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Sample records for offspring cognitive development

  1. The effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent findings suggest that the intake of specific nutrients during the critical period in early life influence cognitive and behavioural development profoundly. Antioxidants such as vitamin E have been postulated to be pivotal in this process, as vitamin E is able to protect the growing brain from oxidative stress. Currently tocotrienols are gaining much attention due to their potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. It is thus compelling to look at the effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienols supplementation, on cognition and behavioural development among offsprings of individual supplemented with tocotrienols. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate potential prenatal and early postnatal influence of Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF) supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats. Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base diet plus vehicle (VHCL), base diet plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA), base diet plus Tocotrienol-Rich fraction (TRF), and base diet plus both docosahexaenoic acid, and tocotrienol rich fraction (DTRF) diets for 2 weeks prior to mating. The females (F0 generation) were maintained on their respective treatment diets throughout the gestation and lactation periods. Pups (F1 generation) derived from these dams were raised with their dams from birth till four weeks post natal. The male pups were weaned at 8 weeks postnatal, after which they were grouped into five groups of 10 animals each, and fed with the same diets as their dams for another eight weeks. Learning and behavioural experiments were conducted only in male off-spring rats using the Morris water maze.Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base

  2. Gestational hypothyroxinemia and cognitive function in offspring.

    PubMed

    Kasatkina, E P; Samsonova, L N; Ivakhnenko, V N; Ibragimova, G V; Ryabykh, A V; Naumenko, L L; Evdokimova, Yu A

    2006-07-01

    The effects of gestational hypothyroxinemia on the neurointellectual prognosis of children in the first year of life living in an industrial city (megalopolis) with mild iodine deficiency were studied in 13 children of mothers with thyroid hormone-corrected gestational hypothyroxinemia in the first trimester and 10 children of mothers with normal levels of free thyroxine by assessing cognitive functions at ages six, nine, and 12 months using the Gnome mental development scale. The results showed that maternal free thyroxine levels at the early stages (5-9 weeks) of pregnancy correlated significantly with the coefficients of mental development among the children at ages 6, 9, and 12 months, i.e., represented one of the factors defining the neuropsychological development of offspring. Early (not later than nine weeks) correction of gestational hypothyroxinemia with levothyroxine at a mean daily dose of at lest 1.2 microg/kg improved the neurointellectual prognosis of the offspring, increasing the coefficient of mental development of children to 92-97 points during the first year of life, i.e., to the level of development of mental functions of children born to mothers with normal thyroxine levels. PMID:16783515

  3. Impact of preeclampsia on cognitive function in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Rätsep, Matthew T; Hickman, Andrew F; Maser, Brandon; Pudwell, Jessica; Smith, Graeme N; Brien, Donald; Stroman, Patrick W; Adams, Michael A; Reynolds, James N; Croy, B Anne; Paolozza, Angelina

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a significant clinical disorder occurring in 3-5% of all human pregnancies. Offspring of PE pregnancies (PE-F1s) are reported to exhibit greater cognitive impairment than offspring from uncomplicated pregnancies. Previous studies of PE-F1 cognitive ability used tests with bias that do not assess specific cognitive domains. To improve cognitive impairment classification in PE-F1s we used standardized clinical psychometric testing and eye tracking studies of saccadic eye movements. PE-F1s (n=10) and sex/age matched control participants (n=41 for psychometrics; n=59 for eye-tracking) were recruited from the PE-NET study or extracted from the NeuroDevNet study databases. Participants completed a selected array of psychometric tests which assessed executive function, working memory, attention, inhibition, visuospatial processing, reading, and math skills. Eye-tracking studies included the prosaccade, antisaccade, and memory-guided tasks. Psychometric testing revealed an impairment in working memory among PE-F1s. Eye-tracking studies revealed numerous impairments among PE-F1s including additional saccades required to reach the target, poor endpoint accuracy, and slower reaction time. However, PE-F1s made faster saccades than controls, and fewer sequence errors in the memory-guided task. Our study provides a comprehensive assessment of cognitive function among PE-F1s. The development of PE may be seen as an early predictor of reduced cognitive function in children, specifically in working memory and oculomotor control. Future studies should extended to a larger study populations, and may be valuable for early studies of children born to pregnancies complicated by other disorders, such as gestational diabetes or intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:26784561

  4. Maternal dexamethasone exposure ameliorates cognition and tau pathology in the offspring of triple transgenic AD mice.

    PubMed

    Di Meco, A; Joshi, Y B; Lauretti, E; Praticò, D

    2016-03-01

    Dysregulation of stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids, in adult life increases the risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the effect of prenatal glucocorticoids exposure on AD development in the offspring remains unknown. We studied how gestational dexamethasone exposure influences the AD-like phenotype in the offspring of triple transgenic AD mice (3 × Tg). To this end, female mice received dexamethasone or vehicle during the entire pregnancy time in the drinking water. Offspring from vehicle-treated 3 × Tg (controls) were compared with offspring from dexamethasone-treated 3 × Tg later in life for their memory, learning ability and brain pathology. Compared with controls, offspring from dexamethasone-treated mothers displayed improvement in their memory as assessed by fear conditioning test, both in the cue and recall phases. The same animals had a significant reduction in the insoluble fraction of tau, which was associated with an increase in autophagy. In addition, they showed an activation of the transcription factor cellular response element-binding protein and an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and c-FOS protein levels, key regulators of synaptic plasticity and memory. We conclude that dexamethasone exposure during pregnancy provides long-lasting protection against the onset and development of the AD-like phenotype by improving cognition and tau pathology. PMID:26077691

  5. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring. PMID:27422502

  6. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure in rats: programming effects on stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Brydges, Nichola M; Wood, Emma R; Drake, Amanda J; Hall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Human epidemiological studies have provided compelling evidence that prenatal exposure to stress is associated with significantly increased risks of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Exposure to excessive maternal glucocorticoids may underlie this fetal programming effect. In the current study, we assessed how prenatal dexamethasone administration during the last week of gestation affects stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring. Stress reactivity was assessed by evaluating anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. In addition, to characterize the long-term cognitive outcomes of prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids, animals were assessed on two cognitive tasks, a spatial reference memory task with reversal learning and a delayed matching to position (DMTP) task. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone had no observable effect on anxiety-like behavior, but affected cognition in the adult offspring. Prenatally dexamethasone-exposed animals showed a transient deficit in the spatial reference memory task and a trend to faster acquisition during the reversal-learning phase. Furthermore, prenatally dexamethasone-treated animals also showed faster learning of new platform positions in the DMTP task. These results suggest that fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids programs a phenotype characterized by cognitive flexibility and adaptability to frequent changes in environmental circumstances. This can be viewed as an attempt to increase the fitness of survival in a potentially hazardous postnatal environment, as predicted by intrauterine adversity. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in rats could be used as an animal model for studying some cognitive components of related psychiatric disorders. PMID:26383033

  7. Maternal Diabetes and Cognitive Performance in the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camprubi Robles, Maria; Campoy, Cristina; Garcia Fernandez, Llenalia; Lopez-Pedrosa, Jose M.; Rueda, Ricardo; Martin, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diabetes during gestation is one of the most common pregnancy complications associated with adverse health effects for the mother and the child. Maternal diabetes has been proposed to negatively affect the cognitive abilities of the child, but experimental research assessing its impact is conflicting. The main aim of our study was to compare the cognitive function in children of diabetic and healthy pregnant women. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted through a literature search using different electronic databases from the index date to January 31, 2015. We included studies that assessed the cognitive abilities in children (up to 14 years) of diabetic and non-diabetic mothers using standardized and validated neuropsychological tests. Results Of 7,698 references reviewed, 12 studies involving 6,140 infants met our inclusion criteria and contributed to meta-analysis. A random effect model was used to compute the standardized mean differences and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Infants (1–2 years) of diabetic mothers had significantly lower scores of mental and psychomotor development compared to control infants. The effect size for mental development was -0.41 (95% CI -0.59, -0.24; p<0.0001) and for psychomotor development was -0.31 (95% CI -0.55, -0.07; p = 0.0125) with non-significant heterogeneity. Diabetes during pregnancy could be associated with decreased intelligence quotient scores in school-age children, although studies showed significant heterogeneity. Conclusion The association between maternal diabetes and deleterious effects on mental/psychomotor development and overall intellectual function in the offspring must be taken with caution. Results are based on observational cohorts and a direct causal influence of intrauterine hyperglycemia remains uncertain. Therefore, more trials that include larger populations are warranted to elucidate whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has a negative impact on

  8. The sperm of aging male bustards retards their offspring's development.

    PubMed

    Preston, Brian T; Saint Jalme, Michel; Hingrat, Yves; Lacroix, Frederic; Sorci, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Understanding whether the sperm of older males has a diminished capacity to produce successful offspring is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. We investigate this issue using 10 years of reproductive data on captive long-lived houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), where the use of artificial insemination techniques means parents can only influence offspring quality via their gametes. Here we show that paternal aging reduces both the likelihood that eggs hatch and the rate at which chicks grow, with older males producing the lightest offspring after the first month. Surprisingly, this cost of paternal aging on offspring development is of a similar scale to that associated with maternal aging. Fitting with predictions on germline aging, the sperm of immature males produce the fastest growing offspring. Our findings thus indicate that any good genes benefit that might be offered by older 'proven' males will be eroded by aging of their germline DNA. PMID:25647605

  9. The sperm of aging male bustards retards their offspring's development

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Brian T.; Saint Jalme, Michel; Hingrat, Yves; Lacroix, Frederic; Sorci, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Understanding whether the sperm of older males has a diminished capacity to produce successful offspring is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. We investigate this issue using 10 years of reproductive data on captive long-lived houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), where the use of artificial insemination techniques means parents can only influence offspring quality via their gametes. Here we show that paternal aging reduces both the likelihood that eggs hatch and the rate at which chicks grow, with older males producing the lightest offspring after the first month. Surprisingly, this cost of paternal aging on offspring development is of a similar scale to that associated with maternal aging. Fitting with predictions on germline aging, the sperm of immature males produce the fastest growing offspring. Our findings thus indicate that any good genes benefit that might be offered by older ‘proven' males will be eroded by aging of their germline DNA. PMID:25647605

  10. Multigenerational effects of parental prenatal exposure to famine on adult offspring cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Na, Lixin; Ma, Hao; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Tianjiao; Lin, Liqun; Li, Qiang; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The effects of prenatal nutrition on adult cognitive function have been reported for one generation. However, human evidence for multigenerational effects is lacking. We examined whether prenatal exposure to the Chinese famine of 1959–61 affects adult cognitive function in two consecutive generations. In this retrospective family cohort study, we investigated 1062 families consisting of 2124 parents and 1215 offspring. We assessed parental and offspring cognitive performance by means of a comprehensive test battery. Generalized linear regression model analysis in the parental generation showed that prenatal exposure to famine was associated with a 8.1 (95% CI 5.8 to 10.4) second increase in trail making test part A, a 7.0 (1.5 to 12.5) second increase in trail making test part B, and a 5.5 (−7.3 to −3.7) score decrease in the Stroop color-word test in adulthood, after adjustment for potential confounders. In the offspring generation, linear mixed model analysis found no significant association between parental prenatal exposure to famine and offspring cognitive function in adulthood after adjustment for potential confounders. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to severe malnutrition is negatively associated with visual- motor skill, mental flexibility, and selective attention in adulthood. However, these associations are limited to only one generation. PMID:26333696

  11. Maternal hydroxytyrosol administration improves neurogenesis and cognitive function in prenatally stressed offspring.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Adi; Li, Hao; Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Zou, Xuan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Cong; Liu, Jiankang; Feng, Zhihui

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal stress is known to induce emotional and cognitive dysfunction in the offspring of both humans and experimental animals. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a major polyphenol in olive oil with reported ability modulating oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, was performed to investigate its preventive effect on prenatal stress-induced behavioral and molecular alterations in offspring. Rats were exposed to restraint stress on days 14-20 of pregnancy. HT was given at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg/day. The spontaneous alternation performance and Morris water maze confirmed the impaired learning capacity and memory performance induced by prenatal stress in both male and female offspring, and these effects were markedly restored in the HT supplement groups. Through tissue analysis of the hippocampi of male offspring, we found that the stress-induced downregulation of neural proteins, including BDNF, GAP43, synaptophysin, NMDAR1, NMDANR2A and NMDANR2B, was prevented by HT. Prenatal stress-induced low expression of glucocorticoid receptor was also increased by HT, although basal fetal serum corticosterone levels were not different among the four groups. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in prenatally stressed rats were confirmed with changes in protein oxidation, SOD activity, the expression of mitochondrial complexes and mitochondrial DNA copy number. Meanwhile, HT significantly increased transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3, as well as phase II enzyme-related proteins, including Nrf2 and HO-1, which may contribute to the decreased oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial function shown with HT supplementation. Taken together, these findings suggest that HT is an efficient maternal nutrient protecting neurogenesis and cognitive function in prenatally stressed offspring. PMID:25442671

  12. Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female Wistar rats maintained on low-iodine grain were randomly assigned to three groups based on iodated water concentration: low iodine (LI, 1.2 μg/d), normal iodine (NI, 5–6 μg/d), and 3-fold high iodine (3HI, 15–16 μg/d). The present study investigated whether higher-than-normal iodine intake (3HI) by rats from before pregnancy until breastfeeding affects the postnatal (PN) neurodevelopment (PN7 and PN45) of their offspring during particularly sensitive periods in brain development. Results After 12 weeks of treatment (before pregnancy), iodine concentrations in urine and thyroid tissue and circulating thyroxine of adult females correlated with iodine intake. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampi of pups on PN7 and PN45 was decreased in 3HI group compared to the NI controls (P < 0.05, all) On PN7 and PN45, the BDNF levels of the 3HI pups were 83.5% and 88.8%, respectively, that of the NI pups. In addition, the 3HI group had a higher neuroendocrine-specific protein A (NSP-A) level than the NI controls on PN7 (P < 0.05). NSP-A levels of the 3HI pups were 117.0% that of the NI pups. No significant difference was observed in the expressions of c-Fos or c-Jun in the hippocampal CA1 region of the 3HI group compared to the controls (P > 0.05). Results from the Morris water maze test revealed that pups of the 3HI group had mild learning and spatial memory deficits. Conclusions The neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits of the 3HI pups were mild and

  13. Sex-dependent cognitive performance in baboon offspring following maternal caloric restriction in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jesse S; Bartlett, Thad Q; Keenan, Kathryn E; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Nijland, Mark J

    2012-05-01

    In humans a suboptimal diet during development has negative outcomes in offspring. We investigated the behavioral outcomes in baboons born to mothers undergoing moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Maternal nutrient restriction mothers (n = 7) were fed 70% of food eaten by controls (CTR, n = 12) fed ad libitum throughout gestation and lactation. At 3.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) years of age offspring (controls: female [FC, n = 8], male [MC, n = 4]; nutrient restricted: female [FR, n = 3] and male [MR, n = 4]) were administered progressive ratio, simple discrimination, intra-/extra-dimension set shift and delayed matching to sample tasks to assess motivation, learning, attention, and working memory, respectively. A treatment effect was observed in MNR offspring who demonstrated less motivation and impaired working memory. Nutrient-restricted female offspring showed improved learning, while MR offspring showed impaired learning and attentional set shifting and increased impulsivity. In summary, 30% restriction in maternal caloric intake has long lasting neurobehavioral outcomes in adolescent male baboon offspring. PMID:22344725

  14. Impact of hypericum (St.-John's-wort) given prenatally on cognition of mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, W F; Gonzalez, C L; Christensen, H D; Harkins, T L; Kupiec, T C

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive impact of prenatal exposure to the herbal antidepressant hypericum in CD-1 mice. Hypericum (182 mg/kg/day) or a placebo was consumed in food bars for 2 weeks before mating and throughout gestation. The hypericin content in our hypericum formulation was in the middle range of standardized hypericum products. One offspring per gender from each litter (hypericum 13, placebo 12) was tested on each of the following tasks: juvenile runway with adult memory, adult Morris maze, adult passive avoidance, or adult straight water runway followed by a dry Cincinnati maze. Learning occurred in both genders in all tasks (P<.003) with no significant differences between treatments at the final trial. Female offspring exposed to hypericum, rather than to a placebo, required more time to learn the Morris maze task (P<.05). Postlearning sessions did not show any significant differences. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to a therapeutic dose of hypericum did not have a major impact on certain cognitive tasks in mice offspring. PMID:11792531

  15. Is later better or worse? Association of advanced parental age with offspring cognitive ability among half a million young Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Myrskylä, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-04-01

    Parental ages are increasing in the developed world, and postponed parenthood may have a negative association with the cognitive ability of offspring. There is, however, inconclusive evidence regarding the impact of both maternal and paternal ages. We have been able to reduce or eliminate unobserved confounding by using methods that account for fixed parental characteristics shared by brothers. Associations between parental age and intelligence quotient (IQ) among 565,433 Swedish males (birth cohorts 1951 to 1976) were analyzed, with IQ measured at conscription examinations (given between ages 17 and 20 years). When we accounted for the IQ time trend by adjusting for birth year, advanced paternal age showed no association with offspring IQ; however, maternal ages above 30 years were inversely associated with offspring IQ. For example, maternal ages 40-44 years were associated with an offspring IQ that was 0.07 standard deviations lower than that for maternal ages 25-29 years (P < 0.001). However, the IQ trend more than offset the impact of age, as without birth year adjustment, advanced maternal age was positively associated with IQ. Although the results confirmed that maternal age was negatively associated with offspring IQ, the association was small enough that delaying parenthood resulted in higher offspring IQ scores because of the positive IQ test score trend. PMID:23467498

  16. Bilingualism and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraballo, Jose N.

    Research on the effects of bilingualism on cognitive development is reviewed, and two complementary models of bilingualism are developed to account for research results. It is suggested that research since 1960 shows a positive relationship between bilingualism and cognitive development, at least for some types of bilingualism. The advantage or…

  17. Impaired development of female mouse offspring maternally exposed to simazine.

    PubMed

    Park, Seeun; Kim, Sarang; Jin, Hong; Lee, Kangseok; Bae, Jeehyeon

    2014-11-01

    Simazine is a suspected endocrine disruptor and the second most commonly detected pesticide in surface and groundwater worldwide. We evaluated the toxicity of simazine in female mouse offspring with in utero and lactational exposure to the agent. Pregnant mice were exposed to environmentally relevant doses (from 5 to 500μg/kg) of simazine via oral administration, and their female offspring were then analyzed. The female offspring showed shortened anogenital distance and decreased whole body, ovarian, and uterine weights. Their ovaries showed increased apoptotic granulosa cells. In addition, expression of critical genes involved in regulation of cellular apoptosis and proliferation was significantly downregulated in the ovaries of simazine-exposed mice. Moreover, in vitro exposure of human granulosa cell-derived KGN cells to simazine (0.003-1nM) resulted in decreased viability and proliferation. Thus, the present study demonstrates that maternal exposure to low doses of simazine impairs normal development of female offspring via disturbance of cellular apoptosis and proliferation. PMID:25461544

  18. Is cognition enough to explain cognitive development?

    PubMed

    Smith, Linda B; Sheya, Adam

    2010-10-01

    Traditional views separate cognitive processes from sensory-motor processes, seeing cognition as amodal, propositional, and compositional, and thus fundamentally different from the processes that underlie perceiving and acting. These were the ideas on which cognitive science was founded 30 years ago. However, advancing discoveries in neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, and psychology suggests that cognition may be inseparable from processes of perceiving and acting. From this perspective, this study considers the future of cognitive science with respect to the study of cognitive development. PMID:25164053

  19. Comparative Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to compare cognitive development in humans and chimpanzees to illuminate the evolutionary origins of human cognition. Comparison of morphological data and life history strongly highlights the common features of all primate species, including humans. The human mother-infant relationship is characterized by the physical separation of…

  20. Maternal dietary intake of choline in mice regulates development of the cerebral cortex in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Surzenko, Natalia; Friday, Walter B; Zeisel, Steven H

    2016-04-01

    Maternal diets low in choline, an essential nutrient, increase the risk of neural tube defects and lead to low performance on cognitive tests in children. However, the consequences of maternal dietary choline deficiency for the development and structural organization of the cerebral cortex remain unknown. In this study, we fed mouse dams either control (CT) or low-choline (LC) diets and investigated the effects of choline on cortical development in the offspring. As a result of a low choline supply between embryonic day (E)11 and E17 of gestation, the number of 2 types of cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs)-radial glial cells and intermediate progenitor cells-was reduced in fetal brains (P< 0.01). Furthermore, the number of upper layer cortical neurons was decreased in the offspring of dams fed an LC diet at both E17 (P< 0.001) and 4 mo of age (P< 0.001). These effects of LC maternal diet were mediated by a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in NPCs related to the disruption of EGFR posttranscriptional regulation. Our findings describe a novel mechanism whereby low maternal dietary intake of choline alters brain development.-Wang, Y., Surzenko, N., Friday, W. B., Zeisel, S. H. Maternal dietary intake of choline in mice regulates development of the cerebral cortex in the offspring. PMID:26700730

  1. The connection between maternal thiamine shortcoming and offspring cognitive damage and poverty perpetuation in underprivileged communities across the world.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando M V; Silva, Danielle Marra de Freitas; Doyle, Flavia Costa de Proença; Ribeiro, Angela Maria

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of cognitive, sensory-motor and social emotional functions depend on a proper development of the Central Nervous System (CNS). This set of functions, known as intelligence, allows a better adaptation to the environment. In the last decades, an increase in the average of intelligence has been reported. However, such an increase cannot be observed in an equivalent way in economically and social underprivileged regions. Children from those regions are in great risk of being affected by mental retardation or impaired cognitive development. In later life they will, probably, be unable to transform and improve themselves and their communities, perpetuating the poverty of the region. Therefore, knowledge of factors involved in CNS development is a matter of health closely related to social improvement. Malnutrition throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding is clearly identifiable as a cause of damage in CNS development. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) is a micronutrient important to the growth and maturity of the CNS. Thiamine shortcoming may affect 50% of pregnant women. Thiamine function in cerebral development is still not well known. There is a gap in the literature regarding systematical research about the blood thiamine concentration throughout the periods of gestation and breastfeeding. These studies are relevant in populations with a high level of nutritional vulnerability, because in a follow up offspring cognitive exam they could reveal if the maternal thiamine deficiency is related to child CNS impairment. This paper introduce the hypothesis that thiamine shortcoming during pregnancy and breastfeeding is directly related to cognitive impairment of child. Data about the neurophysiological role of thiamine, consequences of its shortcoming in experimental models, populations under the risk of thiamine shortcoming are presented. The hypothesis that maternal thiamine shortcoming causes damage related to child cognitive development needs to be considered. Thus

  2. Associations of maternal weight gain in pregnancy with offspring cognition in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Gage, Suzanne H; Lawlor, Debbie A; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail

    2013-03-01

    An association of gestational weight gain (GWG) with offspring cognition has been postulated. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a United Kingdom prospective cohort (1990 through the present) with a median of 10 maternal weight measurements in pregnancy. These were used to allocate participants to 2009 Institute of Medicine weight-gain categories and in random effect linear spline models. Outcomes were School Entry Assessment score (age, 4 years; n = 5,832), standardized intelligence quotient assessed by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (age, 8 years; n = 5,191), and school final-examination results (age, 16 years; n = 7,339). Offspring of women who gained less weight than recommended had a 0.075 standard deviation lower mean School Entry Assessment score (95% confidence interval: -0.127, -0.023) and were less likely to achieve adequate final-examination results (odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.99) compared with offspring of women who gained as recommended. GWG in early pregnancy (defined as 0-18 weeks on the basis of a knot point at 18 weeks) and midpregnancy (defined as 18-28 weeks on the basis of knot points at 18 and 28 weeks) was positively associated with School Entry Assessment score and intelligence quotient. GWG in late pregnancy (defined as 28 weeks onward on the basis of a knot point at 28 weeks) was positively associated with offspring intelligence quotient and with increased odds of offspring achieving adequate final-examination results in mothers who were overweight prepregnancy. Findings support small positive associations between GWG and offspring cognitive development, which may have lasting effects on educational attainment up to age 16 years. PMID:23388581

  3. Developing Cognitive Skills Through Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rawley A.

    The recognition that children's cognitive skills are evident in visual as well as verbal conventions has led to the construction of the Silver Test of Cognitive and Creative Skills (STCCS) for the assessment and development of children's cognitive abilities. Research on cognition, the role of language in cognition, and left and right brain…

  4. Physical activity during pregnancy and language development in the offspring

    PubMed Central

    Jukic, Anne Marie Z.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Juhl, Mette; Owe, Katrine M.; Lewis, Barbara; Liu, Jihong; Wilcox, Allen J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Background In rodents, physical activity during pregnancy has been associated with improved learning and memory in the offspring. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (born 1991-1992) to investigate maternal physical activity during pregnancy and offspring language development. Methods At 18 weeks of gestation, women reported the hours per week they participated in eleven leisure-time physical activities and the hours per week spent in general physical activity (leisure, household, occupational, etc.). Caregivers completed a modified MacArthur Infant Communication scale at 15 months. Verbal IQ was measured at age 8 years. Regression analysis was used to examine the associations of physical activity with MacArthur score (>75th percentile) and verbal IQ. The number of participants available for analyses ranged from 4517 to 7162. Results Children of women in the two highest quintiles of leisure activity (compared with no leisure activity) were more likely to have high 15-month MacArthur scores (Adjusted odds ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1.2 [0.9, 1.4] and 1.4 [1.1, 1.7], respectively). Leisure activity was not associated with IQ; while general physical activity was linked with lower verbal IQ (1 and 3 points lower for the two highest quintiles). Conclusions The most robust finding was a transient increase in offspring vocabulary score at young ages with maternal leisure activity. Differences in the associations with leisure-time physical activity compared with general physical activity need further exploration. PMID:23574417

  5. Left ventricular mass, blood pressure, and lowered cognitive performance in the Framingham offspring.

    PubMed

    Elias, Merrill F; Sullivan, Lisa M; Elias, Penelope K; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Wolf, Philip A; Seshadri, Sudha; Au, Rhoda; Benjamin, Emelia J; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether echocardiographic left ventricular mass is related to cognitive performance beyond casual blood pressure adjusting for the influence of other vascular risk factors. We used multivariable regression analyses to relate left ventricular mass assessed at a routine examination (1995-1998) to measures of cognitive ability obtained routinely (1998-2001) in 1673 Framingham Offspring Study participants (56% women; mean age: 57 years) free from stroke, transient ischemic attack, and dementia. We adjusted for the following covariates hierarchically: (1) age, education, sex, body weight, height, interval between left ventricular mass measurement and neuropsychological testing (basic model); (2) basic model+blood pressure+treatment for hypertension; and (3) basic model+blood pressure+treatment for hypertension+vascular risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease. For the basic model, left ventricular mass was inversely associated with abstract reasoning (similarities), visual-spatial memory and organization, and verbal memory. For the basic model+blood pressure+treatment for hypertension, left ventricular mass was inversely associated with similarities and visual-spatial memory and organization. For the basic+blood pressure+treatment for hypertension+risk factors+cardiovascular disease model, no significant associations were observed. Echocardiographic left ventricular mass is associated with cognitive performance beyond casual and time-averaged systolic blood pressure, but this association is attenuated and rendered nonsignificant with additional adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease, thus suggesting that these variables play an important role in mediating the association between left ventricular mass and cognition. PMID:17224472

  6. On Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavell, John H.

    1982-01-01

    If human cognitive development advances through a series of broad and general stages, then the child's mind at any developmental point should seem consistent and similar across situations in its maturity level and general style. However, there appear to be factors and conditions that promote homogeneity and heterogeneity in the child's cognitive…

  7. Paternal stress prior to conception alters DNA methylation and behaviour of developing rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Mychasiuk, R; Harker, A; Ilnytskyy, S; Gibb, R

    2013-06-25

    Although there has been an abundance of research focused on offspring outcomes associated with maternal experiences, there has been limited examination of the relationship between paternal experiences and offspring brain development. As spermatogenesis is a continuous process, experiences that have the ability to alter epigenetic regulation in fathers may actually change developmental trajectories of offspring. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of paternal stress prior to conception on behaviour and the epigenome of both male and female developing rat offspring. Male Long-Evans rats were stressed for 27 consecutive days and then mated with control female rats. Early behaviour was tested in offspring using the negative geotaxis task and the open field. At P21 offspring were sacrificed and global DNA methylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were analysed. Paternal stress prior to conception altered behaviour of all offspring on the negative geotaxis task, delaying acquisition of the task. In addition, male offspring demonstrated a reduction in stress reactivity in the open field paradigm spending more time than expected in the centre of the open field. Paternal stress also altered DNA methylation patterns in offspring at P21, global methylation was reduced in the frontal cortex of female offspring, but increased in the hippocampus of both male and female offspring. The results from this study clearly demonstrate that paternal stress during spermatogenesis can influence offspring behaviour and DNA methylation patterns, and these affects occur in a sex-dependent manner. Development takes place in the centre of a complex interaction between maternal, paternal, and environmental influences, which combine to produce the various phenotypes and individual differences that we perceive. PMID:23531434

  8. Kowakare: a new perspective on the development of early mother-offspring relationship.

    PubMed

    Negayama, Koichi

    2011-03-01

    The mother-offspring relationship has components of both positivity and negativity. Kowakare is a new concept introduced to explain an adaptive function of the negativity in the early mother-offspring relationship. Kowakare is the psycho-somatic development of the relationship as the process of accumulation in the otherness of offspring. Early human Kowakare has two frameworks, biological inter-body antagonism and socio-cultural allomothering compensating the antagonism. Some features of feeding/weaning, parental aversion to offspring's bodily products, and transition from dyad to triad relationship (proto-triad relationship) in tactile play are discussed. Early human Kowakare is promoted by allomothering with the nested systems of objects/persons/institutions as interfaces between mother and offspring. Kowakare makes mother-offspring relationship a mutually autonomous and cooperative companionship. PMID:21161454

  9. Early physical and motor development of mouse offspring exposed to valproic acid throughout intrauterine development.

    PubMed

    Podgorac, Jelena; Pešić, Vesna; Pavković, Željko; Martać, Ljiljana; Kanazir, Selma; Filipović, Ljupka; Sekulić, Slobodan

    2016-09-15

    Clinical research has identified developmental delay and physical malformations in children prenatally exposed to the antiepileptic drug (AED) valproic acid (VPA). However, the early signs of neurodevelopmental deficits, their evolution during postnatal development and growth, and the dose effects of VPA are not well understood. The present study aimed to examine the influence of maternal exposure to a wide dose range (50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg/day) of VPA during breeding and gestation on early physical and neuromotor development in mice offspring. Body weight gain, eye opening, the surface righting reflex (SRR) and tail suspension test (TST) were examined in the offspring at postnatal days 5, 10 and 15. We observed that: (1) all tested doses of VPA reduced the body weight of the offspring and the timing of eye opening; (2) offspring exposed to VPA displayed immature forms of righting and required more time to complete the SRR; (3) latency for the first immobilization in the TST is shorter in offspring exposed to higher doses of VPA; however, mice in all groups exposed to VPA exhibited atypical changes in this parameter during the examined period of maturation; (4) irregularities in swinging and curling activities were observed in animals exposed to higher doses of VPA. This study points to delayed somatic development and postponed maturation of the motor system in all of the offspring prenatally exposed to VPA, with stronger effects observed at higher doses. The results implicate that the strategy of continuous monitoring of general health and achievements in motor milestones during the early postnatal development in prenatally VPA-exposed offspring, irrespectively of the dose applied, could help to recognize early developmental irregularities. PMID:27188530

  10. Hypercholesterolemic diet applied to rat dams protects their offspring against cognitive deficits. Simulated neonatal anoxia model.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Iwo

    2004-09-30

    There is accumulating data suggesting a neuroprotective activity of cholesterol, especially in stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, a protective activity of this lipid in simulated neonatal anoxia was investigated. Rats were subjected to high cholesterol by feeding their dams with a diet enriched with cholesterol. Half of these rats were subjected to anoxia. One and a half months later, the rats were tested for their ability to acquire a spatial memory, one group on the linear maze and the other on the Morris water maze. After these assessments, the level of total plasma cholesterol was measured. Rats from dams subjected to neonatal anoxia on standard diet performed worse than control rats in both types of behavioral experiments, whereas anoxic rats from dams were housed on hypercholesterolemic diet performed as control animals. It suggests that dietetic cholesterol applied by their dams protected rats against cognitive deficits elicited by neonatal anoxia. Furthermore, offspring of anoxic rats housed on standard diet had elevated levels of blood cholesterol in relation to control animals. Generally, anoxia affected the concentration of this lipid much stronger than hypercholesterolemic diet of their dams. It might mean that the anoxia-related rise of cholesterol could be involved in physiological phenomenon being an adaptive response to neurotoxic processes. This concept is discussed in relation to pathological mechanisms in AD. PMID:15327920

  11. Profiles by Sex of Brain MRI and Cognitive Function in The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Mark; Massaro, Joseph; DeCarli, Charles; Beiser, Alexa; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine whether there are sex-specific associations between brain MRI measures and neuropsychological test performance. Background Differences in cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) have been linked to decreased total cerebral brain volume (TCBV) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Although brain morphology has been related to cognitive performance, few studies have addressed sex-specific effects in this relationship. Methods Framingham Offspring who were stroke and dementia-free underwent a brain MRI scan and neuropsychological (NP) testing (n=2,085; 978 men). Factor analysis identified four domain-specific neuropsychological factors. MRI participants were divided into four MRI subgroups based on measures of TCBV and combinations of the presence of WMH and silent cerebral infarcts (≥3mm; SCI). Results Overall, the relationship between MRI and NP measures was similar between the sexes. The exception was that only men showed a positive relationship between executive function (EF) and cerebrovascular disease defined as large white matter hyperintensity volume plus SCI. This finding was attributed only among men with FSRP scores > 90th percentile range (p=0.0019). Conclusions Measures of brain atrophy and subclinical markers of vascular disease showed that sex does not significantly alter the relationship between MRI and NP, except among men and women who are at high risk for stroke; these men show poorer performance on EF, whereas the women do not. PMID:20505436

  12. Managing and analysing data from a large-scale study on Framingham Offspring relating brain structure to cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Joseph M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Sullivan, Lisa M; Beiser, Alexa; DeCarli, Charles; Au, Rhoda; Elias, Merrill F; Wolf, Philip A

    2004-01-30

    At the Framingham Heart Study under separate research grant funding from the National Institute of Aging, NIH, we are gathering brain structure and cognitive information on the Framingham Offspring, creating one of the largest known data sets to assess changes in brain structure associated with normative ageing and cognitive decline. Subject recruitment, data collection, data management and statistical analysis require a collaborative integrated effort on the part of the Framingham project team. Here we describe this effort, as well as the various brain structure and cognitive function parameters we are now collecting. We are currently performing analyses of data collected through 2002, and we discuss the statistical issues arising relating brain structure parameters to cognitive function. PMID:14716734

  13. Maternal Photoperiodic History Affects Offspring Development in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Paul, Matthew J.; Routman, David M.; Zucker, Irving

    2009-01-01

    During the first 7 weeks of postnatal life, short day lengths inhibit the onset of puberty in many photoperiodic rodents, but not in Syrian hamsters. In this species, timing of puberty and fecundity are independent of the early postnatal photoperiod. Gestational day length affects postnatal reproductive development in several rodents; its role in Syrian hamsters has not been assessed. We tested the hypothesis that cumulative effects of pre- and postnatal short day lengths would restrain gonadal development in male Syrian hamsters. Males with prenatal short day exposure were generated by dams transferred to short day lengths 6 weeks, 3 weeks, and 0 weeks prior to mating. Additional groups were gestated in long day lengths and transferred to short days at birth, at 4 weeks of age, or not transferred (control hamsters). In pups of dams exposed to short day treatment throughout gestation, decreased testis growth was apparent by 3 weeks and persisted through 9 weeks of age, at which time maximum testis size was attained. A subset of males (14%), whose dams had been in short days for 3 to 6 weeks prior to mating displayed pronounced delays in testicular development, similar to those of other photoperiodic rodents. This treatment also increased the percentage of male offspring that underwent little or no gonadal regression postnatally (39%). By 19 weeks of age, males housed in short days completed spontaneous gonadal development. After prolonged long day treatment to break refractoriness, hamsters that initially were classified as nonregressors underwent testicular regression in response to a 2nd sequence of short day lengths. The combined action of prenatal and early postnatal short day lengths diminishes testicular growth of prepubertal Syrian hamsters no later than the 3rd week of postnatal life, albeit to a lesser extent than in other photoperiodic rodents. PMID:18838610

  14. Effects of paternal age and offspring cognitive ability in early adulthood on the risk of schizophrenia and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Holger J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B; Ehrenstein, Vera; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-12-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) are both associated with the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in young adult offspring. We hypothesized that the offspring SSD risk gradient associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ. We investigated joint and separate associations of paternal age and offspring IQ with the risk of SSD. We used IQ routinely measured at conscription in Danish males (n=138,966) from cohorts born in 1955-84 and in 1976-1993 and followed them from a year after the conscription through 2010. We used Cox regression to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of SSD. During the follow-up, 528 men developed SSD (incidence rate [IR] 5.2 and 8.6 per 10,000 person-years in the first and second cohorts, respectively). APA was associated with higher risk of SSD (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.10-1.60 per a ten-year increase in paternal age). A higher IQ was associated with lower SSD risk (IRR, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.74 per one SD increase). The IR of SSD was higher among persons who were draft-exempt for health reasons (<20% of the men). Overall, there was little evidence of lower premorbid IQ in APA-related SSD (individuals who developed SSD and were also offspring of older fathers). Our results do not support the notion that risk gradient for offspring SSD associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ. PMID:25445626

  15. Protective role of taurine in developing offspring affected by maternal alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Pilant; Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Yutthana; Siripornpanich, Vorasith; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption is known to affect offspring growth and development, including growth deficits, physical anomalies, impaired brain functions and behavioral disturbances. Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is essential during development, and continually found to be protective against neurotoxicity and various tissue damages including those from alcohol exposure. However, it is still unknown whether taurine can exert its protection during development of central nervous system and whether it can reverse alcohol damages on developed brain later in life. This study aims to investigate protective roles of taurine against maternal alcohol consumption on growth and development of offspring. The experimental protocol was conducted using ICR-outbred pregnant mice given 10 % alcohol, with or without maternal taurine supplementation during gestation and lactation. Pregnancy outcomes, offspring mortality and successive bodyweight until adult were monitored. Adult offspring is supplemented taurine to verify its ability to reverse damages on learning and memory through a water maze task performance. Our results demonstrate that offspring of maternal alcohol exposure, together with maternal taurine supplementation show conserved learning and memory, while that of offspring treated taurine later in life are disturbed. Taurine provides neuroprotective effects and preserves learning and memory processes when given together with maternal alcohol consumption, but not shown such effects when given exclusively in offspring. PMID:26648819

  16. Do hypertensive diseases of pregnancy disrupt neurocognitive development in offspring?

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Robinson, Monique; Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E

    2012-03-01

    The current study sought to determine whether hypertensive diseases of pregnancy (gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia) are associated with neurocognitive outcomes in middle childhood. Participants were members of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Data were available for 1389 children (675 females; mean age = 10.59 years; SD = 0.19). Twenty-five per cent of these participants were offspring of pregnancies complicated by either gestational hypertension (n = 279), or pre-eclampsia (n = 34). Verbal ability at age 10 years was assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R), and non-verbal ability with Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM). Separate multivariable regression analyses, incorporating sociodemographic, antenatal, obstetric and postnatal covariates, investigated the effect of a two- (normotensive pregnancy vs. hypertensive pregnancy) and three-level (normotensive pregnancy vs. gestational hypertension vs. pre-eclampsia) predictor variable on PPVT-R and RCPM scores. Offspring of pregnancies complicated by maternal hypertension (gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia) had a mean PPVT-R score that was 1.83 ([95% confidence interval (CI) -3.48, -0.17], P = 0.03) points lower than children from normotensive pregnancies. Multivariable regression analysis also identified a significant inverse association between the three-level predictor variable and offspring PPVT-R scores (P = 0.02). Gestational hypertension (without pre-eclampsia) reduced offspring PPVT-R scores by 1.71 points [95% CI -3.39, -0.03] and pre-eclampsia led to a reduction of 3.53 points [95% CI -8.41, 1.35], although this latter association did not achieve statistical significance. There was no effect of the two- (P = 0.99) or three-level (P = 0.92) predictor variable on RCPM scores. Maternal hypertensive diseases of pregnancy are a risk factor for a small reduction in offspring verbal ability. PMID:22324495

  17. The role of maternal behavior and offspring development in the survival of mountain goat kids.

    PubMed

    Théoret-Gosselin, Rachel; Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D

    2015-05-01

    Studies on juvenile survival have mainly focused on the effects of environmental conditions and maternal traits. However, growing evidence indicates that the ability of parents to care for their young and the offspring developmental behaviors could be key determinants of their survival. We examined the relative influence of (1) environmental conditions, (2) offspring traits, (3) maternal traits, (4) maternal care behaviors, and (5) offspring developmental behaviors on kid survival to weaning and to 1 year old in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). Offspring development and maternal care directly affected offspring survival, and this more importantly than did environmental conditions and maternal traits. Frequency of play strongly increased survival before weaning. Greater maternal care increased offspring survival during winter, directly and indirectly through kid mass. Kid mass was also a major determinant of both summer and winter survival. Environmental conditions mainly influenced summer survival while maternal characteristics indirectly affected winter survival through an effect on kid mass. Behavioral adaptations of maternal care and offspring development to local selective pressures can lead to local adaptations and have greater implications in population dynamic studies than previously believed. PMID:25556294

  18. Maternal protein restriction during gestation impairs female offspring pancreas development in the rat.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Lizbeth; Morales, Angélica; Sosa-Larios, Tonantzin C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Rodríguez-Mata, Verónica; Zambrano, Elena; Morimoto, Sumiko

    2016-08-01

    A maternal low-protein (LP) diet programs fetal pancreatic islet β-cell development and function and predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction later in life. We hypothesized that maternal protein restriction during pregnancy differentially alters β- and α-cell populations in offspring by modifying islet ontogeny and function throughout life. We aimed to investigate the effect of an LP maternal diet on pancreatic islet morphology and cellular composition in female offspring on postnatal days (PNDs) 7, 14, 21, 36, and 110. Mothers were divided into 2 groups: during pregnancy, the control group (C) was fed a diet containing 20% casein, and the LP group was fed an isocaloric diet with 10% casein. Offspring pancreases were obtained at each PND and then processed. β and α cells were detected by immunohistochemistry, and cellular area and islet size were quantified. Islet cytoarchitecture and total area were similar in C and LP offspring at all ages studied. At the early ages (PNDs 7-21), the proportion of β cells was lower in LP than C offspring. The proportion of α cells was lower in LP than C offspring on PND 14 and higher on PND 21. The β/α-cell ratio was lower in LP compared with C offspring on PNDs 7 and 21 and higher on PND 36 (being similar on PNDs 14 and 110). We concluded that maternal protein restriction during pregnancy modifies offspring islet cell ontogeny by altering the proportions of islet sizes and by reducing the number of β cells postnatally, which may impact pancreatic function in adult life. PMID:27440540

  19. Effects of bromantan on offspring maturation and development of reflexes.

    PubMed

    Iezhitsa, I N; Spasov, A A; Bugaeva, L I

    2001-01-01

    Bromantan (N-[2-adamantil]-N-[para-bromphenyl]amine) is an "actoprotective" drug widely used in Russia as a muscle performance-enhancing agent for sportsmen and as an immunostimulator in medicine. Experiments were conducted to determine whether this compound has adverse effects on the reproduction and development of offspring. Sexually mature female rats, weighing 180-200 g, were orally given bromantan at doses of 30 mg/kg (30-mg/kg group), 150 mg/kg (150-mg/kg group) and 600 mg/kg (600-mg/kg group) daily for 16 days, while the controls received the vehicle, amylaceous solution. Afterwards, treated females were mated with untreated males. The body weight change of the pregnant rats was monitored, as well as the length of gestation, litter size, sex ratio and number of stillborn. The offsprings were weighed and observed for external malformations, abnormalities of conditioned and unconditioned reflexes and open-field behaviour. Observation of rat dams revealed that their general state and activity in all groups did not differ significantly both during and after bromantan treatment. Bromantan had no adverse effects on body weight and gestation length of dams. Number of dams delivered per group did not differ from controls. There were stillborn rat pups in all litters, but the control group had less. One dam in the first group delivered a rat pup with a head hematoma. Litter size of the 30- and 600-mg/kg groups was decreased (by 34.9% and 44.2%, respectively) and increased in the 150-mg/kg group (by 45.1%, P< .05) in comparison with controls. Bromantan had insignificant different effects on the sex ratio of newborn in all treatment groups. Survival of pups over the first 3 months showed a loss of 40% for the 150-mg/kg group and 20% for controls. During the remaining time, death rate did not exceed 3-6% and did not differ from those of the controls. Pups in the 30- and 600-mg/kg groups showed significantly higher weight gain during the first week (7th PND) of

  20. Cognitive Development and Group Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidla, Debie D.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to integrate Perry's (1970) scheme of the cognitive development of college students with a model of group development adapted by Waldo (1985) based on Tuckman's (1965) formulation of developmental group stages. (Author)

  1. Helping Children Develop Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Deanna

    Designed to help family home care providers understand children's cognitive developmental stages, this manual provides practical suggestions for developing and evaluating children's cognitive skills. The manual is divided into four sections focusing respectively on infants, toddlers, preschool children, and school-aged children. Each section…

  2. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life. PMID:27480608

  3. Poor maternal nutrition inhibits muscle development in ovine offspring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal over and restricted nutrition has negative consequences on the muscle of offspring by reducing muscle fiber number and altering regulators of muscle growth. To determine if over and restricted maternal nutrition affected muscle growth and gene and protein expression in offspring, 36 pregnant ewes were fed 60%, 100% or 140% of National Research Council requirements from d 31 ± 1.3 of gestation until parturition. Lambs from control-fed (CON), restricted-fed (RES) or over-fed (OVER) ewes were necropsied within 1 d of birth (n = 18) or maintained on a control diet for 3 mo (n = 15). Semitendinosus muscle was collected for immunohistochemistry, and protein and gene expression analysis. Results Compared with CON, muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) increased in RES (58%) and OVER (47%) lambs at 1 d of age (P < 0.01); however at 3 mo, CSA decreased 15% and 17% compared with CON, respectively (P < 0.01). Compared with CON, muscle lipid content was increased in OVER (212.4%) and RES (92.5%) at d 1 (P < 0.0001). Muscle lipid content was increased 36.1% in OVER and decreased 23.6% in RES compared with CON at 3 mo (P < 0.0001). At d 1, myostatin mRNA abundance in whole muscle tended to be greater in OVER (P = 0.07) than CON. Follistatin mRNA abundance increased in OVER (P = 0.04) and tended to increase in RES (P = 0.06) compared with CON at d 1. However, there was no difference in myostatin or follistatin protein expression (P > 0.3). Phosphorylated Akt (ser473) was increased in RES at 3 mo compared with CON (P = 0.006). Conclusions In conclusion, maternal over and restricted nutrient intake alters muscle lipid content and growth of offspring, possibly through altered gene and protein expression. PMID:25247074

  4. The effect of periconceptional undernutrition of sheep on the cognitive/emotional response and oocyte quality of offspring at 30 days of age.

