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1

The effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats  

PubMed Central

Background Recent findings suggest that the intake of specific nutrients during the critical period in early life influence cognitive and behavioural development profoundly. Antioxidants such as vitamin E have been postulated to be pivotal in this process, as vitamin E is able to protect the growing brain from oxidative stress. Currently tocotrienols are gaining much attention due to their potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. It is thus compelling to look at the effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienols supplementation, on cognition and behavioural development among offsprings of individual supplemented with tocotrienols. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate potential prenatal and early postnatal influence of Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF) supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats. Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base diet plus vehicle (VHCL), base diet plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA), base diet plus Tocotrienol-Rich fraction (TRF), and base diet plus both docosahexaenoic acid, and tocotrienol rich fraction (DTRF) diets for 2 weeks prior to mating. The females (F0 generation) were maintained on their respective treatment diets throughout the gestation and lactation periods. Pups (F1 generation) derived from these dams were raised with their dams from birth till four weeks post natal. The male pups were weaned at 8 weeks postnatal, after which they were grouped into five groups of 10 animals each, and fed with the same diets as their dams for another eight weeks. Learning and behavioural experiments were conducted only in male off-spring rats using the Morris water maze.Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base diet plus vehicle (VHCL), base diet plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA), base diet plus Tocotrienol-Rich fraction (TRF), and base diet plus both docosahexaenoic acid, and tocotrienol rich fraction (DTRF) diets for 2 weeks prior to mating. The females (F0 generation) were maintained on their respective treatment diets throughout the gestation and lactation periods. Pups (F1 generation) derived from these dams were raised with their dams from birth till four weeks post natal. The male pups were weaned at 8 weeks postnatal, after which they were grouped into five groups of 10 animals each, and fed with the same diets as their dams for another eight weeks. Learning and behavioural experiments were conducted only in male off-spring rats using the Morris water maze. Results Results showed that prenatal and postnatal TRF supplementation increased the brain (4–6 fold increase) and plasma ?-tocotrienol (0.8 fold increase) levels in male off-springs. There is also notably better cognitive performance based on the Morris water maze test among these male off-springs. Conclusion Based on these results, it is concluded that prenatal and postnatal TRF supplementation improved cognitive function development in male progeny rats. PMID:23902378

2013-01-01

2

Association Between Maternal Depressogenic Cognitive Style During Pregnancy and Offspring Cognitive Style 18 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Objective Understanding the origins of negative cognitive style could provide a means to prevent adult depression. Cognitive style is an important target for intervention because although it is not possible to remove the stress and adversities in people’s lives, it may be possible to modify interpretation of such adversities through cognitive style. Children may develop a negative cognitive style through modeling the style of their mothers. However, findings have been inconsistent on the association. The authors tested the hypothesis that there is an independent association between maternal and offspring depressogenic cognitive style. Method Data from over 4,000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort study in the United Kingdom were used to investigate the association between maternal depressogenic cognitive style before the offspring’s birth and the offspring’s depressogenic cognitive style at age 18. Results A positive association was observed between maternal and offspring cognitive styles: a one-standard-deviation increase in maternal depressogenic cognitive style score during pregnancy was significantly associated with a mean increase of 0.1 standard deviations in offspring depressogenic cognitive style score at age 18. This effect remained after adjusting for maternal and offspring depression and explained 21% of the association between maternal and offspring depression. Conclusions Although the mechanisms remain to be elucidated, the findings are consistent with the idea that a mother’s cognitive style (irrespective of her depression status) influences that of her child. This suggests that interventions to improve a mother’s cognitive style could help prevent her offspring from developing depression during adulthood. PMID:23318526

Fernyhough, Charles; Bentall, Richard; Evans, Jonathan; Heron, Jon; Joinson, Carol; Stein, Alan L.; Lewis, Glyn

2013-01-01

3

The offspring-development-time/offspring-number trade-off.  

PubMed

The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) states that metabolic rate, ruled mainly by individual mass and temperature, determines many other biological rates. This view of ecology as ruled by the laws of physics and thermodynamics contrasts with life-history-optimization (LHO) theories, where traits are shaped by evolutionary processes. Integrating the MTE and LHO can lead, however, to a synthetic theory of ecology. In this work, we link the two theories to show that offspring development time is the result of both maternal investment in offspring and the metabolic constraints on offspring growth. We formulate a model that captures how offspring development time is the consequence of both offspring growth rate, determined by temperature and allometric scaling in accordance with the MTE, and the size reached by offspring at the end of the developmental period, determined mainly by LHO and reproductive strategies. We first extend the trade-off between offspring size and offspring number to ectotherms, showing that increased body temperatures result in increased resources available for reproduction. We then combine this trade-off with the general ontogenetic growth model to show that there is a trade-off between the number of offspring produced and offspring development time. The model predicts a shorter developmental time in organisms producing larger numbers of offspring. PMID:22617271

Bueno, Juan; López-Urrutia, Ángel

2012-06-01

4

Effects of litter size, sex and periconceptional ewe nutrition on side preference and cognitive flexibility in the offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy alters the physiology, behaviour and cognitive abilities of the offspring in sheep. Undernutrition restricted to the time around conception alters the physiology of the offspring, but effects on the behaviour and cognitive abilities are unknown. We studied the effects of mild periconceptional undernutrition in sheep on side preference and cognitive flexibility in the offspring. Ewes were

Carlos E. Hernandez; Jane E. Harding; Mark H. Oliver; Frank H. Bloomfield; Suzanne D. E. Held; Lindsay R. Matthews

2009-01-01

5

The sperm of aging male bustards retards their offspring's development  

PubMed Central

Understanding whether the sperm of older males has a diminished capacity to produce successful offspring is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. We investigate this issue using 10 years of reproductive data on captive long-lived houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), where the use of artificial insemination techniques means parents can only influence offspring quality via their gametes. Here we show that paternal aging reduces both the likelihood that eggs hatch and the rate at which chicks grow, with older males producing the lightest offspring after the first month. Surprisingly, this cost of paternal aging on offspring development is of a similar scale to that associated with maternal aging. Fitting with predictions on germline aging, the sperm of immature males produce the fastest growing offspring. Our findings thus indicate that any good genes benefit that might be offered by older ‘proven' males will be eroded by aging of their germline DNA. PMID:25647605

Preston, Brian T.; Saint Jalme, Michel; Hingrat, Yves; Lacroix, Frederic; Sorci, Gabriele

2015-01-01

6

The sperm of aging male bustards retards their offspring's development.  

PubMed

Understanding whether the sperm of older males has a diminished capacity to produce successful offspring is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. We investigate this issue using 10 years of reproductive data on captive long-lived houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), where the use of artificial insemination techniques means parents can only influence offspring quality via their gametes. Here we show that paternal aging reduces both the likelihood that eggs hatch and the rate at which chicks grow, with older males producing the lightest offspring after the first month. Surprisingly, this cost of paternal aging on offspring development is of a similar scale to that associated with maternal aging. Fitting with predictions on germline aging, the sperm of immature males produce the fastest growing offspring. Our findings thus indicate that any good genes benefit that might be offered by older 'proven' males will be eroded by aging of their germline DNA. PMID:25647605

Preston, Brian T; Saint Jalme, Michel; Hingrat, Yves; Lacroix, Frederic; Sorci, Gabriele

2015-01-01

7

Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring cognition and school performance. A ‘Mendelian randomization’ natural experiment  

PubMed Central

Background There is substantial debate as to whether moderate alcohol use during pregnancy could have subtle but important effects on offspring, by impairing later cognitive function and thus school performance. The authors aimed to investigate the unconfounded effect of moderately increased prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive/educational performance. Methods We used mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and performed both conventional observational analyses and Mendelian randomization using an ADH1B variant (rs1229984) associated with reduced alcohol consumption. Women of White European origin with genotype and self-reported prenatal alcohol consumption, whose offspring’s IQ score had been assessed in clinic (N = 4061 pairs) or Key Stage 2 (KS2) academic achievement score was available through linkage to the National Pupil Database (N = 6268), contributed to the analyses. Results Women reporting moderate drinking before and during early pregnancy were relatively affluent compared with women reporting lighter drinking, and their children had higher KS2 and IQ scores. In contrast, children whose mothers’ genotype predisposes to lower consumption or abstinence during early pregnancy had higher KS2 scores (mean difference +1.7, 95% confidence interval +0.4, +3.0) than children of mothers whose genotype predisposed to heavier drinking, after adjustment for population stratification. Conclusions Better offspring cognitive/educational outcomes observed in association with prenatal alcohol exposure presumably reflected residual confounding by factors associated with social position and maternal education. The unconfounded Mendelian randomization estimates suggest a small but potentially important detrimental effect of small increases in prenatal alcohol exposure, at least on educational outcomes. PMID:24065783

Zuccolo, Luisa; Lewis, Sarah J; Davey Smith, George; Sayal, Kapil; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Alati, Rosa; Ring, Sue; Macleod, John; Golding, Jean; Heron, Jon; Gray, Ron

2013-01-01

8

Pathological brain plasticity and cognition in the offspring of males subjected to postnatal traumatic stress.  

PubMed

Traumatic stress in early-life increases the risk for cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Such early stress can also impact the progeny even if not directly exposed, likely through epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we report in mice that the offspring of males subjected to postnatal traumatic stress have decreased gene expression in molecular pathways necessary for neuronal signaling, and altered synaptic plasticity when adult. Long-term potentiation is abolished and long-term depression is enhanced in the hippocampus, and these defects are associated with impaired long-term memory in both the exposed fathers and their offspring. The brain-specific gamma isoform of protein kinase C (Prkcc) is one of the affected signaling components in the hippocampus. Its expression is reduced in the offspring, and DNA methylation at its promoter is altered both in the hippocampus of the offspring and the sperm of fathers. These results suggest that postnatal traumatic stress in males can affect brain plasticity and cognitive functions in the adult progeny, possibly through epigenetic alterations in the male germline.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 5 August 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.80. PMID:25092246

Bohacek, J; Farinelli, M; Mirante, O; Steiner, G; Gapp, K; Coiret, G; Ebeling, M; Durán-Pacheco, G; Iniguez, A L; Manuella, F; Moreau, J-L; Mansuy, I M

2014-08-01

9

Maternal hydroxytyrosol administration improves neurogenesis and cognitive function in prenatally stressed offspring.  

PubMed

Prenatal stress is known to induce emotional and cognitive dysfunction in the offspring of both humans and experimental animals. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a major polyphenol in olive oil with reported ability modulating oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, was performed to investigate its preventive effect on prenatal stress-induced behavioral and molecular alterations in offspring. Rats were exposed to restraint stress on days 14-20 of pregnancy. HT was given at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg/day. The spontaneous alternation performance and Morris water maze confirmed the impaired learning capacity and memory performance induced by prenatal stress in both male and female offspring, and these effects were markedly restored in the HT supplement groups. Through tissue analysis of the hippocampi of male offspring, we found that the stress-induced downregulation of neural proteins, including BDNF, GAP43, synaptophysin, NMDAR1, NMDANR2A and NMDANR2B, was prevented by HT. Prenatal stress-induced low expression of glucocorticoid receptor was also increased by HT, although basal fetal serum corticosterone levels were not different among the four groups. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in prenatally stressed rats were confirmed with changes in protein oxidation, SOD activity, the expression of mitochondrial complexes and mitochondrial DNA copy number. Meanwhile, HT significantly increased transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3, as well as phase II enzyme-related proteins, including Nrf2 and HO-1, which may contribute to the decreased oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial function shown with HT supplementation. Taken together, these findings suggest that HT is an efficient maternal nutrient protecting neurogenesis and cognitive function in prenatally stressed offspring. PMID:25442671

Zheng, Adi; Li, Hao; Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Zou, Xuan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Cong; Liu, Jiankang; Feng, Zhihui

2015-02-01

10

Bilingualism and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the effects of bilingualism on cognitive development is reviewed, and two complementary models of bilingualism are developed to account for research results. It is suggested that research since 1960 shows a positive relationship between bilingualism and cognitive development, at least for some types of bilingualism. The advantage or…

Caraballo, Jose N.

11

Sex-Dependent Cognitive Performance in Baboon Offspring Following Maternal Caloric Restriction in Pregnancy and Lactation  

PubMed Central

In humans a suboptimal diet during development has negative outcomes in offspring. We investigated the behavioral outcomes in baboons born to mothers undergoing moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Maternal nutrient restriction mothers (n = 7) were fed 70% of food eaten by controls (CTR, n = 12) fed ad libitum throughout gestation and lactation. At 3.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) years of age offspring (controls: female [FC, n = 8], male [MC, n = 4]; nutrient restricted: female [FR, n = 3] and male [MR, n = 4]) were administered progressive ratio, simple discrimination, intra-/extra-dimension set shift and delayed matching to sample tasks to assess motivation, learning, attention, and working memory, respectively. A treatment effect was observed in MNR offspring who demonstrated less motivation and impaired working memory. Nutrient-restricted female offspring showed improved learning, while MR offspring showed impaired learning and attentional set shifting and increased impulsivity. In summary, 30% restriction in maternal caloric intake has long lasting neurobehavioral outcomes in adolescent male baboon offspring. PMID:22344725

Rodriguez, Jesse S.; Bartlett, Thad Q.; Keenan, Kathryn E.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Nijland, Mark J.

2012-01-01

12

Comparative Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to compare cognitive development in humans and chimpanzees to illuminate the evolutionary origins of human cognition. Comparison of morphological data and life history strongly highlights the common features of all primate species, including humans. The human mother-infant relationship is characterized by the physical separation of…

Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2007-01-01

13

Induced adverse effects of prenatal exposure to silver nanoparticles on neurobehavioral development of offspring of mice.  

PubMed

Steadily increased use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), has increased the amount of its exposure to humans and animals. Current scarce knowledge about the influences of prenatal exposure to Ag-NPs on postnatal outcomes, motivated us to investigate whether being exposed to it during pregnancy has any effects on neurobehavioral development of the adult offspring. Thirty virgin female NMRI mice were mated and treated subcutaneously once every three days from gestation day 3 until delivery, by 0, 0.2 and 2 mg/kg of bodyweight (BW) of Ag-NPs. Behavioral functions of adult offspring including spatial memory, passive avoidance learning, stress, anxiety-like behaviors and locomotor activities were assessed by commonly used neurobehavioral paradigms and the results were compared according to treatment and sex. Prenatal exposure to Ag-NPs significantly impaired their cognitive behavior in the Morris water maze. Although no evidence was observed indicating more anxiety-like behaviors in the treated offspring in the elevated plus maze, the number of defecations and leanings in the open field assay and number of passages in the light-dark box were greater in groups prenatally treated by Ag-NPs. Most of the impairments were more apparent in the offspring which had been prenatally exposed to high doses of Ag-NPs, particularly female ones. The present study indicated that the exposure of pregnant animals to Ag-NPs may lead to various neurobehavioral disorders in their offspring. Thus, more attention should be paid to avoid exposure to Ag-NPs, especially from pregnant females. PMID:25786530

Ghaderi, Shahab; Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza Fatemi; Varzi, Hossein Najafzadeh; Rashno, Masome

2015-01-01

14

Sex differences in biparental care as offspring develop: a field study of convict cichlids ( Amatitlania siquia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental investment theory states that parents should contribute more to older offspring. Differences between the sexes also\\u000a influence how each parent contributes to offspring in biparental species. Here, we examined a naturally occurring population\\u000a of biparental convict cichlids in Costa Rica to determine how each parent cared for offspring during two distinct offspring\\u000a development stages. Consistent with the predictions of

Jennifer L. Snekser; Nicholas Santangelo; John Nyby; Murray Itzkowitz

2011-01-01

15

Effects of afobazole on cognitive behavior of the offspring of rats exposed to tobacco smoke during gestation period.  

PubMed

Experiments on the model of foraging behavior formation under conditions of free choice (T-maze) revealed learning failure against the background of reduced motor activity in the offspring of rats exposed to tobacco smoke on gestation days 1-20. Afobazole administered to pregnant rats orally in doses of 1 or 10 mg/kg daily during the whole gestation and/or entering rat pup body with breast milk from mothers receiving 200 mg/kg to day 20 of their life normalized their learning capacity. The formation of short-term and long-term memory in animals receiving afobazole did not differ from the control. Hence, afobazole corrects cognitive disorders in rats exposed to tobacco smoke during prenatal development. PMID:22442799

Shreder, O V; Solomina, A S; Tsorin, I B; Trofimov, S S; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

2011-05-01

16

Phenotypic dysregulation of microglial activation in young offspring rats with maternal sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Despite the potential adverse effects of maternal sleep deprivation (MSD) on physiological and behavioral aspects of offspring, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study was intended to investigate the roles of microglia on neurodevelopment and cognition in young offspring rats with prenatal sleep deprivation. Pregnant Wistar rats received 72?h sleep deprivation in the last trimester of gestation, and their prepuberty male offspring were given the intraperitoneal injection with or without minocycline. The results showed the number of Iba1(+) microglia increased, that of hippocampal neurogenesis decreased, and the hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory were impaired in MSD offspring. The classical microglial activation markers (M1 phenotype) IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, CD68 and iNOS were increased, while the alternative microglial activation markers (M2 phenotype) Arg1, Ym1, IL-4, IL-10 and CD206 were reduced in hippocampus of MSD offspring. After minocycline administration, the MSD offspring showed improvement in MWM behaviors and increase in BrdU(+)/DCX(+) cells. Minocycline reduced Iba1(+) cells, suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory molecules, and reversed the reduction of M2 microglial markers in the MSD prepuberty offspring. These results indicate that dysregulation in microglial pro- and anti-inflammatory activation is involved in MSD-induced inhibition of neurogenesis and impairment of spatial learning and memory. PMID:25830666

Zhao, Qiuying; Xie, Xiaofang; Fan, Yonghua; Zhang, Jinqiang; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Xiaohui; Yan, Shuo; Chen, Yubo; Peng, Cheng; You, Zili

2015-01-01

17

Transgenerational effects of parent and grandparent gender on offspring development in a biparental beetle species  

PubMed Central

Parental effects on offspring life-history traits are common and increasingly well-studied. However, the extent to which these effects persist into offspring in subsequent generations has received less attention. In this experiment, maternal and paternal effects on offspring and grand-offspring were investigated in the biparental burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, using a split-family design. This allowed the separation of prenatal and postnatal transgenerational effects. Grandparent and parent gender were found to have a cumulative effect on offspring development and may provide a selection pressure on the division of parental investment in biparental species. PMID:22090206

Lock, Judith E.

2012-01-01

18

Metformin mitigates the impaired development of skeletal muscle in the offspring of obese mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Maternal obesity is linked with offspring obesity and type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle (SM) insulin resistance is central to the development of diabetes. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is inhibited in SM of fetuses born to obese mothers. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal metformin administration on AMPK activity and reversion of adverse changes in offspring SM of obese mice. Design: Female weanling C57BL/6J mice received either control diet (CON, 6 mice) or high-fat diet (HFD; OB, 12 mice) for 8 weeks before mating. After mating, mice continued receiving their respective CON or OB diets. In addition, 6 of those 12 mice fed with fat diet also received metformin administration (2?mg per ml in drinking water) throughout gestation and lactation (MET). After weaning at postnatal 21 days, offspring were fed a HFD to mimic a postnatal obesogenic environment until necropsy. Results: Mothers receiving the fat diet developed obesity. OB offspring showed higher adiposity than CON and MET offspring. AMPK phosphorylation was lower in SM of OB offspring. ?-Catenin and myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD and myogenin, were downregulated in OB muscle, whereas the adipogenic marker, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, was upregulated compared with CON muscle. Metformin administration prevented these changes in OB offspring SM. OB but not MET offspring demonstrated glucose intolerance. Mitochondrial content decreased, and activities of citrate synthase and ?-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase also decreased in OB offspring SM, whereas they were recovered in MET offspring SM. Conclusion: Maternal metformin administration improves SM development in OB offspring. PMID:23449382

Tong, J F; Yan, X; Zhao, J X; Zhu, M J; Nathanielsz, P W; Du, M

2011-01-01

19

Thinking styles and cognitive development.  

PubMed

Using R. J. Sternberg's (1988, 1997) theory of thinking styles and W. G. Perry's (1970) theory of cognitive development, the author investigated the nature of thinking styles as they relate to cognitive development. Eighty-two Hong Kong university students (44 male, 38 female) responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (R. J. Sternberg & R. K. Wagner, 1992) and the Zhang Cognitive Development Inventory (L. F. Zhang, 1997). Statistical analyses provided varying degrees of support for the prediction of an overlap between the thinking style and cognitive development constructs. In general, students who reasoned at a higher cognitive developmental level tended to use a wider range of thinking styles than students who reasoned at a lower cognitive developmental level. Implications of results are discussed in relation to education and research. PMID:12095088

Zhang, Li-Fang

2002-06-01

20

Cognitive Outcome of Offspring from Dexamethasone-Treated Pregnancies at Risk for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test whether dexamethasone (DEX) treatment of pregnancies at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) impairs cognitive functioning in the offspring. Design Observational follow-up of prenatally DEX-exposed offspring and controls. Methods Study 1 included 140 children age 5-12 years: 67 DEX-exposed (long-term: 8 CAH girls) and 73 unexposed (with 15 CAH girls). Study 2 included 20 participants age 11-24 years: 7 DEX-exposed (long-term: 1 CAH woman) and 13 unexposed (with 4 CAH women). Neuropsychological testing was done in hospital settings or patients' homes. Data analysis aimed at maximizing detection of effects of DEX exposure. Results The vast majority of group comparisons were not marginally or conventionally significant. The few significant findings on short-term prenatal DEX exposure suggested more positive than adverse outcomes. By contrast, the few significant findings in females with CAH and long-term DEX exposure indicated slower mental processing than in controls on several neuropsychological variables, although partial correlations of DEX-exposure duration with cognitive outcome did not corroborate this association. Conclusions Our studies do not replicate a previously reported adverse effect of short-term prenatal DEX exposure on working memory, while our findings on cognitive function in CAH girls with long-term DEX exposure contribute to concerns about potentially adverse cognitive aftereffects of such exposure. Yet, our studies are not definitive, and replications in larger samples are required. PMID:22549088

Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; Dolezal, Curtis; Haggerty, Rita; Silverman, Michael; New, Maria I.

2012-01-01

21

Maternal Photoperiodic History Affects Offspring Development in Syrian Hamsters  

PubMed Central

During the first 7 weeks of postnatal life, short day lengths inhibit the onset of puberty in many photoperiodic rodents, but not in Syrian hamsters. In this species, timing of puberty and fecundity are independent of the early postnatal photoperiod. Gestational day length affects postnatal reproductive development in several rodents; its role in Syrian hamsters has not been assessed. We tested the hypothesis that cumulative effects of pre- and postnatal short day lengths would restrain gonadal development in male Syrian hamsters. Males with prenatal short day exposure were generated by dams transferred to short day lengths 6 weeks, 3 weeks, and 0 weeks prior to mating. Additional groups were gestated in long day lengths and transferred to short days at birth, at 4 weeks of age, or not transferred (control hamsters). In pups of dams exposed to short day treatment throughout gestation, decreased testis growth was apparent by 3 weeks and persisted through 9 weeks of age, at which time maximum testis size was attained. A subset of males (14%), whose dams had been in short days for 3 to 6 weeks prior to mating displayed pronounced delays in testicular development, similar to those of other photoperiodic rodents. This treatment also increased the percentage of male offspring that underwent little or no gonadal regression postnatally (39%). By 19 weeks of age, males housed in short days completed spontaneous gonadal development. After prolonged long day treatment to break refractoriness, hamsters that initially were classified as nonregressors underwent testicular regression in response to a 2nd sequence of short day lengths. The combined action of prenatal and early postnatal short day lengths diminishes testicular growth of prepubertal Syrian hamsters no later than the 3rd week of postnatal life, albeit to a lesser extent than in other photoperiodic rodents. PMID:18838610

Beery, Annaliese K.; Paul, Matthew J.; Routman, David M.; Zucker, Irving

2009-01-01

22

Effects of paternal age and offspring cognitive ability in early adulthood on the risk of schizophrenia and related disorders.  

PubMed

Advanced paternal age (APA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) are both associated with the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in young adult offspring. We hypothesized that the offspring SSD risk gradient associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ. We investigated joint and separate associations of paternal age and offspring IQ with the risk of SSD. We used IQ routinely measured at conscription in Danish males (n=138,966) from cohorts born in 1955-84 and in 1976-1993 and followed them from a year after the conscription through 2010. We used Cox regression to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of SSD. During the follow-up, 528 men developed SSD (incidence rate [IR] 5.2 and 8.6 per 10,000 person-years in the first and second cohorts, respectively). APA was associated with higher risk of SSD (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.10-1.60 per a ten-year increase in paternal age). A higher IQ was associated with lower SSD risk (IRR, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.74 per one SD increase). The IR of SSD was higher among persons who were draft-exempt for health reasons (<20% of the men). Overall, there was little evidence of lower premorbid IQ in APA-related SSD (individuals who developed SSD and were also offspring of older fathers). Our results do not support the notion that risk gradient for offspring SSD associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ. PMID:25445626

Sørensen, Holger J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B; Ehrenstein, Vera; Petersen, Liselotte

2014-12-01

23

Methodological challenges for understanding cognitive development  

E-print Network

Methodological challenges for understanding cognitive development in infants Richard N. Aslin 14627, USA Studies of cognitive development in human infants have relied almost entirely on descriptive mechanisms of cognitive development remain largely unknown, despite attempts to correlate behavioral states

Aslin, Richard N.

24

Childhood, death, and cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employed Piaget's framework for conceptualizing cognitive development to explore and analyze children's attitudes toward death. Ss were 75 6-15 yr olds with at least average intellectual ability, as measured by the WISC Similarities subtest. Conservation tests were used to determine S's primary level of cognitive functioning. Each S was asked the following questions: What makes things die? How can you

Gerald P. Koocher

1973-01-01

25

Development of celiac disease-associated antibodies in offspring of parents with Type I diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and temporal development of antibodies related to celiac disease in\\u000a offspring of parents with Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Methods. Sera from 913 offspring of parents with Type I diabetes prospectively followed from birth to the age of 8 years were tested\\u000a for IgG-transglutaminase antibodies (IgG-tTGCAs), endomysial IgA antibodies

M. Hummel; E. Bonifacio; M. Stern; J. Dittler; A. Schimmel; A. G. Ziegler

2000-01-01

26

Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia II: Developing  

E-print Network

REVIEWS Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia II The Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative, funded in treatment development for impaired cognition in schizophre- nia by developing tools from cognitive

27

Poor maternal nutrition inhibits muscle development in ovine offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal over and restricted nutrition has negative consequences on the muscle of offspring by reducing muscle fiber number and altering regulators of muscle growth. To determine if over and restricted maternal nutrition affected muscle growth and gene and protein expression in offspring, 36 pregnant ewes were fed 60%, 100% or 140% of National Research Council requirements from d 31?±?1.3 of gestation until parturition. Lambs from control-fed (CON), restricted-fed (RES) or over-fed (OVER) ewes were necropsied within 1 d of birth (n?=?18) or maintained on a control diet for 3 mo (n?=?15). Semitendinosus muscle was collected for immunohistochemistry, and protein and gene expression analysis. Results Compared with CON, muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) increased in RES (58%) and OVER (47%) lambs at 1 d of age (P??0.3). Phosphorylated Akt (ser473) was increased in RES at 3 mo compared with CON (P?=?0.006). Conclusions In conclusion, maternal over and restricted nutrient intake alters muscle lipid content and growth of offspring, possibly through altered gene and protein expression. PMID:25247074

2014-01-01

28

Maternal dietary chromium restriction programs muscle development and function in the rat offspring.  

PubMed

Intrauterine growth retardation programs the fetus to manipulated metabolic changes that lead to adult diseases. Considering that chromium (Cr) supplements influence lean body mass (LBM) in both humans and experimental animals, we have studied the effect of maternal Cr restriction on muscle development and function in the rat offspring. Female weanling Wistar/NIN rats received, for 12 weeks, a control or 65% Cr-restricted diet ad libitum and mated with control males. While control mothers/offspring received control diet throughout (CrC), some restricted mothers were switched to control diet from conception (CrRC) and parturition (CrRP) and their offspring were weaned on to control diet. Half of the remaining restricted pups were weaned on to control diet (CrRW) and the other half continued on restricted diet throughout (CrR). Maternal CrR significantly decreased the percent of LBM (LBM %) and fat-free mass (FFM %) in the offspring and this was associated with decreased expression of the myogenic genes: MyoD, Myf5 and MyoG. Surprisingly, expression of the muscle atrophy genes, Atrogin and MuRF 1, was also decreased in CrR offspring. Although basal glucose uptake by muscle was higher in CrR than in CrC offspring, the stimulation with insulin was comparable, implying no change in its insulin sensitivity. Rehabilitation partly corrected myogenic and atrophic gene expression but had no effect on LBM % or FFM % or glucose uptake by muscle. The results show that maternal Cr restriction in rats may irreversibly impair muscle development and glucose uptake by muscle. Modulation of muscle atrophy appears to be an adaptive mechanism to preserve muscle mass in CrR offspring. PMID:20404053

Padmavathi, Inagadapa J N; Rao, Kalashikam Rajender; Venu, Lagishetty; Ismail, Ayesha; Raghunath, Manchala

2010-03-01

29

Cognitive Theories of Early Gender Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of cognitive perspectives (cognitive-developmental theory and gender schema theory) to a contemporary understanding of gender development is evaluated. Recent critiques of cognitive approaches are discussed and empirical evidence is presented to counter these critiques. Because of the centrality of early gender development to the cognitive perspective, the latest research is reviewed on how infants and toddlers discriminate the

Carol Lynn Martin; Diane N. Ruble; Joel Szkrybalo

2002-01-01

30

Development of sensitization to methamphetamine in offspring prenatally exposed to morphine, methadone and buprenorphine.  

PubMed

Heroin use among young women of reproductive age has drawn much attention around the world. However, there is lack of information on the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on their offspring. Our previous study demonstrated that prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring showed a marked change in the cross-tolerance to morphine compared with other groups. In the current study, this animal model was used to study effects of methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral sensitization in the offspring at their adulthood. The results showed no differences in either basal or acute METH-induced locomotor activity in any of the groups of animals tested. When male offspring received METH injections of 2?mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 5?days, behavioral sensitization was induced, as determined by motor activity. Furthermore, the distance and rate of development (slope) of locomotor activity and conditioned place preference induced by METH were significantly increased in the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed animals compared with those in other groups. The dopamine D1 R in the nucleus accumbens of the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring had lower mRNA expression; but no significant changes in the ?-, ?-opioid, nociceptin, D2 R and D3 R receptors were noted. Furthermore, significant alterations were observed in the basal level of cAMP and the D1 R agonist enhanced adenylyl cyclase activity in the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed group. Overall, the study demonstrates that D1 R and its downregulated cAMP signals are involved in enhancing METH-induced behavioral sensitization in prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring. The study reveals that prenatal exposure to buprenorphine caused long-term effects on offspring and affected the dopaminergic system-related reward mechanism. PMID:23551991

Chiang, Yao-Chang; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Ho, Ing-Kang

2014-07-01

31

Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

1996-01-01

32

Talents Unfolding: Cognition and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this book, developmental, educational, cognitive, and professional psychologists explore early identification of giftedness, what happens when child prodigies grow up, and environmental characteristics that are needed for talent to develop into genius. The nature of creativity and domain-specific expertise is examined, along with how psychology…

Friedman, Reva C., Ed.; Shore, Bruce M., Ed.

33

Cognitive Development: An Advanced Textbook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This new text consists of parts of Bornstein and Lamb's Developmental Science, 6th edition along with new introductory material that as a whole provides a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of cognitive development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…

Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Lamb, Michael E., Ed.

2011-01-01

34

Sperm variation within a single ejaculate affects offspring development in Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

It is generally believed that variation in sperm phenotype within a single ejaculate has no consequences for offspring performance, because sperm phenotypes are thought not to reflect sperm genotypes. We show that variation in individual sperm function within an ejaculate affects the performance of the resulting offspring in the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. We experimentally manipulated the time between sperm activation and fertilization in order to select for sperm cohorts differing in longevity within single ejaculates of wild caught male salmon. We found that within-ejaculate variation in sperm longevity significantly affected offspring development and hence time until hatching. Whether these effects have a genetic or epigenetic basis needs to be further evaluated. However, our results provide experimental evidence for transgenerational effects of individual sperm function. PMID:24522632

Immler, Simone; Hotzy, Cosima; Alavioon, Ghazal; Petersson, Erik; Arnqvist, Göran

2014-01-01

35

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MICE OFFSPRING AFTER IRRADIATION IN UTERO WITH 2,450-MHZ MICROWAVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Mice offspring irradiated in utero with 2,450-MHz radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 0 or 28 mW/cm. sq. (whole-body averaged specific absorption rate = 0 or 16.5 W/kg) for 100 minutes daily on days 6 through 17 of gestation were evaluated for maturation and development on days 1, ...

36

Role of sensory, social, and hormonal signals from the mother on the development of offspring.  

PubMed

For mammals, sensory, social, and hormonal experience early in life is essential for the continuity of the infant's development. These experiences come from the mother through maternal care, and have enduring effects on the physiology and behavior of the adult organism. Disturbing the mother-offspring interaction by maternal deprivation (neglect) or exposure to adverse events as chronic stress, maltreatment, or sexual abuse has negative effects on the mental, psychological, physiological, and behavioral health. Indeed, these kinds of negative experiences can be the source of some neuropsychiatric diseases as depression, anxiety, impulsive aggression, and antisocial behavior. The purpose of this chapter is to review the most relevant evidence that supports the participation of cues from the mother and/or littermates during the postnatal preweaning period for the development of nervous system of the offspring. These findings come from the most frequently utilized experimental paradigms used in animal models, such as natural variations in maternal behavior, handling, partial maternal deprivation, and total maternal deprivation and artificial rearing. Through the use of these experimental procedures, it is possible to positively (handling paradigm), or negatively (maternal deprivation paradigms), affect the offspring's development. Finally, this chapter reviews the importance of the hormones that pups ingest through the maternal milk during early lactation on the development of several physiological systems, including the immune, endocrine systems, as well as on the adult behavior of the offspring. PMID:25287543

Melo, Angel I

2015-01-01

37

GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO NONYLPHENOL CAUSES PRECOCIOUS MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examined whether or not exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) during late gestation affects reproductive and mammary development in the offspring of female rats. Time pregnant Long Evans rats were gavaged with NP (10 or 100 mg/kg), atrazine (ATR, 100 mg/kg), or corn oil on ge...

38

Missing sights: consequences for visual cognitive development  

E-print Network

Missing sights: consequences for visual cognitive development Daphne Maurer1,2 , Terri L. Lewis1 visual cognitive development. Introduction Human visual acuity improves fivefold in the first 6 months cognitive development. Cataract-reversal patients Children born with bilateral or unilateral cataracts

Dukas, Reuven

39

Oxidative stress in mouse sperm impairs embryo development, fetal growth and alters adiposity and glucose regulation in female offspring.  

PubMed

Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM) in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity. PMID:25006800

Lane, Michelle; McPherson, Nicole O; Fullston, Tod; Spillane, Marni; Sandeman, Lauren; Kang, Wan Xian; Zander-Fox, Deirdre L

2014-01-01

40

Oxidative Stress in Mouse Sperm Impairs Embryo Development, Fetal Growth and Alters Adiposity and Glucose Regulation in Female Offspring  

PubMed Central

Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM) in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity. PMID:25006800

Lane, Michelle; McPherson, Nicole O.; Fullston, Tod; Spillane, Marni; Sandeman, Lauren; Kang, Wan Xian; Zander-Fox, Deirdre L.

2014-01-01

41

Maternal lead exposure during lactation persistently impairs testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) is a testicular toxicant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maternal Pb exposure during lactation on testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. Maternal mice were exposed to different concentration of lead acetate (200 or 2000?ppm) through drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 0 to PND21. As expected, a high concentration of Pb was measured in the kidneys and liver of pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. In addition, maternal Pb exposure during lactation elevated, to a less extent, Pb content in testes of weaning pups. Testis weight in weaning pups was significantly decreased when maternal mice were exposed to Pb during lactation. The level of serum and testicular T was reduced in Pb-exposed pups. The expression of P450scc, P450(17?) and 17?-HSD, key enzymes for T synthesis, was down-regulated in testes of weaning pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Interestingly, the level of serum and testicular T remained decreased in adult offspring whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Importantly, the number of spermatozoa was significantly reduced in Pb-exposed male offspring. Taken together, these results suggest that Pb could be transported from dams to pups through milk. Maternal Pb exposure during lactation persistently disrupts testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. PMID:22806249

Wang, Hua; Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Ning, Huan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Xu, De-Xiang

2013-12-01

42

Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?  

PubMed Central

Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(?/?) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

2014-01-01

43

HOMOCYSTEINE & COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE FRAMINGHAM OFFSPRING STUDY: AGE IS IMPORTANT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are associated with deficits in cognitive performance in persons free from dementia. The extent to which age modifies these associations is in need of further investigation in large, community-based, prospective studies combining the following elements...

44

Activation of the Maternal Immune System Alters Cerebellar Development in the Offspring  

PubMed Central

A common pathological finding in autism is a localized deficit in Purkinje cells (PCs). Cerebellar abnormalities have also been reported in schizophrenia. Using a mouse model that exploits a known risk factor for these disorders, maternal infection, we asked if the offspring of pregnant mice given a mid-gestation respiratory infection have cerebellar pathology resembling that seen in these disorders. We also tested the effects of maternal immune activation in the absence of virus by injection of the synthetic dsRNA, poly(I:C). We infected pregnant mice with influenza on embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5), or injected poly(I:C) i.p. on E12.5, and assessed the linear density of PCs in the cerebellum of adult or postnatal day 11 (P11) offspring. To study granule cell migration, we also injected BrdU on P11. Adult offspring of influenza- or poly(I:C)-exposed mice display a localized deficit in PCs in lobule VII of the cerebellum, as do P11 offspring. Coincident with this are heterotopic PCs, as well as delayed migration of granule cells in lobules VI and VII. The cerebellar pathology observed in the offspring of influenza- or poly(I:C)-exposed mice is strikingly similar to that observed in autism. The poly(I:C) findings indicate that deficits are likely caused by the activation of the maternal immune system. Finally, our data suggest that cerebellar abnormalities occur during embryonic development, and may be an early deficit in autism and schizophrenia. PMID:18755264

Shi, Limin; Smith, Stephen E. P.; Malkova, Natalia; Tse, Doris; Su, Yixuan; Patterson, Paul H.

