30 CFR 550.250 - What oil and hazardous substance spills information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What oil and hazardous substance spills information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.250 Section 550.250 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents...

  7. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  8. Proceedings of the Workshop on Government Oil Spill Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. M. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    Oil spill model users and modelers were brought together for the purpose of fostering joint communication and increasing understanding of mutual problems. The workshop concentrated on defining user needs, presentations on ongoing modeling programs, and discussions of supporting research for these modeling efforts. Specific user recommendations include the development of an oil spill model user library which identifies and describes available models. The development of models for the long-term fate and effect of spilled oil was examined.

  9. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in United States history, with nearly 800 million liters of crude oil spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep ocean communities and over 1...

  10. Ecological Impacts During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in U.S. history, with nearly 800 million liters of crude oil spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep-ocean communities and over 1,600 kilo...

  11. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, P.J. Associates )

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 ( OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  12. Locating spilled oil with airborne laser fluorosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Nelson, Robert D.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1999-02-01

    Locating oil in marine and terrestrial environments is a daunting task. There are commercially available off the shelf (COTS) sensors with a wide field-of-view (FOV) which can be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These generic sensors, however, lack the specificity required to positively identify oil and related products. The problem is exacerbated along beach and shoreline environments where a variety of organic and inorganic substrates are present. One sensor that can detect and classify oil in these environments is the laser fluorosensor. Laser fluorosensors have been under development by several agencies around the world for the past two decades. Environment Canada has been involved with laser fluorosensor development since the early 1990s. The prototype system was known as the Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (LEAF). The LEAF has recently been modified to provide real-time oil spill detection and classification. Fluorescence spectra are collected and analyzed at the rate of 100 Hz. Geo-referenced maps showing the locations of oil contamination are produced in real-time onboard the aircraft. While the LEAF has proven to be an excellent prototype sensor and a good operational tool, it has some deficiencies when it comes to oil spill response operations. A consortium including Environment Canada and the Minerals Management Service has recently funded the development of a new fluorosensor, called the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF). The SLEAF was designed to detect and map oil in shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. Oil tends to pile up in narrow bands along the high tide line on beaches. A nadir-looking, small footprint sensor such as the LEAF would have difficulty locating oil in this situation. The SLEAF employs a pair of conical scanning mirrors to direct the laser beam in a circular pattern below the aircraft. With a sampling rate of 400 Hz and real-time spectral analysis

  13. Source apportionment in oil spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Jorge; Mudge, Stephen M; Loyola-Sepulveda, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Gonzalo; Bravo-Linares, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    A pipe rupture during unloading led to a spillage of 350-700 tonnes of Caño Limon, a light sweet crude oil, into San Vicente Bay in 2007. Initial clean-up methods removed the majority of the oil from the sandy beaches although some oil remained on the rocky shores. It was necessary for the responsible party to clean the spilled oil even though at this location there were already crude oil hydrocarbons from previous industrial activity. A biosolvent based on vegetable oil derivatives was used to solubilise the remaining oil and a statistical approach to source apportionment was used to determine the efficacy of the cleaning. Sediment and contaminated rock samples were taken prior to cleaning and again at the same locations two days after application of the biosolvent. The oil was extracted using a modified USEPA Method 3550B. The alkanes were quantified together with oil biomarkers on a GC-MS. The contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil hydrocarbons was calculated from a Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis using Caño Limon crude oil as the source. By the time the biosolvent was applied, there had already been some attenuation of the oil with all alkanes oil in this case and the contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil ranged from 0% to 74%. The total hydrocarbon concentrations were lower after cleaning indicating an efficacy of 90% although the reduction in Caño Limon oil was smaller. This was sufficient to make further remediation unnecessary. PMID:22588176

  14. Oil spills, 1971-75, Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danenberger, Elmer P.

    1976-01-01

    Oil spillage connected with federally supervised drilling and production activities has been a matter of wide public concern. In its supervision of mineral-resource development on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), the U.S. Geological Survey is responsible for the day-to-day inspection and monitoring of OCS oil and gas operations. During these activities, the U.S. Geological Survey records and investigates hydrocarbon discharges resulting from such operations. Beginning in 1971, all spills have been recorded, and a computer file has been maintained on all spills of 1 barrel or more. The total Gulf of Mexico OCS oil spillage recorded during January 1, 1971-December 31, 1975, amounted to 51,421 barrels. Production during that period amounted to 35,219 barrels per barrel spilled. In all, 5,857 spills were recorded, but 85.5 percent of the total spill volume was contributed by just 5 incidents. The environmental effect of these incidents apparently was minimal and of short duration. No spills of more than 50 barrels resulted from drilling operations during the period. The only spillage resulting from blowouts was caused by nondrilling incidents, including completion, production, and workover. The amount of oil discharged from spills of less than 50 barrels decreased by more than half between 1971 and 1975. The improvement reflects changes in the operating philosophy of the offshore industry, tightening of U.S. Geological Survey operating orders, and substantial increases in the inspection force. Most production-platform spills involve failures in the sump system, the separator system, or other hydrocarbon-handling equipment; improved sump-system designs and better high-low-level controls have reduced both the number and the volume of spills. Pipeline and pump spills also declined significantly, although the decline appears less attributable to revisions in OCS operating requirements. No operator consistently contributed a disproportionate amount of spillage. Most of

  15. Review of oil spill remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Fingas, M.F.; Brown, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    Remote-sensors for application to oil spills are reviewed. The capability of sensors to detect oil and to discriminate oil from background targets is the most important assessment criterion. A common sensor is an infrared camera or an IR/UV system. This sensor class can detect oil under a variety of conditions, discriminate oil from some backgrounds and has the lowest cost of any sensor. The inherent weaknesses include the inability to discriminate oil on beaches, among weeds or debris and under certain lighting conditions oil is not detected. The laser fluorosensor is recommended because of its unique capability to identify oil on most backgrounds. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large area searches and foul weather remote sensing. Radar is costly and requires a dedicated aircraft. Radar is prone to many interferences. Equipment operating in the visible spectrum, such as a camera or scanner, is useful for documentation or providing a basis for the overlay of other data. It is not useful beyond this, because oil shows no spectral characteristics in the visible region.

  16. Automated oil spill detection with multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Brian N.; Sanchez-Reyes, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01

    In this publication we present an automated detection method for ocean surface oil, like that which existed in the Gulf of Mexico as a result of the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. Regions of surface oil in airborne imagery are isolated using red, green, and blue bands from multispectral data sets. The oil shape isolation procedure involves a series of image processing functions to draw out the visual phenomenological features of the surface oil. These functions include selective color band combinations, contrast enhancement and histogram warping. An image segmentation process then separates out contiguous regions of oil to provide a raster mask to an analyst. We automate the detection algorithm to allow large volumes of data to be processed in a short time period, which can provide timely oil coverage statistics to response crews. Geo-referenced and mosaicked data sets enable the largest identified oil regions to be mapped to exact geographic coordinates. In our simulation, multispectral imagery came from multiple sources including first-hand data collected from the Gulf. Results of the simulation show the oil spill coverage area as a raster mask, along with histogram statistics of the oil pixels. A rough square footage estimate of the coverage is reported if the image ground sample distance is available.

  17. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    PubMed Central

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  18. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-06-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  19. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David D.; Mulholland, George W.; Baum, Howard R.; Walton, William D.; McGrattan, Kevin B.

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning. PMID:27500022

  20. Oil spills: Legal aspects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the legal aspects of oil spills. Topics include general perspectives on oil spills, EPA's response to oil spills, legal and corporate response to oil spills, public interest groups' attitudes on oil spills, and economic and political approaches to the problems caused by oil spills. Federal, state and local legislation dealing with these problems is emphasized. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  2. Endmember detection in marine environment with oil spill event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreou, Charoula; Karathanassi, Vassilia

    2011-11-01

    Oil spill events are a crucial environmental issue. Detection of oil spills is important for both oil exploration and environmental protection. In this paper, investigation of hyperspectral remote sensing is performed for the detection of oil spills and the discrimination of different oil types. Spectral signatures of different oil types are very useful, since they may serve as endmembers in unmixing and classification models. Towards this direction, an oil spectral library, resulting from spectral measurements of artificial oil spills as well as of look-alikes in marine environment was compiled. Samples of four different oil types were used; two crude oils, one marine residual fuel oil, and one light petroleum product. Lookalikes comprise sea water, river discharges, shallow water and water with algae. Spectral measurements were acquired with spectro-radiometer GER1500. Moreover, oil and look-alikes spectral signatures have been examined whether they can be served as endmembers. This was accomplished by testifying their linear independence. After that, synthetic hyperspectral images based on the relevant oil spectral library were created. Several simplex-based endmember algorithms such as sequential maximum angle convex cone (SMACC), vertex component analysis (VCA), n-finder algorithm (N-FINDR), and automatic target generation process (ATGP) were applied on the synthetic images in order to evaluate their effectiveness for detecting oil spill events occurred from different oil types. Results showed that different types of oil spills with various thicknesses can be extracted as endmembers.

  3. Oil-spill risk analysis: Central and western Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Lease Sales 142 and 143. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.M.; Lear, E.M.