    PubMed

    Abecia, J A; Casao, A; Pascual-Alonso, M; Lobón, S; Aguayo-Ulloa, L A; Meikle, A; Forcada, F; Sosa, C; Marín, R H; Silva, M A; Maria, G A

    2014-04-01

    Maternal periconceptional undernutrition is associated with altered development and increased risks of adverse outcomes in the offspring. This circumstance is normal in flocks under extensive farming systems, which depend on natural forage resources. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of periconceptional undernutrition in sheep on behavioral and reproductive aspects of the offspring. Eighty ewes were synchronized in estrus and allocated to two groups (n=40) to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (C) or 0.5 (L) times the requirements for maintenance. Ewes were mated and 7 days later fed the control diet until lambing. One month after lambing, 32 lambs were exposed to tests to determine their cognitive and emotional responses. Six ewe lambs were euthanized and in vitro maturation and fertilization procedures were performed. L ewes presented a significant reduction in prolificacy and fecundity (P<0.05) in comparison with C ewes. Mean LW at lambing of L lambs was significantly higher than C lambs (C: 3.80 ± 0.11; L: 4.24 ± 0.15 kg, P<0.05). Lambs born from C ewes spent more time walking than L lambs (P<0.05) in the isolation test, revealing a decrease in the locomotor activity of lambs born from undernourished ewes around conception. Ewe lambs from the undernourished ewes presented a total population of oocytes 2.3 times higher than ovaries from control ewe lambs (60.0 ± 7.8 v. 140.0 ± 18.5 oocytes; P<0.05). In conclusion, periconceptional undernutrition is able to produce an increment in the body weight and the oocyte population, and an alteration of the locomotor activity of the offspring. PMID:24847694

  5. Disruption of histone methylation in developing sperm impairs offspring health transgenerationally.

    PubMed

    Siklenka, Keith; Erkek, Serap; Godmann, Maren; Lambrot, Romain; McGraw, Serge; Lafleur, Christine; Cohen, Tamara; Xia, Jianguo; Suderman, Matthew; Hallett, Michael; Trasler, Jacquetta; Peters, Antoine H F M; Kimmins, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    A father's lifetime experiences can be transmitted to his offspring to affect health and development. However, the mechanisms underlying paternal epigenetic transmission are unclear. Unlike in somatic cells, there are few nucleosomes in sperm, and their function in epigenetic inheritance is unknown. We generated transgenic mice in which overexpression of the histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylase KDM1A (also known as LSD1) during spermatogenesis reduced H3K4 dimethylation in sperm. KDM1A overexpression in one generation severely impaired development and survivability of offspring. These defects persisted transgenerationally in the absence of KDM1A germline expression and were associated with altered RNA profiles in sperm and offspring. We show that epigenetic inheritance of aberrant development can be initiated by histone demethylase activity in developing sperm, without changes to DNA methylation at CpG-rich regions. PMID:26449473

  6. Role of maternal 5-HT1A receptor in programming offspring emotional and physical development

    PubMed Central

    van Velzen, Annelies; Toth, Miklos

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin1A receptor (5-HT1AR) deficiency has been associated with anxiety and depression and mice with genetic receptor inactivation exhibit heightened anxiety. We have reported that 5-HT1AR is not only a genetic but also a maternal “environmental” factor in the development of anxiety in Swiss-Webster mice. Here we tested if the emergence of maternal genotype dependent adult anxiety is preceded by early behavioral abnormalities or if it is manifested following a normal emotional development. Pups born to null or heterozygote mothers had significantly reduced ultrasonic vocalization between postnatal day (P) 4 and 12 indicating an influence of the maternal genotype. The offspring’s own genotype had an effect limited to P4. Furthermore, we observed reduced weight gain in the null offspring of null but not heterozygote mothers indicating that a complete maternal receptor deficiency compromises offspring physical development. Except a short perinatal deficit during the dark period, heterozygote females displayed normal maternal behavior which, with the early appearance of ultrasonic vocalization deficit, suggests a role for 5-HT1AR during pre/perinatal development. Consistent with this notion, adult anxiety in the offspring is determined during the pre/perinatal period. In contrast to heterozygote females, null mothers exhibited impaired pup retrieval and nest building that may explain the reduced weight gain of their offspring. Taken together, our data indicate an important role for the maternal 5-HT1AR in regulating offspring emotional and physical development. Since reduced receptor binding has been reported in depression, including postpartum depression, reduced 5-HT1AR function in mothers may influence the emotional development of their offspring. PMID:20633050

  7. Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

  8. Formaldehyde inhalation during pregnancy abolishes the development of acute innate inflammation in offspring.

    PubMed

    Silva Ibrahim, Beatriz; Miranda da Silva, Cristiane; Barioni, Éric Diego; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Saraiva Câmara, Niels Olsen; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Poliselli Farsky, Sandra Helena; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2015-06-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational pollutant that induces programming mechanisms on the acquired immune host defense in offspring when exposed during the prenatal period. Hence, here we investigated whether the exposure of FA on pregnant rats could affect the development of an innate acute lung injury in offspring induced by lipopolissacaride (LPS) injection. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to FA (0.92 mg/m(3)) or vehicle (distillated water), both 1 h/day, 5 days/week, from 1 to 21 days of pregnancy. Non-manipulated rats were used as control. After 30 days of birth, the offspring was submitted to injection of LPS (Salmonella abortus equi, 5 mg/kg, i.p.). Systemic and lung inflammatory parameters were evaluated 24 h later. Exposure to FA during gestation abolished the development of acute lung injury in offspring, as observed by reduced number of leukocytes in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL), in the blood and in the bone marrow, and decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. Moreover, phagocytes from BAL presented normal phagocytosis, but reduced oxidative burst. Alterations on the profile of inflammatory cytokines were evidenced by reduced mRNA levels of IL-6 and elevated levels of IL-10 and IFN gamma in the lung tissue. Indeed, mRNA levels of toll-likereceptor-4 and nuclear factor-kappa B translocation into the nucleus were also reduced. Additionally, hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was blunted in the trachea of offspring of FA exposed mothers. Together, our data clearly show that FA exposure in the prenatal period modifies the programming mechanisms of the innate defense in the offspring leading to impaired defense against infections. PMID:25845602

  9. Perinatal Resveratrol Supplementation to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Dams Mitigates the Development of Hypertension in Adult Offspring.

    PubMed

    Care, Alison S; Sung, Miranda M; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Dyck, Jason R B; Davidge, Sandra T; Bourque, Stephane L

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether perinatal maternal resveratrol (Resv)-a phytoalexin known to confer cardiovascular protection-could prevent the development of hypertension and improve vascular function in adult spontaneously hypertensive rat offspring. Dams were fed either a control or Resv-supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet) from gestational day 0.5 until postnatal day 21. Indwelling catheters were used to assess blood pressure and vascular function in vivo; wire myography was used to assess vascular reactivity ex vivo. Perinatal Resv supplementation in dams had no effect on fetal body weights, albeit continued maternal treatment postnatally resulted in growth restriction in offspring by postnatal day 21; growth restriction was no longer evident after 5 weeks of age. Maternal perinatal Resv supplementation prevented the onset of hypertension in adult offspring (-18 mm Hg;P=0.007), and nitric oxide synthase inhibition (withl-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester) normalized these blood pressure differences, suggesting improved nitric oxide bioavailability underlies the hemodynamic alterations in the Resv-treated offspring. In vivo and ex vivo, vascular responses to methylcholine were not different between treatment groups, but prior treatment withl-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester attenuated the vasodilation in untreated, but not Resv-treated adult offspring, suggesting a shift toward nitric oxide-independent vascular control mechanisms in the treated group. Finally, bioconversion of the inactive precursor big endothelin-1 to active endothelin-1 in isolated mesenteric arteries was reduced in Resv-treated offspring (-28%;P<0.05), and this difference could be normalized byl-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester treatment. In conclusion, perinatal maternal Resv supplementation mitigated the development of hypertension and causes persistent alterations in vascular responsiveness in spontaneously hypertensive rats. PMID:26928803

  10. Role of sensory, social, and hormonal signals from the mother on the development of offspring.

    PubMed

    Melo, Angel I

    2015-01-01

    For mammals, sensory, social, and hormonal experience early in life is essential for the continuity of the infant's development. These experiences come from the mother through maternal care, and have enduring effects on the physiology and behavior of the adult organism. Disturbing the mother-offspring interaction by maternal deprivation (neglect) or exposure to adverse events as chronic stress, maltreatment, or sexual abuse has negative effects on the mental, psychological, physiological, and behavioral health. Indeed, these kinds of negative experiences can be the source of some neuropsychiatric diseases as depression, anxiety, impulsive aggression, and antisocial behavior. The purpose of this chapter is to review the most relevant evidence that supports the participation of cues from the mother and/or littermates during the postnatal preweaning period for the development of nervous system of the offspring. These findings come from the most frequently utilized experimental paradigms used in animal models, such as natural variations in maternal behavior, handling, partial maternal deprivation, and total maternal deprivation and artificial rearing. Through the use of these experimental procedures, it is possible to positively (handling paradigm), or negatively (maternal deprivation paradigms), affect the offspring's development. Finally, this chapter reviews the importance of the hormones that pups ingest through the maternal milk during early lactation on the development of several physiological systems, including the immune, endocrine systems, as well as on the adult behavior of the offspring. PMID:25287543

  11. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MICE OFFSPRING AFTER IRRADIATION IN UTERO WITH 2,450-MHZ MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mice offspring irradiated in utero with 2,450-MHz radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 0 or 28 mW/cm. sq. (whole-body averaged specific absorption rate = 0 or 16.5 W/kg) for 100 minutes daily on days 6 through 17 of gestation were evaluated for maturation and development on days 1, ...

  12. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO NONYLPHENOL CAUSES PRECOCIOUS MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether or not exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) during late gestation affects reproductive and mammary development in the offspring of female rats. Time pregnant Long Evans rats were gavaged with NP (10 or 100 mg/kg), atrazine (ATR, 100 mg/kg), or corn oil on ge...

  13. Effects of experimentally manipulated yolk thyroid hormone levels on offspring development in a wild bird species.

    PubMed

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Darras, Veerle M; Visser, Marcel E; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2016-05-01

    Maternal effects are a crucial mechanism in a wide array of taxa to generate phenotypic variation, thereby affecting offspring development and fitness. Maternally derived thyroid hormones (THs) are known to be essential for offspring development in mammalian and fish models, but have been largely neglected in avian studies, especially in respect to natural variation and an ecological context. We studied, for the first time in a wild species and population, the effects of maternally derived THs on offspring development, behavior, physiology and fitness-related traits by experimental elevation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in ovo within the physiological range in great tits (Parus major). We found that elevated yolk TH levels had a sex-specific effect on growth, increasing male and decreasing female growth, relative to controls, and this effect was similar throughout the nestling period. Hatching or fledging success, motor coordination behavior, stress reactivity and resting metabolic rate were not affected by the TH treatment. We conclude that natural variation in maternally derived THs may affect some offspring traits in a wild species. As this is the first study on yolk thyroid hormones in a wild species and population, more such studies are needed to investigate its effects on pre-hatching development, and juvenile and adult fitness before generalizations on the importance of maternally derived yolk thyroid hormones can be made. However, this opens a new, interesting avenue for further research in the field of hormone mediated maternal effects. PMID:27056104

  14. Longitudinal Changes in Marital Relationships: The Role of Offspring's Pubertal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2007-01-01

    This study charted the longitudinal trajectories of wives' and husbands' reports of marital love, satisfaction, and conflict and explored whether and how first- and second-born offspring's pubertal development was related to marital changes. Data were drawn from the first 7 years of a longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants…

  15. The Role of Maternal Dietary Proteins in Development of Metabolic Syndrome in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Jahan-Mihan, Alireza; Rodriguez, Judith; Christie, Catherine; Sadeghi, Marjan; Zerbe, Tara

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity has been increasing. Pre-natal environment has been suggested as a factor influencing the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Both observational and experimental studies showed that maternal diet is a major modifier of the development of regulatory systems in the offspring in utero and post-natally. Both protein content and source in maternal diet influence pre- and early post-natal development. High and low protein dams’ diets have detrimental effect on body weight, blood pressure191 and metabolic and intake regulatory systems in the offspring. Moreover, the role of the source of protein in a nutritionally adequate maternal diet in programming of food intake regulatory system, body weight, glucose metabolism and blood pressure in offspring is studied. However, underlying mechanisms are still elusive. The purpose of this review is to examine the current literature related to the role of proteins in maternal diets in development of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in offspring. PMID:26561832

  16. Oxidative Stress in Mouse Sperm Impairs Embryo Development, Fetal Growth and Alters Adiposity and Glucose Regulation in Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Michelle; McPherson, Nicole O.; Fullston, Tod; Spillane, Marni; Sandeman, Lauren; Kang, Wan Xian; Zander-Fox, Deirdre L.

    2014-01-01

    Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM) in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity. PMID:25006800

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Lamotrigine: Effects on Postnatal Development and Behaviour in Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sathiya, Sekar; Ganesh, Murugan; Kalaivani, Periyathambi; Ranju, Vijayan; Janani, Srinivasan; Pramila, Bakthavachalam; Saravana Babu, Chidambaram

    2014-01-01

    Use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy warrants various side effects and also deleterious effects on fetal development. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to lamotrigine (LTG) on postnatal development and behavioural alterations of offspring. Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g b. wt. were allowed to copulate and pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal cytology. Pregnant rats were treated with LTG (11.5, 23, and 46 mg/kg, p.o) from gestational day 3 (GND 3) and this treatment continued till postnatal day 11 (PND 11). Offspring were separated from their dam on day 21 following parturition. LTG, at 46 mg/kg, p.o, produced severe clinical signs of toxicity leading to death of dam between GND 15 and 17. LTG, at 11.5 and 23 mg/kg, p.o, showed significant alterations in offspring's incisors eruption and vaginal opening when compared to age matched controls. LTG (23 mg/kg, p.o) exposed female offspring expressed hyperactive behaviour and decreased GABA-A receptor expression when compared to control rats. These results reveal that prenatal exposure to LTG may impart differential postnatal behavioural alterations between male and female rats which paves way for further investigations. PMID:24967313

  18. Maternal lead exposure during lactation persistently impairs testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Ning, Huan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Xu, De-Xiang

    2013-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a testicular toxicant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maternal Pb exposure during lactation on testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. Maternal mice were exposed to different concentration of lead acetate (200 or 2000 ppm) through drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 0 to PND21. As expected, a high concentration of Pb was measured in the kidneys and liver of pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. In addition, maternal Pb exposure during lactation elevated, to a less extent, Pb content in testes of weaning pups. Testis weight in weaning pups was significantly decreased when maternal mice were exposed to Pb during lactation. The level of serum and testicular T was reduced in Pb-exposed pups. The expression of P450scc, P450(17α) and 17β-HSD, key enzymes for T synthesis, was down-regulated in testes of weaning pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Interestingly, the level of serum and testicular T remained decreased in adult offspring whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Importantly, the number of spermatozoa was significantly reduced in Pb-exposed male offspring. Taken together, these results suggest that Pb could be transported from dams to pups through milk. Maternal Pb exposure during lactation persistently disrupts testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. PMID:22806249

  19. Gender Differences in Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

  20. Talents Unfolding: Cognition and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Reva C., Ed.; Shore, Bruce M., Ed.

    In this book, developmental, educational, cognitive, and professional psychologists explore early identification of giftedness, what happens when child prodigies grow up, and environmental characteristics that are needed for talent to develop into genius. The nature of creativity and domain-specific expertise is examined, along with how psychology…

  1. Cognitive Development: An Advanced Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Lamb, Michael E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This new text consists of parts of Bornstein and Lamb's Developmental Science, 6th edition along with new introductory material that as a whole provides a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of cognitive development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…

  2. On the Cognition in Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickhard, Mark H.

    1999-01-01

    States that Demetriou and Raftopoulos's theory of cognitive developmental change based on the nature of representation is flawed. Argues against theme of representation as encoding as well as an alternative model of representation as interactivism. Concludes that other issues such as architectural support, variation and selective retention,…

  3. Effects of prenatal exposure to Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom on rat offspring development.

    PubMed

    Dorce, Ana Leticia Coronado; Bellot, Rogério Gentil; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado; Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão

    2009-11-01

    Scorpion envenoming is a public health problem. In Brazil, the scorpion Tityus serrulatus is considered the most dangerous, but a large number of exposures also occur with Tityus bahiensis. There are quite a few studies in literature about the toxic effects of this venom but it is not known if the venom causes malformations or behavioral defects to the offspring of mothers exposed to the venom during pregnancy. The objective of this work was to determine, in rats, the possible toxic effects of T. bahiensis venom on offspring when injected into rats during different periods of fetal development. Rats were assigned to one of three groups: one control group and two experimental groups that were subcutaneously injected with venom (2.5mg/kg) on the 10th (GD10) or on 16th day (GD16) of gestation. Pups were evaluated for changes in physical and behavioral development. GD10 treatment group offspring showed an increase in body weight gain, earlier ear unfolding, incisor tooth eruption and vaginal opening. A decrease in the time of palmar grasp and surface-righting reflexes was observed only for males. In GD16 treatment group, earlier ear unfolding, incisor tooth eruption, and delay in eye opening were observed in the offspring. In female pups a decrease in weight gain and in time for palmar grasp reflex, and an increase in time for negative geotaxis were observed. In male pups a delay in the testis descent, decrease in the time of palmar grasp, increase in the time of negative geotaxis reflex and in the general and locomotor activities could be noticed. Therefore, we concluded that a moderate dose of scorpion venom administered to pregnant rats was able to elicit alterations in physical and behavioral development in the offspring during the postnatal period. PMID:19383539

  4. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(−/−) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

  5. Maternal seizures can affect the brain developing of offspring.

    PubMed

    Cossa, Ana Carolina; Lima, Daiana Correia; do Vale, Tiago Gurgel; de Alencar Rocha, Anna Karynna Alves; da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José; Amado, Debora

    2016-08-01

    To elucidate the impact of maternal seizures in the developing rat brain, pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to the pilocarpine-induced seizures and pups from different litters were studied at different ages. In the first 24 h of life, blood glucose and blood gases were analyzed. (14)C-leucine [(14)C-Leu] incorporation was used to analyze protein synthesis at PN1, and Western Blot method was used to analyze protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the hippocampus (PN3-PN21). During the first 22 days of postnatal life, body weight gain, length, skull measures, tooth eruption, eye opening and righting reflex have been assessed. Pups from naive mothers were used as controls. Experimental pups showed a compensated metabolic acidosis and hyperglycemia. At PN1, the [(14)C-Leu] incorporation into different studied areas of experimental pups was lower than in the control pups. During development, the protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and PARP-1 in the hippocampus of experimental pups were altered when compared with control pups. A decreased level of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was verified in the early postnatal age (PN3), and an increased level of pro-apoptotic proteins concomitant with a reduced level of anti-apoptotic protein was observed at the later stages of the development (PN21). Experimental pups had a delay in postnatal growth and development beyond disturb in protein synthesis and some protein expression during development. These changes can be result from hormonal alterations linked to stress and/or hypoxic events caused by maternal epileptic seizures during pregnancy. PMID:27085526

  6. Cognitive Offloading Does Not Prevent but Rather Promotes Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Nolfi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the development of reactive and cognitive capabilities. In particular we investigate whether the development of reactive capabilities prevents or promotes the development of cognitive capabilities in a population of evolving robots that have to solve a time-delay navigation task in a double T-Maze environment. Analysis of the experiments reveals that the evolving robots always select reactive strategies that rely on cognitive offloading, i.e., the possibility of acting so as to encode onto the relation between the agent and the environment the states that can be used later to regulate the agent’s behavior. The discovery of these strategies does not prevent, but rather facilitates, the development of cognitive strategies that also rely on the extraction and use of internal states. Detailed analysis of the results obtained in the different experimental conditions provides evidence that helps clarify why, contrary to expectations, reactive and cognitive strategies tend to have synergetic relationships. PMID:27505162

  7. Cognitive Offloading Does Not Prevent but Rather Promotes Cognitive Development.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Jônata Tyska; Nolfi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the development of reactive and cognitive capabilities. In particular we investigate whether the development of reactive capabilities prevents or promotes the development of cognitive capabilities in a population of evolving robots that have to solve a time-delay navigation task in a double T-Maze environment. Analysis of the experiments reveals that the evolving robots always select reactive strategies that rely on cognitive offloading, i.e., the possibility of acting so as to encode onto the relation between the agent and the environment the states that can be used later to regulate the agent's behavior. The discovery of these strategies does not prevent, but rather facilitates, the development of cognitive strategies that also rely on the extraction and use of internal states. Detailed analysis of the results obtained in the different experimental conditions provides evidence that helps clarify why, contrary to expectations, reactive and cognitive strategies tend to have synergetic relationships. PMID:27505162

  8. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hass, Ulla

    2011-02-01

    Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the

  9. Transgenerational Effects of Parental Larval Diet on Offspring Development Time, Adult Body Size and Pathogen Resistance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Valtonen, Terhi M.; Kangassalo, Katariina; Pölkki, Mari; Rantala, Markus J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to affect offspring performance. We set out to investigate the effect of parental larval diet on offspring development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies for the parental generation were raised on either poor or standard diet and then mated in the four possible sex-by-parental diet crosses. Females that were raised on poor food produced larger offspring than females that were raised on standard food. Furthermore, male progeny sired by fathers that were raised on poor food were larger than male progeny sired by males raised on standard food. Development times were shortest for offspring whose one parent (mother or the father) was raised on standard and the other parent on poor food and longest for offspring whose parents both were raised on poor food. No evidence for transgenerational effects of parental diet on offspring disease resistance was found. Although paternal effects have been previously demonstrated in D. melanogaster, no earlier studies have investigated male-mediated transgenerational effects of diet in this species. The results highlight the importance of not only considering the relative contribution each parental sex has on progeny performance but also the combined effects that the two sexes may have on offspring performance. PMID:22359607

  10. Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Offspring Development at 18 Months: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stinger, Amanda; DiGirolamo, Ann M.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Stein, Aryeh D.; Wang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on offspring development at 18 months of age. Design Randomized placebo double-blind controlled trial. Settings Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants and Methods We followed up offspring (n = 730; 75% of the birth cohort) of women in Mexico who participated in a trial of DHA supplementation during the latter half of pregnancy. We assessed the effect of the intervention on child development and the potential modifying effects of gravidity, gender, SES, and quality of the home environment. Interventions or Main Exposures 400 mg/day of algal DHA. Outcome Measures Child development at 18 months of age measured using the Spanish version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. We calculated standardized psychomotor and mental development indices, and behavior rating scale scores. Results Intent-to-treat differences (DHA-control) were: Psychomotor Developmental Index -0.90 (95% CI: -2.35, 0.56), Mental Developmental Index -0.26 (95% CI: -1.63, 1.10) and Behavior Rating Scale -0.01 (95% CI: -0.95, 0.94). Prenatal DHA intake attenuated the positive association between home environment and psychomotor development index observed in the control group (p for interaction = 0.03) suggesting potential benefits for children living in home environments characterized by reduced caregiver interactions and opportunities for early childhood stimulation. Conclusions Prenatal DHA supplementation in a population with low intakes of DHA had no effects on offspring development at 18 months of age although there may be some benefit for infants from poor quality home environments. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00646360 PMID:26262896

  11. Cognitive Development and Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodiy, George Oleh

    1977-01-01

    Compares the cognitive levels of groups of high school biology students, freshman physics students, and senior science students by testing them with two Piagetian tasks. Examines correlations between cognitive levels and other measures such as SAT scores. (MLH)

  12. Synthetic cognitive development - Where intelligence comes from

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbaum (Weaver), D.; Veitas, V.

    2016-06-01

    The human cognitive system is a remarkable exemplar of a general intelligent system whose competence is not confined to a specific problem domain. Evidently, general cognitive competences are a product of a prolonged and complex process of cognitive development. Therefore, the process of cognitive development is a primary key to understanding the emergence of intelligent behavior. This paper develops the theoretical foundations for a model that generalizes the process of cognitive development. The model aims to provide a realistic scheme for the synthesis of scalable cognitive systems with an open-ended range of capabilities. Major concepts and theories of human cognitive development are introduced and briefly explored, focusing on the enactive approach to cognition and the concept of sense-making. The initial scheme of human cognitive development is then generalized by introducing the philosophy of individuation and the abstract mechanism of transduction. The theory of individuation provides the ground for the necessary paradigmatic shift from cognitive systems as given products to cognitive development as a formative process of self-organization. Next, the conceptual model is specified as a scalable scheme of networks of agents. The mechanisms of individuation are formulated in context-independent information theoretical terms. Finally, the paper discusses two concrete aspects of the generative model - mechanisms of transduction and value modulating systems. These are topics of further research towards an implementable architecture.

  13. Effects of Maternal Caffeine Consumption on Ovarian Follicle Development in Wistar Rats Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Dorostghoal, Mehran; Mahabadi, Mahmood Khaksari; Adham, Sahar

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years concerns have been raised about human reproductive disorders, specially the effects of environmental factors on human fertility and pregnancy outcome. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the effects of maternal caffeine consumption on ovarian follicles development in rat offspring. Methods 60 pregnant female rats were randomly divided into a control and two experimental groups. The rats in the two experimental groups received caffeine via drinking water during gestation (26 and 45 mg/kg) and lactation (25 and 35 mg/kg). The ovaries of the offspring were removed at 7, 14, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days after birth, and fixed in Bouin's solution. By preparing serial tissue sections, structural changes in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea were studied during postnatal development. Results The weight of ovaries decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the high dose caffeine-treated group at all stages of postnatal development. Significant (p<0.05) decreases were seen in the number of primordial follicles from day 7 to 120 after birth in the high dose caffeine-treated group. Moreover, the number of primary and secondary follicles decreased significantly on days 7, 14 and 28 as did the number of antral follicles on days 14 and 28 after birth (p<0.05) in the high dose caffeine-treated group. The diameter of secondary and antral follicles decreased significantly (p<0.05) in high dose caffeine-treated group on the early days of postnatal development. No statistically significant differences were seen in the number of corpora lutea between the groups. Conclusion The present study shows that caffeine consumption during gestation and lactation affects the early stages of ovarian follicle development and reduces reproductive efficiency in the offspring of Wistar rats. PMID:23926495

  14. Cognitive development in a secondary science setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endler, Lorna C.; Bond, Trevor

    2000-12-01

    Observations were made of the progressive change in the cognitive development of 141 students over the course of their secondary education in an Australian private school. Cognitive development was measured in years 8, 10 and 12 using Bond's Logical Orerations Test. Rasch analysis of each of the data sets provided ability estimates for students in the year groups of 1993 (year 8), 1995 (year 10) and 1997 (year 12). Twenty-nine students from the year group of 1993 were tested on all three occasions. We analysed data from these 29 students in order to investigate the children's cognitive development across years 8, 10 and 12. We also examined the influence of the Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE) Thinking Science program on the cognitive development and scholastic achievement of these students. We found increased mental growth between years 8 and 10 for most students in the Thinking Science cohort, which could not be predicted from their starting levels. There was a significant correlation between cognitive development and the scholastic achievement of these students. Although boys as a group were more advanced in cognitive development than girls in years 8 and 10, no difference was found in the rate of cognitive change based on sex up to year 10. However girls showed cognitive gains across years 10-12 which were not found in boys. The students who were new to the school also showed increased cognitive development in years 11 and 12. Students who had experienced the Thinking Science course were more cognitively developed than students who joined the school after the intervention had taken place. This study supports the claim of Adey and Shayer that there is a relationship between cognitive development and scholastic achievement, even though we used different measures of cognitive development and scholastic achievement.

  15. Cognitive Development: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavell, John H.

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes researchers' beliefs about cognitive development. Topics include (1) the child as constructive thinker; (2) new research methods; (3) the characterization of children's cognitive development; (4) estimates of children's competence; (5) stages of development; (6) interrelations among developmental skills; (7) mechanisms of development;…

  16. Dose-dependent effects of perinatal hypothyroidism on postnatal testicular development in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenichi; Kubota, Hisayo; Hojo, Rieko; Miyagawa, Muneyuki

    2014-01-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in gonad development remains incompletely understood. We examined the dose-related effects of perinatal hypothyroidism induced by a reversible goitrogen, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), on reproductive development in male rat offspring. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered PTU (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg/day) by gavage from gestational day 15 through postnatal day 20. We observed a significant dose-dependent decrease in body weight in offspring with PTU exposure up to 13 weeks of age, but body weight became comparable among groups by 26 weeks of age. Testicular weight tended to be lower up to 7 weeks but was higher after 13 weeks of age. Epididymis weight was not different among the groups at any age. Plasma concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the PTU groups were significantly lower at 3 weeks of age but recovered to normal levels by 26 weeks of age. No dose-related trend in plasma testosterone concentrations was found. Seminiferous tubules were larger at 13 and 26 weeks of age with PTU exposure. The number of Sertoli cells was significantly higher from 3 through 26 weeks of age. The number of Leydig cells was significantly lower up to 7 weeks of age but was comparable among groups from 13 weeks of age onwards. Thus, transient gestational and lactational thyroid hormone suppression induced small testes in early life but led to paradoxical dose-dependent testicular enlargement in adults as indicated partly by larger seminiferous tubules with numerous Sertoli cells in male rat offspring. PMID:25392277

  17. Long term effects of maternal protein restriction on postnatal lung alveoli development of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Farid, S A; Mahmoud, O M; Salem, N A; Abdel-Alrahman, G; Hafez, G A

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition of women during pregnancy causes reduction in foetal growth and can adversely affect the development of the foetal lungs. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of maternal protein restriction on the postnatal lung development in neonatal period, and on lung structure in adult rat offspring. Female virgin Sprague-Dawley albino rats (more than 200 g) were used. One male rat was introduced into a cage with one female for matting. Once the pregnancy was confirmed, pregnant rats were divided into two main groups; each consists of 6 female as follow: 1 - normally nourished group; 2 - protein deficient group. After delivery, offspring were subdivided into three groups: 1 day after delivery, 2 weeks and 2 months postnatal. Rat body and lung weight were recorded and ratio of lung weight to body weight was assessed. Total plasma protein and serum albumin were assessed for all groups. Lung tissue stained with H&E for histological and morphometric analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the number of cells positive for pulmonary surfactant protein A. Our results showed that protein restriction interfere with neonatal and postnatal lung development resulting in morphological and morphometric changes of normal lung development. We concluded that protein deficiency lead to developmental retardation of lung. PMID:26620509

  18. Applying the Cultural Approach to Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary; Beebe, Heidi; Zhao, Shuheng

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive development is a cultural process. More experienced cultural members and the practices, institutions, and artifacts of the culture provide support and guidance for children as they develop knowledge and thinking skills. In this article, the authors describe the value that is added to our understanding of cognitive development when…

  19. Stress exposure during the preimplantation period affects blastocyst lineages and offspring development.

    PubMed

    Burkuš, Ján; Kačmarová, Martina; Kubandová, Janka; Kokošová, Natália; Fabianová, Kamila; Fabian, Dušan; Koppel, Juraj; Čikoš, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We found retardation of preimplantation embryo growth after exposure to maternal restraint stress during the preimplantation period in our previous study. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of preimplantation maternal restraint stress on the distribution of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells in mouse blastocysts, and its possible effect on physiological development of offspring. We exposed spontaneously ovulating female mice to restraint stress for 30 min three times a day during the preimplantation period, and this treatment caused a significant increase in blood serum corticosterone concentration. Microscopic evaluation of embryos showed that restraint stress significantly decreased cell counts per blastocyst. Comparing the effect of restraint stress on the two blastocyst cell lineages, we found that the reduction in TE cells was more substantial than the reduction in ICM cells, which resulted in an increased ICM/TE ratio in blastocysts isolated from stressed dams compared with controls. Restraint stress reduced the number of implantation sites in uteri, significantly delayed eye opening in delivered mice, and altered their behavior in terms of two parameters (scratching on the base of an open field test apparatus, time spent in central zone) as well. Moreover, prenatally stressed offspring had significantly lower body weights and in 5-week old females delivered from stressed dams, fat deposits were significantly lower. Our results indicate that exposure to stress during very early pregnancy can have a negative impact on embryonic development with consequences reaching into postnatal life. PMID:25985793

  20. Stress exposure during the preimplantation period affects blastocyst lineages and offspring development

    PubMed Central

    BURKUŠ, Ján; KAČMAROVÁ, Martina; KUBANDOVÁ, Janka; KOKOŠOVÁ, Natália; FABIANOVÁ, Kamila; FABIAN, Dušan; KOPPEL, Juraj; ČIKOŠ, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We found retardation of preimplantation embryo growth after exposure to maternal restraint stress during the preimplantation period in our previous study. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of preimplantation maternal restraint stress on the distribution of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells in mouse blastocysts, and its possible effect on physiological development of offspring. We exposed spontaneously ovulating female mice to restraint stress for 30 min three times a day during the preimplantation period, and this treatment caused a significant increase in blood serum corticosterone concentration. Microscopic evaluation of embryos showed that restraint stress significantly decreased cell counts per blastocyst. Comparing the effect of restraint stress on the two blastocyst cell lineages, we found that the reduction in TE cells was more substantial than the reduction in ICM cells, which resulted in an increased ICM/TE ratio in blastocysts isolated from stressed dams compared with controls. Restraint stress reduced the number of implantation sites in uteri, significantly delayed eye opening in delivered mice, and altered their behavior in terms of two parameters (scratching on the base of an open field test apparatus, time spent in central zone) as well. Moreover, prenatally stressed offspring had significantly lower body weights and in 5-week old females delivered from stressed dams, fat deposits were significantly lower. Our results indicate that exposure to stress during very early pregnancy can have a negative impact on embryonic development with consequences reaching into postnatal life. PMID:25985793

  1. Maternal antenatal vitamin D status and offspring muscle development: findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Nicholas C.; Moon, Rebecca J.; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Ntani, Georgia; Davies, Justin H.; Javaid, M Kassim; Robinson, Sian M.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Cooper, Cyrus

    2013-01-01

    Context Maternal 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] status in pregnancy has been associated with offspring bone development and adiposity. Vitamin D has also been implicated in postnatal muscle function but little is known about a role for antenatal 25(OH)D exposure in programming muscle development. Objective We investigated the associations between maternal plasma 25(OH)D status at 34 weeks gestation and offspring lean mass and muscle strength at 4 years of age. Design and setting A prospective UK population-based mother-offspring cohort: the Southampton Women’s Survey (SWS). Participants 12583 non-pregnant women were initially recruited into SWS, of which 3159 had singleton pregnancies. 678 mother-child pairs were included in this analysis. Main Outcomes Measured At 4 years of age, offspring assessments included hand grip strength (Jamar Dynamometer) and whole body DXA (Hologic Discovery) yielding lean mass and %lean mass. Physical activity was assessed by 7-day accelerometry (Actiheart) in a subset of children (n=326). Results Maternal serum 25(OH)D concentration in pregnancy was positively associated with offspring height-adjusted hand grip strength (β=0.10 SD/SD, p=0.013), which persisted after adjustment for maternal confounding factors, duration of breastfeeding and child’s physical activity at 4 years (β=0.13 SD/SD, p=0.014). Maternal 25(OH)D was also positively associated with offspring %lean mass (β=0.11 SD/SD, p=0.006), but not total lean mass (β=0.06, p=0.15). This however did not persist after adjustment for confounding factors (β=0.09 SD/SD, p=0.11). Conclusions This observational study suggests that intrauterine exposure to 25(OH)D during late pregnancy might influence offspring muscle development through an effect primarily on muscle strength rather than muscle mass. PMID:24178796

  2. Pelage insulation, litter size, and ambient temperature impact maternal energy intake and offspring development during lactation

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Matthew J.; Tuthill, Christiana; Kauffman, Alexander S.; Zucker, Irving

    2010-01-01

    Energy balance during lactation critically influences survival and growth of a mother’s offspring, and hence, her reproductive success. Most experiments have investigated the influence of a single factor (e.g., ambient temperature [Ta] or litter size) on the energetics of lactation. Here, we determined the impact of multiple interventions, including increased conductive heat loss consequent to dorsal fur removal, cold exposure (Ta of 5°C versus 23°C), and differential lactational load from litters of different sizes (2 or 4 pups), on maternal energy balance and offspring development of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Lower Ta, fur removal, and larger litters were associated with increased maternal food consumption. Females exposed to multiple challenges (e.g., both fur loss and lower Ta) ate substantially more food than those exposed to a single challenge, with no apparent ceiling to elevated food intake (increases up to 538%). Thus, energy intake of dams under these conditions does not appear to be limited by feeding behavior or the size of the digestive tract. Housing at 5°C attenuated pup weight gain and increased pup mortality to more than 5 times that of litters housed at 23°C. Increases in the dam’s conductive heat loss induced by fur removal did not affect pup weight gain or survival, suggesting that effects of low Ta on pup weight gain and survival reflect limitations in the pups’ ability to ingest or incorporate energy. PMID:20184907

  3. Fetal Brain Behavior and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on prenatal brain development, detailing the functions controlled by the medulla, pons, and midbrain, and the implications for cognitive development. Concludes that fetal cognitive motor activity, including auditory discrimination, orienting, the wake-sleep cycle, fetal heart rate accelerations, and defensive reactions,…

  4. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

  5. The biology of mammalian parenting and its effect on offspring social development.

    PubMed

    Rilling, James K; Young, Larry J

    2014-08-15

    Parents know the transformative nature of having and caring for a child. Among many mammals, giving birth leads from an aversion to infant stimuli to irresistible attraction. Here, we review the biological mechanisms governing this shift in parental motivation in mammals. Estrogen and progesterone prepare the uterus for embryo implantation and placental development. Prolactin stimulates milk production, whereas oxytocin initiates labor and triggers milk ejection during nursing. These same molecules, interacting with dopamine, also activate specific neural pathways to motivate parents to nurture, bond with, and protect their offspring. Parenting in turn shapes the neural development of the infant social brain. Recent work suggests that many of the principles governing parental behavior and its effect on infant development are conserved from rodent to humans. PMID:25124431

  6. IDENTIFYING THE COGNITIVE AND VASCULAR EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION SOURCES AND MIXTURES IN THE FRAMINGHARN OFFSPRING AND THIRD GENERATION COHORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We will estimate health risks associated with short- and long-term exposure to individual air pollutants, sources and air pollution mixtures within the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation populations. We will address which individual and area-level factors, measuring vul...

  7. Species comparative studies and cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Juan-Carlos

    2005-03-01

    The comparative study of infant development and animal cognition brings to cognitive science the promise of insights into the nature and origins of cognitive skills. In this article, I review a recent wave of comparative studies conducted with similar methodologies and similar theoretical frameworks on how two core components of human cognition--object permanence and gaze following--develop in different species. These comparative findings call for an integration of current competing accounts of developmental change. They further suggest that evolution has produced developmental devices capable at the same time of preserving core adaptive components, and opening themselves up to further adaptive change, not only in interaction with the external environment, but also in interaction with other co-developing cognitive systems. PMID:15737820

  8. Adult Cognitive Development A La Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Ruth Graham

    While Jean Piaget's work as it relates to the development of childhood and adolescent cognition has long been explored, only recently has the usefulness of Piaget's theory in the study of adult cognition been studied. Recent research by educational psychologists has raised serious doubts about Piaget's theoretical position that the highest level…

  9. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive…

  10. Impact of Life Experiences on Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorndike, Robert M.; And Others

    The kinds of life events that may affect cognitive development were explored for 777 students, mostly freshmen, enrolled in introductory social science courses at Western Washington University Bellingham (Washington). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection (MER) of M. B. Taylor (1983). Students also…

  11. Maternal Postnatal Depression and the Development of Depression in Offspring up to 16 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Goodyer, Ian; Cooper, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the developmental risk pathway to depression by 16 years in offspring of postnatally depressed mothers. Method: This was a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of postnatally depressed and nondepressed mothers; child and family assessments were made from infancy to 16 years. A total of 702…

  12. Maternal cypermethrin exposure during the perinatal period impairs testicular development in C57BL male offspring.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chaobin; Li, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) are a possible cause of male reproductive organ malfunction and malformation. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid and a potential EDC. This study aimed to examine the effects of perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP on the development and function of the offspring testes. Pregnant mice were intragastrically administered 0.12 to 12 mg/kg/day CYP from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) to weaning (PD21.5, postnatal day 21.5). Maternal exposure to 0.12, 1.2, and 12 mg/kg/day CYP affected the body and organ weight of the offspring. Exposure of CYP led to a dose-dependent decrease in the male-to-female sex ratio. A histopathological analysis revealed a thinner seminiferous epithelium layer at PD21.5, interstitial hyperplasia at PD45.5, and germ cell vacuolization at PD90.5 in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The TUNEL assay results revealed increased germ cell apoptosis in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The serum testosterone (T) level decreased, whereas the estradiol level increased with age in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The RT-PCR analysis demonstrated decreased expression of T production-related, mitosis-related, and meiosis-related genes in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The in vitro experimental results demonstrated reduced expression of steroidogenesis genes and decreased T levels. It is concluded that perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP affects testes development and function in adults. PMID:24810582

  13. A Maternal High-Energy Diet Promotes Intestinal Development and Intrauterine Growth of Offspring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peilin; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Feng, Bin; Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Li, Jian; Wu, De

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in an offspring's intestinal development. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of maternal energy on the growth and small intestine development of offspring. After mating, twenty gilts (Large White (LW) breeding, body weight (BW) at 135.54 ± 0.66 kg) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a control diet (CON) group and a high-energy diet (HED) group, respectively. The nutrient levels of the CON were referred to meet the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012), while the HED was designed by adding an amount of soybean oil that was 4.6% of the total diet weight to the CON. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. At day 90 of gestation, day 1 post-birth, and day 28 post-birth, the weights of fetuses and piglets, intestinal morphology, enzyme activities, and gene and protein expressions of intestinal growth factors were determined. The results indicated that the maternal HED markedly increased the BW, small intestinal weight, and villus height of fetuses and piglets. Moreover, the activities of lactase in fetal intestine, sucrase in piglet intestine were markedly increased by the maternal HED. In addition, the maternal HED tended to increase the protein expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in fetal intestine, associated with significantly increased the gene expression of IGF-1R. In conclusion, increasing energy intake could promote fetal growth and birth weight, with greater intestinal morphology and enzyme activities. PMID:27164130

  14. Maternal Cypermethrin Exposure during the Perinatal Period Impairs Testicular Development in C57BL Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chaobin; Li, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) are a possible cause of male reproductive organ malfunction and malformation. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid and a potential EDC. This study aimed to examine the effects of perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP on the development and function of the offspring testes. Pregnant mice were intragastrically administered 0.12 to 12 mg/kg/day CYP from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) to weaning (PD21.5, postnatal day 21.5). Maternal exposure to 0.12, 1.2, and 12 mg/kg/day CYP affected the body and organ weight of the offspring. Exposure of CYP led to a dose-dependent decrease in the male-to-female sex ratio. A histopathological analysis revealed a thinner seminiferous epithelium layer at PD21.5, interstitial hyperplasia at PD45.5, and germ cell vacuolization at PD90.5 in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The TUNEL assay results revealed increased germ cell apoptosis in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The serum testosterone (T) level decreased, whereas the estradiol level increased with age in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The RT-PCR analysis demonstrated decreased expression of T production-related, mitosis-related, and meiosis-related genes in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The in vitro experimental results demonstrated reduced expression of steroidogenesis genes and decreased T levels. It is concluded that perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP affects testes development and function in adults. PMID:24810582

  15. Effect of prenatal administration of venlafaxine on postnatal development of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Dubovický, Michal; Császárová, Eszter; Brnoliaková, Zuzana; Ujházy, Eduard; Navarová, Jana; Mach, Mojmír

    2012-06-01

    About 3% of pregnant women are treated with antidepressant drugs during gestation. After delivery the number of treated women increases to 5 to 7%. Most prescribed antidepressants in pregnancy are selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and/or serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram and venlafaxine (VENF). Despite the fact that VENF has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA, experimental studies with this drug are rare. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of prenatal administration of VENF on early postnatal development of rat offspring and selected biochemical variables at weaning of pups. Pregnant female Wistar rats were treated with VENF from day 15 to 20 of gestation at the doses of 7.5, 37.5 and 70 mg/kg. Females were allowed to spontaneously deliver their pups. After delivery the pups were inspected for viability, gross malformation and they were weighed on day 0, 4 and 21 post partum. On day 21 post partum, the pups were killed, brains were removed from the skulls and blood samples were collected for biochemical assay (proteins, glucose-GOD, glucose-HEX, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total antioxidant status). The study showed that prenatal VENF administration resulted in a mild maternal intoxication manifested by decreased body weight gain of pregnant females. There was no effect of the drug tested on the body and brain weights of offspring. No obvious morphological alterations were observed in the delivered pups. Similarly, there were no changes in the selected biochemical variables determined. PMID:23118594

  16. Chronic hypoxia in pregnancy affects thymus development in Balb/c mouse offspring via IL2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Lingjun; Sun, Miao; Gao, Qingqing; Zhang, Pengjie; Tang, Jiaqi; He, Yu; Zhu, Di; Xu, Zhice

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxia during pregnancy can adversely affect development. This study, addressed the impact of prenatal hypoxia on thymus development in the rodent offspring. Pregnant Balb/c mice were exposed to hypoxia or normoxia during pregnancy, and the thymuses of their offspring were tested. Chronic hypoxia during pregnancy resulted in significantly decreased fetal body weight, with an increased thymus-to-body weight ratio. Histological analysis revealed a smaller cortical zone in the thymus of the offspring exposed to hypoxia. A reduction in the cortical T lymphocyte population corresponded to increased mRNA abundance of caspase 3 (Casp3) and decreased expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 (Mki67). Differences in T lymphocyte sub-populations in the thymus further indicate that thymus development in offspring was retarded or stagnated by prenatal hypoxia. The abundance of IL2 and its receptor was reduced in the thymus following prenatal hypoxia. This was accompanied by an increase in thymus HIF1A and IKKβ and a decrease in phosphorylated NFKB, MAP2K1, and MAPK1/3 compared to control pregnancies. Together, these results implicate deficiencies in IL2-mediated signaling as one source of prenatal-hypoxia-impaired thymus development. PMID:26918321

  17. Cognitive Development: Two-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Cognitive Development: Two-Year-Old Page Content Article Body Think back ... touching, looking, manipulating, and listening. Now, as a two-year-old, the learning process has become more ...

