These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Prenatal maternal factors in the development of cognitive impairments in the offspring.  

PubMed

Different environmental factors acting during sensitive prenatal periods can have a negative impact on neurodevelopment and predispose the individual to the development of various psychiatric conditions that often share cognitive impairments as a common component. As cognitive symptoms remain one of the most challenging and resistant aspects of mental illness to be treated pharmacologically, it is important to investigate the mechanisms underlying such cognitive deficits, with particular focus on the impact of early life adverse events that predispose the individual to mental disorders. Multiple clinical studies have, in fact, repeatedly confirmed that prenatal maternal factors, such as infection, stress or malnutrition, are pivotal in shaping behavioral and cognitive functions of the offspring, and in the past decade many preclinical studies have investigated this hypothesis. The purpose of this review is to describe recent preclinical studies aimed at dissecting the relative impact of various prenatal maternal factors on the development of cognitive impairments in offspring, focusing on animal models of prenatal stress and prenatal infection. These recent studies point to the pivotal role of prenatal stressful experiences in shaping memory and learning functions associated with specific brain structures, such as the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. More importantly, such experimental evidence suggests that different insults converge on similar downstream functional targets, such as cognition, which may therefore represent an endophenotype for several pathological conditions. Future studies should thus focus on investigating the mechanisms contributing to the convergent action of different prenatal insults in order to identify targets for novel therapeutic intervention. PMID:24794049

Richetto, Juliet; Riva, Marco A

2014-10-01

2

Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in the offspring of parents vulnerable to insomnia: a nuclear family study.  

PubMed

Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal is believed to be a predisposing factor for insomnia; however, there is limited information on the association of familial vulnerability to insomnia and cognitive-emotional hyperarousal. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of stress-related insomnia and examine whether parental vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is associated with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in their offspring. We studied a volunteer sample of 135 nuclear families comprised of 270 middle-aged (51.5 ± 5.4 years) fathers and mothers and one of their biological offspring (n = 135, 20.2 ± 1.1 years). We measured vulnerability to stress-related insomnia (i.e. Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test: FIRST), perceived stress, depression and anxiety in all participants, and arousability, presleep cognitive and somatic arousal, coping and personality in the offspring. We found a heritability estimate of 29% for FIRST scores. High FIRST parents had three to seven times the odds of having offspring highly vulnerable to stress-related insomnia. Offspring of high FIRST parents showed higher arousability, presleep cognitive arousal and emotion-oriented coping. Furthermore, high FIRST mothers contributed to offspring's higher anxiety and lower task-oriented coping, while high FIRST fathers contributed to offspring's higher presleep somatic arousal and conscientiousness. Vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is significantly heritable. Parents vulnerable to stress-related insomnia have offspring with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal who rely upon emotion-oriented coping. These data give support to the notion that arousability and maladaptive coping are key factors in the aetiology of insomnia. PMID:24889269

Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shaffer, Michele L; Olavarrieta-Bernardino, Sara; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O; Vela-Bueno, Antonio

2014-10-01

3

Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring cognition and school performance. A 'Mendelian randomization' natural experiment  

PubMed Central

Background There is substantial debate as to whether moderate alcohol use during pregnancy could have subtle but important effects on offspring, by impairing later cognitive function and thus school performance. The authors aimed to investigate the unconfounded effect of moderately increased prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive/educational performance. Methods We used mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and performed both conventional observational analyses and Mendelian randomization using an ADH1B variant (rs1229984) associated with reduced alcohol consumption. Women of White European origin with genotype and self-reported prenatal alcohol consumption, whose offspring’s IQ score had been assessed in clinic (N = 4061 pairs) or Key Stage 2 (KS2) academic achievement score was available through linkage to the National Pupil Database (N = 6268), contributed to the analyses. Results Women reporting moderate drinking before and during early pregnancy were relatively affluent compared with women reporting lighter drinking, and their children had higher KS2 and IQ scores. In contrast, children whose mothers’ genotype predisposes to lower consumption or abstinence during early pregnancy had higher KS2 scores (mean difference +1.7, 95% confidence interval +0.4, +3.0) than children of mothers whose genotype predisposed to heavier drinking, after adjustment for population stratification. Conclusions Better offspring cognitive/educational outcomes observed in association with prenatal alcohol exposure presumably reflected residual confounding by factors associated with social position and maternal education. The unconfounded Mendelian randomization estimates suggest a small but potentially important detrimental effect of small increases in prenatal alcohol exposure, at least on educational outcomes. PMID:24065783

Zuccolo, Luisa; Lewis, Sarah J; Davey Smith, George; Sayal, Kapil; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Alati, Rosa; Ring, Sue; Macleod, John; Golding, Jean; Heron, Jon; Gray, Ron

2013-01-01

4

Sex-Dependent Cognitive Performance in Baboon Offspring Following Maternal Caloric Restriction in Pregnancy and Lactation  

PubMed Central

In humans a suboptimal diet during development has negative outcomes in offspring. We investigated the behavioral outcomes in baboons born to mothers undergoing moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Maternal nutrient restriction mothers (n = 7) were fed 70% of food eaten by controls (CTR, n = 12) fed ad libitum throughout gestation and lactation. At 3.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) years of age offspring (controls: female [FC, n = 8], male [MC, n = 4]; nutrient restricted: female [FR, n = 3] and male [MR, n = 4]) were administered progressive ratio, simple discrimination, intra-/extra-dimension set shift and delayed matching to sample tasks to assess motivation, learning, attention, and working memory, respectively. A treatment effect was observed in MNR offspring who demonstrated less motivation and impaired working memory. Nutrient-restricted female offspring showed improved learning, while MR offspring showed impaired learning and attentional set shifting and increased impulsivity. In summary, 30% restriction in maternal caloric intake has long lasting neurobehavioral outcomes in adolescent male baboon offspring. PMID:22344725

Rodriguez, Jesse S.; Bartlett, Thad Q.; Keenan, Kathryn E.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Nijland, Mark J.

2012-01-01

5

Comparative Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to compare cognitive development in humans and chimpanzees to illuminate the evolutionary origins of human cognition. Comparison of morphological data and life history strongly highlights the common features of all primate species, including humans. The human mother-infant relationship is characterized by the physical separation of…

Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2007-01-01

6

Parental Legacy in Insects: Variation of Transgenerational Immune Priming during Offspring Development  

PubMed Central

In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP) mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i) whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii) whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii) whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO) activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages and depend on the type of immunity (PO or antibacterial activity) as well as the time past offspring immune challenge. PMID:23700423

Trauer, Ute; Hilker, Monika

2013-01-01

7

Associations of Maternal Weight Gain in Pregnancy With Offspring Cognition in Childhood and Adolescence: Findings From the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children  

PubMed Central

An association of gestational weight gain (GWG) with offspring cognition has been postulated. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a United Kingdom prospective cohort (1990 through the present) with a median of 10 maternal weight measurements in pregnancy. These were used to allocate participants to 2009 Institute of Medicine weight-gain categories and in random effect linear spline models. Outcomes were School Entry Assessment score (age, 4 years; n = 5,832), standardized intelligence quotient assessed by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (age, 8 years; n = 5,191), and school final-examination results (age, 16 years; n = 7,339). Offspring of women who gained less weight than recommended had a 0.075 standard deviation lower mean School Entry Assessment score (95% confidence interval: ?0.127, ?0.023) and were less likely to achieve adequate final-examination results (odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.99) compared with offspring of women who gained as recommended. GWG in early pregnancy (defined as 0–18 weeks on the basis of a knot point at 18 weeks) and midpregnancy (defined as 18–28 weeks on the basis of knot points at 18 and 28 weeks) was positively associated with School Entry Assessment score and intelligence quotient. GWG in late pregnancy (defined as 28 weeks onward on the basis of a knot point at 28 weeks) was positively associated with offspring intelligence quotient and with increased odds of offspring achieving adequate final-examination results in mothers who were overweight prepregnancy. Findings support small positive associations between GWG and offspring cognitive development, which may have lasting effects on educational attainment up to age 16 years. PMID:23388581

Gage, Suzanne H.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail

2013-01-01

8

Effects of afobazole on cognitive behavior of the offspring of rats exposed to tobacco smoke during gestation period.  

PubMed

Experiments on the model of foraging behavior formation under conditions of free choice (T-maze) revealed learning failure against the background of reduced motor activity in the offspring of rats exposed to tobacco smoke on gestation days 1-20. Afobazole administered to pregnant rats orally in doses of 1 or 10 mg/kg daily during the whole gestation and/or entering rat pup body with breast milk from mothers receiving 200 mg/kg to day 20 of their life normalized their learning capacity. The formation of short-term and long-term memory in animals receiving afobazole did not differ from the control. Hence, afobazole corrects cognitive disorders in rats exposed to tobacco smoke during prenatal development. PMID:22442799

Shreder, O V; Solomina, A S; Tsorin, I B; Trofimov, S S; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

2011-05-01

9

Cognition: Development and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All too often educators establish a "pretest, skill, posttest" type of curriculum. While this approach has an educational value, it must be used within a developmental framework based on individual thinking and learning style. Thus, a thorough knowledge of cognitive development is necessary. A review of the body of knowledge concerning individual…

Cannella, Gaile S.

10

Cognitive Development in Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To discover the relationship between cognitive development and writing, a means of assessing writing is needed that reflects accurately changes in the way children write as they grow older. This may be accomplished by using Piaget's characteristics of concrete and formal operations. His framework permits general descriptions of thinking, organized…

Santmire, Toni E.

11

Young Male Offspring of Alcoholic Fathers: Early Developmental and Cognitive Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The early cognitive development and motor development of male preschool children with an alcoholic father were compared with matched control subjects from non-alcoholic families who resided in the same neighborhoods. Families were participants in the Michigan State University Longitudinal Study, into which were recruited all drunk drivers…

Noll, Robert B.; And Others

12

Cognitive Outcome of Offspring from Dexamethasone-Treated Pregnancies at Risk for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test whether dexamethasone (DEX) treatment of pregnancies at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) impairs cognitive functioning in the offspring. Design Observational follow-up of prenatally DEX-exposed offspring and controls. Methods Study 1 included 140 children age 5-12 years: 67 DEX-exposed (long-term: 8 CAH girls) and 73 unexposed (with 15 CAH girls). Study 2 included 20 participants age 11-24 years: 7 DEX-exposed (long-term: 1 CAH woman) and 13 unexposed (with 4 CAH women). Neuropsychological testing was done in hospital settings or patients' homes. Data analysis aimed at maximizing detection of effects of DEX exposure. Results The vast majority of group comparisons were not marginally or conventionally significant. The few significant findings on short-term prenatal DEX exposure suggested more positive than adverse outcomes. By contrast, the few significant findings in females with CAH and long-term DEX exposure indicated slower mental processing than in controls on several neuropsychological variables, although partial correlations of DEX-exposure duration with cognitive outcome did not corroborate this association. Conclusions Our studies do not replicate a previously reported adverse effect of short-term prenatal DEX exposure on working memory, while our findings on cognitive function in CAH girls with long-term DEX exposure contribute to concerns about potentially adverse cognitive aftereffects of such exposure. Yet, our studies are not definitive, and replications in larger samples are required. PMID:22549088

Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; Dolezal, Curtis; Haggerty, Rita; Silverman, Michael; New, Maria I.

2012-01-01

13

Maternal Photoperiodic History Affects Offspring Development in Syrian Hamsters  

PubMed Central

During the first 7 weeks of postnatal life, short day lengths inhibit the onset of puberty in many photoperiodic rodents, but not in Syrian hamsters. In this species, timing of puberty and fecundity are independent of the early postnatal photoperiod. Gestational day length affects postnatal reproductive development in several rodents; its role in Syrian hamsters has not been assessed. We tested the hypothesis that cumulative effects of pre- and postnatal short day lengths would restrain gonadal development in male Syrian hamsters. Males with prenatal short day exposure were generated by dams transferred to short day lengths 6 weeks, 3 weeks, and 0 weeks prior to mating. Additional groups were gestated in long day lengths and transferred to short days at birth, at 4 weeks of age, or not transferred (control hamsters). In pups of dams exposed to short day treatment throughout gestation, decreased testis growth was apparent by 3 weeks and persisted through 9 weeks of age, at which time maximum testis size was attained. A subset of males (14%), whose dams had been in short days for 3 to 6 weeks prior to mating displayed pronounced delays in testicular development, similar to those of other photoperiodic rodents. This treatment also increased the percentage of male offspring that underwent little or no gonadal regression postnatally (39%). By 19 weeks of age, males housed in short days completed spontaneous gonadal development. After prolonged long day treatment to break refractoriness, hamsters that initially were classified as nonregressors underwent testicular regression in response to a 2nd sequence of short day lengths. The combined action of prenatal and early postnatal short day lengths diminishes testicular growth of prepubertal Syrian hamsters no later than the 3rd week of postnatal life, albeit to a lesser extent than in other photoperiodic rodents. PMID:18838610

Beery, Annaliese K.; Paul, Matthew J.; Routman, David M.; Zucker, Irving

2009-01-01

14

Promoting Student Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on a theoretically grounded counselor preparation curriculum that was designed to enhance the moral reasoning and cognitive complexity of students as well as teach them the basic skills and theories of counselor education. The curriculum for the counselor training was rooted in a teaching–learning framework that included conditions for facilitating cognitive–developmental growth and skill and theoretical training

Johnston M. Brendel; Jered B. Kolbert; Victoria A. Foster

2002-01-01

15

Cumulative Learning and Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hierarchical analysis of cognitive development is too often approached as a problem of analyzing logically which concepts are required for successful performance on a given task. A pretheoretical model of cognitive development is proposed which is based on the empirical establishment of Gagné’s cumulative learning sequences. The application of the model to Piaget’s conservation task is discussed in detail,

Lita Furby

1972-01-01

16

Maternal effects on offspring growth and development depend on environmental quality in the frog Bombina orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Differences in maternal investment and initial offspring size can have important consequences for offspring growth and development.\\u000a To examine the effects of initial size variability in the frogBombina orientalis, we reared larvae (N=360) in one of two treatments representing different levels of environmental quality. We used snout-vent length at the feeding\\u000a stage (stage 25, Gosner 1960) as a measure of

David M. Parichy; Robert H. Kaplan

1992-01-01

17

Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teratological investigations have demonstrated that agents that are relatively harmless to the mother may have significant negative consequences to the fetus. Among these agents, prenatal alcohol, nicotine or cannabis exposure have been related to adverse offspring outcomes. Although there is a relatively extensive body of literature that has focused upon birth and behavioral outcomes in newborns and infants after prenatal

Anja C. Huizink; Eduard J. H. Mulder

2006-01-01

18

Preferential development of Th17 cells in offspring of immunostimulated pregnant mice.  

PubMed

Pregnant mice were stimulated at day 12 of gestation with the nucleotide poly(I:C). At 24h after stimulation, serum levels of maternal cytokines were measured, and at postnatal ages 2 and 3 weeks, offspring were analyzed for T helper (Th) cell subsets. Lymphocytes from offspring of poly(I:C)-injected (vs. control PBS-injected) pregnant dams preferentially developed into T helper 17 (Th17) cells upon in vitro activation. This occurred in offspring of pregnant dams who exhibited an immunological "memory" phenotype, but not in offspring of immunologically "naïve" dams. Preferential development of Th17 cells in these offspring may be facilitated by the higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, found in immune vs. naïve pregnant dams. Murine immune stimulation during pregnancy is frequently used to model human neurological disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. However, immune stimulation of women during pregnancy occurs in the context of an immunological "memory" phenotype, resulting from previous immunizations and/or natural exposure to micro-organisms and other antigens. Therefore, use of previously immunized female mice with a similar immunological memory phenotype to study maternal immune stimulation during pregnancy presents a more biologically relevant experimental strategy to investigate developmental, behavioral, and immunological sequelae of offspring in such rodent models. PMID:20727596

Mandal, Mili; Marzouk, Atara C; Donnelly, Robert; Ponzio, Nicholas M

2010-12-01

19

Preadult Parental Diet Affects Offspring Development and Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

Preadult Parental Diet Affects Offspring Development and Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico Abstract When Drosophila melanogaster larvae are reared on isocaloric diets Development and Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE 8(3): e59530. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059530

Markow, Therese

20

Stress During Gestation Alters Postpartum Maternal Care and the Development of the Offspring in a  

E-print Network

Stress During Gestation Alters Postpartum Maternal Care and the Development of the Offspring that environmental adversity can alter parental care and thus influence child development. We addressed the question differences in maternal behavior. Methods: Lactating rat mothers were characterized as high or low in pup

Champagne, Frances A.

21

Olson's "Cognitive Development": A Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a review of Olson's "Cognitive Development." Unlike a typical book review it does not compare and contrast the author's theoretical framework and methodological practices with those of others in the field, but rather it extensively describes and critiques the reported empirical work. The reasons given for this approach are that…

Follettie, Joseph F.

22

Gender Differences in Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

2011-01-01

23

Cognitive Development: An Advanced Textbook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This new text consists of parts of Bornstein and Lamb's Developmental Science, 6th edition along with new introductory material that as a whole provides a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of cognitive development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…

Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Lamb, Michael E., Ed.

2011-01-01

24

Longitudinal Changes in Marital Relationships: The Role of Offspring's Pubertal Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study charted the longitudinal trajectories of wives' and husbands' reports of marital love, satisfaction, and conflict and explored whether and how first- and second-born offspring's pubertal development was related to marital changes. Data were drawn from the first 7 years of a longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants…

Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

2007-01-01

25

GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO NONYLPHENOL CAUSES PRECOCIOUS MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examined whether or not exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) during late gestation affects reproductive and mammary development in the offspring of female rats. Time pregnant Long Evans rats were gavaged with NP (10 or 100 mg/kg), atrazine (ATR, 100 mg/kg), or corn oil on ge...

26

Long-term effects of delayed fatherhood in mice on postnatal development and behavioral traits of offspring.  

PubMed

This study aims to analyze, in mice, the long-term effects of delayed fatherhood on postnatal development, spontaneous motor activity, and learning capacity of offspring. Hybrid parental-generation (F(0)) males, at the age of 12, 70, 100, and 120 wk, were individually housed with a randomly selected 12-wk-old hybrid female. The resulting first-generation (F(1)) offspring were tested for several developmental and behavioral variables. Cumulative percentage of F(1) pups that attained immediate righting in the 120-wk group was lower than that found in the 12-, 70-, and 100-wk groups. Furthermore, the postnatal day of attaining immediate righting was higher in pups from the 120-wk group when compared to pups from the other age-groups. At the age of 20 wk, F(1) offspring from the 120-wk group displayed lower counts of motor activity than offspring from the 12-, 70-, and 100-wk groups. One week later, a higher percentage of offspring from the 100- and 120-wk groups entered the dark compartment during the retention trial of the passive-avoidance test when compared to offspring from the 12-wk group. Offspring from the 120-wk group exhibited also lower step-through latency in the retention trial than offspring from the 12-, 70-, and 100-wk groups. These results show that advanced paternal age at conception has long-term effects on preweaning development, spontaneous motor activity, and reduced passive-avoidance learning capacity of mouse offspring. PMID:18923158

García-Palomares, Silvia; Pertusa, José F; Miñarro, José; García-Pérez, Miguel A; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Rausell, Francisco; Cano, Antonio; Tarín, Juan J

2009-02-01

27

Maternal lead exposure during lactation persistently impairs testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) is a testicular toxicant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maternal Pb exposure during lactation on testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. Maternal mice were exposed to different concentration of lead acetate (200 or 2000?ppm) through drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 0 to PND21. As expected, a high concentration of Pb was measured in the kidneys and liver of pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. In addition, maternal Pb exposure during lactation elevated, to a less extent, Pb content in testes of weaning pups. Testis weight in weaning pups was significantly decreased when maternal mice were exposed to Pb during lactation. The level of serum and testicular T was reduced in Pb-exposed pups. The expression of P450scc, P450(17?) and 17?-HSD, key enzymes for T synthesis, was down-regulated in testes of weaning pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Interestingly, the level of serum and testicular T remained decreased in adult offspring whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Importantly, the number of spermatozoa was significantly reduced in Pb-exposed male offspring. Taken together, these results suggest that Pb could be transported from dams to pups through milk. Maternal Pb exposure during lactation persistently disrupts testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. PMID:22806249

Wang, Hua; Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Ning, Huan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Xu, De-Xiang

2013-12-01

28

Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?  

PubMed Central

Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(?/?) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

2014-01-01

29

Activation of the Maternal Immune System Alters Cerebellar Development in the Offspring  

PubMed Central

A common pathological finding in autism is a localized deficit in Purkinje cells (PCs). Cerebellar abnormalities have also been reported in schizophrenia. Using a mouse model that exploits a known risk factor for these disorders, maternal infection, we asked if the offspring of pregnant mice given a mid-gestation respiratory infection have cerebellar pathology resembling that seen in these disorders. We also tested the effects of maternal immune activation in the absence of virus by injection of the synthetic dsRNA, poly(I:C). We infected pregnant mice with influenza on embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5), or injected poly(I:C) i.p. on E12.5, and assessed the linear density of PCs in the cerebellum of adult or postnatal day 11 (P11) offspring. To study granule cell migration, we also injected BrdU on P11. Adult offspring of influenza- or poly(I:C)-exposed mice display a localized deficit in PCs in lobule VII of the cerebellum, as do P11 offspring. Coincident with this are heterotopic PCs, as well as delayed migration of granule cells in lobules VI and VII. The cerebellar pathology observed in the offspring of influenza- or poly(I:C)-exposed mice is strikingly similar to that observed in autism. The poly(I:C) findings indicate that deficits are likely caused by the activation of the maternal immune system. Finally, our data suggest that cerebellar abnormalities occur during embryonic development, and may be an early deficit in autism and schizophrenia. PMID:18755264

Shi, Limin; Smith, Stephen E. P.; Malkova, Natalia; Tse, Doris; Su, Yixuan; Patterson, Paul H.

2009-01-01

30

Developing Drugs for Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are strong data suggesting that improvement in the cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia will contribute to enhanced functional outcomes for patients with this illness. Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia was established to provide a pathway for developing and registering po- tential cognitive-enhancing agents for this condition by addressing issues related to the content of the

Alan Breier

2005-01-01

31

Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring  

SciTech Connect

Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the reproductive and neurological development of rat offspring, which may be a cause of concern, as humans are systematically exposed to the compound through usage of sunscreens and other cosmetics.

Axelstad, Marta, E-mail: maap@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Boberg, Julie [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Hougaard, Karin Sorig [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lerso Parkalle 105, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Lund, Soren Peter [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lerso Parkalle 105, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Hass, Ulla [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark)

2011-02-01

32

Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring.  

PubMed

Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T(4)), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T(4)) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T(4) deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the reproductive and neurological development of rat offspring, which may be a cause of concern, as humans are systematically exposed to the compound through usage of sunscreens and other cosmetics. PMID:21059369

Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Søren Peter; Hass, Ulla

2011-02-01

33

Gender differences in cognitive development.  

PubMed

The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil [Child Neuropsychological Assessment] (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, & Ostrosky-Solis, 2007), were analyzed. The sample included 788 monolingual children (350 boys, 438 girls) ages 5 to 16 years from Mexico and Colombia. Gender differences were observed in oral language (language expression and language comprehension), spatial abilities (recognition of pictures seen from different angles), and visual (Object Integration Test) and tactile perceptual tasks, with boys outperforming girls in most cases, except for the tactile tasks. Gender accounted for only a very small percentage of the variance (1%-3%). Gender x Age interactions were observed for the tactile tasks only. It was concluded that gender differences during cognitive development are minimal, appear in only a small number of tests, and account for only a low percentage of the score variance. PMID:21744957

Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

2011-07-01

34

Cognitive development in a secondary science setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations were made of the progressive change in the cognitive development of 141 students over the course of their secondary education in an Australian private school. Cognitive development was measured in years 8, 10 and 12 using Bond's Logical Orerations Test. Rasch analysis of each of the data sets provided ability estimates for students in the year groups of 1993 (year 8), 1995 (year 10) and 1997 (year 12). Twenty-nine students from the year group of 1993 were tested on all three occasions. We analysed data from these 29 students in order to investigate the children's cognitive development across years 8, 10 and 12. We also examined the influence of the Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE) Thinking Science program on the cognitive development and scholastic achievement of these students. We found increased mental growth between years 8 and 10 for most students in the Thinking Science cohort, which could not be predicted from their starting levels. There was a significant correlation between cognitive development and the scholastic achievement of these students. Although boys as a group were more advanced in cognitive development than girls in years 8 and 10, no difference was found in the rate of cognitive change based on sex up to year 10. However girls showed cognitive gains across years 10-12 which were not found in boys. The students who were new to the school also showed increased cognitive development in years 11 and 12. Students who had experienced the Thinking Science course were more cognitively developed than students who joined the school after the intervention had taken place. This study supports the claim of Adey and Shayer that there is a relationship between cognitive development and scholastic achievement, even though we used different measures of cognitive development and scholastic achievement.