2009-01-01

45

Social cognitive development during adolescence  

PubMed Central

Social relationships are particularly important during adolescence. In recent years, histological and MRI studies have shown that the brain is subject to considerable structural development during adolescence. Brain regions that are implicated in social cognition, including parts of prefrontal, parietal and superior temporal cortex, undergo the most pronounced and prolonged change. However, the development of social cognition during adolescence and its neural underpinnings remains poorly understood. Here, we begin by outlining how the brain changes between childhood and adulthood. We then describe findings that have emerged from behavioural and neuroimaging studies of the recognition of facial expression during adolescence. Finally, we present new data that demonstrate development of emotional perspective taking during adolescence. In this study, 112 participants, aged 8–36 years, performed a computerised task that involved taking an emotional perspective either from the participant's own point of view or from that of another person. The results showed that average difference in reaction time (RT) to answer questions in the first person perspective (1PP) and third person perspective (3PP) significantly decreased with age. The RT difference of adults tended to cluster close to the zero line (3PP = 1PP), while a greater proportion of pre-adolescents had higher difference values in both the positive (3PP > 1PP) and negative direction (1PP > 3PP) of the scale. The data suggest that the efficiency, and possibly strategy, of perspective taking develop in parallel with brain maturation and psychosocial development during adolescence. PMID:18985103

Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Charman, Tony

2006-01-01

46

Identifying Cognitive Mechanisms Targeted for Treatment Development in Schizophrenia: An  

E-print Network

REVIEW Identifying Cognitive Mechanisms Targeted for Treatment Development in Schizophrenia and development of the ideas that led to the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition barriers to translating paradigms developed in the basic animal and human cognitive neuroscience fields

47

Maternal overweight and smoking: prenatal risk factors for caries development in offspring during the teenage period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate pre- and perinatal determinants as risk factors for caries development in offspring. In this\\u000a longitudinal register-based cohort study, we included all children (n = 18,142), of 13 years of age who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000. The cohort was followed until individuals\\u000a were 19 years of age. In total, 15,538 subjects were examined. Dental caries

Annika Julihn; Anders Ekbom; Thomas Modéer

2009-01-01

48

Cognitive theories of early gender development.  

PubMed

The contribution of cognitive perspectives (cognitive-developmental theory and gender schema theory) to a contemporary understanding of gender development is evaluated. Recent critiques of cognitive approaches are discussed and empirical evidence is presented to counter these critiques. Because of the centrality of early gender development to the cognitive perspective, the latest research is reviewed on how infants and toddlers discriminate the sexes and learn the attributes correlated with sex. The essence of cognitive approaches--emphasis on motivational consequences of gender concepts; the active, self-initiated view of development; and focus on developmental patterns-is highlighted and contrasted with social-cognitive views. The value of cognitive theories to the field is illustrated, and recommendations are made concerning how to construct comprehensive, integrative perspectives of gender development. PMID:12405137

Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N; Szkrybalo, Joel

2002-11-01

49

Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring  

SciTech Connect

Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the reproductive and neurological development of rat offspring, which may be a cause of concern, as humans are systematically exposed to the compound through usage of sunscreens and other cosmetics.

Axelstad, Marta, E-mail: maap@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Boberg, Julie [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Hougaard, Karin Sorig [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lerso Parkalle 105, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Lund, Soren Peter [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lerso Parkalle 105, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Hass, Ulla [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark)

2011-02-01

50

Effect of nitric oxide on physical development and erythropoiesis in the offspring of rats with impaired uteroplacental circulation.  

PubMed

We evaluated physical development and activity of erythropoiesis in the offspring of rats with experimentally impaired uteroplacental circulation as well as the effect of exogenous nitric oxide donator used during pregnancy, on offspring development. Exogenous NO producing an anti-hypoxic effects contributes to the increase in somatometric parameters of the offspring on postnatal days 15 and 30. The rates of erythropoiesis in the liver and bone marrow did not differ from the normal; hemopoietic organs were not overstrained, which prevented exhaustion and failure of functional reserves of the erythrocyte system. PMID:23658911

Nazarov, S B; Ivanova, A S; Novikov, A A

2013-04-01

51

[Protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) in the blood of offspring of cows that developed BSE].  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to investigate whether protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) occurs in plasma samples of offspring of cows that developed bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; group A) and to compare the prevalence with that of a healthy control group in 2006 (Group B). Group A consisted of 181 offspring of cows that developed BSE and group B consisted of 240 healthy animals from a region in Switzerland where no cases of BSE occurred from 2001 to the end of 2006. All plasma samples were evaluated using Alicon PrioTrap, an antemortem test for PrPres. The time between birth of the offspring and onset of BSE in the dam was calculated to determine its relationship with the presence of PrPres in the plasma of the offspring. From 181 offspring, 29 (16.1%) had PrPres-positive plasma samples. Offspring that were born within one year of the onset of BSE in the dam had a significantly higher prevalence of PrPres-positive plasma samples than those born more than one year before the onset of BSE in the dam. Ten (4.2%) of 240 control cattle had PrPres-positive plasma samples. Thus, PrPres can be detected in bovine blood and occurs more frequently in the offspring of cows that develop BSE than in cattle of a healthy control population. PMID:19722131

Braun, U; Tschuor, A; Hässig, M; Franitza, S; Berli, E; El Gedaily, A; Franscini, N; Matthey, U; Zahn, R

2009-09-01

52

Cognitive development in a secondary science setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations were made of the progressive change in the cognitive development of 141 students over the course of their secondary education in an Australian private school. Cognitive development was measured in years 8, 10 and 12 using Bond's Logical Orerations Test. Rasch analysis of each of the data sets provided ability estimates for students in the year groups of 1993 (year 8), 1995 (year 10) and 1997 (year 12). Twenty-nine students from the year group of 1993 were tested on all three occasions. We analysed data from these 29 students in order to investigate the children's cognitive development across years 8, 10 and 12. We also examined the influence of the Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE) Thinking Science program on the cognitive development and scholastic achievement of these students. We found increased mental growth between years 8 and 10 for most students in the Thinking Science cohort, which could not be predicted from their starting levels. There was a significant correlation between cognitive development and the scholastic achievement of these students. Although boys as a group were more advanced in cognitive development than girls in years 8 and 10, no difference was found in the rate of cognitive change based on sex up to year 10. However girls showed cognitive gains across years 10-12 which were not found in boys. The students who were new to the school also showed increased cognitive development in years 11 and 12. Students who had experienced the Thinking Science course were more cognitively developed than students who joined the school after the intervention had taken place. This study supports the claim of Adey and Shayer that there is a relationship between cognitive development and scholastic achievement, even though we used different measures of cognitive development and scholastic achievement.

Endler, Lorna C.; Bond, Trevor

2000-12-01

53

Transgenerational Effects of Parental Larval Diet on Offspring Development Time, Adult Body Size and Pathogen Resistance in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to affect offspring performance. We set out to investigate the effect of parental larval diet on offspring development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies for the parental generation were raised on either poor or standard diet and then mated in the four possible sex-by-parental diet crosses. Females that were raised on poor food produced larger offspring than females that were raised on standard food. Furthermore, male progeny sired by fathers that were raised on poor food were larger than male progeny sired by males raised on standard food. Development times were shortest for offspring whose one parent (mother or the father) was raised on standard and the other parent on poor food and longest for offspring whose parents both were raised on poor food. No evidence for transgenerational effects of parental diet on offspring disease resistance was found. Although paternal effects have been previously demonstrated in D. melanogaster, no earlier studies have investigated male-mediated transgenerational effects of diet in this species. The results highlight the importance of not only considering the relative contribution each parental sex has on progeny performance but also the combined effects that the two sexes may have on offspring performance. PMID:22359607

Valtonen, Terhi M.; Kangassalo, Katariina; Pölkki, Mari; Rantala, Markus J.

2012-01-01

54

Ongoing development of social cognition in adolescence.  

PubMed

Age differences in social cognition between adolescents and young adults were investigated. Two large groups of adolescents and young adults were given tasks of theory of mind and emotion recognition. In addition, to control for possibly related basic cognitive development, working memory, speed of processing, and verbal ability were assessed. A strong age effect was revealed across both measures of social cognition. Adolescents performed with a lower accuracy than adults. Further analyses indicated that those age differences remained significant even after controlling for basic cognitive abilities. Exploratory analyses indicated no influence of pubertal phase on social cognition. Results suggest ongoing development of social cognition across adolescence, independent of individual differences in more basic cognitive abilities. PMID:22934659

Vetter, Nora C; Leipold, Kristina; Kliegel, Matthias; Phillips, Louise H; Altgassen, Mareike

2013-01-01

55

Applying the Cultural Approach to Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive development is a cultural process. More experienced cultural members and the practices, institutions, and artifacts of the culture provide support and guidance for children as they develop knowledge and thinking skills. In this article, the authors describe the value that is added to our understanding of cognitive development when…

Gauvain, Mary; Beebe, Heidi; Zhao, Shuheng

2011-01-01

56

Alarm substance from adult zebrafish alters early embryonic development in offspring  

PubMed Central

Alarm substances elicit behavioural responses in a wide range of animals but effects on early embryonic development are virtually unknown. Here we investigated whether skin injury-induced alarm substances caused physiological responses in embryos produced by two Danio species (Danio rerio and Danio albolineatus). Both species showed more rapid physiological development in the presence of alarm substance, although there were subtle differences between them: D. rerio had advanced muscle contraction and heart function, whereas D. albolineatus had advanced heart function only. Hence, alarm cues from injured or dying fish may be of benefit to their offspring, inducing physiological responses and potentially increasing their inclusive fitness. PMID:20071391

Mourabit, S.; Rundle, S. D.; Spicer, J. I.; Sloman, K. A.

2010-01-01

57

Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

2012-01-01

58

Fetal Brain Behavior and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on prenatal brain development, detailing the functions controlled by the medulla, pons, and midbrain, and the implications for cognitive development. Concludes that fetal cognitive motor activity, including auditory discrimination, orienting, the wake-sleep cycle, fetal heart rate accelerations, and defensive reactions,…

Joseph, R.

2000-01-01

59

Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: I. The development of the thyroid hormones–neurotransmitters and adenosinergic system interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adequate functioning of the maternal thyroid gland plays an important role to ensure that the offspring develop normally. Thus, maternal hypo- and hyperthyroidism are used from the gestation day 1 to lactation day 21, in general, to recognize the alleged association of offspring abnormalities associated with the different thyroid status. In maternal rats during pregnancy and lactation, hypothyroidism in

O. M. Ahmed; S. M. Abd El-Tawab; R. G. Ahmed

2010-01-01

60

Relational processing in higher cognition: Implications for analogy, capacity and cognitive development.  

E-print Network

and cognitive development. Paper presented to workshop on analogy, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria cognition: Implications for analogy, capacity and cognitive development. In this paper we will present levels of cognitive development, and accounts for processing loads in cognitive tasks, within a common

Wilson, Bill

61

Dietary Supplementation of Female Rats with Elk Velvet Antler Improves Physical and Neurological Development of Offspring  

PubMed Central

Elk velvet antler (EVA) has a traditional use for promotion of general health. However, evidence of EVA effects at different lifestages is generally lacking. This paper investigated the effects of long-term maternal dietary EVA supplementation on physical, reflexological and neurological development of rat offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed standard chow or chow containing 10% EVA for 90 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. In each dietary group, 56 male and 56 female pups were assessed for physical, neuromotor, and reflexologic development postnatally. Among the examined physical developmental parameters, incisor eruption occurred one day earlier in pups nursing dams receiving EVA. Among neuromotor developmental parameters, duration of supported and unsupported standing was longer for pups nursing EVA supplemented dams. Acquisition of neurological reflex parameters (righting reflex, negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance acoustic startle) occurred earlier in pups nursing dams receiving EVA. Longterm maternal EVA supplementation prior to and during pregnancy and lactation accelerated certain physical, reflexologic, and neuromotor developmental milestones and caused no discernible adverse effects on developing offspring. The potential benefits of maternal EVA supplementation on postnatal development warrants further investigation to determine whether EVA can be endorsed for the promotion of maternal and child health. PMID:22550542

Chen, Jiongran; Woodbury, Murray R.; Alcorn, Jane; Honaramooz, Ali

2012-01-01

62

Dietary supplementation of female rats with elk velvet antler improves physical and neurological development of offspring.  

PubMed

Elk velvet antler (EVA) has a traditional use for promotion of general health. However, evidence of EVA effects at different lifestages is generally lacking. This paper investigated the effects of long-term maternal dietary EVA supplementation on physical, reflexological and neurological development of rat offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed standard chow or chow containing 10% EVA for 90 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. In each dietary group, 56 male and 56 female pups were assessed for physical, neuromotor, and reflexologic development postnatally. Among the examined physical developmental parameters, incisor eruption occurred one day earlier in pups nursing dams receiving EVA. Among neuromotor developmental parameters, duration of supported and unsupported standing was longer for pups nursing EVA supplemented dams. Acquisition of neurological reflex parameters (righting reflex, negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance acoustic startle) occurred earlier in pups nursing dams receiving EVA. Longterm maternal EVA supplementation prior to and during pregnancy and lactation accelerated certain physical, reflexologic, and neuromotor developmental milestones and caused no discernible adverse effects on developing offspring. The potential benefits of maternal EVA supplementation on postnatal development warrants further investigation to determine whether EVA can be endorsed for the promotion of maternal and child health. PMID:22550542

Chen, Jiongran; Woodbury, Murray R; Alcorn, Jane; Honaramooz, Ali

2012-01-01

63

David Klahr Walter van Dyke Bingham Professor of Cognitive Development and Education Sciences  

E-print Network

May 2014 David Klahr Walter van Dyke Bingham Professor of Cognitive Development and Education of Education Cognitive Science Society Society for Research in Child Development Cognitive Development Society Journal American J. of Psychology Child Development Cognitive Development Cognitive Psychology Cognitive

Klahr, David

64

Maternal LPS Exposure during Pregnancy Impairs Testicular Development, Steroidogenesis and Spermatogenesis in Male Offspring  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, fetal death, congenital teratogenesis and fetal growth retardation. Here, we explored the effects of maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy on testicular development, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male offspring. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 µg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 13 to GD 17. At fetal period, a significant decrease in body weight and abnormal Leydig cell aggregations were observed in males whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. At postnatal day (PND) 26, anogenital distance (AGD), a sensitive index of altered androgen action, was markedly reduced in male pups whose mothers were exposed to LPS daily from GD13 to GD 17. At PND35, the weight of testes, prostates and seminal vesicles, and serum testosterone (T) level were significantly decreased in LPS-treated male pups. At adulthood, the number of sperm was significantly decreased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to LPS on GD 13–17. Maternal LPS exposure during gestation obviously diminished the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages I–VI, increased the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages IX–XII, and caused massive sloughing of germ cells in seminiferous tubules in mouse testes. Moreover, maternal LPS exposure significantly reduced serum T level in male mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS challenge during pregnancy. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy disrupts T production. The decreased T synthesis might be associated with LPS-induced impairments for spermatogenesis in male offspring. PMID:25255222

Hu, Yong-Fang; Wang, Bi-Wei; Huang, Yin-Yin; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

2014-01-01

65

Maternal antenatal vitamin D status and offspring muscle development: findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey  

PubMed Central

Context Maternal 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] status in pregnancy has been associated with offspring bone development and adiposity. Vitamin D has also been implicated in postnatal muscle function but little is known about a role for antenatal 25(OH)D exposure in programming muscle development. Objective We investigated the associations between maternal plasma 25(OH)D status at 34 weeks gestation and offspring lean mass and muscle strength at 4 years of age. Design and setting A prospective UK population-based mother-offspring cohort: the Southampton Women’s Survey (SWS). Participants 12583 non-pregnant women were initially recruited into SWS, of which 3159 had singleton pregnancies. 678 mother-child pairs were included in this analysis. Main Outcomes Measured At 4 years of age, offspring assessments included hand grip strength (Jamar Dynamometer) and whole body DXA (Hologic Discovery) yielding lean mass and %lean mass. Physical activity was assessed by 7-day accelerometry (Actiheart) in a subset of children (n=326). Results Maternal serum 25(OH)D concentration in pregnancy was positively associated with offspring height-adjusted hand grip strength (?=0.10 SD/SD, p=0.013), which persisted after adjustment for maternal confounding factors, duration of breastfeeding and child’s physical activity at 4 years (?=0.13 SD/SD, p=0.014). Maternal 25(OH)D was also positively associated with offspring %lean mass (?=0.11 SD/SD, p=0.006), but not total lean mass (?=0.06, p=0.15). This however did not persist after adjustment for confounding factors (?=0.09 SD/SD, p=0.11). Conclusions This observational study suggests that intrauterine exposure to 25(OH)D during late pregnancy might influence offspring muscle development through an effect primarily on muscle strength rather than muscle mass. PMID:24178796

Harvey, Nicholas C.; Moon, Rebecca J.; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Ntani, Georgia; Davies, Justin H.; Javaid, M Kassim; Robinson, Sian M.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Cooper, Cyrus

2013-01-01

66

The biology of mammalian parenting and its effect on offspring social development  

PubMed Central

Parents know the transformative nature of having and caring for a child. Among many mammals, giving birth leads from an aversion to infant stimuli to irresistible attraction. Here, we review the biological mechanisms governing this shift in parental motivation in mammals. Estrogen and progesterone prepare the uterus for embryo implantation and placental development. Prolactin stimulates milk production, whereas oxytocin initiates labor and triggers milk ejection during nursing. These same molecules, interacting with dopamine, also activate specific neural pathways to motivate parents to nurture, bond with, and protect their offspring. Parenting in turn shapes the neural development of the infant social brain. Recent work suggests that many of the principles governing parental behavior and its effect on infant development are conserved from rodent to humans. PMID:25124431

Rilling, James K.; Young, Larry J.

2015-01-01

67

The biology of mammalian parenting and its effect on offspring social development.  

PubMed

Parents know the transformative nature of having and caring for a child. Among many mammals, giving birth leads from an aversion to infant stimuli to irresistible attraction. Here, we review the biological mechanisms governing this shift in parental motivation in mammals. Estrogen and progesterone prepare the uterus for embryo implantation and placental development. Prolactin stimulates milk production, whereas oxytocin initiates labor and triggers milk ejection during nursing. These same molecules, interacting with dopamine, also activate specific neural pathways to motivate parents to nurture, bond with, and protect their offspring. Parenting in turn shapes the neural development of the infant social brain. Recent work suggests that many of the principles governing parental behavior and its effect on infant development are conserved from rodent to humans. PMID:25124431

Rilling, James K; Young, Larry J

2014-08-15

68

Pelage insulation, litter size, and ambient temperature impact maternal energy intake and offspring development during lactation  

PubMed Central

Energy balance during lactation critically influences survival and growth of a mother’s offspring, and hence, her reproductive success. Most experiments have investigated the influence of a single factor (e.g., ambient temperature [Ta] or litter size) on the energetics of lactation. Here, we determined the impact of multiple interventions, including increased conductive heat loss consequent to dorsal fur removal, cold exposure (Ta of 5°C versus 23°C), and differential lactational load from litters of different sizes (2 or 4 pups), on maternal energy balance and offspring development of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Lower Ta, fur removal, and larger litters were associated with increased maternal food consumption. Females exposed to multiple challenges (e.g., both fur loss and lower Ta) ate substantially more food than those exposed to a single challenge, with no apparent ceiling to elevated food intake (increases up to 538%). Thus, energy intake of dams under these conditions does not appear to be limited by feeding behavior or the size of the digestive tract. Housing at 5°C attenuated pup weight gain and increased pup mortality to more than 5 times that of litters housed at 23°C. Increases in the dam’s conductive heat loss induced by fur removal did not affect pup weight gain or survival, suggesting that effects of low Ta on pup weight gain and survival reflect limitations in the pups’ ability to ingest or incorporate energy. PMID:20184907

Paul, Matthew J.; Tuthill, Christiana; Kauffman, Alexander S.; Zucker, Irving

2010-01-01

69

Parental conflict in birds: comparative analyses of offspring development, ecology and mating opportunities  

PubMed Central

Parents often conflict over how much care to provide to their offspring. This conflict is expected to produce a negative relationship between male and female parental care, the strength of which may be mediated by both ecological and life-history variables. Previous studies have observed such trade-offs, but it is not known how generally they occur. Traditional views of sexual conflict place great importance on ecological factors in determining levels of parental care, whereas alternative views propose that the key determinant is mating opportunity. We carried out a broad-scale comparative study of parental conflict using 193 species from 41 families of birds. Using phylogenetic comparative analysis, we establish the generality of intersexual parental care conflict. We also show that parental conflict, as indicated by the disparity in care between the male and the female, depends on offspring development and mating opportunities, since in precocial species both males and females responded to increased mating opportunities. Altricial birds, however, failed to show these relationships. We also found little influence of breeding climate on parental conflict. Taken together, our results suggest that sexual conflict is a key element in the evolution of parental care systems. They also support the view that the major correlates of the intersexual conflict are mating opportunities for both sexes, rather than the breeding environment. PMID:18029303

Olson, V.A; Liker, A; Freckleton, R.P; Székely, T

2007-01-01

70

Perinatal exposure to fluoxetine via placenta and lactation inhibits the testicular development in male rat offspring.  

PubMed

Due to the widespread use of fluoxetine to treat depression, including pregnant and nursing women, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of in utero and lactational exposure to fluoxetine in rat offspring at post natal day 22. Wistar rat dams were orally treated with fluoxetine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) from day 13 gestation to day 21 lactation. Exposure to 10 and 20 mg/kg fluoxetine reduced the body and testis weights. The volume of the seminiferous tubules and epithelium were also reduced following 20 mg/kg fluoxetine exposure. The length of the seminiferous tubules and the population of Sertoli cells changed in offspring exposed to fluoxetine. The amount of seminiferous tubules lacking tubular lumen was higher in rats exposed to 20 mg/kg fluoxetine. Plasma testosterone showed no significant change. In conclusion, fluoxetine exposure via the placenta and lactation may inhibit and delay testicular development, adversely affecting several testicular parameters important for the establishment of sperm production in adulthood. PMID:23651434

de Oliveira, Waldo Monteiro; de Sá, Iana Raphaela; de Torres, Sandra Maria; de Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Andrade, Anderson Martino; Maia, Frederico Celso Lyra; Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro Amaro

2013-10-01

71

ANIMAL MODELS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN NEUROTOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The thesis of this chapter has been that spatial delayed alternation versus position discrimination learning can serve as a valuable rodent model of cognitive development in neurotoxicology. his model captures dual process conceptualizations of memory in human neuropsychology and...

72

Optimizing Cognitive Development over the Life Course and Preventing Cognitive Decline: Introducing the Cognitive Health Environment Life Course Model (CHELM)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Optimal cognitive development is defined in this article as the highest level of cognitive function reached in each cognitive domain given a person's biological and genetic disposition, and the highest possible maintenance of cognitive function over the adult life course. Theoretical perspectives underpinning the development of a framework…

Anstey, Kaarin J.

2014-01-01

73

Maternal Cypermethrin Exposure during the Perinatal Period Impairs Testicular Development in C57BL Male Offspring  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have demonstrated that endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) are a possible cause of male reproductive organ malfunction and malformation. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid and a potential EDC. This study aimed to examine the effects of perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP on the development and function of the offspring testes. Pregnant mice were intragastrically administered 0.12 to 12 mg/kg/day CYP from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) to weaning (PD21.5, postnatal day 21.5). Maternal exposure to 0.12, 1.2, and 12 mg/kg/day CYP affected the body and organ weight of the offspring. Exposure of CYP led to a dose-dependent decrease in the male-to-female sex ratio. A histopathological analysis revealed a thinner seminiferous epithelium layer at PD21.5, interstitial hyperplasia at PD45.5, and germ cell vacuolization at PD90.5 in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The TUNEL assay results revealed increased germ cell apoptosis in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The serum testosterone (T) level decreased, whereas the estradiol level increased with age in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The RT-PCR analysis demonstrated decreased expression of T production-related, mitosis-related, and meiosis-related genes in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The in vitro experimental results demonstrated reduced expression of steroidogenesis genes and decreased T levels. It is concluded that perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP affects testes development and function in adults. PMID:24810582

Huang, Chaobin; Li, Xiangdong

2014-01-01

74

Maternal Postnatal Depression and the Development of Depression in Offspring up to 16 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the developmental risk pathway to depression by 16 years in offspring of postnatally depressed mothers. Method: This was a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of postnatally depressed and nondepressed mothers; child and family assessments were made from infancy to 16 years. A total of 702…

Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Goodyer, Ian; Cooper, Peter

2011-01-01

75

Transmission of parental neuroticism to offspring's depression: the mediating role of rumination.  

PubMed

Rumination is a cognitive process that involves repetitively focusing on the causes, situational factors and consequences of one's negative emotion, and it is a potent risk factor for depression. Parental depression and neuroticism may exert an influence on offspring's development of rumination, which may increase offspring's risk for depression. The current study included 375 biological parent-offspring dyads. Parents were assessed for depressive symptoms and neuroticism; adult offspring were assessed for depressive symptoms and rumination. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the effects of parental depressive symptoms and parental neuroticism on adult offspring's depression, and to determine whether offspring's rumination mediated this relationship. Results provided evidence that offspring's rumination fully mediated the relationship between parental neuroticism and offspring's depressive symptoms. Parental depressive symptoms and neuroticism may contribute a genetic predisposition for depressive symptoms in offspring, but it also may promote an environment in which maladaptive cognitive processes, such as rumination, are learned. Given the role that rumination plays in mediating the association between neuroticism and depressive symptoms-targeting rumination in the treatment of high risk individuals would be important in reducing onset of depressive disorders. PMID:25183563

Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Selby, Edward A; Hames, Jennifer L; Joiner, Thomas E; Fingerman, Karen L; Zarit, Steven H; Birditt, Kira S; Hilt, Lori M

2014-10-01

76

Mouse round spermatids developed in vitro from preexisting spermatocytes can produce normal offspring by nuclear injection into in vivo-developed mature oocytes.  

PubMed

It has been shown that mature oocytes injected with nuclei from round spermatids collected from mouse testis can generate normal offspring and that round spermatids can develop in vitro. An undetermined issue is whether spermatids developed in vitro are capable of generating fertile offspring by nuclear injection into oocytes. Herein, we report the production of normal and fertile offspring by nuclear injection using haploid spermatid donors derived from mouse primary spermatocyte precursors cocultured with Sertoli cells. Cocultured spermatogonia and spermatocytes were characterized by their nuclear immunoreactive patterns determined by an antibody to phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), a marker for DNA double-strand breaks. Cocultured round spermatid progenies display more than one motile flagellum, whose axonemes were recognized by antitubulin immunostaining. Flagellar wavelike movement and flagellar-driven propulsion of round spermatids developed in vitro were documented by videomicroscopy (http://www.sci.ccny.cuny.edu/ approximately kier). We also show that breeding of male and female mouse offspring generated by spermatid nuclear injection produced fertile offspring. In addition to their capacity to produce fertile offspring, cocultured, flagellated round spermatids can facilitate the analysis of the mechanisms of centriolar polarity, duplication, assembly, and flagellar growth, including the intraflagellar transport of cargo proteins. PMID:12620938

Marh, Joel; Tres, Laura L; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Kierszenbaum, Abraham L

2003-07-01

77

Cognitive Process of Development in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

Boddington, Eulalee N.

2009-01-01

78

SOCIAL CLASS AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO FIND OUT WHETHER SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES IN INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT ARE PRESENT IF (1) CHILDREN FROM SOCIALLY DISORGANIZED SLUM FAMILIES ARE COMPARED WITH CHILDREN FROM STABLE, LOW INCOME AND MIDDLE INCOME FAMILIES, (2) THE PIAGET OBJECT SCALE, A NEW MEASURE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT BASED ON PIAGET'S SENSORIMOTOR…

BIRNS, BEVERLY; GOLDEN, MARK

79

Suboptimal maternal nutrition, during early fetal liver development, promotes lipid accumulation in the liver of obese offspring  

PubMed Central

Maternal nutrition during the period of early organ development can modulate the offspring's ability to metabolise excess fat as young adults when exposed to an obesogenic environment. This study examined the hypothesis that exposing offspring to nutrient restriction coincident with early hepatogenesis would result in endocrine and metabolic adaptations that subsequently lead to increased ectopic lipid accumulation within the liver. Pregnant sheep were fed either 50 or 100% of total metabolisable energy requirements from 30 to 80 days gestation and 100% thereafter. At weaning, offspring were made obese, and at ?1 year of age livers were sampled. Lipid infiltration and molecular indices of gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function were measured. Although hepatic triglyceride accumulation was not affected by obesity per se, it was nearly doubled in obese offspring born to nutrient-restricted mothers. This adaptation was accompanied by elevated gene expression for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPARG) and its co-activator PGC1?, which may be indicative of changes in the rate of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. In contrast, maternal diet had no influence on the stimulatory effect of obesity on gene expression for a range of proteins involved in glucose metabolism and energy balance including glucokinase, glucocorticoid receptors and uncoupling protein 2. Similarly, although gene expressions for the insulin and IGF1 receptors were suppressed by obesity they were not influenced by the prenatal nutritional environment. In conclusion, excess hepatic lipid accumulation with juvenile obesity is promoted by suboptimal nutrition coincident with early development of the fetal liver. PMID:21045167

Hyatt, M A; Gardner, D S; Sebert, S; Wilson, V; Davidson, N; Nigmatullina, Y; Chan, L L Y; Budge, H; Symonds, M E

2011-01-01

80

Long-term toxicity of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets: Effects on female mouse reproductive ability and offspring development.  

PubMed

Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets have emerged as novel materials for cancer therapeutics. Their toxicity has attracted much attention since these nanomaterials may have great potential for clinical cancer treatment. Here we report the influence of rGO exposure on female mouse reproductive ability and offspring development. Mouse dams were injected with small or large rGO nanosheets at different doses and time points, pre- or post-fertilization. The sex hormone levels of adult female mice did not significantly change compared with the control group after intravenous injection with either small or large rGO, even at a high dose (25 mg/kg). Mouse dams could produce healthy offspring after treatment with rGO nanosheets before pregnancy and at an early gestational stage (?6 days). Despite the successful delivery of offspring, malformed fetuses were found among rGO-injected dam litters. All mice had abortions when injected with low (6.25 mg/kg) or intermediate (12.5 mg/kg) doses at a late gestational stage (?20 days); the majority of pregnant mice died when injected with the high dose of rGO at this stage of pregnancy. Interestingly, all surviving rGO-injected mouse mothers gave birth to another litter of healthy pups. The results presented in this work are important for a deeper understanding of the toxicity of rGO nanosheets on female reproductivity and their offspring development. PMID:25907052

Xu, Shun; Zhang, Zheyu; Chu, Maoquan

2015-06-01

81

Physical and psychomotor development in the offspring born to mothers with epilepsy.  

PubMed

Psychomotor development of 71 children born to mothers with epilepsy was prospectively studied and compared to those of 99 controls matched for age, maternal educational level and age, and socioeconomic status. Intrauterine growth retardation disappeared before age 3 years. Assessment at age 1.5 years revealed that exposure to seizures, high dose of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in utero, and small head circumference at birth affected development quotient (DQ) scores of motor or linguistic abilities or both. DQ scores of motor ability of children of mothers with complex partial seizures were lower than those with simple partial seizures when assessed at age 3 years. Assessments at age 1.5 years revealed that the total daily dose of AEDs correlated negatively with DQ scores of motor ability, and at age 3 years, maternal educational level affected DQ scores of some fields, including linguistic ability. The effects of AED exposure in utero and the occurrence of maternal seizures on the development of offspring were found to matter more at the younger age, but later on, the child care environment and, in particular, maternal ability of child-rearing, became more important. Our findings indicate that careful and regular follow-ups are needed to monitor the developmental stages of children of mothers with epilepsy, and the introduction of a day nursery should be suggested if necessary. PMID:15610196

Hirano, Takayuki; Fujioka, Kuniko; Okada, Motohiro; Iwasa, Hiroto; Kaneko, Sunao

2004-01-01

82

Cognitive and socioemotional caregiving in developing countries.  

PubMed

Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving-cognitive and socioemotional-in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving and engaged in more socioemotional than cognitive activities. More than half of mothers played with their children and took them outside, but only a third or fewer read books and told stories to their children. The GDP of countries related to caregiving after controlling for life expectancy and education. The majority of mothers report that they do not leave their under-5s alone. Policy and intervention recommendations are elaborated. PMID:22277006

Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L

2012-01-01

83

Testicular development of male mice offsprings exposed to acrylamide and alcohol during the gestation and lactation period.  

PubMed

Acrylamide (Ac) in the foods and alcohol (Al) in the drinks are unavoidable. Several previous studies demonstrated that these substances which are taken into the body via diet may cause adverse effects in the cells. However, there is no study about how Ac and Al may affect the male reproductive system of the offspring when consumed by the mother during pregnancy and lactation. For this purpose, sexual development in male mice was evaluated after intake of 14 mg/kg Ac and 2 g/kg Al from gestation day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21. The weight of the offspring was reduced at birth and PND 21 for those exposed to Ac and/or Al. The gonadosomatic index of male offsprings was reduced except for the Ac-treated lactation group. Both substances induced multinuclear giant cells, degenerative cells, atrophic tubules, and maturation-arrested tubules, while decreased Leydig, Sertoli, and spermatogenic cell numbers. Lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity increased in both Al-treated and Ac and Al-treated groups. There was only reduction in the catalase activity during the gestation and lactation periods. These findings suggest that consumption of Ac together with Al may induce impairments on testicular spermatogenesis in male offsprings. PMID:25034941

?en, E; Tunali, Y; Erkan, M

2015-04-01

84

Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB ( r = 0.54 to 0.57, p < 0.001). Further, IQ emerged as a powerful predictor of SRB after controlling for the effects of all the known covariates like fertility, maternal age, polygyny prevalence, wealth, son preference, latitude, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations.

Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

2013-06-01

85

Father absence and children's cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews literature showing detrimental effects of father absence on children's cognitive development as assessed by standardized IQ and achievement tests and school performance. Differential effects associated with characteristics of the absence (cause, duration, onset), the child (age, sex, race, socioeconomic status), and the skill tested (quantitative, verbal) are examined. The evidence suggests that financial hardship, high levels of anxiety, and,

Marybeth Shinn

1978-01-01

86

Application of Technology to Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a summary of research being conducted at the University of Minnesota in which new technologies are being applied to development of cognition in hearing impaired learners. The study involved an application of concept analysis, information-processing theories, and group-based interactive technology in the teaching of…

Wilson, Louise

87

Senior Leader Cognitive Development through Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Senior executives who completed the two-year distance education program of the United States Army War College showed significant development of their strategic-level cognitive skills. The Modified Career Path Appreciation (MCPA) survey was administered to seventy participants at the beginning of their graduate program in strategic studies and at…

Myers, Susan R.

2008-01-01

88

Developing Cognitive Strategies through Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program designed to teach cognitive strategies through logical problem-solving and developed for elementary learning disabled students is presented. For each problem set, the instructional procedure involves a discovery activity, discussion, conclusion, follow-up activities, and integration. Five samples of the program's problem sets (e.g.,…

Buser, Karen P.; Reimer, Dauri

1988-01-01

89

Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

Chouinard, Michelle M.

2007-01-01

90

Cognitive Development and Teaching Vocational Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Years of research have shown that student learning is based on cognitive development. This finding has implications for the teaching of vocational education, especially to marginal students who are potential dropouts. Research has shown that students who have an internal rather than an external locus of control and who are more field independent…

Garner, C. William

91

Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

2010-01-01

92

Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationship between maternal labor supply and children's cognitive development using a sample of three- and four-year-old children of female respondents from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort. Maternal employment is found to have a negative impact when it occurs during the first year of the child's life and a potentially offsetting positive effect when it

Francine D Blau; Adam J Grossberg

1992-01-01

93

Maternal dietary n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio affects type 1 diabetes development in the offspring of non-obese diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Environment factors, including maternal or infant dietary nutrition have been reported to have an influence on the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. In the present study, to investigate the effect of maternal or post-weaning offspring's nutrition, in particular the essential fatty acid ratio (n-6/n-3) on the development of type 1 diabetes, we prepared two kinds of chows with n-6/n-3 ratios of 3.0 (L) and 14.5 (H), and provided them to mothers of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice during gestation and lactation and to the offspring after weaning. The n-6/n-3 ratios in breast milk and erythrocyte membrane of NOD offspring became nearly the same with that of the maternal diet at 2 weeks after birth. In the L chow-fed offspring from L chow-fed mother (LLL), levels of insulitis were higher than those in the H chow-fed offspring from H chow-fed mother (HHH) at 4 weeks of age, while the levels in the LLL offspring became lower than those in the HHH after 6 weeks. Early insulin autoantibody expressions were found from 2 to 6 weeks in the HHH offspring, but not in the LLL. The LLL offspring exhibited strong suppression of overt diabetes development in regard to the onset and accumulated incidence of diabetes compared to the HHH. The study with combined L and H chows during gestation, lactation in mother and in post-weaning offspring revealed that only the LLH chow significantly suppressed the development of diabetes with similar kinetics to LLL chow, although the other combinations may delay the onset of diabetes. The present findings suggest that n-6/n-3 ratio of the maternal diet during gestation and lactation rather than that of offspring after weaning strongly affects the development of overt diabetes in NOD mice. PMID:20846138

Kagohashi, Yukiko; Abiru, Norio; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Hashimoto, Michio; Shido, Osamu; Otani, Hiroki

2010-12-01

94

A trade-off between embryonic development rate and immune function of avian offspring is concealed by embryonic temperature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long embryonic periods are assumed to reflect slower intrinsic development that are thought to trade off to allow enhanced physiological systems, such as immune function. Yet, the relatively rare studies of this trade-off in avian offspring have not found the expected trade-off. Theory and tests have not taken into account the strong extrinsic effects of temperature on embryonic periods of birds. Here, we show that length of the embryonic period did not explain variation in two measures of immune function when temperature was ignored, based on studies of 34 Passerine species in tropical Venezuela (23 species) and north temperate Arizona (11 species). Variation in immune function was explained when embryonic periods were corrected for average embryonic temperature, in order to better estimate intrinsic rates of development. Immune function of offspring trades off with intrinsic rates of embryonic development once the extrinsic effects of embryonic temperatures are taken into account.

Martin, Thomas E.; Arriero, Elena; Majewska, Ania

2011-01-01

95

A trade-off between embryonic development rate and immune function of avian offspring is revealed by considering embryonic temperature  

PubMed Central

Long embryonic periods are assumed to reflect slower intrinsic development that are thought to trade off to allow enhanced physiological systems, such as immune function. Yet, the relatively rare studies of this trade-off in avian offspring have not found the expected trade-off. Theory and tests have not taken into account the strong extrinsic effects of temperature on embryonic periods of birds. Here, we show that length of the embryonic period did not explain variation in two measures of immune function when temperature was ignored, based on studies of 34 Passerine species in tropical Venezuela (23 species) and north temperate Arizona (11 species). Variation in immune function was explained when embryonic periods were corrected for average embryonic temperature, in order to better estimate intrinsic rates of development. Immune function of offspring trades off with intrinsic rates of embryonic development once the extrinsic effects of embryonic temperatures are taken into account. PMID:21227978

Martin, Thomas E.; Arriero, Elena; Majewska, Ania

2011-01-01

96

Delay and impairment in brain development and function in rat offspring after maternal exposure to methylmercury.  

PubMed

Maternal exposure to the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg) has been shown to have adverse effects on neural development of the offspring in man. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which MeHg affects the developing brain. To explore the neurodevelopmental defects and the underlying mechanism associated with MeHg exposure, the cerebellum and cerebrum of Wistar rat pups were analyzed by [(18)F]FDG PET functional imaging, field potential analysis, and microarray gene expression profiling. Female rat pups were exposed to MeHg via maternal diet during intrauterinal and lactational period (from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND)10), and their brain tissues were sampled for the analysis at weaning (PND18-21) and adulthood (PND61-70). The [(18)F]FDG PET imaging and field potential analysis suggested a delay in brain activity and impaired neural function by MeHg. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis substantiated these findings by showing (1) a delay in the onset of gene expression related to neural development, and (2) alterations in pathways related to both structural and functional aspects of nervous system development. The latter included changes in gene expression of developmental regulators, developmental phase-associated genes, small GTPase signaling molecules, and representatives of all processes required for synaptic transmission. These findings were observed at dose levels at which only marginal changes in conventional developmental toxicity endpoints were detected. Therefore, the approaches applied in this study are promising in terms of yielding increased sensitivity compared with classical developmental toxicity tests. PMID:23457123

Radonjic, Marijana; Cappaert, Natalie L M; de Vries, Erik F J; de Esch, Celine E F; Kuper, Frieke C; van Waarde, Aren; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Wadman, Wytse J; Wolterbeek, André P M; Stierum, Rob H; de Groot, Didima M G

2013-05-01

97

Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

2001-01-01

98

Adolescent psychosocial, social, and cognitive development.  