    1992-03-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf lands in the Gulf of Mexico for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. In evaluating the significance of accidental oil spills, it is important to remember that the occurrence of such spills is fundamentally probabilistic. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. The report summarizes results of an oil spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Lease Sales 142 and 143. The objective of the analysis was to estimate relative risks associated with oil and gas production for the proposed lease sales.

  4. Oil-spill risk analysis: Central and Western Gulf of Mexico (Proposed Lease Sales 123 and 125) Outer Continental Shelf. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hannon, L.J.; Lear, E.M.

    1990-06-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf lands in the Central and Western Gulf of Mexico for oil and gas leasing. Oil spills are a major concern associated with offshore oil production. In evaluating the significance of accidental oil spills, it is important to remember that the occurrence of such spills is fundamentally probabilistic. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. The report summarizes results of and oil spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Lease Sales 123 125. The objective of the analysis was to estimate relative risks associated with oil and gas production for the proposed lease sales.

  5. MICROBIAL POPULATION CHANGES DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil-spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil + nutrients, and oil + nutrients + an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In-situ microbial community str...

  6. OIL SPILL AND OIL POLLUTION REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This issue contains summaries of articles, reports, patents, documents, and other materials relating to oil pollution published during the period 1974 to 1976. Subject coverage includes aquatic and terrestrial oil pollution with emphasis on the marine environment. A list of the p...

  7. Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; De Dominicis, Michela; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Lardner, Robin; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Soloviev, Dmitry; Tintore, Joaquin; Sotillo, Marcos; Drago, Aldo; Stylianou, Stavros; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Alves, Tiago; Kokinou, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages G. Zodiatis1, M. De Dominicis2, L. Perivoliotis3, H. Radhakrishnan1, R. W. Lardner1, N. Pinardi2, G. Coppini4, D. Soloviev1, J. Tintore5, M. Sotillo6 A. Drago7, S. Stylianou1, A. Nikolaidis1, T. Alves8, E. Kokinou9 and MEDESS4MS partners 1Oceanography Centre, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus 2Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy 3Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Athens, Greece 4Centro Euro- Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Italy 5SOCIB, IMEDEA, Palma de Majorca, Spain 6Puertos del Estado, Madrid, Spain 7IOI, University of Malta, La Valetta, Malta 83D Seismic Lab, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom 9Dept. of Environmental and Natural Resources, Technological Educational Institute Crete, Chania, Greece The risk from oil spill pollution in the Mediterranean is high due to the heavy traffic of merchant vessels for transporting oil and to the increasing coastal and offshore platforms related to the hydrocarbon exploration. This is especially true in the Levantine Basin following the recent widening of the Suez canal and the increase of the offshore deep wells for the exploitation of oil and gas. In order to select the optimal response measurements to assist the response agencies, oil spill models are used to provide predictions of the drift and weathering of the oil slicks. The establishment of the operational ocean forecasting systems at regional level, within the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service and in association with the national downscaled ones, provided the background for the implementation of a multi model integrated oil spill prediction system for the entire Mediterranean to support the maritime safety in near real time. This implementation was carried out in the frame of the medess4ms.eu project, which is dedicated to the response agencies of the riparian countries and to

  8. Western European oil pipeline spills on land decline in 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    European crude oil and petroleum products pipelines in 1992 had fewer incidents of oil spills than in 1991, spilled less in total volume, and recovered a larger portion of what was spilled than in any single year in the 5-year period beginning in 1988. Only seven incidents of oil spills from pipelines or related facilities occurred in 1992, compared with 14 in 1991 and an average of 12.9/year since 1971. Five spills were from pipelines; two from pump stations. Net loss of oil into the environment was 430 cu m (2,709 bbl) or barely 0.7 ppm of the total volume transported. Gross amount of spills totaled 804 cu m (5,065 bbl), least in the period 1988--92.

  9. OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: EXPERIENCES, LESSONS AND RESULTS FROM THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL IN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. ield studies conducted by sci...

  10. Spreading of oil spilled under ice

    SciTech Connect

    Yapa, P.D.; Chowdhury, T. )

    1990-12-01

    A new set of equations is presented to describe the process of oil spreading under ice in clam waters. These equations consider the gravity (buoyancy)-inertia phase, the gravity (buoyancy)-viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy-surface-tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to the termination of spreading is presented. Laboratory experiments were conducted using both real ice covers in a cold room and artificial ice covers. The experiments included different ice-cover roughnesses from smooth to rough, oils of different viscosities, and a variety of discharge conditions. The experimental data show close agreement with the theory. These equations can be used during cleanup or environmental impact assessment to estimate the area of an oil slick with respect to time.

  11. Statistics of extremes in oil spill risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhen-Gang; Johnson, Walter R; Wikel, Geoffrey L

    2014-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. After DWH, key questions were asked: What is the likelihood that a similar catastrophic oil spill (with a volume over 1 million barrels) will happen again? Is DWH an extreme event or will it happen frequently in the future? The extreme value theory (EVT) has been widely used in studying rare events, including damage from hurricanes, stock market crashes, insurance claims, flooding, and earthquakes. In this paper, the EVT is applied to analyze oil spills in the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS). Incorporating the 49 years (1964-2012) of OCS oil spill data, the EVT is capable of describing the oil spills reasonably well. The return period of a catastrophic oil spill in OCS areas is estimated to be 165 years, with a 95% confidence interval between 41 years and more than 500 years. Sensitivity tests indicate that the EVT results are relatively stable. The results of this study are very useful for oil spill risk assessment, contingency planning, and environmental impact statements on oil exploration, development, and production. PMID:25109900

  12. IT - OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill hazard associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; martins, Flavio

    2016-04-01

    Every year, 270,000 tonnes of oil are estimated to be spilled in the ocean by vessel operations (e.g. tank washing, leakage of lubricants) and the so called operational spills are typically associated with small volumes and high occurrence rate. Vessel-related accidental spills (e.g. collisions, explosions) seldom occur and usually involve high volumes of oil, accounting for about 100,000 tonnes/year. The occurrence of accidental spills and their impacts have been well documented in the available literature. On the other hand, occurrence rates of operational spills and the effects they have on the marine and coastal environments remain very uncertain due to insufficient sampling effort and methodological limitations. Trying to foresee when and where an oil spill will occur in a certain area, its characteristics and impacts is, at present, impossible. Oil spill risk assessments (OSRAs) have been employed in several parts of the globe in order to deal with such uncertainties and protect the marine environment. In the present work, we computed the oil spill risk applying ensemble oil spill simulations following an ISO-31000 compliant OSRA methodology (Sepp Neves et al. , 2015). The ensemble experiment was carried out for the Algarve coast (southern Portugal) generating a unique data set of 51,200 numerical oil spill simulations covering the main sources of uncertainties (i.e. where and when the spill will happen and oil spill model configuration). From the generated data set, the risk due to accidental and operational spills was mapped for the Algarve municipalities based on the frequency and magnitude (i.e. concentrations) of beaching events and the main sources of risk were identified. The socioeconomic and environmental dimensions of the risk were treated separately. Seasonal changes in the risk index proposed due to the variability of meteo-oceanographic variables (i.e. currents and waves) were also quantified.

  13. Oil pollution abatement: onshore, offshore, on the high seas

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, E.I.; Al- Rashid, N.

    1984-08-01

    Overview of typical sources of oil pollution is presented in this study. Arabian Gulf oil spills and other major oil spill accidents; persistent oils on seawater, their properties and physical changes; sorbents, dispersion with detergents, treating agents in typical processes, booms, skimming, recovery of oil; and the clean-up of oil contaminated beaches are considered.

  14. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

  15. Combustive management of oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris.

  16. Ecological Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Bogota, Columbia)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in US History, with nearly 800 million liters spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep ocean communities, protected species, over 1600 km o...

  17. RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS. L.D.

    The Exxon Valdez, on March 24, 1989, spilled approximately eleven million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound. Approximately 300 miles of
    contaminated beach are potential...

  18. OIL SPILL DEBRIS - WHERE TO PUT THE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a digest of a workshop on disposal of oil spill debris. Representatives of five New England states and New York agreed that oil spill cleanup and disposal of debris is a major regional problem which must be addressed by identifying disposal sites in advance of majo...

  19. USE OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS FOR MARINE OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersants are one of the tools available to oil spill response personnel to control the spread of an oil slick. The manual presents information from the literature relative to dispersant effectiveness, toxicity and other environmental factors, regulatory and administra...

  20. USE OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS FOR MARINE OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersants are one of the tools available to oil spill response personnel to control the spread of an oil slick. his manual presents information from the literature relative to dispersant effectiveness, toxicity and other environmental factors, regulatory and administra...

  1. Lumber spill in central California waters: implications for oil spills and sea otters

    SciTech Connect

    VanBlaricom, G.R.; Jameson, R.J.

    1982-03-19

    A large quantity of lumber was spilled in the ocean off central California during the winter of 1978, and it spread through most of the range of the threatened California sea otter population within 4 weeks. The movement rates of lumber were similar to those of oil slicks observed elsewhere. These observations indicate that a major oil spill could expose significant numbers of California sea otters to oil contamination.

  2. Hydrocarbon mineralization potentials and microbial populations in marine sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 1b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Braddock, J.F.; Rasley, B.T.; Yeager, T.R.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.