  18. Cognitive Development: One-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Cognitive Development: One-Year-Old Page Content Article Body As you ... range of activities, and she’ll select the ones that are challenging but not completely beyond her ...

  19. ANIMAL MODELS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thesis of this chapter has been that spatial delayed alternation versus position discrimination learning can serve as a valuable rodent model of cognitive development in neurotoxicology. his model captures dual process conceptualizations of memory in human neuropsychology and...

  20. The links between prenatal stress and offspring development and psychopathology: disentangling environmental and inherited influences

    PubMed Central

    Rice, F.; Harold, G. T.; Boivin, J.; van den Bree, M.; Hay, D. F.; Thapar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with later adverse health and adjustment outcomes. This is generally presumed to arise through early environmentally mediated programming effects on the foetus. However, associations could arise through factors that influence mothers' characteristics and behaviour during pregnancy which are inherited by offspring. Method A ‘prenatal cross-fostering’ design where pregnant mothers are related or unrelated to their child as a result of in vitro fertilization (IVF) was used to disentangle maternally inherited and environmental influences. If links between prenatal stress and offspring outcome are environmental, association should be observed in unrelated as well as related mother–child pairs. Offspring birth weight and gestational age as well as mental health were the outcomes assessed. Results Associations between prenatal stress and offspring birth weight, gestational age and antisocial behaviour were seen in both related and unrelated mother–offspring pairs, consistent with there being environmental links. The association between prenatal stress and offspring anxiety in related and unrelated groups appeared to be due to current maternal anxiety/depression rather than prenatal stress. In contrast, the link between prenatal stress and offspring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was only present in related mother–offspring pairs and therefore was attributable to inherited factors. Conclusions Genetically informative designs can be helpful in testing whether inherited factors contribute to the association between environmental risk factors and health outcomes. These results suggest that associations between prenatal stress and offspring outcomes could arise from inherited factors and post-natal environmental factors in addition to causal prenatal risk effects. PMID:19476689

  1. Prenatal Exposure of Cypermethrin Induces Similar Alterations in Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450s and Rate-Limiting Enzymes of Neurotransmitter Synthesis in Brain Regions of Rat Offsprings During Postnatal Development.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anshuman; Mudawal, Anubha; Maurya, Pratibha; Jain, Rajeev; Nair, Saumya; Shukla, Rajendra K; Yadav, Sanjay; Singh, Dhirendra; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar; Mudiam, Mohana K R; Sethumadhavan, Rao; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Parmar, Devendra

    2016-08-01

    Oral administration of low doses of cypermethrin to pregnant Wistar rats led to a dose-dependent differences in the induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in brain regions isolated from the offsprings postnatally at 3 weeks that persisted up to adulthood. Similar alterations were observed in the expression of rate-limiting enzymes of neurotransmitter synthesis in brain regions of rat offsprings. These persistent changes were associated with alterations in circulating levels of growth hormone (GH), cognitive functions, and accumulation of cypermethrin and its metabolites in brain regions of exposed offsprings. Though molecular docking studies failed to identify similarities between the docked conformations of cypermethrin with CYPs and neurotransmitter receptors, in silico analysis identified regulatory sequences of CYPs in the promoter region of rate-limiting enzymes of neurotransmitter synthesis. Further, rechallenge of the prenatally exposed offsprings at adulthood with cypermethrin (p.o. 10 mg/kg × 6 days) led to a greater magnitude of alterations in the expression of CYPs and rate-limiting enzymes of neurotransmitter synthesis in different brain regions. These alterations were associated with a greater magnitude of decrease in the circulating levels of GH and cognitive functions in rechallenged offsprings. Our data has led us to suggest that due to the immaturity of CYPs in fetus or during early development, even the low-level exposure of cypermethrin may be sufficient to interact with the CYPs, which in turn affect the neurotransmission processes and may help in explaining the developmental neurotoxicity of cypermethrin. PMID:26115703

  2. Mouse round spermatids developed in vitro from preexisting spermatocytes can produce normal offspring by nuclear injection into in vivo-developed mature oocytes.

    PubMed

    Marh, Joel; Tres, Laura L; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Kierszenbaum, Abraham L

    2003-07-01

    It has been shown that mature oocytes injected with nuclei from round spermatids collected from mouse testis can generate normal offspring and that round spermatids can develop in vitro. An undetermined issue is whether spermatids developed in vitro are capable of generating fertile offspring by nuclear injection into oocytes. Herein, we report the production of normal and fertile offspring by nuclear injection using haploid spermatid donors derived from mouse primary spermatocyte precursors cocultured with Sertoli cells. Cocultured spermatogonia and spermatocytes were characterized by their nuclear immunoreactive patterns determined by an antibody to phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), a marker for DNA double-strand breaks. Cocultured round spermatid progenies display more than one motile flagellum, whose axonemes were recognized by antitubulin immunostaining. Flagellar wavelike movement and flagellar-driven propulsion of round spermatids developed in vitro were documented by videomicroscopy (http://www.sci.ccny.cuny.edu/ approximately kier). We also show that breeding of male and female mouse offspring generated by spermatid nuclear injection produced fertile offspring. In addition to their capacity to produce fertile offspring, cocultured, flagellated round spermatids can facilitate the analysis of the mechanisms of centriolar polarity, duplication, assembly, and flagellar growth, including the intraflagellar transport of cargo proteins. PMID:12620938

  3. Differences and similarities in development of drinking behavior between alcoholic offspring of alcoholics and alcoholic offspring of non-alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Alford, G S; Jouriles, E N; Jackson, S C

    1991-01-01

    Self-reported initial, early, and long-term drinking behaviors, experiences, and consequences were obtained from male alcoholics completing inpatient treatment. Subjects were recruited and selected on the basis that they met DSM-III criteria for diagnosis of alcohol dependency and that their biological fathers were alcoholic (FHP; Family History Positive) or that they had no biological family history of alcoholism (FHN; Family History Negative). Results indicated that FHP subjects rated their initial taste of beer higher than FHN subjects, that FHP subjects began tasting and subsequently regularly drinking alcohol at an earlier age than FHN subjects and that there was significantly shorter elapsed time between initiating regular drinking and developing alcoholic-symptomatic problems in living among FHP alcoholics than FHN alcoholics. Although there were a few other significant differences, the drinking-behavioral histories of the two groups were remarkably similar and parallel. Taken together, results suggest that familial risk factors primarily influence the rate at which alcoholic drinking and alcoholism develop, rather than the form or pattern of alcoholic drinking. PMID:1776550

  4. Intrauterine environment and later disease development: infertility treatment and the risk of diabetes in offspring.

    PubMed

    Alcolado, John

    2006-01-01

    The phenotype of an individual, including their susceptibility to disease, is governed by several factors including parental genes and intrauterine environment. Thus, the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes is modulated by the inheritance of specific genetic variants that are slowly being characterised by the techniques of linkage analysis and population association studies using either a candidate gene or genome-wide scan approach. At the same time, evidence has accrued that alterations in the nutritional status of the developing foetus also increase the risk of diabetes in later life. Restricting protein intake in pregnant dams or interfering with placental function increases the risk of diabetes in offspring and light weight babies are more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes as adults than heavier ones. The oocyte plays a key role, since it contains not only the maternal haplotype but other information such as mitochondrial DNA and factors that modulate the expression of genes in the developing foetus. Although the ovaries contain a huge number of primordial follicles, generally each month only one oocyte matures to ovulation. Little is known about the processes that control this phenomenon. Certainly, primordial follicles and oocytes are not all the same, differing especially in mitochondrial DNA content. As women age, the oocytes released are more likely to contain genetic errors, explaining the increased risk of Trisomy 21 with maternal age. It is generally assumed that primordial follicle development and the selection of a single ooctye for ovulation is a random process. This paper suggests that this may not be the case but that a carefully controlled system may allow the mother to release an oocyte that is best suited to the prevailing environment. This would represent an important mechanism for species adaptation. Many human infertility treatments involve pharmacological superovulation, egg harvesting and culture prior to in vitro fertilisation and

  5. Long-term toxicity of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets: Effects on female mouse reproductive ability and offspring development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shun; Zhang, Zheyu; Chu, Maoquan

    2015-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets have emerged as novel materials for cancer therapeutics. Their toxicity has attracted much attention since these nanomaterials may have great potential for clinical cancer treatment. Here we report the influence of rGO exposure on female mouse reproductive ability and offspring development. Mouse dams were injected with small or large rGO nanosheets at different doses and time points, pre- or post-fertilization. The sex hormone levels of adult female mice did not significantly change compared with the control group after intravenous injection with either small or large rGO, even at a high dose (25 mg/kg). Mouse dams could produce healthy offspring after treatment with rGO nanosheets before pregnancy and at an early gestational stage (∼6 days). Despite the successful delivery of offspring, malformed fetuses were found among rGO-injected dam litters. All mice had abortions when injected with low (6.25 mg/kg) or intermediate (12.5 mg/kg) doses at a late gestational stage (∼20 days); the majority of pregnant mice died when injected with the high dose of rGO at this stage of pregnancy. Interestingly, all surviving rGO-injected mouse mothers gave birth to another litter of healthy pups. The results presented in this work are important for a deeper understanding of the toxicity of rGO nanosheets on female reproductivity and their offspring development. PMID:25907052

  6. Suboptimal maternal nutrition during early fetal kidney development specifically promotes renal lipid accumulation following juvenile obesity in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Fainberg, H P; Sharkey, D; Sebert, S; Wilson, V; Pope, M; Budge, H; Symonds, M E

    2013-01-01

    Reduced maternal food intake between early-to-mid gestation results in tissue-specific adaptations in the offspring following juvenile-onset obesity that are indicative of insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to establish the extent to which renal ectopic lipid accumulation, as opposed to other markers of renal stress, such as iron deposition and apoptosis, is enhanced in obese offspring born to mothers nutrient restricted (NR) throughout early fetal kidney development. Pregnant sheep were fed either 100% (control) or NR (i.e. fed 50% of their total metabolisable energy requirement from 30-80 days gestation and 100% at all other times). At weaning, offspring were made obese and, at approximately 1 year, kidneys were sampled. Triglyceride content, HIF-1α gene expression and the protein abundance of the outer-membrane transporter voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein (VDAC)-I on the kidney cortex were increased in obese offspring born to NR mothers compared with those born to controls, which exhibited increased iron accumulation within the tubular epithelial cells and increased gene expression of the death receptor Fas. In conclusion, suboptimal maternal nutrition coincident with early fetal kidney development results in enhanced renal lipid deposition following juvenile obesity and could accelerate the onset of the adverse metabolic, rather than cardiovascular, symptoms accompanying the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22951182

  7. Optimizing Cognitive Development over the Life Course and Preventing Cognitive Decline: Introducing the Cognitive Health Environment Life Course Model (CHELM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal cognitive development is defined in this article as the highest level of cognitive function reached in each cognitive domain given a person's biological and genetic disposition, and the highest possible maintenance of cognitive function over the adult life course. Theoretical perspectives underpinning the development of a framework…

  8. Pinealon protects the rat offspring from prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Arutjunyan, Alexander; Kozina, Lyudmila; Stvolinskiy, Sergey; Bulygina, Yelena; Mashkina, Anna; Khavinson, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The offspring of rats with experimental hyperhomocysteinemia caused by alimentary loading with dietary methionine within pregnancy has been studied. Using pinealon (Glu-Asp-Arg) under these conditions was found to result in the offspring cognitive function being improved significantly and their cerebellum neurons becoming more resistant to oxidative stress. This may be proved by the fact that the administration of pinealon to pregnant rats loaded with methionine improved their offspring spatial orientation and learning ability and decreased both reactive oxygen species accumulation and the number of necrotic cells in the population of the neurons isolated from the cerebellum of the offspring developed under the prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia. Our experiments allowed confirming the neuroprotective properties of pinealon, which is in agreement with the previous data obtained by us in vitro. PMID:22567179

  9. Maternal caffeine exposure alters neuromotor development and hippocampus acetylcholinesterase activity in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Claudia; Souza, Andressa; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; De Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; Da Silva, Rosane Souza; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bonan, Carla D; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2015-01-21

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal caffeine intake on the neuromotor development of rat offspring and on acetylcholine degradation and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in the hippocampus of 14-day-old infant rats. Rat dams were treated with caffeine (0.3g/L) throughout gestation and lactation until the pups were 14 days old. The pups were divided into three groups: (1) control, (2) caffeine, and (3) washout caffeine. The washout group received a caffeine solution until the seventh postnatal day (P7). Righting reflex (RR) and negative geotaxis (NG) were assessed to evaluate postural parameters as an index of neuromotor reflexes. An open-field (OF) test was conducted to assess locomotor and exploratory activities as well as anxiety-like behaviors. Caffeine treatment increased both RR and NG latency times. In the OF test, the caffeine group had fewer outer crossings and reduced locomotion compared to control, while the washout group showed increased inner crossings in relation to the other groups and fewer rearings only in comparison to the control group. We found decreased AChE activity in the caffeine group compared to the other groups, with no alteration in AChE transcriptional regulation. Chronic maternal exposure to caffeine promotes important alterations in neuromotor development. These results highlight the ability of maternal caffeine intake to interfere with cholinergic neurotransmission during brain development. PMID:25451122

  10. Prenatal LPS-exposure--a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia--differentially affects cognitive functions, myelination and parvalbumin expression in male and female offspring.

    PubMed

    Wischhof, Lena; Irrsack, Ellen; Osorio, Carmen; Koch, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for the offspring to develop schizophrenia. Gender differences can be seen in various features of the illness and sex steroid hormones (e.g. estrogen) have strongly been implicated in the disease pathology. In the present study, we evaluated sex differences in the effects of prenatal exposure to a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in rats. Pregnant dams received LPS-injections (100 μg/kg) at gestational day 15 and 16. The offspring was then tested for prepulse inhibition (PPI), locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior and object recognition memory at various developmental time points. At postnatal day (PD) 33 and 60, prenatally LPS-exposed rats showed locomotor hyperactivity which was similar in male and female offspring. Moreover, prenatal LPS-treatment caused PPI deficits in pubertal (PD45) and adult (PD90) males while PPI impairments were found only at PD45 in prenatally LPS-treated females. Following prenatal LPS-administration, recognition memory for objects was impaired in both sexes with males being more severely affected. Additionally, we assessed prenatal infection-induced alterations of parvalbumin (Parv) expression and myelin fiber density. Male offspring born to LPS-challenged mothers showed decreased myelination in cortical and limbic brain regions as well as reduced numbers of Parv-expressing cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. In contrast, LPS-exposed female rats showed only a modest decrease in myelination and Parv immunoreactivity. Collectively, our data indicate that some of the prenatal immune activation effects are sex dependent and further strengthen the importance of taking into account gender differences in animal models of schizophrenia. PMID:25455585

  11. Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-06-01

    Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB ( r = 0.54 to 0.57, p < 0.001). Further, IQ emerged as a powerful predictor of SRB after controlling for the effects of all the known covariates like fertility, maternal age, polygyny prevalence, wealth, son preference, latitude, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations.

  12. Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-06-01

    Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB (r = 0.54 to 0.57, p < 0.001). Further, IQ emerged as a powerful predictor of SRB after controlling for the effects of all the known covariates like fertility, maternal age, polygyny prevalence, wealth, son preference, latitude, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations. PMID:23657672

  13. Exposure to low doses of formaldehyde during pregnancy suppresses the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Maiellaro, Marília; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Gimenes Júnior, João Antônio; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2014-08-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational pollutant, and its toxic effects on the immune system have been shown. Nevertheless, no data are available regarding the programming mechanisms after FA exposure and its repercussions for the immune systems of offspring. In this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of low-dose exposure of FA on pregnant rats and its repercussion for the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned in 3 groups: P (rats exposed to FA (0.75 ppm, 1 h/day, 5 days/week, for 21 days)), C (rats exposed to vehicle of FA (distillated water)) and B (rats non-manipulated). After 30 days of age, the offspring was sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and challenged with aerosolized OVA (1%, 15 min, 3 days). After 24 h the OVA challenge the parameters were evaluated. Our data showed that low-dose exposure to FA during pregnancy induced low birth weight and suppressed the development of allergic lung inflammation and tracheal hyperresponsiveness in offspring by mechanisms mediated by reduced anaphylactic antibodies synthesis, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion. Elevated levels of IL-10 were found. Any systemic alteration was detected in the exposed pregnant rats, although oxidative stress in the uterine environment was evident at the moment of the delivery based on elevated COX-1 expression and reduced cNOS and SOD-2 in the uterus. Therefore, we show the putative programming mechanisms induced by FA on the immune system for the first time and the mechanisms involved may be related to oxidative stress in the foetal microenvironment. - Highlights: • Formaldehyde exposure does not cause lung inflammation in pregnant rats. • Formaldehyde exposure suppresses allergic lung inflammation in the offspring. • Formaldehyde exposure induces oxidative stress in uterine environment.

  14. Prenatal exposure to H2 blockers and to proton pump inhibitors and asthma development in offspring.

    PubMed

    Yitshak-Sade, Maayan; Gorodischer, Rafael; Aviram, Micha; Novack, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Fetal exposure to H2 blockers (H2 Bs) or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been reported to be associated with asthma in children. We evaluated the risk of asthma in offspring following prenatal H2 Bs. We enrolled 91 428 children and their mothers who resided in southern Israel during 1998-2011. The computerized medications database was linked with records from the district hospital. Of the eligible children, 11 227 developed asthma, and overall 5.5% had been exposed to H2 Bs or PPIs prenatally. The risk of developing asthma was slightly higher in the group exposed to H2 Bs or PPIs (RR, 1.09; P = .023). At greater risk were children whose mothers purchased these medications more than 3 times (RR, 1.22; P = .038) or exposed to >20 defined daily doses or prenatally exposed to lansoprazole. The statistical association was significant and depended on magnitude of exposure and specific medication, but the absolute risk was low. The association between maternal consumption of H2 Bs or PPIs and asthma and childhood remained statistically significant 2 years after delivery, raising the possibility of confounding by the indication phenomenon. In view of the findings, a causal relationship could not be ascertained, and an unidentified etiological factor could be operative. PMID:26096778

  15. Effect of Preventive Chlamydia abortus Vaccination in Offspring Development in Sheep Challenged Experimentally.

    PubMed

    García-Seco, Teresa; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Alejandro; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; García, Nerea; Pozo, Pilar; Goyache, Joaquín; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Ovine enzootic abortion, caused by Chlamydia abortus, leads to important economic losses worldwide. In addition to reproductive failures, infection may impact lamb growth during the first weeks after birth, yet this effect has not been well characterized. Vaccination can help to control the disease but variable efficacy values have been described, possibly related with factors associated with the host, the vaccine, the parameter used for efficacy determination, and the challenge conditions. In this context, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated standard commercial vaccine and a 1/2 diluted dose in pregnant sheep challenged with C. abortus by examining multiple indicators of vaccine effect (including incidence of reproductive failures, bacterial excretion, and evolution of weight gain of viable lambs during the first month of life). Three groups of ewes [control non-vaccinated, C (n = 18); vaccinated with standard dose, SV (n = 16); and vaccinated with 1/2 dose, DV (n = 17)], were challenged approximately 90 days post-mating and tested using direct PCR (tissue samples and vaginal swabs) and ELISA (serum) until 31 days post-reproductive outcome. There were not significant differences in the proportions of reproductive failures or bacterial shedding after birth/abortion regardless the vaccination protocol. However, a beneficial effect of vaccination on offspring growth was detected in both vaccinated groups compared with the controls, with a mean increase in weight measured at 30 days of life of 1.5 and 2.5 kg (p = 0.056) and an increase in the geometric mean of the daily gain of 8.4 and 9.7% in lambs born from DV and SV ewes compared with controls, respectively. Our results demonstrate the effect of an inactivated vaccine in the development of the offspring of C. abortus-infected ewes at a standard and a diluted dose, an interesting finding given the difficulty in achieving sufficient antigen concentration in the production of enzootic

  16. Effect of Preventive Chlamydia abortus Vaccination in Offspring Development in Sheep Challenged Experimentally

    PubMed Central

    García-Seco, Teresa; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Alejandro; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; García, Nerea; Pozo, Pilar; Goyache, Joaquín; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Ovine enzootic abortion, caused by Chlamydia abortus, leads to important economic losses worldwide. In addition to reproductive failures, infection may impact lamb growth during the first weeks after birth, yet this effect has not been well characterized. Vaccination can help to control the disease but variable efficacy values have been described, possibly related with factors associated with the host, the vaccine, the parameter used for efficacy determination, and the challenge conditions. In this context, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated standard commercial vaccine and a 1/2 diluted dose in pregnant sheep challenged with C. abortus by examining multiple indicators of vaccine effect (including incidence of reproductive failures, bacterial excretion, and evolution of weight gain of viable lambs during the first month of life). Three groups of ewes [control non-vaccinated, C (n = 18); vaccinated with standard dose, SV (n = 16); and vaccinated with 1/2 dose, DV (n = 17)], were challenged approximately 90 days post-mating and tested using direct PCR (tissue samples and vaginal swabs) and ELISA (serum) until 31 days post-reproductive outcome. There were not significant differences in the proportions of reproductive failures or bacterial shedding after birth/abortion regardless the vaccination protocol. However, a beneficial effect of vaccination on offspring growth was detected in both vaccinated groups compared with the controls, with a mean increase in weight measured at 30 days of life of 1.5 and 2.5 kg (p = 0.056) and an increase in the geometric mean of the daily gain of 8.4 and 9.7% in lambs born from DV and SV ewes compared with controls, respectively. Our results demonstrate the effect of an inactivated vaccine in the development of the offspring of C. abortus-infected ewes at a standard and a diluted dose, an interesting finding given the difficulty in achieving sufficient antigen concentration in the production of enzootic

  17. Assessment of offspring development and behavior following gestational exposure to inhaled methanol in the rat.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M E; Crofton, K M; Gray, L E; Gordon, C J; Boyes, W K; Mole, M L; Peele, D B; Bushnell, P J

    1995-11-01

    The prospect of widespread human exposure associated with its use as an alternative fuel has sparked concern about the toxic potential of inhaled methanol (MeOH). Previous studies have revealed congenital malformations in rats following inhaled MeOH (Nelson et al. (1985). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 5, 727-736) but these studies did not include postnatal behavioral assessment. In the present study, pregnant Long-Evans rats were placed in exposure chambers containing 15,000 ppm MeOH or air for 7 hr/day on Gestational Days (GD) 7-19. The total alveolar dose of methanol was estimated at about 6.1 g/kg/day, for a total dose of about 42.7 g/kg for the entire study. Maternal body weights were recorded daily and blood methanol concentrations were determined at the end of exposure on GD 7, 10, 14, and 18. Following birth (Postnatal Day 0 [PND 0]), a number of tests were performed at various points in development, including: offspring mortality and body wt (PND 1,3), motor activity (PND 13-21, 30, 60), olfactory learning (PND 18), behavioral thermoregulation (PND 20-21), T-maze learning (PND 23-24), acoustic startle response (PND 24, 60), reflex modification audiometry (PND 60), pubertal landmarks (PND 31-56), passive avoidance (PND 72), and visual-evoked potentials (PND 160). Maternal blood MeOH levels, measured from samples taken within 15 min after removal from the exposure chamber, declined from about 3.8 mg/ml on the first day of exposure to 3.1 mg/ml on the 12th day of exposure. MeOH transiently reduced maternal body wt (4-7%) on GD 8-10, and offspring BW (5%) on PND 1. No other test revealed significant effects of MeOH. Prenatal exposure to high levels of inhaled MeOH appears to have little effect on this broad battery of tests beyond PND 1 in the rat. PMID:8566474

  18. A Study on Mediation by Offspring BMI in the Association between Maternal Obesity and Child Respiratory Outcomes in the Amsterdam Born and Their Development Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Harskamp-van Ginkel, Margreet W.; London, Stephanie J.; Magnus, Maria C.; Gademan, Maaike G.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.

    2015-01-01

    Background A causal relationship between maternal obesity and offspring asthma is hypothesized to begin during early development, but no underlying mechanism for the found association is identified. We quantitatively examined mediation by offspring body mass index (BMI) in the association of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI on risk of asthma and wheezing during the first 7–8 years of life in a large Amsterdam born birth cohort. Methods For 3185 mother-child pairs, mothers reported maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring outcomes “ever being diagnosed with asthma” and “wheezing in the past 12 months” on questionnaires. We measured offspring height and weight at age 5–6 years. We performed a multivariate log linear regression comparing outcomes in offspring of mothers with different BMI categories. For each category we quantified and tested mediation by offspring BMI and also investigated interaction by parental asthma. Results At the age of 7–8 years, 8% of the offspring ever had asthma and 7% had current wheezing. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with higher risks of asthma (adjusted RR 2.32 (95% CI: 1.49–3.61) and wheezing (adjusted RR 2.16 (95% CI: 1.28–3.64). Offspring BMI was a mediator in the association between maternal BMI and offspring wheezing, but not for asthma. There was no interaction by parental asthma. Conclusions Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with higher risks of offspring asthma and wheezing. The association between maternal obesity and offspring wheezing was both direct and indirect (mediated) through the child’s own BMI. PMID:26485533

  19. [Epigenetics and Nutrition: maternal nutrition impacts on placental development and health of offspring].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, Polina E; Lemaire, Marion; Fneich, Sara; Voisin, Sarah; Jouin, Mélanie; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The environment, defined broadly by all that is external to the individual, conditions the phenotype during development, particularly the susceptibility to develop non-communicable diseases. This notion, called Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), is based on numerous epidemiological studies as well as animal models. Thus, parental nutrition and obesity can predispose the offspring to develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. The known underlying mechanisms include an altered development of tissues that adapt to maternal metabolic condition, and a placental dysfunction, which in turn impacts fetal growth and development. Epigenetic mechanisms modulate gene expression without affecting the DNA sequence itself. The main epigenetic marks are DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications. These marks are erased and set-up during gametogenesis and development in order to ensure cellular identity. Therefore, they can lead to a memorisation of early environment and induce long-term alteration of cell and tissue functions, which will condition the susceptibility to non-communicable diseases. The placenta is a programming agent of adult disease. The environment, such as smoking or psychosocial stress, is able to modify epigenetic processes in placenta, such as small RNA expression and DNA methylation. We showed that placenta is sensitive to maternal obesity and maternal nutrition, in terms of histology, transcription and epigenetic marks. A clear sexual dimorphism is remarkable in the placental response to maternal environment. In adulthood, the phenotype is also different between males and females. Epigenetic mechanisms could underlie this differential response of males and females to the same environment. The DOHaD can no longer be ignored in Biology of Reproduction. The prevention of non-communicable diseases must take this new paradigm into account. Research will allow a better comprehension of the mechanisms of this

  20. A trade-off between embryonic development rate and immune function of avian offspring is concealed by embryonic temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Arriero, Elena; Majewska, Ania

    2011-01-01

    Long embryonic periods are assumed to reflect slower intrinsic development that are thought to trade off to allow enhanced physiological systems, such as immune function. Yet, the relatively rare studies of this trade-off in avian offspring have not found the expected trade-off. Theory and tests have not taken into account the strong extrinsic effects of temperature on embryonic periods of birds. Here, we show that length of the embryonic period did not explain variation in two measures of immune function when temperature was ignored, based on studies of 34 Passerine species in tropical Venezuela (23 species) and north temperate Arizona (11 species). Variation in immune function was explained when embryonic periods were corrected for average embryonic temperature, in order to better estimate intrinsic rates of development. Immune function of offspring trades off with intrinsic rates of embryonic development once the extrinsic effects of embryonic temperatures are taken into account.

  1. Cognitive Process of Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddington, Eulalee N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

  2. SOCIAL CLASS AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIRNS, BEVERLY; GOLDEN, MARK

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO FIND OUT WHETHER SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES IN INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT ARE PRESENT IF (1) CHILDREN FROM SOCIALLY DISORGANIZED SLUM FAMILIES ARE COMPARED WITH CHILDREN FROM STABLE, LOW INCOME AND MIDDLE INCOME FAMILIES, (2) THE PIAGET OBJECT SCALE, A NEW MEASURE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT BASED ON PIAGET'S SENSORIMOTOR…

  3. Maternally Administered Cyclic Glycine-Proline Increases Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Bioavailability and Novelty Recognition in Developing Offspring.

    PubMed

    Singh-Mallah, Gagandeep; Singh, Kuljeet; McMahon, Christopher D; Harris, Paul; Brimble, Margaret A; Thorstensen, Eric; Guan, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic glycine-proline (cGP), a metabolite of IGF-1, is an endogenous neuropeptide that improves memory in adult rats. The presence and concentrations of endogenous cGP, and its association with IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in rat milk and plasma, were evaluated during postnatal development. Maternal-infantile transfer of cGP during lactation and its efficacy on the memory of developing offspring were also investigated. Dams were gavaged with either cGP (3 mg/kg) or saline daily from postnatal days 8-22. Concentrations of cGP were measured in dams' milk, and concentrations of cGP, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 were measured in the plasma of dams, pups, and young adults. The recognition memory, locomotor function, and anxiety-like behavior of offspring were evaluated using behavioral tests. Endogenous cGP was detected in rat milk, and its concentration was higher during peak lactation compared with late lactation. Comparisons within control groups showed low endogenous IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and high endogenous cGP concentrations in the plasma of male pups. The reduced IGFBP-3 and increased cGP may be a response to increase the bioavailability of IGF-1 during infancy. Exogenous cGP showed oral bioavailability and effective maternal-infantile transfer through milk. Maternally transferred cGP also led to improved recognition memory in the developing offspring, possibly through increased IGF-1 bioavailability, with no effect on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. These results show that cGP is an essential endogenous peptide during early postnatal development as it improves the bioavailability of IGF-1 during infancy. Furthermore, maternal cGP supplementation offers an effective and natural route of administration for improving memory in the developing offspring. PMID:27355491

  4. Lipopolysaccharide exposure during late embryogenesis results in diminished locomotor activity and amphetamine response in females and spatial cognition impairment in males in adult, but not adolescent rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Batinić, Bojan; Santrač, Anja; Divović, Branka; Timić, Tamara; Stanković, Tamara; Obradović, Aleksandar Lj; Joksimović, Srđan; Savić, Miroslav M

    2016-02-15

    Numerous basic and epidemiological studies have connected prenatal maternal immune activation with the occurrence of schizophrenia and/or autism. Depending on subtle differences in protocols of the used animal model, a variety of behavioral abnormalities has been reported. This study investigated behavioral differences in Wistar rat offspring of both genders, exposed to the 100 μg/kg per day dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in late embryogenesis (embryonic days 15 and 16), while tested at their adolescent and young adult age (postnatal days 40 and 60, respectively). Immune activation was confirmed by detecting high levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in dam blood withdrawn 2h after the first dose of LPS. The animals were assessed in three consecutive trials of locomotor activity (novelty exploration, response to i.p. saline injection and challenge with 0.5mg/kg amphetamine), Morris water maze and social interaction tests. Overt behavioral dysfunction was perceived in adult rats only, and these changes were gender-distinctive. When compared with control rats, LPS females displayed baseline hypolocomotion and a decreased reactivity to amphetamine, while LPS males exhibited spatial learning (acquisition trials) and memory (probe trial) impairments. Prenatal treatment did not affect the time spent in social interaction. As maternal exposure to LPS in late gestation resulted in behavioral changes in offspring in early adulthood, it may model schizophrenia-like, but not autism-like endophenotypes. However, lack of a potentiated response to amphetamine testified that this model could not mimic positive symptoms, but rather certain traits of cognitive dysfunction and deficit symptoms, in males and females, respectively. PMID:26620494

  5. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. We studied two developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving -- cognitive and socioemotional -- in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving and engaged in more socioemotional than cognitive activities. More than half of mothers played with their children and took them outside, but only a third or fewer read books and told stories to their children. The GDP of countries related to caregiving after controlling for life expectancy and education. The majority of mothers report that they do not leave their under-5s alone. Policy and intervention recommendations are elaborated. PMID:22277006

  6. Maternal Milk T Cells Drive Development of Transgenerational Th1 Immunity in Offspring Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mrinal K.; Nguyen, Virginia; Muller, H. Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Using multiple murine foster-nursing protocols, thereby eliminating placental transfer and allowing a distinction between dam- and pup-derived cells, we show that foster nursing by an immunized dam results in development of CD8+ T cells in nonimmunized foster pups that are specific for Ags against which the foster dam was immunized (Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Candida albicans). We have dubbed this process “maternal educational immunity” to distinguish it from passive cellular immunity. Of the variety of maternal immune cells present in milk, only T cells were detected in pup tissues. Maternal T cells, a substantial percentage of which were CD4+MHC class II+, accumulated in the pup thymus and spleen during the nursing period. Further analysis of maternal cells in the pup thymus showed that a proportion was positive for maternal immunogen-specific MHC class II tetramers. To determine the outcome of Ag presentation in the thymus, the maternal or foster pup origin of immunogen-responding CD8+ cells in foster pup spleens was assessed. Whereas ∼10% were maternally derived in the first few weeks after weaning, all immunogen-responding CD8+ T cells were pup derived by 12 wk of age. Pup-derived immunogen-responsive CD8+ cells persisted until at least 1 y of age. Passive cellular immunity is well accepted and has been demonstrated in the human population. In this study, we show an arguably more important role for transferred immune cells: the direction of offspring T cell development. Harnessing maternal educational immunity through prepregnancy immunization programs has potential for improvement of infant immunity. PMID:27496970

  7. A Maternal High-Energy Diet Promotes Intestinal Development and Intrauterine Growth of Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peilin; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Feng, Bin; Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Li, Jian; Wu, De

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in an offspring’s intestinal development. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of maternal energy on the growth and small intestine development of offspring. After mating, twenty gilts (Large White (LW) breeding, body weight (BW) at 135.54 ± 0.66 kg) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a control diet (CON) group and a high-energy diet (HED) group, respectively. The nutrient levels of the CON were referred to meet the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012), while the HED was designed by adding an amount of soybean oil that was 4.6% of the total diet weight to the CON. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. At day 90 of gestation, day 1 post-birth, and day 28 post-birth, the weights of fetuses and piglets, intestinal morphology, enzyme activities, and gene and protein expressions of intestinal growth factors were determined. The results indicated that the maternal HED markedly increased the BW, small intestinal weight, and villus height of fetuses and piglets. Moreover, the activities of lactase in fetal intestine, sucrase in piglet intestine were markedly increased by the maternal HED. In addition, the maternal HED tended to increase the protein expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in fetal intestine, associated with significantly increased the gene expression of IGF-1R. In conclusion, increasing energy intake could promote fetal growth and birth weight, with greater intestinal morphology and enzyme activities. PMID:27164130

  8. The consequences of prenatal and/or postnatal methamphetamine exposure on neonatal development and behaviour in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Kelly, John P

    2015-12-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) has become a popular drug of abuse in recent years not only in the general population but also amongst pregnant women. Although there is a growing body of preclinical investigations of MA exposure during pregnancy, there has been little investigation of the consequences of such exposure via the breast milk during the neonatal period. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the consequences of MA exposure during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment and behaviour in the rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams received MA (3.75 mg/kg) or control (distilled water) once daily via oral gavage from gestation day 7-21, postnatal day 1-21 or gestation day 7- postnatal day 21. A range of well-recognised neurodevelopmental parameters were examined in the offspring. Prenatal MA significantly reduced maternal weight gain, with a concomitant reduction in food intake. A significant increase in neonatal pup mortality was observed, being most marked in the prenatal/postnatal MA group. Significant impairments in neurodevelopmental parameters were also evident in all MA treatment groups including somatic development (e.g. pinna unfolding, fur appearance, eye opening) and behavioural development (e.g. surface righting, inclined plane test, forelimb grip). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to MA during any of these exposure periods (prenatal and/or postnatal) can have a profound effect on neonatal outcome, suggesting that regardless of the exposure period MA is associated with detrimental consequences in the offspring. These results indicate that in the clinical scenario, exposure during lactation needs to be considered when assessing the potential harmful effects of MA on offspring development. PMID:26391019

  9. Cognitive Development during the College Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Madeleine L.

    The use of William Perry's (1970) model of cognitive development during the college years to restructure an abnormal psychology course is described. The model provides a framework for students and teachers to understand the confusion and frustration they sometimes experience. Perry proposed that students enter college with tacit epistemological…

  10. Integrating Cognitive Development and the Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jerry; Berg, Anna

    The Cognitive Project at Passaic County College (New Jersey) was designed to develop a curriculum that would give educationally underprepared, nontraditional students an opportunity to actively experience ways of acquiring, solidifying, and using knowledge while acquiring the basic skills necessary for college work. Student explorations were…

  11. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  12. Developing Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency: The Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessingh, Hetty; Kover, Pat; Watt, David

    2005-01-01

    This study tracks the development of cognitive academic language proficiency of 47 academically competent high school ESL learners of differing age on arrival (AOA) who received instructed ESL support and one comparison group of six young arrivals who received little if any ESL support during their educational experiences. Although intake and…

  13. Cognitive Development in Students Evidencing Dyscalculia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tishler, Anne G.

    In every school there are bright, motivated students who experience success in every field of academic endeavor except mathematics. These students are defined as dyscalculics, or learning disabled in mathematics. Piaget's model for cognitive development was used in a study of students evidencing this condition. The purpose of the study was to…

  14. Development of Cortical Circuitry and Cognitive Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies on the biological development of the prefrontal cortex in rhesus monkeys are reviewed. These studies have elucidated the basic neural circuitry underlying the delayed-response function in adult nonhuman primates and suggest that a critical mass of cortical synapses is important for the emergence of this cognitive function. (BN)

  15. Relations between Brain and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Kurt W.

    1987-01-01

    The developmental pattern of concurrent synaptogenesis in rhesus monkeys is consistent with a straightforward model of relations between brain and cognitive development. Concurrent synaptogenesis is hypothesized to lay the primary cortical foundation for a series of developmental levels in middle infancy that have been empirically documented in…

  16. Cognitive Development and Teaching Vocational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, C. William

    Years of research have shown that student learning is based on cognitive development. This finding has implications for the teaching of vocational education, especially to marginal students who are potential dropouts. Research has shown that students who have an internal rather than an external locus of control and who are more field independent…

  17. Cognitive development and aspects of adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Pestrak, V A; Martin, D

    1985-01-01

    Difficulty with adjustment to sexuality by adolescents has been of increasing concern to both educators and human service professionals in recent years. The cognitive development and behavior of adolescents as it pertains to sexuality and the implications for helping them overcome maladaptive sexual behavior is discussed. PMID:4083149

  18. Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Timothy E., Ed.

    This volume deals with various aspects of the relationship between linguistic ability and general cognitive development. It presents original, up-to-date research for child psychologists, linguists, psycholinguists, scholars, teachers, and students interested in this field and interprets the findings in the context of contemporary linguistic…

  19. Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Michelle M.

    2007-01-01

    Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

  20. Empathy in Relation to Social Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shantz, Carolyn Uhlinger

    This review brings together some general findings on empathy that have emerged during the last decade of research with children. From a recent review of the research on social cognitive development (Schantz, in press), this paper responds to three specific questions: (1) What is empathy? (2) Under what conditions is empathy likely to occur? and…

  1. Multifaceted Defense against Antagonistic Microbes in Developing Offspring of the Parasitoid Wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Katharina; Parzefall, Christopher; Herzner, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R)-(-)-mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R)-(-)-mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum). We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R)-(-)-mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several antimicrobials

  2. Multifaceted defense against antagonistic microbes in developing offspring of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Katharina; Parzefall, Christopher; Herzner, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R)-(-)-mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R)-(-)-mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum). We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R)-(-)-mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several antimicrobials

  3. Metyrapone alleviates deleterious effects of maternal food restriction on lung development and growth of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Paek, David S; Sakurai, Reiko; Saraswat, Aditi; Li, Yishi; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K

    2015-02-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) causes intrauterine growth restriction, a known risk factor for developing chronic lung disease. However, it is unknown whether this negative outcome is gender specific or preventable by blocking the MFR-induced hyperglucocorticoidism. Using a well-established rat model, we used metyrapone (MTP), an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, to study the MFR-induced lung changes on postnatal day (p) 21 in a gender-specific manner. From embryonic day 10 until delivery, pregnant dams were fed either an ad libitum diet or a 50% caloric restricted diet with or without MTP supplementation. Postnatally, the offspring were fed ad libitum from healthy dams until p21. Morphometric, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs demonstrated that MTP mitigated the MFR-mediated decrease in alveolar count, decrease in adipogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, increase in myogenic proteins (fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and calponin), increase in Wnt signaling intermediates (lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and β-catenin), and increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels. The MFR-induced lung phenotype and the effects of MTP were similar in both genders. To elucidate the mechanism of MFR-induced shift of the adipogenic-to-myogenic phenotype, lung fibroblasts were used to independently study the effects of (1) nutrient restriction and (2) excess steroid exposure. Nutrient deprivation increased myogenic proteins, Wnt signaling intermediates, and GR, all changes blocked by protein supplementation. MTP also blocked, likely by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, the corticosterone-induced increase in myogenic proteins, but had no effect on GR levels. In summary, protein restriction and increased glucocorticoid levels appear to be the key players in MFR-induced lung disease, affecting both genders. PMID:24916330

  4. Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to triphenyltin chloride on pregnancy outcome and postnatal development in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Grote, Konstanze; Hobler, Carolin; Andrade, Anderson J M; Grande, Simone Wichert; Gericke, Christine; Talsness, Chris E; Appel, Klaus E; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2007-09-01

    The organotin compound (OTC) triphenyltin (TPT) is used extensively as a herbicide, pesticide and fungicide in agriculture as well as, together with tributyltin (TBT), in marine antifouling paints. We studied the effects of in utero exposure to 2 or 6 mg triphenyltinchloride (TPTCl)/kgb.w. on pregnancy outcome and postnatal development in rat offspring. Gravid Wistar rats were treated per gavage from gestational day 6 until the end of lactation. In the 6 mg TPTCl dose group gestational mortality in dams as well as an increased incidence of anticipated and delayed parturition was observed. Furthermore, treatment resulted in a significant increase in perinatal mortality, a decrease in lactational body weight gain as well as in delayed physical maturation of offspring. Similarily, exposure to 2mg TPTCl/kgb.w. resulted in a significant increase in perinatal mortality and in delayed eye opening. Lactational body weight gain and other landmarks of physical maturation were unaffected in the low dose group. We conclude, that in utero exposure to TPTCl at the described dose levels severely affected pregnancy outcome and perinatal survival of offspring. These results were unexpected, as in two earlier studies with pubertal rats TPTCl at the same dose levels no signs of general toxicity were observed. PMID:17644232

  5. Offspring, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offspring, 1995

    1995-01-01

    These two 1995 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers including the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to practitioners and are frequently accompanied by classroom activities.…

  6. Offspring, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Marilynn, Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    These two 1996 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers and pertinent to the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to parents, teachers, and others and aim to provide a forum for views…

  7. Programming social, cognitive, and neuroendocrine development by early exposure to novelty

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Akaysha C.; Akers, Katherine G.; Reeb, Bethany C.; Romeo, Russell D.; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2006-01-01

    Mildly stressful early life experiences can potentially impact a broad range of social, cognitive, and physiological functions in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents. Recent rodent studies favor a maternal-mediation hypothesis that considers maternal-care differences induced by neonatal stimulation as the cause of individual differences in offspring development. Using neonatal novelty exposure, a neonatal stimulation paradigm that dissociates maternal individual differences from a direct stimulation effect on the offspring, we investigated the effect of early exposures to novelty on a diverse range of psychological functions using several assessment paradigms. Pups that received brief neonatal novelty exposures away from the home environment showed enhancement in spatial working memory, social competition, and corticosterone response to surprise during adulthood compared with their home-staying siblings. These functional enhancements in novelty-exposed rats occurred despite evidence that maternal care was directed preferentially toward home-staying instead of novelty-exposed pups, indicating that greater maternal care is neither necessary nor sufficient for these early stimulation-induced functional enhancements. We suggest a unifying maternal-modulation hypothesis, which distinguishes itself from the maternal-mediation hypothesis in that (i) neonatal stimulation can have direct effects on pups, cumulatively leading to long-term improvement in adult offspring; and (ii) maternal behavior can attenuate or potentiate these effects, thereby decreasing or increasing this long-term functional improvement. PMID:17030787

  8. Neurotoxicological effects of low-dose methylmercury and mercuric chloride in developing offspring mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Fa; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn

    2011-03-25

    Mercury is a well-known toxic metal and potently induces severe neurotoxicological effects, especially in infants and children. The purpose of this study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of neurotoxic effects of mercurial compounds on the different stages of developing mice. Low-doses (the probability of human exposure in mercury-contaminated areas) of methylmercury (MeHg) (M, 0.02mg/kg/day) and mercury chloride (HgCl(2)) (H, 0.5mg/kg/day) were administered to mice of the following groups: (1) treatment with distilled water for 7 consecutive weeks after weaning (control-vehicle (CV)); exposure to mercurial compounds at different stages; (2) for 7 consecutive weeks after weaning (control-MeHg (CM) and control-HgCl(2) (CH)); (3) only during perinatal and weaning stages (MeHg-vehicle (MV) and HgCl-vehicle (HV)); and (4) in all experimental stages (MeHg-MeHg (MM) and HgCl(2)-HgCl(2) (HH)). Results revealed the neurobehavioral defects (increased locomotor activities, motor equilibrium impairment, and auditory dysfunction) that correlated with increasing Hg accumulation in CM and CH groups. However, it revealed a decrease and an increase in locomotor activities in MV and HV groups, respectively; these became more severe in MM and HH groups than in MV and HV groups. Motor equilibrium performance in MV and HV groups remained normal, while that in MM and HH groups was decreased. The most severe auditory defects (altered auditory brainstem response, ABR test) found in MM and HH groups than those in the respective CM and CH, MV and HV, including absolute wave III delays and interwave I-III latencies, which suggested that the irreversible auditory dysfunction caused by mercurial compounds. Furthermore, the alteration of lipid peroxidation (LPO), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities, and nitric oxide (NO(x)) in the brain tissues contributed to the observed neurobehavioral dysfunction and hearing impairment. These findings provide evidence that fetuses were much more susceptible

  9. Parenting practices and intergenerational associations in cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    Byford, M; Kuh, D; Richards, M

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive ability is an important contributor to life chances, with implications for cycles of advantage or disadvantage across generations. Parenting practices are known to influence offspring cognitive development, but the extent to which these mediate intergenerational continuities and discontinuities in cognitive ability has not been adequately studied. Methods We used factor analysis to derive summary measures of parenting practices, and regression analyses and path modelling to test associations between these and cognitive function at age 8 years in 1690 first offspring of the British 1946 birth cohort. Analyses allowed for direct and indirect effects of parental original and achieved social circumstances, educational attainment and own childhood cognitive ability. Additional covariates were provided by indicators of parental physical and mental health. Results Regression analyses revealed that three aspects of parenting, intellectual home environment, parental aspiration and cognitive stimulation, were positively and independently associated with offspring childhood cognitive ability, whereas coercive discipline was negatively and independently associated. Path modelling was appropriate for intellectual environment, which also revealed direct and indirect effects of parental cognitive ability and educational and occupational attainment on offspring cognitive ability. Conclusion Parenting practices, particularly provision of an intellectual environment, were directly associated with offspring cognitive development. These data add to the relatively few studies that examine intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in cognitive ability. PMID:22422461

  10. From Behaviourism to Cognitive Behaviourism to Cognitive Development: Steps in the Evolution of Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robbie; Bereiter, Carl

    1984-01-01

    Traces history of instructional technology, including Skinner's work, Gagne's task analytic approach, and contemporary efforts associated with the cognitive revolution. It is suggested that an understanding of cognitive development improves earlier approaches by adapting them directly to students' cognitive development levels. Recent instructional…

  11. Early childhood cognitive development and parental cognitive stimulation: evidence for reciprocal gene-environment transactions.