PubMed

The goal of adolescence is to gain independence and establish a secure identity. • Adolescents’ cognitive development can result in abstract thinking that can predispose them to risktaking behavior and a sense of invincibility. • Clinicians can use the primary care visit to promote independence and prepare parents for the features experienced during adolescent development. • Parental or supervisory monitoring is critical in ensuring that teens remain safe while gradually becoming more independent. PMID:23908362

Sanders, Renata Arrington

2013-08-01

99

Grounding Development in Cognitive Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmentalists have made remarkable progress over the last several decades in detailing what children know at various points in development. Less progress has been made, however, in detailing the processes through which knowledge is realized in real-time tasks, or in detailing the processes of developmental change. We argue that the operating characteristics of perceiving and remembering provide a foundation for

Larissa K. Samuelson; Linda B. Smith

2000-01-01

100

Gender Differences in Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex differences on Perry's stages of epistemological development were investigated in a study of 100 freshmen (50 men and 50 women) at a large midwestern university. A semi-structured interview probed six domains related to Perry's theory, including the role of the learner, instructor, and peers in the learning situation, the question of…

Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

101

Dietary ethinyl estradiol exposure during development causes increased voluntary sodium intake and mild maternal and offspring toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exogenous estrogen exposure during development often results in behavioral masculinization and\\/or defeminization of genetic females. Genetic males may be defeminized, hypermasculinized or even demasculinized after similar treatment. Here, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats consumed phytoestrogen-free diets containing 0, 1, 5 or 200 ppb EE2 beginning on gestational day (GD) 7. Offspring were weaned to the same maternal diet and maintained gonadally intact.

Sherry A Ferguson; K. Barry Delclos; Retha R Newbold; Katherine M Flynn

2003-01-01

102

Close Interrelation of Motor Development and Cognitive Development and of the Cerebellum and Prefrontal Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor development and cognitive development may be fundamentally interrelated. Contrary to popular notions that motor development begins and ends early, whereas cognitive development begins and ends later, both motor and cognitive development display equally protracted developmental timetables. When cognitive development is perturbed, as in a neurodevelopmental disorder, motor development is often adversely af- fected. While it has long been known

Adele Diamond

2000-01-01

103

Normal reproductive development of offspring derived by intracytoplasmic injection of porcine sperm grown in host mice.  

PubMed

For establishment of gonadal xenografting, it is essential to clarify whether offspring derived from gametes grown in host mice harboring xenografts have normal reproductive development. This study examined the secretory profiles of gonadal hormones in relation to sexual maturation or ovarian cyclicity in pigs generated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection using xenogeneic sperm (Xeno-ICSI pigs, four males and one female). We also assessed the developmental activity of gametes obtained from these pigs using in vitro culture systems, or by mating with conventionally produced (conventional) pigs. During the growth of male Xeno-ICSI pigs, serum inhibin and testosterone concentrations were generally within ranges for those hormones in conventional pigs. Histologically, there were no differences in the growth and differentiation of seminiferous tubules between Xeno-ICSI and conventional pigs. Parameters of semen quality, including volume, pH, sperm concentration, and the percentage of motile sperm were not different from those in conventional pigs. Among the Xeno-ICSI pigs, individual differences were noted in the ability of sperm to penetrate oocytes and to produce blastocysts. However, oocytes after in vitro fertilization using these sperm developed into blastocysts containing more than 31 cells. One conventional sow delivered 12 piglets after being mated with a male Xeno-ICSI pig. During growth of the female Xeno-ICSI pig, serum progesterone concentrations had a sudden increase at 41 wk of age, suggesting CL formation. After puberty, this animal showed cyclic changes in the serum concentrations of progesterone and inhibin, and delivered 10 piglets after AI using fresh sperm obtained from a conventional boar. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that both male and female Xeno-ICSI pigs had normal reproductive abilities. PMID:22626781

Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Nakai, Michiko; Tanihara, Fuminori; Noguchi, Junko; Noguchi, Michiko; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi

2012-09-01

104

Parenting practices and intergenerational associations in cognitive ability  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive ability is an important contributor to life chances, with implications for cycles of advantage or disadvantage across generations. Parenting practices are known to influence offspring cognitive development, but the extent to which these mediate intergenerational continuities and discontinuities in cognitive ability has not been adequately studied. Methods We used factor analysis to derive summary measures of parenting practices, and regression analyses and path modelling to test associations between these and cognitive function at age 8 years in 1690 first offspring of the British 1946 birth cohort. Analyses allowed for direct and indirect effects of parental original and achieved social circumstances, educational attainment and own childhood cognitive ability. Additional covariates were provided by indicators of parental physical and mental health. Results Regression analyses revealed that three aspects of parenting, intellectual home environment, parental aspiration and cognitive stimulation, were positively and independently associated with offspring childhood cognitive ability, whereas coercive discipline was negatively and independently associated. Path modelling was appropriate for intellectual environment, which also revealed direct and indirect effects of parental cognitive ability and educational and occupational attainment on offspring cognitive ability. Conclusion Parenting practices, particularly provision of an intellectual environment, were directly associated with offspring cognitive development. These data add to the relatively few studies that examine intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in cognitive ability. PMID:22422461

Byford, M; Kuh, D; Richards, M

2012-01-01

105

Maternal immune activation causes age- and region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring throughout development  

PubMed Central

Maternal infection is a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Indeed, modeling this risk factor in mice through maternal immune activation (MIA) causes ASD- and SZ-like neuropathologies and behaviors in the offspring. Although MIA upregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines in the fetal brain, whether MIA leads to long-lasting changes in brain cytokines during postnatal development remains unknown. Here, we tested this possibility by measuring protein levels of 23 cytokines in the blood and three brain regions from offspring of poly(I:C)- and saline-injected mice at five postnatal ages using multiplex arrays. Most cytokines examined are present in sera and brains throughout development. MIA induces changes in the levels of many cytokines in the brains and sera of offspring in a region- and age-specific manner. These MIA-induced changes follow a few, unexpected and distinct patterns. In frontal and cingulate cortices, several, mostly pro-inflammatory, cytokines are elevated at birth, followed by decreases during periods of synaptogenesis and plasticity, and increases again in the adult. Cytokines are also altered in postnatal hippocampus, but in a pattern distinct from the other regions. The MIA-induced changes in brain cytokines do not correlate with changes in serum cytokines from the same animals. Finally, these MIA-induced cytokine changes are not accompanied by breaches in the blood-brain barrier, immune cell infiltration or increases in microglial density. Together, these data indicate that MIA leads to long-lasting, region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring—similar to those reported for ASD and SZ—that may alter CNS development and behavior. PMID:22841693

Garay, Paula A.; Hsiao, Elaine Y.; Patterson, Paul H.; McAllister, A. Kimberley

2012-01-01

106

The North American Maternal Phenylketonuria Collaborative Study, developmental assessment of the offspring: preliminary report.  

PubMed

Preliminary results of 2-year Bayley and 4-year McCarthy test scores are presented. To date numbers are too small to statistically correlate:- offspring from pregnancies in which diet was started prior to conception, offspring from pregnancies with phenylalanine (Phe) levels of 120-360 mumol/l versus 360-600 mumol/l, influence of home environment, influence of maternal nutrition, language development, behaviour/hyperactivity, Revised Wechsler Intelligence Score, school performance and learning disabilities. Two-year Bayley scores (mental and motor) revealed a median developmental quotient of 113 in 58 offspring from control pregnancies, 104 in 19 offspring from untreated "non-phenylketonuria (PKU) mild hyperphenylalaninaemia" (natural Phe levels < 600 mumol/l) pregnancies, 104 in 32 offspring from pregnancies whose Phe levels decreased on treatment to < 600 mumol/l by 10 weeks gestation and remained in that range for the remainder of the pregnancy, 98 in offspring from 32 pregnancies where permanent control was not achieved until 10-20 weeks and 72 in offspring from 51 pregnancies where control was not attained until after 20 weeks gestation. IQ scores determined by the McCarthy test at age 4-5 years revealed a mean of 112 in 43 offspring of control mothers, 99 in 12 offspring of "non PKU mild hyperphenylalaninaemia" women, 93 in 14 offspring whose mother's Phe levels were continuously under 600 mumol/l by 10 weeks gestation, 88 in 24 offspring from pregnancies in metabolic control by 10-20 weeks and 73 in 28 offspring of pregnancies not in metabolic control until after 20 weeks gestation. These preliminary results suggest that early and adequate dietary treatment during pregnancy in maternal PKU may provide some protection to the fetus for later intellectual development but much more data is required before definitive statements about cognition can be made. PMID:8828638

Hanley, W B; Koch, R; Levy, H L; Matalon, R; Rouse, B; Azen, C; de la Cruz, F

1996-07-01

107

Culture, Cognition, and Biology: Contexts for the Developing Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the most exciting work in cognitive development in recent years has arguably been at its borders with areas traditionally seen as beyond cognitive development. In particular, major breakthroughs in developmental cognitive neuroscience [Johnson, 1997; Neville, 1995] and new insights about the social and cultural contexts of development [Cole, 1997; Bruner, 1990; Rogoff, 1990] are beginning to change the

Maureen A. Callanan

1999-01-01

108

Developing Collaboration Awareness Support from a Cognitive Perspective Pedro Antunes  

E-print Network

Developing Collaboration Awareness Support from a Cognitive Perspective Pedro Antunes University to preserve cognitive load. The selected case study involved brainstorming. We developed a brainstorming tool with the purpose to develop a comprehensive outlook of the cognitive issues behind awareness. This is accomplished

Antunes, Pedro

109

The Integrated Laboratory Program for Cognitive Development Jerome Epstein,  

E-print Network

The Integrated Laboratory Program for Cognitive Development Jerome Epstein, Mathematics Department to develop a program for cognitive development in math and science. The application cited then new research lectures are inefficient at producing meaningful cognitive change, and that hands-on, so-called "guided

Spagnolo, Filippo

110

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

PubMed Central

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments. PMID:22356180

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2011-01-01

111

Multifaceted defense against antagonistic microbes in developing offspring of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae).  

PubMed

Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R)-(-)-mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R)-(-)-mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum). We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R)-(-)-mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several antimicrobials in solution and vapor form has apparently evolved to reliably protect the larvae themselves and their food against a broad range of antagonistic microbes. PMID:24886721

Weiss, Katharina; Parzefall, Christopher; Herzner, Gudrun

2014-01-01

112

Multifaceted Defense against Antagonistic Microbes in Developing Offspring of the Parasitoid Wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae)  

PubMed Central

Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R)-(-)-mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R)-(-)-mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum). We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R)-(-)-mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several antimicrobials in solution and vapor form has apparently evolved to reliably protect the larvae themselves and their food against a broad range of antagonistic microbes. PMID:24886721

Weiss, Katharina; Parzefall, Christopher; Herzner, Gudrun

2014-01-01

113

Consequences of maternal yolk testosterone for offspring development and survival: experimental test in a lizard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Hormone-mediated maternal effects and developmental plasticity are important sources of phenotypic variation, with potential consequences for trait evolution. Yet our understanding of the importance of maternal hormones for offspring fitness in natural populations is very limited, particularly in non-avian species. 2. We experimentally elevated yolk testosterone by injection of a physiological dose into eggs of the lizard Ctenophorus

T. ULLER; L. ASTHEIMER; M. OLSSON

2007-01-01

114

Prenatal Bystander Stress Alters Brain, Behavior, and the Epigenome of Developing Rat Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prenatal environment, including prenatal stress, has been extensively studied in laboratory animals and humans. However, studies of the prenatal environment usually directly stress pregnant females, but stress may come ‘indirectly’, through stress to a cage-mate. The current study used indirect prenatal bystander stress and investigated the effects on the gross morphology, pre-weaning behavior, and epigenome of rat offspring. Pregnant

Richelle Mychasiuk; Nichole Schmold; Slava Ilnytskyy; Olga Kovalchuk; Bryan Kolb; Robbin Gibb

2011-01-01

115

Physical Play and Cognitive Development: Integrating Activity, Cognition, and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that humans may have evolved a special sensitivity to certain types of social information during rough-and-tumble play that facilitates social cognition. Describes the cognitive benefits of physical play as providing a break from demanding intellectual tasks and hypothesizes that physical play is related to gender differences in spatial…

Bjorklund, David F.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas

1998-01-01

116

Oligofructose supplementation during pregnancy and lactation impairs offspring development and alters the intestinal properties of 21-d-old pups  

PubMed Central

Background Previously, we showed that the intake of trans fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation triggers a pro-inflammatory status in the offspring. On the other hand, prebiotics can alter the intestinal environment, reducing serum lipopolysaccharides (LPS) concentrations. This study evaluated the effect of the oligofructose 10% diet supplementation in the presence or absence of hydrogenated vegetable fat during pregnancy and lactation on the development, endotoxemia and bacterial composition of 21-d-old offspring. Methods On the first day of pregnancy rats were divided into four groups: control diet (C), control diet supplemented with 10% oligofructose (CF), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat, rich in TFA (T) or diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with 10% oligofructose (TF). Diets were maintained during pregnancy and lactation. At birth, 7th, 14th and 21th, pups were weighed and length was measured. Serum concentrations of LPS and free fatty acids (FFA) were performed by specific kits. Bacterial DNA present in faeces was determined by real-time PCR. Data were expressed as mean?±?standard error of the mean and the statistical analysis was realized by ANOVA two-way and ANOVA for repeated measures. p?offspring, accompanied by an increase in serum LPS and genomic DNA levels of lactobacillus spp. on faeces of the CF group in relation to C group. Conclusion In conclusion, dam’s diet supplementation with 10% of oligofructose during pregnancy and lactation, independent of addition with hydrogenated vegetable fat, harms the offspring development, alters the bacterial composition and increases the serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharides in 21d-old pups. PMID:24502385

2014-01-01

117

[The impact of male phytoestrogenization on the somato-sexual development and fertility of the offsprings in rats].  

PubMed

The effect of phytoestrogen-rich diet administered to male rats in a dose 20 mg/kg of body weight for 30 days with the mixture of phytoestrogens on reproductive function of male offspring and the effect of additional phytoestrogenization during milk feeding have been investigated. It was shown that male phytoestrogenization leads to feminization of the offsprings. Specifically, at birth, the ano-genital distance in males was less than that measured in control rats: (2.7 +/- 0.1) vs (3.1 +/- 0.0) mm (P < 0.05). This and additional phytoestrogenization of newborn rats during milk feeding inhibit their somatic and sexual development, weakening sexual activity in adults and reducing fertility at the expense of dectreased fertilizing capacity of sperm. A possible mechanism for the observed effects may be a reduction of relative androgenization due to increased of estradiol concentration by 3-4 times. Analysis of the data revealed a significant impact of phytoestrogens in father's diet on reproductive function of their offsprings under conditions of additional phytoestrogenization after birth. PMID:25007526

Seliukova, N Iu; Karpenko, N O; Korenieva, Ie M; Somova, O V; Smolienko, N P; Pocherniaieva, S S; Brechka, N M

2014-01-01

118

Dietary ethinyl estradiol exposure during development causes increased voluntary sodium intake and mild maternal and offspring toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Exogenous estrogen exposure during development often results in behavioral masculinization and/or defeminization of genetic females. Genetic males may be defeminized, hypermasculinized or even demasculinized after similar treatment. Here, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats consumed phytoestrogen-free diets containing 0, 1, 5 or 200 ppb EE(2) beginning on gestational day (GD) 7. Offspring were weaned to the same maternal diet and maintained gonadally intact. There were mild effects on body weight and food consumption in dams of the 200 ppb group and their offspring weighed less at birth than those of the control group; however, gross assessments of nursing behavior were normal in all dietary groups. Postweaning, offspring of the 200 ppb group weighed less and consumed less food than controls. There were no EE(2)-related effects on open-field activity (tested at postnatal days (PND) 22-24, 43-45 and 64-66), play behavior (tested at PND 35), running wheel activity (PND 63-77) or intake of a 0.3% saccharin-flavored solution (PND 69-71). Intake of a 3.0% sodium chloride-flavored solution on PND 73-75 was increased in both male and female offspring of the 200 ppb group relative to same-sex controls, an effect that is reportedly estrogen mediated. Sodium chloride-flavored solution intake is a sexually dimorphic behavior for which female rats consume more than males. Here, while EE(2) exposure had few effects on the conventional tests of sexually dimorphic behaviors, exposure to 200 ppb in the diet appeared to feminize genetic males and hyperfeminize genetic females with regard to sodium intake. PMID:12798966

Ferguson, Sherry A; Delclos, K Barry; Newbold, Retha R; Flynn, Katherine M

2003-01-01

119

Development of The Purdue Cognitive Job Analysis Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to develop a cognitive job and task analysis methodology that not only analyzes jobs and tasks, but also provides a mechanism for improving cognitive job and task perfor- mance. Two phases were used to achieve this objective. The 1st phase developed a human-centered cognitive performance (HCCP) model based on human information processing. To quantitatively

June Wei; Gavriel Salvendy

2000-01-01

120

--Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Evan Glazer  

E-print Network

72 InterMath 1 --Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Technology). The development of mathematical understanding occurs when technology is used as a cognitive tool that supports to deliver the curriculum through web-based materials and to explore the mathematics using cognitive tools

Spagnolo, Filippo

121

Maternal and offspring pools of osteocalcin influence brain development and functions  

PubMed Central

The powerful regulation of bone mass exerted by the brain suggests the existence of bone-derived signals modulating this regulation or other functions of the brain. We show here that the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin crosses the blood-brain barrier, binds to neurons of the brainstem, midbrain and hippocampus, enhances the synthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters, inhibits GABA synthesis, prevents anxiety and depression and favors learning and memory independently of its metabolic functions. In addition to these post-natal functions, maternal osteocalcin crosses the placenta during pregnancy and prevents neuronal apoptosis before embryos synthesize this hormone. As a result the severity of the neuro-anatomical defects and learning and memory deficits of Osteocalcin?/? mice is determined by the maternal genotype, and delivering osteocalcin to pregnant Osteocalcin?/? mothers rescues these abnormalities in their Osteocalcin?/? progeny. This study reveals that the skeleton via osteocalcin influences cognition and contributes to the maternal influence on fetal brain development. PMID:24074871

Oury, Franck; Khrimian, Lori; Denny, Christine. A.; Gardin, Antoine; Chamouni, Alexandre; Goeden, Nick; Huang, Yung-yu; Lee, Hojoon; Srinivas, Prashanth; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Suyama, Shigetomo; Langer, Thomas; Mann, John. J.; Horvath, Tamas. L.; Bonnin, Alexandre; Karsenty, Gerard

2013-01-01

122

Collaborative Innovation as a Process for Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a methodology for collaborative innovation, which leads to cognitive development. Topics include a systems approach to lifelong learning; distributed cognition versus collaborative innovation activities; motivation for lifelong learning; creativity and interaction; the role of the Internet; and fuzzy set theory and assessment of cognitive

Bhattacharya, Madhumita; Chatterjee, Ranajit

2000-01-01

123

Cognitive neuroscience: Development and prospects MICHAEL I POSNER1,  

E-print Network

Cognitive neuroscience: Development and prospects MICHAEL I POSNER1, and SHOBINI RAO2 1 Department 560 029, India e-mail: mposner@uoregon.edu The field of cognitive neuroscience has enjoyed the exploration of brain networks related to a large number of cognitive, emotional and social tasks

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

124

Kreshnik Begolli Doctoral Student in Learning, Cognition and Development  

E-print Network

Kreshnik Begolli Doctoral Student in Learning, Cognition and Development School of Education, UC in Prishtina, Kosova, Kreshnik Begolli is primarily interested in how cognitive science research can help make in Mathematics." Both are motivated by a common desire to use a novel approach of bridging cognitive science

Stanford, Kyle

125

The Cognitive Aging and Neuroimaging (CAN) Lab The Cognitive Aging and Neuroimaging (CAN)Lab investigates the development of both cognitive and neural processes associated  

E-print Network

The Cognitive Aging and Neuroimaging (CAN) Lab Overview: The Cognitive Aging and Neuroimaging (CAN)Lab investigates the development of both cognitive and neural processes associated with aging -with a focus on ageMRI to elucidate the cognitive and neural processes underlying age-related differences in cognitive control

Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

126

Chronic zebrafish low dose decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) exposure affected parental gonad development and locomotion in F1 offspring.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants around the world. Because of large production volumes, widespread usage and persistence, PBDEs are now ubiquitous environmental pollutants detected in a wide variety of environment media and human samples and therefore pose a significant public health concern. Deca-PBDE (BDE-209) is the only commercial PBDE mixture still allowed for use at present, and has been recently detected at high levels in human samples. However, few studies explore its effect on development, reproduction or neurobehavior with animal models. In particular, studies with long-term chronic exposure at relatively low doses are lacking. In this study, we utilize the zebrafish model to explore the developmental, reproductive, and behavioral toxicities associated with long-term chronic exposure to deca-PBDE (BDE-209). Our findings revealed that long-term chronic exposure to low dose of deca-BDE (ranging from 0.001 to 1 ?M) affected overall fitness (measured by condition factor), gonad development, male gamete quantity and quality in F0 parental fish. For F1 offspring without continuous exposure to BDE-209, parental BDE treatment led to delayed hatch and motor neuron development, loose muscle fiber, slow locomotion behavior in normal conditions, and hyperactivity when subjected to light-dark photoperiod stimulation. In conclusion, parental chronic low dose BDE-209 exposure not only affects F0 growth and reproduction, but also elicits neurobehavior alternations in F1 offspring. PMID:21695510

He, Jianhui; Yang, Dongren; Wang, Chunyan; Liu, Wei; Liao, Junhua; Xu, Tao; Bai, Chenglian; Chen, Jiangfei; Lin, Kuanfei; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

2011-11-01

127

The Intergenerational Effects of Parental Schooling on the Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Development of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, using the National Child Development Study, estimates the causal relationship between parents' schooling and children's cognitive and non-cognitive development using the 1947 compulsory schooling legislation in Great Britain. The least squares estimates suggest strong correlations between parental education and these developmental…

Silles, Mary A.

2011-01-01

128

Vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonist treatment during mouse embryogenesis impairs social behavior and cognitive function of adult male offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a regulator of rodent embryogenesis during the period of neural tube closure. VIP enhanced growth in whole cultured mouse embryos; treatment with a VIP antagonist during embryogenesis inhibited growth and development. VIP antagonist treatment during embryogenesis also had permanent effects on adult brain chemistry and impaired social recognition behavior in adult male mice. The neurological

Joanna M. Hill; Katrina Cuasay; Daniel T. Abebe

2007-01-01

129

Computer-simulated development process of Chinese characters font cognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research of Chinese characters cognition is an important research aspect of cognitive science and computer science, especially artificial intelligence. In this paper, according as the traits of Chinese characters the database of Chinese characters font representations and the model of computer simulation of Chinese characters font cognition are constructed from the aspect of cognitive science. The font cognition of Chinese characters is actual a gradual process and there is the accumulation of knowledge. Through using the method of computer simulation, the development model of Chinese characters cognition was constructed. And this is the important research content of Chinese characters cognition. This model is based on self-organizing neural network and adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural network. By Combining the SOFM and ART2 network, two sets of input were trained. Through training and testing methods, the development process of Chinese characters cognition based on Chinese characters cognition was simulated. Then the results from this model and could be compared with the results that were obtained only using SOFM. By analyzing the results, this simulation suggests that the model is able to account for some empirical results. So, the model can simulate the development process of Chinese characters cognition in a way.

Chen, Jing; Mu, Zhichun; Sun, Dehui; Hu, Dunli

2008-10-01

130

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

131

From behaviourism to cognitive behaviourism to cognitive development: Steps in the evolution of instructional design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent history of instructional technology is traced, starting with the work of Skinner, moving on to the task analytic approach of Gagné, and following through to contemporary efforts associated with the “cognitive revolution.” It is suggested that an understanding of the process of cognitive development may enable us to build on and improve earlier approaches, by adapting them more

Robbie Case; Carl Bereiter

1984-01-01

132

Associations between postnatal maternal depression and psychological outcomes in adolescent offspring: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Postnatal depression (PND) affects approximately 10-20 % of new mothers in developed countries, with accumulating research documenting its adverse impact on not only the mother but also the wider family. Longitudinal studies assessing potential effects of maternal PND on offspring are mounting, and it is therefore timely to investigate the long-term psychological outcomes for adolescent offspring who were exposed to PND in infancy. PsycINFO, Medline, and Embase databases were searched with key terms for English language abstracts. Papers of 16 were identified that examined associations between PND and internalising problems, externalising problems, psychopathology, psychosocial, and cognitive outcomes of adolescent offspring. Impaired offspring cognitive outcomes reflected some of the most consistent findings. Conflicting evidence was found for an effect of PND on adolescent offspring internalising and externalising problems and overall psychopathology. Psychosocial outcomes in offspring adolescents indicated a specific adverse effect, although based on only two studies. Significant gender differences across outcomes were found. It was concluded that PND possibly increases risk vulnerability in the presence of recurrent, concurrent, and antenatal maternal depression but that these latter factors alone may be the stronger specific predictors. Limitations of the review are discussed as well as implications for future research and clinical practice. PMID:25269760

Sanger, Camilla; Iles, Jane E; Andrew, Catharina S; Ramchandani, Paul G

2015-04-01

133

Epigenetic robotics: modelling cognitive development in robotic systems  

E-print Network

Editorial Epigenetic robotics: modelling cognitive development in robotic systems Action editor), the goal of Epigenetic robotics is to understand, and model, the role of development in the emergence of increasingly complex cognitive structures from physical and social interaction. As such, Epigenetic Robotics

Sandini, Giulio

134

Misdirections in the Relation between Writing and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many essayists on writing believe that a student's level of cognitive development determines the organization of thought expressed by the student's writing and that an individual cannot use language at a level that goes beyond his or her stage of cognitive development. Without the maturation of formal operational structures, students cannot easily…

Rainey, Kenneth T.

135

Developing Cognitive Skills in Handicapped Children Through Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented to the Ninth Annual Interdisciplinary UAP-USC Conference on Piagetian Theory and the Helping Professions in 1979, the paper discusses the development of cognitive skills in handicapped children through art activities, and describes some new art-based procedures for assessing and developing such cognitive skills. The procedures in the…

Lavin, Claire; Silver, Rawley A.

136

Prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide impaired the maternal care and the physical and behavioral development of offspring rats.  

PubMed

Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) have been reported as contaminants of pastures and food, as well as being used in herbal medicine. PAs are responsible for poisoning events in livestock and human beings. The aim of this present study was to evaluate effects of prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide, the main PA found in the butanolic residue (BR) of Senecio brasiliensis, on both physical and behavioral parameters of Wistar rat offspring. The toxicity and maternal behavior were also evaluated. For this, pregnant Wistar rats received integerrimine N-oxide from the BR of Senecio brasiliensis, by gavage, on gestational days 6-20 (during organogenesis and fetal development period) at doses of 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg. During treatment, maternal body weight gain, and food and water intake were evaluated. After parturition, maternal behavior and aggressive maternal behavior were analyzed. In addition, physical development and behavioral assessments were observed in both male and female pups. Results showed that prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide of S. brasiliensis induced maternal toxicity, impairment in maternal behavior and aggressive maternal behavior, mainly in the highest dose group. Between sexes comparison of pups showed loss of body weight, delayed physical development such as pinna detachment, hair growth, eruption of incisor teeth, eye and vaginal openings. These pups also showed a delay of palmar grasp, surface righting reflex, negative geotaxis and auditory startle reflexes. Thus, prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide induces maternal toxicity, impairment of maternal care and delayed in physical and behavioral development of the offspring. PMID:24881561

Sandini, Thaísa M; Udo, Mariana S B; Reis-Silva, Thiago M; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Spinosa, Helenice de S

2014-08-01

137

Developing Cognition with Collaborative Robotic Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognition, faculty related to perception, imagination, memory, and problem solving, refers to internal mental processes through which sensorial input is acquired, elaborated, used, and stored. One of its importances relies on the fact that it affects in a direct way the learning potential. It has been shown that, even thou cognitive processes…

Mitnik, Ruben; Nussbaum, Miguel; Recabarren, Matias

2009-01-01

138

Maternal dexamethasone exposure during pregnancy in rats disrupts gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal development in the offspring.  

PubMed

The migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons from the olfactory placode to the preoptic area (POA) from embryonic day 13 is important for successful reproduction during adulthood. Whether maternal glucocorticoid exposure alters GnRH neuronal morphology and number in the offspring is unknown. This study determines the effect of maternal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure on enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) driven by GnRH promoter neurons (TG-GnRH) in transgenic rats dual-labelled with GnRH immunofluorescence (IF-GnRH). The TG-GnRH neurons were examined in intact male and female rats at different postnatal ages, as a marker for GnRH promoter activity. Pregnant females were subcutaneously injected with DEX (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle daily during gestation days 13-20 to examine the number of GnRH neurons in P0 male offspring. The total number of TG-GnRH neurons and TG-GnRH/IF-GnRH neuronal ratio increased from P0 and P5 stages to P47-52 stages, suggesting temporal regulation of GnRH promoter activity during postnatal development in intact rats. In DEX-treated P0 males, the number of IF-GnRH neurons decreased within the medial septum, organum vasculosom of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and anterior hypothalamus. The percentage of TG-GnRH neurons with branched dendritic structures decreased in the OVLT of DEX-P0 males. These results suggest that maternal DEX exposure affects the number and dendritic development of early postnatal GnRH neurons in the OVLT/POA, which may lead to altered reproductive functions in adults. PMID:24374911

Lim, Wei Ling; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S

2014-02-01

139

Ethical principles and guidelines for the development of cognitive systems.  

SciTech Connect

As cognitive systems technologies emerge, so too do the ethical issues surrounding their development and use. To develop cognitive systems technologies responsibly, Sandia National Laboratories is establishing a framework to proactively address both real and potential ethical issues. This report contains the principles and guidelines developers can use to guide them as they are confronted with ethical issues related to developing cognitive systems technologies as they apply to U.S. national security. A process to apply these principles offers a practical way to transfer these principles from paper to a working strategy. Case studies are presented to reflect upon potential scenarios and to consider resolution strategies.

Shaneyfelt, Wendy

2006-05-01

140

Language in Cognitive Development: The Emergence of the Mediated Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents an integrated theory of cognitive development in infancy and early childhood, emphasizing the role of language in memory, processing narratives, forming concepts, and understanding others' intentions. Chapter 1, "Language, Cognition, and Culture in Developmental Perspective," presents the experiential theoretical approach and…

Nelson, Katherine

141

The development of a cognitive process-oriented correlation model  

E-print Network

Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . American Literature Unit Plan. Cognitive Information-Processing Model. . CHAPTER V SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS) CONLCUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS. Summary. Limitations. Conclusions. Implications. REFERENCES, APPENDIX A...THE DEVELOPMENT OF A COGNITIVE PROCESS-ORIENTED CORRELATION MODEL A Thesis by RICHARD JAMES KNEUVEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Kneuven, Richard James

1988-01-01

142

The Development of Social Cognition. Studies in Developmental Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining social cognition as our attempts to make sense of how people think, perceive, infer, feel, and react, this book examines both the classical issues and contemporary understanding of theory and research in social cognitive development. The initial chapters highlight one of the central, theoretical tensions in the field, which is whether the…

Hala, Suzanne, Ed.

143

Neuromodulation of Behavioral and Cognitive Development across the Life Span  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…

Li, Shu-Chen

2012-01-01

144

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders in the Offspring of Mothers Exposed to Mild-Moderate Iodine Deficiency: A Possible Novel Iodine Deficiency Disorder in Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of almost 10 yr, we carried out a prospective study of the neuropsychological development of the offspring of 16 women from a moderately iodine-deficient area (area A) and of 11 control women from a marginally iodine-sufficient area (area B) whose thyroid function had been monitored during early gestation. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was diagnosed in

F. Vermiglio; V. P. LO PRESTI; M. MOLETI; M. SIDOTI; G. TORTORELLA; G. SCAFFIDI; M. G. CASTAGNA; F. MATTINA; M. A. VIOLI; A. CRISA; A. ARTEMISIA; F. TRIMARCHI

2004-01-01

145

The Evolution of Cognitive Development: Ontogeny and Phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

How did the development of human intelligence evolve? To reconstruct the phylogeny of human cognitive ontogeny, Parker and McKinney systematically marshal the rapidly expanding body of empirical findings on its comparative origins and development in primates (chapters 1–6). Powerfully undergirding their behavioral synthesis of the evolution of primate cognitive development, Parker and McKinney provide a parallel biological synthesis of the

Jonas Langer

2004-01-01

146

Buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine treatment during pregnancy: behavioral effects on the offspring in rats  

PubMed Central

Methadone and buprenorphine are widely used for treating people with opioid dependence, including pregnant women. Prenatal exposure to opioids has devastating effects on the development of human fetuses and may induce long-term physical and neurobehavioral changes during postnatal maturation. This study aimed at comparing the behavioral outcomes of young rats prenatally exposed to buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered saline, morphine, methadone, and buprenorphine during embryonic days 3–20. The cognitive function, social interaction, anxiety-like behaviors, and locomotor activity of offsprings were examined by novel object recognition test, social interaction test, light–dark transition test, elevated plus-maze, and open-field test between 6 weeks and 10 weeks of age. Prenatal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine did not affect locomotor activity, but significantly impaired novel object recognition and social interaction in both male and female offsprings in the same manner as morphine. Although prenatal exposure to methadone or buprenorphine increased anxiety-like behaviors in the light–dark transition in both male and female offsprings, the effects were less pronounced as compared to that of morphine. Methadone affected elevated plus-maze in both sex, but buprenorphine only affected the female offsprings. These findings suggest that buprenorphine and methadone maintenance therapy for pregnant women, like morphine, produced detrimental effects on cognitive function and social behaviors, whereas the offsprings of such women might have a lower risk of developing anxiety disorders.

Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Yuan, Zung Fan; Kuo, Chung-Chih; Lai, Mei-Dan; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Ho, Ing-kang; Chen, Shao-Tsu

2015-01-01

147

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Cognition Across Development and Context  

PubMed Central

Genes account for between approximately 50% and 70% of the variation in cognition at the population level. However, population-level estimates of heritability potentially mask marked subgroup differences. We review the body of empirical evidence indicating that (a) genetic influences on cognition increase from infancy to adulthood, and (b) genetic influences on cognition are maximized in more advantaged socioeconomic contexts (i.e., a Gene × Socioeconomic Status interaction). We discuss potential mechanisms underlying these effects, particularly transactional models of cognitive development. Transactional models predict that people in high-opportunity contexts actively evoke and select positive learning experiences on the basis of their genetic predispositions; these learning experiences, in turn, reciprocally influence cognition. The net result of this transactional process is increasing genetic influence with increasing age and increasing environmental opportunity. PMID:24799770

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Briley, Daniel A.; Harden, K. Paige

2014-01-01

148

Development of the Children's Dysfunctional Cognition Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-four emotionally disturbed and 112 elementary school children were administered the Children's Dysfunctional Cognition Scale (CDC) for purposes of standardizing the instrument. Results indicate that the CDC is reliable and valid. The scale differentiates between normal and disturbed populations and is highly correlated with teacher's ratings…

Wasserman, Theodore H.

1983-01-01

149

Development of the Children's Dysfunctional Cognition Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty six children (112 elementary school children, 44 children from classes for the emotionally disturbed) were administrated the Children's Dysfunctional Cognition (CDC) Scale for purposed of standardizing the instrument. Results indicate that the CDC is reliable and valid. The scale differentiates between normal and disturbed populations and is highly correlated with teacher's ratings of classroom behavior. Use

Theodore H. Wasserman

1984-01-01

150

Development of Children's Understanding of Cognitive Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's understanding of cognition increases greatly between early childhood and adolescence. This increase provides a developmental bridge between young children's understanding of mental states to adolescents' and adults' epistemological reflection. The author presents a framework for describing developmental changes in children's…

Pillow, Bradford H.

2008-01-01

151

Brain Electrical Activity Changes and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship of cognitive developmental changes to physiological and anatomical changes by measuring both types of data within the same subjects. Cortical electrical activity was measured in 24 males between 10 and 12 years of age. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from midline scalp electrodes during a…

Hartley, Deborah; Thomas, David G.

152

Close Interrelation of Motor Development and Cognitive Development and of the Cerebellum and Prefrontal Cortex.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that motor and cognitive development may be fundamentally interrelated. Summarizes evidence of close co-activation of the neocerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in functional neuroimaging, similarities in the cognitive sequelae of damage to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the neocerebellum, motor deficits in "cognitive"…

Diamond, Adele

2000-01-01

153

Effect of Maternal Lipopolysaccharide Administration on the Development of Dopaminergic Receptors and Transporter in the Rat Offspring  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological evidence supports that maternal infection during gestation are notable risk factors for developmental mental illnesses including schizophrenia and autism. In prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model of immune activation in rats, the offspring exhibit significant impairments in behaviors mediated by central dopamine (DA) system. This study aimed to examine the temporal and regional pattern of postnatal DA development in the male offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats administered with 100 µg/kg LPS or saline at gestational days 15/16. Using ligand autoradiography, D1 and D2 dopamine receptors (D1R, D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) binding levels were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and sub cortical regions (dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core and shell) at pre pubertal (P35) and post pubertal ages (P60). We found a significant decrease in D2R ligand [3H] YM-90151-2 binding in the medial PFC (mPFC) in prenatal LPS-treated animals at P35 and P60 compared to respective saline groups. The decrease in D2R levels was not observed in the striatum or accumbens of maternal LPS-treated animals. No significant changes were observed in [3H] SCH23390 binding to D1R. However, the level of [125I] RTI-121 binding to DAT was selectively reduced in the nucleus accumbens core and shell at P35 in the prenatal LPS group. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that number of D2R immunopositive cells in infralimbic/prelimbic (IL/PL) part of mPFC was significantly reduced in the LPS group at P60. Prenatal LPS treatment did not significantly affect either the total number of mature neurons or parvalbumin (PV)-immunopositive interneurons in this region. However the number of PV and D2R co-labeled neurons was significantly reduced in the IL/PL subregion of PFC of LPS treated animals. Our data suggests D2R deficit in the PFC and PV interneurons may be relevant to understanding mechanisms of cortical dysfunctions described in prenatal infection animal models as well as schizophrenia. PMID:23349891

Baharnoori, Moogeh; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K.; Srivastava, Lalit K.

2013-01-01

154

Neonatal over-expression of estrogen receptor-? alters midbrain dopamine neuron development and reverses the effects of low maternal care in female offspring.  