    1992-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the authors measured numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microoganisms and hydrocarbon mineralization potentials of microorganisms in oiled and unoiled surface sediments from the shore through 100 m depth offshore. The authors found both temporal and spatial variations in numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms with significant higher values at the oiled sites than at reference sites. The microbial data indicate mobilization between 1989 and 1990 of oil from the intertidal to surface sediments at 20, 40 and 100 m depths offshore.

  3. Oil-Spill Analysis: Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lease Sales, Eastern Planning Area, 2003-2007 and Gulfwide OCS Program, 2003-2042

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    The Federal Government plans to offer U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in the Eastern Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) for oil and gas leasing. This report summarizes results of that analysis, the objective of which was to estimate the risk of oil-spill contact to sensitive offshore and onshore environmental resources and socioeconomic features from oil spills accidentally occurring from the OCS activities.

  4. Approach for assessing coastal vulnerability to oil spills for prevention and readiness using GIS and the Blowout and Spill Occurrence Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J. R.; Grubesic, T. H.; Sim, L.; Rose, K.; Graham, J.

    2015-08-01

    Increasing interest in offshore hydrocarbon exploration has pushed the operational fronts associated with exploration efforts further offshore into deeper waters and more uncertain subsurface settings. This has become particularly common in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. In this study we develop a spatial vulnerability approach and example assessment to support future spill prevention and improve future response readiness. This effort, which is part of a larger integrated assessment modeling spill prevention effort, incorporated economic and environmental data, and utilized a novel new oil spill simulation model from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Blowout and Spill Occurrence Model (BLOSOM). Specifically, this study demonstrated a novel approach to evaluate potential impacts of hypothetical spill simulations at varying depths and locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The simulations are analyzed to assess spatial and temporal trends associated with the oil spill. The approach itself demonstrates how these data, tools and techniques can be used to evaluate potential spatial vulnerability of Gulf communities for various spill scenarios. Results of the hypothetical scenarios evaluated in this study suggest that under conditions like those simulated, a strong westward push by ocean currents and tides may increase the impacts of deep water spills along the Texas coastline, amplifying the vulnerability of communities on the local barrier islands. Ultimately, this approach can be used further to assess a range of conditions and scenarios to better understand potential risks and improve informed decision making for operators, responders, and stakeholders to support spill prevention as well as response readiness.

  5. A GIS planning model for urban oil spill management.

    PubMed

    Li, J

    2001-01-01

    Oil spills in industrialized cities pose a significant threat to their urban water environment. The largest city in Canada, the city of Toronto, has an average 300-500 oil spills per year with an average total volume of about 160,000 L/year. About 45% of the spills was eventually cleaned up. Given the enormous amount of remaining oil entering into the fragile urban ecosystem, it is important to develop an effective pollution prevention and control plan for the city. A Geographic Information System (GIS) planning model has been developed to characterize oil spills and determine preventive and control measures available in the city. A database of oil spill records from 1988 to 1997 was compiled and geo-referenced. Attributes to each record such as spill volume, oil type, location, road type, sector, source, cleanup percentage, and environmental impacts were created. GIS layers of woodlots, wetlands, watercourses, Environmental Sensitive Areas, and Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest were obtained from the local Conservation Authority. By overlaying the spill characteristics with the GIS layers, evaluation of preventive and control solutions close to these environmental features was conducted. It was found that employee training and preventive maintenance should be improved as the principal cause of spills was attributed to human errors and equipment failure. Additionally, the cost of using oil separators at strategic spill locations was found to be $1.4 million. The GIS model provides an efficient planning tool for urban oil spill management. Additionally, the graphical capability of GIS allows users to integrate environmental features and spill characteristics in the management analysis. PMID:11379137

  6. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  7. Panel recommendations on Oil Spill Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, George L.

    A technical panel was convened by the Minerals Management Services (MMS) of the Department of Interior to identify deficiencies and recommend improvements in their Oil Spill Risk Analysis (OSRA) model. Members of the panel were J. M. Bane, Jr. (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), G. S. Janowitz (North Carolina State University, Raleigh), T. H. Lee (University of Miami, Miami, Fla.), G. L. Mellor (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.), M. L. Spaulding (University of Rhode Island, Kingston), and F. M. Vukovich (Research Triangle Institute, Raleigh-Durham, N.C.).The present OSRA model uses climatologically derived near-surface velocity fields on which are superposed oil trajectory velocities derived from the so-called “3.5% rule”: this uses a wind series derived from a “transition probability matrix” statistical approach.

  8. Offshore oil and the coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A radical, accelerated 5-year plan to offer 875 million acres (of which 20 million could actually be leased for oil and gas extraction purposes) on the outer continental shelf (OCS) could result in the release of large volumes of drilling wastes and spillage (Environ. Sci. Tech., Nov. 1981). The actual leasing, under the 5-year plan proposed by Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt, could amount to 4-5 million acres per year—about 10 times as much, on the average, as had been leased over the past 25 years. Regulations on the environmental effects may be less complicated yet more effective in that impact statements will cover large areas instead of the tract-by-tract statements now required. A number of the new offshore leasing areas, for example, the Alaska Coast (Cook Inlet, Beaufort Bay, Gulf of Alaska), the Blake Plateau and Baltimore Canyon, and the Georges Bank, are extremely valuable in terms of renewable resources and potentially fragile in terms of environmental conditions. Fishing interests in these areas have produced considerable controversy over the planned sale of petroleum rights.

  9. Laser cleaning of oil spill on coastal rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittiboonanan, Phumipat; Rattanarojpan, Jidapa; Ratanavis, Amarin

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, oil spills have become a significant environmental problem in Thailand. This paper presents a laser treatment for controlled-clean up oil spill from coastal rocks. The cleaning of various types of coastal rocks polluted by the spill was investigated by using a quasi CW diode laser operating at 808 nm. The laser power was attempted from 1 W to 70 W. The result is shown to lead to the laser removal of oil spill, without damaging the underlying rocks. In addition, the cleaning efficiency is evaluated using an optical microscope. This study shows that the laser technology would provide an attractive alternative to current cleaning methods to remove oil spill from coastal rocks.

  10. Advancing Partnerships Towards an Integrated Approach to Oil Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.; Stough, T.; Gallegos, S. C.; Leifer, I.; Murray, J. J.; Streett, D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills can cause enormous ecological and economic devastation, necessitating application of the best science and technology available, and remote sensing is playing a growing critical role in the detection and monitoring of oil spills, as well as facilitating validation of remote sensing oil spill products. The FOSTERRS (Federal Oil Science Team for Emergency Response Remote Sensing) interagency working group seeks to ensure that during an oil spill, remote sensing assets (satellite/aircraft/instruments) and analysis techniques are quickly, effectively, appropriately, and seamlessly available to oil spills responders. Yet significant challenges remain for addressing oils spanning a vast range of chemical properties that may be spilled from the Tropics to the Arctic, with algorithms and scientific understanding needing advances to keep up with technology. Thus, FOSTERRS promotes enabling scientific discovery to ensure robust utilization of available technology as well as identifying technologies moving up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level). A recent FOSTERRS facilitated support activity involved deployment of the AVIRIS NG (Airborne Visual Infrared Imaging Spectrometer- Next Generation) during the Santa Barbara Oil Spill to validate the potential of airborne hyperspectral imaging to real-time map beach tar coverage including surface validation data. Many developing airborne technologies have potential to transition to space-based platforms providing global readiness.

  11. Washing ashore: The politics of offshore oil in northern Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Kristin Michelle

    This dissertation examines the political ecology of Angolan oil, by exploring state and corporate political economies; historical convergences of violence and capital; and struggles over the costs and benefits of oil production from the perspective of artisanal fishing and farming communities in the extractive zones. Angola is sub-Saharan Africa's second-largest oil producer but revenues from the enclave sector in oil rarely trickle down to the impoverished populace. The Angolan government strategically invests petrodollars in patronage networks to bolster their power; and watchdog agencies claim top officials divert the balance to offshore accounts. While the enclaved nature of production facilitates the restricted distribution of oil monies by concentrating services and revenue streams, the distortions and externalities that bleed out from these enclaves increase the misery of Angolans---especially those living in the extractive zones. By focusing on the lived experience of extraction, I explore the politics of oil through the forms of violence and degradation threatening the lives and livelihoods of local people. Most of Angola's oil is produced from offshore fields, so oil spills present a considerable risk to the health of local communities and ecosystems. The fishers and fish traders suffering from oil spills demand compensation from the liable oil corporations, yet the skewed system of disbursements only reaches the most powerful claimants. Moreover, faced with a repressive and unresponsive government, communities in extractive zones have come to rely on the same corporations for schools and health posts in a system I refer to as oil-backed development. I demonstrate that local histories of violence, national political exigencies, and transnational corporate interests govern the distribution of oil-backed development projects. Furthermore, I argue that the Angolan government leverages corporate donations for development to suit its own exclusionary interests

  12. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, James R.; Prince, Roger C.; Harner, E. James; Atlas, Ronald M.

    1994-03-01

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for oil spills has been difficult to establish on dynamic, heterogeneous marine shorelines. A new interpretative technique used following the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska shows that fertilizer applications significantly increased rates of oil biodegradation. Biodegradation rates depended mainly on the concentration of nitrogen within the shoreline, the oil loading, and the extent to which natural biodegradation had already taken place. The results suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of bioremediation measures in the future.