Endler, Lorna C.; Bond, Trevor

2000-12-01

35

Fetal Brain Behavior and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on prenatal brain development, detailing the functions controlled by the medulla, pons, and midbrain, and the implications for cognitive development. Concludes that fetal cognitive motor activity, including auditory discrimination, orienting, the wake-sleep cycle, fetal heart rate accelerations, and defensive reactions,…

Joseph, R.

2000-01-01

36

Parental diet, pregnancy outcomes and offspring health: metabolic determinants in developing oocytes and embryos.  

PubMed

The periconceptional period, embracing the terminal stages of oocyte growth and post-fertilisation development up to implantation, is sensitive to parental nutrition. Deficiencies or excesses in a range of macro- and micronutrients during this period can lead to impairments in fertility, fetal development and long-term offspring health. Obesity and genotype-related differences in regional adiposity are associated with impaired liver function and insulin resistance, and contribute to fatty acid-mediated impairments in sperm viability and oocyte and embryo quality, all of which are associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and compromised fertility. Disturbances to maternal protein metabolism can elevate ammonium concentrations in reproductive tissues and disturb embryo and fetal development. Associated with this are disturbances to one-carbon metabolism, which can lead to epigenetic modifications to DNA and associated proteins in offspring that are both insulin resistant and hypertensive. Many enzymes involved in epigenetic gene regulation use metabolic cosubstrates (e.g. acetyl CoA and S-adenosyl methionine) to modify DNA and associated proteins, and so act as 'metabolic sensors' providing a link between parental nutritional status and gene regulation. Separate to their genomic contribution, spermatozoa can also influence embryo development via direct interactions with the egg and by seminal plasma components that act on oviductal and uterine tissues. PMID:24305182

Sinclair, Kevin D; Watkins, Adam J

2013-01-01

37

Gender differences in the expression of genes involved during cardiac development in offspring from dams on high fat diet.  

PubMed

Previously we have demonstrated that maternal high fat diet (HF) during pregnancy increase cardiovascular risk in the offspring, and pharmacological intervention using statins in late pregnancy reduced these risk factors. However the effects of maternal HF-feeding and statin treatment during pregnancy on development of heart remain unknown. Hence we measured expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression (cyclin G1), ventricular remodelling brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and environmental stress response small proline-rich protein 1A (SPRR 1A) in the offspring left ventricle (LV) from dams on HF with or without statin treatment. Female C57 mice were fed a HF diet (45 % kcal fat) 4 weeks prior to conception, during pregnancy and lactation. From the second half of the pregnancy and throughout lactation, half of the pregnant females on HF diet were given a water-soluble statin (Pravastatin) in their drinking water (HF + S). At weaning offspring were fed HF diet to adulthood (generating dam/offspring dietary groups HF/HF and HF + S/HF). These groups were compared with offspring from dams fed standard chow (C 21 % kcal fat) and fed C diet from weaning (C/C). LV mRNA levels for cyclin G1, BNP and SPRR 1A were measured by RT-PCR. Heart weights and BP in HF/HF offspring were higher versus C/C group. Maternal Pravastatin treatment reduced BP and heart weights in HF + S/HF female offspring to levels found in C/C group. LV cyclin G1 mRNA levels were lower in HF/HF versus both C/C and HF + S/HF offspring. BNP mRNA levels were elevated in HF/HF females but lower in males versus C/C. BNP gene expression in HF + S/HF offspring was similar to HF/HF. SPRR 1A mRNA levels were similar in all treatment groups. Statins given to HF-fed pregnant dams reduced cardiovascular risk in adult offspring, and this is accompanied by changes in expression of genes involved in adaptive remodelling in the offspring LV and that there is a gender difference. PMID:25055976

Elahi, Maqsood M; Matata, Bashir M

2014-11-01

38

Maternal LPS Exposure during Pregnancy Impairs Testicular Development, Steroidogenesis and Spermatogenesis in Male Offspring.  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, fetal death, congenital teratogenesis and fetal growth retardation. Here, we explored the effects of maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy on testicular development, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male offspring. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 µg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 13 to GD 17. At fetal period, a significant decrease in body weight and abnormal Leydig cell aggregations were observed in males whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. At postnatal day (PND) 26, anogenital distance (AGD), a sensitive index of altered androgen action, was markedly reduced in male pups whose mothers were exposed to LPS daily from GD13 to GD 17. At PND35, the weight of testes, prostates and seminal vesicles, and serum testosterone (T) level were significantly decreased in LPS-treated male pups. At adulthood, the number of sperm was significantly decreased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to LPS on GD 13-17. Maternal LPS exposure during gestation obviously diminished the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VI, increased the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages IX-XII, and caused massive sloughing of germ cells in seminiferous tubules in mouse testes. Moreover, maternal LPS exposure significantly reduced serum T level in male mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS challenge during pregnancy. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy disrupts T production. The decreased T synthesis might be associated with LPS-induced impairments for spermatogenesis in male offspring. PMID:25255222

Wang, Hua; Yang, Lu-Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Wang, Bi-Wei; Huang, Yin-Yin; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

2014-01-01

39

Maternal LPS Exposure during Pregnancy Impairs Testicular Development, Steroidogenesis and Spermatogenesis in Male Offspring  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, fetal death, congenital teratogenesis and fetal growth retardation. Here, we explored the effects of maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy on testicular development, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male offspring. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 µg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 13 to GD 17. At fetal period, a significant decrease in body weight and abnormal Leydig cell aggregations were observed in males whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. At postnatal day (PND) 26, anogenital distance (AGD), a sensitive index of altered androgen action, was markedly reduced in male pups whose mothers were exposed to LPS daily from GD13 to GD 17. At PND35, the weight of testes, prostates and seminal vesicles, and serum testosterone (T) level were significantly decreased in LPS-treated male pups. At adulthood, the number of sperm was significantly decreased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to LPS on GD 13–17. Maternal LPS exposure during gestation obviously diminished the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages I–VI, increased the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages IX–XII, and caused massive sloughing of germ cells in seminiferous tubules in mouse testes. Moreover, maternal LPS exposure significantly reduced serum T level in male mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS challenge during pregnancy. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy disrupts T production. The decreased T synthesis might be associated with LPS-induced impairments for spermatogenesis in male offspring. PMID:25255222

Hu, Yong-Fang; Wang, Bi-Wei; Huang, Yin-Yin; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

2014-01-01

40

Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats.  

PubMed

To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water, which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral tests was applied to evaluate the functional outcome of pups. Pups in arsenic exposed groups weighed less than controls throughout lactation and weaning. Body weight of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups decreased significantly on PND 42, 16 and 12, respectively. Physical development (pinna unfolding, fur appearance, incisor eruption, or eye opening) in pups displayed no significant differences between control and arsenic treated groups. The number of incidences within the 100 mg/L arsenic treated group, in tail hung, auditory startle and visual placing showed significant decrease compared to the control group (p < 0.05). In square water maze test, the trained numbers to finish the trials successfully in 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups increased remarkably compared to control group, and there was a dose-related increase (p < 0.01) observed. Taken together, these data show that exposure of inorganic arsenite to pregnant dams and offspring pups at levels up to 100 mg/L in drinking water may affect their learning and memory functions and neuromotor reflex. PMID:19212760

Xi, Shuhua; Sun, Wenjuan; Wang, Fengzhi; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan

2009-06-01

41

Comparing Gay Identity Development Theory to Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between gay identity development and cognitive development, as outlined by Ivey's Developmental Counseling Therapy Model, was explored. The Gay Identity Questionnaire and the Standard Developmental Counseling Interview were administered to 78 gay men. Results suggested that there is a relationship between gay identity development and cognitive development. In addition, the findings provide evidence that gay identity development can

John F. Marszalek III; Craig S. Cashwell; Merrily S. Dunn; Katherine Heard Jones

2004-01-01

42

The role of experimental maternal liver pathology in the development of physiological immaturity in the offspring.  

PubMed

We compared the parameters of physiological maturity in the offspring of albino Wistar rats with experimental chronic liver disease of various genesis (toxic, autoimmune, and alcoholic). It was found that chronic liver disease in female rats can be a cause of physiological immaturity of the offspring (increased stillbirth rate, reduced viability, and delayed disappearance of immaturity). PMID:23658875

Bryukhin, G V; Sizonenko, M L

2013-03-01

43

Maternal Cypermethrin Exposure during the Perinatal Period Impairs Testicular Development in C57BL Male Offspring  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have demonstrated that endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) are a possible cause of male reproductive organ malfunction and malformation. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid and a potential EDC. This study aimed to examine the effects of perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP on the development and function of the offspring testes. Pregnant mice were intragastrically administered 0.12 to 12 mg/kg/day CYP from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) to weaning (PD21.5, postnatal day 21.5). Maternal exposure to 0.12, 1.2, and 12 mg/kg/day CYP affected the body and organ weight of the offspring. Exposure of CYP led to a dose-dependent decrease in the male-to-female sex ratio. A histopathological analysis revealed a thinner seminiferous epithelium layer at PD21.5, interstitial hyperplasia at PD45.5, and germ cell vacuolization at PD90.5 in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The TUNEL assay results revealed increased germ cell apoptosis in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The serum testosterone (T) level decreased, whereas the estradiol level increased with age in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The RT-PCR analysis demonstrated decreased expression of T production-related, mitosis-related, and meiosis-related genes in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The in vitro experimental results demonstrated reduced expression of steroidogenesis genes and decreased T levels. It is concluded that perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP affects testes development and function in adults. PMID:24810582

Huang, Chaobin; Li, Xiangdong

2014-01-01

44

Transmission of parental neuroticism to offspring's depression: The mediating role of rumination.  

PubMed

Rumination is a cognitive process that involves repetitively focusing on the causes, situational factors and consequences of one's negative emotion, and it is a potent risk factor for depression. Parental depression and neuroticism may exert an influence on offspring's development of rumination, which may increase offspring's risk for depression. The current study included 375 biological parent-offspring dyads. Parents were assessed for depressive symptoms and neuroticism; adult offspring were assessed for depressive symptoms and rumination. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the effects of parental depressive symptoms and parental neuroticism on adult offspring's depression, and to determine whether offspring's rumination mediated this relationship. Results provided evidence that offspring's rumination fully mediated the relationship between parental neuroticism and offspring's depressive symptoms. Parental depressive symptoms and neuroticism may contribute a genetic predisposition for depressive symptoms in offspring, but it also may promote an environment in which maladaptive cognitive processes, such as rumination, are learned. Given the role that rumination plays in mediating the association between neuroticism and depressive symptoms-targeting rumination in the treatment of high risk individuals would be important in reducing onset of depressive disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25183563

Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Selby, Edward A; Hames, Jennifer L; Joiner, Thomas E; Fingerman, Karen L; Zarit, Steven H; Birditt, Kira S; Hilt, Lori M

2014-10-01

45

Housing Pregnant Mice (Mus musculus) in Small Groups Facilitates the Development of Odor-Based Homing in Offspring  

E-print Network

Housing Pregnant Mice (Mus musculus) in Small Groups Facilitates the Development of Odor-Based Homing in Offspring Hunter Honeycutt and Jeffrey R. Alberts Indiana University Infant mice (Mus musculus in IsoPreg versus SocPreg nest odors, body growth, or motoric capabilities. Exposing pregnant Iso

46

Effects of Ipomoea carnea aqueous fraction intake by dams during pregnancy on the physical and neurobehavioral development of rat offspring.  

PubMed

The effects of daily prenatal exposure to 0.0, 0.7, 3.0 and 15.0 mg/kg of the aqueous extract (AQE) of Ipomoea carnea dried leaves on gestational days 5-21 were studied in rat pups and adult offspring. The physical and reflex developmental parameters, open-field, plus-maze, social interaction, forced swimming, catalepsy and stereotyped behaviors, as well as striatal, cortical and hypothalamic monoamine levels (at 140 days of age) were measured. Maternal and offspring body weights were unaffected by exposure to the different doses of the AQE. High postnatal mortality, smaller size at Day 1 of life, reversible hyperflexion of the carpal joints and delay in the opening of both ears and in negative geotaxis were observed in the offspring exposed to the higher dose of AQE. At 60 and 90 days of age, open-field locomotion frequency was quite different between 0.0 and animals treated with 0.7 and 3.0 mg/kg AQE. No changes were observed in the plus-maze, social interaction, forced swimming, catalepsy, stereotyped behavior and central nervous system monoamines concentrations. Dams treated with the higher AQE dose showed severe cytoplasmic vacuolation in liver, kidney, pancreas and thyroid tissues, in contrast to the mild vacuolation observed in the other experimental groups. No alterations were observed in the histopathological study of the offspring of all experimental groups at 140 days of age. During adulthood, behavior was not modified in offspring exposed to the higher dose of AQE as well as no changes occurred in central nervous system neurotransmitters. The present data show that the offspring development alterations were not severe enough to produce behavioral and central monoamine level changes. PMID:12972075

Schwarz, A; Górniak, S L; Bernardi, M M; Dagli, M L Z; Spinosa, H S

2003-01-01

47

Cognitive neuroscience: Development and prospects MICHAEL I POSNER1,  

E-print Network

is at the intersection of two prior fields: Cognitive psychology and neuro- science. Both these fields have had to the Indian scientific community. 1. Cognitive neuroscience Cognitive psychology was developed in the 1960s in his 1967 book Cognitive Psychology [6]. Over the years, cognitive psychology branched out

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

48

SOCIAL CLASS AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO FIND OUT WHETHER SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES IN INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT ARE PRESENT IF (1) CHILDREN FROM SOCIALLY DISORGANIZED SLUM FAMILIES ARE COMPARED WITH CHILDREN FROM STABLE, LOW INCOME AND MIDDLE INCOME FAMILIES, (2) THE PIAGET OBJECT SCALE, A NEW MEASURE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT BASED ON PIAGET'S SENSORIMOTOR…

BIRNS, BEVERLY; GOLDEN, MARK

49

Effects of maternal care on the development of midbrain dopamine pathways and reward-directed behavior in female offspring.  

PubMed

Variation within mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathways has significant implications for behavioral responses to rewards, and previous studies have indicated long-term programming effects of early life stress on these pathways. In the current study, we examined the impact of natural variations in maternal care in Long Evans rats on the development of DA pathways in female offspring and the consequences for reward-directed behaviors. We found that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the ventral tegmental area was elevated by postnatal day 6 in response to maternal licking/grooming (LG), and that these effects were sustained into adulthood. Increased TH immunoreactivity was not found to be associated with altered epigenetic regulation or transcriptional activation of Th, but probably involved LG-associated changes in the differentiation of postnatal DA neurons through increased expression of Cdkn1c, and enhanced survival of DA projections through LG-associated increases in Lmx1b and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. At weaning, high-LG offspring had elevated DA receptor mRNA levels within the nucleus accumbens and increased conditioned place preference for a high-fat diet. In contrast, high-LG, as compared with low-LG, juvenile offspring had a reduced preference for social interactions with siblings, and haloperidol administration abolished group differences in conditioned place preference through a shift towards increased social preferences in high-LG offspring. The effects of maternal care on developing DA pathways and reward-directed behavior of female offspring that we have observed may play a critical role in the behavioral transmission of maternal LG from mother to daughter, and account for individual differences in the mesolimbic DA system. PMID:24446918

Peña, Catherine Jensen; Neugut, Yael D; Calarco, Cali A; Champagne, Frances A

2014-03-01

50

Maternal nutrition during pregnancy influences offspring wool production and wool follicle development.  

PubMed

The effects of maternal nutrition on offspring wool production (quality and quantity) were evaluated. Primiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 84) were randomly allocated to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial design. Selenium treatment [adequate Se (ASe, 9.5 ?g/kg of BW) vs. high Se (HSe, 81.8 ?g/kg of BW)] was initiated at breeding, and maternal nutritional intake [control (CON, 100% of requirements) vs. restricted (60% of CON) vs. overfed (140% of CON)] was initiated at d 50 of gestation. Lamb birth weight was recorded at delivery, and all lambs were placed on the same diet immediately after birth to determine the effects of prenatal nutrition on postnatal wool production and follicle development. At 180 ± 2.2 d of age, lambs were necropsied and pelt weights were recorded. Wool samples were collected from the side and britch areas, whereas skin samples were collected from the side of each lamb only. Although Se status did not influence side staple length in males, female lambs born from ewes on the ASe treatment had a shorter staple length (P < 0.05) when compared with females from ewes on the HSe treatment. Maternal nutritional intake and Se status did not influence (P ? 0.23) wool characteristics on the britch. However, at the britch, wool from female lambs had a reduced comfort factor (P = 0.01) and a greater (P = 0.02) fiber diameter compared with wool from male lambs. Maternal Se supplementation, maternal nutritional plane, sex of the offspring, or their interactions had no effect (P > 0.13) on primary (29.10 ± 1.40/100 µm(2)) and secondary (529.84 ± 21.57/100 µm(2)) wool follicle numbers. Lambs from ASe ewes had a greater (P = 0.03) secondary:primary wool follicle ratio compared with lambs from HSe ewes (20.93 vs. 18.01 ± 1.00). Despite similar postnatal diets, wool quality was affected by maternal Se status and the maternal nutritional plane. PMID:21622885

Magolski, J D; Luther, J S; Neville, T L; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A

2011-11-01

51

Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

2010-01-01

52

Connectionist models of cognitive development: where next?  

E-print Network

some of the most exciting (and also controversial) insights into cognitive development. The controversy temporarily deteriorates. Noteworthy examples of such nonlinearities abound in the realm of language acquisition, and have played a major role in theorizing about the mechanisms that make language acquisition

Elman, Jeff

53

Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

Chouinard, Michelle M.

2007-01-01

54

Cognitive development and aspects of adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

Difficulty with adjustment to sexuality by adolescents has been of increasing concern to both educators and human service professionals in recent years. The cognitive development and behavior of adolescents as it pertains to sexuality and the implications for helping them overcome maladaptive sexual behavior is discussed. PMID:4083149

Pestrak, V A; Martin, D

1985-01-01

55

Father absence and children's cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews literature showing detrimental effects of father absence on children's cognitive development as assessed by standardized IQ and achievement tests and school performance. Differential effects associated with characteristics of the absence (cause, duration, onset), the child (age, sex, race, socioeconomic status), and the skill tested (quantitative, verbal) are examined. The evidence suggests that financial hardship, high levels of anxiety, and,

Marybeth Shinn

1978-01-01

56

Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationship between maternal labor supply and children's cognitive development using a sample of three- and four-year-old children of female respondents from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort. Maternal employment is found to have a negative impact when it occurs during the first year of the child's life and a potentially offsetting positive effect when it

Francine D Blau; Adam J Grossberg

1992-01-01

57

A trade-off between embryonic development rate and immune function of avian offspring is revealed by considering embryonic temperature  

PubMed Central

Long embryonic periods are assumed to reflect slower intrinsic development that are thought to trade off to allow enhanced physiological systems, such as immune function. Yet, the relatively rare studies of this trade-off in avian offspring have not found the expected trade-off. Theory and tests have not taken into account the strong extrinsic effects of temperature on embryonic periods of birds. Here, we show that length of the embryonic period did not explain variation in two measures of immune function when temperature was ignored, based on studies of 34 Passerine species in tropical Venezuela (23 species) and north temperate Arizona (11 species). Variation in immune function was explained when embryonic periods were corrected for average embryonic temperature, in order to better estimate intrinsic rates of development. Immune function of offspring trades off with intrinsic rates of embryonic development once the extrinsic effects of embryonic temperatures are taken into account. PMID:21227978

Martin, Thomas E.; Arriero, Elena; Majewska, Ania

2011-01-01

58

A trade-off between embryonic development rate and immune function of avian offspring is concealed by embryonic temperature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long embryonic periods are assumed to reflect slower intrinsic development that are thought to trade off to allow enhanced physiological systems, such as immune function. Yet, the relatively rare studies of this trade-off in avian offspring have not found the expected trade-off. Theory and tests have not taken into account the strong extrinsic effects of temperature on embryonic periods of birds. Here, we show that length of the embryonic period did not explain variation in two measures of immune function when temperature was ignored, based on studies of 34 Passerine species in tropical Venezuela (23 species) and north temperate Arizona (11 species). Variation in immune function was explained when embryonic periods were corrected for average embryonic temperature, in order to better estimate intrinsic rates of development. Immune function of offspring trades off with intrinsic rates of embryonic development once the extrinsic effects of embryonic temperatures are taken into account.

Martin, Thomas E.; Arriero, Elena; Majewska, Ania

2011-01-01

59

Disruption of reproductive development in male rat offspring following in utero exposure to phthalate esters.  

PubMed

Certain Phthalate esters have been shown to produce reproductive toxicity in male rodents with an age dependent sensitivity in effects with foetal animals being more sensitive than neonates which are in turn more sensitive than pubertal and adult animals. While the testicular effects of phthalates in rats have been known for more than 30 years, recent attention has been focused on the ability of these agents to produce effects on reproductive development in male offspring after in utero exposure. These esters and in particular di-butyl, di-(2-ethylhexyl) and butyl benzyl phthalates have been shown to produce a syndrome of reproductive abnormalities characterized by malformations of the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, external genitalia (hypospadias), cryptorchidism and testicular injury together with permanent changes (feminization) in the retention of nipples/areolae (sexually dimorphic structures in rodents) and demasculinization of the growth of the perineum resulting in a reduced anogenital distance (AGD). Critical to the induction of these effects is a marked reduction in foetal testicular testosterone production at the critical window for the development of the reproductive tract normally under androgen control. A second Leydig cell product, insl3, is also significantly down regulated and is likely responsible for the cryptorchidism commonly seen in these phthalate-treated animals. The testosterone decrease is mediated by changes in gene expression of a number of enzymes and transport proteins involved in normal testosterone biosynthesis and transport in the foetal Leydig cell. Alterations in the foetal seminiferous cords are also noted after in utero phthalate treatment with the induction of multinucleate gonocytes that contribute to lowered spermatocyte numbers in postnatal animals. The phthalate syndrome of effects on reproductive development has parallels with the reported human testicular dysgenesis syndrome, although no cause and effect relationship exists after exposure of humans to phthalate esters. However humans are exposed to and produce the critical phthalate metabolites that have been detected in blood of the general population, in children and also human amniotic fluid. PMID:16102138

Foster, Paul M D

2006-02-01

60

Developing Collaboration Awareness Support from a Cognitive Perspective Pedro Antunes  

E-print Network

collaboration awareness as a continuous cognitive process that helps managing the contents of a shared taskDeveloping Collaboration Awareness Support from a Cognitive Perspective Pedro Antunes University discusses collaboration awareness from a cognitive perspective. Several models of the cognitive process

Antunes, Pedro

61

Multivitamin supplementation of Wistar rats during pregnancy accelerates the development of obesity in offspring fed an obesogenic diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The effect of gestational multivitamin supplementation on the development of obesity in rat offspring fed an obesogenic diet was investigated.Design:Pregnant Wistar rats (n=10 per group) were fed the AIN-93G diet with the recommended vitamin (RV) content or a 10-fold increase (high vitamin, HV). At weaning, 10 males and 10 females, from separate dams, and from each gestational diet group were

I M Y Szeto; P J Das; A Aziz; G H Anderson

2009-01-01

62

Maternal and offspring fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants and cognitive function at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children  

PubMed Central

Background In observational epidemiological studies type 2 diabetes (T2D) and both low and high plasma concentrations of fasting glucose have been found to be associated with lower cognitive performance. These associations could be explained by confounding. Methods In this study we looked at the association between genetic variants, known to be robustly associated with fasting glucose and T2D risk, in the mother and her offspring to determine whether there is likely to be a causal link between early life exposure to glucose and child’s intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. We generated a fasting glucose (FGGRS) and a T2D (T2DGRS) genetic risk score and used them in a Mendelian randomization approach. Results We found a strong correlation between the FGGRS and fasting glucose plasma measurements that were available for a subset of children, but no association of either the maternal or the offspring FGGRS with child’s IQ was observed. In contrast, the maternal T2DGRS was positively associated with offspring IQ. Conclusions Maternal and offspring genetic variants which are associated with glucose levels are not associated with offspring IQ, suggesting that there is unlikely to be a causal link between glucose exposure in utero and IQ in childhood. Further exploration in even larger cohorts is required to exclude the possibility that our null findings were due to a lack of statistical power. PMID:23013243

2012-01-01

63

Maternal immune activation causes age- and region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring throughout development.  