PubMed

Maternal behavior is dependent on estrogen receptor-alpha (ER?; Esr1) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) signaling in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the hypothalamus, as well as dopamine signaling from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to forebrain regions. Previous studies in rats indicate that low levels of maternal care, particularly licking/grooming (LG), lead to reduced levels of MPOA ER? and VTA dopamine neurons in female offspring and predict lower levels of postpartum maternal behavior by these offspring. The aim of the current study was to determine the functional impact on maternal behavior of neonatal manipulation of ER? in females that had experienced low vs. high levels of postnatal maternal LG. Adenovirus expressing ESR1 was targeted to the MPOA in female pups from low and high LG litters on postnatal day 2-3. Over-expression of ESR1 in low LG offspring elevated the level of ER?-immunoreactive cells in the MPOA and of tyrosine hydroxylase cells in the VTA to that observed in high LG females. Amongst juvenile female low LG offspring, ESR1 over-expression also decreased the latency to engage in maternal behavior toward donor pups. These results show that virally-mediated expression of ESR1 in the neonatal rat hypothalamus results in lasting changes in ESR1 expression through the juvenile period, and can "rescue" hormone receptor levels and behavior of offspring reared by low LG dams, potentially mediated by downstream alterations within reward circuitry. Thus, the transmission of maternal behavior from one generation to the next can be augmented by neonatal ER? in the MPOA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2014. PMID:25044746

Peña, Catherine Jensen; Champagne, Frances A

2014-07-01

155

The effects of a remediated fly ash spill and weather conditions on reproductive success and offspring development in tree swallows.  

PubMed

Animals are exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors during reproduction that may individually or interactively influence reproductive success and offspring development. We examined the effects of weather conditions, exposure to element contamination from a recently remediated fly ash spill, and the interaction between these factors on reproductive success and growth of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) across nine colonies. Females breeding in colonies impacted by the spill transferred greater concentrations of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), strontium, and thallium to their eggs than females in reference colonies. Parental provisioning of emerging aquatic insects resulted in greater blood Se concentrations in nestlings in impacted colonies compared to reference colonies, and these concentrations remained stable across 2 years. Egg and blood element concentrations were unrelated to reproductive success or nestling condition. Greater rainfall and higher ambient temperatures during incubation were later associated with longer wing lengths in nestlings, particularly in 2011. Higher ambient temperatures and greater Se exposure posthatch were associated with longer wing lengths in 2011 while in 2012, blood Se concentrations were positively related to wing length irrespective of temperature. We found that unseasonably cold weather was associated with reduced hatching and fledging success among all colonies, but there was no interactive effect between element exposure and inclement weather. Given that blood Se concentrations in some nestlings exceeded the lower threshold of concern, and concentrations of Se in blood and Hg in eggs are not yet declining, future studies should continue to monitor exposure and effects on insectivorous wildlife in the area. PMID:25690609

Beck, Michelle L; Hopkins, William A; Jackson, Brian P; Hawley, Dana M

2015-03-01

156

Need for Cognition as a Predictor of Psychosocial Identity Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the hypothesis that psychosocial identity development is related to need for cognition (NFC), a social-cognitive individual-difference variable defined as the desire to engage in effortful thinking (J. T. Cacioppo, R. E. Petty, J. Feinstein, & W. Jarvis, 1996). They administered 2 measures of psychosocial identity—a scale from the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status 2 (EOMEIS-2;

David Njus; Dan R. Johnson

2008-01-01

157

Locus of Control as Mediator of Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research indicates the possible influence of IE development on cognitive development. Efforts are being made to identify behaviors by which parents or teachers can increase development of internal control expectancies in preschool children. Studies correlating children's IE scores with various mother behaviors or mother-child interaction…

Stephens, Mark W.

158

Costs and benefits linked to developments in cognitive control  

PubMed Central

Developing cognitive control over one’s thoughts, emotions, and actions is a fundamental process that predicts important life outcomes. Such control begins in infancy, and shifts during development from a predominantly reactive form (e.g. retrieving task-relevant information when needed) to an increasingly proactive form (e.g. maintaining task-relevant information in anticipation of needing it). While such developments are generally viewed as adaptive, cognitive abilities can also involve tradeoffs, such that the benefits of developing increasingly proactive control may come with associated costs. In two experiments, we test for such cognitive trade-offs in children who are transitioning to proactive control. We find that proactive control predicts expected benefits in children’s working memory, but is also associated with predicted costs in disproportionately slowing children under conditions of distraction. These findings highlight unique advantages and disadvantages of proactive and reactive control, and suggest caution in attempting to alter their balance during development. PMID:24329774

Blackwell, Katharine A.; Munakata, Yuko

2014-01-01

159

[Abnormal development of gonads of dwarf females and low survival of their offspring as the cause of rarity of resident populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)].  

PubMed

Fecundity and mass of eggs, as well as survival of offspring, of hatchery-reared small (less than 406 g) females of Atlantic salmon are determined. The absolute fecundity and mass of egg of artificially reared fish are sufficiently less than that of anadromous spawners. Small females are characterized by delayed spawning; histological analysis has demonstrated significant asynchrony in oocyte development of some specimens. Survival of offspring of dwarf females at the early stages of development is lower than of anadromous females. Our results agree completely with the published data. It is suggested that dwarf females are not able to withstand intraspecific and interspecific competition because of low reproductive ability. This explains rarity of natural populations of dwarf (landlocked) forms of Atlantic salmon. PMID:25438593

Makhrov, A A; Ponomareva, M V; Kha?mina, O V; Gilepp, V E; Efimova, O V; Nechaeva, T A; Vasilenkova, T I

2013-01-01

160

[Abnormal development of gonads of dwarf females and low survival of their offspring as the cause of rarity of resident populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)].  

PubMed

Fecundity and mass of eggs, as well as survival of offspring, of hatchery-reared small (less than 406 g) females of Atlantic salmon are determined. The absolute fecundity and mass of egg of artificially reared fish are sufficiently less than that of anadromous spawners. Small females are characterized by delayed spawning; histological analysis has demonstrated significant asynchrony in oocyte development of some specimens. Survival of offspring of dwarf females at the early stages of development is lower than of anadromous females. Our results agree completely with the published data. It is suggested that dwarf females are not able to withstand intraspecific and interspecific competition because of low reproductive ability. This explains rarity of natural populations of dwarf (landlocked) forms of Atlantic salmon. PMID:25508124

2013-01-01

161

Cognitive ability and academic achievement in the Colorado Adoption Project: A multivariate genetic analysis of parent-offspring and sibling data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that the etiology of covariation among measures of cognitive ability and academic achievement is due at least in part to shared genetic influences, data from 198 adoptive and 220 nonadoptive families participating in the Colorado Adoption Project were subjected to multivariate behavioral genetic analyses. Data on measures of cognitive ability (verbal comprehension and perceptual organization) and

S. J. Wadsworth; J. C. DeFries; D. W. Fulker; R. Plomin

1995-01-01

162

Low-Dose, Gestational Exposure to Atrazine Does Not Alter Postnatal Reproductive Development of Male Offspring  

EPA Science Inventory

There is growing evidence that xenobiotic exposure during the perinatal period may result in a variety of adverse outcomes when the developing organism attains adulthood. Maternal stress and subsequent exposure of the fetus to excess glucocorticoids may underlie these effects. Pr...

163

Adverse effects on development of the reproductive system in male offspring of rats given monobutyl phthalate, a metabolite of dibutyl phthalate, during late pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the adverse effects of monobutyl phthalate (MBuP), a major metabolite of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), on development of the reproductive system in offspring following maternal administration during late pregnancy, and to assess the role of MBuP in the antiandrogenic effects of DBP. Pregnant rats were given MBuP by gastric intubation at 250, 500,

Makoto Ema; Emiko Miyawaki

2001-01-01

164

Critical period for adverse effects on development of reproductive system in male offspring of rats given di- n-butyl phthalate during late pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the susceptible days for the adverse effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on development of reproductive system in male offspring following maternal administration on successive 3-day period during late pregnancy. Pregnant rats were given DBP by gastric intubation at 1000 or 1500 mg\\/kg on days 12–14 or 18–20 of pregnancy or at 500,

Makoto Ema; Emiko Miyawaki; Kunio Kawashima

2000-01-01

165

Parent-Offspring Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

synopsis. When parent-offspring relations in sexually reproducing species are viewed from the standpoint of the offspring as well as the parent, conflict is seen to be an expected feature of such relations. In particular, parent and offspring are expected to disagree over how long the period of parental investment should last, over the amount of parental investment that should be

ROBERT L. TRIVERS

1974-01-01

166

Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based

B. J. Casey; Jay N. Giedd; Kathleen M. Thomas

2000-01-01

167

Age Affects the Expression of Maternal Care and Subsequent Behavioural Development of Offspring in a Precocial Bird  

PubMed Central

Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks’ growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian maternal behaviour and that the way we sample maternal behaviour is highly productive. PMID:22701515

Pittet, Florent; Coignard, Maud; Houdelier, Cécilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie

2012-01-01

168

Herpes simplex virus infections of women and their offspring: implications for a developed society.  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus infections of humans have been known since ancient times. Contemporary society has witnessed a series of devastating manifestations of herpes simplex virus infections--namely, genital herpes simplex virus infection and neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. With the evolution of society, particularly advances in birth control and increasing promiscuity, the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections has increased worldwide, however, more so in developed societies. As a consequence, individuals of child-bearing age are at risk for either reactivation of herpes simplex virus at termination of gestation or acquisition of a new primary infection at that time. The consequences of vertical transmission of herpes simplex virus from mother to child, resulting in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection, can be devastating. Current efforts, which are directed toward the treatment of neonatal herpes, have established the value of drugs such as vidarabine and acyclovir. However, the real emphasis for future programs is the prevention of herpes simplex virus infections to avoid person-to-person transmission either horizontally or vertically. The development of vaccines directed against herpes simplex virus may be of value toward this end. PMID:8146137

Whitley, R J

1994-01-01

169

Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

2008-01-01

170

Environmental Stimulation, Parental Nurturance and Cognitive Development in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance on brain development have been studied extensively in animals. Much less is known about the relations between childhood experience and cognitive development in humans. Using a longitudinally collected data set with ecologically valid in-home measures of childhood experience and later…

Farah, Martha J.; Betancourt, Laura; Shera, David M.; Savage, Jessica H.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Malmud, Elsa K.; Hurt, Hallam

2008-01-01

171

Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the “Mozart Effect” studies to participation in piano lessons or other music training over time. This literature review suggest that, just as a

Rebecca Ann Shore

2010-01-01

172

Last Modified 5/31/2011 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 1  

E-print Network

of Psychology x Child Development x Cognition x Developmental Psychology x Developmental Science x Psychological when working through topics in the list below. x Flavell, J. H. (1963). The developmental psychology: The development of higher psychological functions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. x Daniels, H., Cole, M

Liu, Taosheng

173

Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the "Mozart Effect" studies to participation in piano lessons…

Shore, Rebecca Ann

2010-01-01

174

Cognitive development, epistemic doubt, and identity formation in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to evaluate the part that nascent skeptical doubt plays in shaping the course of adolescent social-cognitive development. It is argued that the intellectual changes that accompany the acquisition of formal operational competence set in motion a series of developments that seriously undermine the typical adolescent's previous sense of epistemic certainty. An epistemic model is proposed, leading

Michael C. Boyes; Michael Chandler

1992-01-01

175

In-utero exposure to DDT and cognitive development among infants and school-aged children  

PubMed Central

Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for control of infectious diseases in several countries. In-utero exposure to DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been associated with developmental and cognitive impairment among children. We examined this association in an historical cohort in which the level of exposure was greater than in previous studies. Methods The association of in-utero DDT and DDE exposure with infant and child neurodevelopment was examined in approximately 1100 subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective birth cohort enrolling pregnant women from 12 study centers in the U.S. from 1959 to 1965. Maternal DDT and DDE concentrations were measured in archived serum specimens. Infant mental and motor development was assessed at age 8 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and child cognitive development was assessed at age 7 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Results Although levels of both DDT and DDE were relatively high in this population (median DDT concentration, 8.9 µg/L; DDE, 24.5 µg/L), neither was related to Mental or Psychomotor Development scores on the Bayley Scales or to Full-Scale IQ at 7 years of age. Categorical analyses showed no evidence of dose-response for either maternal DDT or DDE, and estimates of the association between continuous measures of exposure and neurodevelopment were indistinguishable from 0. Conclusions Adverse associations were not observed between maternal serum DDT and DDE concentrations and offspring neurodevelopment at 8 months or 7 years of age in this cohort. PMID:22766752

Jusko, Todd A.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2012-01-01

176

The cognitive neuroscience of prehension: recent developments  

PubMed Central

Prehension, the capacity to reach and grasp, is the key behavior that allows humans to change their environment. It continues to serve as a remarkable experimental test case for probing the cognitive architecture of goal-oriented action. This review focuses on recent experimental evidence that enhances or modifies how we might conceptualize the neural substrates of prehension. Emphasis is placed on studies that consider how precision grasps are selected and transformed into motor commands. Then, the mechanisms that extract action relevant information from vision and touch are considered. These include consideration of how parallel perceptual networks within parietal cortex, along with the ventral stream, are connected and share information to achieve common motor goals. On-line control of grasping action is discussed within a state estimation framework. The review ends with a consideration about how prehension fits within larger action repertoires that solve more complex goals and the possible cortical architectures needed to organize these actions. PMID:20532487

2010-01-01

177

The development and initial validation of the cognitive fusion questionnaire.  

PubMed

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) emphasizes the relationship a person has with their thoughts and beliefs as potentially more relevant than belief content in predicting the emotional and behavioral consequences of cognition. In ACT, "defusion" interventions aim to "unhook" thoughts from actions and to create psychological distance between a person and their thoughts, beliefs, memories, and self-stories. A number of similar concepts have been described in the psychology literature (e.g., decentering, metacognition, mentalization, and mindfulness) suggesting converging evidence that how we relate to mental events may be of critical importance. While there are some good measures of these related processes, none of them provides an adequate operationalization of cognitive fusion. Despite the centrality of cognitive fusion in the ACT model, there is as yet no agreed-upon measure of cognitive fusion. This paper presents the construction and development of a brief, self-report measure of cognitive fusion: The Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ). The results of a series of studies involving over 1,800 people across diverse samples show good preliminary evidence of the CFQ's factor structure, reliability, temporal stability, validity, discriminant validity, and sensitivity to treatment effects. The potential uses of the CFQ in research and clinical practice are outlined. PMID:24411117

Gillanders, David T; Bolderston, Helen; Bond, Frank W; Dempster, Maria; Flaxman, Paul E; Campbell, Lindsey; Kerr, Sian; Tansey, Louise; Noel, Penelope; Ferenbach, Clive; Masley, Samantha; Roach, Louise; Lloyd, Joda; May, Lauraine; Clarke, Susan; Remington, Bob

2014-01-01

178

Please cite this article in press as: Moore, H., et al., Harnessing cognitive neuroscience to develop new treatments for improv-ing cognition in schizophrenia: CNTRICS selected cognitive paradigms for animal models. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (2013),  

E-print Network

to develop new treatments for improv- ing cognition in schizophrenia: CNTRICS selected cognitive paradigms.elsevier.com/locate/neubiorev Editorial Harnessing cognitive neuroscience to develop new treatments for improving cognition Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative was developed. The goal of CNTRICS

2013-01-01

179

Representation-Oriented Software Development: A cognitive approach to software engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software development is necessarily a cognitive process. Software engineers (cognitive entities) develop software to maximize productivity while delivering quality software on time. In essence, issues in software engineering can be conceptualized as a cognitive optimization problem. The utility of this approach is illustrated by an example in which a cognitive semantic approach is applied in analyzing the relationship between representations

John J. Sung

2005-01-01

180

Contributions of Neuroscience to Our Understanding of Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

One major contribution of neuroscience to understanding cognitive development has been in demonstrating that biology is not destiny—that is, demonstrating the remarkable role of experience in shaping the mind, brain, and body. Only rarely has neuroscience provided wholly new insights into cognitive development, but often it has provided evidence of mechanisms by which observations of developmental psychologists could be explained. Behavioral findings have often remained controversial until an underlying biological mechanism for them was offered. Neuroscience has demonstrated promise for detecting cognitive problems before they are behaviorally observable—and, hence, promise for early intervention. In this article, we discuss examples drawn from imitation and mirror neurons, phenylketonuria (PKU) and prefrontal dopamine, maternal touch and stress reactivity, and non-genetic (behavioral) intergenerational transmission of biological characteristics. PMID:18458793

Diamond, Adele; Amso, Dima

2008-01-01

181

A Cognitive Approach to the Development of Early Language  

PubMed Central

A controversial issue in the field of language development is whether language emergence and growth is dependent solely on processes specifically tied to language or could also depend on basic cognitive processes that affect all aspects of cognitive competence (domain-general processes). The present article examines this issue using a large battery of infant information-processing measures of memory, representational competence, processing speed, and attention, many of which have been shown to predict general cognition in a cohort of full-terms and preterms. Results showed that various aspects of infant memory and representational competence (a) related to language at both 12 and 36 months, (b) predicted similarly for the two groups, and (c) predicted 36- month language, independently of birth status, 12-month language, and the 12-month Bayley Mental Development Index. Additionally, the results established predictive validity for the MacArthur 12-month language measure. These findings support a domain-general view of language. PMID:19236397

Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

2009-01-01

182

Cognitive rehabilitation for mild cognitive impairment: developing and piloting an intervention.  

PubMed

This was an exploratory study, with the purpose of developing and piloting an intervention for people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and their family members using cognitive rehabilitation. A case series design was used with pre- and post-intervention and 3-month follow-up outcome measures. Five participants (two males, three females; mean age 75 years) with a diagnosis of MCI attended the memory clinic with a family member. Intervention consisted of six to eight individual sessions of cognitive rehabilitation consisting of personalized interventions to address individually relevant goals delivered weekly. The main rehabilitation strategies utilized were external aids, personal diary, face-name association, relaxation, and encouraging participants to develop habits and routines. The primary outcome measure was goal attainment as assessed by Goal Attainment Scaling. Secondary outcome measures included measures of memory, anxiety, depression, and activities of daily living. Qualitative data were collected post-intervention by interview. Post-intervention 84% of the goals were attained, with 68% maintained at a 3-month follow-up. Mean anxiety and depression scores decreased during the intervention. No significant changes were recorded on a test of memory. The findings suggest that the strongest effect was in relation to compensatory strategies for prospective and episodic memory deficits. Feedback from participants during qualitative interviews indicated that they found strategies useful and implemented them in their daily routines. The findings support the use of a dyadic cognitive rehabilitation intervention for people with MCI and memory difficulties. PMID:24955493

O'Sullivan, Maria; Coen, Robert; O'Hora, Denis; Shiel, Agnes

2015-05-01

183

Parallel distributed processing: Implications for cognition and development. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief overview of the connectionist or parallel distributed processing framework for modeling cognitive processes, and considers the application of the connectionist framework to problems of cognitive development. Several aspects of cognitive development might result from the process of learning as it occurs in multi-layer networks. This learning process has the characteristic that it reduces the discrepancy between expected and observed events. As it does this, representations develop on hidden units which dramatically change both the way in which the network represents the environment from which it learns and the expectations that the network generates about environmental events. The learning process exhibits relatively abrupt transitions corresponding to stage shifts in cognitive development. These points are illustrated using a network that learns to anticipate which side of a balance beam will go down, based on the number of weights on each side of the fulcrum and their distance from the fulcrum on each side of the beam. The network is trained in an environment in which weight more frequently governs which side will go down. It recapitulates the states of development seen in children, as well as the stage transitions, as it learns to represent weight and distance information.

McClelland, J.L.

1988-07-11

184

Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement.  

PubMed

For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects. PMID:25555255

Jackson, Margot I

2015-02-01

185

Development of Thalamocortical Connectivity during Infancy and Its Cognitive Correlations  

PubMed Central

Although commonly viewed as a sensory information relay center, the thalamus has been increasingly recognized as an essential node in various higher-order cognitive circuits, and the underlying thalamocortical interaction mechanism has attracted increasing scientific interest. However, the development of thalamocortical connections and how such development relates to cognitive processes during the earliest stages of life remain largely unknown. Leveraging a large human pediatric sample (N = 143) with longitudinal resting-state fMRI scans and cognitive data collected during the first 2 years of life, we aimed to characterize the age-dependent development of thalamocortical connectivity patterns by examining the functional relationship between the thalamus and nine cortical functional networks and determine the correlation between thalamocortical connectivity and cognitive performance at ages 1 and 2 years. Our results revealed that the thalamus–sensorimotor and thalamus–salience connectivity networks were already present in neonates, whereas the thalamus–medial visual and thalamus–default mode network connectivity emerged later, at 1 year of age. More importantly, brain–behavior analyses based on the Mullen Early Learning Composite Score and visual–spatial working memory performance measured at 1 and 2 years of age highlighted significant correlations with the thalamus–salience network connectivity. These results provide new insights into the understudied early functional brain development process and shed light on the behavioral importance of the emerging thalamocortical connectivity during infancy. PMID:24990927

Alcauter, Sarael; Lin, Weili; Smith, J. Keith; Short, Sarah J.; Goldman, Barbara D.; Reznick, J. Steven; Gilmore, John H.

2014-01-01

186

Topics in Cognitive Development: Language and Operational Thought. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second volume in a series that records the official Symposium Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Society and examines the theoretical, empirical, and applied aspects of Jean Piaget's seminal epistemology. The 12 papers are divided into four areas: language development, formal reasoning, social cognition, and applied research. The topics of…

Presseisen, Barbara Z.; And Others

187

Cognitive Development Amanda Woodward, professor of psychology, studies babies because  

E-print Network

fitting babies as young as 3 months old with Velcro "sticky mittens" designed by Amy NeedhamCognitive Development in Infants Amanda Woodward, professor of psychology, studies babies because. In particular, Woodward probes how babies view other people. Human beings constantly infer other people's mental

Hill, Wendell T.

188

The Link between Nutrition and Cognitive Development in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New findings about child nutrition and cognitive development indicate that undernourished children are typically fatigued and uninterested in their social environments. Such children are less likely to establish relationships or to explore and learn from their surroundings. Undernourished children are also more susceptible to illness and, thus,…

Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

189

A Tutorial Introduction to Bayesian Models of Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an introduction to Bayesian inference as it is used in probabilistic models of cognitive development. Our goal is to provide an intuitive and accessible guide to the "what", the "how", and the "why" of the Bayesian approach: what sorts of problems and data the framework is most relevant for, and how and why it may be useful for…

Perfors, Amy; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Xu, Fei

2011-01-01

190

Are There Any Matthew Effects in Literacy and Cognitive Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Matthew effect is often used as a metaphor to describe a widening gap between good and poor readers over time. In this study we examined the development of individual differences in reading and cognitive functioning in children with reading difficulties and normal readers from Grades 1 to 3. Matthew effects were observed for individual…

Kempe, Camilla; Eriksson-Gustavsson, Anna-Lena; Samuelsson, Stefan

2011-01-01

191

Sustainable “what”? A cognitive approach to understanding sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the meaning of sustainable development held by New Zealand “thought leaders” and “influencers” promoting sustainability, business, or sustainable business. It seeks to compare inductively derived worldviews with theories associated with sustainability and the humanity-nature relationship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Worldviews were explored through a cognitive mapping exercise. A total of 21 thought

Christine Byrch; Kate Kearins; Markus Milne; Richard Morgan

2007-01-01

192

Using EEG to Study Cognitive Development: Issues and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental research is enhanced by use of multiple methodologies for examining psychological processes. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for the study of developmental changes in brain-behavior relations. In this review, we highlight some of the challenges for using EEG in cognitive development

Bell, Martha Ann; Cuevas, Kimberly

2012-01-01

193

Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

2009-01-01

194

Dialectic Operations: The Final Period of Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguments for an extension of Piaget's theory of cognitive development have been derived from philosophical and historical considerations of modern natural science. Implicit contradictions, which characterize these sciences as well as common thought, can be systematically apprehended only through a dialectic reinterpretation. The dialectic basis…

Riegel, Klaus F.

195

Development of thalamocortical connectivity during infancy and its cognitive correlations.  

PubMed

Although commonly viewed as a sensory information relay center, the thalamus has been increasingly recognized as an essential node in various higher-order cognitive circuits, and the underlying thalamocortical interaction mechanism has attracted increasing scientific interest. However, the development of thalamocortical connections and how such development relates to cognitive processes during the earliest stages of life remain largely unknown. Leveraging a large human pediatric sample (N = 143) with longitudinal resting-state fMRI scans and cognitive data collected during the first 2 years of life, we aimed to characterize the age-dependent development of thalamocortical connectivity patterns by examining the functional relationship between the thalamus and nine cortical functional networks and determine the correlation between thalamocortical connectivity and cognitive performance at ages 1 and 2 years. Our results revealed that the thalamus-sensorimotor and thalamus-salience connectivity networks were already present in neonates, whereas the thalamus-medial visual and thalamus-default mode network connectivity emerged later, at 1 year of age. More importantly, brain-behavior analyses based on the Mullen Early Learning Composite Score and visual-spatial working memory performance measured at 1 and 2 years of age highlighted significant correlations with the thalamus-salience network connectivity. These results provide new insights into the understudied early functional brain development process and shed light on the behavioral importance of the emerging thalamocortical connectivity during infancy. PMID:24990927

Alcauter, Sarael; Lin, Weili; Smith, J Keith; Short, Sarah J; Goldman, Barbara D; Reznick, J Steven; Gilmore, John H; Gao, Wei

2014-07-01

196

Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive

Barrouillet, Pierre

2011-01-01

197

Cognitive-Linguistic Foundations of Early Spelling Development in Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing spelling skills in English is a particularly demanding task for Chinese speakers because, unlike many other bilinguals learning English as a second language, they must learn two languages with different orthography as well as phonology. To disentangle socioeconomic and pedagogical factors from the underlying cognitive-linguistic…

Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

2011-01-01

198

The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

2013-01-01

199

Artificial Curiosity with Planning for Autonomous Perceptual and Cognitive Development  

E-print Network

Artificial Curiosity with Planning for Autonomous Perceptual and Cognitive Development Matthew signal presents a major obstacle to successfully realizing an efficient curiosity-drive. TD the curiosity signal. In this paper, a novel artificial curiosity system with planning is implemented, based

Schmidhuber, Juergen

200

Aspects of Emotional and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the concept of friendship that is displayed by an 8-year-old homeless immigrant Taiwanese-Chinese child. Through the use of interviews with the child as well as observations, the author attempts to interpret the child's understanding of friendship according to the theories of cognitive, emotional, and moral development of…

Micari, Susan

201

Trajectories of Cognitive Development among American Indian Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than do those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage, and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants…

Mitchell, Christina M.; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N.

2011-01-01

202

Research on Cognitive Development in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three themes that have informed research on cognitive development in sub-Sahara Africa over the past 10 years: (1) extending the range of generalizability of Western theories; (2) interpreting the uniqueness of the African situation; and (3) deriving implications for social policy. (Author/AS)

Serpell, Robert

1984-01-01

203

Mapping brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive mapping of brain structure and function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has opened up unprecedented opportunities for studying the neural substrates underlying cognitive development. There is an emerging consensus of a continuous increase through- out adolescence in the volume of white matter, both global and local. There is less agreement on the meaning of asynchronous age-related decreases in the

Tomas ÿ Paus

2005-01-01

204

Computational Models of Relational Processes in Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acquisition of relational knowledge is a core process in cognitive development. Relational knowledge is dynamic and flexible, entails structure-consistent mappings between representations, has properties of compositionality and systematicity, and depends on binding in working memory. We review three types of computational models relevant to…

Halford, Graeme S.; Andrews, Glenda; Wilson, William H.; Phillips, Steven

2012-01-01

205

Contributions of Dynamic Systems Theory to Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the contributions of dynamic systems theory to the field of cognitive development, focusing on modeling using dynamic neural fields. After introducing central concepts of dynamic field theory (DFT), we probe empirical predictions and findings around two examples--the DFT of infant perseverative reaching that explains Piaget's A-not-B…

Spencer, John P.; Austin, Andrew; Schutte, Anne R.

2012-01-01

206

The Development of Cognitive Structures about Alcoholic Beverages among Preschoolers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When in childhood concepts about alcohol and drinking begin to develop has just begun to be investigated. A study was conducted to examine cognitive, maturational, and differential exposure influences on the acquisition of concepts about alcoholic beverages in preschool children. Knowledge about alcoholic beverages and drinking was assessed in 65…

Greenberg, Gregory S.; And Others

207

Using EEG to Study Cognitive Development: Issues and Practices  

PubMed Central

Developmental research is enhanced by use of multiple methodologies for examining psychological processes. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for the study of developmental changes in brain-behavior relations. In this review, we highlight some of the challenges for using EEG in cognitive development research. We also list best practices for incorporating this methodology into the study of early cognitive processes. Consideration of these issues is critical for making an informed decision regarding implementation of EEG methodology. PMID:23144592

Bell, Martha Ann; Cuevas, Kimberly

2012-01-01

208

Quantum Structure in Cognition, Origins, Developments, Successes and Expectations  

E-print Network

We provide an overview of the results we have attained in the last decade on the identification of quantum structures in cognition and, more specifically, in the formalization and representation of natural concepts. We firstly discuss the quantum foundational reasons that led us to investigate the mechanisms of formation and combination of concepts in human reasoning, starting from the empirically observed deviations from classical logical and probabilistic structures. We then develop our quantum-theoretic perspective in Fock space which allows successful modeling of various sets of cognitive experiments collected by different scientists, including ourselves. In addition, we formulate a unified explanatory hypothesis for the presence of quantum structures in cognitive processes, and discuss our recent discovery of further quantum aspects in concept combinations, namely, 'entanglement' and 'indistinguishability'. We finally illustrate perspectives for future research.

Diederik Aerts; Sandro Sozzo

2015-03-10

209

Cognitive development: children's knowledge about the mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews theory and research on the development of children's knowledge about the mental world, focusing especially on work done during the past 15 years under the rubric of theory-of-mind development. The three principal approaches to explaining this development--theory theory, modular theory, and simulation theory--are described first. Next comes a description of infant precursors or protoforms of theory-of-mind knowledge

John H. Flavell

1999-01-01

210

Cognitive Apprenticeship and Teachers' Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The English government has focused upon a pattern of professional development that involves demonstration and modelling as a key element in the improvement of the teaching of 11-14 year olds (Key Stage 3 strategy). From 1997 the Nuffield Primary History Project (NPHP) has implemented a programme for the professional development of teachers built…

Nichol, Jon; Turner-Bisset, Rosie

2006-01-01

211

Dynamic Modeling, Chaos, and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the essential constructs involved in dynamic modeling, in relation to issues in psychological development. Presents several instances of how the principles of dynamic systems can be translated into mathematical formalism. Concludes that transition is a key invariance in development and that single subject, longitudinal designs are…

Howe, Mark L.; Rabinowitz, F. Michael

1994-01-01

212

Imaging the developing brain: what have we learned about cognitive development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human brain undergoes significant changes in both its structural architecture and functional organization across the life span. Advances in neuroimaging tech- niques over the past decade have allowed us to track these changes safely in the human in vivo. We review the imaging literature on the neurobiology of cognitive development, focusing specifically on cognitive task- dependent changes observed in

B. J. Casey; Nim Tottenham; Conor Liston; Sarah Durston

2005-01-01

213

White matter development and early cognition in babies and toddlers  

PubMed Central

The normal myelination of neuronal axons is essential to neurodevelopment, allowing fast inter-neuronal communication. The most dynamic period of myelination occurs in the first few years of life, in concert with a dramatic increase in cognitive abilities. How these processes relate, however, is still unclear. Here we aimed to use a data-driven technique to parcellate developing white matter into regions with consistent white matter growth trajectories and investigate how these regions related to cognitive development. In a large sample of 183 children aged 3 months to 4 years, we calculated whole brain myelin volume fraction (VFM) maps using quantitative multicomponent relaxometry. We used spatial independent component analysis (ICA) to blindly segment these quantitative VFM images into anatomically meaningful parcels with distinct developmental trajectories. We further investigated the relationship of these trajectories with standardized cognitive scores in the same children. The resulting components represented a mix of unilateral and bilateral white matter regions (e.g., cortico-spinal tract, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, white matter underlying the inferior frontal gyrus) as well as structured noise (misregistration, image artifact). The trajectories of these regions were associated with individual differences in cognitive abilities. Specifically, components in white matter underlying frontal and temporal cortices showed significant relationships to expressive and receptive language abilities. Many of these relationships had a significant interaction with age, with VFM becoming more strongly associated with language skills with age. These data provide evidence for a changing coupling between developing myelin and cognitive development. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4475–4487, 2014. PMID:24578096

O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dean III, Douglas C; Ginestet, Cedric E; Walker, Lindsay; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Lehman, Katie; Dirks, Holly; Piryatinsky, Irene; Deoni, Sean CL

2014-01-01

214

Cognition and affect in the development of sense of place  

E-print Network

development can be identified paralleling the stages of cognitive development. The general approach was (l) to define sense of place in terms of the significance of home neigh- borhood, (2) to d vise a procedure using a neighborhood sketch map... . 8. Uniform Size of Map Features 9. Uniform Detail of Map . 10. Map Perspective . ll. Placement of Home on Map 12. Map Complexity. Number of Element Types 13. Map Scale, Number of Buildings . . 14. Map Scale. Number of Roads . 15. Neighborhood...

Engman, Dianne Lynn

1978-01-01

215

Dialectic Operations: The Final Period of Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments for an extension of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development have been derived from philosophical and historical consideration of modern natural sciences. Implicit contradictions, which characterize these sciences as well as common thought, can be systematically apprehended only through a dialectic reinterpretation. The dialectic basis of Piaget’s theory is expressed in his assimilation-accommodation paradigm. But development is interpreted as a

Klaus F. Riegel

1973-01-01

216

Neural Substrates of the Development of Cognitive Control in Children Ages 5–10 Years  

E-print Network

Cognitive conflict detection and resolution develops with age across childhood and likely supports age-related increases in other aspects of cognitive and emotional development. Little is known about the neural correlates ...

Sheridan, Margaret

217

Can Emphasising Cognitive Development Improve Academic Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children ordinarily begin their formal education at the age when the great majority of them are capable of understanding the role of addition and subtraction in changing number. In determining critical differences they can apply the oddity principle--the first "pure" abstraction that children ever develop--understanding that when all…

Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K.; Gadzichowski, Marinka K.; Gallington, Deborah A.; Saracina, Robin P.

2008-01-01

218

Developing Computational Thinking through Grounded Embodied Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to examine the use of grounded embodied pedagogy, construction of Imaginary Worlds (Study 1), and context of instructional materials (Study 2) for developing learners' Computational Thinking (CT) Skills and Concept knowledge during the construction of digital artifacts using Scratch, a block-based programming…

Fadjo, Cameron Lawrence

2012-01-01

219

Identifying Cognitive Mechanisms Targeted for Treatment Development in Schizophrenia: An Overview of the First Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) Initiative  

PubMed Central

This overview describes the generation and development of the ideas that led to the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative. It also describes the organization, process and products of the first meeting. The CNTRICS initiative involves a series of three conferences that will systematically address barriers to translating paradigms developed in the basic animal and human cognitive neuroscience fields for use in translational research aimed at developing novel treatments for cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The articles in this special section report on the results of the first conference, which used a criterion based consensus-building process to develop a set of cognitive constructs to be targeted for translation efforts. PMID:18466880

Carter, Cameron S.; Barch, Deanna M.; Buchanan, Robert W.; Bullmore, Ed; Krystal, John H.; Cohen, Jonathan; Geyer, Mark; Green, Michael; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Robbins, Trevor; Silverstein, Steven; Smith, Edward E.; Strauss, Milton; Wykes, Til; Heinssen, Robert

2008-01-01

220

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

221

A Milk-Based Wolfberry Preparation Prevents Prenatal Stress-Induced Cognitive Impairment of Offspring Rats, and Inhibits Oxidative Damage and Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycium barbarum (Fructus Lycii, Wolfberry, or Gouqi) belongs to the Solanaceae. The red-colored fruits of L. barbarum have been used for a long time as an ingredient in Chinese cuisine and brewing, and also in traditional Chinese herbal medicine\\u000a for improving health. However, its effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. In the present study, prevention\\u000a of a

Zhihui FengHaiqun; Haiqun Jia; Xuesen Li; Zhuanli Bai; Zhongbo Liu; Lijuan Sun; Zhongliang Zhu; Peter Bucheli; Olivier Ballèvre; Junkuan Wang; Jiankang Liu

2010-01-01

222

Cognitive Development in Gifted Children: Toward a More Precise Understanding of Emerging Differences in Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

To truly understand gifted performance, it is necessary to merge research on giftedness with current thinking in cognitive development and intelligence. This article presents traditional research on gifted children's cognitive development then considers how the application of newer models and theories from the field of cognitive development can be combined with research on giftedness to change the way people think

Hillary Hettinger Steiner; Martha Carr

2003-01-01

223

Do cognitive attributions for smoking predict subsequent smoking development?  

PubMed

To develop more effective anti-smoking programs, it is important to understand the factors that influence people to smoke. Guided by attribution theory, a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate how individuals' cognitive attributions for smoking were associated with subsequent smoking development and through which pathways. Middle and high school students in seven large cities in China (N=12,382; 48.5% boys and 51.5% girls) completed two annual surveys. Associations between cognitive attributions for smoking and subsequent smoking initiation and progression were tested with multilevel analysis, taking into account plausible moderation effects of gender and baseline smoking status. Mediation effects of susceptibility to smoking were investigated using statistical mediation analysis (MacKinnon, 2008). Six out of eight tested themes of cognitive attributions were associated with subsequent smoking development. Curiosity (?=0.11, p<0.001) and autonomy (?=0.08, p=0.019) were associated with smoking initiation among baseline non-smokers. Coping (?=0.07, p<0.001) and social image (?=0.10, p=<.0001) were associated with smoking progression among baseline lifetime smokers. Social image (?=0.05, p=0.043), engagement (?=0.07, p=0.003), and mental enhancement (?=0.15, p<0.001) were associated with smoking progression among baseline past 30-day smokers. More attributions were associated with smoking development among males than among females. Susceptibility to smoking partially mediated most of the associations, with the proportion of mediated effects ranging from 4.3% to 30.8%. This study identifies the roles that cognitive attributions for smoking play in subsequent smoking development. These attributions could be addressed in smoking prevention programs. PMID:22112425

Guo, Qian; Unger, Jennifer B; Azen, Stanley P; MacKinnon, David P; Johnson, C Anderson

2012-03-01

224

Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development  

PubMed Central

Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

Wass, Sam V.

2015-01-01

225

Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development.  

PubMed

Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

Wass, Sam V

2015-01-01

226

The measurement of everyday cognition: Development and validation of a short form of the Everyday Cognition scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study describes the development and validation of a shortened version of the Everyday Cognition (ECog) scales [Tomaszewski Farias et al. Neuropsychology 2008;22:531–44], an informant-rated questionnaire designed to detect cognitive and functional decline.

Sarah Tomaszewski Farias; Dan Mungas; Danielle J. Harvey; Amanda Simmons; Bruce R. Reed; Charles DeCarli

2011-01-01

227

Responsible Fathering and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally how father involvement mediates the relationship between a variety of factors thought to influence the father-child relationship and later child cognitive development. The Responsible Fathering Framework was used as a conceptual model to test items collected in a large national data set (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort Study [ECLS-B]). Latent variables

Spencer B. Olmstead

2010-01-01

228

Prevention of Intellectual Disabilities: Early Interventions to Improve Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conceptual framework that has guided three randomized, controlled early intervention trials designed to improve cognitive development and social competence in high-risk young children from birth to 3 years of age. Two of the projects (Abecedarian and CARE) enrolled infants from economically and socially low-resource families and the other project (IHDP) was an eight-site randomized controlled trial

Craig T. Ramey; Sharon Landesman Ramey

1998-01-01

229

Vestibular activity and cognitive development in children: perspectives  

PubMed Central

Vestibular signals play an essential role in oculomotor and static and dynamic posturomotor functions. Increasing attention is now focusing on their impact on spatial and non-spatial cognitive functions. Movements of the head in space evoke vestibular signals that make important contributions during the development of brain representations of body parts relative to one another as well as representations of body orientation and position within the environment. A central nervous system pathway relays signals from the vestibular nuclei to the hippocampal system where this input is indispensable for neuronal responses selective for the position and orientation of the head in space. One aspect of the hippocampal systems’ processing to create episodic and contextual memories is its role in spatial orientation and navigation behaviors that require processing of relations between background cues. These are also impaired in adult patients with vestibular deficits. However little is known about the impact of vestibular loss on cognitive development in children. This is investigated here with a particular emphasis upon the hypothetical mechanisms and potential impact of vestibular loss at critical ages on the development of respective spatial and non-spatial cognitive processes and their brain substrates. PMID:24376403

Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette R.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Wiener, Sidney I.