  13. Decision support system for managing oil spill events.

    PubMed

    Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Cartalis, Constantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2003-08-01

    The Mediterranean environment is exposed to various hazards, including oil spills, forest fires, and floods, making the development of a decision support system (DSS) for emergency management an objective of utmost importance. The present work presents a complete DSS for managing marine pollution events caused by oil spills. The system provides all the necessary tools for early detection of oil-spills from satellite images, monitoring of their evolution, estimation of the accident consequences and provision of support to responsible Public Authorities during clean-up operations. The heart of the system is an image processing-geographic information system and other assistant individual software tools that perform oil spill evolution simulation and all other necessary numerical calculations as well as cartographic and reporting tasks related to a specific management of the oil spill event. The cartographic information is derived from the extant general maps representing detailed information concerning several regional environmental and land-cover characteristics as well as financial activities of the application area. Early notification of the authorities with up-to-date accurate information on the position and evolution of the oil spill, combined with the detailed coastal maps, is of paramount importance for emergency assessment and effective clean-up operations that would prevent environmental hazard. An application was developed for the Region of Crete, an area particularly vulnerable to oil spills due to its location, ecological characteristics, and local economic activities. PMID:14753653

  14. Automatic oil spill detection on quad polarimetric UAVSAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Dhakal, Shanti

    2016-05-01

    Oil spill on the water bodies has adverse effects on coastal and marine ecology. Oil spill contingency planning is of utmost importance in order to plan for mitigation and remediation of the oceanic oil spill. Remote sensing technologies are used for monitoring the oil spills on the ocean and coastal region. Airborne and satellite sensors such as optical, infrared, ultraviolet, radar and microwave sensors are available for remote surveillance of the ocean. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used most extensively for oil-spill monitoring because of its capability to operate during day/night and cloud-cover condition. This study detects the possible oil spill regions on fully polarimetric Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle - Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) images. The UAVSAR image is decomposed using Cloude-Pottier polarimetric decomposition technique to obtain entropy and alpha parameters. In addition, other polarimetric features such as co-polar correlation and degree of polarization are obtained for the UAVSAR images. These features are used to with fuzzy logic based classification to detect oil spill on the SAR images. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Oil spill fishery impact assessment model: Sensitivity to spill location and timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, Malcolm L.; Reed, Mark; Anderson, Eric; Isaji, Tatsusaburo; Swanson, J. Craig; Saila, Saul B.; Lorda, Ernesto; Walker, Henry

    1985-01-01

    An oil spill fishery impact assessment model system has been applied to the Georges Bank-Gulf of Maine region to assess the sensitivity of probable impact on several key fisheries to spill location and timing. Simulations of the impact on the fishery of tanker spills (20 million gallons released over 5 days), at two separate locations for each season of the year, and blowout spills (68 million gallons released over 30 days) at one location, with monthly releases and at six other locations with seasonal spills have been studied. Atlantic cod has been employed as the principal fish species throughout the simulations. Impacts on Atlantic herring and haddock have also been investigated for selected cases. All spill sites are located on Georges Bank with the majority in the general region of OCS leasing activity. The results of these simulations suggest a complex interaction among spill location and timing, the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning, the population dynamics of the species under study, and the hydrodynamics of the area. For the species studied, spills occurring during the winter and spring have the largest impact with cod being the most heavily impacted followed by haddock and herring. In all cases, the maximum cumulative loss to the fishery of a one time spill event never exceeded 25% of the annual catch with the exact value depending on the number of ichthyoplankton impacted by the spill and the compensatory dynamics of the population.

  16. Minimizing risks from spilled oil to ecosystem services using influence diagrams: the Deepwater Horizon spill response.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Barron, Mace G

    2011-09-15

    Decision science tools can be used in evaluating response options and making inferences on risks to ecosystem services (ES) from ecological disasters. Influence diagrams (IDs) are probabilistic networks that explicitly represent the decisions related to a problem and their influence on desired or undesired outcomes. To examine how IDs might be useful in probabilistic risk management for spill response efforts, an ID was constructed to display the potential interactions between exposure events and the trade-offs between costs and ES impacts from spilled oil and response decisions in the DWH spill event. Quantitative knowledge was not formally incorporated but an ID platform for doing this was examined. Probabilities were assigned for conditional relationships in the ID and scenarios examining the impact of different response actions on components of spilled oil were investigated in hypothetical scenarios. Given the structure of the ID, potential knowledge gaps included understanding of the movement of oil, the ecological risk of different spill-related stressors to key receptors (e.g., endangered species, fisheries), and the need for stakeholder valuation of the ES benefits that could be impacted by a spill. Framing the Deepwater Horizon problem domain in an ID conceptualized important variables and relationships that could be optimally accounted for in preparing and managing responses in future spills. These features of the developed IDs may assist in better investigating the uncertainty, costs, and the trade-offs if large-scale, deep ocean spills were to occur again. PMID:21875054

  17. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  18. Aoutomatic Oil Spill Detection Using TerraSAR-X Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulipiye, Kaiyoumu; Balik Sanli, Fusun

    2016-07-01

    Oil release into the ocean may affect marine ecosystems and cause environmental pollution. Thus, oil spill detection and identification becomes critical important. Characterized by synoptic view over large regions, remote sensing has been proved to be a reliable tool for oil spill detection. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows returned signal that clearly distinguish oil from oil-free surface under optimal wind conditions, which makes it the most frequent used remote sensing technique in oil spill detection. Algorithms of automatic oil spill detection has already been developed for different SAR sensors, including RADARSAT and ENVISAT. In this study, we want to apply automatic oil spill detection algorithms on TerraSAR-X data which is previously developed for ASAR data. The applied methodology includes two steps as segmentation and classification. First segmentation algorithms compiled by C# have been applied under a Bayesian framework adopting a multi-level logistic. After segmentation different classification methods such as feature selection, filter, and embedded selection have been applied. As a result the used classifiers for oil spill detection will be compared, and the complete processing chain will be evaluated.

  19. Approach for assessing coastal vulnerability to oil spills for prevention and readiness using GIS and the Blowout and Spill Occurrence Model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nelson, J. R.; Grubesic, T. H.; Sim, L.; Rose, K.; Graham, J.

    2015-08-01

    Increasing interest in offshore hydrocarbon exploration has pushed the operational fronts associated with exploration efforts further offshore into deeper waters and more uncertain subsurface settings. This has become particularly common in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. In this study we develop a spatial vulnerability approach and example assessment to support future spill prevention and improve future response readiness. This effort, which is part of a larger integrated assessment modeling spill prevention effort, incorporated economic and environmental data, and utilized a novel new oil spill simulation model from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Blowout and Spillmore » Occurrence Model (BLOSOM). Specifically, this study demonstrated a novel approach to evaluate potential impacts of hypothetical spill simulations at varying depths and locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The simulations are analyzed to assess spatial and temporal trends associated with the oil spill. The approach itself demonstrates how these data, tools and techniques can be used to evaluate potential spatial vulnerability of Gulf communities for various spill scenarios. Results of the hypothetical scenarios evaluated in this study suggest that under conditions like those simulated, a strong westward push by ocean currents and tides may increase the impacts of deep water spills along the Texas coastline, amplifying the vulnerability of communities on the local barrier islands. Ultimately, this approach can be used further to assess a range of conditions and scenarios to better understand potential risks and improve informed decision making for operators, responders, and stakeholders to support spill prevention as well as response readiness.« less

  20. A tale of two recent spills--comparison of 2014 Galveston Bay and 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang; Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Managing oil spill residues washing onto sandy beaches is a common worldwide environmental problem. In this study, we have analyzed the first-arrival oil spill residues collected from two Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beach systems following two recent oil spills: the 2014 Galveston Bay (GB) oil spill, and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. This is the first study to provide field observations and chemical characterization data for the 2014 GB oil spill. Here we compare the physical and chemical characteristics of GB oil spill samples with DWH oil spill samples and present their similarities and differences. Our field observations indicate that both oil spills had similar shoreline deposition patterns; however, their physical and chemical characteristics differed considerably. We highlight these differences, discuss their implications, and interpret GB data in light of lessons learned from previously published DWH oil spill studies. These analyses are further used to assess the long-term fate of GB oil spill residues and their potential environmental impacts. PMID:25714100

  1. Removing Spilled Oil With Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    Technique proposed to reduce more quickly, contain, clean up, and remove petroleum products and such other pollutants as raw sewage and chemicals without damage to humans, animals, plants, or the environment. Unique and primary aspect of new technique is use of cryogenic fluid to solidify spill so it can be carried away in solid chunks. Liquid nitrogen (LN2), with boiling point at -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C), offers probably best tradeoff among extreme cold, cost, availability, and lack of impact on environment among various cryogenic fluids available. Other applications include extinguishing fires at such locations as oil derricks or platforms and at tank farms containing such petroleum products as gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene.