PubMed

Maternal infection is a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Indeed, modeling this risk factor in mice through maternal immune activation (MIA) causes ASD- and SZ-like neuropathologies and behaviors in the offspring. Although MIA upregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines in the fetal brain, whether MIA leads to long-lasting changes in brain cytokines during postnatal development remains unknown. Here, we tested this possibility by measuring protein levels of 23 cytokines in the blood and three brain regions from offspring of poly(I:C)- and saline-injected mice at five postnatal ages using multiplex arrays. Most cytokines examined are present in sera and brains throughout development. MIA induces changes in the levels of many cytokines in the brains and sera of offspring in a region- and age-specific manner. These MIA-induced changes follow a few, unexpected and distinct patterns. In frontal and cingulate cortices, several, mostly pro-inflammatory, cytokines are elevated at birth, followed by decreases during periods of synaptogenesis and plasticity, and increases again in the adult. Cytokines are also altered in postnatal hippocampus, but in a pattern distinct from the other regions. The MIA-induced changes in brain cytokines do not correlate with changes in serum cytokines from the same animals. Finally, these MIA-induced cytokine changes are not accompanied by breaches in the blood-brain barrier, immune cell infiltration or increases in microglial density. Together, these data indicate that MIA leads to long-lasting, region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring-similar to those reported for ASD and SZ-that may alter CNS development and behavior. PMID:22841693

Garay, Paula A; Hsiao, Elaine Y; Patterson, Paul H; McAllister, A K

2013-07-01

64

Parenting practices and intergenerational associations in cognitive ability  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive ability is an important contributor to life chances, with implications for cycles of advantage or disadvantage across generations. Parenting practices are known to influence offspring cognitive development, but the extent to which these mediate intergenerational continuities and discontinuities in cognitive ability has not been adequately studied. Methods We used factor analysis to derive summary measures of parenting practices, and regression analyses and path modelling to test associations between these and cognitive function at age 8 years in 1690 first offspring of the British 1946 birth cohort. Analyses allowed for direct and indirect effects of parental original and achieved social circumstances, educational attainment and own childhood cognitive ability. Additional covariates were provided by indicators of parental physical and mental health. Results Regression analyses revealed that three aspects of parenting, intellectual home environment, parental aspiration and cognitive stimulation, were positively and independently associated with offspring childhood cognitive ability, whereas coercive discipline was negatively and independently associated. Path modelling was appropriate for intellectual environment, which also revealed direct and indirect effects of parental cognitive ability and educational and occupational attainment on offspring cognitive ability. Conclusion Parenting practices, particularly provision of an intellectual environment, were directly associated with offspring cognitive development. These data add to the relatively few studies that examine intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in cognitive ability. PMID:22422461

Byford, M; Kuh, D; Richards, M

2012-01-01

65

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

PubMed Central

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments. PMID:22356180

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2011-01-01

66

Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to triphenyltin chloride on pregnancy outcome and postnatal development in rat offspring.  

PubMed

The organotin compound (OTC) triphenyltin (TPT) is used extensively as a herbicide, pesticide and fungicide in agriculture as well as, together with tributyltin (TBT), in marine antifouling paints. We studied the effects of in utero exposure to 2 or 6 mg triphenyltinchloride (TPTCl)/kgb.w. on pregnancy outcome and postnatal development in rat offspring. Gravid Wistar rats were treated per gavage from gestational day 6 until the end of lactation. In the 6 mg TPTCl dose group gestational mortality in dams as well as an increased incidence of anticipated and delayed parturition was observed. Furthermore, treatment resulted in a significant increase in perinatal mortality, a decrease in lactational body weight gain as well as in delayed physical maturation of offspring. Similarily, exposure to 2mg TPTCl/kgb.w. resulted in a significant increase in perinatal mortality and in delayed eye opening. Lactational body weight gain and other landmarks of physical maturation were unaffected in the low dose group. We conclude, that in utero exposure to TPTCl at the described dose levels severely affected pregnancy outcome and perinatal survival of offspring. These results were unexpected, as in two earlier studies with pubertal rats TPTCl at the same dose levels no signs of general toxicity were observed. PMID:17644232

Grote, Konstanze; Hobler, Carolin; Andrade, Anderson J M; Grande, Simone Wichert; Gericke, Christine; Talsness, Chris E; Appel, Klaus E; Chahoud, Ibrahim

2007-09-01

67

Offspring, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two 1995 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers including the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to practitioners and are frequently accompanied by classroom activities.…

Offspring, 1995

1995-01-01

68

Offspring, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two 1996 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers and pertinent to the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to parents, teachers, and others and aim to provide a forum for views…

Rosenthal, Marilynn, Ed.; And Others

1996-01-01

69

Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium\\u000a arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water,\\u000a which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg\\/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral

Shuhua Xi; Wenjuan Sun; Fengzhi Wang; Yaping Jin; Guifan Sun

2009-01-01

70

Maternal and offspring pools of osteocalcin influence brain development and functions  

PubMed Central

The powerful regulation of bone mass exerted by the brain suggests the existence of bone-derived signals modulating this regulation or other functions of the brain. We show here that the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin crosses the blood-brain barrier, binds to neurons of the brainstem, midbrain and hippocampus, enhances the synthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters, inhibits GABA synthesis, prevents anxiety and depression and favors learning and memory independently of its metabolic functions. In addition to these post-natal functions, maternal osteocalcin crosses the placenta during pregnancy and prevents neuronal apoptosis before embryos synthesize this hormone. As a result the severity of the neuro-anatomical defects and learning and memory deficits of Osteocalcin?/? mice is determined by the maternal genotype, and delivering osteocalcin to pregnant Osteocalcin?/? mothers rescues these abnormalities in their Osteocalcin?/? progeny. This study reveals that the skeleton via osteocalcin influences cognition and contributes to the maternal influence on fetal brain development. PMID:24074871

Oury, Franck; Khrimian, Lori; Denny, Christine. A.; Gardin, Antoine; Chamouni, Alexandre; Goeden, Nick; Huang, Yung-yu; Lee, Hojoon; Srinivas, Prashanth; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Suyama, Shigetomo; Langer, Thomas; Mann, John. J.; Horvath, Tamas. L.; Bonnin, Alexandre; Karsenty, Gerard

2013-01-01

71

Last Modified 5/31/2011 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 1  

E-print Network

of Psychology x Child Development x Cognition x Developmental Psychology x Developmental Science x Psychological. The Handbook of Child Psychology (2006) also includes excellent reviews of topics in cognitive development. We cognition. In W. Damon, R. M. Lerner, D. Kuhn, & R. Siegler (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology (vol. 2, 6

Liu, Taosheng

72

Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development.  

PubMed

Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it. This information is available to them when they are particularly receptive to it, and because it comes as the result of their own disequilibrium, it may have depth of processing benefits. In that questions allow children to get information they need to move their knowledge structures closer to adult-like states, the ability to ask questions to gather needed information constitutes an efficient mechanism for cognitive development (referred to in this paper as the Information Requesting Mechanism [IRM]; this term is used because it includes question-asking and other information recruiting behaviors such as gestures, expressions, and vocalizations). However, the role of children's questions in their cognitive development has been largely overlooked. If questions are a force in cognitive development, the following must be true: (1) children must actually ask questions that gather information; (2) children must receive informative answers to their questions if they are able to be of use to cognitive development; (3) children must be motivated to get the information they request, rather than asking questions for other purposes such as attention; (4) the questions children ask must be relevant and of potential use to their cognitive development; (5) we must see evidence that children's questions help them in some way-that is, that they can ask questions for a purpose, and use the information they receive purposefully to successfully achieve some change of knowledge state. This monograph reports data on these points. Study 1 analyzed questions taken from four children's transcripts in the CHILDES database (age 1;2-5;1). This methodology allowed detailed, veridical analysis of every question asked by the children during their recording sessions. Results indicate that children ask many information-seeking questions and get informative answers. When they do not get an informative response, they keep asking; attention is not enough. Results also indicate that the content of children's questions parallel their conceptual advances, and shift within an exchange and over the course of development to reflect the learning process. So, these data suggest that the components of the IRM are in place and are used by children from very early in development, and the information they seek changes with time. Study 2 asked whether preverbal children who are not yet asking linguistic questions can recruit information via gestures, expressions, and vocalizations, in addition to further investigating the linguistic questions of older children. This study analyzed questions from a cross-sectional diary study, kept by 68 parents of their children's questions (aged 1;0-5;0). Also, this methodology allowed for data collection over a large number of children, a large range of situational contexts, and allows for the collection of low frequency, high-salience events. Results from Study 2 suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place, and extends these findings down to younger, preverbal children who recruit information using gesture and vocalizations. Study 3 investigated the questions asked in one specific domain, biological knowledge, and examined the impact that different stimulus types have on children's questions. This study gathered data from 112 parent/child dyads (children aged 2, 3, and 4 years) walking through one of three zoos (one with real animals, one with drawings of animals, and one with three-dimensional replicas of animals), looking at the animals together. Results from this study also suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place from the earliest age, further supporting the findings from Studies 1 and 2. In addition, while children still ask many nonbiological questions a

Chouinard, Michael M

2007-01-01

73

Maternal administration of flutamide during late gestation affects the brain and reproductive organs development in the rat male offspring.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that male rats exposed to stress during the last week of gestation present age-specific impairments of brain development. Since the organization of the fetal developing brain is subject to androgen exposure and prenatal stress was reported to disrupt perinatal testosterone surges, the aim of this research was to explore whether abnormal androgen concentrations during late gestation affects the morphology of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), three major areas that were shown to be affected by prenatal stress in our previous studies. We administered 10-mg/kg/day of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (4'nitro-3'-trifluoromethylsobutyranilide) or vehicle injections to pregnant rats from days 15-21 of gestation. The antiandrogenic effects of flutamide were confirmed by the analysis of androgen-dependent developmental markers: flutamide-exposed rats showed reduced anogenital distance, delay in the completion of testis descent, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and atrophied seminal vesicles. Brain morphological studies revealed that prenatal flutamide decreased the number of MAP2 (a microtubule-associated protein type 2, present almost exclusively in dendrites) immunoreactive neuronal processes in all evaluated brain areas, both in prepubertal and adult offspring, suggesting that prenatal androgen disruption induces long-term reductions of the dendritic arborization of several brain structures, affecting the normal connectivity between areas. Moreover, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons in the VTA of prepubertal offspring was reduced in flutamide rats but reach normal values at adulthood. Our results demonstrate that the effects of prenatal flutamide on the offspring brain morphology resemble several prenatal stress effects suggesting that the mechanism of action of prenatal stress might be related to the impairment of the organizational role of androgens on brain development. PMID:25130562

Pallarés, M E; Adrover, E; Imsen, M; González, D; Fabre, B; Mesch, V; Baier, C J; Antonelli, M C

2014-10-10

74

The Influence of Bilingualism on Cognitive Development and Cognitive Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation abstract summarizes a research study which investigated the hypothesis that bilingualism in children would result in: (1) increased ability to analyze syntax; (2) acceleration in the time of arrival of the stage of concrete operational thinking; and (3) an increase in cognitive flexibility or ability to mentally shuffle material.…

Ben-Zeev, Sandra

75

Some Instructional Implications from a Mathematical Model of Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive development and various educational implications are discussed in terms of Donald Saari's model of the interaction of a learner and the enviroment and the constraints imposed by the inefficiency of the learner's cognitive system. Saari proposed a hierarchical system of cognitive structures such that the relationships between structures…

Mierkiewicz, Diane B.

76

Cognitive Profile: Relationship to Achievement and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews research in the area of cognition, specifically cognitive controls (information processing habits which tend to function across a variety of content areas). The review addresses information on three research questions: (1) What cognitive factors can reliably measure and describe the differences in levels of academic achievement…

Letteri, Charles A.

77

The Cognitive Aging and Neuroimaging (CAN) Lab The Cognitive Aging and Neuroimaging (CAN)Lab investigates the development of both cognitive and neural processes associated  

E-print Network

The Cognitive Aging and Neuroimaging (CAN) Lab Overview: The Cognitive Aging and Neuroimaging (CAN)Lab investigates the development of both cognitive and neural processes associated with aging -with a focus on ageMRI to elucidate the cognitive and neural processes underlying age-related differences in cognitive control

Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

78

The Intergenerational Effects of Parental Schooling on the Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Development of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, using the National Child Development Study, estimates the causal relationship between parents' schooling and children's cognitive and non-cognitive development using the 1947 compulsory schooling legislation in Great Britain. The least squares estimates suggest strong correlations between parental education and these developmental…

Silles, Mary A.

2011-01-01

79

David Klahr Walter van Dyke Bingham Professor of Cognitive Development and Education Sciences  

E-print Network

: General Journal of Math Education Journal of Math Psychology JASA Management Science Memory & Cognition, American Psychological Society Journal Consulting Editorships or Reviewer: American Educational Research Journal American J. of Psychology Child Development Cognitive Development Cognitive Psychology Cognitive

Klahr, David

80

What's in a U? The Shapes of Cognitive Development  

E-print Network

. Adult mastery appears as the child has more practice with specific ir- regular verbs. In this caseWhat's in a U? The Shapes of Cognitive Development Gary F. Marcus Department of Psychology New York University "Little by little, the child develops," wrote an undergraduate in a friend's cognitive development

Marcus, Gary F.

81

Computer-simulated development process of Chinese characters font cognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research of Chinese characters cognition is an important research aspect of cognitive science and computer science, especially artificial intelligence. In this paper, according as the traits of Chinese characters the database of Chinese characters font representations and the model of computer simulation of Chinese characters font cognition are constructed from the aspect of cognitive science. The font cognition of Chinese characters is actual a gradual process and there is the accumulation of knowledge. Through using the method of computer simulation, the development model of Chinese characters cognition was constructed. And this is the important research content of Chinese characters cognition. This model is based on self-organizing neural network and adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural network. By Combining the SOFM and ART2 network, two sets of input were trained. Through training and testing methods, the development process of Chinese characters cognition based on Chinese characters cognition was simulated. Then the results from this model and could be compared with the results that were obtained only using SOFM. By analyzing the results, this simulation suggests that the model is able to account for some empirical results. So, the model can simulate the development process of Chinese characters cognition in a way.

Chen, Jing; Mu, Zhichun; Sun, Dehui; Hu, Dunli

2008-10-01

82

Hippocampal apoptosis involved in learning deficits in the offspring exposed to maternal high sucrose diets.  

PubMed

The hippocampus plays a crucial role in learning and memory, and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus contributes to learning deficits. Metabolism problems in pregnancy related to excessive fuel consumption (e.g., high fat, high sugar) may influence cognitive and behavioral functions in the offspring by affecting developing brain cells. This study determined the influence of maternal high sucrose (HS) diets on behavior and hippocampal neurons in the young offspring. The ratio of brain weight to body weight in the offspring exposed to prenatal HS diets was significantly decreased; the Morris water maze showed that the offspring exposed to prenatal HS diets exhibited increased escape latencies and path length during navigation testing, while there were no changes in time spent in the target quadrant and number of target approaches. In the offspring exposed to prenatal HS, TUNEL-positive cells were significantly increased in CA1, CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus; protein expression of insulin-like growth factor-I, PI3K and phosphorylated Akt was significantly decreased, while caspase-3 and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors were significantly increased in the hippocampus, and there was no change in expression of Bcl-2 and Akt. The results demonstrated that prenatal HS diets could induce the spatial acquisition deficits in the young offspring associated with hippocampal apoptosis, and altered signaling factors for antiapoptosis in the hippocampus might play a critical role in cognition disorders in young children. PMID:24998948

Kuang, Hanzhe; Sun, Miao; Lv, Juanxiu; Li, Jiayue; Wu, Chonglong; Chen, Ningjing; Bo, Le; Wei, Xiaoguang; Gu, Xiuxia; Liu, Zhen; Mao, Caiping; Xu, Zhice

2014-09-01

83

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

84

Infant recall memory and communication predicts later cognitive development  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study investigates the relation between recall memory and communication in infancy and later cognitive development. Twenty-six typically developing Swedish children were tested during infancy for deferred imitation (memory), joint attention (JA), and requesting (nonverbal communication); they also were tested during childhood for language and cognitive competence. Results showed that infants with low performance on both deferred imitation at 9 months and joint attention at 14 months obtained a significantly lower score on a test of cognitive abilities at 4 years of age. This long-term prediction from preverbal infancy to childhood cognition is of interest both to developmental theory and to practice. PMID:17138307

Strid, Karin; Tjus, Tomas; Smith, Lars; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Heimann, Mikael

2013-01-01

85

Misdirections in the Relation between Writing and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many essayists on writing believe that a student's level of cognitive development determines the organization of thought expressed by the student's writing and that an individual cannot use language at a level that goes beyond his or her stage of cognitive development. Without the maturation of formal operational structures, students cannot easily…

Rainey, Kenneth T.

86

Epigenetic robotics: modelling cognitive development in robotic systems  

E-print Network

Editorial Epigenetic robotics: modelling cognitive development in robotic systems Action editor), the goal of Epigenetic robotics is to understand, and model, the role of development in the emergence of increasingly complex cognitive structures from physical and social interaction. As such, Epigenetic Robotics

Sandini, Giulio

87

Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides.  

PubMed

The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase in gestation length was seen, while in male offspring increased nipple retention and increased incidence and severity of genital malformations were observed. Severe mixture effects on gestation length, nipple retention and genital malformations were seen at dose levels where the individual pesticides caused no or smaller effects when given alone. Generally, the mixture effect predictions based on dose-additivity were in good agreement with the observed effects. The results indicate that there is a need for modification of risk assessment procedures for pesticides, in order to take account of the mixture effects and cumulative intake, because of the potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on development and reproduction in humans. PMID:22659286

Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Herrmann, Susan Strange; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Clemmensen, Line Harder; Axelstad, Marta

2012-09-01

88

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders in the Offspring of Mothers Exposed to Mild-Moderate Iodine Deficiency: A Possible Novel Iodine Deficiency Disorder in Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of almost 10 yr, we carried out a prospective study of the neuropsychological development of the offspring of 16 women from a moderately iodine-deficient area (area A) and of 11 control women from a marginally iodine-sufficient area (area B) whose thyroid function had been monitored during early gestation. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was diagnosed in

F. Vermiglio; V. P. LO PRESTI; M. MOLETI; M. SIDOTI; G. TORTORELLA; G. SCAFFIDI; M. G. CASTAGNA; F. MATTINA; M. A. VIOLI; A. CRISA; A. ARTEMISIA; F. TRIMARCHI

2004-01-01

89

The Development of Social Cognition. Studies in Developmental Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining social cognition as our attempts to make sense of how people think, perceive, infer, feel, and react, this book examines both the classical issues and contemporary understanding of theory and research in social cognitive development. The initial chapters highlight one of the central, theoretical tensions in the field, which is whether the…

Hala, Suzanne, Ed.

90

Medical Settings as a Context for Research on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical contexts provide a rich opportunity to study important theoretical questions in cognitive development and to investigate the influence of a range of interacting factors relating to the child, the experience, and the broader social context on children's cognition. In the context of examples of research investigating these issues, we…

Salmon, Karen; Brown, Deirdre A.

2013-01-01

91

A Cognitive Approach to the Development of Early Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A controversial issue in the field of language development is whether language emergence and growth is dependent solely on processes specifically tied to language or could also depend on basic cognitive processes that affect all aspects of cognitive competence (domain-general processes). The present article examines this issue using a large…

Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

2009-01-01

92

Developing an Essentially Unidimensional Test with Cognitively Designed Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how cognitive and measurement principles can be integrated to create an essentially unidimensional test. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, test questions were created by using the feature integration theory of attention to develop a cognitive model of performance and then manipulating complexity…

Bryant, Damon U.; Wooten, William

2006-01-01

93

The effect of breastfeeding on children's cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses Propensity Score Matching to investigate the causal effect of breastfeeding on childrens cognitive development. There is a strong association between breastfeeding and cognitive outcomes; however, it is notoriously difficult to establish whether this is causal, or whether it arises because mothers who breastfeed tend to be those whose children would do better anyway. Using PSM, we find

Maria Iacovou; Almudena Sevilla-Sanz

2010-01-01

94

Neuromodulation of Behavioral and Cognitive Development across the Life Span  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…

Li, Shu-Chen

2012-01-01

95

Herbal: A High-Level Language and Development Environment for Developing Cognitive Models in Soar  

E-print Network

Herbal: A High-Level Language and Development Environment for Developing Cognitive Models in Soar, Ontologies, Protégé, Soar ABSTRACT: Cognitive architectures are useful to a wide variety of users environment for developing cognitive models in Soar. In Proceedings of the 14th Conference on Behavior

Ritter, Frank

96

Development of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities (NOSCA)  

PubMed Central

Background. To assess a patient's cognitive functioning is an important issue because nurses tailor their nursing interventions to the patient's cognitive abilities. Although some observation scales exist concerning one or more cognitive domains, so far, no scale has been available which assesses cognitive functioning in a comprehensive way. Objectives. To develop an observation scale with an accepted level of content validity and which assesses elderly patients' cognitive functioning in a comprehensive way. Methods. Delphi technique, a multidisciplinary panel developed the scale by consensus through four Delphi rounds (>70% agreement). The International Classification of Functioning/ICF was used as theoretical framework. Results. After the first two Delphi rounds, the panel reached consensus about 8 cognitive domains and 17 sub domains. After two other rounds, 39 items were selected, divided over 8 domains and 17 sub domains. Discussion. The Nurses' Observation Scale Cognitive Abilities (NOSCA) was successfully designed. The content validity of the scale is high because the scale sufficiently represents the concept of cognitive functioning: the experts reached a consensus of 70% or higher on all domains and items included; and no domains or items were lacking. As a next step, the psychometric qualities of the NOSCA will have to be tested. PMID:22007329

Persoon, Anke; Banningh, Liesbeth Joosten-Weyn; van de Vrie, Wim; Rikkert, Marcel G. M. Olde; van Achterberg, Theo

2011-01-01

97

Family Structure and Children's Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the characteristics of the intrafamily environment that change the intellectual environment of the children and interact with the factor of birth order. Concludes that the effect of birth order is linked: (1) with the gender configuration of sibling relationships; and (2) with various cognitive and personal characteristics of the…

Dumitrashku, T. A.

1997-01-01

98

Brain Electrical Activity Changes and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship of cognitive developmental changes to physiological and anatomical changes by measuring both types of data within the same subjects. Cortical electrical activity was measured in 24 males between 10 and 12 years of age. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from midline scalp electrodes during a…

Hartley, Deborah; Thomas, David G.

99

Kreshnik Begolli Doctoral Student in Learning, Cognition and Development  

E-print Network

Kreshnik Begolli Doctoral Student in Learning, Cognition and Development School of Education, UC improvements in education. The question that drives his research is: how does learning happen in the brain

Stanford, Kyle

100

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Cognition Across Development and Context  

PubMed Central

Genes account for between approximately 50% and 70% of the variation in cognition at the population level. However, population-level estimates of heritability potentially mask marked subgroup differences. We review the body of empirical evidence indicating that (a) genetic influences on cognition increase from infancy to adulthood, and (b) genetic influences on cognition are maximized in more advantaged socioeconomic contexts (i.e., a Gene × Socioeconomic Status interaction). We discuss potential mechanisms underlying these effects, particularly transactional models of cognitive development. Transactional models predict that people in high-opportunity contexts actively evoke and select positive learning experiences on the basis of their genetic predispositions; these learning experiences, in turn, reciprocally influence cognition. The net result of this transactional process is increasing genetic influence with increasing age and increasing environmental opportunity. PMID:24799770

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Briley, Daniel A.; Harden, K. Paige

2014-01-01

101

The development of a cognitive process-oriented correlation model  

E-print Network

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A COGNITIVE PROCESS-ORIENTED CORRELATION MODEL A Thesis by RICHARD JAMES KNEUVEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Curriculum and Instruction THE DEVELOPMENT OF A COGNITIVE PROCESS-ORIENTED CORRELATION MODEL A Thesis by RICHARD JAMES KNEUVEN Approved as to style and content by: P r c'a exander ( r of Committee ) David...