2013-01-01

230

Housing under the pyramid reduces susceptibility of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons to prenatal stress in the developing rat offspring.  

PubMed

Mother-offspring interaction begins before birth. The foetus is particularly vulnerable to environmental insults and stress. The body responds by releasing excess of the stress hormone cortisol, which acts on glucocorticoid receptors. Hippocampus in the brain is rich in glucocorticoid receptors and therefore susceptible to stress. The stress effects are reduced when the animals are placed under a model wooden pyramid. The present study was to first explore the effects of prenatal restraint-stress on the plasma corticosterone levels and the dendritic arborisation of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of the offspring. Further, to test whether the pyramid environment would alter these effects, as housing under a pyramid is known to reduce the stress effects, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were restrained for 9 h per day from gestation day 7 until parturition in a wire-mesh restrainer. Plasma corticosterone levels were found to be significantly increased. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the apical and the basal total dendritic branching points and intersections of the CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The results thus suggest that, housing in the pyramid dramatically reduces prenatal stress effects in rats. PMID:24579372

Murthy, Krishna Dilip; George, Mitchel Constance; Ramasamy, Perumal; Mustapha, Zainal Arifin

2013-12-01

231

The relationship of moral development to intelligence and cognitive complexity  

E-print Network

) (Head of Department) August 1980 11938~0 ABSTRACT The Relationship of Moral Development to Intelligence and Cognitive Complexity. (August 1980) Joe D. Wood, Jr. , B. A. , Asbury College; M. Div. , Asbury Theological Seminary Chairman of Advisory... through stages of moral development (p. 491). In add1tion, Lev1ne (1976) has stated that the person who functions at a h1gher stage of moral development has restructured and/or displaced earlier stage thinking, i. e. , that the morally advanced person...

Wood, Joe Dunham

1980-01-01

232

Effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate exposure on offspring development and male reproduction of rat.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to assess the effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) exposure during late gestation on offspring's development and reproductive system of male rats. Pregnant rats were treated orally with DBP (2, 10, 50 mg/kg), BBP (4, 20, 100 mg/kg), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) 6 ?g/kg (positive control) from GD14 to parturition. A significant reduction in dams' body weight on GD21 in DBP-, BBP-, and DES-treated groups was observed. The gestation length was considerably elevated in the treated groups. Decline in male pups' body weight was significant at PND75 in DBP- (50 mg/kg), BBP- (20,100 mg/kg), and DES-treated groups. The weight of most of the reproductive organs and sperm quality parameters was impaired significantly in DBP- (50 mg/kg) and BBP- (100 mg/kg) treated groups. Further, a non-significant decline in testicular spermatid count and daily sperm production was also monitored in treated groups. A significant reduction in serum testosterone level in BBP (100 mg/kg), whereas the testicular activity of 17?-HSD was declined non-significantly in the treated groups with respect to control. The data suggests that DBP and BBP exposure during late gestation period might have adverse effects on offspring's development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis in adult rats. PMID:24213843

Ahmad, Rahish; Gautam, A K; Verma, Y; Sedha, S; Kumar, Sunil

2014-02-01

233

The Role of Falsification in the Development of Cognitive Architectures: Insights from a Lakatosian Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive ar- chitectures should be understood as theories that develop over time. However, Newell's own candidate cognitive

Richard P. Cooper

2007-01-01

234

Finding Shortest Path for Developed Cognitive Map Using Medial Axis  

E-print Network

this paper presents an enhancement of the medial axis algorithm to be used for finding the optimal shortest path for developed cognitive map. The cognitive map has been developed, based on the architectural blueprint maps. The idea for using the medial-axis is to find main path central pixels; each center pixel represents the center distance between two side boarder pixels. The need for these pixels in the algorithm comes from the need of building a network of nodes for the path, where each node represents a turning in the real world (left, right, critical left, critical right...). The algorithm also ignores from finding the center pixels paths that are too small for intelligent robot navigation. The Idea of this algorithm is to find the possible shortest path between start and end points. The goal of this research is to extract a simple, robust representation of the shape of the cognitive map together with the optimal shortest path between start and end points. The intelligent robot will use this algorithm i...

Farhan, Hazim A; Al-Ghazi, Suhaib I

2011-01-01

235

Early speech motor development: Cognitive and linguistic considerations  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic demands (i.e., silent spontaneous movements, babble, and first words). Movements of the lower lip and jaw were recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Twenty-four infants were observed every three months, from 9 to 21 months of age. Jaw and lower lip speed, and lower lip range of movement increased with age. Spontaneous movements were consistently slower than words, whereas kinematic measures associated with babble did not differ from those associated with words. These findings suggest that speech movements may reflect linguistic and cognitive processing demands and that the continuity hypothesis between babbling and words may also be observed at the kinematic level. PMID:19439318

Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

2009-01-01

236

The mediating effect of cognitive development on children's worry elaboration.  

PubMed

The present study investigated how developmentally determined cognitive mechanisms, holding theoretical links to the worry process, mediate the relationship between Age and Worry Elaboration in children. Sixty-four children aged 3-7 (M = 5.58, SD = 1.28) were presented with a Conservation of Liquid task assessing their Cognitive Development (specifically Concrete Operational Skills), a false-belief task to measure possession of Belief-Desire Theory of Mind, and a task measuring the ability to acknowledge multiple possibilities. The ability to elaborate on potential negative outcomes was assessed using a Worry Elaboration task. Mediation analysis revealed that all three variables significantly mediated the relationship between Age and Worry Elaboration. A multiple mediation model is presented in which Concrete Operational Skills, Belief-Desire Theory of Mind and Multiple Possibilities understanding mediate the relationship between Age and Worry Elaboration. PMID:22178472

Grist, Rebecca M; Field, Andy P

2012-06-01

237

Development and initial validation of a scale to measure cognitive fusion   

E-print Network

Aim: This thesis describes the development and initial validation of a questionnaire to measure Hayes, Strosahl and Wilson’s (1999) constructs of cognitive fusion and cognitive defusion. Within the literature there is ...

Dempster, Maria A.

2009-01-01

238

Part I: Cognitive Development in Children--Piaget Development and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author gives a general introduction of a few ideas on cognitive development in children. In the first part, he deals with the topic of development, a process which concerns the totality of the structures of knowledge. He reviews the stages of development of operational structures, distinguishes four main stages of development,…

Piaget, Jean

2003-01-01

239

Toxic effects of irgarol and diuron on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus early development, fertilization, and offspring quality.  

PubMed

Irgarol and Diuron are the most representative "organic booster biocides" that replaced organotin compounds in antifouling paints. It cannot be assumed beforehand that their use will have no environmental impact: more ecotoxicological data and a significant environmental monitoring are required. Spermio and embryotoxicities of the biocides Irgarol and Diuron were investigated on Paracentrotus lividus, the dominant echinoid species of the Mediterranean Sea. Spermiotoxicity was studied by assessing the effects of sperm exposure on fertilization rate as well as on the induction of transmissible damages to the offspring. Embryotoxicity was studied by assessing the developmental defects in the exposed larvae. The experimental results show a Diuron EC50 of 2.39 (+/- 0.21) mg/L with a NOEL of 0.25 mg/L for embryos, and of 5.09 (+/- 0.45) mg/L with a NOEL of 0.5 mg/L for sperms, respectively. Data obtained from the embryotoxicity test on Irgarol [EC50 0.99 (+/- 0.69) mg/L] are of the same order of magnitude as the literature data about Japanese urchins. Spermiotoxicity tests show an Irgarol EC50 of 9.04 (+/- 0.45) mg/L with a NOEL of 0.1 mg/L. These data show the different sensitivities of the two tests: embryos are more sensitive than sperms for both the tested chemicals and Diuron seems to be the less toxic one. Moreover, as a major output of the experimental work, tested herbicides exert transmissible damage to spermatozoa evidenced by larval malformations in the offspring, mainly P1 type (skeletal alterations). The comparison of the endpoints results offers an interesting indication of a probable different mode of action (Irgarol seems to interact with calcium homeostasis) of the two biocides. PMID:16446998

Manzo, S; Buono, S; Cremisini, C

2006-07-01

240

Fresh and frozen-thawed sperm quality, nuclear DNA integrity, invitro fertility, embryo development, and live-born offspring of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mice.  

PubMed

Efficient collection, freezing, reliable archiving of sperm, and re-derivation of mutant mice are essential components for large-scale mutagenesis programs in the mouse. Induced mutations (i.e. transgenes, targeted mutations, chemically induced mutations) in mice may cause inherited or temporary sterility, increase abnormal sperm values, or decrease fertility. One purpose of this study was to compare the effect(s) on fresh and frozen-thawed sperm quality, spermatozoa DNA integrity, unassisted in vitro fertility (IVF) rate, in vitro embryo development rate to blastocysts, and live-born offspring rates in non-ENU (control) animals and the F1-generation of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-treated male mice (765mg/kg C57BL6/J or 600mg/kg 129S1/SvImJ total dose). The second purpose was to determine the effect(s) of parental oocyte donor strain on in vitro fertilization, in vitro embryo development to blastocysts, and live-born offspring rates using sperm and unassisted IVF to re-derive animals from non-ENU control and ENU mice. Sperm assessment parameters included progressive motility, concentration, plasma membrane integrity, membrane function integrity, acrosome integrity, and DNA integrity. There were no significant differences in fresh sperm assessment parameters, DNA integrity, unassisted in vitro fertility rate, in vitro embryo development rate to blastocysts, and live-born offspring rates between non-ENU and C3B6F1/J or B6129S1F1/J ENU mice. In addition, there were no significant differences in frozen-thawed sperm assessment parameters and DNA integrity rates for non-ENU control and ENU C3B6F1/J or B6129SF1/J mice. In vitro fertilization and in vitro embryo development to blastocysts were effected from strain genetic variability (P<0.05). However, the cryopreservation process caused an increase of DNA fragmentation in non-ENU control and ENU C3B6F1/J or B6129S1F1/J hybrid mice compared to fresh control sperm (P<0.01). Unlike the combinations of hybrid sperm and hybrid oocyte, increasing frozen-thawed sperm DNA fragmentation decreased the embryo development rate to blastocyst compared to fresh sperm when C57BL6, C3H, or 129S inbred mice were used as oocyte donors (P<0.05). PMID:18700137

Yildiz, Cengiz; Fleming, Craig; Ottaviani, Palma; McKerlie, Colin

2008-10-01

241

Molecular and cellular cognition: integrating explanations of behavior and developing treatments for cognitive disorders  

E-print Network

Molecular and cellular cognition: integrating explanations of behavior will discuss the field of molecular and cellular cognition. I will start ground in learning and memory (memory allocation), as well as discovering

Gruen, Sonja

242

An information theory analysis of spatial decisions in cognitive development  

PubMed Central

Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain) as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages 5 to 10 years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of “cognitive entropy” were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1) the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2) the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured “chunking” of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework. PMID:25698915

Scott, Nicole M.; Sera, Maria D.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

2015-01-01

243

Gestational Hypothyroidism Increases the Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background: Maternal thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in appropriate fetal development during gestation. Offspring that have been gestated under maternal hypothyroidism suffer cognitive impairment. Thyroid hormone deficiency during gestation can significantly impact the central nervous system by altering the migration, differentiation, and function of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Given that gestational hypothyroidism alters the immune cell ratio in offspring, it is possible that this condition could result in higher sensitivity for the development of autoimmune diseases. Methods: Adult mice gestated under hypothyroidism were induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Twenty-one days after EAE induction, the disease score, myelin content, immune cell infiltration, and oligodendrocyte death were evaluated. Results: We observed that mice gestated under hypothyroidism showed higher EAE scores after disease induction during adulthood compared to mice gestated in euthyroidism. In addition, spinal cord sections of mice gestated under hypothyroidism that suffered EAE in adulthood showed higher demyelination, CD4+ and CD8+ infiltration, and increased oligodendrocyte death. Conclusions: These results show for the first time that a deficiency in maternal thyroid hormones during gestation can influence the outcome of a central nervous system inflammatory disease, such as EAE, in their offspring. These data strongly support evaluating thyroid hormones in pregnant women and treating hypothyroidism during pregnancy to prevent increased susceptibility to inflammatory diseases in the central nervous system of offspring. PMID:23777566

Albornoz, Eduardo A.; Carreño, Leandro J.; Cortes, Claudia M.; Gonzalez, Pablo A.; Cisternas, Pablo A.; Cautivo, Kelly M.; Catalán, Tamara P.; Opazo, M. Cecilia; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Berman, Joan W.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.

2013-01-01

244

Rational thinking and cognitive sophistication: development, cognitive abilities, and thinking dispositions.  

PubMed

We studied developmental trends in 5 important reasoning tasks that are critical components of the operational definition of rational thinking. The tasks measured denominator neglect, belief bias, base rate sensitivity, resistance to framing, and the tendency toward otherside thinking. In addition to age, we examined 2 other individual difference domains that index cognitive sophistication: cognitive ability (intelligence and executive functioning) and thinking dispositions (actively open-minded thinking, superstitious thinking, and need for cognition). All 5 reasoning domains were consistently related to cognitive sophistication regardless of how it was indexed (age, cognitive ability, thinking dispositions). The implications of these findings for taxonomies of developmental trends in rational thinking tasks are discussed. PMID:24188038

Toplak, Maggie E; West, Richard F; Stanovich, Keith E

2014-04-01

245

Promoting Conceptual Development in Physics Teacher Education: Cognitive-Historical Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Induction Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In teaching physics, the history of physics offers fruitful starting points for designing instruction. I introduce here an approach that uses historical cognitive processes to enhance the conceptual development of pre-service physics teachers' knowledge. It applies a method called cognitive-historical approach, introduced to the cognitive sciences…

Mantyla, Terhi

2013-01-01

246

[Effects on children's cognitive development of chronic exposure to screens].  

PubMed

During the last few years, the time spent in front of various screens, including TV sets, video games, smartphones and computers, has dramatically increased. Numerous studies show, with a remarkable consistency, that this trend has a strong negative influence on the cognitive development of children and teenagers. The affected fields include, in particular, scholastic achievement, language, attention, sleep and aggression. We believe that this often disregarded - not to say denied - problem should now be considered a major public health issue. Primary care physicians should inform parents and children about this issue to support efficient prevention. PMID:22609414

Harlé, B; Desmurget, M

2012-07-01

247

Genetic and Environmental Covariation between Verbal and Nonverbal Cognitive Development in Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite cognitive neuroscience's emphasis on the modularity of cognitive processes, multivariate genetic re- search indicates that the same genetic factors largely affect diverse cognitive abilities, at least from middle childhood onward. We explored this issue for verbal and nonverbal cognitive development in infancy in a study of 1,937 pairs of same-sex 2-year-old twins born in England and Wales in 1994.

Thomas S. Price; Thalia C. Eley; Philip S. Dale; Jim Stevenson; Kim Sandino; Robert Plomin

2000-01-01

248

Prenatal Lipopolysaccharide Reduces Social Behavior in Male Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigated the relationship between maternal sickness behavior during pregnancy and offspring development and behavior. Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ?g\\/kg, i.p.) on gestation day (GD) 9.5. Dams’ sickness behavior was analyzed, and at birth, offspring number and weight were evaluated. Male offspring was evaluated through physical development, play behavior, adult social interaction,

Thiago B. Kirsten; Marina Taricano; Paulo C. Maiorka; João Palermo-Neto; Maria M. Bernardi

2010-01-01

249

Supplemental feeding during pregnancy compared with maternal supplementation during lactation does not affect schooling and cognitive development through late adolescence123  

PubMed Central

Background: The long-term impact of early malnutrition on human capital outcomes remains unclear, and existing evidence has come largely from observational studies. Objective: We compared the impact of a nutritional supplement given during pregnancy or lactation in rural Gambia on educational performance and cognitive ability in offspring at their maturity. Design: This study was a follow-up of a randomized trial of prenatal high protein and energy supplementation conducted between 1989 and 1994. Subjects were 16–22 y of age at follow-up, and information was collected on schooling achievement and cognitive ability by using the Raven's progressive matrices test, Mill Hill vocabulary test, and forward and backward digit-span tests. Results: A total of 1459 individuals were traced and interviewed and represented 71% of the original cohort and 81% of the surviving cohort. There was no difference in cognitive ability or educational attainment between treatment groups by using any of the methods of assessment. Conclusion: We have shown little evidence to support a long-term effect of prenatal protein-energy supplementation compared with supplementation during lactation on cognitive development in rural Gambians. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN72582014. PMID:24132979

Alderman, Harold; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Lundberg, Mattias; Tasneem, Afia; Mark, Henry

2014-01-01

250

The early cognitive development of children at high risk of developing an eating disorder.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED) has been associated with differences in cognition. Recent evidence suggests that differences may be present prior to onset. Children at familial high risk for ED show cognitive differences at ages 8-10?years. Research is required to investigate differences in cognitive development at various time points. This is the first study to investigate cognitive development in children at high risk at 18?months (Griffiths Mental Development Scale; n=982) and 4?years old (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised; n=582), in comparison with children not at risk, using a general population sample, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Children of women with lifetime anorexia nervosa revealed difficulties in social understanding, visual-motor function, planning and abstract reasoning. Cognitive differences observed here have also been observed in clinical groups. This suggests difficulties may be present prior to onset, potentially affecting risk status for development of ED. Findings contribute to an understanding of aetiology, and design of prevention/intervention strategies. PMID:24375832

Kothari, Radha; Rosinska, Magda; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

2014-03-01

251

The Early Cognitive Development of Children at High Risk of Developing an Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED) has been associated with differences in cognition. Recent evidence suggests that differences may be present prior to onset. Children at familial high risk for ED show cognitive differences at ages 8–10 years. Research is required to investigate differences in cognitive development at various time points. This is the first study to investigate cognitive development in children at high risk at 18 months (Griffiths Mental Development Scale; n = 982) and 4 years old (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised; n = 582), in comparison with children not at risk, using a general population sample, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Children of women with lifetime anorexia nervosa revealed difficulties in social understanding, visual-motor function, planning and abstract reasoning. Cognitive differences observed here have also been observed in clinical groups. This suggests difficulties may be present prior to onset, potentially affecting risk status for development of ED. Findings contribute to an understanding of aetiology, and design of prevention/intervention strategies. PMID:24375832

Kothari, Radha; Rosinska, Magda; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

2014-01-01

252

Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences rat maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories: behavioral performances and neuroplasticity correlates  

PubMed Central

Environmental enrichment (EE) is a widely used paradigm for investigating the influence of complex stimulations on brain and behavior. Here we examined whether pre-reproductive exposure to EE of female rats may influence their maternal care and offspring cognitive performances. To this aim, from weaning to breeding age enriched females (EF) were reared in enriched environments. Females reared in standard conditions were used as controls. At 2.5 months of age all females were mated and reared in standard conditions with their offspring. Maternal care behaviors and nesting activity were assessed in lactating dams. Their male pups were also behaviorally evaluated at different post-natal days (pnd). Brain BDNF, reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were measured as biochemical correlates of neuroplasticity. EF showed more complex maternal care than controls due to their higher levels of licking, crouching and nest building activities. Moreover, their offspring showed higher discriminative (maternal odor preference T-maze, pnd 10) and spatial (Morris Water Maze, pnd 45; Open Field with objects, pnd 55) performances, with no differences in social abilities (Sociability test, pnd 35), in comparison to controls. BDNF levels were increased in EF frontal cortex at pups' weaning and in their offspring hippocampus at pnd 21 and 55. No differences in offspring reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were found. In conclusion, our study indicates that pre-reproductive maternal enrichment positively influences female rats' maternal care and cognitive development of their offspring, demonstrating thus a transgenerational transmission of EE benefits linked to enhanced BDNF-induced neuroplasticity.

Cutuli, Debora; Caporali, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Angelucci, Francesco; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Bisicchia, Elisa; Molinari, Marco; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

2015-01-01

253

X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

Walzer, Stanley

1985-01-01

254

Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development.  

PubMed

The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development-the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem-solving strategies-are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 7-9-year-old children revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Longitudinal improvements in retrieval-strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval-strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood and was associated with decreased activation but more stable interproblem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development. PMID:25129076

Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

2014-09-01

255

Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development  

PubMed Central

The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development – the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem solving strategies – are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal fMRI in children, ages 7 to 9, revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Critically, longitudinal improvements in retrieval strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood, and was associated with decreased activation but more stable inter-problem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide novel insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving, and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development. PMID:25129076

Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

2014-01-01

256

Development and Validation of the Cognitive Behavioral Physical Activity Questionnaire.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . Develop and demonstrate preliminary validation of a brief questionnaire aimed at assessing social cognitive determinants of physical activity (PA) in a college population. Design . Quantitative and observational. Setting . A midsized northeastern university. Subjects . Convenience sample of 827 male and female college students age 18 to 24 years. Measures . International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a PA stage-of-change algorithm. Analysis . A sequential process of survey development, including item generation and data reduction analyses by factor analysis, was followed with the goal of creating a parsimonious questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used for confirmatory factor analysis and construct validation was confirmed against self-reported PA and stage of change. Validation analyses were replicated in a second, independent sample of 1032 college students. Results . Fifteen items reflecting PA self-regulation, outcome expectations, and personal barriers explained 65% of the questionnaire data and explained 28.6% and 39.5% of the variance in total PA and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA, respectively. Scale scores were distinguishable across the stages of change. Findings were similar when the Cognitive Behavioral Physical Activity Questionnaire (CBPAQ) was tested in a similar and independent sample of college students (40%; R(2) moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA = .40; p < .001). Conclusion . The CBPAQ successfully explains and predicts PA behavior in a college population, warranting its incorporation into future studies aiming at understanding and improving on PA behavior in college students. PMID:25162324

Schembre, Susan M; Durand, Casey P; Blissmer, Bryan J; Greene, Geoffrey W

2014-08-27

257

The “Humpty Dumpty Problem” in the Study of Early Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

In this article, I propose that the big question for the field of infant cognitive development is best characterized as the “Humpty Dumpty problem”: Now that we have studied cognitive abilities in isolation, how do we put the developing cognitive system (and the infant) back together again? This problem is significant because cognitive abilities do not occur in isolation. Infants remember the items they have attended to and perceived, and their emotional state will influence their perception and representation of the events they encounter. Moreover, by examining the development of the whole cognitive system, or the whole child, we gain a deeper understanding of mechanisms developmental change. Thus, the big question for the study of infant cognition is like the question confronting all the king’s horses and all the king’s men: How do we put the infant’s cognitive system back together again? PMID:20161394

Oakes, Lisa M.

2009-01-01

258

Measurement Issues in the Use of Cognitive Neuroscience Tasks in Drug Development for Impaired Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Report of the  

E-print Network

Measurement Issues in the Use of Cognitive Neuroscience Tasks in Drug Development for Impaired initial benchmark goals for psychometric develop- ment for cognitive neuroscience tasks. Key words Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Report of the Second Consensus Building Conference of the CNTRICS Initiative

259

Business Simulations and Cognitive Learning: Developments, Desires, and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the research associated with the assessment of the cognitive learning that occurs through participation in a simulation exercise. It summarizes the "objective" evidence regarding cognitive learning versus the "perceptions" of cognitive learning achieved as reported by participants and instructors. The authors also explain…

Anderson, Philip H.; Lawton, Leigh

2009-01-01

260

The Effects of Cognitive Conflict Management on Cognitive Development and Science Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three teaching methods were compared in this study, namely a Cognitive Conflict Management Module (CCM) that is infused into Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE), (Module A) CASE without CCM (Module B) and a conventional teaching method. This study employed a pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design using non-equivalent…

Budiman, Zainol Badli; Halim, Lilia; Mohd Meerah, Subahan; Osman, Kamisah

2014-01-01

261

Confronting Social Injustice: Cognitive Dissonance and Civic Development in Higher Education Service-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative, insider account of student civic development in a university service-learning course has two primary goals. One is to propose frameworks for describing the process of civic development of service-learning students that are situated in theories of civic identity, cognitive development, and cognitive dissonance. The other is to…

Rogers, Leslie Cohen

2012-01-01

262

The Influence of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors on the Development of Rifle Marksmanship Skills. CRESST Report 753  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, researchers examined rifle marksmanship development within a skill development framework outlined by Chung, Delacruz, de Vries, Bewley, and Baker (2006). Thirty-three novice shooters used an M4 rifle training simulator system to learn to shoot an 8-inch target at a simulated distance of 200 yards. Cognitive, psychomotor, and…

Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

2009-01-01

263

Structural and functional organization of a developing brain and formation of cognitive functions in child ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of multidisciplinary studies, including neuromorphological, neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and psychphysiological\\u000a studies, are reviewed. They allow the brain mechanisms of cognition formation and development during maturation to be identified.\\u000a The role of regulatory (modulatory) brain systems in forming the cognitive function in the child is demonstrated. Data on\\u000a considerable changes in the brain systems responsible for the development of cognitive functions

M. M. Bezrukikh; R. I. Machinskaya; D. A. Farber

2009-01-01

264

Student Cognitive and Affective Development in the Context of Classroom-Level Curriculum Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the impact of teacher curriculum approaches (curriculum-transmitter/curriculum-developer/curriculum-maker) on student cognitive change (reading, writing, speaking, and listening abilities) and their affective change (motivation and interests). This study's conceptual framework was grounded in teacher curriculum…

Shawer, Saad Fathy; Gilmore, Deanna; Banks-Joseph, Susan Rae

2008-01-01

265

From neural development to cognition: unexpected roles for chromatin  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-sequencing studies in human neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders have uncovered mutations in many chromatin regulators. These human genetic studies, along with studies in model organisms, are providing insight into chromatin regulatory mechanisms in neural development and how alterations to these mechanisms can cause cognitive deficits, such as intellectual disability. We discuss several implicated chromatin regulators, including BAF (also known as SWI/SNF) and CHD8 chromatin remodellers, HDAC4 and the Polycomb component EZH2. Interestingly, mutations in EZH2 and certain BAF complex components have roles in both neurodevelopmental disorders and cancer, and overlapping point mutations are suggesting functionally important residues and domains. We speculate on the contribution of these similar mutations to disparate disorders. PMID:23568486

Ronan, Jehnna L.; Wu, Wei

2014-01-01

266

Development of rostral prefrontal cortex and cognitive and behavioural disorders  

PubMed Central

Summary Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in humans than in other primates. It also has a large number of dendritic spines per cells and numerous connections to the supramodal cortex. These characteristics suggest that rostral PFC is likely to support processes of integration or coordination of inputs particularly developed in humans. The development of rostral PFC is prolonged, with decreases in grey matter and synaptic density continuing into adolescence. Functions attributed to rostral PFC, such as prospective memory, appear to similarly follow a prolonged development until adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have generally found reduced recruitment of rostral PFC, e.g. in tasks requiring response inhibition, in adults compared with children or adolescents, which is consistent with grey matter maturation. The examples of autism, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia show that rostral PFC could be affected in several disorders due to the susceptibility of its prolonged maturation to developmental abnormalities. PMID:18190537

Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

2008-01-01

267

Cortical and cognitive development in 4th, 8th and 12th grade students. The contribution of speed of processing and executive functioning to cognitive development.  

PubMed

This study investigated cortical/cognitive relations in 30 4th, 8th and 12th grade students. All students were administered the Figural Intersection Test, a measure of cognitive development, and performed, three times with different targets, an event-related potential (ERP) oddball/selective-attention task. Two independent factors emerged from the ERP task that predicted development--speed of processing (P300 latency to Block 1 targets) and maturation of executive functioning (a composite ERP variable calculated as the ratio of RT and P300 latency divided by the accuracy to Block 2 targets). These two variables loaded on orthogonal factors in a principal components analysis, and were the only variables included in a stepwise regression of physiological variables on cognitive development. Speed of processing is modulated by myelination and synaptogenesis, and executive functioning is modulated by maturation of the frontal system. These electrophysiological markers could index these cortical transformations underlying cognitive development. PMID:9676358

Travis, F

1998-05-01

268

The Developing Utility of Zebrafish Models for Cognitive Enhancers Research  

PubMed Central

Whereas cognitive impairment is a common symptom in multiple brain disorders, predictive and high-throughput animal models of cognition and behavior are becoming increasingly important in the field of translational neuroscience research. In particular, reliable models of the cognitive deficits characteristic of numerous neurobehavioral disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia have become a significant focus of investigation. While rodents have traditionally been used to study cognitive phenotypes, zebrafish (Danio rerio) are gaining popularity as an excellent model to complement current translational neuroscience research. Here we discuss recent advances in pharmacological and genetic approaches using zebrafish models to study cognitive impairments and to discover novel cognitive enhancers and neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:23449968

Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

2012-01-01

269

Change in offspring sex ratio over a very short season in Lincoln’s Sparrows: the potential role of bill development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex ratios of offspring are targets of natural selection that can affect parental energy\\u000aexpenditure and fitness, adult sex ratios, and population dynamics. Parents may manipulate offspring sex ratios\\u000abased on sex differences in potential reproductive success. In Lincoln’s Sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii), male bill shape\\u000ais associated with the quality of songs, and song quality predicts female preferences in

E. B. Graham; S. P. Caro; K. W. Sockman

2011-01-01

270

Sara Theresa Baker, MS Cognitive Development Lab Lab Phone: (732) 445-4959  

E-print Network

Salpêtrière, Paris (France). Service to the Profession #12;Member of the Cognitive Development SocietySara Theresa Baker, MS Cognitive Development Lab Lab Phone: (732) 445-4959 Rutgers University 152 psychology, Honors "très bien", Université Paris 8, France; Advisor: Dr. Guy Politzer Thesis: "Revision

Leslie, Alan M.

271

Cognitive and Communicative Development in Severely Physically Handicapped Non-Speaking Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses the use of computer technology with severely physically disabled children to facilitate sensory-motor development and enable acquisition of the cognitive prerequisites for augmentative communication. Following a discussion of theoretical perspectives on communicative and cognitive development, the characteristics of children…

Buzolich, Marilyn Jean

272

The Journey from Child to Scientist: Integrating Cognitive Development and the Education Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impulse to investigate the natural world is deeply rooted in our earliest childhood experiences. This notion has long guided researchers to uncover the cognitive mechanisms underlying the development of scientific reasoning in children. Until recently, however, research in cognitive development and education followed largely independent…

Carver, Sharon M., Ed.; Shrager, Jeff, Ed.

2012-01-01

273

Rate of Physical Growth and Its Affect on Head Start Children's Motor and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…

Marcon, Rebecca A.

274

Quality of Family Context or Sibling Status? Influences on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes the influence of socioeconomic status, quality of family context and sibling status on cognitive development in a sample of 551 five-year-old children. The regression analyses confirmed the predictive value of socioeconomic status and quality of family context on cognitive development. The quality of family context mediates the…

Freijo, Enrique B. Arranz; Oliva, Alfredo; Olabarrieta, Fernando; Martin, Juan Luis; Manzano, Ainhoa; Richards, Martin P. M.

2008-01-01

275

Humour among Chinese and Greek Preschool Children in Relation to Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children's humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development,…

Guo, Juan; Zhang, XiangKui; Wang, Yong; Xeromeritou, Aphrodite

2011-01-01

276

Operationalizing Cognitive Science and Technologies' Research and Development; the "Brain and Cognition Study Group (BCSG)" Initiative from Shiraz, Iran.  

PubMed

Recent advances in brain and cognitive science studies have revolutionized concepts in neural dynamics, regulating mechanisms, coding systems and information processing networks which govern our function and behavior. Hidden aspects of neurological and psychiatric diseases are being understood and hopes for their treatment are emerging. Although the two comprehensive mega-projects on brain mapping are in place in the United States and Europe; the proportion of science contributed by the developing countries should not be downsized. With the granted supports from the Cognitive Sciences and Technologies Council (CSTC), Iran can take its role in research on brain and cognition further. The idea of research and development in Cognitive Sciences and Technologies (CST) is being disseminated across the country by CSTC. Towards this goal, the first Shiraz interdisciplinary meeting on CST was held on 9 January 2014 in Namazi hospital, Shiraz. CST research priorities, infrastructure development, education and promotion were among the main topics discussed during this interactive meeting. The steering committee of the first CST meeting in Shiraz decided to frame future research works within the "Brain and Cognition Study Group-Shiraz" (BCSG-Shiraz). The study group comprises scientific leaders from various allied disciplines including neuroscience, neurosurgery, neurology, psychiatry, psychology, radiology, physiology, bioengineering, biophysics, applied physics and telecommunication. As the headquarter for CST in the southern Iran, BCSG-Shiraz is determined to advocate "brain and cognition" awareness, education and research in close collaboration with CSTC. Together with CSTC, Shiraz Neuroscience Research center (SNRC) will take the initiative to cross boundaries in interdisciplinary works and multi-centric research projects within the study group. PMID:25337368

Ashjazadeh, Nahid; Boostani, Reza; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Farrokhi, Majidreza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Hatam, Gholamreza; Hadianfard, Habib; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Mousavi, Maryam; Montakhab, Afshin; Nili, Majid; Razmkon, Ali; Salehi, Sina; Sodagar, Amir Mohammad; Setoodeh, Peiman; Taghipour, Mousa; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Vesal, Abdolkarim

2014-01-01

277

Operationalizing Cognitive Science and Technologies’ Research and Development; the “Brain and Cognition Study Group (BCSG)” Initiative from Shiraz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in brain and cognitive science studies have revolutionized concepts in neural dynamics, regulating mechanisms, coding systems and information processing networks which govern our function and behavior. Hidden aspects of neurological and psychiatric diseases are being understood and hopes for their treatment are emerging. Although the two comprehensive mega-projects on brain mapping are in place in the United States and Europe; the proportion of science contributed by the developing countries should not be downsized. With the granted supports from the Cognitive Sciences and Technologies Council (CSTC), Iran can take its role in research on brain and cognition further. The idea of research and development in Cognitive Sciences and Technologies (CST) is being disseminated across the country by CSTC. Towards this goal, the first Shiraz interdisciplinary meeting on CST was held on 9 January 2014 in Namazi hospital, Shiraz. CST research priorities, infrastructure development, education and promotion were among the main topics discussed during this interactive meeting. The steering committee of the first CST meeting in Shiraz decided to frame future research works within the “Brain and Cognition Study Group-Shiraz” (BCSG-Shiraz). The study group comprises scientific leaders from various allied disciplines including neuroscience, neurosurgery, neurology, psychiatry, psychology, radiology, physiology, bioengineering, biophysics, applied physics and telecommunication. As the headquarter for CST in the southern Iran, BCSG-Shiraz is determined to advocate “brain and cognition” awareness, education and research in close collaboration with CSTC. Together with CSTC, Shiraz Neuroscience Research center (SNRC) will take the initiative to cross boundaries in interdisciplinary works and multi-centric research projects within the study group. PMID:25337368

Ashjazadeh, Nahid; Boostani, Reza; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Farrokhi, Majidreza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Hatam, Gholamreza; Hadianfard, Habib; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Mousavi, Maryam; Montakhab, Afshin; Nili, Majid; Razmkon, Ali; Salehi, Sina; Sodagar, Amir Mohammad; Setoodeh, Peiman; Taghipour, Mousa; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Vesal, Abdolkarim

2014-01-01

278

Maternal Stress and Effects of Prenatal Air Pollution on Offspring Mental Health Outcomes in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Low socioeconomic status is consistently associated with reduced physical and mental health, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Increased levels of urban air pollutants interacting with parental stress have been proposed to explain health disparities in respiratory disease, but the impact of such interactions on mental health is unknown. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether prenatal air pollution exposure and stress during pregnancy act synergistically on offspring to induce a neuroinflammatory response and subsequent neurocognitive disorders in adulthood. Methods: Mouse dams were intermittently exposed via oropharyngeal aspiration to diesel exhaust particles (DEP; 50 ?g × 6 doses) or vehicle throughout gestation. This exposure was combined with standard housing or nest material restriction (NR; a novel model of maternal stress) during the last third of gestation. Results: Adult (postnatal day 60) offspring of dams that experienced both stressors (DEP and NR) displayed increased anxiety, but only male offspring of this group had impaired cognition. Furthermore, maternal DEP exposure increased proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-1? levels within the brains of adult males but not females, and maternal DEP and NR both decreased anti-inflammatory IL-10 in male, but not female, brains. Similarly, only DEP/NR males showed increased expression of the innate immune recognition gene toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) and its downstream effector, caspase-1. Conclusions: These results show that maternal stress during late gestation increases the susceptibility of offspring—particularly males—to the deleterious effects of prenatal air pollutant exposure, which may be due to a synergism of these factors acting on innate immune recognition genes and downstream neuroinflammatory cascades within the developing brain. Citation: Bolton JL, Huff NC, Smith SH, Mason SN, Foster WM, Auten RL, Bilbo SD. 2013. Maternal stress and effects of prenatal air pollution on offspring mental health outcomes in mice. Environ Health Perspect 121:1075–1082;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306560 PMID:23823752

Huff, Nicole C.; Smith, Susan H.; Mason, S. Nicholas; Foster, W. Michael; Auten, Richard L.; Bilbo, Staci D.

2013-01-01

279

Psychiatric Disorders in Preschool Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate lifetime prevalence and specificity of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and severity of depressive and manic symptoms at intake in preschool offspring of parents with Disorder I–II. Methods 121 offspring ages 2–5 years old of 83 parents with Bipolar Disorder and 102 offspring of 65 demographically matched control parents (29 with non-Bipolar psychiatric disorders and 36 without any lifetime psychopathology) were recruited. Parents with Bipolar Disorder were recruited through advertisement and adult outpatient clinics and control parents were ascertained at random from the community. Subjects were evaluated with standardized instruments. All staff were blind to parental diagnoses. Results After adjusting for within-family correlations and both biological parents’ non-Bipolar psychopathology, compared to the offspring of the control parents, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, particularly those older than 4 years old, showed an 8-fold increased life-time prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and significantly higher rates of ? 2 psychiatric disorders. While only 3 offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder had mood disorders, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, especially those with ADHD and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder, had significantly more severe current manic and depressive symptomatology than the offspring of the controls. Conclusions Preschool offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder are at increased risk for ADHD and demonstrate increased subthreshold manic and depressive symptomatology. Longitudinal follow-up is warranted to evaluate whether these children are at high-risk to develop mood and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:20080982

Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Obreja, Mihaela; Hickey, Mary Beth; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Shamseddeen, Wael; Diler, Rasim; Kupfer, David

2010-01-01

280

Promoting Conceptual Development in Physics Teacher Education: Cognitive-Historical Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Induction Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In teaching physics, the history of physics offers fruitful starting points for designing instruction. I introduce here an approach that uses historical cognitive processes to enhance the conceptual development of pre-service physics teachers' knowledge. It applies a method called cognitive-historical approach, introduced to the cognitive sciences by Nersessian (Cognitive Models of Science. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 3-45, 1992). The approach combines the analyses of actual scientific practices in the history of science with the analytical tools and theories of contemporary cognitive sciences in order to produce knowledge of how conceptual structures are constructed and changed in science. Hence, the cognitive-historical analysis indirectly produces knowledge about the human cognition. Here, a way to use the cognitive-historical approach for didactical purposes is introduced. In this application, the cognitive processes in the history of physics are combined with current physics knowledge in order to create a cognitive-historical reconstruction of a certain quantity or law for the needs of physics teacher education. A principal aim of developing the approach has been that pre-service physics teachers must know how the physical concepts and laws are or can be formed and justified. As a practical example of the developed approach, a cognitive-historical reconstruction of the electromagnetic induction law was produced. For evaluating the uses of the cognitive-historical reconstruction, a teaching sequence for pre-service physics teachers was conducted. The initial and final reports of twenty-four students were analyzed through a qualitative categorization of students' justifications of knowledge. The results show a conceptual development in the students' explanations and justifications of how the electromagnetic induction law can be formed.