  2. Satellite Observations: Oil Spills Impact on Phytoplankton in Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li; Tang, Danling; Wang, Sufen; Pan, Gang

    2014-11-01

    This study discussed ecological responses to the Penglai oil spills in the Bohai Sea, occurring on June 4, 2011, using MODIS Chlorophyll-a data. After time intervals of 20 days, 12 months and 14 months, phytoplankton blooms appeared at three locations in the surrounding and distant regions of the oil spills in the Bohai Sea. A bloom with high Chlorophyll-a (13.66 mg m-3) spread over an area of 800 km2 on June 18-25, 2011, about 56 km northeast from the location of the oil spills. A pronounced increase in the monthly Chlorophyll-a concentration (6.40 mg m-3) indicating phytoplankton bloom was observed in the Bohai Sea in June 2012. Phytoplankton blooms depend on the amount and composition of oil, toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons, micro-organisms, and sea ice. The oil spills impact phytoplankton for a long duration, which impacts the marine ecosystem.

  3. OIL SPILL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS FOR THE 1990'S

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the 1970s and the early 1980s the emphasis of Federally-sponsored oil spill research was on mechanical spill control devices and removal methods such as booms, skimmers, and sorbents, with later efforts also focused on dispersing agents. The preponderance of the work was direc...

  4. OIL SPILL RESPONSE SCENARIOS FOR REMOTE ARCTIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Special problems occur during oil spill cleanup in remote inland areas in cold climates. In Alaska these problems result from the harsh climate, the unusual terrain features, and the special problems of spills along swift rivers. The analysis begins with a description of the envi...

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 3A. SIMULATION OF OIL SPILLS AND DISPERSANTS UNDER CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    At the request of the US EPA Oil Program Center, ERD is developing an oil spill model that focuses on fate and transport of oil components under various response scenarios. This model includes various simulation options, including the use of chemical dispersing agents on oil sli...

  6. Planning for the Human Dimensions of Oil Spills and Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webler, Thomas; Lord, Fabienne

    2010-04-01

    Oil spill contingency planners need an improved approach to understanding and planning for the human dimensions of oil spills. Drawing on existing literature in social impact assessment, natural hazards, human ecology, adaptive management, global change and sustainability, we develop an integrative approach to understanding and portraying the human dimensions impacts of stressors associated with oil spill events. Our approach is based on three fundamental conclusions that are drawn from this literature review. First, it is productive to acknowledge that, while stressors can produce human impacts directly, they mainly affect intermediary processes and changes to these processes produce human impacts. Second, causal chain modeling taken from hazard management literature provides a means to document how oil spill stressors change processes and produce human impacts. Third, concepts from the global change literature on vulnerability enrich causal models in ways that make more obvious how management interventions lessen hazards and mitigate associated harm. Using examples from recent spill events, we illustrate how these conclusions can be used to diagrammatically portray the human dimensions of oil spills.

  7. Exceptions to the rules of oil-spill behavior: Case studies of major oil spills of the past twenty years

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.O.

    1994-11-01

    Studies of major oil spills over the past 20 yr have allowed an evolution of our understanding of how to respond to and remediate the environmental impacts from such spills. There have been a number of spills for which follow-up research has provided major turning points that allowed the development of certain rules of oil-spill behavior. For example, the spill of over 100,000 tons of crude oil by the tanker Urquiola on the coast of Spain in May 1976 demonstrated the importance of hydrodynamic energy level in natural cleanup processes. Research on the spill of over 200,000 tons of crude oil along the coast of France by the tanker Amoco Cadiz in March 1978 allowed a better understanding of the long-term effects of spilled oil on exposed tidal flats and salt marshes. The oil spilled by the tanker Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in March 1989 impacted many miles of gravel beaches, which were treated by a number of methods, including some innovative berm-relocation techniques. A thorough understanding of the coastal geomorphology and processes of the spill site was essential for the development of meaningful contingency and response plans. Research on the impacts of intertidal habitats of the coast of Saudi Arabia during the Gulf War spill of 1991 indicates that some previously held concepts on oil behavior and fate on shorelines must be revised. One of the best established rules of oil-spill behavior was that the depth of oil penetration on sand beaches and tidal flats increases with increasing sediment grain size. However, no such correlation was found on the Saudi Arabian coast, primarily due to the presence of secondary porosity (e.g., bubble sand, extensive burrows, and gypsum crystals). The oil penetrated to depths of tens of centimeters, even in fine sand, which has significantly slowed natural removal processes and weathering rates. These sediments remained heavily oiled with incipient asphalt pavements forming two years after the spill.

  8. 50 CFR 622.14 - Area closures related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Horizon oil spill. 622.14 Section 622.14 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... spill. (a) Caribbean EEZ area closure related to Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Effective May 11, 2010... Web site: http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/deepwater_horizon_oil_spill.htm. (b) Gulf EEZ area closure...

  9. The oil spill in ageing Bruch membrane

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Christine A; Johnson, Mark; Rudolf, Martin; Huang, Jiahn-Dar

    2013-01-01

    Ageing is the largest risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and soft drusen and basal linear deposits are lipid-rich extracellular lesions specific to AMD. Oil red O binding neutral lipid represents a major age-related deposition in the Bruch membrane (BrM) and the first identified druse component. Decades after these seminal observations, a natural history of neutral lipid deposition has been articulated and a biochemical model proposed. Results obtained with multiple biochemical, histochemical, and ultrastructural methods, and supported indirectly by epidemiology, suggest that the RPE secretes apolipoprotein B (apoB)-lipoprotein particles of unusual composition into BrM, where they accumulate with age eventually forming a lipid wall, a precursor of basal linear deposit. The authors propose that constituents of these lesions interact with reactive oxygen species to form pro-inflammatory peroxidised lipids that elicit neovascularisation. Here, the authors summarise key evidence supporting both accumulation of BrM lipoproteins leading to lesion formation and lipoprotein production by the RPE. The authors update their model with genetic associations between AMD and genes historically associated with plasma HDL metabolism, and suggest future directions for research and therapeutic strategies based on an oil-spill analogy. PMID:21890786

  10. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  11. THE OHIO RIVER OIL SPILL: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spill of diesel oil fuel from an Ashland Oil storage tank in January 1988 on the Monongahela River raised a number of technical, legislative, and administrative issues. These include as assessing long- and short-term environmental damage, evaluating regulations regarding oil ...

  12. Hopper dredges applied to the Alaska oil spill, March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, K.H.; Redlinger, J.F.

    1992-03-01

    On March 24, 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska. This accident resulted in the largest American oil spill ever and spoiled one of the most pristine areas in North America. In April 1989, the US Army Corps of Engineers was requested to assist in the cleanup of this disastrous oil spill. Two of the Corps' minimum fleet hopper dredges, the Yaquina and the Essayons, were dispatched to assist in collecting oil. Although unmodified hopper dredges had never been used in this capacity, the Yaquina and the Essayons proved to be the most effective tools in the recovery of oil. Given proper air support, adequate containment boom, and commitment at the earliest possible time, hopper dredges can make a significant contribution to the cleanup of large oil spills.

  13. U. S. oil spill law to cause growing tanker problem

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.B.

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on tanker owners which face a growing dilemma on the issue of oil spill liability. The U.S. Oil Pollution Act, passed last year in the wake of the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, was intended to reduce risk of and damage from such accidents. However, in addition to phasing in double hulls on most tankers operating in U.S. waters, the law substantially increases shipowner's liability for spills. And the federal law does not preempt state liability laws, which in most cases amount to unlimited liability for spill cleanup. Rather than face potentially unlimited liability in the event of a spill, tanker owners worldwide are exercising a number of options to shield themselves. Some of those options could increase the potential for oil spills, industry officials warn. The act also threatens to shatter the international alliance among shippers. A report by Drewry Shipping Consultants Ltd., London, says the law could have a devastating effect on operating practices. Tanker owners and operators have voiced the most opposition to the new spill law and the shackles it places on them. Now the industry that insures tankers has spoken up about is increased liability, and it too may launch a boycott.

  14. Fate and toxicity of spilled oil from the Exxon Valdez. Subtidal study number 4. Exxon Valdez oil spill, state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    Three separate papers are represented in this final report; Toxicity of intertidal and subtidal sediments contaminated by the Exxon Valdez oil spill; Comparative toxicities of polar and non-polar organic fractions from sediments affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska; and Fate of the oil spilled from the T/V Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

  15. Introduction to coastal habitats and biological resources for oil-spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.O.; Hoff, R.; Michel, J.; Scholz, D.; Shigenaka, G.

    1992-04-01

    The report discusses the physical, geological, and biological considerations relevant to oil behavior and oil spill response and cleanup. The intent is to contribute to an informed and effective oil spill response in coastal waters.

  16. Offshore oil gas trends in ROVs tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.R. )

    1994-04-01

    The ROVs that operate in today's offshore environment bear little or no resemblance to those which first began supporting the oil and gas work requirements less than 15 years ago. In that short span of time, an explosion of subsea technology has occurred, rendering older equipment obsolete and expanding subsea remote intervention capabilities beyond the horizon of intervention tasks originally envisioned. Today's offshore work ROVs employ the latest in robotics, fiver optics, acoustics, video, and computer technologies, and routinely achieve better than 90 percent operational availability. Leading offshore ROV operations companies have demonstrated less than 1 percent down-time over thousands of hours of operation. As the offshore oil and gas market evolves, the ever-expanding capabilities of the work ROV plays a major role in shaping the operational concepts employed in subsea oil and gas field exploration, development, and production. This paper explores the capabilities of available ROV systems in use offshore today, the economic trends driving ROV technology development, and the new trends in the employment of ROVs and their associated sensors and tooling systems.