    PubMed

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2012-03-01

    Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children's cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children's cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments. PMID:22356180

  12. Cognitive Development, Sex, and Abstractness in Grade One Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yore, Larry D.; Ollila, Lloyd O.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of global cognitive development, sex, and word abstractness on young readers' word recognition were explored. ANOVA results indicated that nouns were recognized more frequently than non-nouns; children with high cognitive development recognized more words than children with lower cognitive development; and females recognized more words…

  13. Maternal obesity during pregnancy and cardiovascular development and disease in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Romy

    2015-11-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy is an important public health problem in Western countries. Currently, obesity prevalence rates in pregnant women are estimated to be as high as 30%. In addition, approximately 40% of women gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy in Western countries. An accumulating body of evidence suggests a long-term impact of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy on adiposity, cardiovascular and metabolic related health outcomes in the offspring in fetal life, childhood and adulthood. In this review, we discuss results from recent studies, potential underlying mechanisms and challenges for future epidemiological studies. PMID:26377700

  14. Assessment of cognitive safety in clinical drug development

    PubMed Central

    Roiser, Jonathan P.; Nathan, Pradeep J.; Mander, Adrian P.; Adusei, Gabriel; Zavitz, Kenton H.; Blackwell, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is increasingly recognised as an important potential adverse effect of medication. However, many drug development programmes do not incorporate sensitive cognitive measurements. Here, we review the rationale for cognitive safety assessment, and explain several basic methodological principles for measuring cognition during clinical drug development, including study design and statistical analysis, from Phase I through to postmarketing. The crucial issue of how cognition should be assessed is emphasized, especially the sensitivity of measurement. We also consider how best to interpret the magnitude of any identified effects, including comparison with benchmarks. We conclude by discussing strategies for the effective communication of cognitive risks. PMID:26610416

  15. Parent-Offspring Resemblance for Cognitive Abilities in the Colorado Adoption Project: Biological, Adoptive, and Control Parents and One-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFries, J. C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Results from the Colorado Adoption Project, a longitudinal study initiated in 1975, are reported. The cognitive ability of parents and measures of one-year olds' mental development were significantly correlated for all three parent/child comparisons. Caldwell's HOME Responsibility measure was correlated with infant intelligence in adoptive and…

  16. Vitamin D deficiency during various stages of pregnancy in the rat; its impact on development and behaviour in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    O'Loan, Jonathan; Eyles, Darryl W; Kesby, James; Ko, Pauline; McGrath, John J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2007-04-01

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency alters brain development and behaviour in the rat. The aim of this study was to vary levels of vitamin D deficiency during gestation and examine the effects on developmental milestones and behaviour in adult offspring. By manipulating the withdrawal and reintroduction of vitamin D in the diet of female Sprague-Dawley rats, their offspring were subjected to four different prenatal vitamin D conditions: (a) control (normal vitamin D throughout gestation); (b) early-DVD deficiency; (c) late-DVD deficiency; and (d) full-DVD deficiency. We show that the standard measure for vitamin D status, 25(OH)D(3), can be significantly manipulated within 7 days by dietary intervention. We also show that levels of the active form of this vitamin, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), replete within the same time frame as 25(OH)D(3) but are slower to deplete. Developmental milestones remained normal across all four dietary groups. Concerning the adult behavioural phenotype, both full- and late-DVD deficiency were associated with MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion. Overall, these data suggest that vitamin D deficiency restricted to late gestation only is sufficient to disrupt adult brain functioning in the rat. These findings suggest there may be a therapeutic window for maternal dietary intervention in the DVD model of psychosis. PMID:17276604

  17. Some Instructional Implications from a Mathematical Model of Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mierkiewicz, Diane B.

    Cognitive development and various educational implications are discussed in terms of Donald Saari's model of the interaction of a learner and the enviroment and the constraints imposed by the inefficiency of the learner's cognitive system. Saari proposed a hierarchical system of cognitive structures such that the relationships between structures…

  18. Prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide impaired the maternal care and the physical and behavioral development of offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Sandini, Thaísa M; Udo, Mariana S B; Reis-Silva, Thiago M; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Spinosa, Helenice de S

    2014-08-01

    Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) have been reported as contaminants of pastures and food, as well as being used in herbal medicine. PAs are responsible for poisoning events in livestock and human beings. The aim of this present study was to evaluate effects of prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide, the main PA found in the butanolic residue (BR) of Senecio brasiliensis, on both physical and behavioral parameters of Wistar rat offspring. The toxicity and maternal behavior were also evaluated. For this, pregnant Wistar rats received integerrimine N-oxide from the BR of Senecio brasiliensis, by gavage, on gestational days 6-20 (during organogenesis and fetal development period) at doses of 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg. During treatment, maternal body weight gain, and food and water intake were evaluated. After parturition, maternal behavior and aggressive maternal behavior were analyzed. In addition, physical development and behavioral assessments were observed in both male and female pups. Results showed that prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide of S. brasiliensis induced maternal toxicity, impairment in maternal behavior and aggressive maternal behavior, mainly in the highest dose group. Between sexes comparison of pups showed loss of body weight, delayed physical development such as pinna detachment, hair growth, eruption of incisor teeth, eye and vaginal openings. These pups also showed a delay of palmar grasp, surface righting reflex, negative geotaxis and auditory startle reflexes. Thus, prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide induces maternal toxicity, impairment of maternal care and delayed in physical and behavioral development of the offspring. PMID:24881561

  19. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Fernandes, Jansen; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Scerni, Débora Amado; de Oliveira-Pinto, Ana Virgínia; Lent, Roberto; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell numbers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exercised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task). Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF levels and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation) and associative (spatial learning) mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spatial learning) and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring. PMID:26771675

  20. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Fernandes, Jansen; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Scerni, Débora Amado; de Oliveira-Pinto, Ana Virgínia; Lent, Roberto; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell numbers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exercised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task). Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF levels and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation) and associative (spatial learning) mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spatial learning) and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring. PMID:26771675

  1. Metaphoric competence in cognitive and language development.

    PubMed

    Marschark, M; Nall, L

    1985-01-01

    Consideration of the age-related changes in children's language and cognitive development suggests qualitative changes in their creative language use. Many, if not most, researchers in the area have argued that some metaphoric competence emerges far earlier than would be expected on the basis of explanation or interpretation tasks alone. These same researchers, however, appear largely to have neglected consideration of the cognitive prerequisites for such abilities and differences between what is nonliteral for the adult and nonliteral for the child. If figurative language is defined as involving intentional violation of conceptual boundaries in order to highlight some correspondence, one must be sure that children credited with that competence have (1) the metacognitive and metalinguistic abilities to understand at least some of the implications of such language (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Nelson, 1974; Nelson & Nelson, 1978), (2) a conceptual organization that entails the purportedly violated conceptual boundaries (Lange, 1978), and (3) some notion of metaphoric tension as well as ground. Having stacked the definitional cards, we doubt that many investigators would assert that 2-year-old children at nonverbal symbolic play are doing anything that is literally metaphorical in our terms. But neither will we deny that one can observe creative components in the verbal and nonverbal play of the young child that are precursors of later nonliteral language skills (see McCune-Nicolich, 1981, for discussion). We simply do not see these creative abilities as specific to language in any way that justifies calling them metaphoric competence. Rather, the child's abilities to deal flexibly with the world, to "play" with possible alternative organizations of it, and to see similarity in diversity represent the bases of subsequent cognitive as well as language development. Far from being an exceptional aspect of development, apparently nonliteral language should be considered a

  2. Does route of methamphetamine exposure during pregnancy have an impact on neonatal development and behaviour in rat offspring?

    PubMed

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Kelly, John P

    2016-04-01

    Many preclinical studies have aimed to elucidate the effects of methamphetamine (MA) exposure during pregnancy on the offspring in recent years. However, the severity of effects on the neonate may be related to the subcutaneous (sc) route of administration of the drug that is often employed (88% of preclinical studies) and consequently the delivered dose that the foetus is exposed to. To date there is a paucity of comparative studies investigating different routes of administration for MA during pregnancy and it is not known how these different routes compare when it comes to neonatal outcome. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if the route of administration of MA (oral gavage or sc injection) during pregnancy at a pharmacological dose affects the magnitude of neurodevelopmental and behavioural effects in the resultant rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams (n=10 dams/group) received MA (3.75 mg/kg) or control (distilled water) via oral gavage or sc injection from gestation day 7-21. A range of well-recognised neurodevelopmental parameters were examined in the offspring. When administered sc, MA significantly reduced maternal weight gain and altered maternal behaviour; mothers spent less time in the nest with pups and spent less time nursing compared to controls. Significant impairments in neurodevelopmental parameters were evident in both MA treatment groups. Somatic development such as pinna unfolding, fur appearance and eye opening were all delayed after MA exposure but these impairments were more pronounced in the MA sc group. Other somatic parameters such as ano-genital distance and body length were only impeded by sc MA. Behavioural development in the surface righting, inclined plane and forelimb grip tests were also altered for both MA treatment groups. This study demonstrates that prenatal MA can have a profound effect on neonatal outcome, but this can be exacerbated if given via the subcutaneous route, as well as producing additional effects

  3. The influence of maternal protein nutrition on offspring development and metabolism: the role of glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Almond, K; Bikker, P; Lomax, M; Symonds, M E; Mostyn, A

    2012-02-01

    The consequences of sub-optimal nutrition through alterations in the macronutrient content of the maternal diet will not simply be reflected in altered neonatal body composition and increased mortality, but are likely to continue into adulthood and confer greater risk of metabolic disease. One mechanism linking manipulations of the maternal environment to an increased risk of later disease is enhanced fetal exposure to glucocorticoids (GC). Tissue sensitivity to cortisol is regulated, in part, by the GC receptor and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) types 1 and 2. Several studies have shown the effects of maternal undernutrition, particularly low-protein diets, on the programming of GC action in the offspring; however, dietary excess is far more characteristic of the diets consumed by contemporary pregnant women. This study investigated the programming effects of moderate protein supplementation in pigs throughout pregnancy. We have demonstrated an up-regulation of genes involved in GC sensitivity, such as GC receptor and 11β-HSD, in the liver, but have yet to detect any other significant changes in these piglets, with no differences observed in body weight or composition. This increase in GC sensitivity was similar to the programming effects observed following maternal protein restriction or global undernutrition during pregnancy. PMID:22123495

  4. Effects of maternal stress on development and behaviour in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, M

    2001-09-01

    Retrospective studies suggest that gestational stress in humans can delay the attainment of developmental milestones, increase the incidence of allergic reactions and respiratory infections and cause behavioural abnormalities in the children. Our studies and others have shown that prenatal stress in rats can mimic several of these developmental and behavioural alterations. These include a suppression of immune function, but also enhanced sensitivity to allergens. Prenatally-stressed rats, like children, show a reduced propensity for social interaction and increased anxiety in intimidating or novel situations. They have physiological and behavioural alterations consistent with depressive symptoms, including a phase-shift in their circadian rhythm for corticosterone, sleep abnormalities, and greater acquisition of learned helplessness under appropriate conditions. Prenatally-stressed male rats also show demasculinisation and feminisation of their sexual behaviour. The developmental and behavioural abnormalities in prenatally-stressed offspring may be mediated by alterations in the activity of endogenous opioids or neurosteroids, since several of them can be corrected by maternal administration of an opioid antagonist or by drugs like diazepam and allopregnanolone that modulate GABA transmission. PMID:22432137

  5. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol-A inhibits synaptogenesis and affects the synaptic morphological development in offspring male mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohong; Xie, Lingdan; Hong, Xing; Ruan, Qin; Lu, Hongfei; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Guangxia; Liu, Xingyi

    2013-05-01

    Our previous study indicated that perinatal exposure to low-dose BPA, one of the most common environmental endocrine disrupters, alters behavioral development in offspring mice. Given that synaptic structure of the hippocampus is closely related to behaviors, in the present study, we examined the effects of perinatal exposure to BPA (0.04, 0.4, and 4.0 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) on the synaptic density and the synaptic structural modification of pyramidal cells in hippocampus region CA1 and the expressions of synaptic proteins such as synapsin I and PSD-95 and glutamate NMDA and AMPA receptors in male offspring mice on postnatal day (PND) 14, 21, and 56. The results of electron microscope measurement showed that BPA significantly reduced the numeric synaptic density and altered the structural modification of synaptic interface of pyramidal cells with the enlarged synaptic cleft, the shortened active zone, and the thinned postsynaptic density (PSD) on PND 14, 21, and 56 and the increased curvature of synaptic interface on PND 14 and 21. Further analyses of Western blot indicated that BPA markedly reduced the levels of synapsin I and PSD-95 on PND 14, 21, and 56 and down-regulated NMDA receptor subunit NR1 and AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 during development and young adulthood. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to low level of BPA inhibits synaptogenesis and affects synaptic structural modification after birth. The reduced expressions of synaptic proteins synapsin I and PSD-95 and glutamate NMDA and AMPA receptors may be involved in the negative changes in the synaptic plasticity. PMID:23490186

  6. Critical periods of susceptibility to short-term energy challenge during pregnancy: Impact on fertility and offspring development.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Alexander S; Bojkowska, Karolina; Rissman, Emilie F

    2010-01-12

    In female mammals, reproduction is tightly regulated by energy status and food availability. Although acute energetic challenges inhibit female reproductive behavior and gonadotropin secretion, less attention has been given to the effects of short-term energetic challenge on pregnancy and gestation. Furthermore, species differences in pregnancy physiology necessitate more detailed analyses of specific pregnancy models. Here, we studied musk shrews, which display induced ovulation and obligate delayed implantation, and whose reproductive physiology is tightly linked to metabolic status. We tested whether acute energetic challenges of varied degrees given at specific pregnancy stages (including before and after delayed implantation) have different effects on gestational outcome and offspring postnatal development. We found that 48 h of either 40% or 50% food restriction, which reduced body weight and strongly inhibited sexual behavior, had minimal effects on pregnancy success and litter dynamics when administered early in gestation (pre-implantation). However, <30% of females experiencing short-term food restriction later in gestation successfully gave birth (versus > or =70% of ad-libitum fed controls), and the pups of these food-restricted females exhibited a 30% slower postnatal growth trajectory. Interestingly, although pregnancy success and litter dynamics were unaffected by food restriction before implantation, gestation length was increased by metabolic challenges experienced at this time, indicating that energy status may regulate the timing of implantation. We conclude that 1) there are critical periods of pregnancy, particularly after implantation, when short-term, mild energetic challenges have significant impacts on fertility and offspring postnatal development, and 2) delayed implantation may have evolved, in part, as a buffering mechanism to prevent pregnancy failure during impaired energy balance in early gestation. PMID:19891981

  7. Maternal sleep deprivation inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis associated with inflammatory response in young offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiuying; Peng, Cheng; Wu, Xiaohui; Chen, Yubo; Wang, Cheng; You, Zili

    2014-08-01

    Although sleep complaints are very common among pregnant women, the potential adverse effects of sleep disturbance on the offspring are not well studied. Growing evidence suggests that maternal stress can induce an inflammatory environment on the fetal development. But people are not sure about the consequences of prenatal stress such as the inflammatory responses induced by maternal sleep deprivation (MSD). In the present study, we investigated the effects of MSD on long-term behavioral and cognitive consequences in offspring and its underlying inflammatory response pathway. The pregnant Wistar rats received prolonged sleep deprivation (72h) on gestational day (GD) 4, 9, and 18, respectively. The post-natal day (PND) 21 offspring showed impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory in the Morris Water Maze task and anhedonia in sucrose preference experiment. Quantification of BrdU(+) and DCX(+) cells revealed a significant decrease in hippocampus neurogenesis in prepuberty offspring, especially for the late MSD (GD 18) group. Real-time RT-PCR showed that after MSD, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα) increased in the hippocampus of offspring on PND 1, 7, 14 and 21, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 reduced at the same time. Immunofluorescence found that the cells of activated microglia were higher in the brains of MSD offspring. Taken together, these results suggested that the MSD-induced inflammatory response is an important factor for neurogenesis impairment and neurobehavioral outcomes in prepuberty offspring. PMID:24769004

  8. Parental age and characteristics of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongsheng; Zhi, Mingxing; Li, Xiuju

    2011-01-01

    The relations of an offspring to its parents are complex, and the ways in which a parent may influence the characteristics of its offspring are many. This review focuses on the relations of parental age to intelligence, health outcomes, longevity and other characteristics of offspring. Many researchers have demonstrated that children of older parents tend to be more intelligent than do children of younger parents, although there are also some negative findings. Either teenage or advanced parental age is associated with risk of birth and health outcomes in offspring. Parental age at birth displays a negative association with offspring longevity. Parental age can also influence dominant characters, sex ratio, personality and development process of the offspring. To fully analyze the influence of parental age on the offspring is of great significance in deciding the optimal age for parenthood. PMID:20887815

  9. What's in a U? The Shapes of Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Gary F.

    2004-01-01

    "Little by little, the child develops," wrote an undergraduate in a friend's cognitive development class, and so, for the most part, it is. But what explains the U's of cognitive development? Namy, Campbell, and Tomasello and Cashon and Cohen take a standard approach to understanding U-shaped curves: as the product of a mix of different cognitive…

  10. The "Chaos" Pattern in Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Jean S.

    Piaget's theory of the cognitive development of the child is related to the recently developed non-linear "chaos" model. The term "chaos" refers to the tendency of dynamical, non-linear systems toward irregular, sometimes unpredictable, deterministic behavior. Piaget identified this same pattern in his model of cognitive development in children.…

  11. Cognitive and Communicative Development in Hearing-Impaired Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kricos, Patricia B.; Aungst, Holle L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study that determines if an interrelationship exists between cognitive level, gestural development, and spoken English development in five hearing-impaired preschool children. Results suggest that a deaf child's cognitive development may be related to his/her communicative ability, especially in terms of pragmatic-semantic…

  12. Cognitive Development in Young Deaf Children. Research Report No. 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Barbara J.; Roberts, Gail C.

    Sixteen preschool-age hearing-impaired children were studied to explore the general nature of their cognitive development and to identify relationships between environmental processes and cognitive development. Data were obtained from administration of the Infant Psychological Development Scale and the Inventory of Home Stimulation (when Ss were…

  13. Developing Cognition with Collaborative Robotic Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitnik, Ruben; Nussbaum, Miguel; Recabarren, Matias

    2009-01-01

    Cognition, faculty related to perception, imagination, memory, and problem solving, refers to internal mental processes through which sensorial input is acquired, elaborated, used, and stored. One of its importances relies on the fact that it affects in a direct way the learning potential. It has been shown that, even thou cognitive processes…

  14. Cognitive Development of Rural Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyan-Masih, V.

    A 3-year longitudinal study assessed cognitive changes among rural children 3 to 5 years old and validated the construct validity of the Nebraska Wisconsin Cognitive Assessment Battery (NEWCAB). Multistage area sampling techniques were used with a repeated measures, control group design. Participants in the sample were 40 3-year-olds, 57…

  15. Digital Technology and Student Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, J. Michael; Giapponi, Catherine C.; Golden, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Digital technology has proven a beguiling, some even venture addictive, presence in the lives of our 21st century (millennial) students. And while screen technology may offer select cognitive benefits, there is mounting evidence in the cognitive neuroscience literature that digital technology is restructuring the way our students read and think,…

  16. Dietary early-life exposure to contaminated eels does not impair spatial cognitive performances in adult offspring mice as assessed in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Dridi, Imen; Leroy, Delphine; Guignard, Cédric; Scholl, Georges; Bohn, Torsten; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Eppe, Gauthier; Soulimani, Rachid; Bouayed, Jaouad

    2014-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are introduced via the diet and may act as neurotoxins and endocrine disrupters, especially influencing growing organisms in early life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary exposure of dams to fish naturally contaminated with xenobiotics, especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals (e.g., mercury and lead), resulted in cognitive function deficits in adult offspring mice. Daily, four groups of dams (n = 10/group) ingested standard diet plus paste with/without eels, during gestation and lactation, from gestational day (GD) six until post natal day (PND) 21 (weaning). Dams orally ingested a standardized amount of eel (0.8 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) containing the six non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs (Σ6 NDL-PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) at 0, 85, 216, and 400 ng kg(-1) d(-1). Results showed that early-life exposure to contaminated eels did not (compared to non-exposed controls) impair immediate working memory in the Y-maze in the offspring assessed at PND 38. Furthermore, it did not significantly impact spatial learning and retention memory as measured in the Morris water maze in adult offspring mice (PND 120-123). Our results suggest that perinatal exposure to contaminated eels does not affect spatial cognitive performances, as assessed by the Y-maze and Morris water maze at adult age. Adverse effects of xenobiotics reported earlier might be camouflaged by beneficial eel constituents, such as n-3 fatty acids. However, additional studies are needed to differentiate between potential positive and negative effects following consumption of food items both rich in nutrients and contaminants. PMID:25476192

  17. Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

  18. Maternal dietary loads of α-tocopherol depress protein kinase C signaling and synaptic plasticity in rat postnatal developing hippocampus and promote permanent deficits in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Betti, Michele; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Minelli, Andrea; Floridi, Alessandro; Lattanzi, Davide; Ciuffoli, Stefano; Bucherelli, Corrado; Prospero, Emilia; Frontini, Andrea; Santarelli, Lory; Baldi, Elisabetta; Benetti, Fernando; Galli, Francesco; Cuppini, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) supplementation has been tested as prophylaxis against gestational disorders associated with oxidative damage. However, recent evidence showing that high maternal α-tocopherol intake can adversely affect offspring development raises concerns on the safety of vitamin E extradosages during pregnancy. Besides acting as an antioxidant, α-tocopherol depresses cell proliferation and modulates cell signaling through inhibiting protein kinase C (PKC), a kinase that is deeply involved in neural maturation and plasticity. Possible effects of α-tocopherol loads in the maturing brain, where PKC dysregulation is associated to developmental dysfunctions, are poorly known. Here, supranutritional doses of α-tocopherol were fed to pregnant and lactating dams to evaluate the effects on PKC signaling and morphofunctional maturation in offspring hippocampus. Results showed that maternal supplementation potentiates hippocampal α-tocopherol incorporation in offspring and leads to marked decrease of PKC phosphorylation throughout postnatal maturation, accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of growth-associated protein-43 and myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, two PKC substrates involved in neural development and plasticity. Although processes of neuronal maturation, synapse formation and targeting appeared unaffected, offspring of supplemented mothers displayed a marked reduction of long-term synaptic plasticity in juvenile hippocampus. Interestingly, this impairment persisted in adulthood, when a deficit in hippocampus-dependent, long-lasting spatial memory was also revealed. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with elevated doses of α-tocopherol can influence cell signaling and synaptic plasticity in developing hippocampus and promotes permanent adverse effects in adult offspring. The present results emphasize the need to evaluate the safety of supranutritional maternal intake of α-tocopherol in humans. PMID:20382010

  19. Paternal selenium deficiency but not supplementation during preconception alters mammary gland development and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Guido, Luiza N; Fontelles, Camile C; Rosim, Mariana P; Pires, Vanessa C; Cozzolino, Silvia M F; Castro, Inar A; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco; Barbisan, Luis F; Ong, Thomas P

    2016-10-15

    Breast cancer is a global public health problem and accumulating evidence indicates early-life exposures as relevant factors in the disease risk determination. Recent studies have shown that paternal nutrition can influence offspring health including breast cancer risk. Selenium is a micronutrient with essential role in central aspects of embryogenesis, male fertility and cancer and that has been extensively studied as a chemopreventive agent in several breast cancer experimental models. Thus, we designed an animal study to evaluate whether paternal selenium deficiency or supplementation during preconception could affect the female offspring mammary gland development and breast cancer susceptibility. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN93-G diet containing 0.15 ppm (control diet), 0.05 ppm (deficient diet) or 1 ppm (supplemented diet) of selenium for 9 weeks and mated with control female rats. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in their female offspring. Paternal selenium deficiency increased the number of terminal end buds, epithelial elongation and cell proliferation in the mammary gland of the female rat offspring and these effects were associated with higher susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary tumors (increased incidence and higher grade tumors). On the other hand, paternal selenium supplementation did not influence any of these parameters. These results highlight the importance of father's nutrition including selenium status as a relevant factor affecting daughter's breast cancer risk and paternal preconception as a potential developmental stage to start disease preventive strategies. PMID:27270969

  20. Buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine treatment during pregnancy: behavioral effects on the offspring in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Yuan, Zung Fan; Kuo, Chung-Chih; Lai, Mei-Dan; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Ho, Ing-kang; Chen, Shao-Tsu

    2015-01-01

    Methadone and buprenorphine are widely used for treating people with opioid dependence, including pregnant women. Prenatal exposure to opioids has devastating effects on the development of human fetuses and may induce long-term physical and neurobehavioral changes during postnatal maturation. This study aimed at comparing the behavioral outcomes of young rats prenatally exposed to buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered saline, morphine, methadone, and buprenorphine during embryonic days 3–20. The cognitive function, social interaction, anxiety-like behaviors, and locomotor activity of offsprings were examined by novel object recognition test, social interaction test, light–dark transition test, elevated plus-maze, and open-field test between 6 weeks and 10 weeks of age. Prenatal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine did not affect locomotor activity, but significantly impaired novel object recognition and social interaction in both male and female offsprings in the same manner as morphine. Although prenatal exposure to methadone or buprenorphine increased anxiety-like behaviors in the light–dark transition in both male and female offsprings, the effects were less pronounced as compared to that of morphine. Methadone affected elevated plus-maze in both sex, but buprenorphine only affected the female offsprings. These findings suggest that buprenorphine and methadone maintenance therapy for pregnant women, like morphine, produced detrimental effects on cognitive function and social behaviors, whereas the offsprings of such women might have a lower risk of developing anxiety disorders. PMID:25834439

  1. Ethical principles and guidelines for the development of cognitive systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaneyfelt, Wendy

    2006-05-01

    As cognitive systems technologies emerge, so too do the ethical issues surrounding their development and use. To develop cognitive systems technologies responsibly, Sandia National Laboratories is establishing a framework to proactively address both real and potential ethical issues. This report contains the principles and guidelines developers can use to guide them as they are confronted with ethical issues related to developing cognitive systems technologies as they apply to U.S. national security. A process to apply these principles offers a practical way to transfer these principles from paper to a working strategy. Case studies are presented to reflect upon potential scenarios and to consider resolution strategies.

  2. Medical Settings as a Context for Research on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Karen; Brown, Deirdre A.

    2013-01-01

    Medical contexts provide a rich opportunity to study important theoretical questions in cognitive development and to investigate the influence of a range of interacting factors relating to the child, the experience, and the broader social context on children's cognition. In the context of examples of research investigating these issues, we…

  3. Developing an Essentially Unidimensional Test with Cognitively Designed Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Damon U.; Wooten, William

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how cognitive and measurement principles can be integrated to create an essentially unidimensional test. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, test questions were created by using the feature integration theory of attention to develop a cognitive model of performance and then manipulating complexity…

  4. Neuromodulation of Behavioral and Cognitive Development across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…

  5. The Development of Social Cognition. Studies in Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hala, Suzanne, Ed.

    Defining social cognition as our attempts to make sense of how people think, perceive, infer, feel, and react, this book examines both the classical issues and contemporary understanding of theory and research in social cognitive development. The initial chapters highlight one of the central, theoretical tensions in the field, which is whether the…

  6. Collaborative Innovation as a Process for Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Madhumita; Chatterjee, Ranajit

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a methodology for collaborative innovation, which leads to cognitive development. Topics include a systems approach to lifelong learning; distributed cognition versus collaborative innovation activities; motivation for lifelong learning; creativity and interaction; the role of the Internet; and fuzzy set theory and assessment of cognitive…

  7. Language in Cognitive Development: The Emergence of the Mediated Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Katherine

    This book presents an integrated theory of cognitive development in infancy and early childhood, emphasizing the role of language in memory, processing narratives, forming concepts, and understanding others' intentions. Chapter 1, "Language, Cognition, and Culture in Developmental Perspective," presents the experiential theoretical approach and…

  8. Mapping the landscape of cognitive development in children with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kellermann, Tanja S.; Bonilha, Leonardo; Lin, Jack J.; Hermann, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Normal childhood development is defined by age-dependent improvement across cognitive abilities, including language, memory, psychomotor speed and executive function. Epilepsy is often associated with a global disruption in cognitive development, however, it is still largely unknown how epilepsy affects the overall organization of overlapping cognitive domains. The aim of the study was to evaluate how childhood epilepsy affects the developmental interrelationships between cognitive domains. Methods We performed a comprehensive assessment of neuropsychological function in 127 children with new onset epilepsy and 80 typically developing children matched for age, gender, and socio-demographic status. A cross-correlation matrix between the performances across multiple cognitive tests was used to assess the interrelationship between cognitive modalities for each group (patients and controls). A weighted network composed by the cognitive domains as nodes, and pair-wise domain correlation as links, was assessed using graph theory analyses, with focus on global network structure, network hubs and community structure. Results Normally developing children exhibited a cognitive network with well-defined modules, with verbal intelligence, reading and spelling skills occupying a central position in the developing network. Conversely, children with epilepsy demonstrated a less well-organized network with less clear separation between modules, and relative isolation of measures of attention and executive function. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that childhood-onset epilepsy, even within its early course, is associated with an extensive disruption of cognitive neurodevelopmental organization. The approach used in this study may be useful to assess the effectiveness of future interventions aimed at mitigating the cognitive consequences of epilepsy. PMID:25776901

  9. Inner Speech: Development, Cognitive Functions, Phenomenology, and Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inner speech—also known as covert speech or verbal thinking—has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. PMID:26011789

  10. The effects of a remediated fly ash spill and weather conditions on reproductive success and offspring development in tree swallows.

    PubMed

    Beck, Michelle L; Hopkins, William A; Jackson, Brian P; Hawley, Dana M

    2015-03-01

    Animals are exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors during reproduction that may individually or interactively influence reproductive success and offspring development. We examined the effects of weather conditions, exposure to element contamination from a recently remediated fly ash spill, and the interaction between these factors on reproductive success and growth of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) across nine colonies. Females breeding in colonies impacted by the spill transferred greater concentrations of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), strontium, and thallium to their eggs than females in reference colonies. Parental provisioning of emerging aquatic insects resulted in greater blood Se concentrations in nestlings in impacted colonies compared to reference colonies, and these concentrations remained stable across 2 years. Egg and blood element concentrations were unrelated to reproductive success or nestling condition. Greater rainfall and higher ambient temperatures during incubation were later associated with longer wing lengths in nestlings, particularly in 2011. Higher ambient temperatures and greater Se exposure posthatch were associated with longer wing lengths in 2011 while in 2012, blood Se concentrations were positively related to wing length irrespective of temperature. We found that unseasonably cold weather was associated with reduced hatching and fledging success among all colonies, but there was no interactive effect between element exposure and inclement weather. Given that blood Se concentrations in some nestlings exceeded the lower threshold of concern, and concentrations of Se in blood and Hg in eggs are not yet declining, future studies should continue to monitor exposure and effects on insectivorous wildlife in the area. PMID:25690609

  11. Development of Children's Understanding of Cognitive Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillow, Bradford H.

    2008-01-01

    Children's understanding of cognition increases greatly between early childhood and adolescence. This increase provides a developmental bridge between young children's understanding of mental states to adolescents' and adults' epistemological reflection. The author presents a framework for describing developmental changes in children's…

  12. The Social Cognitive Development of Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barahal, Robert M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared the social cognitive styles of abused children with a control sample and found differences in perceived locus of control of social events and social role comprehensions. Similar trends emerged in perspective-taking skills and social sensitivity. Suggests these differences could not be attributed to IQ or class disparities. (Author)

  13. Brain Electrical Activity Changes and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Deborah; Thomas, David G.

    This study investigated the relationship of cognitive developmental changes to physiological and anatomical changes by measuring both types of data within the same subjects. Cortical electrical activity was measured in 24 males between 10 and 12 years of age. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from midline scalp electrodes during a…

  14. Vertical transmission of Zika virus targeting the radial glial cells affects cortex development of offspring mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kong-Yan; Zuo, Guo-Long; Li, Xiao-Feng; Ye, Qing; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Xing-Yao; Cao, Wu-Chun; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2016-06-01

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Latin America coincided with a marked increase in microcephaly in newborns. However, the causal link between maternal ZIKV infection and malformation of the fetal brain has not been firmly established. Here we show a vertical transmission of ZIKV in mice and a marked effect on fetal brain development. We found that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a contemporary ZIKV strain in pregnant mice led to the infection of radial glia cells (RGs) of dorsal ventricular zone of the fetuses, the primary neural progenitors responsible for cortex development, and caused a marked reduction of these cortex founder cells in the fetuses. Interestingly, the infected fetal mice exhibited a reduced cavity of lateral ventricles and a discernable decrease in surface areas of the cortex. This study thus supports the conclusion that vertically transmitted ZIKV affects fetal brain development and provides a valuable animal model for the evaluation of potential therapeutic or preventative strategies. PMID:27174054

  15. Vertical transmission of Zika virus targeting the radial glial cells affects cortex development of offspring mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kong-Yan; Zuo, Guo-Long; Li, Xiao-Feng; Ye, Qing; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Xing-Yao; Cao, Wu-Chun; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2016-01-01

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Latin America coincided with a marked increase in microcephaly in newborns. However, the causal link between maternal ZIKV infection and malformation of the fetal brain has not been firmly established. Here we show a vertical transmission of ZIKV in mice and a marked effect on fetal brain development. We found that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a contemporary ZIKV strain in pregnant mice led to the infection of radial glia cells (RGs) of dorsal ventricular zone of the fetuses, the primary neural progenitors responsible for cortex development, and caused a marked reduction of these cortex founder cells in the fetuses. Interestingly, the infected fetal mice exhibited a reduced cavity of lateral ventricles and a discernable decrease in surface areas of the cortex. This study thus supports the conclusion that vertically transmitted ZIKV affects fetal brain development and provides a valuable animal model for the evaluation of potential therapeutic or preventative strategies. PMID:27174054

  16. Cognitive Influences on the Development and Maintenance of Gender Segregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Carol Lynn

    1994-01-01

    Uses a cognitive approach to examine whether children's explicit and implicit knowledge about gender, influences the development and maintenance of gender segregation. Addresses the issue of variations in levels of gender segregation. (BAC)

  17. Education and Cognitive Development: The Evidence from Experimental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Donald; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Reports the results of a series of experimental studies and a sociodemographic survey designed to determine the relative influence of age and educational experience in the development of cognitive skills as manifested in formal, psychological experiments. (CM)

  18. Effect of Seizures on the Developing Brain and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Gregory L

    2016-05-01

    Epilepsy is a complex disorder, which involves much more than seizures, encompassing a range of associated comorbid health conditions that can have significant health and quality-of-life implications. Of these comorbidities, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and distressing aspects of epilepsy. Clinical studies have demonstrated that refractory seizures, resistant to antiepileptic drugs, and occurring early in life have significant adverse effects on cognitive function. Much of what has been learned about the neurobiological underpinnings of cognitive impairment following early-life seizures has come from animal models. Although early-life seizures in rodents do not result in cell loss, seizures cause in changes in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis and alteration of excitatory or inhibitory balance, network connectivity and temporal coding. These morphological and physiological changes are accompanied by parallel impairment in cognitive skills. This increased understanding of the pathophysiological basis of seizure-induced cognitive deficits should allow investigators to develop novel targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27544468

  19. Low-Dose, Gestational Exposure to Atrazine Does Not Alter Postnatal Reproductive Development of Male Offspring

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that xenobiotic exposure during the perinatal period may result in a variety of adverse outcomes when the developing organism attains adulthood. Maternal stress and subsequent exposure of the fetus to excess glucocorticoids may underlie these effects. Pr...

  20. Oral Tolerance Induced by Transfer of Food Antigens via Breast Milk of Allergic Mothers Prevents Offspring from Developing Allergic Symptoms in a Mouse Food Allergy Model

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tsubota, Yuma; Kodama, Toshihisa; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether maternal exposure to food antigens during lactation and maternal allergic status would affect the development of food allergy in offspring. OVA-sensitized or OVA-nonsensitized BALB/c female mice were exposed or unexposed to OVA during lactation. After weaning, their offspring were systemically sensitized twice with OVA and repeatedly given OVA by oral intubation. While 97.1% of the mice breastfed by OVA-nonsensitized and OVA-unexposed mothers developed allergic diarrhea, 59.7% of the mice breastfed by OVA-exposed nonallergic mothers during lactation and 24.6% of the mice breastfed by OVA-exposed allergic mothers during lactation developed food allergy. Furthermore, OVA was detected in breast-milk from OVA-exposed nonallergic mothers during lactation (4.6 ± 0.5 μg/mL). In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 titers were markedly increased in breast milk from allergic mothers (OVA-sensitized and OVA-unexposed mother: 11.0 ± 0.5, OVA-sensitized and OVA-exposed mother: 12.3 ± 0.3). Our results suggest that oral tolerance induced by breast milk-mediated transfer of dietary antigens along with their specific immunoglobulins to offspring leads to antigen-specific protection from food allergy. PMID:22505952

  1. Delayed physical and neurobehavioral development and increased aggressive and depression-like behaviors in the rat offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Giriko, Catherine Ássuka; Andreoli, Carla Albuquerque; Mennitti, Laís Vales; Hosoume, Lilian Fazion; Souto, Tayane Dos Santos; Silva, Alexandre Valotta da; Mendes-da-Silva, Cristiano

    2013-12-01

    Early maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) may influence the brain development of rat offspring and consequently affect physiology and behavior. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the somatic, physical, sensory-motor and neurobehavioral development of the offspring of dams fed an HFD (52% calories from fat, mainly saturated) and the offspring of dams fed a control diet (CD - 14.7% fat) during lactation from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day (P). Maternal body weights were evaluated during lactation. In the progeny, somatic (body weight, head and lengths axes) and physical (ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, eruption of the incisors and eye opening) development and the consolidation of reflex responses (palm grasp, righting, vibrissa placing, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, auditory startle response and free-fall righting) were determined during suckling. Depressive and aggressive behaviors were tested with the forced swimming test (FST) and the "foot-shock" test on days 60 and 110, respectively. The open field test was used to assess motor function. Compared to controls, the HFD-pups exhibited decreases in body weight (P7-P21) and body length (P4-P18), but by days P71 and P95, these pups were overweight. All indicators of physical maturation and the consolidation of the following reflexes, vibrissa placing, auditory startle responses, free-fall righting and negative geotaxis, were delayed in HFD-progeny. In addition, the pups from HFD dam rats also exhibited reduced swimming and climbing times in the FST and increased aggressive behavior. No changes in locomotion were observed. These findings show developmental and neurobehavioral changes in the rat offspring of dams fed the HFD during lactation and suggest possible disruption of physical and sensory-motor maturation and increased susceptibility to depressive and aggressive-like behavior. PMID:24071008

  2. Infant eyes: A window on cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking “under the hood” if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants’ gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous datasets from eye-trackers requires users to think hard about what they are measuring and what these measures mean for making inferences about underlying cognitive processes. The present commentary highlights these concerns, both technical and interpretive, and reviews the five articles that comprise this Special Issue. PMID:22267956

  3. The cognitive neuroscience of prehension: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Prehension, the capacity to reach and grasp, is the key behavior that allows humans to change their environment. It continues to serve as a remarkable experimental test case for probing the cognitive architecture of goal-oriented action. This review focuses on recent experimental evidence that enhances or modifies how we might conceptualize the neural substrates of prehension. Emphasis is placed on studies that consider how precision grasps are selected and transformed into motor commands. Then, the mechanisms that extract action relevant information from vision and touch are considered. These include consideration of how parallel perceptual networks within parietal cortex, along with the ventral stream, are connected and share information to achieve common motor goals. On-line control of grasping action is discussed within a state estimation framework. The review ends with a consideration about how prehension fits within larger action repertoires that solve more complex goals and the possible cortical architectures needed to organize these actions. PMID:20532487

  4. Relation between Science Teachers' Assessment Tools and Students Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsevgec, Tuncay; Cepni, Salih

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine students' achievement, science teachers have to develop their own assessment tools. This study attempts to find out the relationship between the teachers' assessment tools and students' cognitive development according to the teachers' teaching experiences. Six open-ended survey questions were developed and delivered to 59…

  5. Relation between Science Teachers' Assessment Tools and Students' Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsevgec, Tuncay; Cepni, Salih

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine students' achievement, science teachers have to develop their own assessment tools. This study attempts to find out the relationship between the teachers' assessment tools and students' cognitive development according to the teachers' teaching experiences. Six open-ended survey questions were developed and delivered to 59…

  6. Green spaces and cognitive development in primary schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Dadvand, Payam; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Esnaola, Mikel; Forns, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mónica; De Castro Pascual, Montserrat; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Querol, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to green space has been associated with better physical and mental health. Although this exposure could also influence cognitive development in children, available epidemiological evidence on such an impact is scarce. This study aimed to assess the association between exposure to green space and measures of cognitive development in primary schoolchildren. This study was based on 2,593 schoolchildren in the second to fourth grades (7–10 y) of 36 primary schools in Barcelona, Spain (2012–2013). Cognitive development was assessed as 12-mo change in developmental trajectory of working memory, superior working memory, and inattentiveness by using four repeated (every 3 mo) computerized cognitive tests for each outcome. We assessed exposure to green space by characterizing outdoor surrounding greenness at home and school and during commuting by using high-resolution (5 m × 5 m) satellite data on greenness (normalized difference vegetation index). Multilevel modeling was used to estimate the associations between green spaces and cognitive development. We observed an enhanced 12-mo progress in working memory and superior working memory and a greater 12-mo reduction in inattentiveness associated with greenness within and surrounding school boundaries and with total surrounding greenness index (including greenness surrounding home, commuting route, and school). Adding a traffic-related air pollutant (elemental carbon) to models explained 20–65% of our estimated associations between school greenness and 12-mo cognitive development. Our study showed a beneficial association between exposure to green space and cognitive development among schoolchildren that was partly mediated by reduction in exposure to air pollution. PMID:26080420

  7. Green spaces and cognitive development in primary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Esnaola, Mikel; Forns, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mónica; De Castro Pascual, Montserrat; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Querol, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-06-30

    Exposure to green space has been associated with better physical and mental health. Although this exposure could also influence cognitive development in children, available epidemiological evidence on such an impact is scarce. This study aimed to assess the association between exposure to green space and measures of cognitive development in primary schoolchildren. This study was based on 2,593 schoolchildren in the second to fourth grades (7-10 y) of 36 primary schools in Barcelona, Spain (2012-2013). Cognitive development was assessed as 12-mo change in developmental trajectory of working memory, superior working memory, and inattentiveness by using four repeated (every 3 mo) computerized cognitive tests for each outcome. We assessed exposure to green space by characterizing outdoor surrounding greenness at home and school and during commuting by using high-resolution (5 m × 5 m) satellite data on greenness (normalized difference vegetation index). Multilevel modeling was used to estimate the associations between green spaces and cognitive development. We observed an enhanced 12-mo progress in working memory and superior working memory and a greater 12-mo reduction in inattentiveness associated with greenness within and surrounding school boundaries and with total surrounding greenness index (including greenness surrounding home, commuting route, and school). Adding a traffic-related air pollutant (elemental carbon) to models explained 20-65% of our estimated associations between school greenness and 12-mo cognitive development. Our study showed a beneficial association between exposure to green space and cognitive development among schoolchildren that was partly mediated by reduction in exposure to air pollution. PMID:26080420

  8. Acute stress in pregnant rats: effects on growth rate, learning, and memory capabilities of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Lordi, B; Protais, P; Mellier, D; Caston, J

    1997-11-01

    Growth rate of the offspring of female rats stressed by the presence of a cat at the 10th or the 19th gestational day was lower than that of controls whereas footshocks administered at the same periods did not significantly influence growth rate of the young. Whatever the nature of the stress and the time when it was administered to the mother, the death rate of the young rats was much greater than that in controls. When adult, the offspring of stressed mothers exhibited learning and memory impairments in a delayed alternation task as well as in passive avoidance conditioning. Alteration of these cognitive functions is interpreted in terms of subtle dysfunctions in the development of the nervous system through modifications of the hormonal components of the mothers, particularly eventual alterations of the nervous system biochemistry of the offspring. PMID:9333204

  9. Nutrients for cognitive development in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Janet; Osendarp, Saskia; Hughes, Donna; Calvaresi, Eva; Baghurst, Katrine; van Klinken, Jan-Willem

    2004-08-01

    This review considers the research to date on the role of nutrition in cognitive development in children, with a particular emphasis on the relatively neglected post-infancy period. Undernutrition and deficiencies of iodine, iron, and folate are all important for the development of the brain and the emergent cognitive functions, and there is some evidence to suggest that zinc, vitamin B12, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may also be important. Considerations for future research include a focus on the interactions between micronutrients and macronutrients that might be influential in the optimization of cognitive development; investigation of the impact of nutritional factors in children after infancy, with particular emphasis on effects on the developing executive functions; and selection of populations that might benefit from nutritional interventions, for example, children with nutrient deficiencies or those suffering from attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia. PMID:15478684

  10. Cognitive ability and academic achievement in the Colorado Adoption Project: a multivariate genetic analysis of parent-offspring and sibling data.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, S J; DeFries, J C; Fulker, D W; Plomin, R

    1995-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the etiology of covariation among measures of cognitive ability and academic achievement is due at least in part to shared genetic influences, data from 198 adoptive and 220 nonadoptive families participating in the Colorado Adoption Project were subjected to multivariate behavioral genetic analyses. Data on measures of cognitive ability (verbal comprehension and perceptual organization) and academic achievement (reading recognition and mathematics achievement) from related and unrelated sibling pairs tested at age 7, as well as from adoptive and nonadoptive parents, were analyzed. Phenotypic analyses confirmed previous findings of moderate correlations among measures of cognitive ability and achievement, averaging about .35. Although 54% of the covariation between reading and mathematics achievement was due to influences shared with verbal ability, a significant proportion of this covariation was independent of the cognitive ability measures. Heritabilities for the various measures were moderate, ranging from .21 to .37. Moreover, genetic influences accounted for 33-64% of their phenotypic covariation; for example, 33-60% of the observed correlations between verbal comprehension and the achievement measures, 64% of those between perceptual organization and the achievement measures, and 63% of that between reading recognition and mathematics achievement were due to shared genetic influences. Similar to the results of the phenotypic analysis, nearly half of the genetic covariance between reading and mathematics achievement was independent of cognitive ability. Their remaining covariance was due primarily to nonshared environmental influences. PMID:7755514

  11. Contributions of Dynamic Systems Theory to Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John P.; Austin, Andrew; Schutte, Anne R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the contributions of dynamic systems theory to the field of cognitive development, focusing on modeling using dynamic neural fields. A brief overview highlights the contributions of dynamic systems theory and the central concepts of dynamic field theory (DFT). We then probe empirical predictions and findings generated by DFT around two examples—the DFT of infant perseverative reaching that explains the Piagetian A-not-B error, and the DFT of spatial memory that explain changes in spatial cognition in early development. A systematic review of the literature around these examples reveals that computational modeling is having an impact on empirical research in cognitive development; however, this impact does not extend to neural and clinical research. Moreover, there is a tendency for researchers to interpret models narrowly, anchoring them to specific tasks. We conclude on an optimistic note, encouraging both theoreticians and experimentalists to work toward a more theory-driven future. PMID:26052181

  12. Environmental Stimulation, Parental Nurturance and Cognitive Development in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Martha J.; Betancourt, Laura; Shera, David M.; Savage, Jessica H.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Malmud, Elsa K.; Hurt, Hallam

    2008-01-01

    The effects of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance on brain development have been studied extensively in animals. Much less is known about the relations between childhood experience and cognitive development in humans. Using a longitudinally collected data set with ecologically valid in-home measures of childhood experience and later…

  13. Cognition at Work: The Development of Vocational Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, J., Ed.

    This book contains eight papers examining vocational expertise and how best to develop it. The first paper, "Vocational Expertise" (John Stevenson), presents five approaches to developing it. The role of context in patterning cognition is considered in "Authenticity in Workplace Learning Settings" (Stephen Billett). In "Learning in Apprenticeship…

  14. Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

  15. Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the "Mozart Effect" studies to participation in piano lessons…

  16. A Delineation of Epistemic Possibilities in Explanations of Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Reese E.