Mäntylä, Terhi

2013-06-01

281

92 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTONOMOUS MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, VOL. 3, NO. 1, MARCH 2011 Visual Attention for Robotic Cognition: A Survey  

E-print Network

for Robotic Cognition: A Survey Momotaz Begum and Fakhri Karray Abstract--The goal of the cognitive robotics research is to design robots with human-like cognition (albeit reduced complexity) in perception, reasoning, action planning, and decision making. Such a venture of cognitive robotics has developed robots

DiMarco, Chrysanne

282

Maternal smoking during late pregnancy and offspring smoking behaviour  

E-print Network

Maternal smoking during late pregnancy and offspring smoking behaviour M.R. Munafo` a,*, E of maternal smoking during late pregnancy on the likelihood of smoking among offspring in adolescence Development Study. Longitudinal analysis indicated that maternal smoking during late pregnancy was associated

283

Cognitive deficits in adolescents who developed diabetes early in life.  

PubMed

A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 125 adolescents with a history of insulin-dependent diabetes, and to 83 demographically similar nondiabetic control subjects. To test the hypothesis that developing this disease early in life greatly increases the risk of manifesting significant cognitive impairments, diabetic subjects were assigned to an "early-onset" (diagnosis before age 5 years) or a "later-onset" subgroup. Results showed that subjects with early onset of diabetes performed more poorly than either subjects with later onset of diabetes or nondiabetic control subjects on virtually all tests, including measures of intelligence, school achievement, visuospatial ability, memory, motor speed, and eye-hand coordination. Moreover, multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the age at onset and the duration of diabetes seem to affect neuropsychological functioning in very different ways. The duration of the disease best predicted performance on those tests requiring highly overlearned, primarily verbal, skills whereas the age at onset best predicted scores on tests requiring the ability to process relatively unfamiliar, typically nonverbal, information in novel ways. Although the etiology of these deficits remains unclear, there is a possibility that they are secondary to mild brain damage that develops as a consequence of multiple episodes of serious hypoglycemia early in life. PMID:3991281

Ryan, C; Vega, A; Drash, A

1985-05-01

284

Maternal histidinaemia: pregnancies and offspring outcomes.  

PubMed

Untreated pregnancies and their outcomes were studied in 10 women with histidinaemia and their 26 pregnancies. The mean maternal assigned histidine level was 727+/-186 micromol/L (range 484-1,053). Six women had classic histidinaemia (assigned level >700 micromol/L) and the remaining four had mild (atypical) histidinaemia. The pregnancies were uneventful, with only one spontaneous loss and 25 live births. Birth measurements were normal and no congenital anomalies were observed. Growth and development were normal in all offspring. IQ among the 23 offspring tested was 103+/-12 (range 79-122). Four offspring required special education for brief periods and one for several years, but this frequency, as well as that of 12% for attention deficit hyperactive disorder, was not significantly different from expected in the general population. It would appear that maternal histidinaemia, unlike maternal phenylketonuria, can be added to the list of maternal inborn errors of metabolism that are nonteratogenic. PMID:15159650

Levy, H L; Yu, J J; Waisbren, S E

2004-01-01

285

Developing prosthetics to treat cognitive disabilities resulting from acquired brain injuries.  

PubMed

Persistent cognitive disabilities represent the most troublesome consequences of acquired brain injury. Although these problems are widely recognized, few neuroprosthetic efforts have focused on developing therapeutic strategies aimed at improving general cognitive functions such as sustained attention, intention, working memory or awareness. If possible, effective modulation of these neuropsychologic components might improve recovery of interactive behaviors. The emerging field of neuromodulation holds promise that technologies developed to treat other neurological disorders may be adapted to address the cognitive problems of patients suffering from acquired brain injuries. We here discuss initial efforts at neuromodulation in patients in the persistent vegetative state and aspects of recent studies of the underlying neurobiology of PVS and other severe brain injuries. Innovative strategies for open-loop and closed-loop neuromodulation of impaired cognitive function are outlined. We discuss the possibilities of linking neuromodulation techniques to underlying neuronal mechanisms underpinning cognitive rehabilitation maneuvers. Ethical considerations surrounding the development of these strategies are reviewed. PMID:11877893

Schiff, Nicholas D; Plum, Fred; Rezai, Ali R

2002-03-01

286

Experimental comparison of the reproductive outcomes and early development of the offspring of rats given five common types of drinking water.  

PubMed

Tap water (unfiltered), filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water) are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients) of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague-Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI) and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA); the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy. PMID:25279561

Zeng, Hui; Shu, Wei-qun; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Lin; Wang, Da-hua; Fu, Wen-juan; Wang, Ling-qiao; Luo, Jiao-hua; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Yao; Qiu, Zhi-qun; Huang, Yu-jing

2014-01-01

287

Experimental Comparison of the Reproductive Outcomes and Early Development of the Offspring of Rats Given Five Common Types of Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Tap water (unfiltered), filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water) are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients) of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague–Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI) and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA); the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy. PMID:25279561

Zeng, Hui; Shu, Wei-qun; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Lin; Wang, Da-hua; Fu, Wen-juan; Wang, Ling-qiao; Luo, Jiao-hua; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Yao; Qiu, Zhi-qun; Huang, Yu-jing

2014-01-01

288

Developing optimism : a cognitive-behavioural intervention to reduce stress   

E-print Network

Optimistic explanatory style refers to the way in which individual’s routinely attribute cause to the events in their lives (Ambramson et al., 1978) and can be successfully enhanced through the use of cognitive behavioural ...

Bryant, Danielle Louise

2011-11-24

289

A Data-Acquisition Model for Learning and Cognitive Development and Its Implications for Autism  

E-print Network

A Data-Acquisition Model for Learning and Cognitive Development and Its Implications for Autism that represents what has been heard and observed. Autism is viewed as the consequence of a dis- order in the data cognitive deficits associated with autism, including weak central coherence, impaired theory of mind

Halpern, Joseph Y.

290

Cognitive Development of Fluent Word Reading Does Not Qualitatively Differ between Transparent and Opaque Orthographies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the transparency of a writing system is hypothesized to systematically influence the cognitive skills associated with reading development, results of cross-language investigations are inconsistent and usually do not address this issue in a developmental context. We therefore investigated the cognitive dynamics of reading fluency of…

Vaessen, Anniek; Bertrand, Daisy; Toth, Denes; Csepe, Valeria; Faisca, Luis; Reis, Alexandra; Blomert, Leo

2010-01-01

291

New Perspectives on the Effects of Action on Perceptual and Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special section was motivated by a resurgence in the view that it is impossible to investigate perceptual and cognitive development without considering how it is affected by, and intertwined with, infants' and children's action in the world. This view has long been foundational to the field, yet contemporary investigations of the effects of acting on cognition and perception have

David H. Rakison; Amanda L. Woodward

2008-01-01

292

The Measurement of Everyday Cognition (ECog): Scale Development and Psychometric Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development and validation of an instrument to assess cognitively mediated functional abilities in older adults, Everyday Cognition (ECog). The ECog is an informant-rated questionnaire comprised of multiple subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine its factor structure. Convergent validity was evaluated by comparing it to established measures of everyday function. External validity was evaluated

Sarah Tomaszewski Farias; Dan Mungas; Bruce R. Reed; Deborah Cahn-Weiner; William Jagust; Kathleen Baynes; Charles DeCarli

2008-01-01

293

Parent-Child Co-Viewing of Television and Cognitive Development of the Chinese Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between parent-child co-viewing of television and the cognitive development of the child. Both survey and experiment methods were employed to determine the participants' television viewing habits and their cognitive achievements after watching a pre-recorded programme under different conditions. The…

Jinqiu, Zhao; Xiaoming, Hao

2004-01-01

294

Children's Search for Gender CuesCognitive Perspectives on Gender Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young children search for cues about gender—who should or should not do a particular activity, who can play with whom, and why girls and boys are different. From a vast array of gendered cues in their social worlds, children quickly form an impressive constellation of gender cognitions, including gender self-conceptions (gender identity) and gender stereotypes. Cognitive perspectives on gender development

Carol Lynn Martin; Diane Ruble

2004-01-01

295

Development of Online Cognitive and Algorithm Tests as Assessment Tools in Introductory Computer Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the online cognitive and algorithm tests, which were developed in order to determine if certain cognitive factors and fundamental algorithms correlate with the performance of students in their introductory computer science course. The tests were implemented among Management Information Systems majors from the Philippines and…

Avancena, Aimee Theresa; Nishihara, Akinori; Vergara, John Paul

2012-01-01

296

Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

Cartwright, Kelly B.

2012-01-01

297

Cognitive Sensitivity in Sibling Interactions: Development of the Construct and Comparison of Two Coding Methodologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The goal of this study was to develop a construct of sibling cognitive sensitivity, which describes the extent to which children take their siblings' knowledge and cognitive abilities into account when working toward a joint goal. In addition, the study compared 2 coding methodologies for measuring the construct: a thin…

Prime, Heather; Perlman, Michal; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

2014-01-01

298

Parent Cognitions and Parent-Infant Interaction: The Relationship with Development in the First 12 Months  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined parent cognitions and parent-infant interaction in terms of their contribution to infant development in the first 12 months. With a sample of 95 mother-infant dyads, results using structural equation modelling confirmed the expected finding that parent-infant interaction mediates the association between parent cognitions and…

Ferrier-Lynn, Melissa; Skouteris, Helen

2008-01-01

299

Reconsidering the Role of Overcoming Perturbations in Cognitive Development: Constructivism and Consciousness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivist theory must choose between the hypothesis that felt perturbation drives cognitive development (the priority of felt perturbation) and the hypothesis that the particular process that eventually produces new cognitive structures first produces felt perturbation (the continuity of process). There is ambivalence in Piagetian theory…

Becker, Joe

2004-01-01

300

Cognitive aging as an extension of brain development: A model linking learning, brain plasticity, and neurodegeneration  

E-print Network

of aging to delay and prevent mental illness must thus be a top priority for biomedical research. UntilReview Cognitive aging as an extension of brain development: A model linking learning, brain Differences in cognitive aging rates among mammals suggest that the pace of brain aging is genetically

de Magalhães, João Pedro

301

The Use of Event-Related Potentials in the Study of Early Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying normal infant development is a challenge for cognitive scientists in general and for neuroscientists in particular because: (1) physiological indices of infant cognition are generally noisy and technically difficult to obtain; and (2) interindividual variability and a paucity of established results make data interpretation very complex,…

Thierry, Guillaume

2005-01-01

302

The Role of Falsification in the Development of Cognitive Architectures: Insights from a Lakatosian Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive architectures should be understood as theories…

Cooper, Richard P.

2007-01-01

303

In-Utero Exposure to Bereavement and Offspring IQ: A Danish National Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Intelligence is a life-long trait that has strong influences on lifestyle, adult morbidity and life expectancy. Hence, lower cognitive abilities are therefore of public health interest. Our primary aim was to examine if prenatal bereavement measured as exposure to death of a close family member is associated with the intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 18-years of age of adult Danish males completing a military cognitive screening examination. Methods We extracted records for the Danish military screening test and found kinship links with biological parents, siblings, and maternal grandparents using the Danish Civil Registration System (N?=?167,900). The prenatal exposure period was defined as 12 months before conception until birth of the child. We categorized children as exposed in utero to severe stress (bereavement) during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband, parent or sibling during the prenatal period; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. Mean score estimates were adjusted for maternal and paternal age at birth, residence, income, maternal education, gestational age at birth and birth weight. Results When exposure was due to death of a father the offsprings' mean IQ scores were lower among men completing the military recruitment exam compared to their unexposed counterparts, adjusted difference of 6.5 standard IQ points (p-value?=?0.01). We did not observe a clinically significant association between exposure to prenatal maternal bereavement caused by death of a sibling, maternal uncle/aunt or maternal grandparent even after stratifying deaths only due to traumatic events. Conclusion We found maternal bereavement to be adversely associated with IQ in male offspring, which could be related to prenatal stress exposure though more likely is due to changes in family conditions after death of the father. This finding supports other literature on maternal adversity during fetal life and cognitive development in the offspring. PMID:24558394

Virk, Jasveer; Obel, Carsten; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn

2014-01-01

304

Imaging Biomarkers for Treatment Development for Impaired Cognition: Report of the Sixth CNTRICS Meeting: Biomarkers Recommended for Further Development  

PubMed Central

The Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia initiative, funded by an R13 conference grant from the National Institute of Mental Health, has sought to facilitate the translation of measures from the basic science of cognition into practical brain-based tools to measure treatment effects on cognition in schizophrenia. In this overview article, we summarize the process and products of the sixth meeting in this series, which focused on the identification of promising imaging paradigms, based on the measurement of cognitive evoked potentials (event-related potential) of cognition-related time-frequency analyses of the electroencephalography as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 23 well-specified paradigms from cognitive neuroscience that measure cognitive functions previously identified as targets for treatment development were identified at the meeting as being recommended for the further developmental work needed in order to validate and optimize them as biomarker measures. Individual paradigms are discussed in detail in 6 domain-based articles in this volume. Ongoing issues related to the development of these and other measures as valid, sensitive and reliable measurement, and assessment tools, as well as the steps necessary for the development of specific measures for use as biomarkers for treatment development and personalized medicine, are discussed. PMID:21914642

Carter, Cameron S.; Barch, Deanna M.

2012-01-01

305

Development principles for intelligent tutoring systems: Integrating cognitive theory into the development of computer-based instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a basic development model for an intelligent tutoring system (ITS): the interface, the student model, the expert model, and the pedagogical model. Because ITSs are a byproduct of research in cognitive science, we use this model to illustrate the possibilities for more extensive integration of cognitive learning theories into computer-based instruction (CBI). Two examples of CBI designed

Michael A. Orey; Wayne A. Nelson

1993-01-01

306

"Enactment" in the lives and treatment of Holocaust survivors' offspring.  

PubMed

This paper explores an aspect of "enactment" often seen in Holocaust survivors' offspring: the compulsion to re-create their parents' experiences in their own lives through concrete acts. At the core of this compulsion is a psychic hole, a gap in the child's emotional understanding, stemming from identification with the parents on one hand, and the parents' denial or repression of the trauma on the other. The compulsion to enact can be transformed into a cognitive mode when such offspring are helped to find the meaning of the trauma in their parents' lives, as is illustrated here by clinical examples. PMID:11962101

Kogan, Ilany

2002-04-01

307

Cognition as a target in major depression: New developments.  

PubMed

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent and disabling psychiatric illness often accompanied of cognitive dysfunction which may persist even when patients achieve clinical remission. Currently, cognitive deficits emerge as a potential target because they compromise the functional outcome of depressed patients. The aim of this study was to review data for several potential pharmacological treatments targeting cognition in MDD, resulting from monotherapy or adjunctive treatment. An extensive and systematic Pubmed/Medline search of the published literature until March 2014 was conducted using a variety of search term to find relevant articles. Bibliographies of retrieved papers were further examined for publications of interest. Searches were limited to articles available in English language. We describe studies using modafinil, lisdexamfetamine, ketamine, lanicemine, memantine, galantamine, donepezil, vortioxetine, intranasal oxytocin, omega-3, s-adenosyl-methionine, scopolamine and erythropoietin. From these articles, we determined that there are a number of promising new therapies, pharmacological agents or complementary medicines, but data are just emerging. Drugs and therapies targeting cognitive dysfunction in MDD should prove effective in improving specific cognitive domains and functioning, while ruling out pseudospecificity. PMID:25640673

Solé, Brisa; Jiménez, Esther; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Vieta, Eduard

2015-02-01

308

RUNNING HEAD: A SCALED WORLD FOR APPLIED COGNITIVE RESEARCH Contending with complexity: Developing and Using a Scaled World in  

E-print Network

RUNNING HEAD: A SCALED WORLD FOR APPLIED COGNITIVE RESEARCH Contending with complexity: Developing and Using a Scaled World in Applied Cognitive Research Brian D. Ehret Wayne D. Gray George Mason University with complexity: Developing and using a scaled world in applied cognitive research. Human Factors, 42(1), 8

Gray, Wayne

309

The Integration of Cognition and Emotion during Infancy and Early Childhood: Regulatory Processes Associated with the Development of Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 4 1/2-years of…

Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann

2007-01-01

310

Maternal transfer of BDE-47 to offspring and neurobehavioral development in C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used worldwide in a variety of commercial goods, and are now widely found in both environmental and biological samples. BDE-47 is one of the most pervasive of these PBDE congeners and therefore is of particular concern. In this study C57BL/6J mice were exposed perinatally to 0.03, 0.1 or 1mg/kg/day of BDE-47, a dose range chosen to encompass human exposure levels. Tissue levels of BDE-47 were measured in the blood, brain, fat and milk of dams and in whole fetal homogenate and blood and brain of pups on gestational day (GD) 15, and postnatal days (PNDs) 1, 10 and 21. From GD 15 to PND 1 levels of BDE-47 increased within dam tissues and then decreased from PNDs 1 to 21. Over the period of lactation levels in dam milk were comparatively high when compared to both brain and blood for all dose groups. Measurable levels of BDE-47 were found in the fetus on GD 15 confirming gestational exposure. From PNDs 1 to 21, levels of BDE-47 in pup tissue increased over the period of lactation due to the transfer of BDE-47 through milk. Behavioral tests of fine motor function and learning and memory were carried out between postnatal weeks 5-17 in order to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of BDE-47. Behavioral deficits were only seen in the Barnes spatial maze where mice in the three exposure groups had longer latencies and traveled longer distances to find the escape hole when compared to vehicle control mice. These results support the conclusions that perinatal exposure to BDE-47 can have neurodevelopmental consequences, and that lactational exposure represents a significant exposure risk during development. PMID:23022914

Koenig, Claire M; Lango, Jozsef; Pessah, Isaac N; Berman, Robert F

2012-01-01

311

Maternal Transfer of BDE-47 to Offspring and Neurobehavioral Development in C57BL/6J Mice  

PubMed Central

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used worldwide in a variety of commercial goods, and are now widely found in both environmental and biological samples. BDE-47 is one of the most pervasive of these PBDE congeners and therefore is of particular concern. In this study C57BL/6J mice were exposed perinatally to 0.03, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg/day of BDE-47, a dose range chosen to encompass human exposure levels. Tissue levels of BDE-47 were measured in the blood, brain, fat and milk of dams and in whole fetal homogenate and blood and brain of pups on gestational day (GD) 15, and postnatal days (PND) 1, 10 and 21. From GD 15 to PND 1 levels of BDE-47 increased within dam tissue and then decreased from PND 1 to 21. Over the period of lactation levels in dam milk were comparatively high when compared to both brain and blood for all dose groups. Measurable levels of BDE-47 were found in the fetus on GD 15 confirming gestational exposure. From PND 1 to 21, levels of BDE-47 in pup tissue increased over the period of lactation due to the transfer of BDE-47 through milk. Behavioral tests of fine motor function and learning and memory were carried out between postnatal weeks 5–17 in order to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of BDE-47. Behavioral deficits were only seen in the Barnes spatial maze where mice in the three exposure groups had longer latencies and traveled longer distances to find the escape hole when compared to vehicle control mice. These results support the conclusions that perinatal exposure to BDE-47 can have neurodevelopmental consequences, and that lactational exposure represents a significant exposure risk during development. PMID:23022914

Koenig, Claire M.; Lango, Jozsef; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.

2012-01-01

312

The Association between Early Adolescent Boys' Cognitive Development, Father Attitudes and Nonverbal Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Piaget's equilibration theory, father dogmatism and empathy was hypothesized to influence sons' cognitive development through non-verbal behavior in father-son interactions. Subjects were 52 pairs of fathers and their sons drawn from first-year high school students of bi-parental families. Fathers' dogmatism and empathy was assessed by questionnaire, sons' cognitive development with Piaget's permutation task using the clinical procedure, and

Richard E. Tremblay; Serge Larivee; Jacques C. Gregoire

1985-01-01

313

Cognitive assessment of social anxiety: Development and validation of a self-statement questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent emphasis on cognitive factors in the treatment of emotional problems has stimulated the development of cognitive assessment techniques. This paper presents the development and initial validation of an instrument to assess self-statements about social interactions. The 30-item questionnaire contains 15 positive (facilitative) and 15 negative (inhibitory) self-statements that were derived from subjects who listed thoughts while imagining difficult

Carol R. Glass; Thomas V. Merluzzi; Joan L. Biever; Kathryn H. Larsen

1982-01-01

314

First Language/Second Language: Acquisition, Writing, and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars from varied disciplines--first language (L1) acquisition, second language (L2) acquisition, composition research, and cognitive psychology--have found a high level of permeability in their search for more effective classroom models of writing instruction. Among the most influential work in this area has been Stephen Krashen's theory of L2…

Diaz, Diana M.

315

Educating the Developing Mind: The View from Cognitive Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demetriou, Spanoudis, and Mouyi have provided a comprehensive view of the relation between a model of the mind and the process of education. The model they propose is based on cognitive theories of mental action, rather than neuroscientific evidence. I argue here that that is the correct approach, for a model of the information processing…

Hunt, Earl

2012-01-01

316

On the Implications of Curvilinear Trajectories for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles featured in this issue make apparent the variety of perceptual and cognitive competencies that follow curvilinear developmental courses as well as the complexities inherent in accounting for such phenomena. What is revealed is the way in which a fit is achieved between organisms and the environments they occupy. Curvilinear…

Friend, Margaret

2004-01-01

317

Avram Noam Chomsky and His Cognitive Development Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, cognitive scientist, logician, historian, political critic and activist. Chomsky is an Institute Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy at MIT where he has worked for over fifty years. Chomsky has been described as the father of modern linguistics and a major…

Costley, Kevin C.; Nelson, Jaime

2013-01-01

318

Developing embodied cognition: insights from children’s concepts and language processing  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, theories of embodied cognition have become increasingly influential with research demonstrating that sensorimotor experiences are involved in cognitive processing; however, this embodied research has primarily focused on adult cognition. The notion that sensorimotor experience is important for acquiring conceptual knowledge is not a novel concept for developmental researchers, and yet theories of embodied cognition often do not fully integrate developmental findings. We propose that in order for an embodied cognition perspective to be refined and advanced as a lifelong theory of cognition, it is important to consider what can be learned from research with children. In this paper, we focus on development of concepts and language processing, and examine the importance of children's embodied experiences for these aspects of cognition in particular. Following this review, we outline what we see as important developmental issues that need to be addressed in order to determine the extent to which language and conceptual knowledge are embodied and to refine theories of embodied cognition. PMID:24904513

Wellsby, Michele; Pexman, Penny M.

2014-01-01

319

Neurobehavioral toxic effects of perinatal oral exposure to aluminum on the developmental motor reflexes, learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters of mice offspring.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) is a known neurotoxicant and circumstantial evidence has linked this metal with several neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, but no causal relationship has yet been proved. Al-induced behavioral alterations as well as cognitive deficits and rodent brain neurotransmitter level, are well known in adults but the exact mechanism in the offspring of perinatally Al exposed dams is not yet understood properly and needs more attention. In the present study, the perinatal oral exposure of the dams to 300 and 600mg/kg/day Al (aluminum chloride) resulted in significant and deleterious effects in the offspring inflicting a dose-dependent reduction in postnatal body weight gain, delays in opening of the eyes and appearance of body hair fuzz, and deficits in the sensory motor reflexes of the mice pups during weaning period (from the day of birth to postnatal day 21). During adolescent ages of the male offspring, a significant and dose-dependent deficit was also observed in their locomotor activity at postnatal day 22 (PD 22), learning capability (at PD 25), and cognitive behavior (at PD 30-36). Furthermore, a significant and dose-dependent disturbance in the levels of neurotransmitters like dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) was also observed in the forebrain region of the offspring at PD 7, PD 14, PD 21, PD 30, and PD 36. Thus, perinatal Al exposure, particularly during pregnancy and lactation period, can affect the in utero developing fetus and postnatal developing sucklings, raising the concerns that during a critical perinatal period of brain development, Al exposure has potential and long lasting neurotoxic hazards and might modify the properties of the dopaminergic system and thus can change the threshold of that system or other related systems at later ages. A reduced use of Al during pregnancy is of crucial importance in preventing Al-induced delayed neurotoxicity in the offspring. PMID:22115621

Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

2012-03-01

320

Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. Subjects/Methods: We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. Results: We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ?4.1 × 10?5) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10?18), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. Conclusions: We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study. PMID:24398642

Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

2014-01-01

321

The Evolution of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Schizophrenia: Current Practice and Recent Developments  

PubMed Central

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) evolved from behavioral theory and developed to focus more on cognitive models that incorporated reappraisal of thinking errors and schema change strategies. This article will describe the key elements of CBT for schizophrenia and the current evidence of its efficacy and effectiveness. We conclude with a description of recent concepts that extend the theoretical basis of practice and expand the range of CBT strategies for use in schizophrenia. Mindfulness, meta-cognitive approaches, compassionate mind training, and method of levels are postulated as useful adjuncts for CBT with psychotic patients. PMID:19661198

Tai, Sara; Turkington, Douglas

2009-01-01

322

Iron and DHA in Relation to Early Cognitive Development  

E-print Network

postnatal follow-up on visual and cognitive outcomes in infancy and childhood related to DHA administration. Subjects in the control group were provided 3 – 500 mg capsules of placebo oil while those in the treatment group were provided 3 – 500 mg total... fatty acid capsules, containing a total of 600 mg DHA per day. Women were instructed to consume the randomized capsules from enrollment until delivery, which was approximately during the last two trimesters of pregnancy. The postnatal follow-up phase...

Park, Loran Marie

2013-05-31

323

Professional Development from a Cognitive and Social Standpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary Cognitive Acceleration in Mathematics Education (P-CAME) research focused on the impact of an intervention, a\\u000a programme of 24 lessons for children, taught regularly over a two-year period in Years 5 and 6 (pupils aged 9–11 years), that\\u000a drew upon developmental psychology. Of particular relevance to this chapter were, first, the interactions and collaborative\\u000a activities of the research team

David Johnson; Jeremy Hodgen; Mundher Adhami

324

Motor and cognitive development: the role of karate  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: regular physical activity has an effect on biological responses in both muscles and organs that, in turn, alter the structure and functions of the brain. Therefore, this study aims at comparing motor (sprint, coordination ability and explosive legs strength skills) and cognitive abilities (working memory, attention, executive functioning) in children. Methods: 39 children with average chronological age of 9 years were divided in: Karatekas (n=19) and Sedentary (n=20) groups. Their abilities were measured by motor and cognitive tests. Motor skills were assessed through a battery composed by the 20 mt Sprint test, the Agility test and the Standing board jump Test. Cognitive profile was assessed by a battery of tests derived from BVN 5–11, “Batteria di Valutazione Neuropsicologica per l’Et à Evolutiva”: Visual discrimination test, Reaction time test, Forwards and Backwards Digit Span Tests, Corsi Block-Tapping test and Tower of London. Results: our results reveal significant differences between two groups (p < 0.05). Karate children show better speed times, explosive legs strength and coordination skills. They scored better on working memory, visual selective attention and executive functions. Conclusion: karate exercise training shows global benefits resulting in physiological and psychological gains in children. PMID:25332920

Alesi, Marianha; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Vella, Francesco Paolo; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

2014-01-01

325

The Development of Graphophonological-Semantic Cognitive Flexibility and Its Contribution to Reading Comprehension in Beginning Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading-specific and general color-shape cognitive flexibility were assessed in 68 first and second graders to examine: 1) the development of graphophonological-semantic cognitive flexibility (the ability to process concurrently phonological and semantic aspects of print) in comparison to color-shape cognitive flexibility, 2) the contribution of…

Cartwright, Kelly B.; Marshall, Timothy R.; Dandy, Kristina L.; Isaac, Marisa C.

2010-01-01

326

Development in mastering of rational number concepts and rational number operations: the role of gender, cognitive style and intellectual skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we report data on the role played by cognitive factors in mathematics learning. A total of 54 Italian seventh?grade students were tested to determine their cognitive characteristics, intellectual development and cognitive style. These variables, together with the students’ gender, were correlated to the score results in two multiple?choice tests on rational number concepts (RNC) and rational number

V. Picciarelli; M. Di Gennaro; A. Loconsole; R. Stella

1995-01-01

327

Maternal to offspring resource allocation in plants and mammals.  

PubMed

Appropriate allocation of resources to the offspring is critical for successful reproduction, particularly in species that reproduce on more than one occasion. The offspring must be provisioned adequately to ensure its vigour, whereas the parent must not become so depleted such that its survival is endangered. In both flowering plants and mammals specialised structures have evolved to support the offspring during its development. In this review we consider common themes that may indicate conservation of nutrient transfer function and regulation by genomic imprinting across the two kingdoms. PMID:22995735

Gutierrez-Marcos, J F; Constância, M; Burton, G J

2012-11-01

328

Development and validation of the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery for Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurocognitive assessment in individuals with intellectual disabilities requires a well-validated test battery. To meet this\\u000a need, the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB) has been developed specifically to assess the cognitive phenotype in Down\\u000a syndrome (DS). The ACTB includes neuropsychological assessments chosen to 1) assess a range of skills, 2) be non-verbal so\\u000a as to not confound the neuropsychological assessment with

Jamie O. Edgin; Gina M. Mason; Melissa J. Allman; George T. Capone; Iser DeLeon; Cheryl Maslen; Roger H. Reeves; Stephanie L. Sherman; Lynn Nadel

2010-01-01

329

The Development of Cognitive and Academic Abilities: Growth Curves From an Early Childhood Educational Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Abecedarian Project, a prospective randomized trial, the effects of early educational intervention on patterns of cognitive and academic development among poor, minority children were examined. Participants in the follow-up were 104 of the original 111 participants in the study (98% African American). Early treatment was full-time, high-quality, educational child care from infancy to age 5. Cognitive test scores

Frances A. Campbell; Elizabeth P. Pungello; Shari Miller-Johnson; Margaret Burchinal; Craig T. Ramey

2001-01-01

330

Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Developments: Implications for Clinical Assessment in Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescence is a time of significant physical, social, and emotional developments, accompanied by changes in cognitive and language skills. Underlying these are significant developments in brain structures and functions including changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter tracts. Among the brain regions that develop during…

Ciccia, Angela Hein; Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.

2009-01-01

331

Behavioral and emotional response of Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers after their offspring receive an aggression.  

PubMed

The authors of this study investigated the behavioral and emotional response of female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) to an aggression received by their offspring to evaluate the existence of cognitive empathic responses in a naturalistic setting. After their offspring received an aggression, mothers did not direct increased affiliative contacts to them. The factors likely to affect the degree of distress in the offspring or the perceived risk for the mother failed to appropriately modulate maternal behavior. Finally, mothers did not increase their frequency of scratching (a behavioral indicator of anxiety) after their offspring had received an aggression. The results suggest Japanese macaque mothers may be unable to understand their offspring's need for distress alleviation after the receipt of aggression. PMID:15482062

Schino, Gabriele; Geminiani, Simona; Rosati, Luca; Aureli, Filippo

2004-09-01

332

Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24?h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology. PMID:25071719

Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

2014-01-01

333

Therapeutic Development Paths for Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease: Report of a Regulatory Roundtable  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairment is a common occurrence in Parkinson's disease (PD), although the severity and specific presentation varies across patients. Initial deficits, including mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), may remain stable or in many cases, may progress over variable lengths of time to Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). As there are currently no marketed treatments for milder forms of cognitive impairment, an opportunity exists to define the path for therapeutic development in this area. In the absence of a well-defined path for the approval of therapies that target PD-MCI, pharmaceutical companies are unlikely to pursue this indication. In order to move forward and improve the quality of life for PD patients, it is imperative for the field to have consensus on the definition of PD-MCI, the best instruments to measure cognitive decline, and a strategy for future clinical trials. PMID:24989876

Eberling, Jamie; Vincent, Lona; Goldman, Jennifer G.; Weintraub, Daniel; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Marras, Connie; Stebbins, Glenn; Kieburtz, Karl

2015-01-01

334

Using the MATRICS to guide development of a preclinical cognitive test battery for research in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are among the core symptoms of the disease, correlate with functional outcome, and are not well treated with current antipsychotic therapies. In order to bring together academic, industrial, and governmental bodies to address this great ‘unmet therapeutic need’, the NIMH sponsored the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative. Through careful factor analysis and consensus of expert opinion, MATRICS identified seven domains of cognition that are deficient in schizophrenia (attention/vigilance, working memory, reasoning and problem solving, processing speed, visual learning and memory, verbal learning and memory, and social cognition) and recommended a specific neuropsychological test battery to probe these domains. In order to move the field forward and outline an approach for translational research, there is a need for a “preclinical MATRICS” to develop a rodent test battery that is appropriate for drug development. In this review, we outline such an approach and review current rodent tasks that target these seven domains of cognition. The rodent tasks are discussed in terms of their validity for probing each cognitive domain as well as a brief overview of the pharmacology and manipulations relevant to schizophrenia for each task. PMID:19269307

YOUNG, Jared W; POWELL, Susan; RISBROUGH, Victoria; MARSTON, Hugh M; GEYER, Mark A

2009-01-01

335

Experimental evidence for offspring learning in parent-offspring communication.  

PubMed Central

The offspring of birds and mammals solicit food from their parents by a combination of movements and vocalizations that have come to be known collectively as 'begging'. Recently, begging has most often been viewed as an honest signal of offspring need. Yet, if offspring learn to adjust their begging efforts to the level that rewards them most, begging intensities may also reflect offsprings' past experience rather than their precise current needs. Here we show that bird nestlings with equal levels of need can learn to beg at remarkably different levels. These experiments with hand-raised house sparrows (Passer domesticus) indicated that chicks learn to modify begging levels within a few hours. Moreover, we found that the begging postures of hungry chicks in natural nests are correlated with the average postures that had previously yielded them parental feedings. Such learning challenges parental ability to assess offspring needs and may require that, in response, parents somehow filter out learned differences in offspring signals. PMID:12233768

Kedar, H; Rodríguez-Gironés, M A; Yedvab, S; Winkler, D W; Lotem, A

2000-01-01

336

The Cognitive Development of Young Dual Language Learners: A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

Dual language exposure and bilingualism are relatively common experiences for children. The present review set out to synthesize the existing research on cognitive development in bilingual children and to identify the gaps and the methodological concerns present in the existing research. A search of major data bases for research conducted with typically-developing, preschool-age dual language learners between 2000-2013 yielded 102 peer-reviewed articles. The existing evidence points to areas of cognitive development in bilingual children where findings are robust or inconclusive, and reveals variables that influence performance. The present review also identifies areas for future research and methodological limitations. PMID:25284958

Barac, Raluca; Bialystok, Ellen; Castro, Dina C.; Sanchez, Marta

2014-01-01

337

Maternal and developmental immune challenges alter behavior and learning ability of offspring  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of the offspring immune response during development is known to influence growth and behavioral phenotype. However, the potential for maternal antibodies to block the behavioral effects of immune activation during the neonatal period has not been assessed. We challenged female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) prior to egg laying and then challenged offspring during the nestling and juvenile periods with one of two antigens (keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). We then tested the effects of maternal and neonatal immune challenges on offspring growth rates and neophobia and learning ability of offspring during adulthood. Neonatal immune challenge depressed growth rates. Neophobia of adult offspring was influenced by a combination of maternal treatment, offspring treatment, and offspring sex. Males challenged with LPS during the nestling and juvenile periods had reduced learning performance in a novel foraging task; however, female learning was not impacted. Offspring challenged with the same antigen as mothers exhibited similar growth suppression and behavioral changes as offspring challenged with a novel antigen. Thus, developmental immune challenges have long-term effects on the growth and behavioral phenotype of offspring. We found limited evidence that matching of maternal and offspring challenges reduces the effects of immune challenge in the altricial zebra finch. This may be a result of rapid catabolism of maternal antibodies in altricial birds. Our results emphasize the need to address sex differences in the long-term effects of developmental immune challenge and suggest neonatal immune activation may be one proximate mechanism underlying differences in adult behavior. PMID:22522078

Grindstaff, Jennifer L.; Hunsaker, Veronica R.; Cox, Shelby N.

2012-01-01

338

Developing treatments for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: the challenge of translation.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a life-long debilitating mental disorder affecting tens of millions of people worldwide. The serendipitous discovery of antipsychotics focused pharmaceutical research on developing a better antipsychotic. Our understanding of the disorder has advanced however, with the knowledge that cognitive enhancers are required for patients in order to improve their everyday lives. While antipsychotics treat psychosis, they do not enhance cognition and hence are not antischizophrenics. Developing pro-cognitive therapeutics has been extremely difficult, however, especially when no approved treatment exists. In lieu of stumbling on an efficacious treatment, developing targeted compounds can be facilitated by understanding the neural mechanisms underlying altered cognitive functioning in patients. Equally importantly, these cognitive domains will need to be measured similarly in animals and humans so that novel targets can be tested prior to conducting expensive clinical trials. To date, the limited similarity of testing across species has resulted in a translational bottleneck. In this review, we emphasize that schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by abnormal cognitive behavior. Quantifying these abnormalities using tasks having cross-species validity would enable the quantification of comparable processes in rodents. This approach would increase the likelihood that the neural substrates underlying relevant behaviors will be conserved across species. Hence, we detail cross-species tasks which can be used to test the effects of manipulations relevant to schizophrenia and putative therapeutics. Such tasks offer the hope of providing a bridge between non-clinical and clinical testing that will eventually lead to treatments developed specifically for patients with deficient cognition. PMID:25516372

Young, J W; Geyer, M A

2015-02-01

339

Parent-offspring conflict and the genetics of offspring solicitation and parental response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solicitation displays by offspring and responses by parents are commonly regarded as phenotypic expressions of the conflict over parental investment between genes expressed in offspring and their parents. Models for the resolution of the parent-offspring conflict have assumed genetic variation for levels of both offspring solicitation and parental response in order to allow offspring and parental strategies to coevolve and

MATHIAS KO; HEINZ RICHNER

2001-01-01

340

Oxidative stress and altered lipid homeostasis in the programming of offspring fatty liver by maternal obesity  

PubMed Central

Changes in the maternal nutritional environment during fetal development can influence offspring's metabolic risk in later life. Animal models have demonstrated that offspring of diet-induced obese dams develop metabolic complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms in young offspring that lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female offspring of C57BL/6J dams fed either a control or obesogenic diet were studied at 8 wk of age. We investigated the roles of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in contributing to fatty liver in offspring. There were no differences in body weight or adiposity at 8 wk of age; however, offspring of obese dams were hyperinsulinemic. Oxidative damage markers were significantly increased in their livers, with reduced levels of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1. Mitochondrial complex I and II activities were elevated, while levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c were significantly reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase was significantly increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Offspring of obese dams also had significantly greater hepatic lipid content, associated with increased levels of PPAR? and reduced triglyceride lipase. Liver glycogen and protein content were concomitantly reduced in offspring of obese dams. In conclusion, offspring of diet-induced obese dams have disrupted liver metabolism and develop NAFLD prior to any differences in body weight or body composition. Oxidative stress may play a mechanistic role in the progression of fatty liver in these offspring. PMID:24789994

Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Musial, Barbara; Fowden, Abigail; Ozanne, Susan E.