  17. Changing Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    D'Sa, Eurico J; Overton, Edward B; Lohrenz, Steven E; Maiti, Kanchan; Turner, R Eugene; Freeman, Angelina

    2016-05-17

    The characteristics of fluorescent components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were examined using excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy combined with parallel-factor analysis (PARAFAC) for seawater samples obtained from the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) before, during, and after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill. An EEMs PARAFAC modeling of samples collected within 16 km of the wellhead during the oil spill in May 2010, which included one typical subsurface sample with a PAH concentration of 1.09 μg/L, identified two humic-like and two previously reported oil-like components. Compared to prespill levels, however, there were order-of-magnitude higher fluorescence intensities associated with these components that are consistent with an oil-spill source. The spectral decomposition of the EEMs data using individual and combined data sets from coastal and offshore waters impacted by the DwH spill further revealed the changing nature of fluorescent DOM composition. Although the PAHs concentrations were at prespill conditions after the spill in 2012 and 2013 near the DwH site, the variable and anomalous levels of fluorescence intensities and DOC concentrations three years after the spill suggest the potential long-term persistence of the oil in the DOC pool in the NGoM. PMID:27088567

  18. Robotic swarm concept for efficient oil spill confrontation.

    PubMed

    Kakalis, Nikolaos M P; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2008-06-15

    This paper examines the behaviour of a distributed system/robotic swarm concept for the effective confrontation of oil spills. The system described consists of a number of identical robotic units of high-power autonomy that recover oil mechanically and are able to communicate with each other. A mathematical model that accounts for a multitude of oil weathering processes and for the concerted action of the autonomous units is implemented for this investigation. Computational assessment of the robotic swarm in weathering oil spills indicates the potential effectiveness of the method. PMID:18077087

  19. Guidance for use of the oil spill liability trust fund

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This guidance document has been prepared to assist On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) and financial management personnel in accessing and using the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund (OSLTF) in orders to conduct oil pollution removal actions under Section 311(c) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and Section 1012 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA), and fully accounting for OSLTF funds. This document details the requirments and procedures for use of the OSLTF that are described in the Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Coast Guard for use of the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund (MOU).

  20. DOE's Portal to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon platform in the Gulf of Mexico exploded. The explosion and fire killed and injured workers on the oil rig, and caused major releases of oil and gas into the Gulf for several months. The Department of Energy, in keeping with the Obama Administrations ongoing commitment to transparency, provided online access to data and information related to the response to the BP oil spill. Included are schematics, pressure tests, diagnostic results, video clips, and other data. There are also links to the Restore the Gulf website, to the trajectory forecasts from NOAA, and oil spill information from the Environmental Protection Agency.

  1. Possibilities and difficulties of oil spill and ship detection from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrova, O.; Mityagina, M.; Bocharova, T.; Pyrkov, V.; Shcherbak, S.; Zlatopolskiy, A.

    Oil pollution of coastal zones is an almost daily event associated with offshore oil exploitation pipeline seeps routine tanker operations and marine traffic in general The long-term effects of this chronic pollution are arguably more harmful to the coastal environment than any single large-scale accident The ability to monitor it more reliably would thus represent a highly desirable contribution to any environmental information system The best way of monitoring this chronic oil pollution would be a constant satellite-based system Various satellites equipped with active and passive sensors working at microwave infrared and optical frequencies have been launched recently and now provide numerous images of most parts of the world oceans Among the many different sensors synthetic aperture radar SAR is possibly the most suited for oil spill monitoring because of its high ground resolution and independence of cloud and light conditions SAR is an excellent tool to monitor and detect oil on the water surface Oil appears as dark patches on SAR images because of the damping effect of the oil on the backscattered radar signal Nevertheless detection based only on SAR data is still problematic because of the difficulty in distinguishing oil slicks especially at lower wind speeds from other phenomena known as oil look-alikes Phenomena giving rise to look-alikes include bioorganic films areas of wind-shadow near coasts rain cells zones of upwelling internal waves and oceanic or atmospheric fronts The contrast between a spill and the

  2. An assessment of oil spill effects on pink salmon populations following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 1: Early life history

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; Moulton, L.L.; Gilbertson, L.G.; Maki, A.W.; Skalski, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses results of field programs initiated within a few days of the spill and designed to assess spill effects on critical early life stages of pink salmon in postspill years. Samples of water and stream sediments from throughout the spill area were used to define the exposure of pink salmon to residual hydrocarbons from the spill. Mean sediment concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) up to 300 ppb were measured in oiled streams in 1989 and generally followed a downward trend toward background in 1990 and 1991. These PAH concentrations were then used in regression analyses of potential effects on key early life stages of pink salmon. Water samples taken from both nearshore feeding and rearing areas and offshore migratory areas show that hydrocarbon concentrations were from one to four orders of magnitude lower than concentrations reported in the literature to cause acute or chronic effects on fish species. The postspill field and laboratory studies of pink salmon early life stages included examination of potential effects on 1989, 1990, and 1991 eggs, fry, and juveniles. 28 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Environmental implications of oil spills from shipping accidents.

    PubMed

    Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Since ancient times, ships have sunk during storms, either as a result of collisions with other vessels or running onto rocks. However, the ever-increasing importance of crude oil in the twentieth century and the corresponding growth in the world's tanker fleet have drawn attention to the negative implications of sea transport. Disasters involving tankers like the Torrey Canyon or the Amoco Cadiz have shown how dramatic the consequences of such an accident may be. The effects of oil spills at sea depend on numerous factors, such as the physicochemical parameters of the oil, the characteristics of the environment affected, and the physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring there, such as evaporation, dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, photo-oxidation, biodegradation, and sedimentation. The combination of these processes reduces the concentrations of hydrocarbons in sediments and water and alters the chemical composition of spilled oils. In every case, oil spills pose a danger to fauna and flora and cause damage to sea and shores ecosystems. Many of the petroleum-related chemicals that are spilled are toxic, otherwise carcinogenic or can be bioaccumulated in the tissues of marine organisms. Such chemicals may then be biomagnified up the marine food chain from phytoplankton to fish, then to seals and other carnivorous sea mammals. Moreover, oil products can be accumulated and immobilized in bottom deposits for long periods of time. Oil spills are particularly dangerous when they occur in small inland seas that have intense sea traffic, e.g., the Baltic Sea. PMID:20652670

  4. New problems and opportunities of oil spill monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenboim, G. M.; Borisov, V. M.; Golosov, V. N.; Saveca, A. Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Emergency oil and oil products spills represent a great danger to the environment, including ecosystems, and to the population. New problems of such dangerous spills and methods of early detection are discussed in this paper. It is proposed to conduct assessment of biological hazards of such spills on the basis of data on the distribution of individual oil hydrocarbons within the column of the water body and computer predictions of their toxicity. Oil radioactivity, which is associated with uranium and thorium, is seen as the important aspect of the oil spill danger, especially in watercourses. The need for an automated monitoring system for the early detection of oil spills in water bodies is analysed. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first remote sensing subsystem is based on powerful fluorescent lidars; experimental results on lidar registration of oil pollution of water are reported. The second subsystem uses a network of automatic monitoring stations with contact detectors. The third subsystem is the combined sensor system based on remote and contact technologies.

  5. Tracking the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Modeling Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonggang; Weisberg, Robert H.; Hu, Chuanmin; Zheng, Lianyuan

    2011-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was caused by a drilling rig explosion on 20 April 2010 that killed 11 people. It was the largest oil spill in U.S. history and presented an unprecedented threat to Gulf of Mexico marine resources. Although oil gushing to the surface diminished after the well was capped, on 15 July 2010, much remains to be known about the oil and the dispersants beneath the surface, including their trajectories and effects on marine life. A system for tracking the oil, both at the surface and at depth, was needed for mitigation efforts and ship survey guidance. Such a system was implemented immediately after the spill by marshaling numerical model and satellite remote sensing resources available from existing coastal ocean observing activities [e.g., Weisberg et al., 2009]. Analyzing this system's various strengths and weaknesses can help further improve similar systems designed for other emergency responses.