    Several epistemic formulations have been advanced to explain cognitive development. Many writers have divided the field of psychology into three basic underlying models: the mechanistic, organismic, and dialectic models. An examination of epistemic positions reveals five broadly defined positions on how behavior develops within a given organism.…

  17. Cognitive Function in Individuals with Atypical Pubertal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.; And Others

    A study of 55 growth-disturbed children, aged 8-17, was conducted to assess how rate of physical maturation and pubertal development influences cognitive and neuropsychological functioning. The sample included 27 boys with short stature and delayed pubertal development (SSB), 15 girls with delayed puberty (DPG), and 13 girls with precocious…

  18. Cognition and Affect in Early Literacy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Gillian D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Using Vygotsky's theory of development, explores the significance of storytelling and dramatization activities on the intellectual and emotional development of preschool children. Results indicate that dramatizing of children's stories enhances the storytelling of preschool children and, thus, influences their literacy development. (DST)

  19. Cognitive Development At The Middle-Division Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manogue, Corinne A.; Gire, Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    One of the primary goals, as students transition from the lower-division to upper-division courses is to facilitate the cognitive development needed for work as a physicist. The Paradigms in Physics curriculum (junior-level courses developed at Oregon State University) addresses this goal by coaching students to coordinate different modes of reasoning, highlighting common techniques and concepts across physics topics, and setting course expectations to be more aligned with the professional culture of physicists. This poster will highlight some of the specific ways in which we address these cognitive changes in the context of classical mechanics and E&M.

  20. Cognitive Processes and Theory Development: A Reply to Spencer and Karmiloff-Smith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellatly, Angus

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the role of enculturation in children's cognitive development by distinguishing between, and elaborating upon, three factors: (1) cultural context; (2) cognitive contents; and (3) cognitive processes. Suggests problems inherent in positing homologies between children's cognitive development and the historical development of scientific…

  1. Imaging patterns of brain development and their relationship to cognition.

    PubMed

    Erus, Guray; Battapady, Harsha; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E; Davatzikos, Christos; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-06-01

    We present a brain development index (BDI) that concisely summarizes complex imaging patterns of structural brain maturation along a single dimension using a machine learning methodology. The brain was found to follow a remarkably consistent developmental trajectory in a sample of 621 subjects of ages 8-22 participating in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, reflected by a cross-validated correlation coefficient between chronologic age and the BDI of r = 0.89. Critically, deviations from this trajectory related to cognitive performance. Specifically, subjects whose BDI was higher than their chronological age displayed significantly superior cognitive processing speed compared with subjects whose BDI was lower than their actual age. These results indicate that the multiparametric imaging patterns summarized by the BDI can accurately delineate trajectories of brain development and identify individuals with cognitive precocity or delay. PMID:24421175

  2. Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction: Current Developments in Mechanism and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Wu, Haibo; Lei, Liming; Xu, Shiqin; Shen, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xirong; Shen, Rong; Xia, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Yusheng; Wang, Fuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle disorder of thought processes, which may influence isolated domains of cognition and has a significant impact on patient health. The reported incidence of POCD varies enormously due to lack of formal criteria for the assessment and diagnosis of POCD. The significant risk factors of developing POCD mainly include larger and more invasive operations, duration of anesthesia, advanced age, history of alcohol abuse, use of anticholinergic medications, and other factors. The release of cytokines due to the systemic stress response caused by anesthesia and surgical procedures might induce the changes of brain function and be involved in the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The strategies for management of POCD should be a multimodal approach involving close cooperation between the anesthesiologist, surgeon, geriatricians, and family members to promote early rehabilitation and avoid loss of independence in these patients. PMID:25306127

  3. Cognitive Apprenticeship and Teachers' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichol, Jon; Turner-Bisset, Rosie

    2006-01-01

    The English government has focused upon a pattern of professional development that involves demonstration and modelling as a key element in the improvement of the teaching of 11-14 year olds (Key Stage 3 strategy). From 1997 the Nuffield Primary History Project (NPHP) has implemented a programme for the professional development of teachers built…

  4. Development of Cognitive Capacities in Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veraksa, Nikolay E.

    2011-01-01

    Child development involves the process of mastering cultural tools, which modify relations with the world and provide the means to act on the self. A sign is a universal cultural tool, but these tools are not the same for all ages. The problem of specifying development becomes one of finding the tools that children use in their activity.…

  5. Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margot I

    2015-02-01

    For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects. PMID:25555255

  6. Parallel distributed processing: Implications for cognition and development. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, J.L.

    1988-07-11

    This paper provides a brief overview of the connectionist or parallel distributed processing framework for modeling cognitive processes, and considers the application of the connectionist framework to problems of cognitive development. Several aspects of cognitive development might result from the process of learning as it occurs in multi-layer networks. This learning process has the characteristic that it reduces the discrepancy between expected and observed events. As it does this, representations develop on hidden units which dramatically change both the way in which the network represents the environment from which it learns and the expectations that the network generates about environmental events. The learning process exhibits relatively abrupt transitions corresponding to stage shifts in cognitive development. These points are illustrated using a network that learns to anticipate which side of a balance beam will go down, based on the number of weights on each side of the fulcrum and their distance from the fulcrum on each side of the beam. The network is trained in an environment in which weight more frequently governs which side will go down. It recapitulates the states of development seen in children, as well as the stage transitions, as it learns to represent weight and distance information.

  7. Assessing Christian-Faith and Cognitive Development in College Students: CFCDS Instrument Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Laura S.

    2013-01-01

    What happens when students go to college? An important outcome of college attendance is student cognitive development. Part of that developmental process is learning how to address contrasting values, beliefs, knowledge structures, and worldviews critically. This study addressed the relationship between cognitive and Christian-faith development in…

  8. MTHFR deficiency or reduced intake of folate or choline in pregnant mice results in impaired short-term memory and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of wild-type offspring.

    PubMed

    Jadavji, N M; Deng, L; Malysheva, O; Caudill, M A; Rozen, R

    2015-08-01

    Genetic or nutritional disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, with associated hyperhomocysteinemia, can result in complex disorders including pregnancy complications and neuropsychiatric diseases. In earlier work, we showed that mice with a complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, had cognitive impairment with disturbances in choline metabolism. Maternal demands for folate and choline are increased during pregnancy and deficiencies of these nutrients result in several negative outcomes including increased resorption and delayed development. The goal of this study was to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological impact of a maternal genetic deficiency in MTHFR or maternal nutritional deficiency of folate or choline during pregnancy on 3-week-old Mthfr(+/+) offspring. Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) females were placed on control diets (CD); and Mthfr(+/+) females were placed on folate-deficient diets (FD) or choline-deficient diets (ChDD) throughout pregnancy and lactation until their offspring were 3weeks of age. Short-term memory was assessed in offspring, and hippocampal tissue was evaluated for morphological changes, apoptosis, proliferation and choline metabolism. Maternal MTHFR deficiency resulted in short-term memory impairment in offspring. These dams had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine when compared with wild-type dams. There were no differences in plasma homocysteine in offspring. Increased apoptosis and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus of offspring from Mthfr(+/-) mothers. In the maternal FD and ChDD study, offspring also showed short-term memory impairment with increased apoptosis in the hippocampus; increased neurogenesis was observed in ChDD offspring. Choline acetyltransferase protein was increased in the offspring hippocampus of both dietary groups and betaine was decreased in the hippocampus of FD offspring. Our results reveal short-term memory

  9. Using EEG to Study Cognitive Development: Issues and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Martha Ann; Cuevas, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Developmental research is enhanced by use of multiple methodologies for examining psychological processes. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for the study of developmental changes in brain-behavior relations. In this review, we highlight some of the challenges for using EEG in cognitive development research. We also list best practices for incorporating this methodology into the study of early cognitive processes. Consideration of these issues is critical for making an informed decision regarding implementation of EEG methodology. PMID:23144592

  10. Contributions of Dynamic Systems Theory to Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, John P.; Austin, Andrew; Schutte, Anne R.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the contributions of dynamic systems theory to the field of cognitive development, focusing on modeling using dynamic neural fields. After introducing central concepts of dynamic field theory (DFT), we probe empirical predictions and findings around two examples--the DFT of infant perseverative reaching that explains Piaget's A-not-B…

  11. The Development of Cognitive Structures about Alcoholic Beverages among Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Gregory S.; And Others

    When in childhood concepts about alcohol and drinking begin to develop has just begun to be investigated. A study was conducted to examine cognitive, maturational, and differential exposure influences on the acquisition of concepts about alcoholic beverages in preschool children. Knowledge about alcoholic beverages and drinking was assessed in 65…

  12. Conservation and Conversation Types: Forms of Recognition and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psaltis, Charis; Duveen, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    While the productive role of social interaction between peers in promoting cognitive development has been clearly established, the communicative processes through which this is achieved is less clearly understood. Earlier work has established that different types of conversation become established between children as they work together on a…

  13. Adult Intellectual Development as Social-Cognitive Growth: A Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.

    This paper describes a tentative model to assist in conceptualization of the dynamics of adult social-cognitive development based on Piaget's and Riegel's thought, gerontological studies, and dialectical theory. The proposed model possesses several qualities: (1) it derives from the concept of intelligence as an adaptive biological entity; (2) it…

  14. Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Moral Development in Undergraduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and cognitive moral development (CMD) in undergraduate business students. The ability model of emotional intelligence was used in this study, which evaluated possible relationships between EI and CMD in a sample of 82 undergraduate business students. The sample population was…

  15. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  16. Using Minute Papers to Determine Student Cognitive Development Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Can anonymous written feedback collected during classroom assessment activities be used to assess students' cognitive development levels? After library instruction in a first-year engineering design class, students submitted minute papers that included answers to "what they are left wondering." Responses were coded into low, medium and…

  17. Relationships of the Piagetian Cognitive Development to Human Figure Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisto, Fermino Fernandes

    2000-01-01

    Examined validity of use of human figure drawing to evaluate cognitive development status using Piagetian tasks with 7- to 11-year-olds. Found that scores for children's drawings of a man and a woman correlated significantly with mental imaging, conservation of mass, and conservation of length, suggesting the possibility of finding patterns to…

  18. The Link between Nutrition and Cognitive Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    New findings about child nutrition and cognitive development indicate that undernourished children are typically fatigued and uninterested in their social environments. Such children are less likely to establish relationships or to explore and learn from their surroundings. Undernourished children are also more susceptible to illness and, thus,…

  19. Topics in Cognitive Development: Language and Operational Thought. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presseisen, Barbara Z.; And Others

    This is the second volume in a series that records the official Symposium Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Society and examines the theoretical, empirical, and applied aspects of Jean Piaget's seminal epistemology. The 12 papers are divided into four areas: language development, formal reasoning, social cognition, and applied research. The topics of…

  20. A Tutorial Introduction to Bayesian Models of Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfors, Amy; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Xu, Fei

    2011-01-01

    We present an introduction to Bayesian inference as it is used in probabilistic models of cognitive development. Our goal is to provide an intuitive and accessible guide to the "what", the "how", and the "why" of the Bayesian approach: what sorts of problems and data the framework is most relevant for, and how and why it may be useful for…

  1. Cognitive-Linguistic Foundations of Early Spelling Development in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing spelling skills in English is a particularly demanding task for Chinese speakers because, unlike many other bilinguals learning English as a second language, they must learn two languages with different orthography as well as phonology. To disentangle socioeconomic and pedagogical factors from the underlying cognitive-linguistic…

  2. Language and Cognitive Development of Deaf and Hearing Twin Sisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirmer, Barbara R.

    In this case study, the language and cognitive development of a 4-year 5-month old profoundly deaf girl and her normally hearing identical twin sister were investigated by videotaping the twins in their home interacting with each other, the investigator, and family members. Materials used with the children were designed to elicit spontaneous,…

  3. Turkish Middle School Students' Cognitive Development Levels in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepni, Salih; Ozsevgec, Tuncay; Cerrah, Lale

    2004-01-01

    Students' abstract reasoning abilities can differ from one society to another. Students' profiles play significant roles in these differences. The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between middle school students' cognitive development levels and their profiles (age, gender, and science achievement) using the Science Cognitive…

  4. Scalogram and Factor Analyses of Two Tests of Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, James S.; De Avila, Edward A.

    1980-01-01

    Two tests of cognitive development, the Cartoon Conservation Scales, Levels I and II, were designed to measure Piagetian stage-related constructs for children of different age groups. The tests were factor analyzed within age levels and were also analyzed using scalogram and tabular methods to test sequential hypotheses. (Author/CTM)

  5. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  6. Trajectories of Cognitive Development among American Indian Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than do those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage, and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants…

  7. Cognitive Development in Bilingual and Monolingual Lower-Class Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Barbara; Goldstein, David

    1979-01-01

    The cognitive development of lower-class English-speaking monolingual and English-Spanish speaking bilingual children in kindergarten, third, and sixth grades was compared by means of standard verbal and nonverbal measures. The verbal ability of bilingual children was assessed in both English and Spanish. Their scores in both languages were low.…

  8. Computational Models of Relational Processes in Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.; Andrews, Glenda; Wilson, William H.; Phillips, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of relational knowledge is a core process in cognitive development. Relational knowledge is dynamic and flexible, entails structure-consistent mappings between representations, has properties of compositionality and systematicity, and depends on binding in working memory. We review three types of computational models relevant to…

  9. Are There Any Matthew Effects in Literacy and Cognitive Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempe, Camilla; Eriksson-Gustavsson, Anna-Lena; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The Matthew effect is often used as a metaphor to describe a widening gap between good and poor readers over time. In this study we examined the development of individual differences in reading and cognitive functioning in children with reading difficulties and normal readers from Grades 1 to 3. Matthew effects were observed for individual…

  10. Development of Cognitive Averaging: When Light and Light Make Dark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Stephan; Wilkening, Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments examined developmental changes in reasoning about intensive quantities--predicting mixture intensity of pairs of liquids with different intensities of red color. Results showed that cognitive averaging in this domain developed late and slowly. Predominating up to 12 years was an extensivity bias, a strong tendency to use rules that…

  11. Cognitive behavioral group therapy for anxiety: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Wolgensinger, Laure

    2015-09-01

    Anxiety disorders occur frequently, and can have a negative impact on the quality of people's lives. They often begin at an early age and can have some serious consequences. This article is an overview of the recent studies concerning group cognitive-behavioral interventions for anxiety disorders. In the last few years, anxiety disorder prevention for children and adolescents has become an important focus of research work. Group prevention programs are based on standard cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies and are aimed at preventing anxiety disorders as early as possible. Numerous cognitive behavioral group therapies for children as well as adults have been well studied. There are many CBT protocols that have been developed for treating specific anxiety disorders. Now, specialized CBT programs are available for individuals who suffer from different anxiety disorders, enabling them to be treated together in groups. PMID:26487815

  12. Developing Computational Thinking through Grounded Embodied Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadjo, Cameron Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the use of grounded embodied pedagogy, construction of Imaginary Worlds (Study 1), and context of instructional materials (Study 2) for developing learners' Computational Thinking (CT) Skills and Concept knowledge during the construction of digital artifacts using Scratch, a block-based programming…

  13. The Development of Cognitive Skills through Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Lois M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Explains methods for structuring student participation in an archaeological expedition to develop the students' self-worth and to increase appreciation for history as it relates to the students' lives. Skills acquired may include: (1) earth science; (2) mathematics; (3) map reading skills; (4) communication skills; (5) writing skills; (6)…

  14. Can Emphasising Cognitive Development Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K.; Gadzichowski, Marinka K.; Gallington, Deborah A.; Saracina, Robin P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children ordinarily begin their formal education at the age when the great majority of them are capable of understanding the role of addition and subtraction in changing number. In determining critical differences they can apply the oddity principle--the first "pure" abstraction that children ever develop--understanding that when all…

  15. Cognitive Development in Children with Brain Damage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortner, Morton

    Presented is a report on a cross-sectional and longitudinal study concerned with the course of intellectual development in 210 children (6-12 years old) educationally designated as brain damaged (learning disabled and/or behavior problems) and assigned to special school placement. The report is divided into four sections which focus on…

  16. Cognitive Development in Deaf-Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenhouse, Robert K.

    The paper reviews the literature and proposes a study on how nonlanguage deaf/blind children (ages 2 to 14) match and classify, the age at which the skills are reached, and the role of language in the process. The theories of J. Piaget and J. Bruner on the importance of language in stage development are explored. The Ss would be matched for age…

  17. Using a cognitive architecture to examine what develops.

    PubMed

    Jones, G; Ritter, F E; Wood, D J

    2000-03-01

    Different theories of development propose alternative mechanisms by which development occurs. Cognitive architectures can be used to examine the influence of each proposed mechanism of development while keeping all other mechanisms constant. An ACT-R computational model that matched adult behavior in solving a 21-block pyramid puzzle was created. The model was modified in three ways that corresponded to mechanisms of development proposed by developmental theories. The results showed that all the modifications (two of capacity and one of strategy choice) could approximate the behavior of 7-year-old children on the task. The strategy-choice modification provided the closest match on the two central measures of task behavior (time taken per layer, r = .99, and construction attempts per layer, r = .73). Modifying cognitive architectures is a fruitful way to compare and test potential developmental mechanisms, and can therefore help in specifying "what develops." PMID:11273427

  18. Studies of offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kiki; Steiner, Hans; Ketter, Terence

    2003-11-15

    Children and adolescents who are the biological offspring of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) (bipolar offspring) represent a population rich in potential for revealing important aspects in the development of BD. Multiple cross-sectional assessments of psychopathology in bipolar offspring have confirmed high incidences of BD, as well as mood and behavioral disorders, and other psychopathology in this population. Longitudinal studies of offspring have begun to shed light on precursors of BD development. Other assessments of bipolar offspring have included dimensional reports of psychiatric and psychosocial functioning, temperament assessments, and descriptions of family environments and parenting styles. Neurobiological studies in bipolar offspring are just beginning to yield findings that may be related to the underlying neuropathophysiology of BD. The future holds promise for longitudinal studies of bipolar offspring incorporating all of these facets, including genetic analyses, to further elucidate the factors involved in the evolution of BD. PMID:14601034

  19. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Fernandes, Jansen; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Scerni, Débora Amado; de Oliveira-Pinto, Ana Virgínia; Lent, Roberto; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell…

  20. White matter development and early cognition in babies and toddlers

    PubMed Central

    O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dean III, Douglas C; Ginestet, Cedric E; Walker, Lindsay; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Lehman, Katie; Dirks, Holly; Piryatinsky, Irene; Deoni, Sean CL

    2014-01-01

    The normal myelination of neuronal axons is essential to neurodevelopment, allowing fast inter-neuronal communication. The most dynamic period of myelination occurs in the first few years of life, in concert with a dramatic increase in cognitive abilities. How these processes relate, however, is still unclear. Here we aimed to use a data-driven technique to parcellate developing white matter into regions with consistent white matter growth trajectories and investigate how these regions related to cognitive development. In a large sample of 183 children aged 3 months to 4 years, we calculated whole brain myelin volume fraction (VFM) maps using quantitative multicomponent relaxometry. We used spatial independent component analysis (ICA) to blindly segment these quantitative VFM images into anatomically meaningful parcels with distinct developmental trajectories. We further investigated the relationship of these trajectories with standardized cognitive scores in the same children. The resulting components represented a mix of unilateral and bilateral white matter regions (e.g., cortico-spinal tract, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, white matter underlying the inferior frontal gyrus) as well as structured noise (misregistration, image artifact). The trajectories of these regions were associated with individual differences in cognitive abilities. Specifically, components in white matter underlying frontal and temporal cortices showed significant relationships to expressive and receptive language abilities. Many of these relationships had a significant interaction with age, with VFM becoming more strongly associated with language skills with age. These data provide evidence for a changing coupling between developing myelin and cognitive development. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4475–4487, 2014. PMID:24578096

  1. Stability and Change of Cognitive Attributes in Children with Uneven/Delayed Cognitive Development from Preschool through Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Pinchen; Lung, For-Wey; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2010-01-01

    As part of an ongoing clinical service program for children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analyzed the cognitive attributes of 362 Taiwanese children (average age 48.5 plus or minus 12.9 month-old) with uneven/delayed cognitive development as they were assessed repeatedly with average duration of 39.7 plus or…

  2. Using cognitive models to develop quality multiple-choice questions.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Debra; De Champlain, Andre; Gierl, Mark; Lai, Hollis; Touchie, Claire

    2016-08-01

    With the recent interest in competency-based education, educators are being challenged to develop more assessment opportunities. As such, there is increased demand for exam content development, which can be a very labor-intense process. An innovative solution to this challenge has been the use of automatic item generation (AIG) to develop multiple-choice questions (MCQs). In AIG, computer technology is used to generate test items from cognitive models (i.e. representations of the knowledge and skills that are required to solve a problem). The main advantage yielded by AIG is the efficiency in generating items. Although technology for AIG relies on a linear programming approach, the same principles can also be used to improve traditional committee-based processes used in the development of MCQs. Using this approach, content experts deconstruct their clinical reasoning process to develop a cognitive model which, in turn, is used to create MCQs. This approach is appealing because it: (1) is efficient; (2) has been shown to produce items with psychometric properties comparable to those generated using a traditional approach; and (3) can be used to assess higher order skills (i.e. application of knowledge). The purpose of this article is to provide a novel framework for the development of high-quality MCQs using cognitive models. PMID:26998566

  3. Trajectories of Cognitive Development among American Indian Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than did those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants from one Northern Plains reservation community were assessed 4 times between ages 6 months through 36 months, using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. At 6 months of age, scores were near the national norms; a drop occurred between 6 and 15 months. Scores then tended to level off below the norms through 36 months. In each domain, we observed a crucial decline over the first year of life and relatively little change in the second and third years of life, highlighting the importance of developing culturally syntonic interventions to facilitate cognitive development during the first year of life. PMID:21744958

  4. Trajectories of cognitive development among American Indian young children.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Christina M; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N

    2011-07-01

    Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than do those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage, and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants from one Northern Plains reservation community were assessed four times between ages 6 months and 36 months, with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. At 6 months of age, scores were near the national norms; a drop occurred between 6 months and 15 months. Scores then tended to level off below the norms through 36 months. In each domain, we observed a crucial decline over the 1st year of life and relatively little change in the 2nd and 3rd years of life, highlighting the importance of developing culturally syntonic interventions to facilitate cognitive development during the 1st year of life. PMID:21744958

  5. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has

  6. Pathways to Suicide-Related Behavior in Offspring of Mothers With Depression: The Role of Offspring Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Method Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers’ first 11 years of their child’s life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Conclusion Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. PMID:25901775

  7. Identifying Cognitive Mechanisms Targeted for Treatment Development in Schizophrenia: An Overview of the First Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Cameron S.; Barch, Deanna M.; Buchanan, Robert W.; Bullmore, Ed; Krystal, John H.; Cohen, Jonathan; Geyer, Mark; Green, Michael; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Robbins, Trevor; Silverstein, Steven; Smith, Edward E.; Strauss, Milton; Wykes, Til; Heinssen, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This overview describes the generation and development of the ideas that led to the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative. It also describes the organization, process and products of the first meeting. The CNTRICS initiative involves a series of three conferences that will systematically address barriers to translating paradigms developed in the basic animal and human cognitive neuroscience fields for use in translational research aimed at developing novel treatments for cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The articles in this special section report on the results of the first conference, which used a criterion based consensus-building process to develop a set of cognitive constructs to be targeted for translation efforts. PMID:18466880

  8. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Sam V.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

  9. Fresh and frozen-thawed sperm quality, nuclear DNA integrity, invitro fertility, embryo development, and live-born offspring of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mice.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Fleming, Craig; Ottaviani, Palma; McKerlie, Colin

    2008-10-01

    Efficient collection, freezing, reliable archiving of sperm, and re-derivation of mutant mice are essential components for large-scale mutagenesis programs in the mouse. Induced mutations (i.e. transgenes, targeted mutations, chemically induced mutations) in mice may cause inherited or temporary sterility, increase abnormal sperm values, or decrease fertility. One purpose of this study was to compare the effect(s) on fresh and frozen-thawed sperm quality, spermatozoa DNA integrity, unassisted in vitro fertility (IVF) rate, in vitro embryo development rate to blastocysts, and live-born offspring rates in non-ENU (control) animals and the F1-generation of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-treated male mice (765mg/kg C57BL6/J or 600mg/kg 129S1/SvImJ total dose). The second purpose was to determine the effect(s) of parental oocyte donor strain on in vitro fertilization, in vitro embryo development to blastocysts, and live-born offspring rates using sperm and unassisted IVF to re-derive animals from non-ENU control and ENU mice. Sperm assessment parameters included progressive motility, concentration, plasma membrane integrity, membrane function integrity, acrosome integrity, and DNA integrity. There were no significant differences in fresh sperm assessment parameters, DNA integrity, unassisted in vitro fertility rate, in vitro embryo development rate to blastocysts, and live-born offspring rates between non-ENU and C3B6F1/J or B6129S1F1/J ENU mice. In addition, there were no significant differences in frozen-thawed sperm assessment parameters and DNA integrity rates for non-ENU control and ENU C3B6F1/J or B6129SF1/J mice. In vitro fertilization and in vitro embryo development to blastocysts were effected from strain genetic variability (P<0.05). However, the cryopreservation process caused an increase of DNA fragmentation in non-ENU control and ENU C3B6F1/J or B6129S1F1/J hybrid mice compared to fresh control sperm (P<0.01). Unlike the combinations of hybrid sperm and hybrid

  10. Reading Instruction Affects the Cognitive Skills Supporting Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Medford, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive skills associated with early reading development when children were taught by different types of instruction. Seventy-nine children (mean age at pre-test 4;10 (0.22 S.D.) and post-test 5;03 (0.21 S.D.)) were taught to read either by an eclectic approach which included sight-word learning, guessing from context and…

  11. Vestibular activity and cognitive development in children: perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette R.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Wiener, Sidney I.

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular signals play an essential role in oculomotor and static and dynamic posturomotor functions. Increasing attention is now focusing on their impact on spatial and non-spatial cognitive functions. Movements of the head in space evoke vestibular signals that make important contributions during the development of brain representations of body parts relative to one another as well as representations of body orientation and position within the environment. A central nervous system pathway relays signals from the vestibular nuclei to the hippocampal system where this input is indispensable for neuronal responses selective for the position and orientation of the head in space. One aspect of the hippocampal systems’ processing to create episodic and contextual memories is its role in spatial orientation and navigation behaviors that require processing of relations between background cues. These are also impaired in adult patients with vestibular deficits. However little is known about the impact of vestibular loss on cognitive development in children. This is investigated here with a particular emphasis upon the hypothetical mechanisms and potential impact of vestibular loss at critical ages on the development of respective spatial and non-spatial cognitive processes and their brain substrates. PMID:24376403

  12. Incidental Science Knowledge in Fifth Grade Children: A Study of Its Relationship with Cognitive Development and Cognitive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Gennaro, Menina; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-three elementary school children were tested on Incidental Science Knowledge, i.e., knowledge acquired by chance outside school, and the results obtained were correlated with intellectual development and cognitive style as measured by interviews and group testing, respectively. Indicates that cognitive style and misconception play a…

  13. Disruption of reproductive development in male rat offspring following gestational and lactational exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and genistein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-Dong; Deng, Qian; Wang, Zi-Ming; Gao, Ming; Wang, Lei; Chong, Tie; Li, He-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Studies of developmental effects of mixtures of endocrine disrupters on the male reproductive system are of great concern. In this study, the reproductive effects of the co-administration of di-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and genistein (GEN) during pregnancy and lactation were studied in male rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged from gestation day 3 to postnatal day 21 with vehicle control, DEHP 250 mg/kg body weight (bwyday, GEN 50 mg/kg bwday, GEN 400 mg/kg bwday, and two combinations of the two compounds (DEHP 250 mg/kg bwday + GEN 50 mg/kg bwday, DEHP 250 mg/kg bwday + GEN 400 mg/kg bwday). The outcomes studied were general morphometry (weight, AGD), testicular histology, testosterone levels, and expression at the mRNA level of genes involved in steroidogenesis. Organ coefficient, AGD / body weight1/3 י, serum testosterone concentration and genes involved in steroidogenic pathway expression when exposed to DEHP (250mg/kg bwday), GEN(50mg/kg bwday) or GEN(400mg/kg bwday) alone were not significantly different from the control group. When exposed to (DEHP 250mg/kg bwday +GEN 50mg/kg bwday) together during pregnancy and lactation, serum testosterone concentration, epididymis coefficient and Cypal17a1,Scarb1 m RNA expression significantly decreased compared to the control and GEN(50mg/kg bwday). When exposed to (DEHP 250mg/kg bwday +GEN 400mg/kg bwday) together during pregnancy and lactation, AGD / body weight1/3 י, serum testosterone concentration, testis and epididymis coefficient and Star, Cypal17a1 mRNA expression appeared significantly decreased compared to the control and DEHP/GEN single exposure, together with developmental impairment of seminiferous tubules and seminiferous epithelium. Overall, co-administration of DEHP and GEN during gestation and lactation seem to acts in a cumulative manner to induce the most significant alterations in the neonate, especially with GEN at high dose, although the effect of the DEHP-GEN mixture on

  14. Physiological and behavioral responses in offspring mice following maternal exposure to sulfamonomethoxine during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Dan; Ye, Kui; Liu, Kaiyong; Sheng, Jie; Liu, Yehao; Hu, Chunqiu; Ruan, Liang; Li, Li; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-06-15

    Sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), a veterinary antibiotic, is widely used in China. However, the impacts of maternal SMM exposure on neurobehavioral development in early life remain little known. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal SMM exposure during pregnancy on behavioral and physiological responses in offspring mice. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into three SMM-treated groups, namely low-(10mg/kg/day), medium-(50mg/kg/day), and high-dose (200mg/kg/day), and a control group. The pregnant mice in the SMM-treated groups received SMM by gavage daily from gestational day 1-18, whereas those in the control received normal saline. On postnatal day (PND) 50, spatial memory was assessed using the Morris water maze test, and anxiety was measured using the elevated plus-maze and open field tests. The results showed significantly increased blood glucose in pups whose mothers received a high SMM dose. In addition, maternal SMM exposure increased anxiety-related activities among the offspring; spatial learning and memory were impaired more severely in the male offspring. The contents of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) on PND 22 were significantly reduced in the male offspring of the high-dose group compared with the controls. These findings indicate that SMM may be identified as a risk factor for cognitive and behavioral development on the basis of gender and that it may be associated with diminished BH4 and BDNF levels early in life. PMID:27173165

  15. Acquiring neural signals for developing a perception and cognition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Li, Yunyi; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Lynch, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The understanding of how humans process information, determine salience, and combine seemingly unrelated information is essential to automated processing of large amounts of information that is partially relevant, or of unknown relevance. Recent neurological science research in human perception, and in information science regarding contextbased modeling, provides us with a theoretical basis for using a bottom-up approach for automating the management of large amounts of information in ways directly useful for human operators. However, integration of human intelligence into a game theoretic framework for dynamic and adaptive decision support needs a perception and cognition model. For the purpose of cognitive modeling, we present a brain-computer-interface (BCI) based humanoid robot system to acquire brainwaves during human mental activities of imagining a humanoid robot-walking behavior. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model. The BCI system consists of a data acquisition unit with an electroencephalograph (EEG), a humanoid robot, and a charge couple CCD camera. An EEG electrode cup acquires brainwaves from the skin surface on scalp. The humanoid robot has 20 degrees of freedom (DOFs); 12 DOFs located on hips, knees, and ankles for humanoid robot walking, 6 DOFs on shoulders and arms for arms motion, and 2 DOFs for head yaw and pitch motion. The CCD camera takes video clips of the human subject's hand postures to identify mental activities that are correlated to the robot-walking behaviors. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model.

  16. The different effects of LPS and poly I:C prenatal immune challenges on the behavior, development and inflammatory responses in pregnant mice and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Dany; St-Amour, Isabelle; Cisbani, Giulia; Rousseau, Louis-Simon; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, in vivo animal models of prenatal infection have been developed in an attempt to recreate behavioral and neuropathological features associated to a number of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, these models are still in their emerging phase and a better understanding of how these types of infections relate to adult-onset of brain-related disorders is needed. Here, we undertook an extensive behavioral characterization of both pregnant females and their pups following late gestational exposure (from gestational days (GD) 15-17) to either lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 120μg/kg i.p.) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C; 5mg/kg i.v.). We observed that both LPS and poly I:C treatments produced anxiety-like behaviors in treated pregnant females, although to a lesser extent with LPS. LPS injections, but not poly I:C, led to reduced food intake and consequently decreased weight gain in pregnant dams. In pups, poly I:C treatments triggered a delay in growth and sensorimotor development, as evaluated by righting, geotaxis and grasping reflexes. At the cellular level, both toxins induced an initial inflammatory response while only LPS reduced the expression of brain cell markers in foetuses (GFAP and NeuN), which was no longer observable at postnatal day (PnD) 10. Higher levels of IL-2, IL-5 and IL-6 in plasma and an upregulation of the metabotropic receptor 5 (mGluR5) in foetal brains of 10-day-old offspring prenatally exposed to poly I:C was also observed. Interestingly, the increased mGluR5 expression correlated with impairments of the righting reflex. This study is the first to directly compare reflex development following LPS and poly I:C prenatal immune challenges in mice and sheds light onto the different patterns of behavior and pathology in dams and their offspring. PMID:24384468

  17. Effect of maternal intake of organically or conventionally produced feed on oral tolerance development in offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Maja Melballe; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher R; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2013-05-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings' response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother's milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups' anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L). PMID:23581797

  18. Infant Hand Preference and the Development of Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Michel, George F.; Campbell, Julie M.; Marcinowski, Emily C.; Nelson, Eliza L.; Babik, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Hand preference develops in the first two postnatal years with nearly half of infants exhibiting a consistent early preference for acquiring objects. Others exhibit a more variable developmental trajectory but by the end of their second postnatal year, most exhibit a consistent hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation. According to some forms of embodiment theory, these differences in hand use patterns should influence the way children interact with their environments, which, in turn, should affect the structure and function of brain development. Such early differences in brain development should result in different trajectories of psychological development. We present evidence that children with consistent early hand preferences exhibit advanced patterns of cognitive development as compared to children who develop a hand preference later. Differences in the developmental trajectory of hand preference are predictive of developmental differences in language, object management skills, and tool-use skills. As predicted by Casasanto’s body-specificity hypothesis, infants with different hand preferences proceed along different developmental pathways of cognitive functioning. PMID:27047431

  19. Infant Hand Preference and the Development of Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    Michel, George F; Campbell, Julie M; Marcinowski, Emily C; Nelson, Eliza L; Babik, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Hand preference develops in the first two postnatal years with nearly half of infants exhibiting a consistent early preference for acquiring objects. Others exhibit a more variable developmental trajectory but by the end of their second postnatal year, most exhibit a consistent hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation. According to some forms of embodiment theory, these differences in hand use patterns should influence the way children interact with their environments, which, in turn, should affect the structure and function of brain development. Such early differences in brain development should result in different trajectories of psychological development. We present evidence that children with consistent early hand preferences exhibit advanced patterns of cognitive development as compared to children who develop a hand preference later. Differences in the developmental trajectory of hand preference are predictive of developmental differences in language, object management skills, and tool-use skills. As predicted by Casasanto's body-specificity hypothesis, infants with different hand preferences proceed along different developmental pathways of cognitive functioning. PMID:27047431

  20. Assessing infant cognitive development after prenatal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Martha Ann; Ross, Alleyne P; Goodman, Gay

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on infant behavioral development outcomes of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Studies performed to date, all of which relied on global developmental assessments, have yielded inconsistent findings with regard to psychomotor development, negative findings with regard to mental development, and no information as to the development of specific cognitive functions. Our review of these studies leads us to suspect that the use of global developmental assessments might partially explain the negative and inconsistent findings. To identify cognitive processes that might be sensitive to prenatal iodine supplementation, we examined the timing of thyroid hormone action on specific brain systems. The development of infant visual attention is sensitive to thyroid hormone during the early prenatal period, when the fetus is entirely dependent on maternal thyroid hormone. For this reason, infant visual attention has the potential to be a sensitive measure of infant outcomes in prenatal iodine supplementation studies. We suggest the assessment of infant visual attention, with follow-up examination of childhood executive functions, as a means of capturing the effects of maternal iodine deficiency and prenatal iodine supplementation on specific cognitive processes. In particular, we propose comparison of infant performance on global developmental tests and specialized tests of visual attention in pilot trials of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Only by comparing the 2 types of tests side by side will it be possible to establish whether the use of a sensitive measure of infant visual attention will increase the reliability of such supplementation studies. Recognizing that exposure misclassification may also provide a partial explanation for the inconsistent neurodevelopmental outcomes in previous studies, we suggest that urinary iodine concentration or

  1. Lack of effects for dietary exposure of bisphenol A during in utero and lactational periods on reproductive development in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenichi; Kubota, Hisayo; Ohtani, Katsumi; Hojo, Rieko; Miyagawa, Muneyuki

    2012-01-01

    The potential for health effects on humans with exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has raised concerns, and the adverse effects of low-dose exposure to BPA on reproduction have been controversial. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of low-dose exposure to BPA on reproductive development in F(1) rat offspring. Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats (F(0)) were fed a diet containing low doses of BPA (0, 0.33, 3.3, or 33 ppm) from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21. The weanlings (F(1)) from all dose groups were fed a normal diet ad libitum after weaning and then were subjected to necropsy at 5 weeks or 3 months of age. No BPA-related changes were observed in body weight or weight of any of the major reproductive organs in F(1) males and females. Epididymis weight was significantly lower only in 3-month-old F(1) males exposed to 33 ppm BPA. Anogenital distance (AGD), the ratio of AGD to the cube root of body weight, and relative ovary weight were significantly lower in 5-week-old F(1) females exposed to 3.3 and 33 ppm BPA, but significant differences were not observed in 3-month-old females. There were no BPA-related effects on cauda epididymal sperm motility in 3-month-old F(1) males. Plasma reproductive steroid hormone concentrations were not altered among groups in either sex. These outcomes indicate that low-dose exposure to BPA in the diet does not adversely affect reproductive development in F(1) rat offspring. PMID:22687996

  2. An information theory analysis of spatial decisions in cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Nicole M.; Sera, Maria D.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2015-01-01

    Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain) as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages 5 to 10 years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of “cognitive entropy” were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1) the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2) the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured “chunking” of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework. PMID:25698915

  3. An information theory analysis of spatial decisions in cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nicole M; Sera, Maria D; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2015-01-01

    Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain) as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages 5 to 10 years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of "cognitive entropy" were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1) the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2) the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured "chunking" of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework. PMID:25698915

  4. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences rat maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories: behavioral performances and neuroplasticity correlates

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, Debora; Caporali, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Angelucci, Francesco; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Bisicchia, Elisa; Molinari, Marco; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a widely used paradigm for investigating the influence of complex stimulations on brain and behavior. Here we examined whether pre-reproductive exposure to EE of female rats may influence their maternal care and offspring cognitive performances. To this aim, from weaning to breeding age enriched females (EF) were reared in enriched environments. Females reared in standard conditions were used as controls. At 2.5 months of age all females were mated and reared in standard conditions with their offspring. Maternal care behaviors and nesting activity were assessed in lactating dams. Their male pups were also behaviorally evaluated at different post-natal days (pnd). Brain BDNF, reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were measured as biochemical correlates of neuroplasticity. EF showed more complex maternal care than controls due to their higher levels of licking, crouching and nest building activities. Moreover, their offspring showed higher discriminative (maternal odor preference T-maze, pnd 10) and spatial (Morris Water Maze, pnd 45; Open Field with objects, pnd 55) performances, with no differences in social abilities (Sociability test, pnd 35), in comparison to controls. BDNF levels were increased in EF frontal cortex at pups' weaning and in their offspring hippocampus at pnd 21 and 55. No differences in offspring reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were found. In conclusion, our study indicates that pre-reproductive maternal enrichment positively influences female rats' maternal care and cognitive development of their offspring, demonstrating thus a transgenerational transmission of EE benefits linked to enhanced BDNF-induced neuroplasticity. PMID:25814946

  5. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences rat maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories: behavioral performances and neuroplasticity correlates.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Debora; Caporali, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Angelucci, Francesco; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Bisicchia, Elisa; Molinari, Marco; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a widely used paradigm for investigating the influence of complex stimulations on brain and behavior. Here we examined whether pre-reproductive exposure to EE of female rats may influence their maternal care and offspring cognitive performances. To this aim, from weaning to breeding age enriched females (EF) were reared in enriched environments. Females reared in standard conditions were used as controls. At 2.5 months of age all females were mated and reared in standard conditions with their offspring. Maternal care behaviors and nesting activity were assessed in lactating dams. Their male pups were also behaviorally evaluated at different post-natal days (pnd). Brain BDNF, reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were measured as biochemical correlates of neuroplasticity. EF showed more complex maternal care than controls due to their higher levels of licking, crouching and nest building activities. Moreover, their offspring showed higher discriminative (maternal odor preference T-maze, pnd 10) and spatial (Morris Water Maze, pnd 45; Open Field with objects, pnd 55) performances, with no differences in social abilities (Sociability test, pnd 35), in comparison to controls. BDNF levels were increased in EF frontal cortex at pups' weaning and in their offspring hippocampus at pnd 21 and 55. No differences in offspring reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were found. In conclusion, our study indicates that pre-reproductive maternal enrichment positively influences female rats' maternal care and cognitive development of their offspring, demonstrating thus a transgenerational transmission of EE benefits linked to enhanced BDNF-induced neuroplasticity. PMID:25814946

  6. Rational thinking and cognitive sophistication: development, cognitive abilities, and thinking dispositions.

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; West, Richard F; Stanovich, Keith E

    2014-04-01

    We studied developmental trends in 5 important reasoning tasks that are critical components of the operational definition of rational thinking. The tasks measured denominator neglect, belief bias, base rate sensitivity, resistance to framing, and the tendency toward otherside thinking. In addition to age, we examined 2 other individual difference domains that index cognitive sophistication: cognitive ability (intelligence and executive functioning) and thinking dispositions (actively open-minded thinking, superstitious thinking, and need for cognition). All 5 reasoning domains were consistently related to cognitive sophistication regardless of how it was indexed (age, cognitive ability, thinking dispositions). The implications of these findings for taxonomies of developmental trends in rational thinking tasks are discussed. PMID:24188038

  7. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  8. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: trends and developments

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Meagan B; Kocovski, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was developed as a psychological intervention for individuals at risk of depressive relapse. Possible mechanisms of change for this intervention are in line with its theoretical underpinnings, and include increases in mindfulness and/or decreases in negative repetitive thoughts. This review provides an overview of current trends in MBCT research, including efficacy and questions regarding the specific effects of MBCT in light of recent comparisons with structurally equivalent control conditions, mechanisms of change, and moderators of treatment outcome. In addition, future directions are discussed, such as challenges with training an adequate number of therapists and disseminating this therapy. PMID:27274325

  9. [Effects on children's cognitive development of chronic exposure to screens].

    PubMed

    Harlé, B; Desmurget, M

    2012-07-01

    During the last few years, the time spent in front of various screens, including TV sets, video games, smartphones and computers, has dramatically increased. Numerous studies show, with a remarkable consistency, that this trend has a strong negative influence on the cognitive development of children and teenagers. The affected fields include, in particular, scholastic achievement, language, attention, sleep and aggression. We believe that this often disregarded - not to say denied - problem should now be considered a major public health issue. Primary care physicians should inform parents and children about this issue to support efficient prevention. PMID:22609414

  10. Development of anxiety-like behavior via hippocampal IGF-2 signaling in the offspring of parental morphine exposure: effect of enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Qi; Luo, Yan-Wei; Bi, Fang-Fang; Cui, Tao-Tao; Song, Ling; Cao, Wen-Yu; Zhang, Jian-Yi; Li, Fang; Xu, Jun-Mei; Hao, Wei; Xing, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Fiona H; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Dai, Ru-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Opioid addiction is a major social, economic, and medical problem worldwide. Long-term adverse consequences of chronic opiate exposure not only involve the individuals themselves but also their offspring. Adolescent maternal morphine exposure results in behavior and morphologic changes in the brain of their adult offspring. However, few studies investigate the effect of adult opiate exposure on their offspring. Furthermore, the underlying molecular signals regulating the intergenerational effects of morphine exposure are still elusive. We report here that morphine exposure of adult male and female rats resulted in anxiety-like behavior and dendritic retraction in the dentate gyrus (DG) region of the hippocampus in their adult offspring. The behavior and morphologic changes were concomitant with the downregulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 signaling in the granular zone of DG. Overexpression of hippocampal IGF-2 by bilateral intra-DG injection of lentivirus encoding the IGF-2 gene prevented anxiety-like behaviors in the offspring. Furthermore, exposure to an enriched environment during adolescence corrected the reduction of hippocampal IGF-2 expression, normalized anxiety-like behavior and reversed dendritic retraction in the adult offspring. Thus, parental morphine exposure can lead to the downregulation of hippocampal IGF-2, which contributed to the anxiety and hippocampal dendritic retraction in their offspring. An adolescent-enriched environment experience prevented the behavior and morphologic changes in their offspring through hippocampal IGF-2 signaling. IGF-2 and an enriched environment may be a potential intervention to prevention of anxiety and brain atrophy in the offspring of parental opioid exposure. PMID:24889368

  11. Business Simulations and Cognitive Learning: Developments, Desires, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Philip H.; Lawton, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the research associated with the assessment of the cognitive learning that occurs through participation in a simulation exercise. It summarizes the "objective" evidence regarding cognitive learning versus the "perceptions" of cognitive learning achieved as reported by participants and instructors. The authors also explain…

  12. Promoting Conceptual Development in Physics Teacher Education: Cognitive-Historical Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Induction Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantyla, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    In teaching physics, the history of physics offers fruitful starting points for designing instruction. I introduce here an approach that uses historical cognitive processes to enhance the conceptual development of pre-service physics teachers' knowledge. It applies a method called cognitive-historical approach, introduced to the cognitive sciences…

  13. Cross-Cultural Studies on Cognitive Development of Chinese Children from Different Nationalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menglan, Zuo; Chang, Wei

    Reviewed are recent studies of the cognitive development of Chinese children. The discussion identifies: (1) systematic studies of children's cognitive development; (2) studies on the development of thinking; (3) studies of memory development; and (4) studies on the influences of various national cultures and education on the development of…

  14. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls.