2014-01-01

341

The Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): Development and validation of an empirically derived, brief interview-based measure of cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPractical, reliable “real world” measures of cognition are needed to supplement neurocognitive performance data to evaluate possible efficacy of new drugs targeting cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Because interview-based measures of cognition offer one possible approach, data from the MATRICS initiative (n=176) were used to examine the psychometric properties of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) and the Clinical Global

Joseph Ventura; Steven P. Reise; Richard S. E. Keefe; Lyle E. Baade; James M. Gold; Michael F. Green; Robert S. Kern; Raquelle Mesholam-Gately; Keith H. Nuechterlein; Larry J. Seidman; Robert M. Bilder

2010-01-01

342

Implications of Piagetian Theory for Early Childhood Industrial Arts: Cognitive Development. ACESIA Monograph 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two purposes of this paper are to provide the uninitiated reader with a skeletal overview of Piaget's cognitive development theory and to identify general educational implications, especially for the development of early childhood industrial arts (ECIA) programs. The "Piaget Primer" for ECIA educators overviews such topics as (1) the four…

Dahl, Richard J.

343

Cognitive Development of Children in an Additive-Bilingual Program: The Third Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enhanced metalinguistic abilities demonstrated by additive-bilingual children, including superior control of cognitive processing, may promote the development of symbolic reasoning. Children educated in additive-bilingual (immersion) settings may maintain normal native-language development, while acquiring a second language. This study…

Bamford, Kathryn W.; Mizokawa, Donald T.

344

Language and cognitive development in 47, XXX females followed since birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, data are presented on language and cognitive development in an unselected group of eleven 47, XXX females, followed since birth, who are now 6–14 years old. The results of the Yale Developmental Exam (at 2 years) and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) (at 4–6 years) show an early delay in language development. Those girls who

B. Pennington; M. Puck; A. Robinson

1980-01-01

345

Where Cognitive Development and Aging Meet: Face Learning Ability Peaks after Age 30  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on age-related cognitive change traditionally focuses on either development or aging, where development ends with adulthood and aging begins around 55 years. This approach ignores age-related changes during the 35 years in-between, implying that this period is uninformative. Here we investigated face recognition as an ability that may…

Germine, Laura T.; Duchaine, Bradley; Nakayama, Ken

2011-01-01

346

The Past, Present, and Future of Computational Models of Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does modeling matter? We address this question by providing a broad survey of the computational models of cognitive development that have been proposed and studied over the last three decades. We begin by noting the advantages and limitations of computational models. We then describe four key dimensions across which models of development can be…

Schlesinger, Matthew; McMurray, Bob

2012-01-01

347

Going Backward to Go Forward: The Critical Role of Regressive Movement in Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is by this point no doubt that backward, regressive, negative or degenerative movements occur in cognitive development. The question is "why?" The challenges of the phenomenon have been and continue to be mainly two: identify the range and variety of systematic backward movements that appear in development; and, provide better and better…

Feldman, David Henry; Benjamin, Ann C.

2004-01-01

348

Development of a TV white space cognitive radio prototype and its spectrum sensing performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a recently developed television white space (TVWS) hardware prototype. The proto- type includes the following components: a cognitive management entity (CME), a sensing module, a geolocation device, a TV band database, a transmitter and a receiver. The prototype is developed in compliance with recent Singapore TVWS test trial regulations. The prototype operates within 630 MHz

M. Azizur Rahman; Chunyi Song; Hiroshi Harada

2011-01-01

349

The Integration of Cognitive and Sociocultural Theories of Literacy Development: Why? How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive and sociocultural theories of literacy development are historically considered incommensurable in practice and in research. Cognitivists view literacy development as a succession of qualitatively varied skills whereas socioculturalists view literacy as socially and culturally embedded. Traditional educational discourses tend to reflect…

Davidson, Katherine

2010-01-01

350

Speech and Language Development in Cognitively Delayed Children With Cochlear Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The primary goals of this investigation were to examine the speech and language develop- ment of deaf children with cochlear implants and mild cognitive delay and to compare their gains with those of children with cochlear implants who do not have this additional impairment. Design: We retrospectively examined the speech and language development of 69 children with pre- lingual

Rachael Frush Holt; Karen Iler Kirk

2005-01-01

351

Design early considered harmful: graduated exposure to complexity and structure based on levels of cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recognized that the natural tendency to teach according to the structure of one's own understanding runs contrary to established models of cognitive development. Bloom's Taxonomy has provided a basis for establishing a more efficacious pedagogy. Emphasizing a hierarchical progression of skill sets and gradual learning through example, our approach advocates teaching software development from the inside\\/out rather than

Duane Buck; David J. Stucki

2000-01-01

352

Developing a Clinically Relevant Model of Cognitive Training After Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.  

PubMed

Background. Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), clinical cognitive training paradigms harness implicit and explicit learning and memory systems to improve function; however, these systems are differentially affected by TBI, highlighting the need for an experimental TBI model that can test efficacy of cognitive training approaches. Objectives. To develop a clinically relevant experimental cognitive training model using the Morris water maze (MWM) wherein training on implicitly learned task components was provided to improve behavioral performance post-TBI. Methods. Eighty-one adult male rats were divided by injury status (controlled cortical impact [CCI]/Sham), non-spatial cognitive training (CogTrained/No-CogTrained), and extra-maze cues (Cued/Non-Cued) during MWM testing. Platform latencies, thigmotaxis, and search strategies were assessed during MWM trials. Results. Cognitive training was associated with improved platform latencies, reduced thigmotaxis, and more effective search strategy use for Sham and CCI rats. In the Cued and Non-Cued MWM paradigm, there were no differences between CCI/CogTrained and Sham/No-CogTrained groups. During novel testing conditions, CogTrained groups applied implicitly learned knowledge/skills; however, sham-cued CogTrained/rats better incorporated extramaze cues into their search strategy than the CCI-Cued group. Cognitive training had no effects on contusion size or hippocampal cell survival. Conclusions. The results provide evidence that CCI-CogTrained rats that learned the nonspatial components of the MWM task applied these skills during multiple conditions of the place-learning task, thereby mitigating cognitive deficits typically associated with this injury model. The results show that a systematic application of clinically relevant constructs associated with cognitive training paradigms can be used with experimental TBI to affect place learning. PMID:25239938

Brayer, Samuel W; Ketcham, Scott; Zou, Huichao; Hurwitz, Max; Henderson, Christopher; Fuletra, Jay; Kumar, Krishma; Skidmore, Elizabeth; Thiels, Edda; Wagner, Amy K

2014-09-19

353

Do mothers producing large offspring have to sacrifice fecundity?  

PubMed

We artificially selected on egg size in a butterfly to study the consequences for fecundity, reproductive effort and offspring fitness. Correlated responses in either pupal mass, larval or pupal development time were virtually absent. Offspring size was positively related to fitness, but only partly traded off against fecundity. Rather, total reproductive effort (measured as fresh mass), egg water content and the decline of egg size with female age increased in the large-egg selected lines compared to either small-egg or control lines. Accounting for these effects showed that reproductive investment (in dry mass) was in fact similar across lines. Such mechanisms may enable increased investment in (early) offspring without a reduction in their number, revealing a much more complex picture than a simple trade-off between offspring size and number. Substantial variation among replicates suggests that there are different underlying mechanisms for change, rather than any single, unitary pathway. PMID:16599914

Fischer, K; Bot, A N M; Brakefield, P M; Zwaan, Bas J

2006-03-01

354

Teenage parents and their offspring.  

PubMed

Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development. PMID:8669783

Kaufman, J

1996-06-18

355

Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children’s Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035

Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

2014-01-01

356

Developing a fluid intelligence scale through a combination of Rasch modeling and cognitive psychology.  

PubMed

Ability testing has been criticized because understanding of the construct being assessed is incomplete and because the testing has not yet been satisfactorily improved in accordance with new knowledge from cognitive psychology. This article contributes to the solution of this problem through the application of item response theory and Susan Embretson's cognitive design system for test development in the development of a fluid intelligence scale. This study is based on findings from cognitive psychology; instead of focusing on the development of a test, it focuses on the definition of a variable for the creation of a criterion-referenced measure for fluid intelligence. A geometric matrix item bank with 26 items was analyzed with data from 2,797 undergraduate students. The main result was a criterion-referenced scale that was based on information from item features that were linked to cognitive components, such as storage capacity, goal management, and abstraction; this information was used to create the descriptions of selected levels of a fluid intelligence scale. The scale proposed that the levels of fluid intelligence range from the ability to solve problems containing a limited number of bits of information with obvious relationships through the ability to solve problems that involve abstract relationships under conditions that are confounded with an information overload and distraction by mixed noise. This scale can be employed in future research to provide interpretations for the measurements of the cognitive processes mastered and the types of difficulty experienced by examinees. PMID:24773034

Primi, Ricardo

2014-09-01

357

Maternal obesity during gestation impairs fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial SIRT3 expression in rat offspring at weaning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring’s risk of obesity in later life. We have also previously reported that offspring of obese rat dams develop hepatic steatosis, mild hyperinsulinemia, and a lipogenic gene signature in the liver at postnatal day (PND) 21. In the current s...

358

The effects of maternal corticosterone levels on offspring behavior in fast- and slow-growth garter snakes ( Thamnophis elegans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During embryonic development, viviparous offspring are exposed to maternally circulating hormones. Maternal stress increases offspring exposure to corticosterone and this hormonal exposure has the potential to influence developmental, morphological and behavioral traits of the resulting offspring. We treated pregnant female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) with low levels of corticosterone after determining both natural corticosterone levels in the field and pre-treatment

Kylie A. Robert; Carol Vleck; Anne M. Bronikowski

2009-01-01

359

Impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognition, motor skills and hippocampal neurogenesis in developing C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

Maternal intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is critical during perinatal development of the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 PUFA in the brain and influences neuronal membrane function and neuroprotection. The present study aims to assess the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA availability during the gestational and postnatal period on cognition, brain metabolism and neurohistology in C57BL/6J mice. Female wild-type C57BL/6J mice at day 0 of gestation were randomly assigned to either an n-3 PUFA deficient diet (0.05% of total fatty acids) or an n-3 PUFA adequate diet (3.83% of total fatty acids) containing preformed DHA and its precursor ?-linolenic acid. Male offspring remained on diet and performed cognitive tests during puberty and adulthood. In adulthood, animals underwent (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess brain energy metabolites. Thereafter, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed assessing inflammation, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Compared to the n-3 PUFA deficient group, pubertal n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice demonstrated increased motor coordination. Adult n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice exhibited increased exploratory behavior, sensorimotor integration and spatial memory, while neurogenesis in the hippocampus was decreased. Selected brain regions of n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice contained significantly lower levels of arachidonic acid and higher levels of DHA and dihomo-?-linolenic acid. Our data suggest that dietary n-3 PUFA can modify neural maturation and enhance brain functioning in healthy C57BL/6J mice. This indicates that availability of n-3 PUFA in infant diet during early development may have a significant impact on brain development. PMID:25444517

Janssen, Carola I F; Zerbi, Valerio; Mutsaers, Martina P C; de Jong, Bas S W; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Geenen, Bram; Heerschap, Arend; Muskiet, Frits A J; Jouni, Zeina E; van Tol, Eric A F; Gross, Gabriele; Homberg, Judith R; Berg, Brian M; Kiliaan, Amanda J

2015-01-01

360

Early Life Development in a Multiethnic Sample and the Relation to Late Life Cognition.  

PubMed

Objectives.Poor quality of early life conditions has been associated with poorer late life cognition and increased risk of dementia. Early life physical development can be captured using adult measures of height and head circumference. Availability of resources may be reflected by socioeconomic indicators, such as parental education and family size. We sought to determine the association between early life development and experience and late life semantic memory, episodic memory, and executive functioning abilities, as well as rate of cognitive decline.Method.This study was conducted using the UC Davis Aging Diversity cohort, an ethnically diverse sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic individuals from northern California. We used latent variable modeling to measure growth and childhood socioeconomic environment (SES) and examine their associations with longitudinal cognitive outcomes using mixed effects modeling. PMID:24389122

Melrose, Rebecca J; Brewster, Paul; Marquine, María J; Mackay-Brandt, Anna; Reed, Bruce; T Farias, Sarah; Mungas, Dan

2014-01-01

361

Interdisciplinary perspectives on the development, integration, and application of cognitive ontologies.  

PubMed

We discuss recent progress in the development of cognitive ontologies and summarize three challenges in the coordinated development and application of these resources. Challenge 1 is to adopt a standardized definition for cognitive processes. We describe three possibilities and recommend one that is consistent with the standard view in cognitive and biomedical sciences. Challenge 2 is harmonization. Gaps and conflicts in representation must be resolved so that these resources can be combined for mark-up and interpretation of multi-modal data. Finally, Challenge 3 is to test the utility of these resources for large-scale annotation of data, search and query, and knowledge discovery and integration. As term definitions are tested and revised, harmonization should enable coordinated updates across ontologies. However, the true test of these definitions will be in their community-wide adoption which will test whether they support valid inferences about psychological and neuroscientific data. PMID:24999329

Hastings, Janna; Frishkoff, Gwen A; Smith, Barry; Jensen, Mark; Poldrack, Russell A; Lomax, Jane; Bandrowski, Anita; Imam, Fahim; Turner, Jessica A; Martone, Maryann E

2014-01-01

362

Cognitive Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the course of history, cognitive technologies have been implicated in religious debates and have been retarded by the lack of proper cognitive science and information technology. Today, information technology permits the development of many new cognitive technologies, assisted when appropriate by biotechnology and nanotechnology. Two illustrative applications are 1) an artificial intelligence personal advisor, and 2) dynamic lifetime information

William Sims Bainbridge

363

Assessing multidimensional cognitions of drinking among alcohol-dependent patients: Development and validation of a drinking-related cognitions scale (DRCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to develop and validate the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS). The DRCS is a brief measure designed to assess multidimensional cognitions of drinking, including perception of drinking problems, perception of impaired drinking control, readiness to change, decisional balancing, and self-efficacy in alcohol-dependent patients. This study was carried out in Japan, with 132 alcohol-dependent patients (mean

Toru Sawayama; Junichi Yoneda; Katsutoshi Tanaka; Norihito Shirakawa; Enami Sawayama; Susumu Higuchi; Hitoshi Miyaoka

2009-01-01

364

Development of a computerized tool for the chinese version of the montreal cognitive assessment for screening mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is used for screening mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and the Beijing version (MoCA-BJ) is widely used in China. We aimed to develop a computerized tool for MoCA-BJ (MoCA-CC). Methods: MoCA-CC used person-machine interaction instead of patient-to-physician interaction; other aspects such as the scoring system did not differ from the original test. MoCA-CC, MoCA-BJ and routine neuropsychological tests were administered to 181 elderly participants (MCI = 96, normal controls [NC] = 85). Results: A total of 176 (97.24%) participants were evaluated successfully by MoCA-CC. Cronbach's ? for MoCA-CC was 0.72. The test-retest reliability (retesting after six weeks) was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82; P < 0.001). Significant differences were observed in total scores (t = 9.38, P < 0.001) and individual item scores (t = 2.18-8.62, P < 0.05) between the NC and MCI groups, except for the score for "Naming" (t = 0.24, P = 0.81). The MoCA-CC total scores were highly correlated with the MoCA-BJ total scores (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) in the MCI participants. The area under receiver-operator curve for the prediction of MCI was 0.97 (95% confidence interval = 0.95-1.00). At the optimal cut-off score of 25/26, MoCA-CC demonstrated 95.8% sensitivity and 87.1% specificity. Conclusion: The MoCA-CC tool developed here has several advantages over the paper-pencil method and is reliable for screening MCI in elderly Chinese individuals, especially in the primary clinical setting. It needs to be validated in other diverse and larger populations. PMID:25362894

Yu, Ke; Zhang, Shangang; Wang, Qingsong; Wang, Xiaofei; Qin, Yang; Wang, Jian; Li, Congyang; Wu, Yuxian; Wang, Weiwen; Lin, Hang

2014-11-01

365

Developing a Laboratory Model for the Professional Preparation of Future Science Teachers: A Situated Cognition Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although laboratory activities are widely acknowledged as being fundamental to the teaching of science, many secondary science school teachers have limited knowledge of how to design and run effective teaching laboratories. Utilising a situated cognition theoretical framework, we discuss our collaborative efforts to develop a laboratory based model for the professional preparation of secondary level science teachers. Findings from the

Aldrin E. Sweeney; Jeffrey A. Paradis

2004-01-01

366

Posibilidades y limites de un fomento cognitivo temprano (Possibilities and Limits of Early Cognitive Development).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses preschool education and the research conducted in that field on various relevant topics in an effort to establish recommendations and programs. Cognitive development is the main issue and is seen as a product of maturation as well as of a broad base of experience which results from interaction between the mind and the…

Schmalohr, Emil

367

Humour in Cognitive and Social Development: Creative Artists and Class Clowns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a number of characteristics of gifted children reported by teachers and researchers. Such characteristics may include curiosity, advanced mathematical skills, large vocabulary, acute sense of humour. This paper examines the demands that humour, as a creative activity, makes on cognitive and social development. It is derived from research…

Jewell, Paul

2005-01-01

368

Crowding and Cognitive Development: The Mediating Role of Maternal Responsiveness among 36-Month-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Residential crowding in both U.S. and U.K. samples of 36-month-old children is related concurrently to the Bracken scale, a standard index of early cognitive development skills including letter and color identification, shape recognition, and elementary numeric comprehension. In the U.S. sample, these effects also replicate prospectively.…

Evans, Gary W.; Ricciuti, Henry N.; Hope, Steven; Schoon, Ingrid; Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Hazan, Cindy

2010-01-01

369

Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Internet-Facilitated Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Maternal Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Develop and pilot an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Method: Mothers (N = 70) of children enrolled in Head Start, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session,…

Sheeber, Lisa B.; Seeley, John R.; Feil, Edward G.; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Kosty, Derek B.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

2012-01-01

370

Cognitive Development of Fourth Graders in a High-Stakes State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jean Piaget's classic theory of cognitive development would imply that the higher-order items on the Kentucky state assessment would only be possible for students well into concrete operations or beginning formal operations. The implication would be that Kentucky fourth graders who are not fully concrete yet may be hitting a developmental ceiling…

Aagaard, Lola; Boram, Robert

371

Cognitive Coping Tool Kit for Psychosis: Development of a Group-Based Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT…

Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica

2007-01-01

372

The Role of Need for Cognition and Reader Beliefs in Text Comprehension and Interest Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was an attempt to integrate motivation into reading comprehension, with active knowledge construction as a linkage. The study examined two motivational constructs, need for cognition and reader's beliefs, in terms of their role in text comprehension and interest development. The results of the study provided empirical evidence for the…

Dai, David Yun; Wang, Xiaolei

2007-01-01

373

A Cognitive Analysis of Credit Card Acquisition and College Student Financial Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines cognitions relevant to credit card decision making in college-aged participants (N=304). Assesses measures of beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral alternatives toward acquiring a credit card. Identifies a multivariate model predicting college student financial development of the attitudes and behavioral tendencies of acquiring a new card.…

Kidwell, Blair; Turrisi, Robert

2000-01-01

374

The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

2012-01-01

375

The Interaction of Selective Attention and Cognitive Development on Achievement in Nigerian Secondary School Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study tried to examine the interaction between two independent variables of selective attention and cognitive development on Achievement in Genetics at the Secondary School level. In looking at the problem of this study three null hypotheses were generated for testing at 0.05 level of significance. Factorial Analysis of Variance design with…

Okoye, Namdi N. S.

2009-01-01

376

Cognitive Developmental Level Gender, and the Development of Learned Helplessness on Mathematical Calculation and Reasoning Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to test whether a learned helplessness treatment would decrease performance on mathematical tasks and to extend learned helplessness findings to include the cognitive development dimension. Results showed no differential advantages to either sex in resisting effects of learned helplessness or in benefiting from strategy…

Monaco, Nanci M.; Gentile, J. Ronald

1987-01-01

377

Professional Development that Supports the Teaching of Cognitive Reading Strategy Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students. To meet this goal, 44 participating teachers in grades 2-8 learned to teach their students cognitive

Sailors, Misty; Price, Larry R.

2010-01-01

378

Intending to Forget: The Development of Cognitive Inhibition in Directed Forgetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis of this research is that children's cognitive inhibition increases in efficiency with age over the middle childhood years, and this increasing efficiency contributes to developmental improvements in memory performance. To explore this thesis, the development of efficient retrieval inhibition, defined as the suppression of activation and retrieval paths to information stored in long-term memory, was investigated. In Experiment

Katherine Kipp Harnishfeger; R. Steffen Pope

1996-01-01

379

Fathers' Influence on Their Children's Cognitive and Emotional Development: From Toddlers to Pre-K  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present findings based on several of our recent studies that have shown that father engagement has significant effects on children's cognition and language at 24 and 36 months and their social and emotional development at 24, 36 months, and pre-Kindergarten. These studies are guided by the Dynamics of Paternal Influences on Children over the Life Course Model that stipulates

Natasha J. Cabrera; Jacqueline D. Shannon; Catherine Tamis-LeMonda

2007-01-01

380

The generational transmission of socioeconomic inequalities in child cognitive development and emotional health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socioeconomic inequalities in the health of adults have been largely attributed to lifestyle inequalities. The cognitive development (CD) and emotional health (EH) of the child provides a basis for many of the health-related behaviours which are observed in adulthood. There has been relatively little attention paid to the way CD and EH are transmitted in the foetal and childhood periods,

Jake M. Najman; Rosemary Aird; William Bor; Michael O’Callaghan; Gail M. Williams; Gregory J. Shuttlewood

2004-01-01

381

The Development of a Substance Abuse Treatment Program for Forensic Patients with Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Substance Abuse and Mental Illness (SAMI) program combines cognitive rehabilitation and dual-diagnosis substance abuse treatment within a stages of change context. This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary outcome analysis of the SAMI program in a forensic hospital.

Glassmire, David M.; Welsh, Robert K.; Clevenger, Jeanne K.

2007-01-01

382

Cognitive Learning Theory Takes a Backseat: Consequences of a Management Development Program for Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the consequences of a cognitive management development program for middle managers in a public organization. The objective was to teach transformational leadership and teamwork but it occasioned a very limited improved articulation of transformational leadership and teamwork and only a modest change in the managers' actions in…

Moesby-Jensen, Cecilie K.

2008-01-01

383

Prenatal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine: A review of the potential effects on cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of opioid users receiving opioid maintenance therapy has increased significantly over the last few years. As a result, an increasing number of children are prenatally exposed to long-lasting opioids such as methadone and buprenorphine. This article reviews the literature on the cognitive development of children born to mothers in opioid maintenance therapy. Topics discussed are the effects of

Carolien Konijnenberg; Annika Melinder

2011-01-01

384

The Effect of Learning Background and Imagery Cognitive Development on Visual Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research looked into the effect of how cognitive development toward imagery is formed through visual perception by means of a quantitative questionnaire. The main variable was the difference between the learning backgrounds of the interviewees. A two-way ANOVA mixed design was the statistical method used for the analysis of the 2 × 4 (2 by 4)…

Chiang, Shyh-Bao; Sun, Chun-Wang

2013-01-01

385

Collaboration, Conflict, and Cognitive Development: The Efficacy of Joint Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was made to assess the extent to which social interaction is beneficial to cognitive development. A total of 154 boys and girls, 5 through 9 years of age, initially participated individually in a conservation-like pretest requiring prediction of the way a beam would tip when different numbers of weights were placed at differing distances…

Tudge, Jonathan

386

Understanding Writing Problems in Young Children: Contributions of Cognitive Skills to the Development of Written Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While several models of adult writing have been proposed and studied, the development of writing skills in young children has only recently garnered attention. Using measures of fine-motor, language, working memory, and attention/executive functions, the current study explored motor and cognitive skills that may contribute to writing skill in…

Childress, Amy

2011-01-01

387

Item Equivalence in English and Chinese Translation of a Cognitive Development Test for Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a study of potential sources of item nonequivalence between English and Chinese language versions of a cognitive development test for preschool-aged children. Items were flagged for potential nonequivalence through statistical and judgment-based procedures, and the relationship between flag status and item…

He, Wei; Wolfe, Edward W.

2010-01-01

388

COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE Development of auditory-specific brain rhythm in infants  

E-print Network

and music in the second 6 months of life. In the adult brain, neural rhythm around 10 Hz in the temporalCOGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE Development of auditory-specific brain rhythm in infants Takako Fujioka,1 plasticity, EEG frequency band analysis, event-related oscillations, maturation Abstract Human infants

Trainor, Laurel J.

389

Role of Mothers' Language Styles in Mediating Their Preschool Children's Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study relating mothers' language styles and techniques of family control to children's cognitive development was conducted with 163 urban Negro mothers from the lower and middle classes and their 4-year-old children. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) There was a significant negative correlation between responses of status-oriented…

Olim, Ellis G.; And Others

1967-01-01

390

Cognitive Development 20 (2005) 1931 Watching the infant brain learn words: effects of  

E-print Network

Cognitive Development 20 (2005) 19­31 Watching the infant brain learn words: effects of vocabulary-related potentials (ERPs) to words whose mean- ings infants did or did not comprehend, found bilateral differences in brain activity to known versus unknown words in 13-month-old infants, in contrast with unilateral, left

Hochberg, Michael

391

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN OF BUSINESS OWNERS: AN ENTREPRENEURIAL LEARNING MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACADEMIC ABSTRACT Children who grow up in family businesses are exposed to specific stimuli which influence their entrepreneurial choices, their entrepreneurial leadership opportunities, and ultimate success as adults. A model is proposed which describes how cognitive maps develop in children and then serve as guides for their entrepreneurial behavior. We detail five skills learned over five stages of growth, and

Leann Mischel

2008-01-01

392

Primal Splitting as a Basis for Emotional and Cognitive Development in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of good primal splitting as the basis for the child's emotional and cognitive development. A theoretical introduction analyses the possible pathologies of primal splitting, as they were first pointed out by Melanie Klein and then by some post-Kleinian authors, in particular Donald Meltzer. This is followed by…

Caccia, Ornella

2009-01-01

393

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Schizophrenia – A Review of Development, Evidence and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders were once thought to be impervious to psychological treatments; however, there is accumulating evidence that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can result in significant clinical benefit to these patients. Aim: This paper aims to describe the development and adaptation of CBT in the treatment of schizophrenia, to summarise the evidence to support CBT as a

Nicholas Tarrier

2005-01-01

394

The Relations between Frontal Brain Electrical Activity and Cognitive Development during Infancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between changes in electroencephalograms and the development of the ability to perform cognitive tasks involving frontal lobe functioning in infants of 7 to 12 months of age. Infants who successfully found a hidden object showed changes in the power of brain electrical activity in the frontal lobe. (BC)

Bell, Martha Ann; Fox, Nathan A.

1992-01-01

395

Effectiveness of a Video-Feedback and Questioning Programme to Develop Cognitive Expertise in Sport  

PubMed Central

The importance within sport expertise of cognitive factors has been emphasised in many research studies. Adaptations that take place in athletes’ long-term memories are going to condition their decision-making and performance, and training programmes must be developed that improve these adaptations. In our study, we provide a tactical-cognitive training programme based on video-feedback and questioning in order to improve tactical knowledge in tennis players and verify its effect when transferred to athletes’ decision-making. 11 intermediate tennis players participated in this study (12.9±0.7 years old), distributed into two groups (experimental, n?=?5; control, n?=?6). Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation and strategy planning with a verbal protocol. Decision-making was measured by a systematic observation instrument. Results confirm the effectiveness of a combination of video-feedback and questioning on cognitive expertise, developing adaptations in long-term memory that produce an improvement in the quality of tactical knowledge (content, sophistication and structure). This, in turn, is transferred to the athletes’ decision-making capacity, leading to a higher percentage of successful decisions made during game play. Finally, we emphasise the need to develop effective programmes to develop cognitive expertise and improve athletes' performance, and include it in athletes’ formative stages. PMID:24340012

García-González, Luis; Moreno, M. Perla; Moreno, Alberto; Gil, Alexander; del Villar, Fernando

2013-01-01

396

The Intranet as a Cognitive Architecture for Training and Education: Basic Assumptions and Development Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper makes basic assumptions regarding the development of an intranet architecture that will actively promote the cognitive apprenticeship of a new community of learners. The authors consider the intranet as a dynamic and virtual environment in which individuals may communicate, share resources, and reciprocally generate and organize…

Seffah, Ahmed; Bouchard, Robert Maurice

397

Systematic Review of Cognitive Development across Childhood in Down Syndrome: Implications for Treatment Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is conjecture regarding the profile of cognitive development over time in children with Down syndrome (DS). Characterising this profile would be valuable for the planning and assessment of intervention studies. Method: A systematic search of the literature from 1990 to the present was conducted to identify longitudinal data on…

Patterson, T.; Rapsey, C. M.; Glue, P.

2013-01-01

398

Longitudinal analyses of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a prospective cohort study of 249 children from birth to two years of age, we assessed the relation between prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development. On the basis of lead levels in umbilical-cord blood, children were assigned to one of three prenatal-exposure groups: low (less than 3 micrograms per deciliter), medium (6 to 7 micrograms per

D. Bellinger; A. Leviton; C. Waternaux; H. Needleman; M. Rabinowitz

1987-01-01

399

Development and Validation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Skills Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although several theories exist to describe why patients improve in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in only a limited number of studies has CBT skill acquisition been examined, particularly among patients with complex clinical profiles. Thus, the overarching aim of this research was to develop a tool to measure patients' use of CBT skills,…

Jacob, Karen L.; Christopher, Michael S.; Neuhaus, Edmund C.

2011-01-01

400

Individual Differences in the Extent and Development of Aggressive Cognitive-Associative Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extends L. Berkowitz's neoassociationist aggression model by considering the role of personality variables. Experiment one tested the hypothesis that high-trait-aggressive individuals have more developed aggressive cognitive-associative networks than low-trait-aggressive individuals. In experiment two, participants rated the stimulus words used in…

Bushman, Brad J.

1996-01-01

401

Development of a Cognition-Priming Model Describing Learning in a STEM Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful STEM learning depends on the interaction of affect, cognition, and application of ideas. Simply put students who are unwilling to persist in STEM based endeavors do not suddenly develop into scientists, mathematicians, engineers or computer scientists, nor do they seek out STEM related courses or STEM based careers. The purpose of this…

Lamb, Richard; Akmal, Tariq; Petrie, Kaylan

2015-01-01

402

Implications of Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms for Early Cognitive and Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistically, women, particularly pregnant women and new mothers, are at heightened risk for depression. The present review describes the current state of the research linking maternal depressed mood and children's cognitive and language development. Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, whether during the prenatal period, postpartum period,…

Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.

2006-01-01

403

Schooling Effects on Cognitive Development in a Difficult Environment: The Case of Refugee Camps in the West Bank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schooling is now considered the major factor underlying the development of cognitive abilities. However, most studies on the effect of schooling on cognitive development have been conducted in free and generally supportive western environments. The possible variability of schooling effects between educational systems differing in the quality of…

Jabr, Dua; Cahan, Sorel

2014-01-01

404

The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

Seaton, Eleanor K.

2010-01-01

405

The Effect of Breastfeeding and Stimulation in the Home on Cognitive Development in One-Year-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the effects of breastfeeding on child cognitive development has produced conflicting results, and many studies do not account for infant stimulation in the home. The aim of this study is to determine whether breastfeeding predicts enhanced cognitive development in one-year-old infants after controlling for the main socio-economic and…

Sloan, Seaneen; Stewart, Moira; Dunne, Laura

2010-01-01

406

Impaired prenatal development and glycemic status in the offspring of rats with experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes and their correction with afobazole.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus was simulated in rats on gestation day 1 by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in doses of 40 and 50 mg/kg. Pregnant females showed increased glucose concentrations n the blood and urine, embryonic developmental disorders, such as tongue protrusion, edema, and skin hyperemia with concomitant vascular damage (hemorrhage, hematoma) as well as pre- and post-implantation embryo loss. Afobazole administered orally in doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg to pregnant rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes significantly decreased prenatal developmental disorders and pre- and post-implantation embryo loss rate. Afobazole in a dose of 50 mg/kg produced maximum protective effect: in rats receiving 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, post-implantation embryo loss decreased by 14.7 times. Afobazole in doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced blood glucose concentration in pregnant rats and normalized glycemia in 90-day-old male offspring. PMID:25403388

Zabrodina, V V; Shreder, E D; Shreder, O V; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

2014-11-01

407

Impaired brain development and reduced cognitive function in phospholipase D-deficient mice.  

PubMed

The phospholipases D (PLD1 and 2) are signaling enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid, a lipid second messenger involved in cell proliferation, and choline, a precursor of acetylcholine (ACh). In the present study, we investigated development and cognitive function in mice that were deficient for PLD1, or PLD2, or both. We found that PLD-deficient mice had reduced brain growth at 14-27 days post partum when compared to wild-type mice. In adult PLD-deficient mice, cognitive function was impaired in social and object recognition tasks. Using brain microdialysis, we found that wild-type mice responded with a 4-fold increase of hippocampal ACh release upon behavioral stimulation in the open field, while PLD-deficient mice released significantly less ACh. These results may be relevant for cognitive dysfunctions observed in fetal alcohol syndrome and in Alzheimer' disease. PMID:24813107

Burkhardt, Ute; Stegner, David; Hattingen, Elke; Beyer, Sandra; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Klein, Jochen

2014-06-20

408

Estrogen Protects Against Increased Blood Pressure in Postpubertal Female Growth Restricted Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placental insufficiency in the rat results in intrauterine growth restriction and development of hypertension in prepubertal male and female growth-restricted offspring. However, after puberty, only male growth-restricted offspring remain hypertensive, whereas female growth-restricted offspring stabilize their blood pressure to levels comparable to adult female controls. Because female rats reach their maximum levels of estrogen at puberty, we hypothesize that estrogen

Norma B. Ojeda; Daniela Grigore; Elliott B. Robertson; Barbara T. Alexander

2010-01-01

409

Accelerating Leadership Development via Immersive Learning and Cognitive Apprenticeship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors put forward an approach to leadership development that builds on the principle of accelerated learning. They argue that leadership development, particularly in a period of recession or slow economic growth, needs to deliver results more quickly and with fewer resources. Indeed, they raise the question of whether or not this is what is…

Backus, Clark; Keegan, Kevin; Gluck, Charles; Gulick, Lisa M. V.

2010-01-01

410

Impact of Maternal Prenatal Stress on Growth of the Offspring  

PubMed Central

Unperturbed fetal development is essential for future health of an individual. Previous studies have linked diseases of aging to harmful alterations that happen during fetal development. Given the significant long-term impact that intrauterine environment has on an individual’s life, it was hypothesized that maternal stress during pregnancy will have negative effects on the offspring’s prenatal and postnatal growth. To test this, twenty-eight female and seven male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were purchased and bred to produce 176 offspring. During pregnancy, dams were randomly divided into four groups (n=7, per group) and immobilization stress induced as follows; Group 1 (GW1): immobilization stress on days 1–7 of pregnancy, Group 2 (GW2): on days 8–14, Group 3 (GW3): on days 15–21, Group 4 (Controls): left undisturbed. Maternal cortisol hormone, food intake, and weight gain were monitored during pregnancy. Pups were raised under normal laboratory conditions and sacrificed at ages: 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks to determine the effect of prenatal stress. At necropsy, the tibia was removed and processed for histology. Differences among groups were determined by T-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Linear regression analysis was performed to establish the relationship between stress in utero and indicators of bone development in offspring. P values ? 0.05 were considered significant. Cortisol hormone levels in controls were lower than those of stressed animals. Stressed dams consumed 12.5% less food per day compared to controls. Animals in GW1 and GW2 gained less weight during pregnancy but had larger litters than did GW3 or the control group. Offspring born to GW3 were heavier compared to all other groups. GW3 offspring had a higher rate of bone formation. In conclusion, stress during pregnancy resulted in increased cortisol and reduced food intake in mothers, but faster growth and higher weight gain in offspring compared to controls. PMID:24490112

Amugongo, Sarah K.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

2014-01-01

411

Impact of Genetic Vulnerability and Hypoxia on Overall Intelligence by Age 7 in Offspring at High Risk for Schizophrenia Compared With Affective Psychoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for schizophrenia, such as genetic vulnerability and obstetric complications, have been associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. We tested the association of these risk factors with general intellectual ability in offspring at high risk for psychoses and normal control subjects. Offspring of 182 parents with DSM–IV schizophrenia or affective psychoses were recruited and diagnosed from the Boston and

Jill M. Goldstein; Larry J. Seidman; Stephen L. Buka; Nicholas J. Horton; JoAnn L. Donatelli; Ronald O. Rieder; Ming T. Tsuang

2000-01-01

412

fMRI and MEG in the study of typical and atypical cognitive development.  

PubMed

The tremendous changes in brain structure over childhood are critical to the development of cognitive functions. Neuroimaging provides a means of linking these brain-behaviour relations, as task protocols can be adapted for use with young children to assess the development of cognitive functions in both typical and atypical populations. This paper reviews some of our research using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional MRI (fMRI) in the study of cognitive development, with a focus on frontal lobe functions. Working memory for complex abstract patterns showed clear development in terms of the recruitment of frontal regions, seen with fMRI, with indications of strategy differences across the age range, from 6 to 35 years of age. Right hippocampal involvement was also evident in these n-back tasks, demonstrating its involvement in recognition in simple working memory protocols. Children born very preterm (7 to 9 years of age) showed reduced fMRI activation particularly in the precuneus and right hippocampal regions relative to control children. In a large normative n-back study (n=90) with upright and inverted faces, MEG data also showed right hippocampal activation that was present across the age range; frontal sources were evident only from 10 years of age. Other studies have investigated the development of set shifting, an executive function that is often deficit in atypical populations. fMRI showed recruitment of frontal areas, including the insula, that have significantly different patterns in children (7 to 14 years of age) with autism spectrum disorder compared to typically developing children, indicating that successful performance implicated differing strategies in these two groups of children. These types of studies will help our understanding of both normal brain-behaviour development and cognitive dysfunction in atypically developing populations. PMID:22200338

Taylor, M J; Donner, E J; Pang, E W

2012-01-01

413

Motor functioning, exploration, visuospatial cognition and language development in preschool children with autism.  

PubMed

In order to understand typical and atypical developmental trajectories it is important to assess how strengths or weaknesses in one domain may be affecting performance in other domains. This study examined longitudinal relations between early fine motor functioning, visuospatial cognition, exploration, and language development in preschool children with ASD and children with other developmental delays/disorders. The ASD group included 63 children at T1 (Mage=27.10 months, SD=8.71) and 46 children at T2 (Mage=45.85 months, SD=7.16). The DD group consisted of 269 children at T1 (Mage=17.99 months, SD=5.59), and 121 children at T2 (Mage=43.51 months, SD=3.81). A subgroup nested within the total sample was randomly selected and studied in-depth on exploratory behavior. This group consisted of 50 children, 21 children with ASD (Mage=27.57, SD=7.09) and 29 children with DD (Mage=24.03 months, SD=6.42). Fine motor functioning predicted language in both groups. Fine motor functioning was related to visuospatial cognition in both groups and related to object exploration, spatial exploration, and social orientation during exploration only in the ASD group. Visuospatial cognition and all exploration measures were related to both receptive and expressive language in both groups. The findings are in line with the embodied cognition theory, which suggests that cognition emerges from and is grounded in the bodily interactions of an agent with the environment. This study emphasizes the need for researchers and clinicians to consider cognition as emergent from multiple interacting systems. PMID:25635383

Hellendoorn, Annika; Wijnroks, Lex; van Daalen, Emma; Dietz, Claudine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Leseman, Paul

2015-04-01

414

Does angiotensin-1 converting enzyme genotype influence motor or cognitive development after pre-term birth?  