  6. Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Harkness, Jennifer S; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-05-17

    The rapid rise of unconventional oil production during the past decade in the Bakken region of North Dakota raises concerns related to water contamination associated with the accidental release of oil and gas wastewater to the environment. Here, we characterize the major and trace element chemistry and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of surface waters (n = 29) in areas impacted by oil and gas wastewater spills in the Bakken region of North Dakota. We establish geochemical and isotopic tracers that can identify Bakken brine spills in the environment. In addition to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts (Na, Cl, Br), spill waters also consisted of elevated concentrations of other contaminants (Se, V, Pb, NH4) compared to background waters, and soil and sediment in spill sites had elevated total radium activities ((228)Ra + (226)Ra) relative to background, indicating accumulation of Ra in impacted soil and sediment. We observed that inorganic contamination associated with brine spills in North Dakota is remarkably persistent, with elevated levels of contaminants observed in spills sites up to 4 years following the spill events. PMID:27119384

  7. Process of cleaning oil spills and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Breisford, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    A process of cleaning spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like from bodies of water, garage floors, roadways and the like, comprising spraying unbonded shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles onto the spill, absorbing the spill into the shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles, and removing the soaked shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles and the spill absorbed therein. An absorbent composition for absorbing spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and like, comprising shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and means for absorbing the spill and for stiffening the co-position so that the composition fights against being compressed so that less of the absorbed spill escapes from the composition when it is being removed from the spill, said means including cork particles dispersed in with the fiberglass blowing wool particles. An absorbent sock for absorbing or containing a spill of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like, comprising a hollow tube, said tube being permeable to the toxic or hazardous materials and being made of nylon or polypropylene, and unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles enclosed in the tube. Apparatus for controlling an oil slick on the surface of water, comprising a craft for traversing the slick, a supply of fiberglass blowing wool composition particles stored on the craft in position for being dispersed, shredding means on the craft for shredding the fiberglass blowing wool particles to form unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and dispensing means on the craft for dispensing the unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles onto the slick.

  8. Behavior and persistence of spilled oil on shoreline

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Recent oil spills have re-demonstrated the range of shoreline impacts that are possible from medium to large spills in the United States, i.e., the Exxon Valdez spill which significantly contaminated over 1000 km of shoreline in Alaska and the Mega Borg, which resulted in widely scattered tar balls over a small area. Immediate and total removal of stranded oil should not always be the primary objective. Instead, shoreline cleanup strategies developed for oil spills need to consider the persistence and short- to long-term persistence of stranded oil. There are several general guidelines on the persistence of stranded oil. High-energy shorelines are rapidly and effectively cleaned by natural processes, although there are micro-environments where oil tends to persist (wave shadows, supratidal zone, rock crevices, etc.). On sand and mixed sand and gravel beaches, oil tends to be buried below clean layers of sediment, but erosional/depositional cycles will result in oil removal, usually within one year. In sheltered environments (wetlands, tidal flats) oil will persist for long periods; therefore, oil removal is frequently required, though it is usually poorly implemented. Cobble/boulder beaches, while usually very complex, present a special problem. They can be found in a range of energy settings, with years between periods of storm activity. These beaches can hold large volumes of oil; they can be a source of long-term ({gt} one year) leaching and sheening; subsurface oil is very difficult to remove by surface treatment methods; and they have poorly understood sedimentation patterns, so it is difficult to predict rates of sediment reworking. Studies of recent oil spills have shown a need for shoreline-specific technologies for these types of beaches.

  9. Thickness characterisation of oil spills using active microwave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    True, Michael; Shuchman, Robert A.; Kletzli, D. W., Jr.; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Digranes, Gunar; Berg, Sverre; Dalland, Kjell

    1994-12-01

    Oil thickness is a crucial parameter in the characterization of oil spills for environmental impact. The feasibility of using active microwave sensors to measure thickness was addressed in a series of microwave scatterometer experiments performed by Simrad Marine A/S in a wave tank at the Nansen Environmental Remote Sensing Center. The thickness of the oil layer was maintained at levels similar to the thick part of an oil spill (0.1 - 1 mm). The measurements showed the capability of active microwave sensors to measure oil spill thickness when the oil type is known. In addition to thickness characterization, the experiment studied the effects of oil viscosity, incidence angle, wind speed, wind angle, microwave frequency, and polarization. The backscatter contrast was observed to be greater for lower incidence angles which indicates that the ERS-1 viewing geometry is optimum for the detection and measurement of thick oil slicks. A thickness-dependent backscatter model was developed which included the effects of oil viscosity, composite surface effects, and oil-water reflectivities. The model viscous effects saturated when the oil thickness was greater than the viscous boundary layer thickness. This explained the observed C-VV backscatter contrast saturation for low viscosity diesel oil at thicknesses greater than 0.15 mm. The model predicted contrast saturation at greater thicknesses for the higher viscosity oils. The data showed this trend but the measurements did not extend to thicknesses which tested the model completely.

  10. IT-OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill risk associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; Martins, Flavio

    2016-08-01

    Oil Spill Risk Assessments (OSRAs) are widely employed to support decision making regarding oil spill risks. This article adapts the ISO-compliant OSRA framework developed by Sepp Neves et al. (J Environ Manag 159:158-168, 2015) to estimate risks in a complex scenario where uncertainties related to the meteo-oceanographic conditions, where and how a spill could happen exist and the risk computation methodology is not yet well established (ensemble oil spill modeling). The improved method was applied to the Algarve coast, Portugal. Over 50,000 simulations were performed in 2 ensemble experiments to estimate the risks due to operational and accidental spill scenarios associated with maritime traffic. The level of risk was found to be important for both types of scenarios, with significant seasonal variations due to the the currents and waves variability. Higher frequency variability in the meteo-oceanographic variables were also found to contribute to the level of risk. The ensemble results show that the distribution of oil concentrations found on the coast is not Gaussian, opening up new fields of research on how to deal with oil spill risks and related uncertainties.

  11. IT-OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill risk associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; Martins, Flavio

    2016-06-01

    Oil Spill Risk Assessments (OSRAs) are widely employed to support decision making regarding oil spill risks. This article adapts the ISO-compliant OSRA framework developed by Sepp Neves et al. (J Environ Manag 159:158-168, 2015) to estimate risks in a complex scenario where uncertainties related to the meteo-oceanographic conditions, where and how a spill could happen exist and the risk computation methodology is not yet well established (ensemble oil spill modeling). The improved method was applied to the Algarve coast, Portugal. Over 50,000 simulations were performed in 2 ensemble experiments to estimate the risks due to operational and accidental spill scenarios associated with maritime traffic. The level of risk was found to be important for both types of scenarios, with significant seasonal variations due to the the currents and waves variability. Higher frequency variability in the meteo-oceanographic variables were also found to contribute to the level of risk. The ensemble results show that the distribution of oil concentrations found on the coast is not Gaussian, opening up new fields of research on how to deal with oil spill risks and related uncertainties.

  12. Enhanced oil spill detection sensors in low-light environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allik, Toomas H.; Ramboyong, Len; Roberts, Mark; Walters, Mark; Soyka, Thomas J.; Dixon, Roberta; Cho, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Although advances have been made in oil spill remote detection, many electro-optic sensors do not provide real-time images, do not work well under degraded visual environments, nor provide a measure of extreme oil thickness in marine environments. A joint program now exists between BSEE and NVESD that addresses these capability gaps in remote sensing of oil spills. Laboratory experiments, calibration techniques, and field tests were performed at Fort Belvoir, Virginia; Santa Barbara, California; and the Ohmsett Test Facility in Leonardo, New Jersey. Weathered crude oils were studied spectroscopically and characterized with LWIR, and low-light-level visible/NIR, and SWIR cameras. We designed and fabricated an oil emulsion thickness calibration cell for spectroscopic analysis and ground truth, field measurements. Digital night vision cameras provided real-time, wide-dynamic-range imagery, and were able to detect and recognize oil from full sun to partial moon light. The LWIR camera provided quantitative oil analysis (identification) for >1 mm thick crude oils both day and night. Two filtered, co-registered, SWIR cameras were used to determine whether oil thickness could be measured in real time. Spectroscopic results revealed that oil emulsions vary with location and weathered state and some oils (e.g., ANS and Santa Barbara seeps) do not show the spectral rich features from archived Deep Water Horizon hyperspectral data. Multi-sensor imagery collected during the 2015 USCG Airborne Oil Spill Remote Sensing and Reporting Exercise and the design of a compact, multiband imager are discussed.

  13. Zipf's Law Application To Oil Spill Detection In The Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, A.; Redondo, J. M.

    One of the results of the CLEAN SEAS European Union project using SAR imaging of European Coastal Waters was the statistical analysis and detection of thousands of oil spills and slicks in the three compared sections, Baltic Sea, North Sea and N.W. Mediterranean. The results of another European Project, OIL WATCH together with the past 30 years of recorded mayor tanker accidental oil spills have been used in a predictive scheme that subject to spatial and temporal normalization of these two different scale processes clearly shows that the annual probability of the occurence of an oil spill follows Zipf's law. Local deviations from the law may be also explained in terms of multifractal analysis.

  14. Oil spill contamination probability in the southeastern Levantine basin.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ron; Biton, Eli; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit; Levin, Noam

    2015-02-15

    Recent gas discoveries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea led to multiple operations with substantial economic interest, and with them there is a risk of oil spills and their potential environmental impacts. To examine the potential spatial distribution of this threat, we created seasonal maps of the probability of oil spill pollution reaching an area in the Israeli coastal and exclusive economic zones, given knowledge of its initial sources. We performed simulations of virtual oil spills using realistic atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The resulting maps show dominance of the alongshore northerly current, which causes the high probability areas to be stretched parallel to the coast, increasing contamination probability downstream of source points. The seasonal westerly wind forcing determines how wide the high probability areas are, and may also restrict these to a small coastal region near source points. Seasonal variability in probability distribution, oil state, and pollution time is also discussed. PMID:25534630

  15. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, P.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA``) and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy`s Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry`s behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  16. Effects of the Oil Spill on Alaskan Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    Oil-industry-produced revenues, help finance Alaskan state and local governmental services including education. Capital losses incurred by the Exxon Corporation and by commerical fisheries as a consequence of the Exxon Valdez oil spill caused an economic recession, the result being diminished financing for a number of governmental programs and…

  17. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to Part 300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  18. PERFORMANCE TESTS OF FOUR SELECTED OIL SPILL SKIMMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of performance tests were conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's OHMSETT test facility with four selected oil spill pickup devices (skimmers). Each of the four skimmers was tested for two weeks with both high and low viscosity oils. The objectives of the...