    PubMed

    Solé-Padullés, Cristina; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Romero, Soledad; Calvo, Anna; Sánchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Padrós-Fornieles, Marta; Baeza, Inmaculada; Bargalló, Núria; Frangou, Sophia; Sugranyes, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7-19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27), offspring of patients with BD (N = 39) and offspring of community control parents (N = 40). We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence. PMID:26885824

  15. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Solé-Padullés, Cristina; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Romero, Soledad; Calvo, Anna; Sánchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Padrós-Fornieles, Marta; Baeza, Inmaculada; Bargalló, Núria; Frangou, Sophia; Sugranyes, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7–19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27), offspring of patients with BD (N = 39) and offspring of community control parents (N = 40). We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence. PMID:26885824

  16. Working Memory Underpins Cognitive Development, Learning, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is the retention of a small amount of information in a readily accessible form. It facilitates planning, comprehension, reasoning, and problem-solving. I examine the historical roots and conceptual development of the concept and the theoretical and practical implications of current debates about working memory mechanisms. Then I explore the nature of cognitive developmental improvements in working memory, the role of working memory in learning, and some potential implications of working memory and its development for the education of children and adults. The use of working memory is quite ubiquitous in human thought, but the best way to improve education using what we know about working memory is still controversial. I hope to provide some directions for research and educational practice. PMID:25346585

  17. Breastfeeding and Trajectories of Children’s Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Kristen E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Witko, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of breastfeeding practices on the growth trajectories of children’s cognitive development. We used data from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) with variables on presence and duration of breastfeeding and standardized test scores obtained during three different panel waves (N= 2,681). After adjusting for covariates we found that breastfed children had higher test scores but that breastfed and non-breastfed children had similar growth trajectories in test scores over time. The results indicate that breastfeeding has an important effect on test scores, and that subsequent schooling and other experiences during adolescence do not eliminate the breastfeeding gap that appears in very early childhood. PMID:24410811

  18. X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

  19. Developing an Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Abilities in Down Syndrome: The Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS).

    PubMed

    Startin, Carla M; Rodger, Erin; Fodor-Wynne, Lucy; Hamburg, Sarah; Strydom, André

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). Abilities relating to executive function, memory and language are particularly affected in DS, although there is a large variability across individuals. People with DS also show an increased risk of developing dementia. While assessment batteries have been developed for adults with DS to assess cognitive abilities, these batteries may not be suitable for those with more severe IDs, dementia, or visual / hearing difficulties. Here we report the development of an informant rated questionnaire, the Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS), which focuses on everyday abilities relating to executive function, memory and language, and is suitable for assessing these abilities in all adults with DS regardless of cognitive ability. Complete questionnaires were collected about 128 individuals with DS. After final question selection we found high internal consistency scores across the total questionnaire and within the executive function, memory and language domains. CS-DS scores showed a wide range, with minimal floor and ceiling effects. We found high interrater (n = 55) and test retest (n = 36) intraclass correlations. CS-DS scores were significantly lower in those aged 41+ with significant cognitive decline compared to those without decline. Across all adults without cognitive decline, CS-DS scores correlated significantly to measures of general abilities. Exploratory factor analysis suggested five factors within the scale, relating to memory, self-regulation / inhibition, self-direction / initiation, communication, and focussing attention. The CS-DS therefore shows good interrater and test retest reliability, and appears to be a valid and suitable informant rating tool for assessing everyday cognitive abilities in a wide range of individuals with DS. Such a questionnaire may be a useful outcome measure for intervention studies to assess improvements to cognition, in addition to

  20. Developing an Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Abilities in Down Syndrome: The Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS)

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, Erin; Fodor-Wynne, Lucy; Hamburg, Sarah; Strydom, André

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). Abilities relating to executive function, memory and language are particularly affected in DS, although there is a large variability across individuals. People with DS also show an increased risk of developing dementia. While assessment batteries have been developed for adults with DS to assess cognitive abilities, these batteries may not be suitable for those with more severe IDs, dementia, or visual / hearing difficulties. Here we report the development of an informant rated questionnaire, the Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS), which focuses on everyday abilities relating to executive function, memory and language, and is suitable for assessing these abilities in all adults with DS regardless of cognitive ability. Complete questionnaires were collected about 128 individuals with DS. After final question selection we found high internal consistency scores across the total questionnaire and within the executive function, memory and language domains. CS-DS scores showed a wide range, with minimal floor and ceiling effects. We found high interrater (n = 55) and test retest (n = 36) intraclass correlations. CS-DS scores were significantly lower in those aged 41+ with significant cognitive decline compared to those without decline. Across all adults without cognitive decline, CS-DS scores correlated significantly to measures of general abilities. Exploratory factor analysis suggested five factors within the scale, relating to memory, self-regulation / inhibition, self-direction / initiation, communication, and focussing attention. The CS-DS therefore shows good interrater and test retest reliability, and appears to be a valid and suitable informant rating tool for assessing everyday cognitive abilities in a wide range of individuals with DS. Such a questionnaire may be a useful outcome measure for intervention studies to assess improvements to cognition, in addition to

  1. The Effects of Cognitive Conflict Management on Cognitive Development and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budiman, Zainol Badli; Halim, Lilia; Mohd Meerah, Subahan; Osman, Kamisah

    2014-01-01

    Three teaching methods were compared in this study, namely a Cognitive Conflict Management Module (CCM) that is infused into Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE), (Module A) CASE without CCM (Module B) and a conventional teaching method. This study employed a pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design using non-equivalent…

  2. Psychiatric Disorders in Preschool Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Obreja, Mihaela; Hickey, Mary Beth; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Shamseddeen, Wael; Diler, Rasim; Kupfer, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate lifetime prevalence and specificity of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and severity of depressive and manic symptoms at intake in preschool offspring of parents with Disorder I–II. Methods 121 offspring ages 2–5 years old of 83 parents with Bipolar Disorder and 102 offspring of 65 demographically matched control parents (29 with non-Bipolar psychiatric disorders and 36 without any lifetime psychopathology) were recruited. Parents with Bipolar Disorder were recruited through advertisement and adult outpatient clinics and control parents were ascertained at random from the community. Subjects were evaluated with standardized instruments. All staff were blind to parental diagnoses. Results After adjusting for within-family correlations and both biological parents’ non-Bipolar psychopathology, compared to the offspring of the control parents, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, particularly those older than 4 years old, showed an 8-fold increased life-time prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and significantly higher rates of ≥ 2 psychiatric disorders. While only 3 offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder had mood disorders, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, especially those with ADHD and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder, had significantly more severe current manic and depressive symptomatology than the offspring of the controls. Conclusions Preschool offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder are at increased risk for ADHD and demonstrate increased subthreshold manic and depressive symptomatology. Longitudinal follow-up is warranted to evaluate whether these children are at high-risk to develop mood and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:20080982

  3. Mothers’ and Fathers’ Sensitivity and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income, Rural Families

    PubMed Central

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Willoughby, Michael T.; Zvara, Bharathi; Barnett, Melissa; Gustafsson, Hanna; Cox, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal sensitive parenting and child cognitive development across the first 3 years of life using longitudinal data from 630 families with co-residing biological mothers and fathers. Sensitive parenting was measured by observational coding of parent-child interactions and child cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence. There were multiple direct and indirect associations between parenting and cognitive development across mothers and fathers, suggesting primary effects, carry-forward effects, spillover effects across parents, and transactional effects across parents and children. Associations between parenting and cognitive development were statistically consistent across mothers and fathers, and the cumulative effects of early parenting on later cognitive development were comparable to the effects of later parenting on later cognitive development. As interpreted through a family systems framework, findings suggest additive and interdependent effects across parents and children. PMID:25954057

  4. The Driving Cognitions Questionnaire: development and preliminary psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Anke; Taylor, Joanne E; Ehring, Thomas; Hofmann, Stefan G; Deane, Frank P; Roth, Walton T; Podd, John V

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that fear of driving is common in the general population. People may have various concerns when driving, and instruments for the assessment of these concerns are lacking. The present paper describes the development and preliminary evaluation of the Driving Cognitions Questionnaire (DCQ). The DCQ is a 20-item scale that measures three areas of driving-related concerns--panic-related, accident-related, and social concerns. In three separate samples from different countries (n=69, 100, and 78), the scale showed good internal consistency and substantial correlations with measures of the severity of driving fear. It discriminated well between people with and without driving phobia. It also showed convergent validity with other measures. The questionnaire shows promise for use in research and clinical practice. PMID:16982173

  5. Illegitimacy, child abuse and neglect, and cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A

    1990-09-01

    This study explored the relationship between illegitimate birth and cognitive development among 513 boys on probation. Prior research has shown that being part of a single-parent household leads to diminished verbal capacities and often puts a child in greater danger of abuse and neglect. Frequent abuse is thought to lead to the enhancement of visual and spatial skills relative to verbal skills through a process of "frozen watchfulness". I hypothesized that illegitimate boys from one-parent homes would have greater verbal-performance discrepancy scores than would boys from other combinations of birth status and family structure. These boys had the lowest verbal IQ and highest performance IQ scores and, hence, the largest discrepancy. These boys also suffered the highest degree of abuse and neglect of all four birth status/family structure combinations studied. PMID:2266355

  6. Cognitive development in object manipulation by infant chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2003-12-01

    This study focuses on the development of spontaneous object manipulation in three infant chimpanzees during their first 2 years of life. The three infants were raised by their biological mothers who lived among a group of chimpanzees. A human tester conducted a series of cognitive tests in a triadic situation where mothers collaborated with the researcher during the testing of the infants. Four tasks were presented, taken from normative studies of cognitive development of Japanese infants: inserting objects into corresponding holes in a box, seriating nesting cups, inserting variously shaped objects into corresponding holes in a template, and stacking up wooden blocks. The mothers had already acquired skills to perform these manipulation tasks. The infants were free to observe the mothers' manipulative behavior from immediately after birth. We focused on object-object combinations that were made spontaneously by the infant chimpanzees, without providing food reinforcement for any specific behavior that the infants performed. The three main findings can be summarized as follows. First, there was precocious appearance of object-object combination in infant chimpanzees: the age of onset (8-11 months) was comparable to that in humans (around 10 months old). Second, object-object combinations in chimpanzees remained at a low frequency between 11 and 16 months, then increased dramatically at the age of approximately 1.5 years. At the same time, the accuracy of these object-object combinations also increased. Third, chimpanzee infants showed inserting behavior frequently and from an early age but they did not exhibit stacking behavior during their first 2 years of life, in clear contrast to human data. PMID:12905079

  7. The Developing Utility of Zebrafish Models for Cognitive Enhancers Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-01-01

    Whereas cognitive impairment is a common symptom in multiple brain disorders, predictive and high-throughput animal models of cognition and behavior are becoming increasingly important in the field of translational neuroscience research. In particular, reliable models of the cognitive deficits characteristic of numerous neurobehavioral disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia have become a significant focus of investigation. While rodents have traditionally been used to study cognitive phenotypes, zebrafish (Danio rerio) are gaining popularity as an excellent model to complement current translational neuroscience research. Here we discuss recent advances in pharmacological and genetic approaches using zebrafish models to study cognitive impairments and to discover novel cognitive enhancers and neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:23449968

  8. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G.; Armitage, James A.; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20–25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  9. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G; Armitage, James A; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20-25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  10. Neuropsychological Assessment of a New Computerized Cognitive Task that Was Developed to Train Several Cognitive Functions Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Ichihara-Takeda, Satoe; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ikeda, Nozomu; Matsuyama, Kiyoji; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that computerized cognitive training is effective as therapy for reducing the cognitive decline with aging and the dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatric illness. Although cognitive trainings that targets a specific function and multi-domain cognitive training have both been shown to have significant effects, we need one simple behavioral training paradigm to improve multiple domains of cognitive functions easily and simultaneously. We had developed a new computerized task that seeks to engage the cognitive functions of planning, mental calculation, and divergent thinking based on a working memory task in a single task. The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive features of our new task by comparing the scores of seven known neuropsychological batteries in healthy elderly subjects. The relationships between performance in our task and the scores obtained by the neuropsychological batteries were examined. The percentage of correct performance on our task was correlated with the scores on the category fluency test, the digit span backward task, and the Trail making test B. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that the scores on the category fluency test and the Trail making test B showed significant positive correlations with the percentage of correct performance on our task. Although the present study did not show high correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and working memory functions as a primary target, we observed mid-level correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and functions for divided attention and word fluency. Our new task requires not only working memory, but also attention and divergent thinking. Thus, this task might be a useful tool for training multiple cognitive functions simultaneously. PMID:27148110

  11. Stability and change of cognitive attributes in children with uneven/delayed cognitive development from preschool through childhood.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pinchen; Lung, For-Wey; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2010-01-01

    As part of an ongoing clinical service program for children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analyzed the cognitive attributes of 362 Taiwanese children (average age 48.5+/-12.9 month-old) with uneven/delayed cognitive development as they were assessed repeatedly with average duration of 39.7+/-22.6 months from preschool through early childhood. The objectives were to determine the stability and related factors in cognitive scores of these 362 children belonging to three diagnostic subgroups: 181 children with non-autistic mental retardation (MR), 95 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 64 children with mixed type developmental language disorder (DLD); and to contribute to the accumulation of data on cognitive outcome in preschool children with developmental delay. Analysis revealed that mean initial cognitive score (IQ1) was 64.9+/-16.9 while mean cognitive measure at follow-up (IQ2) was 72.2+/-19.7. Whole group analysis showed the correlation between IQ1 and IQ2 was moderate (r=0.73, p<0.001). Analysis by a general linear model showed only male gender (beta=4.95, p=0.02, C.I.=0.8-9.1) and IQ1 (beta=0.79, p<0.001, C.I.=0.68-0.90) to be significant predictors of IQ2. There were differences among three groups in IQ1 (p<0.001), IQ2 (p<0.001) and IQ change (p<0.001). Correlation coefficients of IQ1 and IQ2 were 0.6 for ASD group, 0.7 for MR group and 0.4 for DLD group respectively. The greatest proportion of children remained within the same cognitive range for both assessment points, however, it is noted that a substantial minority of children changed IQ ranges drastically from preschool through early childhood. Our results suggest that measurements of cognitive function at preschool age for children with developmental delay were valid in the context of a developing country, and the observed change in cognitive scores during follow-up emphasized the need to interpret the initial results of cognitive tests with caution. PMID

  12. Environmental enrichment models a naturalistic form of maternal separation and shapes the anxiety response patterns of offspring.

    PubMed

    Connors, E J; Migliore, M M; Pillsbury, S L; Shaik, A N; Kentner, A C

    2015-02-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) mimics positive life experiences by providing enhanced social and physical stimulation. Placement into EE following weaning, or in later life, confers beneficial outcomes on both emotional and cognitive processes. However, anxiety-like behavior is also reported, particularly in rats exposed to enhanced housing during early development. Notably, the quality of maternal behavior affects stress regulation and emotional stability in offspring, yet the impact of environmental context on maternal care has not been thoroughly evaluated, or are the influences of EE on their offspring understood. To investigate the role of EE on these factors we analyzed the details of mother-neonate interactions, and juvenile offspring performance on several anxiety measures. Additionally, we evaluated neurochemical differences (i.e. serotonin, corticosterone, GABA, glutamate) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus as a function of EE, Communal Nesting (CN) and Standard Care (SC). Although EE dams spent significantly less time on the nest and had lower nursing frequencies compared to SC dams, there were no differences in maternal licking/grooming. In offspring, EE increased GLUR1 level and GABA concentrations in the prefrontal cortex of both juvenile male and female rats. A similar pattern for glutamate was only observed in males. Although EE offspring spent less time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze and had faster escape latencies in a light-dark test, there were no other indications of anxiety-like behavior on these measures or when engaged in social interaction with a conspecific. In the wild, rats live in complicated and variable environments. Consequently dams must leave their nest to defend and forage, limiting their duration of direct contact. EE exposure in early development may mimic this naturalistic maternal separation, shaping parental behavior and offspring resiliency to stressors. PMID:25437120

  13. The Influence of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors on the Development of Rifle Marksmanship Skills. CRESST Report 753

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, researchers examined rifle marksmanship development within a skill development framework outlined by Chung, Delacruz, de Vries, Bewley, and Baker (2006). Thirty-three novice shooters used an M4 rifle training simulator system to learn to shoot an 8-inch target at a simulated distance of 200 yards. Cognitive, psychomotor, and…

  14. Student Cognitive and Affective Development in the Context of Classroom-Level Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy; Gilmore, Deanna; Banks-Joseph, Susan Rae

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the impact of teacher curriculum approaches (curriculum-transmitter/curriculum-developer/curriculum-maker) on student cognitive change (reading, writing, speaking, and listening abilities) and their affective change (motivation and interests). This study's conceptual framework was grounded in teacher curriculum…

  15. Experimental Comparison of the Reproductive Outcomes and Early Development of the Offspring of Rats Given Five Common Types of Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Shu, Wei-qun; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Lin; Wang, Da-hua; Fu, Wen-juan; Wang, Ling-qiao; Luo, Jiao-hua; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Yao; Qiu, Zhi-qun; Huang, Yu-jing

    2014-01-01

    Tap water (unfiltered), filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water) are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients) of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague–Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI) and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA); the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy. PMID:25279561

  16. Confronting Social Injustice: Cognitive Dissonance and Civic Development in Higher Education Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Leslie Cohen

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, insider account of student civic development in a university service-learning course has two primary goals. One is to propose frameworks for describing the process of civic development of service-learning students that are situated in theories of civic identity, cognitive development, and cognitive dissonance. The other is to…

  17. Information Literacy and its Relationship to Cognitive Development and Reflective Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This article maps the Association of College and Research Libraries' Information Competency Standards for Higher Education to the cognitive development levels developed by William G. Perry and Patricia King and Karen Kitchener to suggest which competencies are appropriate for which level of cognitive development. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Using Information in Career Development: From Cognitions to Computers. Information Series No. 262.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Lenore W., Ed.; And Others

    This compilation of three papers investigates theoretical and practical facets of career development, focusing on cognitive theory and decision-making theory and their roles in the formation of computerized career development systems. In the first paper ("Cognitive-Behavioral Theory and Its Application to Career Development"), Gerald Stone…

  19. Rates of Cognitive Development among Bilingual Latino Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito-Horgan, Noriko

    If, as research suggests, exposing children to two languages and two cultures provides a cognitive advantage, it could be assumed that a child exposed to two languages may be accelerated in a more advanced cognitive stage (as defined by Piaget) than a child exposed to only one language. This study sought to determine when Hispanic children from…

  20. Developing cognitive-emotional training exercises as interventions for mood and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Iacoviello, B M; Charney, D S

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for more effective treatments for mood and anxiety disorders. As our understanding of the cognitive and affective neuroscience underlying psychiatric disorders expands, so do opportunities to develop novel interventions that capitalize on the capacity for brain plasticity. Cognitive training is one such strategy. This paper provides the background and rationale for developing cognitive-emotional training exercises as an intervention strategy, and proposes guidelines for the development and evaluation of cognitive training interventions with a specific focus on major depressive disorder as an example. PMID:25451246

  1. Cognitive Competence as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on discussing critical thinking and creative thinking as the core cognitive competence. It reviews and compares several theories of thinking, highlights the features of critical thinking and creative thinking, and delineates their interrelationships. It discusses cognitive competence as a positive youth development construct by linking its relationships with adolescent development and its contributions to adolescents' learning and wellbeing. Critical thinking and creative thinking are translated into self-regulated cognitive skills for adolescents to master and capitalize on, so as to facilitate knowledge construction, task completion, problem solving, and decision making. Ways of fostering these thinking skills, cognitive competence, and ultimately positive youth development are discussed. PMID:22654575

  2. Cognitive competence as a positive youth development construct: a conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rachel C F; Hui, Eadaoin K P

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on discussing critical thinking and creative thinking as the core cognitive competence. It reviews and compares several theories of thinking, highlights the features of critical thinking and creative thinking, and delineates their interrelationships. It discusses cognitive competence as a positive youth development construct by linking its relationships with adolescent development and its contributions to adolescents' learning and wellbeing. Critical thinking and creative thinking are translated into self-regulated cognitive skills for adolescents to master and capitalize on, so as to facilitate knowledge construction, task completion, problem solving, and decision making. Ways of fostering these thinking skills, cognitive competence, and ultimately positive youth development are discussed. PMID:22654575

  3. The Effect of Maternal Nutrition on the Development of the Offspring: An International Symposium. Nutrition Reports International, Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, Lois M., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Contents of this symposium include the following papers: "Effect of Maternal Protein Malnutrition on Neonatal Lung Development and Mitochondrial Function," E. J. Hawrylewicz, J. Q. Kissane, W. H. Blair and C. A. Heppner; "Effect of the Level of Nutrition on Rates of Cell Proliferation and of RNA and Protein Syntheses in the Rat," L. M. Roeder;…

  4. Maternal nutrient restriction affects properties of skeletal muscle in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mei J; Ford, Stephen P; Means, Warrie J; Hess, Bret W; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Du, Min

    2006-01-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction (NR) affects fetal development with long-term consequences on postnatal health of offspring, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. Most studies have been conducted in fetuses in late gestation, and little information is available on the persistent impact of NR from early to mid-gestation on properties of offspring skeletal muscle, which was the aim of this study. Pregnant ewes were subjected to 50% NR from day 28–78 of gestation and allowed to deliver. The longissimus dorsi muscle was sampled from 8-month-old offspring. Maternal NR during early to mid-gestation decreased the number of myofibres in the offspring and increased the ratio of myosin IIb to other isoforms by 17.6 ± 4.9% (P < 0.05) compared with offspring of ad libitum fed ewes. Activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, a key enzyme controlling fatty acid oxidation, was reduced by 24.7 ± 4.5% (P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle of offspring of NR ewes and would contribute to increased fat accumulation observed in offspring of NR ewes. Intramuscular triglyceride content (IMTG) was increased in skeletal muscle of NR lambs, a finding which may be linked to predisposition to diabetes in offspring of NR mothers, since enhanced IMTG predisposes to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated downregulation of several catabolic enzymes in 8-month-old offspring of NR ewes. These data demonstrate that the early to mid-gestation period is important for skeletal muscle development. Impaired muscle development during this stage of gestation affects the number and composition of fibres in offspring which may lead to long-term physiological consequences, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. PMID:16763001

  5. Infant predictors of cognitive development in an undernourished Kenyan population.

    PubMed

    Whaley, S E; Sigman, M; Espinosa, M P; Neumann, C G

    1998-06-01

    Assessments of infant sociability, motoric capacities, and nutritional factors were performed to elucidate early influences on infant development in an undernourished Kenya population. In this longitudinal study, infant social skills were assessed using both the Bayley Behavior Record and home observations during the first 6 months of the infants' lives. Abilities were measured using an adapted version of the Bayley scales of infant development at 6 and 30 months, and a short battery of cognitive measures at 5 years. Infant size measurements were used as indicators of infant nutritional status. Shorter and lighter infants, and those infants showing growth faltering in weight attainment, were significantly less sociable at 6 months than infants who were taller and maintained heavier weights. Infants with smaller arm circumferences displayed lower motor scores at 6 months and lower Bayley mental scores at 30 months than infants with greater arm circumference. Furthermore, infants who were more motorically able and socially adept at 6 months had higher Bayley scores at 30 months and higher verbal comprehension scores at 5 years. PMID:9648042

  6. The role of falsification in the development of cognitive architectures: insights from a lakatosian analysis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard P

    2007-05-01

    It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive architectures should be understood as theories that develop over time. However, Newell's own candidate cognitive architecture adhered only loosely to Lakatosian principles. This paper reconsiders the role of falsification and the potential utility of Lakatosian principles in the development of cognitive architectures. It is argued that a lack of direct falsifiability need not undermine the scientific development of a cognitive architecture if broadly Lakatosian principles are adopted. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the Lakatosian concepts of positive and negative heuristics for theory development and of general heuristic power offer methods for guiding the development of an architecture and for evaluating the contribution and potential of an architecture's research program. PMID:21635306

  7. Maternal Talk in Cognitive Development: Relations between Psychological Lexicon, Semantic Development, Empathy, and Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, Dolores; Sulla, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between mothers' psychological lexicon and children's cognitive and socio-emotive development as assessed through conceptual and semantic understanding tasks, in addition to the traditional tasks of theory of mind. Currently, there is considerable evidence to suggest that the frequency of mothers' mental state words used in mother-child picture-book reading is linked with children's theory of mind skills. Furthermore, mothers' use of cognitive terms is more strongly related to children's theory of mind performances than the mothers' references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Rollo and Buttiglieri, 2009). Current literature has established that early maternal input is related to later child mental state understanding; however it has not yet clarified which maternal terms are most useful for the socio-emotional and cognitive development of the child, and which aspect of the cognitive development benefits from the mother-child interaction. The present study addresses this issue and focuses on the relationship between mothers' mental state talk and children's behavior in conceptual and semantic tasks, and in a theory of mind task. In this study fifty pairs consisting of mothers and their 3 to 6-year-old children participated in two sessions: (1) The mothers read a picture book to their children. To assess the maternal psychological lexicon, their narrative was codified according to the categories of mental state references used in literature: perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral, and communicative. (2) After a few days, the conceptual and semantic skills of the children (tasks of contextualization and classification, memory, and definition of words) and their psychological lexicon were assessed. The results suggest close links between the frequency and variety of mothers' mental state words and some semantic and conceptual skills of children. PMID:27047421

  8. Maternal Talk in Cognitive Development: Relations between Psychological Lexicon, Semantic Development, Empathy, and Temperament.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Dolores; Sulla, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between mothers' psychological lexicon and children's cognitive and socio-emotive development as assessed through conceptual and semantic understanding tasks, in addition to the traditional tasks of theory of mind. Currently, there is considerable evidence to suggest that the frequency of mothers' mental state words used in mother-child picture-book reading is linked with children's theory of mind skills. Furthermore, mothers' use of cognitive terms is more strongly related to children's theory of mind performances than the mothers' references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Rollo and Buttiglieri, 2009). Current literature has established that early maternal input is related to later child mental state understanding; however it has not yet clarified which maternal terms are most useful for the socio-emotional and cognitive development of the child, and which aspect of the cognitive development benefits from the mother-child interaction. The present study addresses this issue and focuses on the relationship between mothers' mental state talk and children's behavior in conceptual and semantic tasks, and in a theory of mind task. In this study fifty pairs consisting of mothers and their 3 to 6-year-old children participated in two sessions: (1) The mothers read a picture book to their children. To assess the maternal psychological lexicon, their narrative was codified according to the categories of mental state references used in literature: perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral, and communicative. (2) After a few days, the conceptual and semantic skills of the children (tasks of contextualization and classification, memory, and definition of words) and their psychological lexicon were assessed. The results suggest close links between the frequency and variety of mothers' mental state words and some semantic and conceptual skills of children. PMID:27047421

  9. Maternal Antibiotic Treatment Protects Offspring from Diabetes Development in Nonobese Diabetic Mice by Generation of Tolerogenic APCs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Youjia; Peng, Jian; Tai, Ningwen; Hu, Changyun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that involves the slow, progressive destruction of islet β cells and loss of insulin production, as a result of interaction with environmental factors, in genetically susceptible individuals. The gut microbiome is established very early in life. Commensal microbiota establish mutualism with the host and form an important part of the environment to which individuals are exposed in the gut, providing nutrients and shaping immune responses. In this study, we studied the impact of targeting most Gram-negative bacteria in the gut of NOD mice at different time points in their life, using a combination of three antibiotics--neomycin, polymyxin B, and streptomycin--on diabetes development. We found that the prenatal period is a critical time for shaping the immune tolerance in the progeny, influencing development of autoimmune diabetes. Prenatal neomycin, polymyxin B, and streptomycin treatment protected NOD mice from diabetes development through alterations in the gut microbiota, as well as induction of tolerogenic APCs, which led to reduced activation of diabetogenic CD8 T cells. Most importantly, we found that the protective effect was age dependent, and the most profound protection was found when the mice were treated before birth. This indicates the importance of the prenatal environment and early exposure to commensal bacteria in shaping the host immune system and health. PMID:26401004

  10. The Journey from Child to Scientist: Integrating Cognitive Development and the Education Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Sharon M., Ed.; Shrager, Jeff, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The impulse to investigate the natural world is deeply rooted in our earliest childhood experiences. This notion has long guided researchers to uncover the cognitive mechanisms underlying the development of scientific reasoning in children. Until recently, however, research in cognitive development and education followed largely independent…

  11. Security of Attachment and the Social Development of Cognition. Essays in Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meins, Elizabeth

    This book investigates children's security of attachment in infancy and its relationship to their cognitive development in the preschool years, presenting evidence that caregivers' proclivity to treat their infants as mental agents and to attribute intentionally to their behavior is critical to their child's cognitive development. The book…

  12. A Research-Based Inservice Plan to Facilitate Teacher Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertson, Larry M.

    As an introduction to exploring the possibilities of an inservice plan to facilitate teacher cognitive development, the theories of educational philosophers and developmental psychologists are cited in arriving at a broad definition of the cognitive development of adults. From these theories it is surmised that teachers do operate at different…

  13. Cognitive Skills Development among International Students at Research Universities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young K.; Edens, David; Iorio, Michael F.; Curtis, Christie J.; Romero, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Set in the context of a statewide research university system, this study attempted to improve our understanding of cognitive skills development among international students. Specifically, this study examined how the patterns and predictors of cognitive skills development among this population differ from their domestic counterparts. The study…

  14. A New Interpretation of Speech and Cognitive Development During the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    Relationships between motor and speech development and between speech and cognitive development are considered. Discussion first focuses on issues of motility, speech, and cognition. Brief descriptions of Steiner's postulated six additional senses--of warmth, movement, life, speech or word, thought, and ego--are provided as preparation to the…

  15. The Relationship Between Affective and Cognitive Development in Down's Syndrome Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante; Sroufe, L. Alan

    Examined was the association between affective and cognitive development in 14 Down's Syndrome infants (4- to 8-months-old). Mothers administered a series of 30 laughter items each month, and experimenters gave the Uzgiris-Hunt scales of cognitive development at 13 and 16 months, and the Bayley scales and Infant Behavior Record at 16 months.…

  16. Humour among Chinese and Greek Preschool Children in Relation to Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Juan; Zhang, XiangKui; Wang, Yong; Xeromeritou, Aphrodite

    2011-01-01

    The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children's humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development,…

  17. The Effect of Cognitive Moral Development Upon the Selection of Premarital Sexual Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurich, Anthony P.; Jurich, Julie A.

    1974-01-01

    Subjects with low levels of cognitive moral development chose either traditional morality, the double standard, or permissiveness without affection standard. Those with a moderate degree of cognitive moral development chose permissiveness with affection. The formulation of premarital sexual standards was discussed and theoretical implications were…

  18. Rate of Physical Growth and Its Affect on Head Start Children's Motor and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…

  19. [Cognitive and brain development of memory from infancy to early adulthood].

    PubMed

    Dégeilh, Fanny; Eustache, Francis; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive and brain development are closely linked from infancy to adulthood. The purpose of this article is to review the current state of knowledge on behavioral and brain substrates of memory development. First, we will review cognitive development of different memory systems, from procedural to autobiographical memory. We will discuss how the development of other cognitive functions (language, attention, executive functions and metamemory) participates in memory development. Second, we will describe how structural and functional changes in two core brain regions of memory, i.e. the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, impact the protracted development of memory throughout childhood. PMID:26820831

  20. In-Utero Exposure to Bereavement and Offspring IQ: A Danish National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Jasveer; Obel, Carsten; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    Background Intelligence is a life-long trait that has strong influences on lifestyle, adult morbidity and life expectancy. Hence, lower cognitive abilities are therefore of public health interest. Our primary aim was to examine if prenatal bereavement measured as exposure to death of a close family member is associated with the intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 18-years of age of adult Danish males completing a military cognitive screening examination. Methods We extracted records for the Danish military screening test and found kinship links with biological parents, siblings, and maternal grandparents using the Danish Civil Registration System (N = 167,900). The prenatal exposure period was defined as 12 months before conception until birth of the child. We categorized children as exposed in utero to severe stress (bereavement) during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband, parent or sibling during the prenatal period; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. Mean score estimates were adjusted for maternal and paternal age at birth, residence, income, maternal education, gestational age at birth and birth weight. Results When exposure was due to death of a father the offsprings' mean IQ scores were lower among men completing the military recruitment exam compared to their unexposed counterparts, adjusted difference of 6.5 standard IQ points (p-value = 0.01). We did not observe a clinically significant association between exposure to prenatal maternal bereavement caused by death of a sibling, maternal uncle/aunt or maternal grandparent even after stratifying deaths only due to traumatic events. Conclusion We found maternal bereavement to be adversely associated with IQ in male offspring, which could be related to prenatal stress exposure though more likely is due to changes in family conditions after death of the father. This finding supports other literature on maternal adversity during fetal life and cognitive

  1. The Effect of Prenatal and Childhood Development on Hearing, Vision and Cognition in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Moore, David R.; Fortnum, Heather; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Munro, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear what the contribution of prenatal versus childhood development is for adult cognitive and sensory function and age-related decline in function. We examined hearing, vision and cognitive function in adulthood according to self-reported birth weight (an index of prenatal development) and adult height (an index of early childhood development). Subsets (N = 37,505 to 433,390) of the UK Biobank resource were analysed according to visual and hearing acuity, reaction time and fluid IQ. Sensory and cognitive performance was reassessed after ~4 years (N = 2,438 to 17,659). In statistical modelling including age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, smoking, maternal smoking and comorbid disease, adult height was positively associated with sensory and cognitive function (partial correlations; pr 0.05 to 0.12, p < 0.001). Within the normal range of birth weight (10th to 90th percentile), there was a positive association between birth weight and sensory and cognitive function (pr 0.06 to 0.14, p < 0.001). Neither adult height nor birth weight was associated with change in sensory or cognitive function. These results suggest that adverse prenatal and childhood experiences are a risk for poorer sensory and cognitive function and earlier development of sensory and cognitive impairment in adulthood. This finding could have significant implications for preventing sensory and cognitive impairment in older age. PMID:26302374

  2. National Economic Development Status May Affect the Association between Central Adiposity and Cognition in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Maharani, Asri; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is becoming a global problem, rather than one found only in developed countries. Although recent studies have suggested a detrimental effect of obesity on cognition, studies of the relationship between obesity and cognition among older adults have been limited to developed countries. We aimed to examine the associations between central obesity, as measured by waist circumference, and cognition level in adults aged 50 years and older in England and Indonesia. Methods We used linear regression models to analyse these associations and multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2006 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 3 is the source of data from England, while data from Indonesia is sourced from the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey Wave 4. Findings Centrally obese respondents had lower cognition levels than non-centrally obese respondents in England. In contrast, central adiposity had a statistically significant positive association with cognition in Indonesia. Higher levels of education and higher economic status were associated with higher cognitive ability, while age was associated with lower cognition in both countries. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and smoking behaviour, both linked to higher risk of obesity, were negatively associated with cognitive ability among older adults in England, but they had no statistically significant association with cognition among Indonesians. Interpretation The contradictory findings on obesity and cognition in England and Indonesia not only create a puzzle, but they may also have different policy implications in these countries. Reducing the prevalence of obesity may be the main focus in England and other developed countries to maintain older adults’ cognition. However, Indonesia and other developing countries should place more emphasis on education, in addition to continued efforts to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, in order to prevent cognitive impairment among

  3. Promoting Conceptual Development in Physics Teacher Education: Cognitive-Historical Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Induction Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntylä, Terhi

    2013-06-01

    In teaching physics, the history of physics offers fruitful starting points for designing instruction. I introduce here an approach that uses historical cognitive processes to enhance the conceptual development of pre-service physics teachers' knowledge. It applies a method called cognitive-historical approach, introduced to the cognitive sciences by Nersessian (Cognitive Models of Science. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 3-45, 1992). The approach combines the analyses of actual scientific practices in the history of science with the analytical tools and theories of contemporary cognitive sciences in order to produce knowledge of how conceptual structures are constructed and changed in science. Hence, the cognitive-historical analysis indirectly produces knowledge about the human cognition. Here, a way to use the cognitive-historical approach for didactical purposes is introduced. In this application, the cognitive processes in the history of physics are combined with current physics knowledge in order to create a cognitive-historical reconstruction of a certain quantity or law for the needs of physics teacher education. A principal aim of developing the approach has been that pre-service physics teachers must know how the physical concepts and laws are or can be formed and justified. As a practical example of the developed approach, a cognitive-historical reconstruction of the electromagnetic induction law was produced. For evaluating the uses of the cognitive-historical reconstruction, a teaching sequence for pre-service physics teachers was conducted. The initial and final reports of twenty-four students were analyzed through a qualitative categorization of students' justifications of knowledge. The results show a conceptual development in the students' explanations and justifications of how the electromagnetic induction law can be formed.

  4. Maternal Transfer of BDE-47 to Offspring and Neurobehavioral Development in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Claire M.; Lango, Jozsef; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used worldwide in a variety of commercial goods, and are now widely found in both environmental and biological samples. BDE-47 is one of the most pervasive of these PBDE congeners and therefore is of particular concern. In this study C57BL/6J mice were exposed perinatally to 0.03, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg/day of BDE-47, a dose range chosen to encompass human exposure levels. Tissue levels of BDE-47 were measured in the blood, brain, fat and milk of dams and in whole fetal homogenate and blood and brain of pups on gestational day (GD) 15, and postnatal days (PND) 1, 10 and 21. From GD 15 to PND 1 levels of BDE-47 increased within dam tissue and then decreased from PND 1 to 21. Over the period of lactation levels in dam milk were comparatively high when compared to both brain and blood for all dose groups. Measurable levels of BDE-47 were found in the fetus on GD 15 confirming gestational exposure. From PND 1 to 21, levels of BDE-47 in pup tissue increased over the period of lactation due to the transfer of BDE-47 through milk. Behavioral tests of fine motor function and learning and memory were carried out between postnatal weeks 5–17 in order to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of BDE-47. Behavioral deficits were only seen in the Barnes spatial maze where mice in the three exposure groups had longer latencies and traveled longer distances to find the escape hole when compared to vehicle control mice. These results support the conclusions that perinatal exposure to BDE-47 can have neurodevelopmental consequences, and that lactational exposure represents a significant exposure risk during development. PMID:23022914

  5. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Noriyuki; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Nishi, Yuina; Harada, Saki; Iwaki, Yohei; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD) or 50% dietary restriction (DR) groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks), we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα) and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c) mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure. PMID:23741310

  6. Conceptual metaphors and mathematical practice: on cognitive studies of historical developments in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Schlimm, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    This article looks at recent work in cognitive science on mathematical cognition from the perspective of history and philosophy of mathematical practice. The discussion is focused on the work of Lakoff and Núñez, because this is the first comprehensive account of mathematical cognition that also addresses advanced mathematics and its history. Building on a distinction between mathematics as it is presented in textbooks and as it presents itself to the researcher, it is argued that the focus of cognitive analyses of historical developments of mathematics has been primarily on the former, even if they claim to be about the latter. PMID:23580452

  7. Cognition as a target in major depression: new developments.

    PubMed

    Solé, Brisa; Jiménez, Esther; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent and disabling psychiatric illness often accompanied of cognitive dysfunction which may persist even when patients achieve clinical remission. Currently, cognitive deficits emerge as a potential target because they compromise the functional outcome of depressed patients. The aim of this study was to review data for several potential pharmacological treatments targeting cognition in MDD, resulting from monotherapy or adjunctive treatment. An extensive and systematic Pubmed/Medline search of the published literature until March 2014 was conducted using a variety of search term to find relevant articles. Bibliographies of retrieved papers were further examined for publications of interest. Searches were limited to articles available in English language. We describe studies using modafinil, lisdexamfetamine, ketamine, lanicemine, memantine, galantamine, donepezil, vortioxetine, intranasal oxytocin, omega-3, s-adenosyl-methionine, scopolamine and erythropoietin. From these articles, we determined that there are a number of promising new therapies, pharmacological agents or complementary medicines, but data are just emerging. Drugs and therapies targeting cognitive dysfunction in MDD should prove effective in improving specific cognitive domains and functioning, while ruling out pseudospecificity. PMID:25640673

  8. Maternal choline supplementation: a nutritional approach for improving offspring health?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinyin; West, Allyson A; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-05-01

    The modulatory role of choline on the fetal epigenome and the impact of in utero choline supply on fetal programming and health are of great interest. Studies in animals and/or humans suggest that maternal choline supplementation during pregnancy benefits important physiologic systems such as offspring cognitive function, response to stress, and cerebral inhibition. Because alterations in offspring phenotype frequently coincide with epigenetic modifications and changes in gene expression, maternal choline supplementation may be a nutritional strategy to improve lifelong health of the child. Future studies are warranted to elucidate further the effect of choline on the fetal epigenome and to determine the level of maternal choline intake required for optimal offspring physiologic function. PMID:24680198

  9. Development of Online Cognitive and Algorithm Tests as Assessment Tools in Introductory Computer Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avancena, Aimee Theresa; Nishihara, Akinori; Vergara, John Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the online cognitive and algorithm tests, which were developed in order to determine if certain cognitive factors and fundamental algorithms correlate with the performance of students in their introductory computer science course. The tests were implemented among Management Information Systems majors from the Philippines and…

  10. Development of a Test of Cognitive Bias in Medical Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershberger, Paul J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Poor performance of medical students, residents, and faculty on a newly developed Inventory of Cognitive Biases in Medicine, suggests that cognitive biases detract from reliance on logical and statistical strategies in medical decision making. The test shows promise for use in instructional and research efforts to reduce such bias. (Author/MSE)

  11. Development and Validation of the Short Use of Creative Cognition Scale in Studying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogaten, Jekaterina; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development and validation of a short Use of Creative Cognition Scale in Studying (UCCS) that was inspired by the Cognitive Processes Associated with Creativity (CPAC) scale. In Study 1, items from two of the six subscales of the CPAC were excluded due to conceptual and psychometric issues to create a 21-item CPAC scale,…

  12. A Model for Developing Meta-Cognitive Tools in Teacher Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Paige; Schatz, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates a model for developing meta-cognitive tools to be used by pre-service teachers during apprenticeship (student teaching) experience to operationalise the epistemological model of Cook and Brown (2009). Meta-cognitive tools have proven to be effective for increasing performance and retention of undergraduate students.…

  13. The Use of Event-Related Potentials in the Study of Early Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    Studying normal infant development is a challenge for cognitive scientists in general and for neuroscientists in particular because: (1) physiological indices of infant cognition are generally noisy and technically difficult to obtain; and (2) interindividual variability and a paucity of established results make data interpretation very complex,…

  14. Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

  15. Reconsidering the Role of Overcoming Perturbations in Cognitive Development: Constructivism and Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Constructivist theory must choose between the hypothesis that felt perturbation drives cognitive development (the priority of felt perturbation) and the hypothesis that the particular process that eventually produces new cognitive structures first produces felt perturbation (the continuity of process). There is ambivalence in Piagetian theory…

  16. Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Kelly B.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

  17. Recent Research Trends in Italy: Cognitive & Communicative Development of Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battacchi, Marco W.; Manfredi, Marta Montanini

    1986-01-01

    A review of recent research trends in Italy regarding cognitive and communicative development of deaf children indicates that deaf children's potential for communicative and cognitive growth is enormous. This potential may be realized if provision is made for an educational environment based on a multiple code, gestural communication, spoken…

  18. Cognitive Development of Adult Undergraduate Students: Cohort and Non-Cohort Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Royce Ann

    2006-01-01

    This study looked at specific influences on the cognitive development of adult students in two settings. The results of this study demonstrated that some students increased in cognitive complexity according to Perry's scheme. From this study, one cannot identify a single experience that is solely responsible for assisting students in developing…

  19. The Role of Falsification in the Development of Cognitive Architectures: Insights from a Lakatosian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive architectures should be understood as theories…

  20. Cognitive Sensitivity in Sibling Interactions: Development of the Construct and Comparison of Two Coding Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prime, Heather; Perlman, Michal; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to develop a construct of sibling cognitive sensitivity, which describes the extent to which children take their siblings' knowledge and cognitive abilities into account when working toward a joint goal. In addition, the study compared 2 coding methodologies for measuring the construct: a thin…

  1. Housing mobility and cognitive development: Change in verbal and nonverbal abilities.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Patrick J; McGrath, Lauren M; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J; Day, Orin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of housing instability on verbal and nonverbal cognitive development among at-risk children and adolescents involved in the child welfare system. Frequent residential changes threaten child mental health, especially among low-income families. Little is known regarding disruptions to cognitive growth, specifically the impact on verbal and nonverbal abilities. The study tests whether developmental timing of housing mobility affects cognitive development beyond individual and family risks. A nationally representative study of families (n=2,442) susceptible to housing and family instability tracked children and adolescents aged 4-14 years (M=8.95 years) over 36 months following investigation by the child welfare system. Youth completed standardized cognitive assessments while caregivers reported on behavior problems and family risk at three time points. Latent growth models examined change in cognitive abilities over time. Housing mobility in the 12 months prior to baseline predicts lower verbal cognitive abilities that improve marginally. Similar effects emerge for all age groups; however, frequent moves in infancy diminish the influence of subsequent housing mobility on verbal tasks. Housing instability threatened cognitive development beyond child maltreatment, family changes, poverty, and other risks. Findings inform emerging research on environmental influences on neurocognitive development, as well as identify targets for early intervention. Systematic assessment of family housing problems, including through the child welfare system, provides opportunities for coordinated responses to prevent instability and cognitive threats. PMID:26184055

  2. Maternal Obesity Promotes Diabetic Nephropathy in Rodent Offspring.

    PubMed

    Glastras, Sarah J; Tsang, Michael; Teh, Rachel; Chen, Hui; McGrath, Rachel T; Zaky, Amgad A; Pollock, Carol A; Saad, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is known to increase the risk of obesity and diabetes in offspring. Though diabetes is a key risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the relationship between maternal obesity and CKD has not been clearly defined. In this study, a mouse model of maternal obesity was employed to determine the impact of maternal obesity on development of diabetic nephropathy in offspring. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to normal chow diet. At postnatal Week 8, offspring were randomly administered low dose streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg/day for five days) to induce diabetes. Assessment of renal damage took place at postnatal Week 32. We found that offspring of obese mothers had increased renal fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. Importantly, offspring exposed to maternal obesity had increased susceptibility to renal damage when an additional insult, such as STZ-induced diabetes, was imposed. Specifically, renal inflammation and oxidative stress induced by diabetes was augmented by maternal obesity. Our findings suggest that developmental programming induced by maternal obesity has implications for renal health in offspring. Maternal obesity should be considered a risk factor for CKD. PMID:27277011

  3. Maternal Obesity Promotes Diabetic Nephropathy in Rodent Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Glastras, Sarah J.; Tsang, Michael; Teh, Rachel; Chen, Hui; McGrath, Rachel T.; Zaky, Amgad A.; Pollock, Carol A.; Saad, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is known to increase the risk of obesity and diabetes in offspring. Though diabetes is a key risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the relationship between maternal obesity and CKD has not been clearly defined. In this study, a mouse model of maternal obesity was employed to determine the impact of maternal obesity on development of diabetic nephropathy in offspring. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to normal chow diet. At postnatal Week 8, offspring were randomly administered low dose streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg/day for five days) to induce diabetes. Assessment of renal damage took place at postnatal Week 32. We found that offspring of obese mothers had increased renal fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. Importantly, offspring exposed to maternal obesity had increased susceptibility to renal damage when an additional insult, such as STZ-induced diabetes, was imposed. Specifically, renal inflammation and oxidative stress induced by diabetes was augmented by maternal obesity. Our findings suggest that developmental programming induced by maternal obesity has implications for renal health in offspring. Maternal obesity should be considered a risk factor for CKD. PMID:27277011

  4. Influence of hearing loss and cognitive abilities on language development in CHARGE Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vesseur, Annemarie; Langereis, Margreet; Free, Rolien; Snik, Ad; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Mylanus, Emmanuel

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss and cognitive delay are frequently occurring features in CHARGE syndrome that may contribute to impaired language development. However, not much is known about language development in patients with CHARGE syndrome. In this retrospective study, hearing loss, cognitive abilities, and language development are described in 50 patients with CHARGE syndrome. After informed consent was given, data were collected from local medical files. Most patients (38.3%; 18/47 patients) had moderate hearing loss (41-70 dB) and 58.5% (24/41 patients) had an IQ below 70. The mean language quotients of the receptive and expressive language were more than one standard deviation below the norm. Both hearing loss and cognitive delay had an influence on language development. Language and cognitive data were not available for all patients, which may have resulted in a pre-selection of patients with a delay. In conclusion, while hearing thresholds, cognitive abilities and language development vary widely in CHARGE syndrome, they are mostly below average. Hearing loss and cognitive delay have a significant influence on language development in children with CHARGE syndrome. To improve our knowledge about and the quality of care we can provide to CHARGE patients, hearing and developmental tests should be performed regularly in order to differentiate between the contributions of hearing loss and cognitive delay to delays in language development, and to provide adequate hearing amplification in the case of hearing loss. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145116

  5. Effects of Knowledge of Cognitive-Moral Development and Request to Fake on Defining Issues Test P-Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1979-01-01

    Support claims that the "Defining Issues Test" of cognitive-moral development cannot be faked higher. Finds that instruction about cognitive-moral development affected the scores of the teacher trainees who were tested. (RL)

  6. Micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance of children aged 5-15 years in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Misra, Snigdha

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 200 million young children worldwide fail to reach their potential in cognitive development owing to undernutrition. Numerous studies have assessed the effects of micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognitive development in infants, toddlers and preschoolers. However, micronutrient interventions on the cognitive performance of older children are limited. This article seeks to provide an update on micronutrient interventions and cognitive outcomes among children aged 5-15 years in developing countries. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials published since 2000 were identified. Majority of these studies assessed the effects of micronutrient-fortified foods on various domains of cognitive function. Among key micronutrients assessed were iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A. This review found a lack of consistency in the impact of micronutrient supplementation on intelligence, long term mental functions and school examination grades of the children. A beneficial effect of micronutrient supplementation on short term memory was more consistently reported. Overall, the evidence from this review for the impact of micronutrients on cognitive performance in older children remains equivocal. In light of the growing interest on the influence of nutrition on cognition, it is important that culturally-appropriate and sufficiently sensitive assessment tools be used for measuring the desired cognitive outcomes that are most likely to be affected by the nutrients under study. PMID:23017305

  7. Prenatal stress induces alterations in cerebellar nitric oxide that are correlated with deficits in spatial memory in rat's offspring.