PubMed Central

Background Raised activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may both amplify inflammatory and free radical responses and decrease tissue metabolic efficiency and thus enhance cerebral injury in the preterm infant. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) DD genotype is associated with raised ACE and RAS activity as well as potentially adverse stimuli such as inflammation. The DD genotype has been associated with neurological impairments in the elderly, and thus may be also associated with poorer motor or cognitive development amongst children born preterm prematurely. Methods The association of DD genotype with developmental progress amongst 176 Caucasian children born at less than 33 weeks gestation (median birthweight 1475 g, range 645–2480 g; gestation 30 weeks, range 22–32; 108 male) was examined at 2 and 5 1/2 years of age. Measured neuro-cognitive outcomes were cranial ultrasound abnormalities, cerebral palsy, disability, Griffiths Developmental Quotient [DQ] at 2 yrs, and General Cognitive Ability [British Ability Scales-11] and motor performance [ABC Movement], both performed at 5 1/2 yrs. All outcomes were correlated with ACE genotype. Results The DD genotype was not associated with lower developmental quotients even after accounting for important social variables. Conclusion These data do not support either a role for ACE in the development of cognitive or motor function in surviving infants born preterm or inhibition of ACE as a neuroprotective therapy. PMID:15725359

Harding, David R; Dhamrait, Sukhbir; Devadason, David; Humphries, Steve E; Whitelaw, Andrew; Marlow, Neil; Montgomery, Hugh E

2005-01-01

415

Development of a cognitive testing apparatus for socially housed mother-peer-reared infant rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

Though cognitive testing of infant monkeys has been practiced for the past 40 years, these assessments have been limited primarily to nursery-reared infants due to the confounds of separating mother-reared infants for assessments. Here, we describe a pilot study in which we developed a cognitive testing apparatus for socially housed, mother-peer-reared rhesus macaques under 1 year of age (Macaca mulatta) that allowed the infants to freely return to their mothers for contact comfort. Infants aged 151.2?±?18.3 days (mean?±?SEM; n?=?5) were trained and tested on an object detour reach task. Infants completed training in 5.0?±?0.2 days, and completed testing in 6.2?±?0.9 days. Across 4 days of testing, infants improved to nearly errorless performance (Friedman test: ?(2) ?=?13.27, df?=?3, p?=?0.004) and learned to do the task more quickly (Friedman test: ?(2) ?=?11.69, df?=?3, p?=?0.009). These are the first cognitive data in group-housed, mother-peer-reared rhesus monkeys under 1 year of age, and they underscore the utility of this apparatus for studying cognitive development in a normative population of infant monkeys. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Dev Psychobiol :349-355, 2015. PMID:25782609

Dettmer, Amanda M; Murphy, Ashley M; Suomi, Stephen J

2015-04-01

416

The cognitive development of Galileo's theory of buoyancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some thirty years ago, in a seminal book, William Shea argued that between 1610 and 1632 Galileo worked out "the methodology of his intellectual revolution", and that hydrostatics was one fundamental area of research Galileo concerned himself with at that time. According to Shea, that methodology was deeply rooted in Archimedean mathematics and basically consisted in mathematically investigating classes of phenomena, such as floating bodies, under certain idealized conditions. I believe that Shea's view is fundamentally correct. I will develop it further, by reconsidering Galileo's methodology in finer detail, specifically in relation to the development of his theory of floating bodies.

Palmieri, Paolo

2005-01-01

417

Dietary intervention rescues maternal obesity induced behavior deficits and neuroinflammation in offspring.  

PubMed

Obesity induces a low-grade inflammatory state and has been associated with behavioral and cognitive alterations. Importantly, maternal environmental insults can adversely impact subsequent offspring behavior and have been linked with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AHDH). It is unknown if maternal obesity significantly alters offspring sociability, a key ASD feature, and if altering maternal diet will provide an efficacious intervention paradigm for behavioral deficits. Here we investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet (HFD) and maternal dietary intervention during lactation on offspring behavior and brain inflammation in mice. We found that maternal HFD increased anxiety and decreased sociability in female offspring. Additionally, female offspring from HFD-fed dams also exhibited increased brain IL-1? and TNF? and microglial activation. Importantly, maternal dietary intervention during lactation was sufficient to alleviate social deficits and brain inflammation. Maternal obesity during gestation alone was sufficient to increase hyperactivity in male offspring, a phenotype that was not ameliorated by dietary intervention. These data suggest that maternal HFD acts as a prenatal/perinatal insult that significantly impacts offspring behavior and inflammation and that dietary intervention during lactation may be an easily translatable, efficacious intervention to offset some of these manifestations. PMID:25212412

Kang, Silvia S; Kurti, Aishe; Fair, Damien A; Fryer, John D

2014-01-01

418

The development of emotion regulation: an fMRI study of cognitive reappraisal in children, adolescents and young adults  

E-print Network

The ability to use cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions is an adaptive skill in adulthood, but little is known about its development. Because reappraisal is thought to be supported by linearly developing prefrontal ...

Gabrieli, John D. E.

419

Grant Title: DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL COGNITION AND REASONING AND THE PREVENTION OF MATH LEARNING DISABILITIES (R01, R03, R21)  

E-print Network

Grant Title: DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL COGNITION AND REASONING AND THE PREVENTION OF MATH National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). Area of Research: Stimulate innovative, multidisciplinary research on the cognitive, neuroplasticity, genetic and environmental factors involved in math

Farritor, Shane

420

WHAT HAS FMRITOLD US ABOUTTHE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE  

E-print Network

· flanker · Stroop · suppression of inherent motor response · stop signal · antisaccade · These tasks all DLPFC followed an inverted U shape in adolescents and adults · children show more reliance on basal activation 11 12 #12;WORKING MEMORY DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED SYSTEMS LEVEL CIRCUITRY · PFC maybe be engaged

Gabrieli, John

421

Modeling Integration and Dissociation in Brain and Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the course of development, brain areas can become increasingly dissociated in their functions, or increasingly integrated. Computational models can provide insights into how and why these opposing effects happen. This paper presents a computational framework for understanding the specialization of brain functions across the hippocampus, neocortex, and basal ganglia. This framework is based on computational tradeoffs that arise in

Randall C. O'Reilly

422

Systems and Cascades in Cognitive Development and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large-scale ("N" = 552) controlled multivariate prospective 14-year longitudinal study of a developmental cascade embedded in a developmental system showed that information-processing efficiency in infancy (4 months), general mental development in toddlerhood (18 months), behavior difficulties in early childhood (36 months), psychometric…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Wolke, Dieter

2013-01-01

423

The Development of Cognitive Vulnerability to Hopelessness Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

While several studies have supported the hopelessness theory's claim that depressogenic inferential styles serve as vulnerability factors to depression, little research has examined how these styles de- velop. The current study examined three theories of their development in children between the ages of 7 and 13. Results supported two of these theories, indicating that children with pessimistic infer- ential styles

Sabina Sarin; John R. Z. Abela

2005-01-01

424

Developing Culturally Competent Faculty: A Cognitive, Affective, and Spiritual Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past decade has evidenced significant dialogue on faith-based campuses about the persistent gap between the increasing ethnic diversity of the student population and that of the faculty. While campus administrators and leaders acknowledge the need to address this concern through faculty development, there is a disturbing lack of successful…

Taylor, Deborah L.; Van Zandt, Cassandra; Menjares, Pete C.

2013-01-01

425

Piagetian Cognitive Development Among Prospective Teachers. Technical Report No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Piagetian Task Instrument (PTI) consisting of three tasks developed by Piaget was administered to 141 preservice elementary teachers enrolled in a mathematical class, 19 preservice secondary mathematics teachers, and 11 calculus honors students. This instrument was scored by methods similar to those of Schwebel (ED 063 896) and McKinnon and…

Juraschek, William A.

426

Working Memory Underpins Cognitive Development, Learning, and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory is the retention of a small amount of information in a readily accessible form. It facilitates planning, comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving. I examine the historical roots and conceptual development of the concept and the theoretical and practical implications of current debates about working memory mechanisms. Then, I…

Cowan, Nelson

2014-01-01

427

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and intellectual performance in young adult Swedish male offspring.  

PubMed

Smoking during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of several adverse birth outcomes. Associations with deficits in cognitive development have also been suggested. It is unclear whether these associations are due to genetic and/or environmental confounding. In a population-based Swedish cohort study on 205,777 singleton males born to Nordic mothers between 1983 and 1988, we examined the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of poor intellectual performance in young adult male offspring. In the cohort analyses, the risk of poor intellectual performance was increased in sons of smoking mothers compared with sons of non-smokers. Stratifying for maternal smoking habits across two pregnancies, there was an increased risk of poor intellectual performance for both sons if the mother was only smoking in the first pregnancy, but in neither son if the mother was only smoking in the second pregnancy. The effect of smoking during pregnancy on intellectual performance was not present when the association was evaluated within sibling pairs. Thus, the association between prenatal smoking exposure and offspring risk of low intellectual performance appears to be completely confounded by familial (genetic and early environmental) factors. PMID:20078833

Lundberg, Frida; Cnattingius, Sven; D'Onofrio, Brian; Altman, Daniel; Lambe, Mats; Hultman, Christina; Iliadou, Anastasia

2010-01-01

428

Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind”) in offspring of mothers with psychoses  

PubMed Central

Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind”) and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions. PMID:24749009

Maróthi, Rebeka

2014-01-01

429

Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology ("theory of mind") in offspring of mothers with psychoses.  

PubMed

Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or "theory of mind") and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions. PMID:24749009

Maróthi, Rebeka; Kéri, Szabolcs

2014-01-01

430

Twenty years and going strong: A dynamic systems revolution in motor and cognitive development  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the major contributions of dynamic systems theory in advancing thinking about development, the empirical insights the theory has generated, and the key challenges for the theory on the horizon. The first section discusses the emergence of dynamic systems theory in developmental science, the core concepts of the theory, and the resonance it has with other approaches that adopt a systems metatheory. The second section reviews the work of Esther Thelen and colleagues, who revolutionized how researchers think about the field of motor development. It also reviews recent extensions of this work to the domain of cognitive development. Here, the focus is on dynamic field theory, a formal, neurally grounded approach that has yielded novel insights into the embodied nature of cognition. The final section proposes that the key challenge on the horizon is to formally specify how interactions among multiple levels of analysis interact across multiple time scales to create developmental change. PMID:22125575

Spencer, John P.; Perone, Sammy; Buss, Aaron T.

2011-01-01

431

Systems and Cascades in Cognitive Development and Academic Achievement  

PubMed Central

A large-scale (N = 552) controlled multivariate prospective 14-year longitudinal study of a developmental system showed that information-processing efficiency in infancy (4 months), general mental development in toddlerhood (18 months), behavior difficulties in early childhood (36 months), psychometric intelligence in middle childhood (8 years), and maternal education either directly or indirectly (or both) contribute to academic achievement in adolescence (14 years). PMID:22974268

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Wolke, Dieter

2012-01-01

432

Cognitive development in introductory physics: A research-based approach to curriculum reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project describes the research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created for designing and clarifying educational objectives, for developing assessments that can evaluate individual component processes of the problem-solving process, and for guiding curriculum design in introductory physics courses, specifically within the context of a "thinking-skills" curriculum. TIPP relies on the following resources: (1) cognitive research findings adopted by physics education research, (2) expert-novice research discoveries acknowledged by physics education research, (3) an educational psychology taxonomy for educational objectives, and (4) various collections of physics problems created by physics education researchers or developed by textbook authors. TIPP was used in the years 2006--2008 to reform the first semester of the introductory algebra-based physics course (called Phys 11) at The George Washington University. The reform sought to transform our curriculum into a "thinking-skills" curriculum that trades "breadth for depth" by focusing on fewer topics while targeting the students' cognitive development. We employed existing research on the physics problem-solving expert-novice behavior, cognitive science and behavioral science findings, and educational psychology recommendations. Our pedagogy relies on didactic constructs such as the GW-ACCESS problem-solving protocol, learning progressions and concept maps that we have developed and implemented in our introductory physics course. These tools were designed based on TIPP. Their purpose is: (1) to help students build local and global coherent knowledge structures, (2) to develop more context-independent problem-solving abilities, (3) to gain confidence in problem solving, and (4) to establish connections between everyday phenomena and underlying physics concepts. We organize traditional and research-based physics problems such that students experience a gradual increase in complexity related to problem context, problem features and cognitive processes needed to solve the problem. The instructional environment that we designed allows for explicit monitoring, control and measurement of the cognitive processes exercised during the instruction period. It is easily adaptable to any kind of curriculum and can be readily adjusted throughout the semester. To assess the development of students' problem-solving abilities, we created rubrics that measure specific aspects of the thinking involved in physics problem solving. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' shift in dispositions towards learning physics. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' level of conceptual understanding. The results feature improvements in students' problem-solving abilities and in their attitudes towards learning physics.

Teodorescu, Raluca Elena

433

Reading Acquisition, Cognitive and Visual Development, and Self-Esteem in Four Children with Cerebral Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During a longitudinal in-depth study of the reading acquisition and cognitive and visual development of four children with cerebral visual impairment, the children's visual acuity improved, but their full-scale IQs declined, mostly because of difficulties in abstract thinking, visual cognitive organization, and extremely low processing speed. The…

Ek, Ulla; Fellenius, Kerstin; Jacobson, Lena

2003-01-01

434

Incentive-Related Modulation of Cognitive Control in Healthy, Anxious, and Depressed Adolescents: Development and Psychopathology Related Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Developmental changes in cognitive and affective processes contribute to adolescent risk-taking behavior, emotional intensification, and psychopathology. The current study examined adolescent development of cognitive control processes and their modulation by incentive, in health and psychopathology. Predictions include 1) better…

Hardin, Michael G.; Schroth, Elizabeth; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

2007-01-01

435

Contributions of Domain-General Cognitive Resources and Different Forms of Arithmetic Development to Pre-Algebraic Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of domain-general cognitive resources and different forms of arithmetic development to individual differences in pre-algebraic knowledge. Children (n = 279, mean age = 7.59 years) were assessed on 7 domain-general cognitive resources as well as arithmetic calculations and word problems…

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Powell, Sarah R.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Vernier, Emily; Namkung, Jessica M.; Vukovic, Rose K.

2012-01-01

436

Pesticides used in cotton production affect reproductive development, endocrine regulation, liver status and offspring fitness in African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).  

PubMed

We exposed African catfish Clarias gariepinus from embryo-larvae stage to adult stage (13 months old, BW) to chronic doses of Tihan 175 O-TEQ and endosulfan (Thionex) and assessed the impact of this exposure on endocrine regulation, liver status and offspring fitness. Endosulfan exposure caused a significant increase in plasma estradiol-17? (E2) and decreased plasma testosterone (T) but not 11 ketotestosterone (11-KT). Tihan decreased significantly plasma E2 and 11-KT, but not T. Endosulfan doses altered gonad histology and induced high proportions (18–30% of males) of ovotestis in males and follicular atretic oocytes in females, indicating occurrence of feminization in fish. Tihan also altered gonad histology but only one case of ovotestis was observed at the highest dose. Presence of foam cells in lobular lumen, fibrosis, necrosis, and immature cells released in lobular lumen were found in male gonads and melano-macrophage centers (MMCs), necrosis, fibrosis and vacuolation were observed in female gonads. Fish livers also suffered injuries such as MMCs, necrosis, fibrosis, vacuolation, dilatation of sinusoids, and nuclear pleomorphism. Chronic Tihan and Thionex exposures decreased fertilization rate, hatching rate, ova and larval weight, as well as larval resistance to osmotic choc. They also delayed hatching and increased abnormalities in the F1 generation, all these indicators suggesting transgenerational effects of these compounds. PMID:25445569

Agbohessi, Prudencio T; Toko, Ibrahim I; Atchou, Vincent; Tonato, Roland; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, Patrick

2015-01-01

437

A psychology based approach for longitudinal development in cognitive robotics.  

PubMed

A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behavior that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks. This paper presents an approach to these issues through robotic implementations inspired by the learning behavior of human infants. We describe an approach to developmental learning and present results from a demonstration of longitudinal development on an iCub humanoid robot. The results cover the rapid emergence of staged behavior, the role of constraints in development, the effect of bootstrapping between stages, and the use of a schema memory of experiential fragments in learning new skills. The context is a longitudinal experiment in which the robot advanced from uncontrolled motor babbling to skilled hand/eye integrated reaching and basic manipulation of objects. This approach offers promise for further fast and effective sensory-motor learning techniques for robotic learning. PMID:24478693

Law, J; Shaw, P; Earland, K; Sheldon, M; Lee, M

2014-01-01

438

A psychology based approach for longitudinal development in cognitive robotics  

PubMed Central

A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behavior that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks. This paper presents an approach to these issues through robotic implementations inspired by the learning behavior of human infants. We describe an approach to developmental learning and present results from a demonstration of longitudinal development on an iCub humanoid robot. The results cover the rapid emergence of staged behavior, the role of constraints in development, the effect of bootstrapping between stages, and the use of a schema memory of experiential fragments in learning new skills. The context is a longitudinal experiment in which the robot advanced from uncontrolled motor babbling to skilled hand/eye integrated reaching and basic manipulation of objects. This approach offers promise for further fast and effective sensory-motor learning techniques for robotic learning. PMID:24478693

Law, J.; Shaw, P.; Earland, K.; Sheldon, M.; Lee, M.

2014-01-01

439

Cognitive development at 5.5 years of children with chronic lung disease of prematurity  

PubMed Central

Background: Preterm infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) had impaired cognitive development and poorer eye-hand coordination at 10 months of age. Aims: To study whether this effect of CLD persisted until school age and whether the severity of CLD affected outcome. Method: Cognition and visual-motor skills were examined (Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence, and tests from the Nepsy scale) in 60 very preterm children, without intraventricular haemorrhage or periventricular leucomalacia, at 5.5 years of age. Thirty two children suffered from CLD and 28 were controls. Results: The groups did not differ significantly in cognitive outcome. Children with CLD and controls attained a full scale intelligence quotient (IQ) of 94.4 and 99.1, a verbal IQ of 99.6 and 101.5, and a performance IQ of 90.9 and 96.7 respectively. Similarly, no difference was found in tests of eye-hand control. However, the children with the most severe form of CLD had significantly lower performance (84.8) and full scale(87.6) IQs and worse visual-motor performance than the controls. CLD grade III, together with the need for glasses or lenses, had a significant impact on the explained variance. Conclusions: At school age, children born very preterm and who experienced severe CLD had deficits in cognition, visual-motor perception, and performance. The findings suggest a need to consider intervention programmes for such infants. PMID:12598496

Bohm, B; Katz-Salamon, M

2003-01-01

440

Linking the Developmental and Degenerative Theories of Schizophrenia: Association Between Infant Development and Adult Cognitive Decline  

PubMed Central

Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative theories may be viewed as incompatible accounts that compete to explain the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, it is possible that neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes could both reflect common underlying causal mechanisms. We hypothesized that cognitive dysfunction would gradually deteriorate over time in schizophrenia and the degree of this deterioration in adulthood would be predicted by an infant measure of neurodevelopment. We aimed to examine the association between age of learning to stand in infancy and deterioration of cognitive function in adulthood. Participants were nonpsychotic control subjects (n = 76) and participants with schizophrenia (n = 36) drawn from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study. The schizophrenia group showed greater deterioration in abstraction with memory than controls, but there were no differences between schizophrenia and controls in rate of change of other cognitive measures. Age of learning to stand in infancy significantly inversely predicted later deterioration of abstraction with memory in adult schizophrenia (later infant development linked to greater subsequent cognitive deterioration during adulthood), possibly suggesting a link between abnormal neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes in schizophrenia. PMID:24583905

Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Isohanni, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Haapea, Marianne; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jones, Peter B.; Murray, Graham K.

2014-01-01

441

Cognitive development and children's perceptions of fruit and vegetables; a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Most children do not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake. Since preference is an important predictor of intake, more knowledge is needed about children's preferences and about how these preferences develop. As most research about preferences has ignored cognitive development, this study was designed to explore the relation between children's perceptions and preferences for fruit and vegetables and their cognitive development. Methods The study population consisted of eight 4–5-year-old children, eight 7–8-year-old children and twelve 11–12-year-old children, recruited via a primary school in Wageningen, The Netherlands. Qualitative in-depth information was obtained by duo-interviews and focus group discussions. A structured guide with questions and game tasks was applied to address different domains in a consistent way. Results The developmental progress at the abstraction level was seen in children's reasoning across all domains. Children's preferences expanded and increased in complexity as they moved to a higher age bracket. The most important determinants for liking and disliking shifted from appearance and texture attributes in 4–5-year-olds towards taste attributes in 11–12-year-olds. Children's knowledge of basic tastes increased. Their understanding of health improved as they grew older. The emergence of social norms and perspectives of others as the children grew older was also seen in relation to fruit and vegetables. Child-reported parental strategies to stimulate healthy eating appeared to vary with age in line with cognitive development. Conclusion Cognitive development is paralleled by changes in the importance given to the attributes that determine whether a child likes or dislikes fruits and vegetables; children's understanding of and reasoning about health; and parental use of strategies. These developmental differences should be incorporated in programs designed to increase long-term fruit and vegetable intake in children. PMID:17620131

Zeinstra, Gertrude G; Koelen, Maria A; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

2007-01-01

442

Student Cognitive Difficulties and Mental Model Development of Complex Earth and Environmental Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students organize scientific knowledge and reason about environmental issues through manipulation of mental models. The nature of the environmental sciences, which are focused on the study of complex, dynamic systems, may present cognitive difficulties to students in their development of authentic, accurate mental models of environmental systems. The inquiry project seeks to develop and assess the coupling of information technology (IT)-based learning with physical models in order to foster rich mental model development of environmental systems in geoscience undergraduate students. The manipulation of multiple representations, the development and testing of conceptual models based on available evidence, and exposure to authentic, complex and ill-constrained problems were the components of investigation utilized to reach the learning goals. Upper-level undergraduate students enrolled in an environmental geology course at Texas A&M University participated in this research which served as a pilot study. Data based on rubric evaluations interpreted by principal component analyses suggest students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry is limited and the ability to cross scales and link systems proved problematic. Results categorized into content knowledge and cognition processes where reasoning, critical thinking and cognitive load were driving factors behind difficulties in student learning. Student mental model development revealed multiple misconceptions and lacked complexity and completeness to represent the studied systems. Further, the positive learning impacts of the implemented modules favored the physical model over the IT-based learning projects, likely due to cognitive load issues. This study illustrates the need to better understand student difficulties in solving complex problems when using IT, where the appropriate scaffolding can then be implemented to enhance student learning of the earth system sciences.

Sell, K.; Herbert, B.; Schielack, J.

2004-05-01

443

Paternal low protein diet affects adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic function in mice.  

PubMed

Although the association between maternal periconceptional diet and adult offspring health is well characterised, our understanding of the impact of paternal nutrition at the time of conception on offspring phenotype remains poorly defined. Therefore, we determined the effect of a paternal preconception low protein diet (LPD) on adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic health in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal protein diet (NPD; 18% casein) or LPD (9% casein) for 7 wk before mating. At birth, a reduced male-to-female ratio (P = 0.03) and increased male offspring weight (P = 0.009) were observed in litters from LPD compared with NPD stud males with no differences in mean litter size. LPD offspring were heavier than NPD offspring at 2 and 3 wk of age (P < 0.02). However, no subsequent differences in body weight were observed. Adult male offspring derived from LPD studs developed relative hypotension (decreased by 9.2 mmHg) and elevated heart rate (P < 0.05), whereas both male and female offspring displayed vascular dysfunction and impaired glucose tolerance relative to NPD offspring. At cull (24 wk), LPD males had elevated adiposity (P = 0.04), reduced heart-to-body weight ratio (P = 0.04), and elevated circulating TNF-? levels (P = 0.015) compared with NPD males. Transcript expression in offspring heart and liver tissue was reduced for genes involved in calcium signaling (Adcy, Plcb, Prkcb) and metabolism (Fto) in LPD offspring (P < 0.03). These novel data reveal the impact of suboptimal paternal nutrition on adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis, and provide some insight into the underlying regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24658019

Watkins, Adam J; Sinclair, Kevin D

2014-05-15

444

Longer Gestation among Children Born Full Term Influences Cognitive and Motor Development  

PubMed Central

Children born preterm show persisting impairments in cognitive functioning, school achievement, and brain development. Most research has focused on implications of birth prior to 37 gestational weeks; however, the fetal central nervous system continues to make fundamental changes throughout gestation. Longer gestation is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality even among infants born during the period clinically defined as full term (37–41 gestational weeks). The implications of shortened gestation among term infants for neurodevelopment are poorly understood. The present study prospectively evaluates 232 mothers and their full term infants (50.4% male infants) at three time points across the first postnatal year. We evaluate the association between gestational length and cognitive and motor development. Infants included in the study were full term (born between 37 and 41 weeks gestation). The present study uses the combination of Last Menstrual Period (LMP) and early ultrasound for accurate gestational dating. Hierarchical Linear Regression analyses revealed that longer gestational length is associated with higher scores on the Bayley scales of mental and motor development at 3, 6 and 12 months of age after considering socio-demographic, pregnancy, and infant-level covariates. Findings were identical using revised categories of early, term, and late term proposed by the Working Group for Defining Term Pregnancy. Our findings indicate that longer gestation, even among term infants, benefits both cognitive and motor development. PMID:25423150

Espel, Emma V.; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.; Davis, Elysia Poggi

2014-01-01

445

A prospective longitudinal study on visuo-cognitive development in Dravet syndrome: Is there a "dorsal stream vulnerability"?  

PubMed

A group of five DS patients whose first development was already reported were longitudinally followed up till the scholar age. Beside the general and epileptic clinical evolution, visual and cognitive functions were investigated in order to define their trajectory and possibly provide information about mechanisms of cognitive decline as well as to improve prognosis and tertiary prevention. Neuropsychological assessment was performed with a test battery investigating the development of visual function that progressively integrates into extrastriate components and higher cognitive skills (global form and motion coherence, stereopsis, crowding cards, ABCDEFV battery, general intelligence and specific cognitive tests). Main results showed a fall in visuo-motor items including global motion coherence and specific cognitive skills, presenting a continuity of the visual function deterioration extended from basic abilities to visuo-motor dorsal pathway skills. Moreover, a case whose previous visual and cognitive functions had been in the normal range began showing a visual deterioration with increasing age, followed by the cognitive decline; that prevents from excluding in early ages a poor development in presence of a normal visual function. A dorsal stream vulnerability seems thus shown in this sample of DS patients, like in other genetic syndromes (Williams, Prader Willi. fragile-X), providing new information about mechanisms underlying cognitive decline and suggesting a possible strategy to improve their neuropsychological outcome. Larger cohorts may confirm whether these findings are part of a specific pattern of DS neuropsychological phenotype. PMID:25524843

Ricci, D; Chieffo, D; Battaglia, D; Brogna, C; Contaldo, I; De Clemente, V; Losito, E; Dravet, Ch; Mercuri, E; Guzzetta, F

2015-01-01

446

Increased renal sympathetic nerve activity leads to hypertension and renal dysfunction in offspring from diabetic mothers.  

PubMed

The exposure of the fetus to a hyperglycemic environment promotes the development of hypertension and renal dysfunction in the offspring at adult age. We evaluated the role of renal nerves in the hypertension and renal changes seen in offspring of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats (streptozotocin, 60 mg/kg ip) before mating. Male offspring from control and diabetic dams were studied at an age of 3 mo. Systolic blood pressure measured by tail cuff was increased in offspring of diabetic dams (146 ± 1.6 mmHg, n = 19, compared with 117 ± 1.4 mmHg, n = 18, in controls). Renal function, baseline renal sympathetic nerve activity (rSNA), and arterial baroreceptor control of rSNA were analyzed in anesthetized animals. Glomerular filtration rate, fractional sodium excretion, and urine flow were significantly reduced in offspring of diabetic dams. Two weeks after renal denervation, blood pressure and renal function in offspring from diabetic dams were similar to control, suggesting that renal nerves contribute to sodium retention in offspring from diabetic dams. Moreover, basal rSNA was increased in offspring from diabetic dams, and baroreceptor control of rSNA was impaired, with blunted responses to infusion of nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Thus, data from this study indicate that in offspring from diabetic mothers, renal nerves have a clear role in the etiology of hypertension; however, other factors may also contribute to this condition. PMID:23136005

de Almeida Chaves Rodrigues, Aline Fernanda; de Lima, Ingrid Lauren Brites; Bergamaschi, Cássia Toledo; Campos, Ruy Ribeiro; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Schoorlemmer, Guus Hermanus Maria; Gomes, Guiomar Nascimento

2013-01-15

447

An international nursing student exchange program: an educational experience that enhanced student cognitive development.  

PubMed

Increased attention to international nursing has lead to the development of study abroad programs for students. Participants in such programs describe the experiences as positive; however, studies of measured impact have not been reported. Student development theory provides an objective perspective from which to assess the level of cognition of undergraduate students and permits assessment of change in students' thinking maturity over time. This study documents the change of senior students' levels of cognition over one academic semester. Results indicate that those who participated in an international student nurse exchange program demonstrated significantly more growth than those who did not. As nursing moves to a global perspective, the author recommends similar evaluation of all such exchange programs. PMID:2153775

Frisch, N C

1990-01-01

448

Microtubules, schizophrenia and cognitive behavior: Preclinical development of davunetide (NAP) as a peptide-drug candidate  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAP (davunetide) is an active fragment of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP). ADNP and the homologous protein ADNP2 provide cell protection. ADNP is essential for brain formation, proper development and neuronal plasticity, all reported to be impaired in schizophrenia. ADNP haploinsufficiecy inhibits social and cognitive functions, major hallmarks in schizophrenia. Imbalance in ADNP\\/ADNP2 expression in the schizophrenia brain may impact disease

Illana Gozes

2011-01-01

449

Theory-of-mind, cognitive development, and children's interpretation of anxiety-related physical symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated developmental patterns in children's interpretation of anxiety-related physical symptoms and emotional reasoning, and to what extent these phenomena are influenced by children's level of cognitive development. A large sample of 4–13-year-old children (N=358) were exposed to vignettes in which the presence and absence of physical symptoms was systematically varied. In addition, children completed a series of

Peter Muris; Birgit Mayer; Lotte Vermeulen; Hinke Hiemstra

2007-01-01

450

Grades of undernutrition and socioeconomic status influence cognitive development in school children of Kolkata.  

PubMed

Cognitive development of children is influenced by different environmental factors like nutritional and socio-economic status. The objectives of the present study were to determine the influence of grades of undernutrition and socio-economic status (SES) on the cognitive development of school children of Kolkata. Five hundred sixty six (566) school children having 5-12 years of age were selected from different schools of Kolkata. The cognitive development was measured by the scores of Raven's colored progressive matrices (RCPM). The chronic and acute nutritional statuses were measured from height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) Z scores respectively with reference to the values of WHO. SES was determined by updated Kuppuswamy scale. The prevalences of undernutrition in the observed children were 57.95% (according to HAZ) and 52.82% (according to WAZ). The age dependent growth curve of RCPM scores of the observed children remains in between the 10th and 25th centile of British children. The children belonging to superior and intellectual deficit IQ classes were 21.55 and 36.40%, respectively of the total subjects. Most of the subjects belong to lower middle (39.93%) and upper middle (36.40%) class of SES. RCPM scores of school children were gradually decreased with the grades of undernutrition and SES. RCPM scores were significantly correlated with HAZ, WAZ, SES, age, and sex (P?cognitive development of school children of Kolkata is influenced by the grade of undernutrition and SES. PMID:25348835

Ghosh, Satabdi; Chowdhury, Sutanu Dutta; Chandra, Ananga Mohan; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

2015-02-01

451

Self-esteem and cognitive development in the era of the childhood obesity epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Consequences of obesity for mental health and cognitive development are not established to the same degree as those for chronic diseases. This study aims to document the interrelationships between body weight, self-esteem and school performance in childhood. Height and weight measurements and self-report of self-esteem, diet quality and physical activity of 4945 grade 5 students were linked with standardized

F. Wang; P. J. Veugelers

2008-01-01

452

Experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism alters crucial enzyme activities in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the offspring rat.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone insufficiency during neurodevelopment can result into significant structural and functional changes within the developing central nervous system (CNS), and is associated with the establishment of serious cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptomatology. The aim of the present study was to shed more light on the effects of gestational and/or lactational maternal exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism as a multilevel experimental approach to the study of hypothyroidism-induced changes on crucial brain enzyme activities of 21-day-old Wistar rat offspring in a brain region-specific manner. This experimental approach has been recently developed and characterized by the authors based on neurochemical analyses performed on newborn and 21-day-old rat offspring whole brain homogenates; as a continuum to this effort, the current study focused on two CNS regions of major significance for cognitive development: the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. Maternal exposure to PTU in the drinking water during gestation and/or lactation resulted into changes in the activities of acetylcholinesterase and two important adenosinetriphosphatases (Na(+),K(+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPase), that seemed to take place in a CNS-region-specific manner and that were dependent upon the PTU-exposure timeframe followed. As these findings are analyzed and compared to the available literature, they: (i) highlight the variability involved in the changes of the aforementioned enzymatic parameters in the studied CNS regions (attributed to both the different neuroanatomical composition and the thyroid-hormone-dependent neurodevelopmental growth/differentiation patterns of the latter), (ii) reveal important information with regards to the neurochemical mechanisms that could be involved in the way clinical hypothyroidism could affect optimal neurodevelopment and, ultimately, cognitive function, as well as (iii) underline the need for the adoption of more consistent approaches towards the experimental simulation of congenital and early-age-occurring hypothyroidism. PMID:24972880

Koromilas, Christos; Tsakiris, Stylianos; Kalafatakis, Konstantinos; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Kimpizi, Despoina; Bimpis, Alexios; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Liapi, Charis

2015-02-01

453

Development of autonoetic autobiographical memory in school-age children: genuine age effect or development of basic cognitive abilities?  

PubMed

This study investigated the mechanisms behind episodic autobiographical memory (EAM) development in school-age children. Thirty children (6-11years) performed a novel EAM test. We computed one index of episodicity via autonoetic consciousness and two indices of retrieval spontaneity (overall and EAM-specific) for a recent period (previous school year) and a more remote one (preschool years). Executive functions, and episodic and personal semantic memory were assessed. Results showed that recent autobiographical memories (AMs) were mainly episodic, unlike remote ones. An age-related increase in the indices of episodicity and specific spontaneity for recent AMs was mainly mediated by an age-related increase in the efficiency of the three cognitive abilities. Remote AMs varied only slightly with age (overall spontaneity), reflecting improvements in semantic abilities. Thus, EAM development in school-age children is essentially bound up with the increasing efficiency of cognitive abilities. Results are discussed in the light of models of childhood amnesia. PMID:19733483

Picard, Laurence; Reffuveille, Isméry; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

2009-12-01

454

Recessive mutations in SPTBN2 implicate ?-III spectrin in both cognitive and motor development.  

PubMed

?-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding ?-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5), an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as "Lincoln ataxia," because the largest known family is descended from relatives of the United States President Abraham Lincoln. Using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a homozygous stop codon in SPTBN2 in a consanguineous family in which childhood developmental ataxia co-segregates with cognitive impairment. The cognitive impairment could result from mutations in a second gene, but further analysis using whole-genome sequencing combined with SNP array analysis did not reveal any evidence of other mutations. We also examined a mouse knockout of ?-III spectrin in which ataxia and progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells has been previously reported and found morphological abnormalities in neurons from prefrontal cortex and deficits in object recognition tasks, consistent with the human cognitive phenotype. These data provide the first evidence that ?-III spectrin plays an important role in cortical brain development and cognition, in addition to its function in the cerebellum; and we conclude that cognitive impairment is an integral part of this novel recessive ataxic syndrome, Spectrin-associated Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia type 1 (SPARCA1). In addition, the identification of SPARCA1 and normal heterozygous carriers of the stop codon in SPTBN2 provides insights into the mechanism of molecular dominance in SCA5 and demonstrates that the cell-specific repertoire of spectrin subunits underlies a novel group of disorders, the neuronal spectrinopathies, which includes SCA5, SPARCA1, and a form of West syndrome. PMID:23236289

Lise, Stefano; Clarkson, Yvonne; Perkins, Emma; Kwasniewska, Alexandra; Sadighi Akha, Elham; Schnekenberg, Ricardo Parolin; Suminaite, Daumante; Hope, Jilly; Baker, Ian; Gregory, Lorna; Green, Angie; Allan, Chris; Lamble, Sarah; Jayawant, Sandeep; Quaghebeur, Gerardine; Cader, M Zameel; Hughes, Sarah; Armstrong, Richard J E; Kanapin, Alexander; Rimmer, Andrew; Lunter, Gerton; Mathieson, Iain; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Buck, David; Taylor, Jenny C; Bentley, David; McVean, Gilean; Donnelly, Peter; Knight, Samantha J L; Jackson, Mandy; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Németh, Andrea H

2012-01-01

455

Relationship of parental trauma exposure and PTSD to PTSD, depressive and anxiety disorders in offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship of parental trauma exposure and PTSD to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive and anxiety disorders in the adult offspring of Holocaust survivors. One hundred and thirty-five subjects (55 men and 80 women) were divided into three groups according to parental trauma exposure and PTSD: 60 subjects were offspring of Holocaust survivors who

Rachel Yehuda; Sarah L Halligan; Linda M Bierer

2001-01-01

456

Maternal, not paternal, PTSD is related to increased risk for PTSD in offspring of Holocaust survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA significant association between parental PTSD and the occurrence of PTSD in offspring has been noted, consistent with the idea that risk for the development of PTSD is transmitted from parent to child. Two recent reports linking maternal PTSD and low offspring cortisol prompted us to examine the relative contributions of maternal vs. paternal PTSD in the prediction of PTSD

Rachel Yehuda; Amanda Bell; Linda M. Bierer; James Schmeidler

2008-01-01

457

Low Cortisol and Risk for PTSD in Adult Offspring of Holocaust Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study examined the asso- ciation between cortisol and putative risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of subjects at in- creased risk for the development of PTSD. Method: Twenty-four-hour urinary corti- sol excretion was measured in 35 adult offspring of Holocaust survivors and 15 healthy comparison subjects who were not offspring of Holocaust survivors. Sub-

Rachel Yehuda; Linda M. Bierer; James Schmeidler; Daniel H. Aferiat; M. S. W. Ilana Breslau; Susan Dolan

2000-01-01

458

Mild prenatal stress enhances learning performance in the non-adopted rat offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate whether mild stress during pregnancy affects offspring behaviors, including learning performance. Prenatal stress was induced by short-lasting, mild restraint stress, which had previously been shown to facilitate the morphological development of fetal brain neurons. Adult offspring whose dams had been restrained in a small cage for 30min daily from gestation day 15 to

T Fujioka; A Fujioka; N Tan; G. M. I Chowdhury; H Mouri; Y Sakata; S Nakamura

2001-01-01

459