Kneuven, Richard James

2012-06-07

102

Development of Gauges for the QinetiQ Cognition Monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a new version of the calibration procedure for the QinetiQ Cognition Monitor so that\\u000a it can be implemented to support the development of a cognitive cockpit at NAVAIR. A new signal cleaning procedure for processing\\u000a the electro-encephalogram (EEG) automatically is outlined and the results from tests in the UK and US are summarized. It

Andy Belyavin; Chris Ryder; Blair Dickson

2007-01-01

103

David Klahr Walter van Dyke Bingham Professor of Cognitive Development and Education Sciences  

E-print Network

Journal American J. of Psychology Child Development Cognitive Development Cognitive Psychology Cognitive-08) International Society for the Psychology of Science and Technology (ISPST) Fellow: Inaugural Fellow, American Educational Research Association Division 7 (Developmental), American Psychological Association Division 3

Creswell, J. David

104

Effect of maternal obesity with and without gestational diabetes on offspring subcutaneous and preperitoneal adipose tissue development from birth up to year-1  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may independently influence offspring fat mass and metabolic disease susceptibility. In this pilot study, body composition and fat distribution in offspring from obese women with and without GDM and lean women were assessed within the 1st year of life, and maternal and newborn plasma factors were related to offspring adipose tissue distribution. Methods Serum and plasma samples from pregnant obese women with (n?=?16) or without (n?=?13) GDM and normoglycemic lean women (n?=?15) at 3rd trimester and offspring cord plasma were used for analyzing lipid profiles, insulin and adipokine levels. At week-1 and 6, month-4 and year-1, offspring anthropometrics and skinfold thickness (SFT) were measured and abdominal subcutaneous (SCA) and preperitoneal adipose tissue (PPA) were determined by ultrasonography. Results Cord insulin was significantly increased in the GDM group, whereas levels of cord leptin, total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were similar between the groups. Neonates of the GDM group showed significantly higher SFT and fat mass until week-6 and significantly increased SCA at week-1 compared to the lean group that persisted as strong trend at week-6. Interestingly, PPA in neonates of the GDM group was significantly elevated at week-1 compared to both the lean and obese group. At month-4 and year-1, significant differences in adipose tissue growth between the groups were not observed. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that cord insulin levels are independently related to neonatal PPA that showed significant relation to PPA development at year-1. Maternal fasted C-peptide and HMW adiponectin levels at 3rd trimester emerged to be determinants for PPA at week-1. Conclusion Maternal pregravid obesity combined with GDM leads to newborn hyperinsulinemia and increased offspring fat mass until week-6, whereas pregravid obesity without GDM does not. This strongly suggests the pivotal role of GDM in the adverse offspring outcome. Maternal C-peptide and HMW adiponectin levels in pregnancy emerge to be predictive for elevated PPA in newborns and might be indicative for the obesity risk at later life. Altogether, the findings from our pilot study warrant evaluation in long-term studies. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004370 PMID:24720885

2014-01-01

105

Author's personal copy Cognitive Development 27 (2012) 9098  

E-print Network

Direct Cognitive Development Young children discriminate improbable from impossible events in fiction Deena Development 27 (2012) 90­98 91 1. Introduction By the age of four, children have a well-developed sense is possible and what is impossible (Wellman & Liu, 2007). Children's developing knowledge might allow them

Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

106

Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.  

PubMed

Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. PMID:24935627

Patterson, Meagan M

2014-09-01

107

Maternal protein deficiency affects mesenchymal stem cell activity in the developing offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental influences such as maternal nutrition, programme skeletal growth during intrauterine and early postnatal life. However, the mechanism whereby the skeletal growth trajectory is modified remains unclear. We have addressed this using a rat model of maternal protein insufficiency to investigate the cellular mechanisms involved in the programming of bone development. The aims of this study

Richard O. C Oreffo; Benjamin Lashbrooke; Helmtrud I Roach; Nicholas M. P Clarke; Cyrus Cooper

2003-01-01

108

Low-Dose, Gestational Exposure to Atrazine Does Not Alter Postnatal Reproductive Development of Male Offspring  

EPA Science Inventory

There is growing evidence that xenobiotic exposure during the perinatal period may result in a variety of adverse outcomes when the developing organism attains adulthood. Maternal stress and subsequent exposure of the fetus to excess glucocorticoids may underlie these effects. Pr...

109

Age Affects the Expression of Maternal Care and Subsequent Behavioural Development of Offspring in a Precocial Bird  

PubMed Central

Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks’ growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian maternal behaviour and that the way we sample maternal behaviour is highly productive. PMID:22701515

Pittet, Florent; Coignard, Maud; Houdelier, Cecilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie

2012-01-01

110

The cognitive neuroscience of prehension: recent developments  

PubMed Central

Prehension, the capacity to reach and grasp, is the key behavior that allows humans to change their environment. It continues to serve as a remarkable experimental test case for probing the cognitive architecture of goal-oriented action. This review focuses on recent experimental evidence that enhances or modifies how we might conceptualize the neural substrates of prehension. Emphasis is placed on studies that consider how precision grasps are selected and transformed into motor commands. Then, the mechanisms that extract action relevant information from vision and touch are considered. These include consideration of how parallel perceptual networks within parietal cortex, along with the ventral stream, are connected and share information to achieve common motor goals. On-line control of grasping action is discussed within a state estimation framework. The review ends with a consideration about how prehension fits within larger action repertoires that solve more complex goals and the possible cortical architectures needed to organize these actions. PMID:20532487

2010-01-01

111

Delayed physical and neurobehavioral development and increased aggressive and depression-like behaviors in the rat offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

Early maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) may influence the brain development of rat offspring and consequently affect physiology and behavior. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the somatic, physical, sensory-motor and neurobehavioral development of the offspring of dams fed an HFD (52% calories from fat, mainly saturated) and the offspring of dams fed a control diet (CD - 14.7% fat) during lactation from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day (P). Maternal body weights were evaluated during lactation. In the progeny, somatic (body weight, head and lengths axes) and physical (ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, eruption of the incisors and eye opening) development and the consolidation of reflex responses (palm grasp, righting, vibrissa placing, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, auditory startle response and free-fall righting) were determined during suckling. Depressive and aggressive behaviors were tested with the forced swimming test (FST) and the "foot-shock" test on days 60 and 110, respectively. The open field test was used to assess motor function. Compared to controls, the HFD-pups exhibited decreases in body weight (P7-P21) and body length (P4-P18), but by days P71 and P95, these pups were overweight. All indicators of physical maturation and the consolidation of the following reflexes, vibrissa placing, auditory startle responses, free-fall righting and negative geotaxis, were delayed in HFD-progeny. In addition, the pups from HFD dam rats also exhibited reduced swimming and climbing times in the FST and increased aggressive behavior. No changes in locomotion were observed. These findings show developmental and neurobehavioral changes in the rat offspring of dams fed the HFD during lactation and suggest possible disruption of physical and sensory-motor maturation and increased susceptibility to depressive and aggressive-like behavior. PMID:24071008

Giriko, Catherine Ássuka; Andreoli, Carla Albuquerque; Mennitti, Laís Vales; Hosoume, Lilian Fazion; Souto, Tayane Dos Santos; Silva, Alexandre Valotta da; Mendes-da-Silva, Cristiano

2013-12-01

112

Early Bifrontal Brain Injury: Disturbances in Cognitive Function Development  

PubMed Central

We describe six psychomotor, language, and neuropsychological sequential developmental evaluations in a boy who sustained a severe bifrontal traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 19 months of age. Visuospatial, drawing, and writing skills failed to develop normally. Gradually increasing difficulties were noted in language leading to reading and spontaneous speech difficulties. The last two evaluations showed executive deficits in inhibition, flexibility, and working memory. Those executive abnormalities seemed to be involved in the other impairments. In conclusion, early frontal brain injury disorganizes the development of cognitive functions, and interactions exist between executive function and other cognitive functions during development. PMID:21188227

Bonnier, Christine; Costet, Aurelie; Hmaimess, Ghassan; Catale, Corinne; Maillart, Christelle; Marique, Patricia

2010-01-01

113

Cognitive Science Questions for Cognitive Development: The Concepts of Learning, Analogy, and Capacity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New conceptions of learning, analogy, and capacity have fundamentally changed scientists' view of cognitive development. New conceptions of learning help to explain how representations of the world are acquired. New models of analogical reasoning have suggested that logical inferences are often made by mapping a problem into a mental model, or…

Halford, Graeme S.; Stewart, J. E. M.

114

Transgenerational effects of maternal exposure to chemicals on the functional development of the brain in the offspring.  

PubMed

In order to prevent health risk from environmental chemicals, particularly for progeny, we have been performing a risk assessment for various chemicals including therapeutic agents. This paper reports the functional effects of maternal exposure to psychoactive drugs, anticancer drugs, or herbicides on the offspring of rats. Maternal exposure to imipramine in a dose equivalent to the therapeutic dose per unit body weight induced hyperthermic response to chlorpromazine in the male offspring, while normal control rats showed a marked hypothermia. Exposure to ethosuximide resulted in an increase in play fighting behavior in young offspring that was fostered by lactating normal mothers. Single exposures to nimustine or cisplatin, anticancer drugs, at a different gestational stage resulted in an acceleration of growth when exposed at the earlier stage of gestation. Moreover, cisplatin-exposed rats were emotionally unstable, showing a short latent time to the first line-crossing in an open-field during infantile period. The rats exposed to glufosinate ammonium, an herbicide, during the time of neurogenesis in the hippocampus showed a decrease in the wet-dog shakes response to kainic acid at six weeks of age. These results suggest that maternal exposure to chemicals during pregnancy induces a variety of functional abnormalities in the brain of the offspring dependent on the pharmacologic action of chemicals and the stage of gestation even with a single exposure. PMID:9498910

Fujii, T

1997-05-01

115

Brief maternal exposure of rats to the xenobiotics dibutyl phthalate or diethylstilbestrol alters adult-type Leydig cell development in male offspring.  

PubMed

Maternal exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics or phthalates has been implicated in the distortion of early male reproductive development, referred to in humans as the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. It is not known, however, whether such early gestational and/or lactational exposure can influence the later adult-type Leydig cell phenotype. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP; from gestational day (GD) 14.5 to postnatal day (PND) 6) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; from GD14.5 to GD16.5) during a short gestational/lactational window, and male offspring subsequently analysed for various postnatal testicular parameters. All offspring remained in good health throughout the study. Maternal xenobiotic treatment appeared to modify specific Leydig cell gene expression in male offspring, particularly during the dynamic phase of mid-puberty, with serum INSL3 concentrations showing that these compounds led to a faster attainment of peak values, and a modest acceleration of the pubertal trajectory. Part of this effect appeared to be due to a treatment-specific impact on Leydig cell proliferation during puberty for both xenobiotics. Taken together, these results support the notion that maternal exposure to certain xenobiotics can also influence the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population, possibly through an effect on the Leydig stem cell population. PMID:23314658

Ivell, Richard; Heng, Kee; Nicholson, Helen; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

2013-03-01

116

Brief maternal exposure of rats to the xenobiotics dibutyl phthalate or diethylstilbestrol alters adult-type Leydig cell development in male offspring  

PubMed Central

Maternal exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics or phthalates has been implicated in the distortion of early male reproductive development, referred to in humans as the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. It is not known, however, whether such early gestational and/or lactational exposure can influence the later adult-type Leydig cell phenotype. In this study, Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP; from gestational day (GD) 14.5 to postnatal day (PND) 6) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; from GD14.5 to GD16.5) during a short gestational/lactational window, and male offspring subsequently analysed for various postnatal testicular parameters. All offspring remained in good health throughout the study. Maternal xenobiotic treatment appeared to modify specific Leydig cell gene expression in male offspring, particularly during the dynamic phase of mid-puberty, with serum INSL3 concentrations showing that these compounds led to a faster attainment of peak values, and a modest acceleration of the pubertal trajectory. Part of this effect appeared to be due to a treatment-specific impact on Leydig cell proliferation during puberty for both xenobiotics. Taken together, these results support the notion that maternal exposure to certain xenobiotics can also influence the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population, possibly through an effect on the Leydig stem cell population. PMID:23314658

Ivell, Richard; Heng, Kee; Nicholson, Helen; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

2013-01-01

117

Development of an animal model for gestational hypermethioninemia in rat and its effect on brain Na?,K?-ATPase/Mg²?-ATPase activity and oxidative status of the offspring.  

PubMed

In the present study we developed a chemically induced experimental model for gestational hypermethioninemia in rats and evaluated in the offspring the activities of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase, as well as oxidative stress parameters, namely sulfhydryl content, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in encephalon. Serum and encephalon levels of methionine and total homocysteine were also evaluated in mother rats and in the offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats received two daily subcutaneous injections of methionine throughout the gestational period (21 days). During the treatment, a group of pregnant rats received dose 1 (1.34 ?mol methionine/g body weight) and the other one received dose 2 (2.68 ?mol methionine/g body weight). Control group received saline. After the rats give birth, a first group of pups was killed at the 7th day of life and the second group at the 21th day of life for removal of serum and encephalon. Mother rats were killed at the 21th day postpartum for removal of serum and encephalon. Both doses 1 and 2 increased methionine levels in encephalon of the mother rats and dose 2 increased methionine levels in encephalon of the offspring. Maternal hypermethioninemia also decreased the activities of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and catalase, as well as reduced total sulfhydryl content in the encephalon of the pups. This chemical model seems to be appropriate for studies aiming to investigate the effect of maternal hypermethioninemia on the developing brain during gestation in order to clarify possible neurochemical changes in the offspring. PMID:24248636

Schweinberger, Bruna M; Schwieder, Lígia; Scherer, Emilene; Sitta, Angela; Vargas, Carmem R; Wyse, Angela T S

2014-03-01

118

Breastfeeding and Trajectories of Children's Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the association of breastfeeding practices with the growth trajectories of children's cognitive development. We used data from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) with variables on presence and duration of breastfeeding and standardized test scores obtained…

Huang, Jin; Peters, Kristen E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Witko, Christopher

2014-01-01

119

Environmental Stimulation, Parental Nurturance and Cognitive Development in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance on brain development have been studied extensively in animals. Much less is known about the relations between childhood experience and cognitive development in humans. Using a longitudinally collected data set with ecologically valid in-home measures of childhood experience and later…

Farah, Martha J.; Betancourt, Laura; Shera, David M.; Savage, Jessica H.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Malmud, Elsa K.; Hurt, Hallam

2008-01-01

120

Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the “Mozart Effect” studies to participation in piano lessons or other music training over time. This literature review suggest that, just as a

Rebecca Ann Shore

2010-01-01

121

Cognitive–Linguistic Foundations of Early Spelling Development in Bilinguals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing spelling skills in English is a particularly demanding task for Chinese speakers because, unlike many other bilinguals learning English as a second language, they must learn two languages with different orthography as well as phonology. To disentangle socioeconomic and pedagogical factors from the underlying cognitive–linguistic processes that predict the development of spelling, we used a 6-month longitudinal design and

Stephanie H. M. Yeong; Susan J. Rickard Liow

2011-01-01

122

Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

2008-01-01

123

Cognition at Work: The Development of Vocational Expertise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains eight papers examining vocational expertise and how best to develop it. The first paper, "Vocational Expertise" (John Stevenson), presents five approaches to developing it. The role of context in patterning cognition is considered in "Authenticity in Workplace Learning Settings" (Stephen Billett). In "Learning in Apprenticeship…

Stevenson, J., Ed.

124

YALE UNIVERSITY COGNITION AND DEVELOPMENT LAB DIRECTOR -PROFESSOR FRANK KEIL  

E-print Network

and development in preschoolers, school-age children, and adults. Essential duties 1. Assist in the designYALE UNIVERSITY COGNITION AND DEVELOPMENT LAB DIRECTOR - PROFESSOR FRANK KEIL FULL-TIME RESEARCH of research stimuli, enter, and analyze the collected data. 2. Interview children according to research

125

Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the "Mozart Effect" studies to participation in piano lessons…

Shore, Rebecca Ann

2010-01-01

126

The Relationship between Levels of Cognitive Development and Ego Development in Adult Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between levels in Piaget's hierarchy of cognitive development and Loevinger's model of ego development. The data were examined for indications of cognitive prerequisites for development of ego levels. Sixty women, 30 in each of two age groups (18-21 and 35-47) were administered the chemicals and correlation…

Lockett, Danuta Wal

127

Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based

B. J. Casey; Jay N. Giedd; Kathleen M. Thomas

2000-01-01

128

Cognitive Development At The Middle-Division Level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary goals, as students transition from the lower-division to upper-division courses is to facilitate the cognitive development needed for work as a physicist. The Paradigms in Physics curriculum (junior-level courses developed at Oregon State University) addresses this goal by coaching students to coordinate different modes of reasoning, highlighting common techniques and concepts across physics topics, and setting course expectations to be more aligned with the professional culture of physicists. This poster will highlight some of the specific ways in which we address these cognitive changes in the context of classical mechanics and E&M.

Manogue, Corinne A.; Gire, Elizabeth

2009-11-01

129

Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction: Current Developments in Mechanism and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle disorder of thought processes, which may influence isolated domains of cognition and has a significant impact on patient health. The reported incidence of POCD varies enormously due to lack of formal criteria for the assessment and diagnosis of POCD. The significant risk factors of developing POCD mainly include larger and more invasive operations, duration of anesthesia, advanced age, history of alcohol abuse, use of anticholinergic medications, and other factors. The release of cytokines due to the systemic stress response caused by anesthesia and surgical procedures might induce the changes of brain function and be involved in the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The strategies for management of POCD should be a multimodal approach involving close cooperation between the anesthesiologist, surgeon, geriatricians, and family members to promote early rehabilitation and avoid loss of independence in these patients. PMID:25306127

Wang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Wu, Haibo; Lei, Liming; Xu, Shiqin; Shen, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xirong; Shen, Rong; Xia, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Yusheng; Wang, Fuzhou

2014-01-01

130

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: current developments in mechanism and prevention.  

PubMed

Abstract Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle disorder of thought processes, which may influence isolated domains of cognition and has a significant impact on patient health. The reported incidence of POCD varies enormously due to lack of formal criteria for the assessment and diagnosis of POCD. The significant risk factors of developing POCD mainly include larger and more invasive operations, duration of anesthesia, advanced age, history of alcohol abuse, use of anticholinergic medications, and other factors. The release of cytokines due to the systemic stress response caused by anesthesia and surgical procedures might induce the changes of brain function and be involved in the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The strategies for management of POCD should be a multimodal approach involving close cooperation between the anesthesiologist, surgeon, geriatricians, and family members to promote early rehabilitation and avoid loss of independence in these patients. PMID:25306127

Wang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Wu, Haibo; Lei, Liming; Xu, Shiqin; Shen, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xirong; Shen, Rong; Xia, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Yusheng; Wang, Fuzhou

2014-01-01

131

Cognitive Development Neo-Piagetian Accounts  

E-print Network

on A not-B task reflects immature motor control ­ Conceptual development there, but motor development · Piaget's results on object permanence ­ infants' poor representational abilities? ­ Infants' poor motor...but with highly constrained mechanisms that guide the development of infant reasoning about objects." Renee

Coulson, Seana

132

Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Offspring Brain Structure and Function: Review and Agenda for Future Research  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been associated with long-term neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits in offspring. Animal models demonstrate alterations in brain structure and function following prenatal nicotine exposure. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between MSDP and brain development in humans. Therefore, the aims of this review are (a) to synthesize findings from the small number of human studies investigating effects of MSDP on offspring brain development and (b) to outline an agenda for future research in this nascent area. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and Psychinfo databases for human studies of MSDP and offspring brain structure and/or function. Results: Eleven studies meeting our search criteria were identified; 6 studies investigated effects of MSDP on brain structure; 5 examined effects on brain function. Across studies, MSDP was associated with decreased volume/thickness of the cerebellum and corpus callosum, increased auditory brainstem responses, and lack of coordination across brain regions during information and auditory processing. Conclusions: Results from the small number of human studies revealed effects of MSDP on brain structure and function, highlighting potential neural pathways linking MSDP and offspring neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits. Given the limited amount of research in this area, we propose an agenda for future research. Gold standard studies would utilize longitudinal designs, integrated biological and maternal report measures of MSDP, and repeated measures of brain structure/function and neurobehavioral deficits across key developmental periods. PMID:22180574

Bublitz, Margaret H.; Stroud, Laura R.

2012-01-01

133

Repeated Copulation in the Wood-feeding Cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus Does Not Influence Number or Development of Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood-feeding cockroaches in the genus Crytocercus live in biparental family groups in the interior of rotten logs and are considered socially monogamous. They typically produce\\u000a a single brood of altricial offspring, with parental care then lasting until the death of adults 2 or 3 years later. Field\\u000a and laboratory evidence suggests that copulation occurs repeatedly in C. punctulatus, with sexual activity

Christine A. Nalepa; Donald E. Mullins

2011-01-01

134

Influence of parent blood pressure and BMI on development of offspring blood pressure and insulin resistance syndrome (IRS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the relation of BP and BMI in parents to BP, obesity, and cardiovascular risk in their offspring in childhood and young adulthood. 456 children (236 male, 220 female) had BP and anthropometric measures at age 7.2±0.04 yrs and the same measures plus fasting insulin and lipids at age 23.1±0.04 yrs. Natural parents (268 fathers, 44.6±0.4 yrs; 429

Alan R. Sinaiko; Richard P. Donahue; Ronald J. Prineas

2001-01-01

135

Parental facilitation: parent-offspring relations in communally breeding birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A view of parent-offspring relations is developed that stresses an increased role for mutualism and tolerance rather than conflict in evolutionary trends toward sociality. For example, in Aphelocoma jays, parental tolerance of offspring increases from asocial to social species, contrary to what parental manipulation or parent-offspring conflict models have suggested. A simple model is presented in which parents can leave

J. L. Brown; E. R. Brown

1984-01-01

136

Cognitive development: children's knowledge about the mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews theory and research on the development of children's knowledge about the mental world, focusing especially on work done during the past 15 years under the rubric of theory-of-mind development. The three principal approaches to explaining this development--theory theory, modular theory, and simulation theory--are described first. Next comes a description of infant precursors or protoforms of theory-of-mind knowledge

John H. Flavell

1999-01-01

137

The Mexican American Child: Language, Cognition, and Social Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nine articles are divided into three general topics: language, cognition, and social development. Eduardo Hernandez-Chavez discusses strategies in early second language acquisition and their implications for bilingual instruction. Eugene E. Garcia, Lento Maez, and Gustavo Gonzales examine the incidence of language switching in Spanish/English…

Garcia, Eugene E., Ed.

138

Cognitive Development Amanda Woodward, professor of psychology, studies babies because  

E-print Network

fitting babies as young as 3 months old with Velcro "sticky mittens" designed by Amy NeedhamCognitive Development in Infants Amanda Woodward, professor of psychology, studies babies because. In particular, Woodward probes how babies view other people. Human beings constantly infer other people's mental

Hill, Wendell T.

139

The Function of Cognitive Imaging in a Developing Research University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive imaging was investigated as one factor associated with the development of the University of New Mexico from an undergraduate teaching institution toward becoming a nationally-ranked graduate research university. A longitudinal, ethnohistorical study was undertaken for the 1967-1978 period. The qualitative research methodology involved an…

Bjork, Lars G.