  19. Combinative hypergraph learning on oil spill training dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Binghui; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Cheng; Li, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Detecting oil spill from open sea based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is a very important work. One of key issues is to distinguish oil spill from "look-alike". There are many existing methods to tackle this issue including supervised and semi-supervised learning. Recent years have witnessed a surge of interest in hypergraph-based transductive classification. This paper proposes combinative hypergraph learning (CHL) to distinguish oil spill from "look-alike". CHL captures the similarity between two samples in the same category by adding sparse hypergraph learning to conventional hypergraph learning. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of CHL in comparison to the state-of-the-art methods and showed that our proposed method is promising.

  20. Efficient tools for marine operational forecast and oil spill tracking.

    PubMed

    Marta-Almeida, Martinho; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; Pereira, Janini; Otero, Pablo; Cirano, Mauro; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Hetland, Robert D

    2013-06-15

    Ocean forecasting and oil spill modelling and tracking are complex activities requiring specialised institutions. In this work we present a lighter solution based on the Operational Ocean Forecast Python Engine (OOFε) and the oil spill model General NOAA Operational Modelling Environment (GNOME). These two are robust relocatable and simple to implement and maintain. Implementations of the operational engine in three different regions with distinct oceanic systems, using the ocean model Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), are described, namely the Galician region, the southeastern Brazilian waters and the Texas-Louisiana shelf. GNOME was able to simulate the fate of the Prestige oil spill (Galicia) and compared well with observations of the Krimsk accident (Texas). Scenarios of hypothetical spills in Campos Basin (Brazil) are illustrated, evidencing the sensitiveness to the dynamical system. OOFε and GNOME are proved to be valuable, efficient and low cost tools and can be seen as an intermediate stage towards more complex operational implementations of ocean forecasting and oil spill modelling strategies. PMID:23643409

  1. Oil spill problems and sustainable response strategies through new technologies.

    PubMed

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V; Elkin, Andrey A; Makarov, Sergey O; Cunningham, Colin J; Peshkur, Tatyana A; Atlas, Ronald M; Philp, James C

    2015-07-01

    Crude oil and petroleum products are widespread water and soil pollutants resulting from marine and terrestrial spillages. International statistics of oil spill sizes for all incidents indicate that the majority of oil spills are small (less than 7 tonnes). The major accidents that happen in the oil industry contribute only a small fraction of the total oil which enters the environment. However, the nature of accidental releases is that they highly pollute small areas and have the potential to devastate the biota locally. There are several routes by which oil can get back to humans from accidental spills, e.g. through accumulation in fish and shellfish, through consumption of contaminated groundwater. Although advances have been made in the prevention of accidents, this does not apply in all countries, and by the random nature of oil spill events, total prevention is not feasible. Therefore, considerable world-wide effort has gone into strategies for minimising accidental spills and the design of new remedial technologies. This paper summarizes new knowledge as well as research and technology gaps essential for developing appropriate decision-making tools in actual spill scenarios. Since oil exploration is being driven into deeper waters and more remote, fragile environments, the risk of future accidents becomes much higher. The innovative safety and accident prevention approaches summarized in this paper are currently important for a range of stakeholders, including the oil industry, the scientific community and the public. Ultimately an integrated approach to prevention and remediation that accelerates an early warning protocol in the event of a spill would get the most appropriate technology selected and implemented as early as possible - the first few hours after a spill are crucial to the outcome of the remedial effort. A particular focus is made on bioremediation as environmentally harmless, cost-effective and relatively inexpensive technology. Greater

  2. A multifrequency evaluation of active and passive microwave sensors for oil spill detection and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenner, R. G.; Reid, S. C.; Solie, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation is given of how active and passive microwave sensors can best be used in oil spill detection and assessment. Radar backscatter curves taken over oil spills are presented and their effect on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery are discussed. Plots of microwave radiometric brightness variations over oil spills are presented and discussed. Recommendations as to how to select the best combination of frequency, viewing angle, and sensor type for evaluation of various aspects of oil spills are also discussed.

  3. Automatic Calculation of Oil Slick Area from Multiple SAR Acquisitions for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanoğlu, B.; Özkan, C.; Sunar, F.; Staples, G.

    2012-07-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 and became the largest accidental marine oil spill in history. Oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780, 000m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill caused extensive economical and ecological damage to the areas it reached, affecting the marine and wildlife habitats along with fishing and tourism industries. For oil spill mitigation efforts, it is important to determine the areal extent, and most recent position of the contaminated area. Satellitebased oil pollution monitoring systems are being used for monitoring and in hazard response efforts. Due to their high accuracy, frequent acquisitions, large area coverage and day-and-night operation Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites are a major contributer of monitoring marine environments for oil spill detection. We developed a new algorithm for determining the extent of the oil spill from multiple SAR images, that are acquired with short temporal intervals using different sensors. Combining the multi-polarization data from Radarsat-2 (C-band), Envisat ASAR (C-band) and Alos-PALSAR (L-band) sensors, we calculate the extent of the oil spill with higher accuracy than what is possible from only one image. Short temporal interval between acquisitions (hours to days) allow us to eliminate artifacts and increase accuracy. Our algorithm works automatically without any human intervention to deliver products in a timely manner in time critical operations. Acquisitions using different SAR sensors are radiometrically calibrated and processed individually to obtain oil spill area extent. Furthermore the algorithm provides probability maps of the areas that are classified as oil slick. This probability information is then combined with other acquisitions to estimate the combined probability map for the spill.

  4. Movement of spilled oil as predicted by estuarine nontidal drift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conomos, T.J.

    1975-01-01

    Information on water movement obtained from bimonthly releases of surface and seabed drifters in the San Francisco Bay and adjacent Pacific Ocean is used to understand major processes controlling dispersal of oil after a spill of 3,200 m3 of Bunker C in the bay in January 1971. River-induced nontidal estuarine circulation was the dominant factor controlling net movement of the oil spilled at the entrance of the bay system, reinforcing ebbing tidal currents and causing the seaward movement of floating oil, which followed paths taken by surface drifters released 3 weeks before the spill. In contrast, some oil formed globules which sank to the near-bottom waters, had the same relative buoyancy as seabed drifters, and moved similarly, beaching in eastern San Pablo Bay after being transported landward in the near-bottom waters. No oil or surface drifters floated into the south bay because surface waters were drifting seaward, away from the south bay. Notable seasonally modulated phenomena which must be considered in predicting surface and near-bottom oil drifts of future spills include a summer (low-river discharge period) diminution of the estuarine circulation mechanism in the north and central bayadjacent ocean region and a seasonal reversal in two-layer drift in the south bay.

  5. Toxicology of oil-spill cleanup agents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tjeerdema, R.S.; Singer, M.M.; Scelfo, G.M.; Smalheer, D.L.; Swall, L.M.

    1990-07-01

    The report describes both advanced analytical and biochemical techniques for use with surfactant-based oil spill cleanup agents. It also presents novel aquatic toxicity testing procedures, as well as the results from toxicity testing with the sensitive early life stages of diverse marine organisms. In addition, it describes the metabolic fate, including both tissue and temperature dependence, of a representative surfactant in a marine invertebrate. Finally, it delineates the in vitro effects of surfactant-based oil spill cleanup agents in both marine birds and mammals.

  6. Oil spills: Environmental effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmental impacts of oil spills primarily resulting from ship wrecks and oil drilling or exploration. Oil spills in temperate, tropic and arctic zones which affect fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments are included. Cleanup operations and priorities, computer modeling and simulation of oil spills, oil spill investigations, and prediction of oil slick movement in high traffic shipping lanes are among the topics discussed. Microbial degradation of oils, and toxicity studies of oils and oil dispersants affecting aquatic plant and animal life are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Oil spills: Environmental effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmental impacts of oil spills primarily resulting from ship wrecks and oil drilling or exploration. Oil spills in temperate, tropic and arctic zones which affect fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments are included. Cleanup operations and priorities, computer modeling and simulation of oil spills, oil spill investigations, and prediction of oil slick movement in high traffic shipping lanes are among the topics discussed. Microbial degradation of oils, and toxicity studies of oils and oil dispersants affecting aquatic plant and animal life are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. 78 FR 33431 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for a... state natural resource trustees for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (Trustees) intend to prepare a PEIS... discharges from the rig and from the wellhead on the seabed. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is the...

  9. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 155 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill.... 155, App. C Appendix C to Part 155—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The... capabilities of the contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify and activate...

  10. 78 FR 8184 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase II Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase II Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review AGENCY: Interior... Addressing Injuries Resulting from the DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill (Framework Agreement), notice is hereby... services injured or lost as a result of the DEEPWATER HORIZON oil spill, which occurred on or about...