    PubMed

    Maur, Damián G; Romero, Carolina B; Burdet, Berenice; Palumbo, María L; Zorrilla-Zubilete, María A

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) has been linked to abnormal cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in both animals and humans. Since PS has been shown to induce a cerebellar cytoarchitectural disarrangement and cerebellar abnormalities that have been linked to an impairment of behavioral functions, the aim of the present work was to investigate whether the exposure to PS in a period in which the cerebellum is still immature can induce behavioral deficits in the adult and whether this alterations are correlated with changes in nitric oxide (NO) and cellular oxidative mechanisms in offspring's cerebellum. Our results show impairments in spatial memory and territory discrimination in PS adult rats. PS offspring also displayed alterations in cerebellar nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and activity. Moreover, a correlation between spatial memory deficits and the increase in NOS activity was found. The results found here may point to a role of cerebellar NO in the behavioral alterations induced by stress during early development stages. PMID:23022609

  8. Cognitive and Social Constructivism: Developing Tools for an Effective Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Katherine C.; Kalina, Cody J.

    2009-01-01

    An effective classroom, where teachers and students are communicating optimally, is dependent on using constructivist strategies, tools and practices. There are two major types of constructivism in the classroom: (1) Cognitive or individual constructivism depending on Piaget's theory, and (2) Social constructivism depending on Vygotsky's theory.…

  9. Exploring Science: The Cognition and Development of Discovery Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klahr, David

    This book explores individual cognitive processes and the psychology of scientific discovery. Nine studies are presented that investigate childrens' and adults' attempts to make scientific discoveries from a theoretical perspective. Contents include: (1) "Investigating Scientific Thinking: Why and How"; (2) "Scientific Discovery as Problem…

  10. Teaching Cognitive-Moral Development in College (A Generalist Approach).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Francis L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines methods of teaching moral issues to undergraduate students using works of Lawrence Kohlberg, William Perry, Jr., Erik Erikson, and Elisabeth Kubler-Ross in conjunction with literary tests. Encourages comparative and illustrative studies of literature and film. Suggests student participation in cognitive and moral decision making of…

  11. Educating the Developing Mind: The View from Cognitive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Earl

    2012-01-01

    Demetriou, Spanoudis, and Mouyi have provided a comprehensive view of the relation between a model of the mind and the process of education. The model they propose is based on cognitive theories of mental action, rather than neuroscientific evidence. I argue here that that is the correct approach, for a model of the information processing…

  12. Schooling, Environment and Cognitive Development: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Harold W.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the influence of schooling and environment on young children's memory and cognitive skills. Subjects were five- and six-year-old Mestizo and Quechua Indian children living in jungle villages or city slums in Peru. Samples of upper-middle-class children in Lima and poor children in Detroit were also tested. (JMB)

  13. Developing Cognitive-Social-Emotional Competencies to Enhance Academic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares, L. Oriana; Rosbruch, Nicole; Stern, Marcia B.; Edwards, Martha E.; Walker, Gillian; Abikoff, Howard B.; Alvir, Jose Ma. J.

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary study examined intervention effects of a universal prevention program offered by classroom teachers to public elementary school students. The Unique Minds School Program (M.B. Stern, 1999) is a teacher-led program designed to promote cognitive-social-emotional (CSE) skills, including student self-efficacy, problem solving,…

  14. Child Studies through Fantasy: Cognitive-Affective Patterns in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Rosalind

    This book presents a study of cognitive-affective interdependence as shown in children's fantasy behavior. The systems of Piaget and Freud are the foundation of analysis. The study data consist of approximately one hundred verbatim recordings of the dramatic play of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (in groups or alone) collected by trained teachers in a…

  15. On the Implications of Curvilinear Trajectories for Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    The articles featured in this issue make apparent the variety of perceptual and cognitive competencies that follow curvilinear developmental courses as well as the complexities inherent in accounting for such phenomena. What is revealed is the way in which a fit is achieved between organisms and the environments they occupy. Curvilinear…

  16. Cognitive Awareness Prototype Development on User Interface Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosli, D'oria Islamiah

    2015-01-01

    Human error is a crucial problem in manufacturing industries. Due to the misinterpretation of information on interface system design, accidents or death may occur at workplace. Lack of human cognition criteria in interface system design is also one of the contributions to the failure in using the system effectively. Therefore, this paper describes…

  17. Development of Cognitive Structures about Alcoholic Beverages among Preschoolers: II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Robert B.; And Others

    Little is known about very young children's conception of alcoholic beverages and their uses. A study was conducted to determine whether preschool children's ability to correctly access a cognitive network about alcoholic beverages can be related to differences in family exposure to alcohol. Preschoolers (N=57) between the ages of 2.5 and 6 years…

  18. Avram Noam Chomsky and His Cognitive Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.; Nelson, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, cognitive scientist, logician, historian, political critic and activist. Chomsky is an Institute Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy at MIT where he has worked for over fifty years. Chomsky has been described as the father of modern linguistics and a major…

  19. Using EEG to Study Cognitive Development: Issues and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martha Ann; Cuevas, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Developmental research is enhanced by use of multiple methodologies for examining psychological processes. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for the study of developmental changes in brain-behavior relations. In this review, we highlight some of the challenges for using EEG in cognitive development…

  20. Bilingual Cognitive Development: Addressing Three Gaps in Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Rafael M.

    1985-01-01

    Results question the validity of Cummins's threshold hypothesis and suggest that degree of bilingualism is related to variability in cognitive measures only before a certain threshold of proficiency in the second language is attained. A cause-effect model in which degree of bilingualism appears as the causal factor affecting children's cognitive…

  1. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  2. Neonatal behavior and infant cognitive development in rhesus macaques produced by assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Gene; Ruppenthal, Gerald; Hewitson, Laura; Simerly, Calvin; Schatten, Gerald

    2006-04-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) used in fertility clinics include in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), followed by embryo transfer into the biological or a surrogate mother. Over 1,000,000 liveborn offspring--an estimated 1 in 150 United States newborns--have been produced worldwide by ART since 1978. IVF appears to produce healthy children in singleton pregnancies, though concerns remain regarding preterm deliveries, multiple pregnancies, as well as the longer-term consequences of all ART procedures. Clinical studies remain difficult to interpret and subject to confounding variables, as developmental problems may be due to a parent's reproductive conditions rather than, or in addition to, an ART procedure. Also, because of expense and time commitments, the United States ART clinical population is not fully representative of society diversities. This socio-economic skewing might compensate for negative effects, masking small, or modest developmental deficits. Embryo splitting (ES), an ART procedure used only with animals, can produce genetically identical offspring. ES involves dividing four- to eight-cell embryos into separate blastomeres and implanting them into empty zona pellucida, followed by embryo transfer. Although these ART techniques have produced nonhuman primate offspring, there has been no research on behavioral safety. Here, we report the first study of behavioral development by rhesus macaques infants produced through ES, ICSI, and IVF. We assessed neonatal reflexes, self-feeding ability, recognition memory, object concept attainment, simple discrimination learning and reversal, and learning set (LS) acquisition. Although the sample sizes are small, we found no overall ART group delayed development. Surprisingly, the ES and ICSI monkeys appeared to be accelerated in attaining age milestones involving sensory-motor behaviors and a difficult Well Hiding object concept task. We conclude that macaque monkeys

  3. Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. Subjects/Methods: We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. Results: We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ⩽4.1 × 10−5) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10−18), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. Conclusions: We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study. PMID:24398642

  4. Wealth gradients in early childhood cognitive development in five Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Schady, Norbert; Behrman, Jere; Araujo, Maria Caridad; Azuero, Rodrigo; Bernal, Raquel; Bravo, David; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Macours, Karen; Marshall, Daniela; Paxson, Christina; Vakis, Renos

    2014-01-01

    Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and non-cognitive ability appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, we use the same measure of receptive language ability for all five countries. We find important differences in development in early childhood across countries, and steep socioeconomic gradients within every country. For the three countries where we can follow children over time, there are few substantive changes in scores once children enter school. Our results are robust to different ways of defining socioeconomic status, to different ways of standardizing outcomes, and to selective non-response on our measure of cognitive development. PMID:25983344

  5. Meta-cognitive processes in executive control development: The case of reactive and proactive control

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Martis, Shaina Bailey; Curran, Tim; Munakata, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Young children engage cognitive control reactively in response to events, rather than proactively preparing for events. Such limitations in executive control have been explained in terms of fundamental constraints on children’s cognitive capacities. Alternatively, young children might be capable of proactive control but differ from older children in their meta-cognitive decisions regarding when to engage proactive control. We examined these possibilities in three conditions of a task-switching paradigm, varying in whether task cues were available before or after target onset. Reaction times, ERPs, and pupil dilation showed that 5-year-olds did engage in advance preparation, a critical aspect of proactive control, but only when reactive control was made more difficult, whereas 10-year-olds engaged proactive control whenever possible. These findings highlight meta-cognitive processes in children’s cognitive control, an understudied aspect of executive control development. PMID:25603026

  6. Genetic variation in offspring indirectly influences the quality of maternal behaviour in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ashbrook, David George; Gini, Beatrice; Hager, Reinmar

    2015-01-01

    Conflict over parental investment between parent and offspring is predicted to lead to selection on genes expressed in offspring for traits influencing maternal investment, and on parentally expressed genes affecting offspring behaviour. However, the specific genetic variants that indirectly modify maternal or offspring behaviour remain largely unknown. Using a cross-fostered population of mice, we map maternal behaviour in genetically uniform mothers as a function of genetic variation in offspring and identify loci on offspring chromosomes 5 and 7 that modify maternal behaviour. Conversely, we found that genetic variation among mothers influences offspring development, independent of offspring genotype. Offspring solicitation and maternal behaviour show signs of coadaptation as they are negatively correlated between mothers and their biological offspring, which may be linked to costs of increased solicitation on growth found in our study. Overall, our results show levels of parental provisioning and offspring solicitation are unique to specific genotypes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11814.001 PMID:26701914

  7. Maternal and developmental immune challenges alter behavior and learning ability of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Grindstaff, Jennifer L.; Hunsaker, Veronica R.; Cox, Shelby N.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of the offspring immune response during development is known to influence growth and behavioral phenotype. However, the potential for maternal antibodies to block the behavioral effects of immune activation during the neonatal period has not been assessed. We challenged female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) prior to egg laying and then challenged offspring during the nestling and juvenile periods with one of two antigens (keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). We then tested the effects of maternal and neonatal immune challenges on offspring growth rates and neophobia and learning ability of offspring during adulthood. Neonatal immune challenge depressed growth rates. Neophobia of adult offspring was influenced by a combination of maternal treatment, offspring treatment, and offspring sex. Males challenged with LPS during the nestling and juvenile periods had reduced learning performance in a novel foraging task; however, female learning was not impacted. Offspring challenged with the same antigen as mothers exhibited similar growth suppression and behavioral changes as offspring challenged with a novel antigen. Thus, developmental immune challenges have long-term effects on the growth and behavioral phenotype of offspring. We found limited evidence that matching of maternal and offspring challenges reduces the effects of immune challenge in the altricial zebra finch. This may be a result of rapid catabolism of maternal antibodies in altricial birds. Our results emphasize the need to address sex differences in the long-term effects of developmental immune challenge and suggest neonatal immune activation may be one proximate mechanism underlying differences in adult behavior. PMID:22522078

  8. Paternal care in a fish: epigenetics and fitness enhancing effects on offspring anxiety

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, Katie E.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    In many animals, including humans, interactions with caring parents can have long-lasting effects on offspring sensitivity to stressors. However, whether these parental effects impact offspring fitness in nature is often unclear. In addition, despite evidence that maternal care can influence offspring behaviour via epigenetic alterations to the genome, it remains unclear whether paternal care has similar effects. Here, we show in three-spined sticklebacks, a fish in which fathers are the sole provider of offspring care, that the direct care provided by fathers affects offspring anxiety and the potential for epigenetic alterations to the offspring genome. We find that families are differentially vulnerable to early stress and fathers can compensate for this differential sensitivity with the quality of their care. This variation in paternal care is also linked to the expression in offspring brains of a DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt3a) responsible for de novo methylation. We show that these paternal effects are potentially adaptive and anxious offspring are unlikely to survive an encounter with a predator. By supplying offspring care, fathers reduce offspring anxiety thereby increasing the survival of their offspring—not in the traditional sense through resource provisioning but through an epigenetic effect on offspring behavioural development. PMID:25232132

  9. The development of reading impairment: a cognitive neuroscience model.

    PubMed

    McCandliss, Bruce D; Noble, Kimberly G

    2003-01-01

    This review discusses recent cognitive neuroscience investigations into the biological bases of developmental dyslexia, a common disorder impacting approximately 5 to 17 percent of the population. Our aim is to summarize central findings from several lines of evidence that converge on pivotal aspects of the brain bases of developmental dyslexia. We highlight ways in which the approaches and methodologies of developmental cognitive neuroscience that are addressed in this special issue-including neuroimaging, human genetics, refinement of cognitive and biological phenotypes, neural plasticity and computational model-can be employed in uncovering the biological bases of this disorder. Taking a developmental perspective on the biological bases of dyslexia, we propose a simple cascading model for the developmental progression of this disorder, in which individual differences in brain areas associated with phonological processing might influence the specialization of visual areas involved in the rapid processing of written words. We also discuss recent efforts to understand the impact of successful reading interventions in terms of changes within cortical circuits associated with reading ability. PMID:12953299

  10. Motor and cognitive development: the role of karate

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianha; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Vella, Francesco Paolo; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: regular physical activity has an effect on biological responses in both muscles and organs that, in turn, alter the structure and functions of the brain. Therefore, this study aims at comparing motor (sprint, coordination ability and explosive legs strength skills) and cognitive abilities (working memory, attention, executive functioning) in children. Methods: 39 children with average chronological age of 9 years were divided in: Karatekas (n=19) and Sedentary (n=20) groups. Their abilities were measured by motor and cognitive tests. Motor skills were assessed through a battery composed by the 20 mt Sprint test, the Agility test and the Standing board jump Test. Cognitive profile was assessed by a battery of tests derived from BVN 5–11, “Batteria di Valutazione Neuropsicologica per l’Et à Evolutiva”: Visual discrimination test, Reaction time test, Forwards and Backwards Digit Span Tests, Corsi Block-Tapping test and Tower of London. Results: our results reveal significant differences between two groups (p < 0.05). Karate children show better speed times, explosive legs strength and coordination skills. They scored better on working memory, visual selective attention and executive functions. Conclusion: karate exercise training shows global benefits resulting in physiological and psychological gains in children. PMID:25332920

  11. A dose-response relationship between maternal smoking during late pregnancy and adult intelligence in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Sanders, Stephanie A; Reinisch, June Machover

    2005-01-01

    An association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and cognitive and behavioural development has been observed in several studies, but potential effects of maternal smoking on offspring adult intelligence have not been investigated. The objective of the present study was to investigate a potential association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring intelligence in young adulthood. Adult intelligence was assessed at the mean age of 18.7 years by a military draft board intelligence test (Borge Priens Prove) for 3044 singleton males from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort with information regarding maternal smoking during the third trimester coded into five categories (about 50% of the mothers were smokers). The following potential confounders were included as covariates in multivariable analyses: parental social status and education, single mother status, mother's height and age, number of pregnancies, and gestational age. In separate analyses, birthweight and length were also included as covariates. Maternal cigarette smoking during the third trimester, adjusted for the seven covariates, showed a negative association with offspring adult intelligence (P=0.0001). The mean difference between the no-smoking and the heaviest smoking category amounted to 0.41 standard deviation, corresponding to an IQ difference of 6.2 points [95% confidence interval 0.14, 0.68]. The association remained significant when further adjusted for birthweight and length (P=0.007). Both unadjusted and adjusted means suggested a dose-response relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring adult intelligence. When subjects with missing data were excluded, essentially the same results were obtained in the reduced sample (n=1829). These results suggest that smoking during pregnancy may have long-term negative consequences on offspring adult intelligence. PMID:15670102

  12. Developing embodied cognition: insights from children’s concepts and language processing

    PubMed Central

    Wellsby, Michele; Pexman, Penny M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, theories of embodied cognition have become increasingly influential with research demonstrating that sensorimotor experiences are involved in cognitive processing; however, this embodied research has primarily focused on adult cognition. The notion that sensorimotor experience is important for acquiring conceptual knowledge is not a novel concept for developmental researchers, and yet theories of embodied cognition often do not fully integrate developmental findings. We propose that in order for an embodied cognition perspective to be refined and advanced as a lifelong theory of cognition, it is important to consider what can be learned from research with children. In this paper, we focus on development of concepts and language processing, and examine the importance of children's embodied experiences for these aspects of cognition in particular. Following this review, we outline what we see as important developmental issues that need to be addressed in order to determine the extent to which language and conceptual knowledge are embodied and to refine theories of embodied cognition. PMID:24904513

  13. Development and Initial Validation of a Brief Self-Report Measure of Cognitive Dysfunction in Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Stephen; Goesling, Jenna; Williams, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Pain is often the focus of research and clinical care in fibromyalgia (FM); however, cognitive dysfunction is also a common, distressing, and disabling symptom in FM. Current efforts to address this problem are limited by lack of a comprehensive, valid measure of subjective cognitive dysfunction in FM that is easily interpretable, accessible, and brief. The purpose of this study was to leverage cognitive functioning item banks that were developed as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) to devise a 10-item short form measure of cognitive functioning for use in FM. In Study 1, a nationwide (US) sample of 1035 adults with FM (age range: 18–82, 95.2% female) completed two cognitive item pools. Factor analyses and item response theory (IRT) analyses were used to identify dimensionality and optimally-performing items. A recommended 10-item measure, called the Multidimensional Inventory of Subjective Cognitive Impairment (MISCI) was created. In Study 2, 232 adults with FM completed the MISCI as well as a legacy measure of cognitive functioning that is used in FM clinical trials, the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ). The MISCI showed excellent internal reliability, low ceiling/floor effects, and good convergent validity with the MASQ (r = −.82). Perspective This paper presents the Multidimensional Inventory of Subjective Cognitive Impairment (MISCI), a 10-item measure of cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia, developed through classical test theory and item response theory. This brief but comprehensive measure shows evidence of excellent construct validity through large correlations with a lengthy legacy measure of cognitive functioning. PMID:25746197

  14. Differences in the early cognitive development of children and great apes.

    PubMed

    Wobber, Victoria; Herrmann, Esther; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-04-01

    There is very little research comparing great ape and human cognition developmentally. In the current studies we compared a cross-sectional sample of 2- to 4-year-old human children (n=48) with a large sample of chimpanzees and bonobos in the same age range (n=42, hereafter: apes) on a broad array of cognitive tasks. We then followed a group of juvenile apes (n=44) longitudinally over 3 years to track their cognitive development in greater detail. In skills of physical cognition (space, causality, quantities), children and apes performed comparably at 2 years of age, but by 4 years of age children were more advanced (whereas apes stayed at their 2-year-old performance levels). In skills of social cognition (communication, social learning, theory of mind), children out-performed apes already at 2 years, and increased this difference even more by 4 years. Patterns of development differed more between children and apes in the social domain than the physical domain, with support for these patterns present in both the cross-sectional and longitudinal ape data sets. These results indicate key differences in the pattern and pace of cognitive development between humans and other apes, particularly in the early emergence of specific social cognitive capacities in humans. PMID:23765870

  15. Oxidative stress and altered lipid homeostasis in the programming of offspring fatty liver by maternal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Musial, Barbara; Fowden, Abigail; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the maternal nutritional environment during fetal development can influence offspring's metabolic risk in later life. Animal models have demonstrated that offspring of diet-induced obese dams develop metabolic complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms in young offspring that lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female offspring of C57BL/6J dams fed either a control or obesogenic diet were studied at 8 wk of age. We investigated the roles of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in contributing to fatty liver in offspring. There were no differences in body weight or adiposity at 8 wk of age; however, offspring of obese dams were hyperinsulinemic. Oxidative damage markers were significantly increased in their livers, with reduced levels of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1. Mitochondrial complex I and II activities were elevated, while levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c were significantly reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase was significantly increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Offspring of obese dams also had significantly greater hepatic lipid content, associated with increased levels of PPARγ and reduced triglyceride lipase. Liver glycogen and protein content were concomitantly reduced in offspring of obese dams. In conclusion, offspring of diet-induced obese dams have disrupted liver metabolism and develop NAFLD prior to any differences in body weight or body composition. Oxidative stress may play a mechanistic role in the progression of fatty liver in these offspring. PMID:24789994

  16. Oxidative stress and altered lipid homeostasis in the programming of offspring fatty liver by maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Alfaradhi, Maria Z; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Musial, Barbara; Fowden, Abigail; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the maternal nutritional environment during fetal development can influence offspring's metabolic risk in later life. Animal models have demonstrated that offspring of diet-induced obese dams develop metabolic complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms in young offspring that lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female offspring of C57BL/6J dams fed either a control or obesogenic diet were studied at 8 wk of age. We investigated the roles of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in contributing to fatty liver in offspring. There were no differences in body weight or adiposity at 8 wk of age; however, offspring of obese dams were hyperinsulinemic. Oxidative damage markers were significantly increased in their livers, with reduced levels of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1. Mitochondrial complex I and II activities were elevated, while levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c were significantly reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase was significantly increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Offspring of obese dams also had significantly greater hepatic lipid content, associated with increased levels of PPARγ and reduced triglyceride lipase. Liver glycogen and protein content were concomitantly reduced in offspring of obese dams. In conclusion, offspring of diet-induced obese dams have disrupted liver metabolism and develop NAFLD prior to any differences in body weight or body composition. Oxidative stress may play a mechanistic role in the progression of fatty liver in these offspring. PMID:24789994

  17. PIAGET REDISCOVERED--SELECTED PAPERS FROM A REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF COGNITIVE STUDIES AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT (MARCH 1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RIPPLE, RICHARD E.; ROCKCASTLE, VERNE N.

    SELECTED PAPERS FROM TWO 1964 CONFERENCES ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF COGNITIVE STUDIES AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT ARE INCLUDED IN THIS JOURNAL. SUBJECTS CONSIDERED ARE (1) DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING, (2) AMERICAN COGNITIVE STUDIES, (3) THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COGNITIVE STRUCTURE AND EXPERIENCE, (4) THE USE OF LEARNING RESEARCH IN CURRICULUM…

  18. The Integration of Cognition and Emotion during Infancy and Early Childhood: Regulatory Processes Associated with the Development of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2007-01-01

    This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 4 1/2-years of…

  19. The Architecture and Dynamics of Developing Mind: Experiential Structuralism as a Frame for Unifying Cognitive Developmental Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriou, Andreas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents a theory of cognitive development that postulates a general cognitive processing system, a hypercognitive system governing self-regulation, and specialized structural systems responsible for processing different reality domains. Suggests five principles that serve as organizational pivots of developing cognition. Reports the results of…

  20. Family Income and Child Cognitive and Noncognitive Development in Australia: Does Money Matter?

    PubMed

    Khanam, Rasheda; Nghiem, Son

    2016-06-01

    This article investigates whether family income affects children's cognitive and noncognitive development by exploiting comprehensive information from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. We include variables that represent parental investment, parental stress, and neighborhood characteristics to examine if these factors mediate the effects of income. Using dynamic panel data, we find that family income is significantly associated with children's cognitive skills but not with noncognitive skills. Mother's education, parent's physical and mental health, parenting styles, child's own health, and presence of both biological parents are the most important factors for children's noncognitive development. For cognitive development, income as well as parents' education, child's birth weight, and number of books that children have at home are highly significant factors. We also find strong evidence to support the skill formation theory that children's previous cognitive and noncognitive outcomes are significantly related to their current outcomes. PMID:27083194

  1. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    PubMed Central

    Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

  2. Gender Differences in the Association of Smoking and Drinking with the Development of Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Park, Jonghan; Jun, Jae Kwan; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina

    2013-01-01

    Modifiable lifestyle-related factors such as smoking and alcohol drinking are associated with cognitive impairment in the elderly population but the relationships have shown various results. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol drinking and smoking in the early 60 s with the risk of developing incident cognitive impairment. In 1999, we evaluated cognitive function, smoking, and drinking status in 3,174 inhabitants aged 60–64 years in a rural area of Korea, with a follow-up assessment of cognitive function 7 years later. A total of 1,810 individuals who did not show cognitive impairment at baseline were included. A stratified analysis was applied to evaluate how smoking and alcohol drinking affected the risk of developing cognitive impairment based on gender. Current smokers showed a higher risk for developing cognitive impairment than did never smokers (odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–2.15). The OR for female current smokers compared with never smokers was 1.62 (95% CI, 1.05–2.52), and smokers with higher pack-years were more likely to develop cognitive impairment than never smokers, showing a dose–response relationship (P for trend = 0.004). Frequent alcohol consumption increased the risk of developing cognitive impairment (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.01–2.78), and a dose–response relationship was observed among male subjects (P for trend = 0.044). Infrequent drinking in females decreased the odds of developing cognitive impairment (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42–1.00), whereas frequent drinking tended to increase the odds, although this trend was not significant, suggesting a U-shaped relationship. Although the sample was small for some analyses, especially in female, our data suggest that smoking and drinking in the early 60 s are associated with a risk of developing cognitive impairment, and this relationship is characterized by gender differences. PMID:24124468

  3. The Teacher's Guide to Diversity: Building a Knowledge Base. Volume I: Human Development, Culture, and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbull, Elise; Pacheco, Maria

    2005-01-01

    What are the reigning theories of human development and cognition? How are human development and culture related? How does identity development intersect with achievement motivation? What is intelligence? How can our knowledge of human development inform our work as educators working with an increasingly diverse student population? What is known…

  4. Reducing depressive intrusions via a computerized cognitive bias modification of appraisals task: developing a cognitive vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lang, Tamara J; Moulds, Michelle L; Holmes, Emily A

    2009-02-01

    A feature of depression is the distressing experience of intrusive, negative memories. The maladaptive appraisals of such intrusions have been associated with symptom persistence. This study aimed to experimentally manipulate appraisals about depressive intrusions via a novel computerized cognitive bias modification (CBM) of appraisals paradigm, and to test the impact on depressive intrusion frequency for a standardized event (a depressive film). Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to either a session of positive or negative CBM. Participants then watched a depressing film (including scenes of bereavement and bullying) and subsequently monitored the occurrence of depressive intrusions related to the film in a diary for one week. At one-week follow-up, participants completed additional measures of intrusions--the Impact of Event Scale (IES) and an intrusion provocation task. As predicted, compared to the negative condition, participants who underwent positive CBM showed a more positive appraisal bias. Further, one week later, positive CBM participants reported fewer intrusions of the film and had lower IES scores. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to manipulate maladaptive appraisals about depressive intrusions via a computerized CBM task. Further, this effect transfers to reducing intrusive symptomatology related to a standardized event (a depressive film) over one week, suggesting novel clinical implications. PMID:19091308

  5. Midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development: Setting the stage for late-life cognitive and emotional health.

    PubMed

    Malone, Johanna C; Liu, Sabrina R; Vaillant, George E; Rentz, Dorene M; Waldinger, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Erikson's (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one's relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses prospective longitudinal data to examine how the quality of assessed Eriksonian psychosocial development in midlife relates to late-life cognitive and emotional functioning. In particular we were interested to see whether late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and specific domains of cognitive functioning (i.e., executive functioning and memory). Participants were 159 men from the over-75 year longitudinal Study of Adult Development. The sample was comprised of men from both higher and lower socioeconomic strata. Eriksonian psychosocial development was coded from men's narrative responses to interviews between the ages of 30-47 (Vaillant & Milofsky, 1980). In late life (ages 75-85) men completed a performance-based neuropsychological assessment measuring global cognitive status, executive functioning, and memory. In addition depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Our results indicated that higher midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development was associated with stronger global cognitive functioning and executive functioning, and lower levels of depression 3 to 4 decades later. There was no significant association between Eriksonian development and late-life memory. Late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and both global cognition and executive functioning. All of these results controlled for highest level of education and adolescent intelligence. Findings have important implications for understanding the lasting benefits of psychosocial engagement in mid-adulthood for late-life cognitive and emotional health. In addition

  6. Maternal Overweight Programs Insulin and Adiponectin Signaling in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Kartik; Kang, Ping; Harrell, Amanda; Zhong, Ying; Marecki, John C.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Badger, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight and fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high-fat diets (45% fat). In this report, we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced programming at postnatal d 21 before challenge with the high-fat diet. We conducted global transcriptome profiling, gene/protein expression analyses, and characterization of downstream signaling of insulin and adiponectin pathways in conjunction with endocrine and biochemical characterization. Offspring born to OW dams displayed increased serum insulin, leptin, and resistin levels (P < 0.05) at postnatal d 21 preceding changes in body composition. A lipogenic transcriptome signature in the liver, before development of obesity, was evident in OW-dam offspring. A coordinated locus of 20 sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1-regulated target genes was induced by maternal OW. Increased nuclear levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and recruitment to the fatty acid synthase promoter were confirmed via ELISA and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, respectively. Higher fatty acid synthase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase protein and pAKT (Thr308) and phospho-insulin receptor-β were confirmed via immunoblotting. Maternal OW also attenuated AMP kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α signaling in the offspring liver, including transcriptional down-regulation of several peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-regulated genes. Hepatic mRNA and circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 levels were significantly lower in OW-dam offspring. Furthermore, serum levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin (P < 0.05) were decreased in OW-dam offspring. Phosphorylation of hepatic AMP-kinase (Thr172) was significantly decreased in OW-dam offspring, along with lower AdipoR1 mRNA. Our results strongly suggest that gestational exposure to maternal

  7. Maternal Exposure of Rats to Isoflurane during Late Pregnancy Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory in the Offspring by Up-Regulating the Expression of Histone Deacetylase 2.

    PubMed

    Luo, Foquan; Hu, Yan; Zhao, Weilu; Zuo, Zhiyi; Yu, Qi; Liu, Zhiyi; Lin, Jiamei; Feng, Yunlin; Li, Binda; Wu, Liuqin; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that most general anesthetics can harm developing neurons and induce cognitive dysfunction in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Our previous results showed that maternal exposure to general anesthetics during late pregnancy impaired the offspring's learning and memory, but the role of HDAC2 in it is not known yet. In the present study, pregnant rats were exposed to 1.5% isoflurane in 100% oxygen for 2, 4 or 8 hours or to 100% oxygen only for 8 hours on gestation day 18 (E18). The offspring born to each rat were randomly subdivided into 2 subgroups. Thirty days after birth, the Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess learning and memory in the offspring. Two hours before each MWM trial, an HDAC inhibitor (SAHA) was given to the offspring in one subgroup, whereas a control solvent was given to those in the other subgroup. The results showed that maternal exposure to isoflurane impaired learning and memory of the offspring, impaired the structure of the hippocampus, increased HDAC2 mRNA and downregulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) mRNA, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2 subunit B (NR2B) mRNA and NR2B protein in the hippocampus. These changes were proportional to the duration of the maternal exposure to isoflurane and were reversed by SAHA. These results suggest that exposure to isoflurane during late pregnancy can damage the learning and memory of the offspring rats via the HDAC2-CREB -NR2B pathway. This effect can be reversed by HDAC2 inhibition. PMID:27536989

  8. Cognition, emotion, and neurobiological development: mediating the relation between maltreatment and aggression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivien; Hoaken, Peter N S

    2007-08-01

    Child maltreatment has been consistently linked to aggression, yet there have been few attempts to conceptualize precisely how maltreatment influences the development of aggression. This review proposes that biases in cognitive, emotional, and neurobiological development mediate the relation between childhood maltreatment and the development of aggression. In addition, it is posited that physical abuse and neglect may have differential effects on development: Physical abuse may result in hypervigilance to threat and a hostile attributional bias, whereas neglect may result in difficulties with emotion regulation because of a lack of emotional interactions. These processes may be "hardwired" into neural networks via the overactivation of certain brain regions and dysfunctional cognitive processes. The theoretical and necessarily speculative nature of this article is intended to stimulate hypotheses for future research. Only when the adverse effects of maltreatment on brain and cognitive development are understood can scholars hope to develop more effective interventions to alter the developmental pathway to aggression. PMID:17631627

  9. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M; Rudolph, Marc D; Demeter, Damion V; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Fair, Damien A

    2016-04-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health. PMID:26499255

  10. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Methods Articles were included if: a) they were observational studies published in English; b) the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c) cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d) the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e) exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline) (January, 1990-March, 2014). We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form. Results Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes. Conclusion Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development. PMID:25996151

  11. Unique DNA Methylation Patterns in Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Julian, Colleen G; Pedersen, Brent S; Salmon, Carlos Salinas; Yang, Ivana V; Gonzales, Marcelino; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G; Schwartz, David A

    2015-12-01

    Epigenomic processes are believed to play a pivotal role for the effect of environmental exposures in early life to modify disease risk throughout the lifespan. Offspring of women with hypertensive complications of pregnancy (HTNPREG ) have an increased risk of developing systemic and pulmonary vascular dysfunction in adulthood. In this preliminary report, we sought to determine whether epigenetic modifications of genes involved in the regulation of vascular function were present in HTNPREG offspring. We contrasted DNA methylation and gene expression patterns of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from young male offspring of HTNPREG (n = 5) to those of normotensive controls (n = 19). In HTNPREG offspring we identified six differentially methylated regions (DMRs) including three genes (SMOC2, ARID1B and CTRHC1) relevant to vascular function. The transcriptional activity of ARID1B and CTRCH1 was inversely related to methylation status. HTNPREG offspring had higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPPA ) versus controls. Our findings demonstrate that epigenetic marks are altered in offspring of HTNPREG with a modest elevation of sPPA and introduce novel epigenomic targets for further study. On the basis of these findings we speculate that epigenomic mechanisms may be involved in mediating the effect of HTNPREG to raise the risk of vascular disease later in life. PMID:26546417

  12. The schooling of offspring and the survival of parents.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Esther M; Mare, Robert D

    2014-08-01

    Contemporary stratification research on developed societies usually views the intergenerational transmission of educational advantage as a one-way effect from parent to child. However, parents' investment in their offspring's schooling may yield significant returns for parents themselves in later life. For instance, well-educated offspring have greater knowledge of health and technology to share with their parents and more financial means to provide for them than do their less-educated counterparts. We use data from the 1992-2006 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine whether adult offspring's educational attainments are associated with parents' survival in the United States. We show that adult offspring's educational attainments have independent effects on their parents' mortality, even after controlling for parents' own socioeconomic resources. This relationship is more pronounced for deaths that are linked to behavioral factors: most notably, chronic lower respiratory disease and lung cancer. Furthermore, at least part of the association between offspring's schooling and parents' survival may be explained by parents' health behaviors, including smoking and physical activity. These findings suggest that one way to influence the health of the elderly is through their offspring. To harness the full value of schooling for health, then, a family and multigenerational perspective is needed. PMID:24917296

  13. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age. PMID:25929653

  14. Effect of Breastfeeding Duration on Cognitive Development in Infants: 3-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in infants during their first 3 years. The present study was a part of the Mothers’ and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, which was a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. A total of 697 infants were tested at age 12, 24, and 36 months using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II). The use and duration of breastfeeding and formula feeding were measured. The relationship between breastfeeding and the mental development index (MDI) score was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicated a positive correlation between breastfeeding duration and MDI score. After adjusting for covariates, infants who were breastfed for ≥ 9 months had significantly better cognitive development than those who had not been breastfed. These results suggest that the longer duration of breastfeeding improves cognitive development in infants. PMID:27051242

  15. Effect of Breastfeeding Duration on Cognitive Development in Infants: 3-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungmin; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Kim, Yangho

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in infants during their first 3 years. The present study was a part of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, which was a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. A total of 697 infants were tested at age 12, 24, and 36 months using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II). The use and duration of breastfeeding and formula feeding were measured. The relationship between breastfeeding and the mental development index (MDI) score was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicated a positive correlation between breastfeeding duration and MDI score. After adjusting for covariates, infants who were breastfed for ≥ 9 months had significantly better cognitive development than those who had not been breastfed. These results suggest that the longer duration of breastfeeding improves cognitive development in infants. PMID:27051242

  16. Postinstitutionalized Children's Development: Growth, Cognitive, and Language Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Loman, Michelle M.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Frenn, Kristin A.; Pollak, Seth D.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Children adopted internationally from institutions are a growing population presenting to professional care providers. Although postinstitutionalized (PI) children are adopted from multiple world regions, current knowledge is predominantly based on those adopted from Romania and Eastern European countries. This study examines and compares developmental outcomes of PI children adopted from multiple world regions. Method Five to 11 years after adoption, 8- through 11-year-old PI children (N = 91), children internationally adopted early from foster care (N = 109), and nonadopted children (N = 69) completed screening measures assessing vision, hearing, growth, and cognitive and language abilities. Parents completed questionnaires on service utilization, school performance, preadoptive history, and postadoption environment. Results Forty-four percent of PI children's growth was stunted (height <10th percentile) at adoption. At assessment, although physically smaller, nearly all PI children had average growth parameters. Relative to nonadopted children and children adopted early from foster care, PI children performed more poorly on cognitive and language screens with increased time in institution related to lower performance. Notably, group means on these measures were within the average range. PI children were more likely to be falling behind academically and to use intervention services. Family environment did not differ between PI and nonadopted children. There were few differences for PI children by world region of adoption once accounting for duration of institutionalization. Conclusions Despite currently living in similar environments, PI children have specific needs that differ from early-adopted and nonadopted children. Consideration of multiple factors, including length of institutionalization, is essential when providing care for these children. PMID:19692931

  17. Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Developments: Implications for Clinical Assessment in Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccia, Angela Hein; Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of significant physical, social, and emotional developments, accompanied by changes in cognitive and language skills. Underlying these are significant developments in brain structures and functions including changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter tracts. Among the brain regions that develop during…

  18. Cognitive Training for Schizophrenia in Developing Countries: A Pilot Trial in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Livia M. M.; Martins, Camila B.; Napolitano, Isabel C.; Fonseca, Juliana R.; Oliveira, Graça M. R.; Iso, Sandra M. K.; Menezes, Anny K. P. M.; Vizzotto, Adriana D. B.; di Sarno, Elaine S.; Elkis, Hélio

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia can massively impact functionality and quality of life, furthering the importance of cognitive training. Despite the development of the field in Europe and in the United States, no programmes have been developed and tested in developing countries. Different cultural backgrounds, budget restrictions, and other difficulties may render treatment packages created in high income countries difficult for adoption by developing nations. We performed a pilot double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in order to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of an attention and memory training programme specially created in a developing nation. The intervention used simple, widely available materials, required minimal infrastructure, and was conducted in groups. The sample included seventeen stable Brazilians with schizophrenia. Sessions were conducted weekly during five months. The cognitive training group showed significant improvements in inhibitory control and set-shifting over time. Both groups showed improvements in symptoms, processing speed, selective attention, executive function, and long-term visual memory. Improvements were found in the control group in long-term verbal memory and concentration. Our findings reinforce the idea that cognitive training in schizophrenia can be constructed using simple resources and infrastructure, facilitating its adoption by developing countries, and it may improve cognition. PMID:24288608

  19. Brain and cognitive-behavioural development after asphyxia at term birth.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Michelle; Wyatt, John S; Roth, Simon; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Gadian, David; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-07-01

    Perinatal asphyxia occurs in approximately 1-6 per 1000 live full-term births. Different patterns of brain damage can result, though the relation of these patterns to long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome remains under investigation. The hippocampus is one brain region that can be damaged (typically not in isolation), and this site of damage has been implicated in two different long-term outcomes, cognitive memory impairment and the psychiatric disorder schizophrenia. Factors in addition to the acute episode of asphyxia likely contribute to these specific outcomes, making prediction difficult. Future studies that better document long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome, quantitatively identify patterns of brain injury over development and consider additional variables that may modulate the impact of asphyxia on cognitive and behavioural function will forward the goals of predicting long-term outcome and understanding the mechanisms by which it unfolds. PMID:16764608

  20. Therapeutic development paths for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: report of a regulatory roundtable.