140

Psychology 475/575 Cognitive Development: Winter 2011  

E-print Network

. Text: Siegler, R., & Alibali, M. W. (2005). Children's Thinking (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ cognitive development on a certain kind of environment (e.g., nutritional, familial, academic, and anticipate missing more than three classes, please come and discuss it with me. #12;2 Grading: Your grade

Lockery, Shawn

141

Psychology 475/575 Cognitive Development: Fall 2008  

E-print Network

is currently being made. Text: Siegler, R., & Alibali, M. W. (2005). Children's Thinking (4th Ed.). Upper species? How dependent is normal cognitive development on a certain kind of environment (e.g., nutritional it with Deniz and me. #12;2 Grading: Your grade in the course will be based on two exams (30% each) and a term

Lockery, Shawn

142

Psychology 475/575 Cognitive Development: Spring 2012  

E-print Network

. Text: Siegler, R., & Alibali, M. W. (2005). Children's Thinking (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ cognitive development on a certain kind of environment (e.g., nutritional, familial, academic, and anticipate missing more than three classes, please come and discuss it with me. #12;2 Grading: Your grade

Lockery, Shawn

143

Conservation and Conversation Types: Forms of Recognition and Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the productive role of social interaction between peers in promoting cognitive development has been clearly established, the communicative processes through which this is achieved is less clearly understood. Earlier work has established that different types of conversation become established between children as they work together on a…

Psaltis, Charis; Duveen, Gerard

2007-01-01

144

Thinking in Niches: Sociocultural Influences on Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of thinking from a sociocultural perspective, focusing on how Super and Harkness' (1986) concept of "developmental niche" may be used as a framework for organizing cognitive developmental research in relation to culture. Argues for the utility of this approach in furthering understanding of the precise linkages between…

Gauvain, Mary

1995-01-01

145

Contributions of Dynamic Systems Theory to Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the contributions of dynamic systems theory to the field of cognitive development, focusing on modeling using dynamic neural fields. After introducing central concepts of dynamic field theory (DFT), we probe empirical predictions and findings around two examples--the DFT of infant perseverative reaching that explains Piaget's A-not-B…

Spencer, John P.; Austin, Andrew; Schutte, Anne R.

2012-01-01

146

Cognitive-Linguistic Foundations of Early Spelling Development in Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing spelling skills in English is a particularly demanding task for Chinese speakers because, unlike many other bilinguals learning English as a second language, they must learn two languages with different orthography as well as phonology. To disentangle socioeconomic and pedagogical factors from the underlying cognitive-linguistic…

Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

2011-01-01

147

A Tutorial Introduction to Bayesian Models of Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an introduction to Bayesian inference as it is used in probabilistic models of cognitive development. Our goal is to provide an intuitive and accessible guide to the "what", the "how", and the "why" of the Bayesian approach: what sorts of problems and data the framework is most relevant for, and how and why it may be useful for…

Perfors, Amy; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Xu, Fei

2011-01-01

148

Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Moral Development in Undergraduate Business Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and cognitive moral development (CMD) in undergraduate business students. The ability model of emotional intelligence was used in this study, which evaluated possible relationships between EI and CMD in a sample of 82 undergraduate business students. The sample population was…

McBride, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

149

The Link between Nutrition and Cognitive Development in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New findings about child nutrition and cognitive development indicate that undernourished children are typically fatigued and uninterested in their social environments. Such children are less likely to establish relationships or to explore and learn from their surroundings. Undernourished children are also more susceptible to illness and, thus,…

Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

150

Cognitive development, philosophy and children's literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The child is bom with rudimentary thinking ability and develops this throughout life. However, not all thinking is good thinking, and educators should be aiming to encourage the best thinking possible. I consider the key educational factors in assisting the development of good thinking, based on theories of the social construction of thinking through dialogue. After considering the prevalent approach

Tim Sprod

1995-01-01

151

Effects of early rearing conditions on cognitive performance in prepubescent male and female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between a mother and her offspring during early postnatal life impact cognitive development in altricial species. The current study examined the influence of postnatal rearing conditions on subsequent cognitive functioning in male and female Long-Evans rats prior to puberty. Maternal conditions were manipulated by repeated separations of rat pups from their dams on postnatal days 2 though 14.

Kathryn A. Frankola; Arianna L. Flora; Amanda K. Torres; Elin M. Grissom; Stacy Overstreet; Gary P. Dohanich

2010-01-01

152

The development of emotion regulation: an fMRI study of cognitive reappraisal in children,  

E-print Network

The development of emotion regulation: an fMRI study of cognitive reappraisal in children linearly. However, recent investigations into socio-emotional development suggest that there are non. Keywords: reappraisal; emotion regulation; development; social; cognitive INTRODUCTION Emotion regulation

Ochsner, Kevin

153

Stability and Change of Cognitive Attributes in Children with Uneven/Delayed Cognitive Development from Preschool through Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an ongoing clinical service program for children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analyzed the cognitive attributes of 362 Taiwanese children (average age 48.5 plus or minus 12.9 month-old) with uneven/delayed cognitive development as they were assessed repeatedly with average duration of 39.7 plus or…

Yang, Pinchen; Lung, For-Wey; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

2010-01-01

154

Can Emphasising Cognitive Development Improve Academic Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children ordinarily begin their formal education at the age when the great majority of them are capable of understanding the role of addition and subtraction in changing number. In determining critical differences they can apply the oddity principle--the first "pure" abstraction that children ever develop--understanding that when all…

Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K.; Gadzichowski, Marinka K.; Gallington, Deborah A.; Saracina, Robin P.

2008-01-01

155

Can emphasising cognitive development improve academic achievement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Children ordinarily begin their formal education at the age when the great majority of them are capable of understanding the role of addition and subtraction in changing number. In determining critical differences they can apply the oddity principle – the first pure abstraction that children ever develop – understanding that when all but one item are alike on some

Robert Pasnak; Julie K. Kidd; Marinka K. Gadzichowski; Deborah A. Gallington; Robin P. Saracina

2008-01-01

156

The Development of Cognitive Skills through Archaeology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains methods for structuring student participation in an archaeological expedition to develop the students' self-worth and to increase appreciation for history as it relates to the students' lives. Skills acquired may include: (1) earth science; (2) mathematics; (3) map reading skills; (4) communication skills; (5) writing skills; (6)…

Danes, Lois M. J.

1989-01-01

157

Trajectories of Cognitive Development among American Indian Young Children  

PubMed Central

Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than did those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants from one Northern Plains reservation community were assessed 4 times between ages 6 months through 36 months, using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. At 6 months of age, scores were near the national norms; a drop occurred between 6 and 15 months. Scores then tended to level off below the norms through 36 months. In each domain, we observed a crucial decline over the first year of life and relatively little change in the second and third years of life, highlighting the importance of developing culturally syntonic interventions to facilitate cognitive development during the first year of life. PMID:21744958

Mitchell, Christina M.; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N.

2011-01-01

158

Computer-simulated development process of Chinese characters font cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research of Chinese characters cognition is an important research aspect of cognitive science and computer science, especially artificial intelligence. In this paper, according as the traits of Chinese characters the database of Chinese characters font representations and the model of computer simulation of Chinese characters font cognition are constructed from the aspect of cognitive science. The font cognition of

Jing Chen; Zhichun Mu; Dehui Sun; Dunli Hu

2008-01-01

159

Neural Substrates of the Development of Cognitive Control in Children Ages 5–10 Years  

E-print Network

Cognitive conflict detection and resolution develops with age across childhood and likely supports age-related increases in other aspects of cognitive and emotional development. Little is known about the neural correlates ...

Sheridan, Margaret

160

Vestibular activity and cognitive development in children: perspectives  

PubMed Central

Vestibular signals play an essential role in oculomotor and static and dynamic posturomotor functions. Increasing attention is now focusing on their impact on spatial and non-spatial cognitive functions. Movements of the head in space evoke vestibular signals that make important contributions during the development of brain representations of body parts relative to one another as well as representations of body orientation and position within the environment. A central nervous system pathway relays signals from the vestibular nuclei to the hippocampal system where this input is indispensable for neuronal responses selective for the position and orientation of the head in space. One aspect of the hippocampal systems’ processing to create episodic and contextual memories is its role in spatial orientation and navigation behaviors that require processing of relations between background cues. These are also impaired in adult patients with vestibular deficits. However little is known about the impact of vestibular loss on cognitive development in children. This is investigated here with a particular emphasis upon the hypothetical mechanisms and potential impact of vestibular loss at critical ages on the development of respective spatial and non-spatial cognitive processes and their brain substrates. PMID:24376403

Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette R.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Wiener, Sidney I.

2013-01-01

161

Vestibular activity and cognitive development in children: perspectives.  

PubMed

Vestibular signals play an essential role in oculomotor and static and dynamic posturomotor functions. Increasing attention is now focusing on their impact on spatial and non-spatial cognitive functions. Movements of the head in space evoke vestibular signals that make important contributions during the development of brain representations of body parts relative to one another as well as representations of body orientation and position within the environment. A central nervous system pathway relays signals from the vestibular nuclei to the hippocampal system where this input is indispensable for neuronal responses selective for the position and orientation of the head in space. One aspect of the hippocampal systems' processing to create episodic and contextual memories is its role in spatial orientation and navigation behaviors that require processing of relations between background cues. These are also impaired in adult patients with vestibular deficits. However little is known about the impact of vestibular loss on cognitive development in children. This is investigated here with a particular emphasis upon the hypothetical mechanisms and potential impact of vestibular loss at critical ages on the development of respective spatial and non-spatial cognitive processes and their brain substrates. PMID:24376403

Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette R; Hamilton, Derek A; Wiener, Sidney I

2013-01-01

162

Effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate exposure on offspring development and male reproduction of rat.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to assess the effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) exposure during late gestation on offspring's development and reproductive system of male rats. Pregnant rats were treated orally with DBP (2, 10, 50 mg/kg), BBP (4, 20, 100 mg/kg), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) 6 ?g/kg (positive control) from GD14 to parturition. A significant reduction in dams' body weight on GD21 in DBP-, BBP-, and DES-treated groups was observed. The gestation length was considerably elevated in the treated groups. Decline in male pups' body weight was significant at PND75 in DBP- (50 mg/kg), BBP- (20,100 mg/kg), and DES-treated groups. The weight of most of the reproductive organs and sperm quality parameters was impaired significantly in DBP- (50 mg/kg) and BBP- (100 mg/kg) treated groups. Further, a non-significant decline in testicular spermatid count and daily sperm production was also monitored in treated groups. A significant reduction in serum testosterone level in BBP (100 mg/kg), whereas the testicular activity of 17?-HSD was declined non-significantly in the treated groups with respect to control. The data suggests that DBP and BBP exposure during late gestation period might have adverse effects on offspring's development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis in adult rats. PMID:24213843

Ahmad, Rahish; Gautam, A K; Verma, Y; Sedha, S; Kumar, Sunil

2014-02-01

163

Pre-placement risk and longitudinal cognitive development for children adopted from foster care.  

PubMed

This study examined the trajectory of cognitive development over the first five years of adoptive placement among children adopted from foster care and how pre-adoption risk factors relate to this development. Overall, children's cognitive scores increased significantly, with the most rapid improvement occurring in the first year post-placement. By five years post-placement, children's mean cognitive and achievement scores were in the average range. Adoption is a positive intervention for children's cognitive development. PMID:24851473

Waterman, Jill M; Nadeem, Erum; Paczkowski, Emilie; Foster, Jared Cory; Lavner, Justin A; Belin, Thomas; Miranda, Jeanne

2013-01-01

164

Acquiring neural signals for developing a perception and cognition model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of how humans process information, determine salience, and combine seemingly unrelated information is essential to automated processing of large amounts of information that is partially relevant, or of unknown relevance. Recent neurological science research in human perception, and in information science regarding contextbased modeling, provides us with a theoretical basis for using a bottom-up approach for automating the management of large amounts of information in ways directly useful for human operators. However, integration of human intelligence into a game theoretic framework for dynamic and adaptive decision support needs a perception and cognition model. For the purpose of cognitive modeling, we present a brain-computer-interface (BCI) based humanoid robot system to acquire brainwaves during human mental activities of imagining a humanoid robot-walking behavior. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model. The BCI system consists of a data acquisition unit with an electroencephalograph (EEG), a humanoid robot, and a charge couple CCD camera. An EEG electrode cup acquires brainwaves from the skin surface on scalp. The humanoid robot has 20 degrees of freedom (DOFs); 12 DOFs located on hips, knees, and ankles for humanoid robot walking, 6 DOFs on shoulders and arms for arms motion, and 2 DOFs for head yaw and pitch motion. The CCD camera takes video clips of the human subject's hand postures to identify mental activities that are correlated to the robot-walking behaviors. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model.

Li, Wei; Li, Yunyi; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Lynch, Robert

2012-06-01

165

[Effects on children's cognitive development of chronic exposure to screens].  

PubMed

During the last few years, the time spent in front of various screens, including TV sets, video games, smartphones and computers, has dramatically increased. Numerous studies show, with a remarkable consistency, that this trend has a strong negative influence on the cognitive development of children and teenagers. The affected fields include, in particular, scholastic achievement, language, attention, sleep and aggression. We believe that this often disregarded - not to say denied - problem should now be considered a major public health issue. Primary care physicians should inform parents and children about this issue to support efficient prevention. PMID:22609414

Harlé, B; Desmurget, M

2012-07-01

166

Infant motor development and adult cognitive functions in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChildhood neuromotor dysfunction is a risk factor for schizophrenia, a disorder in which cognitive deficits are prominent. The relationship between early neurodevelopment and adult cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear.

G. K. Murray; P. B. Jones; K. Moilanen; J. Veijola; J. Miettunen; T. D. Cannon; M. Isohanni

2006-01-01

167

Cross-Cultural Studies on Cognitive Development of Chinese Children from Different Nationalities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed are recent studies of the cognitive development of Chinese children. The discussion identifies: (1) systematic studies of children's cognitive development; (2) studies on the development of thinking; (3) studies of memory development; and (4) studies on the influences of various national cultures and education on the development of…

Menglan, Zuo; Chang, Wei

168

The Early Cognitive Development of Children at High Risk of Developing an Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED) has been associated with differences in cognition. Recent evidence suggests that differences may be present prior to onset. Children at familial high risk for ED show cognitive differences at ages 8–10 years. Research is required to investigate differences in cognitive development at various time points. This is the first study to investigate cognitive development in children at high risk at 18 months (Griffiths Mental Development Scale; n = 982) and 4 years old (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised; n = 582), in comparison with children not at risk, using a general population sample, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Children of women with lifetime anorexia nervosa revealed difficulties in social understanding, visual-motor function, planning and abstract reasoning. Cognitive differences observed here have also been observed in clinical groups. This suggests difficulties may be present prior to onset, potentially affecting risk status for development of ED. Findings contribute to an understanding of aetiology, and design of prevention/intervention strategies. PMID:24375832

Kothari, Radha; Rosinska, Magda; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

2014-01-01

169

The early cognitive development of children at high risk of developing an eating disorder.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED) has been associated with differences in cognition. Recent evidence suggests that differences may be present prior to onset. Children at familial high risk for ED show cognitive differences at ages 8-10?years. Research is required to investigate differences in cognitive development at various time points. This is the first study to investigate cognitive development in children at high risk at 18?months (Griffiths Mental Development Scale; n=982) and 4?years old (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised; n=582), in comparison with children not at risk, using a general population sample, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Children of women with lifetime anorexia nervosa revealed difficulties in social understanding, visual-motor function, planning and abstract reasoning. Cognitive differences observed here have also been observed in clinical groups. This suggests difficulties may be present prior to onset, potentially affecting risk status for development of ED. Findings contribute to an understanding of aetiology, and design of prevention/intervention strategies. PMID:24375832

Kothari, Radha; Rosinska, Magda; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

2014-03-01

170

Gene expression profile of brain regions reflecting aberrations in nervous system development targeting the process of neurite extension of rat offspring exposed developmentally to glycidol.  

PubMed

We previously found that exposure to glycidol at 1000 ppm in drinking water caused axonopathy in maternal rats and aberrations in late-stage hippocampal neurogenesis, targeting the process of neurite extension in offspring. To identify the profile of developmental neurotoxicity of glycidol, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given drinking water containing glycidol from gestational day 6 until weaning on day 21 after delivery, and offspring at 0, 300 and 1000 ppm were subjected to region-specific global gene expression profiling. Four brain regions were selected to represent both cerebral and cerebellar tissues, i.e., the cingulate cortex, corpus callosum, hippocampal dentate gyrus and cerebellar vermis. Downregulated genes in the dentate gyrus were related to axonogenesis (Nfasc), myelination (Mal, Mrf and Ugt8), and cell proliferation (Aurkb and Ndc80) at???300 ppm, and upregulated genes were related to neural development (Frzb and Fzd6) at 1000 ppm. Upregulation was observed for genes related to myelination (Kl, Igf2 and Igfbp2) in the corpus callosum and axonogenesis and neuritogenesis (Efnb3, Tnc and Cd44) in the cingulate cortex, whereas downregulation was observed for genes related to synaptic transmission (Thbs2 and Ccl2) in the cerebellar vermis; all of these changes were mostly observed at 1000 ppm. Altered gene expression of Cntn3, which functions on neurite outgrowth-promotion, was observed in all four brain regions at 1000 ppm. Gene expression profiles suggest that developmental exposure to glycidol affected plasticity of neuronal networks in the broad brain areas, and dentate gyrus neurogenesis may be the sensitive target of this type of toxicity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24395379

Akane, Hirotoshi; Saito, Fumiyo; Shiraki, Ayako; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Itahashi, Megu; Wang, Liyun; Shibutani, Makoto

2014-12-01

171

Effects of infection with Nosema pyrausta on survival and development of offspring of laboratory selected Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible European corn borers.  

PubMed

Infection with Nosema pyrausta Paillot lengthens developmental period of Bt-susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) to a similar extent as feeding on Cry1Ab-incorporated diet in Cry1Ab-resistant O. nubilalis, and these two factors combined lengthen developmental period further than either alone. Resistant O. nubilalis mating with infected susceptible, or infected resistant partners would produce partially- and fully-resistant offspring, respectively, infected with N. pyrausta. To investigate the impacts on the progeny of such matings, test crosses were set up to produce partially- and fully Cry1Ab-resistant O. nubilalis offspring transovarially infected and not infected with N. pyrausta, which were exposed to Cry1Ab toxin at doses of 0, 3, or 30ng/cm(2) for 7days. Transovarial infection with N. pyrausta significantly decreased 7day survival of partially and fully-resistant O. nubilalis feeding on 30ng/cm(2) Cry1Ab. In addition, N. pyrausta infection delayed larval development (as measured by weight) of partially- and fully-resistant O. nubilalis feeding on 3 and 30ng/cm(2) Cry1Ab. Impacts of natural enemies on target pests may have the potential to impact evolution of resistance. N pyrausta-infected O. nubilalis are more strongly affected by feeding on Bt, and would be less likely to survive to adulthood to pass on resistance to the next generation. This indigenous microsporidium may work to delay evolution of resistance in O. nubilalis by lowering their ability to survive on Bt. PMID:20673768

Lopez, Miriam D; Sumerford, Douglas V; Lewis, Leslie C

2010-11-01

172

An investigation of relationship between identity development and cognitive development in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between identity development and cognitive development in adults. It has been suggested that formal operations as described by Piaget (1968) are a necessary but not sufficient component of identity achievement (Kurfiss, 1981; Marcia, 1980). However, attempts to delineate such a relationship may have been unsuccessful due in part to the

Joseph Michael Bigley

1995-01-01

173

The Effects of Cognitive Conflict Management on Cognitive Development and Science Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three teaching methods were compared in this study, namely a Cognitive Conflict Management Module (CCM) that is infused into Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE), (Module A) CASE without CCM (Module B) and a conventional teaching method. This study employed a pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design using non-equivalent…

Budiman, Zainol Badli; Halim, Lilia; Mohd Meerah, Subahan; Osman, Kamisah

2014-01-01

174

Dimensional psychopathology in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the dimensional psychopathology in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) with offspring of community control parents as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Methods Offspring of parents with BP, who were healthy or had no non-BP disorders (n = 319) and bipolar spectrum disorders (n = 35), and offspring of community controls (n = 235) ages 6–18 years old were compared using the CBCL, the CBCL-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP), and a sum of the CBCL items associated with mood lability. The results were adjusted for multiple comparisons and any significant between-group demographic and clinical differences in both biological parents and offspring. Results With few exceptions, several CBCL (e.g., Total, Internalizing, and Aggression Problems), CBCL-DP, and mood lability scores in non-BP offspring of parents with BP were significantly higher than in offspring of control parents. In addition, both groups of offspring showed significantly lower scores in most scales when compared with offspring of parents with BP who already developed BP. Similar results were obtained when analyzing the rates of subjects with CBCL T-scores that were two standard deviations or higher above the mean. Conclusions Even before developing BP, offspring of parents with BP had more severe and higher rates of dimensional psychopathology than offspring of control parents. Prospective follow-up studies in non-BP offspring of parents with BP are warranted to evaluate whether these dimensional profiles are prodromal manifestations of mood or other disorders and can predict those who are at higher risk to develop BP. PMID:22085480

Diler, Rasim Somer; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Obreja, Mihaela; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina; Sakolsky, Dara; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Kupfer, David

2011-01-01

175

Development of Anxiety-Like Behavior via Hippocampal IGF-2 Signaling in the Offspring of Parental Morphine Exposure: Effect of Enriched Environment.  

PubMed

Opioid addiction is a major social, economic, and medical problem worldwide. Long-term adverse consequences of chronic opiate exposure not only involve the individuals themselves but also their offspring. Adolescent maternal morphine exposure results in behavior and morphologic changes in the brain of their adult offspring. However, few studies investigate the effect of adult opiate exposure on their offspring. Furthermore, the underlying molecular signals regulating the intergenerational effects of morphine exposure are still elusive. We report here that morphine exposure of adult male and female rats resulted in anxiety-like behavior and dendritic retraction in the dentate gyrus (DG) region of the hippocampus in their adult offspring. The behavior and morphologic changes were concomitant with the downregulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 signaling in the granular zone of DG. Overexpression of hippocampal IGF-2 by bilateral intra-DG injection of lentivirus encoding the IGF-2 gene prevented anxiety-like behaviors in the offspring. Furthermore, exposure to an enriched environment during adolescence corrected the reduction of hippocampal IGF-2 expression, normalized anxiety-like behavior and reversed dendritic retraction in the adult offspring. Thus, parental morphine exposure can lead to the downregulation of hippocampal IGF-2, which contributed to the anxiety and hippocampal dendritic retraction in their offspring. An adolescent-enriched environment experience prevented the behavior and morphologic changes in their offspring through hippocampal IGF-2 signaling. IGF-2 and an enriched environment may be a potential intervention to prevention of anxiety and brain atrophy in the offspring of parental opioid exposure. PMID:24889368

Li, Chang-Qi; Luo, Yan-Wei; Bi, Fang-Fang; Cui, Tao-Tao; Song, Ling; Cao, Wen-Yu; Zhang, Jian-Yi; Li, Fang; Xu, Jun-Mei; Hao, Wei; Xing, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Fiona H; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Dai, Ru-Ping

2014-11-01

176

Iron and DHA in Relation to Early Cognitive Development  

E-print Network

as the main neurotransmitter associated with reward functions (31). The existence of individual roles of iron and DHA with dopamine is well established. When DHA brain content was decreased through an ?-linolenic acid deficient diet in a rodent study, dopamine... quotients 12 among offspring at 4 years of age (37). In Nepal, a study supplemented mothers with daily iron and folic acid, iron and zinc, or multiple micronutrients beginning early in pregnancy. The investigators found that iron and folic acid...

Park, Loran Marie

2013-05-31

177

From neural development to cognition: unexpected roles for chromatin  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-sequencing studies in human neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders have uncovered mutations in many chromatin regulators. These human genetic studies, along with studies in model organisms, are providing insight into chromatin regulatory mechanisms in neural development and how alterations to these mechanisms can cause cognitive deficits, such as intellectual disability. We discuss several implicated chromatin regulators, including BAF (also known as SWI/SNF) and CHD8 chromatin remodellers, HDAC4 and the Polycomb component EZH2. Interestingly, mutations in EZH2 and certain BAF complex components have roles in both neurodevelopmental disorders and cancer, and overlapping point mutations are suggesting functionally important residues and domains. We speculate on the contribution of these similar mutations to disparate disorders. PMID:23568486

Ronan, Jehnna L.; Wu, Wei

2014-01-01

178

Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: II-the developmental pattern of neurons in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.  

PubMed

Excessive concentrations of free radicals in the developing brain may lead to neurons maldevelopment and neurons damage and death. Thyroid hormones (THs) states play an important role in affecting the modulation of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. Thus, the objective of this study was to clarify the effect of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rat dams on the neurons development of different brain regions of their offspring at several postnatal weeks in relation to changes in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. The adult female rats were administered methimazole (MMI) in drinking water (0.02% w/v) from gestation day 1 to lactation day 21 to induce hypothyroidism and exogenous thyroxine (T4) in drinking water (0.002% w/v) beside intragastric incubation of 50--200 T4 ?g/kg body weight (b. wt.) to induce hyperthyroidism. In normal female rats, the sera total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) levels were detectably increased at day 10 post-partum than those at day 10 of pregnancy. Free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations in normal offspring were elevated at first, second and third postnatal weeks in an age-dependent manner. In hypothyroid group, a marked depression was observed in sera of dam TT3 and TT4 as well as offspring FT3, FT4 and GH, while there was a significant increase in TSH level with the age progress. The reverse pattern to latter state was recorded in hyperthyroid group. Concomitantly, in control offspring, the rate of neuron development in both cerebellar and cerebral cortex was increased in its density and complexity with age progress. This development may depend, largely, on THs state. Both maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism caused severe growth retardation in neurons of these regions of their offspring from the first to third weeks. Additionally, in normal offspring, seven antioxidant enzymes, four non-enzymatic antioxidants and one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation, LPO) followed a synchronized course of alterations in cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. In both thyroid states, the oxidative damage has been demonstrated by the increased LPO and inhibition of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in most examined ages and brain regions. These disturbances in the antioxidant defense system led to deterioration in the neuronal maturation and development. In conclusion, it can be suggested that the maldevelopment of neurons and dendrites in different brain regions of offspring of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid mother rat dams may be attributed, at least in part, to the excess oxidative stress and deteriorated antioxidant defense system in such conditions. PMID:22664656

Ahmed, O M; Ahmed, R G; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M

2012-10-01

179

The Developing Utility of Zebrafish Models for Cognitive Enhancers Research  

PubMed Central

Whereas cognitive impairment is a common symptom in multiple brain disorders, predictive and high-throughput animal models of cognition and behavior are becoming increasingly important in the field of translational neuroscience research. In particular, reliable models of the cognitive deficits characteristic of numerous neurobehavioral disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia have become a significant focus of investigation. While rodents have traditionally been used to study cognitive phenotypes, zebrafish (Danio rerio) are gaining popularity as an excellent model to complement current translational neuroscience research. Here we discuss recent advances in pharmacological and genetic approaches using zebrafish models to study cognitive impairments and to discover novel cognitive enhancers and neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:23449968

Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

2012-01-01

180

Information Literacy and its Relationship to Cognitive Development and Reflective Judgment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article maps the Association of College and Research Libraries' Information Competency Standards for Higher Education to the cognitive development levels developed by William G. Perry and Patricia King and Karen Kitchener to suggest which competencies are appropriate for which level of cognitive development. (Contains 1 table.)

Jackson, Rebecca

2008-01-01

181

Change in offspring sex ratio over a very short season in Lincoln’s Sparrows: the potential role of bill development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex ratios of offspring are targets of natural selection that can affect parental energy\\u000aexpenditure and fitness, adult sex ratios, and population dynamics. Parents may manipulate offspring sex ratios\\u000abased on sex differences in potential reproductive success. In Lincoln’s Sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii), male bill shape\\u000ais associated with the quality of songs, and song quality predicts female preferences in

E. B. Graham; S. P. Caro; K. W. Sockman

2011-01-01

182

The effects of cognitive moral development instruction on moral development scores of parochial high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of cognitive moral development instruction on students' moral reasoning development test scores.Design and procedures. The study utilized the Non-Equivalent Control Group Design developed by Campbell and Stanley (1969). A sample of 201 parochial high schools students was divided into Treatment and Non-Treatment groups, each completing an informational questionnaire and

John Edward Romeo

1987-01-01

183

Vijendravarma et al.: Parental effects in Drosophila 1 Effects of parental larval diet on egg size and offspring traits in  

E-print Network

. Their offspring developed 14 h (4%) faster on the poor food than offspring of well-fed parents. However, they were slightly smaller as adults. Thus, the effects of parental diet on offspring performance under malnutrition genotype and environment often influence offspring fitness through non- genetically transmitted parental

Alvarez, Nadir

184

New development in diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite availability of harmonized criteria for the investigation of patients with presumed “vascular cognitive impairment (VCI)” there exists no clear definition of VCI. The challenge lies in the definition of those vascular components being responsible for the cognitive–behavioural decline of elderly patients. We advocate the use of longitudinal brain MRI studies to establish what type and extent of lesion progression

Margherita Cavalieri; Reinhold Schmidt

2010-01-01

185

Operationalizing Cognitive Science and Technologies' Research and Development; the "Brain and Cognition Study Group (BCSG)" Initiative from Shiraz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in brain and cognitive science studies have revolutionized concepts in neural dynamics, regulating mechanisms, coding systems and information processing networks which govern our function and behavior. Hidden aspects of neurological and psychiatric diseases are being understood and hopes for their treatment are emerging. Although the two comprehensive mega-projects on brain mapping are in place in the United States and Europe; the proportion of science contributed by the developing countries should not be downsized. With the granted supports from the Cognitive Sciences and Technologies Council (CSTC), Iran can take its role in research on brain and cognition further. The idea of research and development in Cognitive Sciences and Technologies (CST) is being disseminated across the country by CSTC. Towards this goal, the first Shiraz interdisciplinary meeting on CST was held on 9 January 2014 in Namazi hospital, Shiraz. CST research priorities, infrastructure development, education and promotion were among the main topics discussed during this interactive meeting. The steering committee of the first CST meeting in Shiraz decided to frame future research works within the “Brain and Cognition Study Group-Shiraz” (BCSG-Shiraz). The study group comprises scientific leaders from various allied disciplines including neuroscience, neurosurgery, neurology, psychiatry, psychology, radiology, physiology, bioengineering, biophysics, applied physics and telecommunication. As the headquarter for CST in the southern Iran, BCSG-Shiraz is determined to advocate “brain and cognition” awareness, education and research in close collaboration with CSTC. Together with CSTC, Shiraz Neuroscience Research center (SNRC) will take the initiative to cross boundaries in interdisciplinary works and multi-centric research projects within the study group. PMID:25337368

Ashjazadeh, Nahid; Boostani, Reza; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Farrokhi, Majidreza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Hatam, Gholamreza; Hadianfard, Habib; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Mousavi, Maryam; Montakhab, Afshin; Nili, Majid; Razmkon, Ali; Salehi, Sina; Sodagar, Amir Mohammad; Setoodeh, Peiman; Taghipour, Mousa; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Vesal, Abdolkarim

2014-01-01

186

Operationalizing Cognitive Science and Technologies' Research and Development; the "Brain and Cognition Study Group (BCSG)" Initiative from Shiraz, Iran.  

PubMed

Recent advances in brain and cognitive science studies have revolutionized concepts in neural dynamics, regulating mechanisms, coding systems and information processing networks which govern our function and behavior. Hidden aspects of neurological and psychiatric diseases are being understood and hopes for their treatment are emerging. Although the two comprehensive mega-projects on brain mapping are in place in the United States and Europe; the proportion of science contributed by the developing countries should not be downsized. With the granted supports from the Cognitive Sciences and Technologies Council (CSTC), Iran can take its role in research on brain and cognition further. The idea of research and development in Cognitive Sciences and Technologies (CST) is being disseminated across the country by CSTC. Towards this goal, the first Shiraz interdisciplinary meeting on CST was held on 9 January 2014 in Namazi hospital, Shiraz. CST research priorities, infrastructure development, education and promotion were among the main topics discussed during this interactive meeting. The steering committee of the first CST meeting in Shiraz decided to frame future research works within the "Brain and Cognition Study Group-Shiraz" (BCSG-Shiraz). The study group comprises scientific leaders from various allied disciplines including neuroscience, neurosurgery, neurology, psychiatry, psychology, radiology, physiology, bioengineering, biophysics, applied physics and telecommunication. As the headquarter for CST in the southern Iran, BCSG-Shiraz is determined to advocate "brain and cognition" awareness, education and research in close collaboration with CSTC. Together with CSTC, Shiraz Neuroscience Research center (SNRC) will take the initiative to cross boundaries in interdisciplinary works and multi-centric research projects within the study group. PMID:25337368

Ashjazadeh, Nahid; Boostani, Reza; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Farrokhi, Majidreza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Hatam, Gholamreza; Hadianfard, Habib; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Mousavi, Maryam; Montakhab, Afshin; Nili, Majid; Razmkon, Ali; Salehi, Sina; Sodagar, Amir Mohammad; Setoodeh, Peiman; Taghipour, Mousa; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Vesal, Abdolkarim

2014-01-01

187

Maternal smoking during late pregnancy and offspring smoking behaviour  

E-print Network

Maternal smoking during late pregnancy and offspring smoking behaviour M.R. Munafo` a,*, E of maternal smoking during late pregnancy on the likelihood of smoking among offspring in adolescence Development Study. Longitudinal analysis indicated that maternal smoking during late pregnancy was associated

188

The Development of New Measures of Cognitive Variables in Elementary School Children (Phase II). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report covers Phase II of a two-phase project concerned with the development of new measures of cognitive variables in elementary school children. The four tasks undertaken in Phase II were: (1) prepare, revise and describe instruments designed to measure the cognitive variables categorized as concept formation, language development, logical…

Asher, J. William; And Others

189

Mother's Age at Arrival in the United States and Early Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the cognitive development of young children from diverse backgrounds with a particular focus on ethnic and nativity differences in home environments. Hypotheses are developed addressing the extent to which home environment and parenting practices mediate the relationship between mother's age at arrival and cognitive

Glick, Jennifer E.; Bates, Littisha; Yabiku, Scott T.

2009-01-01

190

Rate of Physical Growth and Its Affect on Head Start Children's Motor and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…

Marcon, Rebecca A.

191

Cognitive development in macaques: Attentional set-shifting in juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans and nonhuman primates, the structure and function of frontal cortical regions of the brain are not completely developed until early adulthood. How this cortical development affects cognitive function continues to be elucidated. To that end, this experiment tested the ability of juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys to perform a cognitive task that is dependent upon intact frontal cortical

M. R. Weed; R. Bryant; S. Perry

2008-01-01

192

Experimental Comparison of the Reproductive Outcomes and Early Development of the Offspring of Rats Given Five Common Types of Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Tap water (unfiltered), filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water) are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients) of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague–Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI) and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA); the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy. PMID:25279561

Zeng, Hui; Shu, Wei-qun; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Lin; Wang, Da-hua; Fu, Wen-juan; Wang, Ling-qiao; Luo, Jiao-hua; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Yao; Qiu, Zhi-qun; Huang, Yu-jing

2014-01-01

193

The mediating role of interpersonal cognition on the relationships between personality and adolescent ego development.  

PubMed

The author investigated whether interpersonal cognition mediated the relationships between defense, social sensitivity, and ego development. Participants (N = 616; M age = 15.66 years, SD = .52 year; 276 boys) from northwestern Taiwan completed a battery of questionnaires. Structural equation modeling and mediation analyses supported the hypothesis that interpersonal cognition would mediate the path between defense and ego development, and the path between social sensitivity and ego development. Defense and social sensitivity were found to have direct effects on ego development. The study provides evidence of the mediating effect of interpersonal cognition on the association between personality and ego development. PMID:23534193

Liu, Yih-Lan

2013-01-01

194

CORAL: A WiFi based cognitive radio development platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

CORAL is a WiFi based wireless terminal building block that can be used to implement cognitive radio networks (CRN). Its cognitive capabilities are created by providing a PHY and MAC control framework around a standard off-the-shelf WiFi router containing multiple radios. In doing this we implement a CRN that has sensing capabilities and is able to control radio emissions in

John Sydor

2010-01-01

195

The effects of early maternal employment on child cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of early maternal employment on children’s cognitive outcomes, using data from the National Longitudinal\\u000a Survey of Youth on 1,872 children who can be followed from birth to age 7 or 8. We found some persistent adverse effects of\\u000a first-year maternal employment and some positive effects of second- and third-year maternal employment on cognitive outcomes\\u000a for non-Hispanic

Jane Waldfogel; Wen-Jui Han; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

2002-01-01

196

Parental Diabetes: The Akita Mouse as a Model of the Effects of Maternal and Paternal Hyperglycemia in Wildtype Offspring  

PubMed Central

Aim/Hypothesis Maternal diabetes and high-fat feeding during pregnancy have been linked to later life outcomes in offspring. To investigate the effects of both maternal and paternal hyperglycemia on offspring phenotypes, we utilized an autosomal dominant mouse model of diabetes (hypoinsulinemic hyperglycemia in Akita mice). We determined metabolic and skeletal phenotypes in wildtype offspring of Akita mothers and fathers. Results Both maternal and paternal diabetes resulted in phenotypic changes in wildtype offspring. Phenotypic changes were more pronounced in male offspring than in female offspring. Maternal hyperglycemia resulted in metabolic and skeletal phenotypes in male wildtype offspring. Decreased bodyweight and impaired glucose tolerance were observed as were reduced whole body bone mineral density and reduced trabecular bone mass. Phenotypic changes in offspring of diabetic fathers differed in effect size from changes in offspring of diabetic mothers. Male wildtype offspring developed a milder metabolic phenotype, but a more severe skeletal phenotype. Female wildtype offspring of diabetic fathers were least affected. Conclusions Both maternal and paternal diabetes led to the development of metabolic and skeletal changes in wildtype offspring, with a greater effect of maternal diabetes on metabolic parameters and of paternal diabetes on skeletal development. The observed changes are unlikely to derive from Mendelian inheritance, since the investigated offspring did not inherit the Akita mutation. While fetal programming may explain the phenotypic changes in offspring exposed to maternal diabetes in-utero, the mechanism underlying the effect of paternal diabetes on wildtype offspring is unclear. PMID:23209676

Grasemann, Corinna; Devlin, Maureen J.; Rzeczkowska, Paulina A.; Herrmann, Ralf; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Grynpas, Marc; Alm, Christina; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Palmert, Mark R.

2012-01-01

197

Maternal care affects male and female offspring working memory and stress reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in maternal care affect the development of individual differences in learning and memory and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adult male offspring, but it is not known how variations in maternal care affect adult female offspring. The present study investigated the performance of adult Sprague–Dawley male and female offspring exposed to either low or high levels of maternal licking\\/grooming

Cindy K. Barha; Jodi L. Pawluski; Liisa A. M. Galea

2007-01-01

198

Development of Online Cognitive and Algorithm Tests as Assessment Tools in Introductory Computer Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the online cognitive and algorithm tests, which were developed in order to determine if certain cognitive factors and fundamental algorithms correlate with the performance of students in their introductory computer science course. The tests were implemented among Management Information Systems majors from the Philippines and…

Avancena, Aimee Theresa; Nishihara, Akinori; Vergara, John Paul

2012-01-01

199

Reflections of Evolution and Culture in Children's Cognition: Implications for Mathematical Development and Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evolution-based framework for understanding biological and cultural influences on children's cognitive and academic development is presented. The utility of this framework is illustrated within the mathematical domain and serves as a foundation for examining current approaches to educational reform in the United States. Within this framework, there are two general classes of cognitive ability, biologically primary and biologically secondary.

David C. Geary

1995-01-01

200

Parent-Child Co-Viewing of Television and Cognitive Development of the Chinese Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between parent-child co-viewing of television and the cognitive development of the child. Both survey and experiment methods were employed to determine the participants' television viewing habits and their cognitive achievements after watching a pre-recorded programme under different conditions. The…

Jinqiu, Zhao; Xiaoming, Hao

2004-01-01

201

Cognitive therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: development and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the development of a cognitive therapy (CT) program for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that is based on a recent cognitive model (Behav. Res. Therapy 38 (2000) 319). In a consecutive case series, 20 PTSD patients treated with CT showed highly significant improvement in symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety. A subsequent randomized controlled trial compared CT (N=14)

Anke Ehlers; David M. Clark; Ann Hackmann; Freda McManus; Melanie Fennell

2005-01-01

202

Developing Cognitive and Creative Skills Through Art: Programs for Children with Communication Disorders or Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a basic text for graduate courses in art therapy with handicapped children, the book contains discussions of the role of art in the handicapped child's education and the development of cognitive and creative skills through the use of art. In the first of two parts, the range of opportunities in art for cognition, adjustment, and…

Silver, Rawley A.

203

Cognitive Level of Development and Mathematical Fluency of First Grade Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to investigate the cognitive level of development and mathematical fluency of first grade children. A total of (N = 100) 6- and 7-year-olds from two low socioeconomic level elementary schools participated in this study. Piaget's conservation-of-liquid task was administered to children to determine their cognitive level of…

Wubbena, Zane C.

2010-01-01

204

Development of an instrument for measuring cognitive conflict in secondary-level science classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on conceptual change theory, cognitive conflict is known as an important factor in conceptual change even though there are still questions about its positive and negative effects on science learning. However, there is no reliable method by which to assess the cognitive conflict students experience in their learning. The purpose of this research was to develop an instrument for

Gyoungho Lee; Jaesool Kwon; Sang-Suk Park; Jung-Whan Kim; Hyeok-Gu Kwon; Hac-Kyoo Park

2003-01-01

205

Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

2012-01-01

206

The Role of Falsification in the Development of Cognitive Architectures: Insights from a Lakatosian Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive architectures should be understood as theories…

Cooper, Richard P.

2007-01-01

207

Anxiety, Processing Efficiency, and Cognitive Performance: New Developments from Attentional Control Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many attempts to account theoretically for the effects of anxiety on cognitive performance. This article focuses on two theories based on insights from cognitive psychology. The more recent is the attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), which developed from the earlier processing efficiency theory (Eysenck & Calvo, 1992). Both theories assume there is a

Nazanin Derakshan; Michael W. Eysenck

2009-01-01

208

Maternal nutrient restriction affects properties of skeletal muscle in offspring  

PubMed Central

Maternal nutrient restriction (NR) affects fetal development with long-term consequences on postnatal health of offspring, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. Most studies have been conducted in fetuses in late gestation, and little information is available on the persistent impact of NR from early to mid-gestation on properties of offspring skeletal muscle, which was the aim of this study. Pregnant ewes were subjected to 50% NR from day 28–78 of gestation and allowed to deliver. The longissimus dorsi muscle was sampled from 8-month-old offspring. Maternal NR during early to mid-gestation decreased the number of myofibres in the offspring and increased the ratio of myosin IIb to other isoforms by 17.6 ± 4.9% (P < 0.05) compared with offspring of ad libitum fed ewes. Activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, a key enzyme controlling fatty acid oxidation, was reduced by 24.7 ± 4.5% (P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle of offspring of NR ewes and would contribute to increased fat accumulation observed in offspring of NR ewes. Intramuscular triglyceride content (IMTG) was increased in skeletal muscle of NR lambs, a finding which may be linked to predisposition to diabetes in offspring of NR mothers, since enhanced IMTG predisposes to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated downregulation of several catabolic enzymes in 8-month-old offspring of NR ewes. These data demonstrate that the early to mid-gestation period is important for skeletal muscle development. Impaired muscle development during this stage of gestation affects the number and composition of fibres in offspring which may lead to long-term physiological consequences, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. PMID:16763001

Zhu, Mei J; Ford, Stephen P; Means, Warrie J; Hess, Bret W; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Du, Min

2006-01-01

209

Contributions of societal modernity to cognitive development: a comparison of four cultures.  

PubMed

This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old children (N = 192) on 7 cognitive measures were examined. Results replicated age-related improvement on all measures. Contributions of modernity were evident in children's play behaviors and cognitive performances, especially in skills related to schooling. Modernization and schooling independently predicted differences on most of the measures. Results are discussed in relation to the Flynn effect, the worldwide increase in cognitive scores across generations, and the ways in which societal modernization may contribute to cognitive development. PMID:19930342

Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L

2009-01-01

210

Development of an Instrument for Evaluating Anxiety Caused by Cognitive Conflict  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics learning situations often involve many cognitive conflicts between a student's present understandings and new information being learned. Cognitive conflict is known as an important factor in conceptual change. Therefore, it is important to help physics teachers and students develop skills and knowledge for more effective conflict management. However there is no readily available method to monitor the existence and features of cognitive conflicts that students may encounter during their learning. We focus the study on student anxiety caused by cognitive conflict so that we can improve student motivation. This study is targeted to develop an easy-to-use instrument that can be implemented in the classrooms to monitor student anxiety in cognitive conflict situations and the effects on student motivation. In this paper, we will discuss the structure of this instrument and show results from using this tool in our Physics by Inquiry class.

Kim, Yeounsoo; Bao, Lei

2010-01-18

211

Maternal Transfer of BDE-47 to Offspring and Neurobehavioral Development in C57BL/6J Mice  

PubMed Central

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used worldwide in a variety of commercial goods, and are now widely found in both environmental and biological samples. BDE-47 is one of the most pervasive of these PBDE congeners and therefore is of particular concern. In this study C57BL/6J mice were exposed perinatally to 0.03, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg/day of BDE-47, a dose range chosen to encompass human exposure levels. Tissue levels of BDE-47 were measured in the blood, brain, fat and milk of dams and in whole fetal homogenate and blood and brain of pups on gestational day (GD) 15, and postnatal days (PND) 1, 10 and 21. From GD 15 to PND 1 levels of BDE-47 increased within dam tissue and then decreased from PND 1 to 21. Over the period of lactation levels in dam milk were comparatively high when compared to both brain and blood for all dose groups. Measurable levels of BDE-47 were found in the fetus on GD 15 confirming gestational exposure. From PND 1 to 21, levels of BDE-47 in pup tissue increased over the period of lactation due to the transfer of BDE-47 through milk. Behavioral tests of fine motor function and learning and memory were carried out between postnatal weeks 5–17 in order to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of BDE-47. Behavioral deficits were only seen in the Barnes spatial maze where mice in the three exposure groups had longer latencies and traveled longer distances to find the escape hole when compared to vehicle control mice. These results support the conclusions that perinatal exposure to BDE-47 can have neurodevelopmental consequences, and that lactational exposure represents a significant exposure risk during development. PMID:23022914

Koenig, Claire M.; Lango, Jozsef; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.

2012-01-01

212

Educating the Developing Mind: The View from Cognitive Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demetriou, Spanoudis, and Mouyi have provided a comprehensive view of the relation between a model of the mind and the process of education. The model they propose is based on cognitive theories of mental action, rather than neuroscientific evidence. I argue here that that is the correct approach, for a model of the information processing…

Hunt, Earl

2012-01-01

213

Avram Noam Chomsky and His Cognitive Development Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, cognitive scientist, logician, historian, political critic and activist. Chomsky is an Institute Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy at MIT where he has worked for over fifty years. Chomsky has been described as the father of modern linguistics and a major…

Costley, Kevin C.; Nelson, Jaime

2013-01-01

214

Bounded Rationality and Cognitive Development: Upper Limits on Growth?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Piaget's characterization of formal operational thought and human judgment psychologists' model of bounded rationality are two conflicting models dealing with the nature and limits of mature thought. However, a look at the respective databases demonstrates their complementarity and their contribution to understanding mature cognition. (Author/RD)

Shaklee, Harriet

1979-01-01

215

Genetic Stability of Cognitive Development from Childhood to Adulthood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A path model of genetic and family environmental transmission was fitted to published twin correlations and to general cognitive ability data from adoptive and nonadoptive families in which children were tested yearly through the fourth year. Longitudinal genetic correlations from infancy to adulthood were modeled explicitly, as were effects of…

DeFries, J. C.; And Others

1987-01-01

216

Environmental Risk and Young Children's Cognitive and Behavioral Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a longitudinal, large-scale sample of British twins, we addressed the prediction of both cognitive abilities and behavioral adjustment from eight domains of environmental risk: minority status, socio-economic status, maternal medical factors, twin medical factors, maternal depression, chaos within the home environment, and parental feelings…

Pike, Alison; Iervolino, Alessandra C.; Eley, Thalia C.; Price, Thomas S.; Plomin, Robert

2006-01-01

217

Cognitive and Social Constructivism: Developing Tools for an Effective Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective classroom, where teachers and students are communicating optimally, is dependent on using constructivist strategies, tools and practices. There are two major types of constructivism in the classroom: (1) Cognitive or individual constructivism depending on Piaget's theory, and (2) Social constructivism depending on Vygotsky's theory.…

Powell, Katherine C.; Kalina, Cody J.

2009-01-01

218

Using Cognitive Flexibility Hypertext to Develop Sexual Harassment Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of cognitive flexibility theory as a theoretical framework for designing hypertext has been found to be beneficial for learning in ill-structured domains. However, little is known of what role the learning task plays in the effectiveness of this approach. The present study examined the relationship between task, navigation, and learning…

Harvey, Douglas M.; Godshalk, Veronica M.; Milheim, William D.