    PubMed

    Eberling, Jamie; Vincent, Lona; Goldman, Jennifer G; Weintraub, Daniel; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Marras, Connie; Stebbins, Glenn; Kieburtz, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common occurrence in Parkinson's disease (PD), although the severity and specific presentation varies across patients. Initial deficits, including mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), may remain stable or in many cases, may progress over variable lengths of time to Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). As there are currently no marketed treatments for milder forms of cognitive impairment, an opportunity exists to define the path for therapeutic development in this area. In the absence of a well-defined path for the approval of therapies that target PD-MCI, pharmaceutical companies are unlikely to pursue this indication. In order to move forward and improve the quality of life for PD patients, it is imperative for the field to have consensus on the definition of PD-MCI, the best instruments to measure cognitive decline, and a strategy for future clinical trials. PMID:24989876

  1. Maternal depression during pregnancy and offspring depression in adulthood: role of child maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Dominic T.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Sharp, Deborah; Pawlby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that maternal depression during pregnancy predicts offspring depression in adolescence. Child maltreatment is also a risk factor for depression. Aims To investigate (a) whether there is an association between offspring exposure to maternal depression in pregnancy and depression in early adulthood, and (b) whether offspring child maltreatment mediates this association. Method Prospectively collected data on maternal clinical depression in pregnancy, offspring child maltreatment and offspring adulthood (18–25 years) DSM-IV depression were analysed in 103 mother–offspring dyads of the South London Child Development Study. Results Adult offspring exposed to maternal depression in pregnancy were 3.4 times more likely to have a DSM-IV depressive disorder, and 2.4 times more likely to have experienced child maltreatment, compared with non-exposed offspring. Path analysis revealed that offspring experience of child maltreatment mediated the association between exposure to maternal depression in pregnancy and depression in adulthood. Conclusions Maternal depression in pregnancy is a key vulnerability factor for offspring depression in early adulthood. PMID:26045352

  2. The Influence of Emotion on Cognitive Control: Relevance for Development and Adolescent Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sven C.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the neural mechanisms underlying emotion processing on the one hand, and cognitive control and executive function on the other hand. More recently, studies have begun to directly examine how concurrent emotion processing influences cognitive control performance but many questions remain currently unresolved. Interestingly, parallel to investigations in healthy adults, research in developmental cognitive neuroscience and developmental affective disorders has provided some intriguing findings that complement the adult literature. This review provides an overview of current research on cognitive control and emotion interactions. It integrates parallel lines of research in adulthood and development and will draw on several lines of evidence ranging from behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging work in healthy adults and extend these to work in pediatric development and patients with affective disorders. Particular emphasis is given to studies that provide information on the neurobiological underpinnings of emotional and cognitive control processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The findings are then summarized and discussed in relation to neurochemical processes and the dopamine hypothesis of prefrontal cortical function. Finally, open areas of research for future study are identified and discussed within the context of cognitive control emotion interactions. PMID:22275904

  3. Neural correlates of cognitive intervention in persons at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Kramer, Joel H.; Kesler, Shelli R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive training is an emergent approach that has begun to receive increased attention in recent years as a non-pharmacological, cost-effective intervention for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). There has been increasing behavioral evidence regarding training-related improvement in cognitive performance in early stages of AD. Although these studies provide important insight about the efficacy of cognitive training, neuroimaging studies are crucial to pinpoint changes in brain structure and function associated with training and to examine their overlap with pathology in AD. In this study, we reviewed the existing neuroimaging studies on cognitive training in persons at risk of developing AD to provide an overview of the overlap between neural networks rehabilitated by the current training methods and those affected in AD. The data suggest a consistent training-related increase in brain activity in medial temporal, prefrontal, and posterior default mode networks, as well as increase in gray matter structure in frontoparietal and entorhinal regions. This pattern differs from the observed pattern in healthy older adults that shows a combination of increased and decreased activity in response to training. Detailed investigation of the data suggests that training in persons at risk of developing AD mainly improves compensatory mechanisms and partly restores the affected functions. While current neuroimaging studies are quite helpful in identifying the mechanisms underlying cognitive training, the data calls for future multi-modal neuroimaging studies with focus on multi-domain cognitive training, network level connectivity, and individual differences in response to training. PMID:25206335

  4. Using the MATRICS to guide development of a preclinical cognitive test battery for research in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    YOUNG, Jared W; POWELL, Susan; RISBROUGH, Victoria; MARSTON, Hugh M; GEYER, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are among the core symptoms of the disease, correlate with functional outcome, and are not well treated with current antipsychotic therapies. In order to bring together academic, industrial, and governmental bodies to address this great ‘unmet therapeutic need’, the NIMH sponsored the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative. Through careful factor analysis and consensus of expert opinion, MATRICS identified seven domains of cognition that are deficient in schizophrenia (attention/vigilance, working memory, reasoning and problem solving, processing speed, visual learning and memory, verbal learning and memory, and social cognition) and recommended a specific neuropsychological test battery to probe these domains. In order to move the field forward and outline an approach for translational research, there is a need for a “preclinical MATRICS” to develop a rodent test battery that is appropriate for drug development. In this review, we outline such an approach and review current rodent tasks that target these seven domains of cognition. The rodent tasks are discussed in terms of their validity for probing each cognitive domain as well as a brief overview of the pharmacology and manipulations relevant to schizophrenia for each task. PMID:19269307

  5. The Cognitive Development of Young Dual Language Learners: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Barac, Raluca; Bialystok, Ellen; Castro, Dina C.; Sanchez, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Dual language exposure and bilingualism are relatively common experiences for children. The present review set out to synthesize the existing research on cognitive development in bilingual children and to identify the gaps and the methodological concerns present in the existing research. A search of major data bases for research conducted with typically-developing, preschool-age dual language learners between 2000-2013 yielded 102 peer-reviewed articles. The existing evidence points to areas of cognitive development in bilingual children where findings are robust or inconclusive, and reveals variables that influence performance. The present review also identifies areas for future research and methodological limitations. PMID:25284958

  6. Developing treatments for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: the challenge of translation.

    PubMed

    Young, J W; Geyer, M A

    2015-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a life-long debilitating mental disorder affecting tens of millions of people worldwide. The serendipitous discovery of antipsychotics focused pharmaceutical research on developing a better antipsychotic. Our understanding of the disorder has advanced however, with the knowledge that cognitive enhancers are required for patients in order to improve their everyday lives. While antipsychotics treat psychosis, they do not enhance cognition and hence are not antischizophrenics. Developing pro-cognitive therapeutics has been extremely difficult, however, especially when no approved treatment exists. In lieu of stumbling on an efficacious treatment, developing targeted compounds can be facilitated by understanding the neural mechanisms underlying altered cognitive functioning in patients. Equally importantly, these cognitive domains will need to be measured similarly in animals and humans so that novel targets can be tested prior to conducting expensive clinical trials. To date, the limited similarity of testing across species has resulted in a translational bottleneck. In this review, we emphasize that schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by abnormal cognitive behavior. Quantifying these abnormalities using tasks having cross-species validity would enable the quantification of comparable processes in rodents. This approach would increase the likelihood that the neural substrates underlying relevant behaviors will be conserved across species. Hence, we detail cross-species tasks which can be used to test the effects of manipulations relevant to schizophrenia and putative therapeutics. Such tasks offer the hope of providing a bridge between non-clinical and clinical testing that will eventually lead to treatments developed specifically for patients with deficient cognition. PMID:25516372

  7. Developing treatments for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: The challenge of translation

    PubMed Central

    Young, J.W.; Geyer, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a life-long debilitating mental disorder affecting tens of millions of people worldwide. The serendipitous discovery of antipsychotics focused pharmaceutical research on developing a better antipsychotic. Our understanding of the disorder has advanced however, with the knowledge that cognitive enhancers are required for patients in order to improve their everyday lives. Whilst antipsychotics treat psychosis, they do not enhance cognition and hence are not antischizophrenics. Developing pro-cognitive therapeutics has been extremely difficult however, especially when no approved treatment exists. In lieu of stumbling on an efficacious treatment, developing targeted compounds can be facilitated by understanding the neural mechanisms underlying altered cognitive functioning in patients. Equally importantly, these cognitive domains will need to be measured similarly in animals and humans so that novel targets can be tested prior to conducting expensive clinical trials. To date, the limited similarity of testing across species has resulted in a translational bottleneck. In this review, we emphasize that schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by abnormal cognitive behavior. Quantifying these abnormalities using tasks having cross-species validity would enable the quantification of comparable processes in rodents. This approach would increase the likelihood that the neural substrates underlying relevant behaviors will be conserved across species. Hence, we detail cross-species tasks which can be used to test the effects of manipulations relevant to schizophrenia and putative therapeutics. Such tasks offer the hope of providing a bridge between non-clinical and clinical testing that will eventually lead to treatments developed specifically for patients with deficient cognition. PMID:25516372

  8. Reciprocal influences between maternal language and children's language and cognitive development in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S

    2014-03-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language. Child cognitive development was assessed at both ages and child receptive vocabulary was assessed at age 3;0. Maternal language related to children's lexical diversity at each age, and maternal language at age 2;0, was associated with children's receptive vocabulary and cognitive development at age 3;0. Furthermore, children's cognitive development at age 2;0 was associated with maternal language at age 3;0 controlling for maternal language at age 2;0, suggesting bi-directionality in mother-child associations. The quantity and diversity of the language children hear at home has developmental implications for children from low-income households. In addition, children's early cognitive skills further feed into their subsequent language experiences. PMID:23360640

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Development in Children Following Maternal Postpartum Depression: A Review Article.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Hamid; Moosavipoor, Seyed Ahmad; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan, Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Sara; Bidaki, Reza; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria

    2015-12-01

    Mothers' constitute is a very important part of infants' social environment and mediate their experience with the surrounding world. Postpartum depression, which is considered one of the most common and important psychiatric disorders, affects 10-15% of mothers, its causes are different. By investigating various sources, some effects of this disorder have been observed on the cognitive development of children, particularly among boys, such as language, intelligence quotient (IQ), and behavioral problems. Thus, it is imperative to study the effects of postpartum depression on children's growth and development and to identify methods of reducing these effects. This review indicates that postpartum depression in mothers reduces children's cognitive performance. The adverse effects of postpartum depression on children's development seem to be mediated by the mother's interpersonal behavior and the infant gender. The review of previous studies shows that postpartum depression reduces children's cognitive performance by impairing maternal mental and behavioral care. PMID:26816593

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Development in Children Following Maternal Postpartum Depression: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosseini, Hamid; Moosavipoor, Seyed Ahmad; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan, Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Sara; Bidaki, Reza; Yazdian-anari, Pouria

    2015-01-01

    Mothers’ constitute is a very important part of infants’ social environment and mediate their experience with the surrounding world. Postpartum depression, which is considered one of the most common and important psychiatric disorders, affects 10–15% of mothers, its causes are different. By investigating various sources, some effects of this disorder have been observed on the cognitive development of children, particularly among boys, such as language, intelligence quotient (IQ), and behavioral problems. Thus, it is imperative to study the effects of postpartum depression on children’s growth and development and to identify methods of reducing these effects. This review indicates that postpartum depression in mothers reduces children’s cognitive performance. The adverse effects of postpartum depression on children’s development seem to be mediated by the mother’s interpersonal behavior and the infant gender. The review of previous studies shows that postpartum depression reduces children’s cognitive performance by impairing maternal mental and behavioral care. PMID:26816593

  11. [The effect of life change events on cognitive and socio-emotional development in early childhood].

    PubMed

    Ihle, W; Löffler, W; Esser, G; Laucht, M; Schmidt, M H

    1992-06-01

    The present study investigates the role of life events of differing durations in the cognitive and social-emotional development of infants. A total of 354 children were examined at the ages of 3 and 24 months and the children's parents were interviewed about the occurrence of live events in this interval. The total number of life events was a significant predictor of changes in the level of cognitive and social-emotional functioning. Changes in the caregiver and marital discord were the best predictors of a child's social-emotional development, and serious illness in the child and changes in the caregiver were the best predictors of a child's cognitive development. PMID:1509822

  12. Identity Development of Literacy Teachers of Adolescents with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Carly A.

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the theory of identity development and figured worlds to investigate how historical and current education context, preservice and inservice teacher preparation, and school and classroom context influence the development of the literacy teaching identity of teachers of adolescents with significant cognitive disabilities. A…

  13. The Relationship Between the Cognitive, Conceptual, Emotional, and Perceptual-Motor Development in Disadvantaged Kindergarteners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Sheila; Strum, Irene

    The study was undertaken to determine the possibility of a relationship between the selected traits of cognitive ability, conceptual development, emotional maturity, and perceptual-motor development in disadvantaged kindergarten children, since the knowledge of the relationship between traits might make it possible to strengthen a child's…

  14. Reconstructing Latino Identity: The Influence of Cognitive Development on the Ethnic Identity Process of Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vasti; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of cognitive development on ethnic identity development is investigated in the context of a qualitative longitudinal study of Latina/o college students. Findings indicate that when students reconstruct social knowledge their ethnic identity is positively influenced. Strategies and mechanisms for positively influencing identity…

  15. Implications of Piagetian Theory for Early Childhood Industrial Arts: Cognitive Development. ACESIA Monograph 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Richard J.

    The two purposes of this paper are to provide the uninitiated reader with a skeletal overview of Piaget's cognitive development theory and to identify general educational implications, especially for the development of early childhood industrial arts (ECIA) programs. The "Piaget Primer" for ECIA educators overviews such topics as (1) the four…

  16. Breastfeeding and Trajectories of Children's Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jin; Peters, Kristen E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Witko, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of breastfeeding practices with the growth trajectories of children's cognitive development. We used data from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) with variables on presence and duration of breastfeeding and standardized test scores obtained…

  17. Does One Size Fit All?: The Challenge of Social Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Rick; Wang, Vivian Ota; Kelly, Janice M.; Hritsuk, Beth

    2003-01-01

    Examined how selected aspects of participants' histories and future plans influence their social cognitive development in a service learning class. Found that individual circumstances and group norms affect development more profoundly than the elements of program design that have traditionally received the most attention. (EV)

  18. Mother's Age at Arrival in the United States and Early Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Jennifer E.; Bates, Littisha; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the cognitive development of young children from diverse backgrounds with a particular focus on ethnic and nativity differences in home environments. Hypotheses are developed addressing the extent to which home environment and parenting practices mediate the relationship between mother's age at arrival and cognitive…

  19. Total Environment Assessment of Stressors Associated with Cognitive Development - A Meta Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cognitive development (COGDEV) is marked by a number of critical periods during early childhood in which brain development is influenced by myriad chemical and non-chemical stressors from the built, natural, and social environments. Inherent factors and behaviors can also directl...

  20. What Affect Student Cognitive Style in the Development of Hypermedia Learning System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Catherine Hui Min; Cheng, Yuk Wing; Rai, Shri; Depickere, Arnold

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in learning technology such as hypermedia is becoming widespread and offer significant contribution to improve the delivery of learning and teaching materials. A key factor in the development of hypermedia learning system is cognitive style (CS) as it relates to users' information processing habits, representing individual…

  1. Cognitive Development among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relationship between early cognitive development, socioeconomic status (SES), child health, and parenting quality in a developing country. We use a sample of more than 3,000 predominantly poor preschool-aged children from Ecuador, and analyze determinants of their scores on a widely used test of language ability. We find that…

  2. The Development of an Emotional Response to Writing Measure: The Affective Cognition Writing Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.; Jain, Sachin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and initiate the validation of the Affective Cognition Writing Survey (ACWS), a psychological instrument used to measure emotional expression through writing. Procedures for development and validation of the instrument are reported. Subsequently, factor analysis extracted six factors: Positive Processing,…

  3. The Integration of Cognitive and Sociocultural Theories of Literacy Development: Why? How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive and sociocultural theories of literacy development are historically considered incommensurable in practice and in research. Cognitivists view literacy development as a succession of qualitatively varied skills whereas socioculturalists view literacy as socially and culturally embedded. Traditional educational discourses tend to reflect…

  4. Safety Need Resolution and Cognitive Ability as Interwoven Antecedents to Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Logan L.

    1981-01-01

    Studied moral development as a nonadditive, interactive function of both recognized cognitive abilities and interpersonal security. Data showed preservice teachers (N=139) had a mean moral development score at about the national norm. Suggests constraints placed on moral thought by one's prepotent conative level should be considered in curricular…

  5. Where Cognitive Development and Aging Meet: Face Learning Ability Peaks after Age 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germine, Laura T.; Duchaine, Bradley; Nakayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Research on age-related cognitive change traditionally focuses on either development or aging, where development ends with adulthood and aging begins around 55 years. This approach ignores age-related changes during the 35 years in-between, implying that this period is uninformative. Here we investigated face recognition as an ability that may…

  6. First-Graders' Cognitive and Strategic Development in Reading Recovery Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Ramsbotham, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The main purposes of the study were to investigate: (a) the development of two at-risk students' selected cognitions and strategies as they initially appeared in Reading Recovery reading and writing; and (b) whether such development was simultaneously evident in Reading Recovery reading and writing. The study employed case methodology. Main…

  7. Infant Tests as Predictors of Cognitive and Language Development at Two Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Assesses ability of infant tests to predict language and cognitive development and to detect infants at risk for developmental problems. The Bayley Mental Development Index was particularly capable of detecting infants at risk for developmental delay. The Caldwell Inventory of Home Stimulation identified home environment as a key factor in…

  8. Cognitive Development of Children in an Additive-Bilingual Program: The Third Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, Kathryn W.; Mizokawa, Donald T.

    The enhanced metalinguistic abilities demonstrated by additive-bilingual children, including superior control of cognitive processing, may promote the development of symbolic reasoning. Children educated in additive-bilingual (immersion) settings may maintain normal native-language development, while acquiring a second language. This study…

  9. The Past, Present, and Future of Computational Models of Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Matthew; McMurray, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Does modeling matter? We address this question by providing a broad survey of the computational models of cognitive development that have been proposed and studied over the last three decades. We begin by noting the advantages and limitations of computational models. We then describe four key dimensions across which models of development can be…

  10. Development of the Adolescent Brain: Implications for Executive Function and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Choudhury, Suparna

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of considerable development at the level of behaviour, cognition and the brain. This article reviews histological and brain imaging studies that have demonstrated specific changes in neural architecture during puberty and adolescence, outlining trajectories of grey and white matter development. The implications of brain…

  11. Elevated cortisol in healthy female adolescent offspring of mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keke; Ruggero, Camilo J; Goldstein, Brandon; Klein, Daniel N; Perlman, Greg; Broderick, Joan; Kotov, Roman

    2016-05-01

    Offspring with maternal PTSD are at increased risk of developing PTSD themselves. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play a role and have been noted in offspring, although evidence is mostly from adult offspring with PTSD symptoms themselves. The present study of adolescent girls (N=472) and their mothers (n=18 with lifetime PTSD versus n=454 with no PTSD) sought to determine whether healthy, non-affected offspring of mothers with PTSD would exhibit altered HPA axis function. Saliva samples were collected from the adolescent girls at waking, 30min after waking, and 8 pm on 3 consecutive days. Offspring whose mothers were diagnosed with PTSD demonstrated higher cortisol awakening response (CAR; Cohen's d=0.58) and greater total cortisol output (Cohen's d=0.62). In this preliminary study, higher cortisol levels during adolescence among offspring of mothers with PTSD may index a vulnerability in these at-risk youth. PMID:27088877

  12. Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children’s Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035

  13. Impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognition, motor skills and hippocampal neurogenesis in developing C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Carola I F; Zerbi, Valerio; Mutsaers, Martina P C; de Jong, Bas S W; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Geenen, Bram; Heerschap, Arend; Muskiet, Frits A J; Jouni, Zeina E; van Tol, Eric A F; Gross, Gabriele; Homberg, Judith R; Berg, Brian M; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is critical during perinatal development of the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 PUFA in the brain and influences neuronal membrane function and neuroprotection. The present study aims to assess the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA availability during the gestational and postnatal period on cognition, brain metabolism and neurohistology in C57BL/6J mice. Female wild-type C57BL/6J mice at day 0 of gestation were randomly assigned to either an n-3 PUFA deficient diet (0.05% of total fatty acids) or an n-3 PUFA adequate diet (3.83% of total fatty acids) containing preformed DHA and its precursor α-linolenic acid. Male offspring remained on diet and performed cognitive tests during puberty and adulthood. In adulthood, animals underwent (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess brain energy metabolites. Thereafter, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed assessing inflammation, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Compared to the n-3 PUFA deficient group, pubertal n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice demonstrated increased motor coordination. Adult n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice exhibited increased exploratory behavior, sensorimotor integration and spatial memory, while neurogenesis in the hippocampus was decreased. Selected brain regions of n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice contained significantly lower levels of arachidonic acid and higher levels of DHA and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. Our data suggest that dietary n-3 PUFA can modify neural maturation and enhance brain functioning in healthy C57BL/6J mice. This indicates that availability of n-3 PUFA in infant diet during early development may have a significant impact on brain development. PMID:25444517

  14. How Does Neuroscience Inform the Study of Cognitive Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles A.; Moulson, Margaret C.; Richmond, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    The fields of developmental psychology and developmental neuroscience have existed independently of one another for many years. This is unfortunate, as knowledge of how the brain develops can inform the study of behavioral development. In this paper, we provide two examples of how knowledge about brain development has improved our understanding of…

  15. Introduction: digital games as a context for cognitive development, learning, and developmental research.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Fran C; Fisch, Shalom M

    2013-01-01

    The authors present reasons why developmental psychologists should care about children's and adolescents' digital game play. These reasons may be identified as: a) digital game play is an integral aspect of children's and adolescents' lives; b) digital game play contributes to learning and cognitive development; and c) developmental research has the potential to contribute to effective educational game design. The authors expand on these reasons with the goal of introducing or reintroducing to developmental psychologists a rich and very relevant context in which to examine children's and adolescents' applied cognitive development. PMID:23483688

  16. Caught in the struggle with food craving: Development and validation of a new cognitive fusion measure.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Ferreira, Cláudia; Silva, Bárbara

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive fusion has been related to the development and maintenance of a series of mental health difficulties. Specifically, growing research on eating psychopathology has been demonstrating the important role of cognitive fusion related to body image in these disorders. Nonetheless, cognitive fusion specifically focused on eating remained to be investigated. The current study aimed at developing and validating the Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire-Food Craving, a measure assessing the extent to which an individual is fused with food-craving undesirable and disturbing thoughts and urges. This study was conducted with distinct samples comprising men and women from the student and general population. A principal component analysis was conducted to assess the scale's structure, which was further examined in a confirmatory factor analysis. The scale's reliability and validities were also analysed. Results indicated that the CFQ-FC presented a one-dimensional structure with 7 items, accounting for 66.14% of the variance. A CFA confirmed the plausibility of the measurement model, which was found to be invariant in both sexes. The CFQ-FC also revealed very good internal consistency, construct reliability, temporal stability, and convergent and divergent validity, being positively associated with similar constructs and with indicators of eating and general psychopathology. CFQ-FC also discriminated individuals with clinically significant symptoms of binge eating from participants with no symptoms. Finally, the CFQ-FC presents incremental validity over a global measure of cognitive fusion in predicting eating psychopathology, namely binge eating. The CFQ-FC is a psychometrically sound measure that allows for a brief and reliable assessment of eating-related cognitive fusion. This is a novel measure that may significantly contribute for the assessment of this specific dimension of cognitive fusion and for the understanding of its role in eating psychopathology. PMID:26946280

  17. Childhood Poverty and Cognitive Development in Latin America in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Segretin, M Soledad; Hermida, M Julia; Prats, Lucía M; Fracchia, Carolina S; Ruetti, Eliana; Lipina, Sebastián J

    2016-06-01

    For at least eight decades, researchers have analyzed the association between childhood poverty and cognitive development in different societies worldwide, but few of such studies have been carried out in Latin America. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the empirical studies that have analyzed the associations between poverty and cognitive development in children under 18 years of age from Latin American and Caribbean countries between 2000 and 2015. This analysis takes into consideration the country where the work was conducted, the experimental and analytical design, sample size and composition, cognitive and poverty paradigms implemented, levels of analysis, and the inclusion of mediation analyses. Through these, we identify common patterns in the negative impact of poverty that have been repeatedly verified in the literature in other continents; we also call attention to a set of issues regarding sample, design, paradigms, impact, and mediation analyses that should be considered in future studies in the region. PMID:27254824

  18. Interdisciplinary perspectives on the development, integration, and application of cognitive ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Janna; Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Smith, Barry; Jensen, Mark; Poldrack, Russell A.; Lomax, Jane; Bandrowski, Anita; Imam, Fahim; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss recent progress in the development of cognitive ontologies and summarize three challenges in the coordinated development and application of these resources. Challenge 1 is to adopt a standardized definition for cognitive processes. We describe three possibilities and recommend one that is consistent with the standard view in cognitive and biomedical sciences. Challenge 2 is harmonization. Gaps and conflicts in representation must be resolved so that these resources can be combined for mark-up and interpretation of multi-modal data. Finally, Challenge 3 is to test the utility of these resources for large-scale annotation of data, search and query, and knowledge discovery and integration. As term definitions are tested and revised, harmonization should enable coordinated updates across ontologies. However, the true test of these definitions will be in their community-wide adoption which will test whether they support valid inferences about psychological and neuroscientific data. PMID:24999329

  19. Interdisciplinary perspectives on the development, integration, and application of cognitive ontologies.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Janna; Frishkoff, Gwen A; Smith, Barry; Jensen, Mark; Poldrack, Russell A; Lomax, Jane; Bandrowski, Anita; Imam, Fahim; Turner, Jessica A; Martone, Maryann E

    2014-01-01

    We discuss recent progress in the development of cognitive ontologies and summarize three challenges in the coordinated development and application of these resources. Challenge 1 is to adopt a standardized definition for cognitive processes. We describe three possibilities and recommend one that is consistent with the standard view in cognitive and biomedical sciences. Challenge 2 is harmonization. Gaps and conflicts in representation must be resolved so that these resources can be combined for mark-up and interpretation of multi-modal data. Finally, Challenge 3 is to test the utility of these resources for large-scale annotation of data, search and query, and knowledge discovery and integration. As term definitions are tested and revised, harmonization should enable coordinated updates across ontologies. However, the true test of these definitions will be in their community-wide adoption which will test whether they support valid inferences about psychological and neuroscientific data. PMID:24999329

  20. Development of a computerized tool for the chinese version of the montreal cognitive assessment for screening mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke; Zhang, Shangang; Wang, Qingsong; Wang, Xiaofei; Qin, Yang; Wang, Jian; Li, Congyang; Wu, Yuxian; Wang, Weiwen; Lin, Hang

    2014-11-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is used for screening mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and the Beijing version (MoCA-BJ) is widely used in China. We aimed to develop a computerized tool for MoCA-BJ (MoCA-CC). Methods: MoCA-CC used person-machine interaction instead of patient-to-physician interaction; other aspects such as the scoring system did not differ from the original test. MoCA-CC, MoCA-BJ and routine neuropsychological tests were administered to 181 elderly participants (MCI = 96, normal controls [NC] = 85). Results: A total of 176 (97.24%) participants were evaluated successfully by MoCA-CC. Cronbach's α for MoCA-CC was 0.72. The test-retest reliability (retesting after six weeks) was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82; P < 0.001). Significant differences were observed in total scores (t = 9.38, P < 0.001) and individual item scores (t = 2.18-8.62, P < 0.05) between the NC and MCI groups, except for the score for "Naming" (t = 0.24, P = 0.81). The MoCA-CC total scores were highly correlated with the MoCA-BJ total scores (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) in the MCI participants. The area under receiver-operator curve for the prediction of MCI was 0.97 (95% confidence interval = 0.95-1.00). At the optimal cut-off score of 25/26, MoCA-CC demonstrated 95.8% sensitivity and 87.1% specificity. Conclusion: The MoCA-CC tool developed here has several advantages over the paper-pencil method and is reliable for screening MCI in elderly Chinese individuals, especially in the primary clinical setting. It needs to be validated in other diverse and larger populations. PMID:25362894

  1. What has fMRI told us about the Development of Cognitive Control through Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Beatriz; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; O’Hearn, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive control, the ability to voluntarily guide our behavior, continues to improve throughout adolescence. Below we review the literature on age-related changes in brain function related to response inhibition and working memory, which support cognitive control. Findings from studies using functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) indicate that processing errors, sustaining a cognitive control state, and reaching adult levels of precision, persist through adolescence. Developmental changes in patterns of brain function suggest that core regions of the circuitry underlying cognitive control are on-line early in development. However, age-related changes in localized processes across the brain and in establishing long range connections that support top-down modulation of behavior may support more effective neural processing for optimal mature executive function. While great progress has been made in understanding the age-related changes in brain processes underlying cognitive development, there are still important challenges in developmental neuroimaging methods and the interpretation of data that need to be addressed. PMID:19765880

  2. Self-locomotion and spatial language and spatial cognition: insights from typical and atypical development

    PubMed Central

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Rivière, James

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have shown that occurrence of locomotion in infancy is correlated with the development of spatial cognitive competencies. Recent evidence suggests that locomotor experience might also be important for the development of spatial language. Together these findings suggest that locomotor experience might play a crucial role in the development of linguistic-cognitive spatial skills. However, some studies indicate that, despite their total deprivation of locomotor experience, young children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have the capacity to acquire and use rich spatial representations including good spatial language. Nonetheless, we have to be cautious about what the striking performances displayed by SMA children can reveal on the link between motor and spatial development, as the dynamics of brain development in atypically developing children are different from typically developing children. PMID:24917836

  3. Accelerating Leadership Development via Immersive Learning and Cognitive Apprenticeship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backus, Clark; Keegan, Kevin; Gluck, Charles; Gulick, Lisa M. V.

    2010-01-01

    The authors put forward an approach to leadership development that builds on the principle of accelerated learning. They argue that leadership development, particularly in a period of recession or slow economic growth, needs to deliver results more quickly and with fewer resources. Indeed, they raise the question of whether or not this is what is…

  4. Cognitive Development and Student Approaches To Learning: An Investigation of Perry's Theory with Chinese and U.S. University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Watkins, David

    2001-01-01

    Studied the relationship between student approaches to learning and stages of cognitive development, also considering the validity of the theory of development of W. Perry (1970). Results for 67 U.S. and 193 Mainland Chinese students suggest a relationship between cognitive development and student learning approaches with different patterns for…

  5. Multiple jeopardy: Risk and protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring

    PubMed Central

    LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; CUSHING, GRETTA; MERIKANGAS, KATHLEEN R.; ROUNSAVILLE, BRUCE J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to ascertain risk and protective factors in the adjustment of 78 school-age and teenage offspring of opioid- and cocaine-abusing mothers. Using a multimethod, multiinformant approach, child outcomes were operationalized via lifetime psychiatric diagnoses and everyday social competence (each based on both mother and child reports), and dimensional assessments of symptoms (mother report). Risk/protective factors examined included the child sociodemographic attributes of gender, age, and ethnicity, aspects of maternal psychopathology, and both mother's and children's cognitive functioning. Results revealed that greater child maladjustment was linked with increasing age, Caucasian (as opposed to African American) ethnicity, severity of maternal psychiatric disturbance, higher maternal cognitive abilities (among African Americans) and lower child cognitive abilities (among Caucasians). Limitations of the study are discussed, as are implications of findings for future research. PMID:9524811

  6. A new treatment for cognitive disorders related to in utero exposure to alcohol★

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuang; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Bin; Lin, Jianying; Xu, Chunyang; Yang, Wancai; Hao, Wei; Zhang, Ruiling

    2013-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has detrimental effects on fetal central nervous system development. Maternal alcohol consumption prior to and during pregnancy significantly affects cognitive functions in offspring, which may be related to changes in cyclin-dependent kinase 5 because it is associated with modulation of synaptic plasticity and impaired learning and memory. In this study, we examined adult offspring in a maternal alcohol consumption model in rats. Y-maze test results showed that in utero exposure to alcohol impairs learning and memory capacities. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 mRNA and protein expressions in the hippocampus of the offspring were significantly elevated, as assayed by quantitative real-time PCR and reverse transcription-PCR, immunofluorescence, and immuno-precipitation. Our experimental findings strongly suggest that altered cyclin-dependent kinase 5 may mediate impaired learning and memory in adult rats that were exposed to alcohol by maternal consumption while in utero. PMID:25206467

  7. The Development of the Neural Substrates of Cognitive Control in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Marjorie; Yoon, Jong; Ragland, J. Daniel; Niendam, Tara; Lesh, Tyler A.; Fairbrother, Wonja; Carter, Cameron S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) involve impairments in cognitive control. In typical development (TYP), neural systems underlying cognitive control undergo substantial maturation during adolescence. Development is delayed in adolescents with ASD. Little is known about the neural substrates of this delay. Method We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a cognitive control task involving overcoming a prepotent response tendency to examine the development of cognitive control in young (ages 12–15; n = 13 with ASD and n = 13 with TYP) and older (ages 16–18; n= 14 with ASD and n = 14 with TYP) adolescents with whole-brain voxel-wise univariate and task-related functional connectivity analyses. Results Older ASD and TYP showed reduced activation in sensory and premotor areas relative to younger ones. The older ASD group showed reduced left parietal activation relative to TYP. Functional connectivity analyses showed a significant age by group interaction with the older ASD group exhibiting increased functional connectivity strength between the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilaterally. This functional connectivity strength was related to task performance in ASD, whereas that between DLPFC and parietal cortex (BA 9 and BA 40) was related to task performance in TYP. Conclusions Adolescents with ASD rely more on “reactive” cognitive control, involving last minute conflict detection and control implementation by the ACC and VLPFC, versus “proactive” cognitive control requiring processing by DLPFC and parietal cortex. Findings await replication in larger longitudinal studies that examine their functional consequences and amenability to intervention. PMID:24209777

  8. Social cognition in children at familial high-risk of developing an eating disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Radha; Barona, Manuela; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED) has been associated with differences in social cognition. To date research investigating social cognition and ED has mainly employed patient and recovered samples. It is therefore unclear whether differences in social cognition are present prior to onset of ED, potentially contributing to development, or whether differences observed are a consequence of the disorder. We aimed to further explore whether individuals at high-risk for ED present social cognition characteristics previously found in ED groups. Methods: Our sample was drawn from a population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Data on maternal ED behaviors over the lifetime were collected through in-depth clinical interviews (n = 1128) conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders (SCID), and were used to categorize mothers according to ED behaviors over the lifetime: Restricting and Excessive Exercising (n = 58), Purging (n = 70), Binge-eating (n = 72), Binging and Purging (n = 66), no ED (n = 862). High-risk status of children was determined using these maternal lifetime behavioral phenotypes. Children at high-risk (maternal ED exposure) were compared to children at low-risk (born to mothers with no ED) on three measures of social cognition: the Social Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) (n = 922), the faces subtest of the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy (DANVA) (n = 722), and the Emotional Triangles Task (n = 750). Results: Children at high-risk for ED showed poorer performance on measures of social cognition compared to children at low-risk. Maternal lifetime binge-eating, and maternal lifetime binging and purging were associated with poorer social communication in children (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 5.7, p = 0.05; and OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 6.5, p = 0.03 respectively). Maternal binging and purging was also found to be associated with differential facial emotion processing and

  9. Preparing Offspring for a Dangerous World: Potential Costs of Being Wrong

    PubMed Central

    Coslovsky, Michael; Richner, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive maternal responses to stressful environments before young are born can follow two non-exclusive pathways: either the mother reduces current investment in favor of future investment, or influences offspring growth and development in order to fit offspring phenotype to the stressful environment. Inducing such developmental cues, however, may be risky if the environment changes meanwhile, resulting in maladapted offspring. Here we test the effects of a predator-induced maternal effect in a predator-free postnatal environment. We manipulated perceived predation-risk for breeding female great tits by exposing them to stuffed models of either a predatory bird or a non-predatory control. Offspring were raised either in an environment matching the maternal one by exchanging whole broods within a maternal treatment group, or in a mismatching environment by exchanging broods among the maternal treatments. Offspring growth depended on the matching of the two environments. While for offspring originating from control treated mothers environmental mismatch did not significantly change growth, offspring of mothers under increased perceived predation risk grew faster and larger in matching conditions. Offspring of predator treated mothers fledged about one day later when growing under mismatching conditions. This suggests costs paid by the offspring if mothers predict environmental conditions wrongly. PMID:23144992

  10. Dietary methyl donor deficiency during pregnancy in rats shapes learning and anxiety in offspring.

    PubMed

    Konycheva, Galina; Dziadek, Marie A; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Krägeloh, Christian U; Coolen, Marcel W; Davison, Michael; Breier, Bernhard H

    2011-10-01

    Two important lines of research have enhanced our understanding of the molecular role of nutrition in influencing behavior. First, exposure to an adverse environment during early life can influence the long-term behavior of the offspring. Second, regulation of the nervous system development and functioning appears to involve epigenetic mechanisms that require a continuous supply of methyl group donors in food. We hypothesized that a maternal diet during pregnancy deficient in methyl donors (MDD) may lead to altered behavior in offspring through permanent changes in hippocampal DNA methylation. We used a rat model of prenatal dietary MDD to test this hypothesis in female offspring as they aged. Prenatal MDD reduced birth weight, litter size, and newborn viability. Aged female offspring of MDD mothers showed increased anxiety and increased learning ability in comparison with control diet group offspring. To explore the role of MDD on epigenetic mechanisms in the brain of adult offspring, we studied expression and methylation of 4 selected genes coding for glucocorticoid receptor, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 11 type 2, neuronatin, and reelin proteins in the hippocampus. No major group differences in methylation or expression of the studied genes were detected, except for a significant down-regulation of the reelin gene in the MDD female offspring. The prenatal MDD diet caused intrauterine growth restriction, associated with long-term effects on the behavior of the offspring. However, the observed behavioral differences between the MDD and control diet offspring cannot be explained by epigenetic regulation of the specific genes investigated in this study. PMID:22074804

  11. Primal Splitting as a Basis for Emotional and Cognitive Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccia, Ornella

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of good primal splitting as the basis for the child's emotional and cognitive development. A theoretical introduction analyses the possible pathologies of primal splitting, as they were first pointed out by Melanie Klein and then by some post-Kleinian authors, in particular Donald Meltzer. This is followed by…

  12. Developing and evaluating innovative items for the NCLEX: Part 2, item characteristics and cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Anne; Harmes, J Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article is a continuation of the research on the development and evaluation of innovative item formats for the NCLEX examinations that was published in the March/April 2009 edition of Nurse Educator. The authors discuss the innovative item templates and evaluate the statistical characteristics and level of cognitive processing required to answer the examination items. PMID:19412048

  13. Early Childhood Computer Experience and Cognitive Development among Urban Low-Income Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Angela M.; Li, Xiaoming; McCarrick, Katy; Butler, Sheretta T.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan; Holtrop, Teresa; Partridge, Ty

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the association between home computer experience and cognitive development among preschool children in inner-city Head Start programs. Approximately 200 children enrolled in four Head Start centers in Detroit, Michigan were recruited to participate in this study. Data was collected from parents regarding the children's…

  14. A Cognitive Analysis of Credit Card Acquisition and College Student Financial Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Blair; Turrisi, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Examines cognitions relevant to credit card decision making in college-aged participants (N=304). Assesses measures of beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral alternatives toward acquiring a credit card. Identifies a multivariate model predicting college student financial development of the attitudes and behavioral tendencies of acquiring a new card.…

  15. Effects of Virtual Reality on the Cognitive Memory and Handgun Accuracy Development of Law Enforcement Neophytes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of virtual reality training on the development of cognitive memory and handgun accuracy by law enforcement neophytes. One hundred and six academy students from 6 different academy classes were divided into two groups, experimental and control. The experimental group was exposed to virtual…

  16. Childhood Poverty and Cognitive Development in Latin America in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segretin, M. Soledad; Hermida, M. Julia; Prats, Lucía M.; Fracchia, Carolina S.; Ruetti, Eliana; Lipina, Sebastián J.

    2016-01-01

    For at least eight decades, researchers have analyzed the association between childhood poverty and cognitive development in different societies worldwide, but few of such studies have been carried out in Latin America. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the empirical studies that have analyzed the associations between…

  17. Biomedical Engineering and Cognitive Science Secondary Science Curriculum Development: A Three Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stacy S.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on a multi-year effort to create and evaluate cognitive-based curricular materials for secondary school science classrooms. A team of secondary teachers, educational researchers, and academic biomedical engineers developed a series of curriculum units that are based in biomedical engineering for secondary level students in…

  18. Integrating Moral and Social Development within Middle School Social Studies: A Social Cognitive Domain Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nucci, Larry; Creane, Michael W.; Powers, Deborah W.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven teachers and 254 urban middle-school students comprised the sample of this study examining the social and moral development outcomes of the integration of social cognitive domain theory within regular classroom instruction. Participating teachers were trained to construct and implement history lessons that stimulated students' moral…

  19. Cognitive Coaching: A Critical Phase in Professional Development to Implement Sheltered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Ellen G.

    2010-01-01

    This documentary account describes professional development for teachers in the USA serving culturally and linguistically diverse students. The purpose of the project was to monitor effectiveness of training in Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) and to assess the value of cognitive coaching. Quantitative and qualitative data sources…

  20. Predicting Cognitive Development, Intellectual Styles, and Personality Traits from Self-Rated Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reports a series of six studies, each investigating the power of self-rated analytical, creative, and practical abilities for predicting one of six individual-difference variables: cognitive development, modes of thinking, career interests, learning approaches, thinking styles, and personality traits. Contributing to the…

  1. The Effect of Differentiation Approach Developed on Creativity of Gifted Students: Cognitive and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a differentiation approach for the mathematics education of gifted middle school students and to determine the effect of the differentiation approach on creative thinking skills of gifted students based on both cognitive and affective factors. In this context, the answer to the following question was searched:…

  2. Effectiveness of a Video-Feedback and Questioning Programme to Develop Cognitive Expertise in Sport

    PubMed Central

    García-González, Luis; Moreno, M. Perla; Moreno, Alberto; Gil, Alexander; del Villar, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The importance within sport expertise of cognitive factors has been emphasised in many research studies. Adaptations that take place in athletes’ long-term memories are going to condition their decision-making and performance, and training programmes must be developed that improve these adaptations. In our study, we provide a tactical-cognitive training programme based on video-feedback and questioning in order to improve tactical knowledge in tennis players and verify its effect when transferred to athletes’ decision-making. 11 intermediate tennis players participated in this study (12.9±0.7 years old), distributed into two groups (experimental, n = 5; control, n = 6). Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation and strategy planning with a verbal protocol. Decision-making was measured by a systematic observation instrument. Results confirm the effectiveness of a combination of video-feedback and questioning on cognitive expertise, developing adaptations in long-term memory that produce an improvement in the quality of tactical knowledge (content, sophistication and structure). This, in turn, is transferred to the athletes’ decision-making capacity, leading to a higher percentage of successful decisions made during game play. Finally, we emphasise the need to develop effective programmes to develop cognitive expertise and improve athletes' performance, and include it in athletes’ formative stages. PMID:24340012

  3. Iron Deficiency and the Cognitive and Psychomotor Development of Children: A Pilot Study with Institutionalized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driva, A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a pilot study, involving 48 institutionalized infants and toddlers, which aimed to treat iron deficiency anemia and to discover other factors contributing to the problem. Results indicate improvement in cognitive development after the administration of iron among three groups, while no significant differences were observed in psychomotor…

  4. Development of a Cognition-Priming Model Describing Learning in a STEM Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Richard; Akmal, Tariq; Petrie, Kaylan

    2015-01-01

    Successful STEM learning depends on the interaction of affect, cognition, and application of ideas. Simply put students who are unwilling to persist in STEM based endeavors do not suddenly develop into scientists, mathematicians, engineers or computer scientists, nor do they seek out STEM related courses or STEM based careers. The purpose of this…

  5. Predicting Preschool Cognitive Development from Infant Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Psychosocial Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation…

  6. Understanding Writing Problems in Young Children: Contributions of Cognitive Skills to the Development of Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Amy

    2011-01-01

    While several models of adult writing have been proposed and studied, the development of writing skills in young children has only recently garnered attention. Using measures of fine-motor, language, working memory, and attention/executive functions, the current study explored motor and cognitive skills that may contribute to writing skill in…

  7. The Effect of Learning Background and Imagery Cognitive Development on Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Shyh-Bao; Sun, Chun-Wang

    2013-01-01

    This research looked into the effect of how cognitive development toward imagery is formed through visual perception by means of a quantitative questionnaire. The main variable was the difference between the learning backgrounds of the interviewees. A two-way ANOVA mixed design was the statistical method used for the analysis of the 2 × 4 (2 by 4)…

  8. Impact of Service-Learning and Social Justice Education on College Students' Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yan; Rodgers, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This study used the Measure of Epistemology Reflection to explore the impact of service-learning and social justice education on college students' cognitive development. Six service-learning courses taught with or without a social justice emphasis were studied. Results showed that service-learning courses in general had a positive impact on…

  9. The Effects of Child Abuse on the Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Development of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Susan

    This document provides an annotated bibliography of 24 empirical studies of child abuse and a summary of the findings. Annotations are organized in three sections covering effects of child abuse on children's cognitive, emotional, and social development. A 5-page summary of research findings generally indicated that abused children possessed…

  10. Cognitive Coping Tool Kit for Psychosis: Development of a Group-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT…

  11. The Interaction of Selective Attention and Cognitive Development on Achievement in Nigerian Secondary School Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Namdi N. S.

    2009-01-01

    The study tried to examine the interaction between two independent variables of selective attention and cognitive development on Achievement in Genetics at the Secondary School level. In looking at the problem of this study three null hypotheses were generated for testing at 0.05 level of significance. Factorial Analysis of Variance design with…

  12. Social-Cognitive Development, Ethical and Legal Knowledge, and Ethical Decision Making of Counselor Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Glenn W.; Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Ieva, Kara P.

    2010-01-01

    Counselors are required to have high levels of social-cognitive development, significant knowledge regarding ethical and legal practice, and sound ethical decision-making processes to provide effective and ethical services to their clients. This study investigated the effect of two counseling ethics courses on 64 master's-level counselor education…

  13. Systematic Review of Cognitive Development across Childhood in Down Syndrome: Implications for Treatment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, T.; Rapsey, C. M.; Glue, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is conjecture regarding the profile of cognitive development over time in children with Down syndrome (DS). Characterising this profile would be valuable for the planning and assessment of intervention studies. Method: A systematic search of the literature from 1990 to the present was conducted to identify longitudinal data on…

  14. Item Equivalence in English and Chinese Translation of a Cognitive Development Test for Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study of potential sources of item nonequivalence between English and Chinese language versions of a cognitive development test for preschool-aged children. Items were flagged for potential nonequivalence through statistical and judgment-based procedures, and the relationship between flag status and item…

  15. Implications of Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms for Early Cognitive and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.

    2006-01-01

    Statistically, women, particularly pregnant women and new mothers, are at heightened risk for depression. The present review describes the current state of the research linking maternal depressed mood and children's cognitive and language development. Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, whether during the prenatal period, postpartum period,…

  16. Cognitive and Language Development in an Additive-Bilingual Program: Report after Four Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, Kathryn W.; Mizokawa, Donald T.

    The fourth phase of a longitudinal study focusing on the cognitive and language development of children in a primary-grade Spanish immersion program (SIP) is reported. Subjects were the remaining 13 members of an SIP cohort beginning in 1987, 15 members of a standard program comparison classroom, 18 members of another class in the 1987 SIP cohort,…

  17. Culture and Cognitive Development: Giyoo Hatano's Insights and the Questions They Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnow, Jacqueline J.; Peterson, Candi; Lawrence, Jeanette A.

    2007-01-01

    To bring out Giyoo Hatano's contributions to the understanding of culture and cognitive development, we note first his special style--thoughtful, inventive, and always focused on central issues and on combining theory with data--and then, for three areas, some of the conceptual advances he proposed. The areas have to do with ties between cognitive…

  18. Anxiety- and Depression-Related Thoughts in Children: Development and Evaluation of a Cognition Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marien, Wendi E.; Bell, Debora J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined anxiety- and depression-related cognitive content in children. We developed the Children's Thought Questionnaire (CTQ) to include anxious thoughts characterized by threat and uncertainty; depressive thoughts by loss, self-deprecation, and certainty/hopelessness; and positive thoughts by interest, pleasure, and positive…

  19. Evaluating FOCUS-2's Effectiveness in Enhancing First-Year College Students' Social Cognitive Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirpak, David M.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the computer-assisted career guidance system, FOCUS-2, on 1st-year college students' social cognitive career development. Specifically, the authors assessed career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and assessment of attributions for career decision making (AACDM) using repeated measures analyses of variance…

  20. Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Internet-Facilitated Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeber, Lisa B.; Seeley, John R.; Feil, Edward G.; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Kosty, Derek B.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Develop and pilot an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Method: Mothers (N = 70) of children enrolled in Head Start, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session,…