2002-01-01

219

Learning Style Profile Handbook: I. Developing Cognitive Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) published a new learning style instrument in 1986--the NASSP Learning Style Profile (LSP). The LSP yields independent scores on 24 discrete elements of learning style. Its purpose is to provide educators with a well-validated and easy to use instrument for diagnosing cognitive styles,…

Jenkins, John M.; And Others

220

Maternal Dietary Restriction Alters Offspring's Sleep Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD) or 50% dietary restriction (DR) groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8–9 weeks), we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (Ppar?) and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c) mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure. PMID:23741310

Shimizu, Noriyuki; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Nishi, Yuina; Harada, Saki; Iwaki, Yohei; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Sei, Hiroyoshi

2013-01-01

221

Randi, the Round-the-Clock Rabbit: An Allegory Based on Perry's Theory of Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

William Perry's description of college students' stages of cognitive development is condensed into four classification categories, which are explained and told in an animal allegory. This presentation clarifies the theory for teacher use. (MSE)

Domholdt, Elizabeth; Preusz, Gerald

1987-01-01

222

Paternal care in a fish: epigenetics and fitness enhancing effects on offspring anxiety.  

PubMed

In many animals, including humans, interactions with caring parents can have long-lasting effects on offspring sensitivity to stressors. However, whether these parental effects impact offspring fitness in nature is often unclear. In addition, despite evidence that maternal care can influence offspring behaviour via epigenetic alterations to the genome, it remains unclear whether paternal care has similar effects. Here, we show in three-spined sticklebacks, a fish in which fathers are the sole provider of offspring care, that the direct care provided by fathers affects offspring anxiety and the potential for epigenetic alterations to the offspring genome. We find that families are differentially vulnerable to early stress and fathers can compensate for this differential sensitivity with the quality of their care. This variation in paternal care is also linked to the expression in offspring brains of a DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt3a) responsible for de novo methylation. We show that these paternal effects are potentially adaptive and anxious offspring are unlikely to survive an encounter with a predator. By supplying offspring care, fathers reduce offspring anxiety thereby increasing the survival of their offspring-not in the traditional sense through resource provisioning but through an epigenetic effect on offspring behavioural development. PMID:25232132

McGhee, Katie E; Bell, Alison M

2014-11-01

223

The Integration of Cognition and Emotion during Infancy and Early Childhood: Regulatory Processes Associated with the Development of Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 4 1/2-years of…

Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann

2007-01-01

224

The relationship of moral development to intelligence and cognitive complexity  

E-print Network

Itelligence Scale (WAIS), the Defining Issues Test (DIT), and the Modified Role Construct Repertory Test (REP). The WAIS and DIT D score correlated moderately and significantly for the total group but most of the correlation was due to the males' scores.... Males with high verbal II) scores were the most morally advanced. It was suggested that this was due to empathic skills. No signifi- cant correlations were found between the REP and DIT or between the REP and WAIS indicating that cognitive complexity...

Wood, Joe Dunham

2012-06-07

225

Motor and cognitive development: the role of karate  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: regular physical activity has an effect on biological responses in both muscles and organs that, in turn, alter the structure and functions of the brain. Therefore, this study aims at comparing motor (sprint, coordination ability and explosive legs strength skills) and cognitive abilities (working memory, attention, executive functioning) in children. Methods: 39 children with average chronological age of 9 years were divided in: Karatekas (n=19) and Sedentary (n=20) groups. Their abilities were measured by motor and cognitive tests. Motor skills were assessed through a battery composed by the 20 mt Sprint test, the Agility test and the Standing board jump Test. Cognitive profile was assessed by a battery of tests derived from BVN 5–11, “Batteria di Valutazione Neuropsicologica per l’Et à Evolutiva”: Visual discrimination test, Reaction time test, Forwards and Backwards Digit Span Tests, Corsi Block-Tapping test and Tower of London. Results: our results reveal significant differences between two groups (p < 0.05). Karate children show better speed times, explosive legs strength and coordination skills. They scored better on working memory, visual selective attention and executive functions. Conclusion: karate exercise training shows global benefits resulting in physiological and psychological gains in children. PMID:25332920

Alesi, Marianha; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Vella, Francesco Paolo; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

2014-01-01

226

Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Cognitive Development in Children to Age 8 Years: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood trauma exposure has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The influence of timing of exposure on the magnitude and persistence of deficits is not well understood. The impact of exposure in early development has been especially under-investigated. This study examined the impact of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) in the first years of life on childhood cognitive functioning. Methods Children (N = 206) participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study were assessed prospectively for exposure to IPT (physical or emotional abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing maternal partner violence) between birth and 64 months. Child intelligent quotient scores (IQ) were assessed at 24, 64, and 96 months of age. Race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home were also assessed. Results IPT was significantly associated with decreased cognitive scores at all time points, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home. IPT in the first two years appeared to be especially detrimental. On average, compared to children not exposed to IPT in the first two years, exposed children scored one-half standard deviation lower across cognitive assessments. Conclusion IPT in early life may have adverse effects on cognitive development. IPT during the first two years may have particular impact, with effects persisting at least into later childhood. PMID:22493459

Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Blood, Emily; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

2013-01-01

227

Neonatal behavior and infant cognitive development in rhesus macaques produced by assisted reproductive technologies.  

PubMed

Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) used in fertility clinics include in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), followed by embryo transfer into the biological or a surrogate mother. Over 1,000,000 liveborn offspring--an estimated 1 in 150 United States newborns--have been produced worldwide by ART since 1978. IVF appears to produce healthy children in singleton pregnancies, though concerns remain regarding preterm deliveries, multiple pregnancies, as well as the longer-term consequences of all ART procedures. Clinical studies remain difficult to interpret and subject to confounding variables, as developmental problems may be due to a parent's reproductive conditions rather than, or in addition to, an ART procedure. Also, because of expense and time commitments, the United States ART clinical population is not fully representative of society diversities. This socio-economic skewing might compensate for negative effects, masking small, or modest developmental deficits. Embryo splitting (ES), an ART procedure used only with animals, can produce genetically identical offspring. ES involves dividing four- to eight-cell embryos into separate blastomeres and implanting them into empty zona pellucida, followed by embryo transfer. Although these ART techniques have produced nonhuman primate offspring, there has been no research on behavioral safety. Here, we report the first study of behavioral development by rhesus macaques infants produced through ES, ICSI, and IVF. We assessed neonatal reflexes, self-feeding ability, recognition memory, object concept attainment, simple discrimination learning and reversal, and learning set (LS) acquisition. Although the sample sizes are small, we found no overall ART group delayed development. Surprisingly, the ES and ICSI monkeys appeared to be accelerated in attaining age milestones involving sensory-motor behaviors and a difficult Well Hiding object concept task. We conclude that macaque monkeys may provide an excellent model for the study of early human development by offspring of parents with conditions requiring ART pregnancies, as well as a model for the behavioral study of genetic-environment interactions using identical twins produced by ES. PMID:16568416

Sackett, Gene; Ruppenthal, Gerald; Hewitson, Laura; Simerly, Calvin; Schatten, Gerald

2006-04-01

228

The Evolution of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Schizophrenia: Current Practice and Recent Developments  

PubMed Central

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) evolved from behavioral theory and developed to focus more on cognitive models that incorporated reappraisal of thinking errors and schema change strategies. This article will describe the key elements of CBT for schizophrenia and the current evidence of its efficacy and effectiveness. We conclude with a description of recent concepts that extend the theoretical basis of practice and expand the range of CBT strategies for use in schizophrenia. Mindfulness, meta-cognitive approaches, compassionate mind training, and method of levels are postulated as useful adjuncts for CBT with psychotic patients. PMID:19661198

Tai, Sara; Turkington, Douglas

2009-01-01

229

Importance of early lighting conditions in maternal care by dam as well as anxiety and memory later in life of offspring.  

PubMed

Rodent studies have revealed that the early rearing environment plays an important role in the development of stress vulnerability, memory and cognition. Although early lighting conditions (ELC) are involved in these neuronal developments through both maternal and offspring behavior, their influence has not been fully elucidated. Thus, by using Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined whether ELC affected maternal care by the dam and the subsequent neurodevelopment of the offspring. Prolonged dark phase conditions (PDC) (light/dark, 6/18 h) and prolonged light phase conditions (light/dark, 18/6 h) were administered from postnatal day 2 to postnatal day 14. Throughout this period, maternal care and the circadian rhythmicity of dams were investigated. In adolescence and adulthood of the offspring, we measured anxiety-like behavior, social interaction, object recognition memory, activity rhythm and corticosterone response to stress with hippocampal expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate and glucocorticoid receptor mRNAs. PDC altered maternal care and circadian rhythmicity in the dam compared with normal lighting conditions and prolonged light phase conditions. PDC markedly increased anxiety-like behavior, decreased social interaction and object recognition memory, and inhibited corticosterone feedback in offspring later in life. Furthermore, hippocampal levels of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B mRNA in rats subjected to PDC were significantly lower than in animals subjected to normal lighting conditions. In the adult offspring, the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity was not affected. These findings suggested that ELC affect mother-infant interactions and subsequently at least partially alter the neurobehavioral development of offspring. PMID:17328777

Toki, Shigeru; Morinobu, Shigeru; Imanaka, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Honma, Ken-ichi

2007-02-01

230

Experimental evidence for offspring learning in parent-offspring communication.  

PubMed Central

The offspring of birds and mammals solicit food from their parents by a combination of movements and vocalizations that have come to be known collectively as 'begging'. Recently, begging has most often been viewed as an honest signal of offspring need. Yet, if offspring learn to adjust their begging efforts to the level that rewards them most, begging intensities may also reflect offsprings' past experience rather than their precise current needs. Here we show that bird nestlings with equal levels of need can learn to beg at remarkably different levels. These experiments with hand-raised house sparrows (Passer domesticus) indicated that chicks learn to modify begging levels within a few hours. Moreover, we found that the begging postures of hungry chicks in natural nests are correlated with the average postures that had previously yielded them parental feedings. Such learning challenges parental ability to assess offspring needs and may require that, in response, parents somehow filter out learned differences in offspring signals. PMID:12233768

Kedar, H; Rodríguez-Gironés, M A; Yedvab, S; Winkler, D W; Lotem, A

2000-01-01

231

Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24?h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology. PMID:25071719

Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

2014-01-01

232

Cheating honeybee workers produce royal offspring  

PubMed Central

The Cape bee (Apis mellifera capensis) is unique among honeybees in that workers can lay eggs that instead of developing into males develop into females via thelytokous parthenogenesis. We show that this ability allows workers to compete directly with the queen over the production of new queens. Genetic analyses using microsatellites revealed that 23 out of 39 new queens produced by seven colonies were offspring of workers and not the resident queen. Of these, eight were laid by resident workers, but the majority were offspring of parasitic workers from other colonies. The parasites were derived from several clonal lineages that entered the colonies and successfully targeted queen cells for parasitism. Hence, these parasitic workers had the potential to become genetically reincarnated as queens. Of the daughter queens laid by the resident queen, three were produced asexually, suggesting that queens can ‘choose’ to produce daughter queens clonally and thus have the potential for genetic immortality. PMID:18048282

Jordan, Lyndon A; Allsopp, Michael H; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Wossler, Theresa C; Beekman, Madeleine

2007-01-01

233

Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development  

PubMed Central

Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition. PMID:24592214

Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

2014-01-01

234

Development and validation of the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery for Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurocognitive assessment in individuals with intellectual disabilities requires a well-validated test battery. To meet this\\u000a need, the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB) has been developed specifically to assess the cognitive phenotype in Down\\u000a syndrome (DS). The ACTB includes neuropsychological assessments chosen to 1) assess a range of skills, 2) be non-verbal so\\u000a as to not confound the neuropsychological assessment with

Jamie O. Edgin; Gina M. Mason; Melissa J. Allman; George T. Capone; Iser DeLeon; Cheryl Maslen; Roger H. Reeves; Stephanie L. Sherman; Lynn Nadel

2010-01-01

235

Movement and motor development in ELBW infants at 1 year is related to cognitive and motor abilities at 4 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relationship between motor ability and cognitive performance has been previously reported. This study aimed to investigate the association between movement and cognitive performance at 1 and 4 years corrected age of children born less than 1000 g, and whether developmental testing of movement at 1 year is predictive of cognitive performance at 4 years. Motor development was assessed at

Yvonne Burns; Michael O'Callaghan; Brian McDonell; Yvonne Rogers

2004-01-01

236

The Development of Graphophonological-Semantic Cognitive Flexibility and Its Contribution to Reading Comprehension in Beginning Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading-specific and general color-shape cognitive flexibility were assessed in 68 first and second graders to examine: 1) the development of graphophonological-semantic cognitive flexibility (the ability to process concurrently phonological and semantic aspects of print) in comparison to color-shape cognitive flexibility, 2) the contribution of…

Cartwright, Kelly B.; Marshall, Timothy R.; Dandy, Kristina L.; Isaac, Marisa C.

2010-01-01

237

Cognitive Expertise, Emotional Development and Reflective Capacity: Clinical Skills for Improved Pain Care  

PubMed Central

The overarching goal of medical training is to nurture the growth of knowledgeable, caring and insightful clinicians guided by the ideals of medical professionalism. Recent definitions of professional competence identify essential clinical skills, including cognitive expertise, emotional competence, and reflective capacity. This modern framework reflects the increasingly complex nature of the patient-clinician interaction, in which the clinician must exchange diagnostic information while supportively engaging the patient on a deeper, affective level. The affective dimension can be particularly potent when pain is the primary symptom, as it is for the majority of medical visits. Unfortunately, however, current models of professionalism, used as an early guide for medical trainees to develop an understanding of the clinical exchange, largely focus on interactions in the cognitive domain. To emphasize the importance of emotions in professional development, we propose the Cognitive and Emotional Preparedness Model (CEPM), which describes the clinical encounter occurring on two channels, one cognitive and the other emotional, and stresses the importance of multidimensional development in preparing the clinician to 1) communicate clinical information, 2) provide emotional support, and 3) actively reflect on experiences for continued improvement. Together, acquisition of knowledge, emotional development, and reflective skill will improve the clinical interaction. Perspective The proficiency of medical trainees in developing clinical skills profoundly shapes patient satisfaction and treatment outcomes. This article reviews the cognitive, emotional and reflective development of medical trainees and presents a model illustrating how clinical development impacts pain care. For improved efficacy, pain education should be calibrated to students' developmental needs. PMID:18984501

Murinson, Beth B.; Agarwal, Aakash K.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.

2008-01-01

238

Parent–offspring recognition in tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent–offspring recognition appears to be highly developed in species in which the risk of misdirecting care is high (e.g. colonial species). Some of the best evidence for this relationship comes from comparative work on swallows of the family Hirundinidae. Using methods followed in earlier studies, we determined whether parent–offspring recognition occurs in the tree swallow,Tachycineta bicolora non-colonial species closely related

MARTY L LEONARD; ANDREW G HORN; CORY R BROWN; NICOLE J FERNANDEZ

1997-01-01

239

Maternal and developmental immune challenges alter behavior and learning ability of offspring  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of the offspring immune response during development is known to influence growth and behavioral phenotype. However, the potential for maternal antibodies to block the behavioral effects of immune activation during the neonatal period has not been assessed. We challenged female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) prior to egg laying and then challenged offspring during the nestling and juvenile periods with one of two antigens (keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). We then tested the effects of maternal and neonatal immune challenges on offspring growth rates and neophobia and learning ability of offspring during adulthood. Neonatal immune challenge depressed growth rates. Neophobia of adult offspring was influenced by a combination of maternal treatment, offspring treatment, and offspring sex. Males challenged with LPS during the nestling and juvenile periods had reduced learning performance in a novel foraging task; however, female learning was not impacted. Offspring challenged with the same antigen as mothers exhibited similar growth suppression and behavioral changes as offspring challenged with a novel antigen. Thus, developmental immune challenges have long-term effects on the growth and behavioral phenotype of offspring. We found limited evidence that matching of maternal and offspring challenges reduces the effects of immune challenge in the altricial zebra finch. This may be a result of rapid catabolism of maternal antibodies in altricial birds. Our results emphasize the need to address sex differences in the long-term effects of developmental immune challenge and suggest neonatal immune activation may be one proximate mechanism underlying differences in adult behavior. PMID:22522078

Grindstaff, Jennifer L.; Hunsaker, Veronica R.; Cox, Shelby N.

2012-01-01

240

8 Dynamic cycles of cognitive and brain development: Measuring growth in mind, brain, and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview Since the seminal work of Jean Piaget on the relation between knowledge and general biology, researchers have started to understand the basic neurocognitive processes in the unfolding of human development. In particular, recent dynamic growth models illuminate the complex, interrelated changes that take place during brain growth, cognitive development, and learning. Neurocognitive development should be conceived not as a

Kurt W. Fischer

241

Cognitive Training for Schizophrenia in Developing Countries: A Pilot Trial in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia can massively impact functionality and quality of life, furthering the importance of cognitive training. Despite the development of the field in Europe and in the United States, no programmes have been developed and tested in developing countries. Different cultural backgrounds, budget restrictions, and other difficulties may render treatment packages created in high income countries difficult for adoption by developing nations. We performed a pilot double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in order to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of an attention and memory training programme specially created in a developing nation. The intervention used simple, widely available materials, required minimal infrastructure, and was conducted in groups. The sample included seventeen stable Brazilians with schizophrenia. Sessions were conducted weekly during five months. The cognitive training group showed significant improvements in inhibitory control and set-shifting over time. Both groups showed improvements in symptoms, processing speed, selective attention, executive function, and long-term visual memory. Improvements were found in the control group in long-term verbal memory and concentration. Our findings reinforce the idea that cognitive training in schizophrenia can be constructed using simple resources and infrastructure, facilitating its adoption by developing countries, and it may improve cognition. PMID:24288608

Pontes, Livia M. M.; Martins, Camila B.; Napolitano, Isabel C.; Fonseca, Juliana R.; Oliveira, Graça M. R.; Iso, Sandra M. K.; Menezes, Anny K. P. M.; Vizzotto, Adriana D. B.; di Sarno, Elaine S.; Elkis, Hélio

2013-01-01

242

Oxidative stress and altered lipid homeostasis in the programming of offspring fatty liver by maternal obesity.  

PubMed

Changes in the maternal nutritional environment during fetal development can influence offspring's metabolic risk in later life. Animal models have demonstrated that offspring of diet-induced obese dams develop metabolic complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms in young offspring that lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female offspring of C57BL/6J dams fed either a control or obesogenic diet were studied at 8 wk of age. We investigated the roles of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in contributing to fatty liver in offspring. There were no differences in body weight or adiposity at 8 wk of age; however, offspring of obese dams were hyperinsulinemic. Oxidative damage markers were significantly increased in their livers, with reduced levels of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1. Mitochondrial complex I and II activities were elevated, while levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c were significantly reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase was significantly increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Offspring of obese dams also had significantly greater hepatic lipid content, associated with increased levels of PPAR? and reduced triglyceride lipase. Liver glycogen and protein content were concomitantly reduced in offspring of obese dams. In conclusion, offspring of diet-induced obese dams have disrupted liver metabolism and develop NAFLD prior to any differences in body weight or body composition. Oxidative stress may play a mechanistic role in the progression of fatty liver in these offspring. PMID:24789994

Alfaradhi, Maria Z; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Musial, Barbara; Fowden, Abigail; Ozanne, Susan E

2014-07-01

243

Using the MATRICS to guide development of a preclinical cognitive test battery for research in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are among the core symptoms of the disease, correlate with functional outcome, and are not well treated with current antipsychotic therapies. In order to bring together academic, industrial, and governmental bodies to address this great ‘unmet therapeutic need’, the NIMH sponsored the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative. Through careful factor analysis and consensus of expert opinion, MATRICS identified seven domains of cognition that are deficient in schizophrenia (attention/vigilance, working memory, reasoning and problem solving, processing speed, visual learning and memory, verbal learning and memory, and social cognition) and recommended a specific neuropsychological test battery to probe these domains. In order to move the field forward and outline an approach for translational research, there is a need for a “preclinical MATRICS” to develop a rodent test battery that is appropriate for drug development. In this review, we outline such an approach and review current rodent tasks that target these seven domains of cognition. The rodent tasks are discussed in terms of their validity for probing each cognitive domain as well as a brief overview of the pharmacology and manipulations relevant to schizophrenia for each task. PMID:19269307

YOUNG, Jared W; POWELL, Susan; RISBROUGH, Victoria; MARSTON, Hugh M; GEYER, Mark A

2009-01-01

244

Teenage parents and their offspring.  

PubMed

Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development. PMID:8669783

Kaufman, J

1996-06-18

245

Running head: DEVELOPMENT AND EARLY FOCAL BRAIN INJURY Linguistic, Cognitive and Affective Development in Children with Pre-and  

E-print Network

Running head: DEVELOPMENT AND EARLY FOCAL BRAIN INJURY Linguistic, Cognitive and Affective Development in Children with Pre- and Perinatal Focal Brain Injury: A Ten-Year Overview from the San Diego@ucsd.edu #12;Development and early focal brain injury 2 Abstract Over the past ten years, we have made

246

Postinstitutionalized Children's Development: Growth, Cognitive, and Language Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective Children adopted internationally from institutions are a growing population presenting to professional care providers. Although postinstitutionalized (PI) children are adopted from multiple world regions, current knowledge is predominantly based on those adopted from Romania and Eastern European countries. This study examines and compares developmental outcomes of PI children adopted from multiple world regions. Method Five to 11 years after adoption, 8- through 11-year-old PI children (N = 91), children internationally adopted early from foster care (N = 109), and nonadopted children (N = 69) completed screening measures assessing vision, hearing, growth, and cognitive and language abilities. Parents completed questionnaires on service utilization, school performance, preadoptive history, and postadoption environment. Results Forty-four percent of PI children's growth was stunted (height <10th percentile) at adoption. At assessment, although physically smaller, nearly all PI children had average growth parameters. Relative to nonadopted children and children adopted early from foster care, PI children performed more poorly on cognitive and language screens with increased time in institution related to lower performance. Notably, group means on these measures were within the average range. PI children were more likely to be falling behind academically and to use intervention services. Family environment did not differ between PI and nonadopted children. There were few differences for PI children by world region of adoption once accounting for duration of institutionalization. Conclusions Despite currently living in similar environments, PI children have specific needs that differ from early-adopted and nonadopted children. Consideration of multiple factors, including length of institutionalization, is essential when providing care for these children. PMID:19692931

Loman, Michelle M.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Frenn, Kristin A.; Pollak, Seth D.; Gunnar, Megan R.

2010-01-01

247

Reciprocal influences between maternal language and children's language and cognitive development in low-income families.  

PubMed

We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language. Child cognitive development was assessed at both ages and child receptive vocabulary was assessed at age 3;0. Maternal language related to children's lexical diversity at each age, and maternal language at age 2;0, was associated with children's receptive vocabulary and cognitive development at age 3;0. Furthermore, children's cognitive development at age 2;0 was associated with maternal language at age 3;0 controlling for maternal language at age 2;0, suggesting bi-directionality in mother-child associations. The quantity and diversity of the language children hear at home has developmental implications for children from low-income households. In addition, children's early cognitive skills further feed into their subsequent language experiences. PMID:23360640

Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S

2014-03-01

248

Effects of a single course of prenatal betamethasone on dendritic development in dentate gyrus granular neurons and on spatial memory in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Background?Preterm babies treated with synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC) in utero exhibit behavioral alterations and disturbances in brain maturation during infancy. However, the effects on dentate granule cell morphology and spatial memory in rats that were given clinically equivalent doses of antenatal betamethasone remain unclear. Methods?Pregnant rats were randomly divided into the following two experimental groups: control (CON) and betamethasone-treated (BET) groups. At gestational day 20 (G20), BET dams were subcutaneously injected with a 0.17 mg/kg betamethasone solution, and CON animals received a similar volume of saline. At postnatal days 22 (P22) and P52, BET and CON offsprings were behaviorally evaluated in the Y-Maze test, and the dentate gyrus granular neurons were histologically analyzed. Results?Animals prenatally treated with a single course of betamethasone exhibit a significant decrement in the dendritic outgrowth of dentate granule cells along with impaired spatial memory when evaluated at P52. Moreover, the body and brain weight of the BET group was significantly lower than the CON group at P0, P22, and P52. Conclusion?The current results indicate that a single course of betamethasone in pregnant rats produces significant neuronal and behavioral impairments of the offspring at adolescence along with a decrement in somatic and brain weights at each of the three ages evaluated. PMID:25098832

Bustamante, Carlos; Valencia, Martina; Torres, Christian; González, María José; Carvajal, Constanza; Sandoval, Denisse; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Cristian; Pascual, Rodrigo

2014-12-01

249

Developing models of how cognitive improvements change functioning: Mediation, moderation and moderated mediation  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive remediation (CRT) affects functioning but the extent and type of cognitive improvements necessary are unknown. Aim To develop and test models of how cognitive improvement transfers to work behaviour using the data from a current service. Method Participants (N49) with a support worker and a paid or voluntary job were offered CRT in a Phase 2 single group design with three assessments: baseline, post therapy and follow-up. Working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning and work outcomes were assessed. Results Three models were tested (mediation — cognitive improvements drive functioning improvement; moderation — post treatment cognitive level affects the impact of CRT on functioning; moderated mediation — cognition drives functioning improvements only after a certain level is achieved). There was evidence of mediation (planning improvement associated with improved work quality). There was no evidence that cognitive flexibility (total Wisconsin Card Sorting Test errors) and working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III digit span) mediated work functioning despite significant effects. There was some evidence of moderated mediation for planning improvement if participants had poorer memory and/or made fewer WCST errors. The total CRT effect on work quality was d = 0.55, but the indirect (planning-mediated CRT effect) was d = 0.082 Conclusion Planning improvements led to better work quality but only accounted for a small proportion of the total effect on work outcome. Other specific and non-specific effects of CRT and the work programme are likely to account for some of the remaining effect. This is the first time complex models have been tested and future Phase 3 studies need to further test mediation and moderated mediation models. PMID:22503640

Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Huddy, Vyv; Taylor, Rumina; Wood, Helen; Ghirasim, Natalia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Landau, Sabine

2012-01-01

250

Cognitive Function is Associated with the Development of Mobility Impairments in Community-Dwelling Elders  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association of cognitive function with the risk of incident mobility impairments and the rate of declining mobility in older adults. Design Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting Retirement communities across metropolitan Chicago. Participants 1154 ambulatory elders from two longitudinal studies without baseline clinical dementia or history of stroke or Parkinson’s disease. Measurements All participants underwent baseline cognitive testing and annual mobility exams. Mobility impairments were based on annual timed walking performance. A composite mobility measure which summarized gait and balance measures was used to examine the annual rate of mobility change. Results During follow-up of 4.5 years, 423 of 836 (50.6%) participants developed impaired mobility. In a proportional hazards model controlled for age, sex, education and race, each 1-unit higher level of baseline global cognition was associated with a reduction to about half in the risk of mobility impairments (HR=0.51, 95% CI 0.40, 0.66) and was similar to a participant being about 13 years younger at baseline. These results did not vary by sex or race and were unchanged in analyses controlling for BMI, physical activity, vascular diseases and risk factors. The level of cognition in 5 different cognitive abilities was also related to incident mobility impairment. Cognition showed similar associations with incident loss of the ability to ambulate. Linear mixed-effects models showed that global cognition at baseline was associated with the rate of declining mobility. Conclusions Among ambulatory elders, cognition is associated with incident mobility impairment and mobility decline. PMID:21606900

Buchman, Aron S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.

2010-01-01

251

The Development of an Emotional Response to Writing Measure: The Affective Cognition Writing Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to develop and initiate the validation of the Affective Cognition Writing Survey (ACWS), a psychological instrument used to measure emotional expression through writing. Procedures for development and validation of the instrument are reported. Subsequently, factor analysis extracted six factors: Positive Processing,…

Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.; Jain, Sachin

2010-01-01

252

The Integration of Cognitive and Sociocultural Theories of Literacy Development: Why? How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive and sociocultural theories of literacy development are historically considered incommensurable in practice and in research. Cognitivists view literacy development as a succession of qualitatively varied skills whereas socioculturalists view literacy as socially and culturally embedded. Traditional educational discourses tend to reflect…

Davidson, Katherine

2010-01-01

253

Affective-Cognitive Training (ACT). A Professional Development Model for Career Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is given of an inservice faculty development model for career education awareness which successfully produced affective and cognitive training by developing (1) awareness of and (2) response to the career education movement, and (3) knowledge of and (4) application of career education concepts, issues, and materials. (MJB)

Urbach, Floyd D.

1977-01-01

254

What Affect Student Cognitive Style in the Development of Hypermedia Learning System?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent developments in learning technology such as hypermedia is becoming widespread and offer significant contribution to improve the delivery of learning and teaching materials. A key factor in the development of hypermedia learning system is cognitive style (CS) as it relates to users' information processing habits, representing individual…

Lee, Catherine Hui Min; Cheng, Yuk Wing; Rai, Shri; Depickere, Arnold

2005-01-01

255

Maturation of White Matter is Associated with the Development of Cognitive Functions during Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the human brain, myelination of axons continues until early adulthood and is thought to be important for the development of cognitive functions during childhood. We used diffusion tensor MR imaging and calculated fractional anisotropy, an indicator of myelination and axonal thickness, in children aged between 8 and 18 years. Development of working memory capacity was positively correlated with fractional

Zoltan Nagy; Helena Westerberg; Torkel Klingberg

2004-01-01

256

Developing a user-centered mobile service interface based on a cognitive model of attention allocation  

E-print Network

by the driver at all times. This poses on the one hand a large challenge to designers and developers of in-carDeveloping a user-centered mobile service interface based on a cognitive model of attention sometimes even against legal restriction - e.g. in the car. Services running on these devices (e.g. email

Boyer, Edmond

257

The Past, Present, and Future of Computational Models of Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does modeling matter? We address this question by providing a broad survey of the computational models of cognitive development that have been proposed and studied over the last three decades. We begin by noting the advantages and limitations of computational models. We then describe four key dimensions across which models of development can be…

Schlesinger, Matthew; McMurray, Bob

2012-01-01

258

Maternal Time, Child Care and Child Cognitive Development: The Case of Single Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the effects of maternal time inputs and alternative providers' time inputs on children's cognitive development using the sample of single mothers in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). In order to deal with the selection problem that arises when trying to assess the impact of mothers' employment and child care choices on children's development, we take

Raquel Bernal; Michael P. Keane

2005-01-01

259

Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

2002-01-01

260

The effects of maternal corticosterone levels on offspring behavior in fast- and slow-growth garter snakes ( Thamnophis elegans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During embryonic development, viviparous offspring are exposed to maternally circulating hormones. Maternal stress increases offspring exposure to corticosterone and this hormonal exposure has the potential to influence developmental, morphological and behavioral traits of the resulting offspring. We treated pregnant female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) with low levels of corticosterone after determining both natural corticosterone levels in the field and pre-treatment

Kylie A. Robert; Carol Vleck; Anne M. Bronikowski

2009-01-01

261

Impact of preschool education component in Integrated Child Development Services programme on the cognitive development of children.  

PubMed

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) is India's most comprehensive programme to increase the survival rate and enhance the health, nutrition, and learning opportunities of pre-school children and their mothers through a package of services. The present study was carried out to measure the impact of the preschool education component of the ICDS on the cognitive development of children in the age group of 3-5 years. The study design used was case/control (ICDS attending children v. Non-ICDS). Results of the study revealed the ICDS Anganwadi attendance had positive influence on the cognitive development of children. The mean cognitive score of the attenders was 40.7 as against a mean score of 30.3 in the case of non-attenders. PMID:1784057

Pandey, H

1991-10-01

262

Cognitive Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the course of history, cognitive technologies have been implicated in religious debates and have been retarded by the lack of proper cognitive science and information technology. Today, information technology permits the development of many new cognitive technologies, assisted when appropriate by biotechnology and nanotechnology. Two illustrative applications are 1) an artificial intelligence personal advisor, and 2) dynamic lifetime information

William Sims Bainbridge

263

Interdisciplinary perspectives on the development, integration, and application of cognitive ontologies  

PubMed Central

We discuss recent progress in the development of cognitive ontologies and summarize three challenges in the coordinated development and application of these resources. Challenge 1 is to adopt a standardized definition for cognitive processes. We describe three possibilities and recommend one that is consistent with the standard view in cognitive and biomedical sciences. Challenge 2 is harmonization. Gaps and conflicts in representation must be resolved so that these resources can be combined for mark-up and interpretation of multi-modal data. Finally, Challenge 3 is to test the utility of these resources for large-scale annotation of data, search and query, and knowledge discovery and integration. As term definitions are tested and revised, harmonization should enable coordinated updates across ontologies. However, the true test of these definitions will be in their community-wide adoption which will test whether they support valid inferences about psychological and neuroscientific data. PMID:24999329

Hastings, Janna; Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Smith, Barry; Jensen, Mark; Poldrack, Russell A.; Lomax, Jane; Bandrowski, Anita; Imam, Fahim; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E.

2014-01-01

264

Changes in androgen-mediated reproductive development in male rat offspring following exposure to a single oral dose of flutamide at different gestational ages.  

PubMed

Previous studies have indicated that the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, can produce a suite of reproductive malformations in the male rat when orally administered daily on gestation days (GD) 12-21. The objective of this study was to investigate the gestation time dependence for the induction of these malformations to establish a robust animal model for future studies of gene expression related to specific malformations. Groups of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (GD 0 = day of mating) were administered flutamide as a single gavage dose (50 mg/kg) on GD 16, 17, 18, or 19 with 10 dams per group. Control animals (5 dams per time per group) were administered corn oil vehicle (2 ml/kg). Dams were allowed to litter, and their adult male offspring were killed at postnatal day (PND) 100 +/- 10. Anogenital distance was measured at PND 1 and 100. Areolae were scored at PND 13, and permanent nipples evaluated at PND 100. No reproductive tract malformations were found in control male offspring. In the treated groups, malformations were noted following exposure at every GD, although the incidence of specific malformations varied by GD. At GD 16, the highest incidence was noted for permanent nipples (46% pups, 60% litters), epispadias (12% pups, 30% litters), and missing epididymal components (5% pups, 20% litters). The highest incidences for hypospadias (58% pups, 80% litters), vaginal pouch (49% pups, 70% litters), cleft prepuce (29% pups, 60% litters), and missing prostate lobes (12% pups, 60% litters) were noted at GD 17. At GD 18 the highest incidence of malformations noted were epispadias (5% pups, 30% litters), reduced prostate size (32% pups, 90% litters), and abnormal kidneys (3% pups, 30% litters) and bladders (7% pups, 30% litters), while on GD 19 70% of the litters had animals with abnormal seminal vesicles. Testicular and epididymal morphological changes were noted at all GDs and were consistent with the gross observations and peaked in incidence and severity on GD17. The major discrepancy between this study and previous multiple-dose studies was in the very few numbers of animals presenting with cryptorchidism (only one each on GDs 16 and 17), suggesting that exposure over multiple days may be required to induce this malformation. Thus, a single gestational exposure of flutamide induced numerous reproductive tract malformations consistent with previously reports following multiple exposures, with the timing of the exposure producing marked tissue selectivity in the response noted in adult offspring. PMID:15788718

Foster, Paul M D; Harris, Martha W

2005-06-01

265

The Coemergence of Cognition, Language, and Speech Motor Control in Early Development: A Longitudinal Correlation Study  

PubMed Central

Although the development of spoken language is dependent on the emergence of cognitive, language, and speech motor skills, knowledge about how these domains interact during the early stages of communication development is currently limited. This exploratory investigation examines the strength of associations between longitudinal changes in articulatory kinematics and development of skills in multiple domains thought to support early communication development. Twenty-four infants were investigated every three months between the ages of 9 and 21 months. Movements of the upper lip, lower lip, and jaw were transduced using a three-dimensional motion capture system to obtain age-related changes in movement speed and range of movement. Standardized measures of cognition and language from the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd edition and the MacArthur-Bates Child Development Inventory were also collected. Significant associations were identified between orofacial kinematic and the standardized measures of language and cognitive skills, even when age served as covariate. These findings provide preliminary evidence of interactions between cognition, language, and speech motor skills during early communication development. Further work is needed to identify and quantify causal relations among these co-emerging skills. PMID:21035125

Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

2010-01-01

266

Development of CBT for chemotherapy-related cognitive change: results of a waitlist control trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that is being developed for management of cognitive dysfunction following chemotherapy among breast cancer survivors. Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) is a brief CBT designed to improve the quality of life and function among cancer survivors with post-chemotherapy cognitive complaints. Methods An initial, two-group (MAAT versus waitlist, no treatment control), randomized clinical trial (RCT) was conducted. Forty stage I and II female breast cancer survivors (mean age = 50; SD = 6.4) were randomized to conditions and assessed at baseline, post-treatment (8 weeks) and 2-month follow-up assessment points on measures of: (1) self-reported daily cognitive failures; (2) quality of life; and (3) neuropsychological performance. Participants were also assessed for satisfaction with MAAT. Results With education and IQ as covariates, MAAT participants made significant improvements relative to controls on the spiritual well-being subscale of the quality of life measure and on verbal memory, but statistical significance was not achieved on self-report of daily cognitive complaints. However, moderate-to-large effect sizes were observed on these outcomes. Participants gave MAAT high satisfaction ratings. Conclusions Although this initial RCT is a small study, MAAT participants appear to improve on one measure of quality of life and verbal memory performance relative to no treatment controls and rate MAAT with high satisfaction. These data are encouraging and support the continued development and evaluation of MAAT efficacy. PMID:22271538

Ferguson, Robert J.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Rocque, Michael A.; Furstenberg, Charlotte T.; Horrigan, Susan; Ahles, Tim A.; Saykin, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

267

Improving Adult Literacy Outcomes: Lessons from Cognitive Research for Developing Countries. Directions in Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult literacy program outcomes have been disappointing. A number of principals and methods from cognitive and neuropsychological research can be used to make literacy instruction more effective, including the following: improving cognitive function; fast reading; reading practice; literacy as a motivator; and improving use of class time.…

Abadzi, Helen

268

Self-locomotion and spatial language and spatial cognition: insights from typical and atypical development  

PubMed Central

Various studies have shown that occurrence of locomotion in infancy is correlated with the development of spatial cognitive competencies. Recent evidence suggests that locomotor experience might also be important for the development of spatial language. Together these findings suggest that locomotor experience might play a crucial role in the development of linguistic-cognitive spatial skills. However, some studies indicate that, despite their total deprivation of locomotor experience, young children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have the capacity to acquire and use rich spatial representations including good spatial language. Nonetheless, we have to be cautious about what the striking performances displayed by SMA children can reveal on the link between motor and spatial development, as the dynamics of brain development in atypically developing children are different from typically developing children. PMID:24917836

Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Riviere, James

2014-01-01

269

How Does Neuroscience Inform the Study of Cognitive Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fields of developmental psychology and developmental neuroscience have existed independently of one another for many years. This is unfortunate, as knowledge of how the brain develops can inform the study of behavioral development. In this paper, we provide two examples of how knowledge about brain development has improved our understanding of…

Nelson, Charles A.; Moulson, Margaret C.; Richmond, Jenny

2006-01-01

270

Impaired prenatal development and glycemic status in the offspring of rats with experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes and their correction with afobazole.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus was simulated in rats on gestation day 1 by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in doses of 40 and 50 mg/kg. Pregnant females showed increased glucose concentrations n the blood and urine, embryonic developmental disorders, such as tongue protrusion, edema, and skin hyperemia with concomitant vascular damage (hemorrhage, hematoma) as well as pre- and post-implantation embryo loss. Afobazole administered orally in doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg to pregnant rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes significantly decreased prenatal developmental disorders and pre- and post-implantation embryo loss rate. Afobazole in a dose of 50 mg/kg produced maximum protective effect: in rats receiving 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, post-implantation embryo loss decreased by 14.7 times. Afobazole in doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced blood glucose concentration in pregnant rats and normalized glycemia in 90-day-old male offspring. PMID:25403388

Zabrodina, V V; Shreder, E D; Shreder, O V; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

2014-11-01

271

Cognitive, but not mood dysfunction develops in multiple sclerosis during 7 years of follow-up.  

PubMed

Long-term development of psychological deficits in disability-free early multiple sclerosis (MS) was evaluated in 27 female patients over a period of 7 years and compared with healthy controls. Physical and cognitive parameters deteriorated significantly but not depression scores. In particular, the self-assessed somatic complaints remained non-similar between patients and controls. This indicates that although depression is clinically relevant and frequent in MS, in contrast to cognition it is not related to physical disease progression. PMID:15273430

Haase, C G; Tinnefeld, M; Daum, I; Ganz, R E; Haupts, M; Faustmann, P M

2004-01-01

272

The Development of a Substance Abuse Treatment Program for Forensic Patients with Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Substance Abuse and Mental Illness (SAMI) program combines cognitive rehabilitation and dual-diagnosis substance abuse treatment within a stages of change context. This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary outcome analysis of the SAMI program in a forensic hospital.

Glassmire, David M.; Welsh, Robert K.; Clevenger, Jeanne K.

2007-01-01

273

Cognitive Coaching: A Critical Phase in Professional Development to Implement Sheltered Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This documentary account describes professional development for teachers in the USA serving culturally and linguistically diverse students. The purpose of the project was to monitor effectiveness of training in Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) and to assess the value of cognitive coaching. Quantitative and qualitative data sources…

Batt, Ellen G.

2010-01-01

274

Prenatal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine: A review of the potential effects on cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of opioid users receiving opioid maintenance therapy has increased significantly over the last few years. As a result, an increasing number of children are prenatally exposed to long-lasting opioids such as methadone and buprenorphine. This article reviews the literature on the cognitive development of children born to mothers in opioid maintenance therapy. Topics discussed are the effects of

Carolien Konijnenberg; Annika Melinder

2011-01-01

275

Item Equivalence in English and Chinese Translation of a Cognitive Development Test for Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of a study of potential sources of item nonequivalence between English and Chinese language versions of a cognitive development test for preschool-aged children. Items were flagged for potential nonequivalence through statistical and judgment-based procedures, and the relationship between flag status and item content, format, and language features were examined. Results indicate that neither item content

Wei He; Edward W. Wolfe

2010-01-01

276

Iron Deficiency and the Cognitive and Psychomotor Development of Children: A Pilot Study with Institutionalized Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a pilot study, involving 48 institutionalized infants and toddlers, which aimed to treat iron deficiency anemia and to discover other factors contributing to the problem. Results indicate improvement in cognitive development after the administration of iron among three groups, while no significant differences were observed in psychomotor…

Driva, A.; And Others

1985-01-01

277

Cognitive Coping Tool Kit for Psychosis: Development of a Group-Based Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT…

Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica

2007-01-01

278

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Schizophrenia – A Review of Development, Evidence and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders were once thought to be impervious to psychological treatments; however, there is accumulating evidence that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can result in significant clinical benefit to these patients. Aim: This paper aims to describe the development and adaptation of CBT in the treatment of schizophrenia, to summarise the evidence to support CBT as a

Nicholas Tarrier

2005-01-01

279

Early Cognitive and Motor Development Among Infants Born to Women Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. To examine the frequency, timing, and factors associated with abnormal cognitive and motor development during the first 30 months of life in infants born to women infected with human immuno- deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Methods. Serial neurodevelopmental assessment was performed with 595 infants born to women infected with HIV-1 in a multicenter, prospective, natural history co- hort

Cynthia Chase; Janice Ware; Joan Hittelman; Ileana Blasini; Renee Smith; Antolin Llorente; Elizabeth Anisfeld; Clemente Diaz

280

Human Milk Improves Cognitive and Motor Development of Premature Infants During Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-nine premature infants, 29 of whom received human milk (HMG) and 10of whom received formula only (FG), were enrolled in a study examining the effect of human milk on cognitive and motor development. Infants were assessed at 3, 7, and 12 months corrected ages; the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was administered to their mothers. HMG in fants had higher motor

Jo-Ann Blaymore Bier; Tanya Oliver; Anne E. Ferguson; Betty R. Vohr

2002-01-01

281

Cognitive and Motor Development in Infants of Adolescent Mothers: A Longitudinal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal study of cognitive and motor development among infants born to adolescent mothers was conducted with 58 adolescent mothers and a control group of 59 adult mothers. The experimental and control groups were matched on race (white\\/black), parity, prenatal care, and SES. Data were obtained on antepartum, delivery, and postpartum performance of the mothers, along with data on infant

Dimity B. Carlson; Richard C. LaBarba; Joseph D. Sclafani; Clint A. Bowers

1986-01-01

282

The Interaction of Selective Attention and Cognitive Development on Achievement in Nigerian Secondary School Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study tried to examine the interaction between two independent variables of selective attention and cognitive development on Achievement in Genetics at the Secondary School level. In looking at the problem of this study three null hypotheses were generated for testing at 0.05 level of significance. Factorial Analysis of Variance design with…

Okoye, Namdi N. S.

2009-01-01

283

Maintaining and reintroducing referents in French: cognitive constraints and development of narrative skills  

E-print Network

, while single-frame display led to more definite noun phrases; and (c) explicit links gave rise to moreMaintaining and reintroducing referents in French: cognitive constraints and development by the frame display mode, the explicitness of the links between depicted events, and whether the topic changed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Education for Character: An Alternative to Values Clarification and Cognitive Moral Development Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the weaknesses inherent in Sidney Simon's values clarification method and Lawrence Kohlberg's cognitive moral development method, suggesting that single class, isolated instruction overlooks the affective, unconscious elements of character formation. Recommends an alternative holistic approach based on John Locke's concept of all…

Beller, Edward

1986-01-01

285

Professional Development that Supports the Teaching of Cognitive Reading Strategy Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students. To meet this goal, 44 participating teachers in grades 2-8 learned to teach their students cognitive

Sailors, Misty; Price, Larry R.

2010-01-01

286

BRIEF REPORTS Development of the Cognitive Appraisal and Understanding of Social Events (CAUSE) Videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the development and validation of 4 videos designed to assess adolescent cognitive appraisals and understanding of social events (the CAUSE Videos). Story lines varied in outcome (2 negative and 2 ambiguous). Convergent and divergent validity were tested in samples of college freshmen and sophomores. As hypothesized, threatening interpretations during ambiguous situations were positively associated with trait hostility

Edith Chen; Karen A. Matthews

287

Primal Splitting as a Basis for Emotional and Cognitive Development in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of good primal splitting as the basis for the child's emotional and cognitive development. A theoretical introduction analyses the possible pathologies of primal splitting, as they were first pointed out by Melanie Klein and then by some post-Kleinian authors, in particular Donald Meltzer. This is followed by…

Caccia, Ornella

2009-01-01

288

Key Steps in Developing a Cognitive Vaccine against Traumatic Flashbacks: Visuospatial Tetris versus Verbal Pub Quiz  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFlashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event) are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a ‘cognitive vaccine’ [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be

Emily A. Holmes; Ella L. James; Emma J. Kilford; Catherine Deeprose; Kenji Hashimoto

2010-01-01

289

Developing Motivation and Cognitive Learning Strategies Through an Undergraduate Learning Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the effects on student motivation and cognitive learning strategies of an approach involving an undergraduate learner-centered community of learners approach to instruction. Six learning communities were created using the following objectives: integrated courses, active and collaborative learning, and opportunities for learning through information technology and library resources. Instructors attended ten workshops designed to assist them in developing

Candice R. Stefanou; Jill D. Salisbury-Glennon

2002-01-01

290

Implications of Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms for Early Cognitive and Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistically, women, particularly pregnant women and new mothers, are at heightened risk for depression. The present review describes the current state of the research linking maternal depressed mood and children's cognitive and language development. Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, whether during the prenatal period, postpartum period,…

Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.

2006-01-01

291

The generational transmission of socioeconomic inequalities in child cognitive development and emotional health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socioeconomic inequalities in the health of adults have been largely attributed to lifestyle inequalities. The cognitive development (CD) and emotional health (EH) of the child provides a basis for many of the health-related behaviours which are observed in adulthood. There has been relatively little attention paid to the way CD and EH are transmitted in the foetal and childhood periods,

Jake M. Najman; Rosemary Aird; William Bor; Michael O’Callaghan; Gail M. Williams; Gregory J. Shuttlewood

2004-01-01

292

A Cognitive Analysis of Credit Card Acquisition and College Student Financial Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines cognitions relevant to credit card decision making in college-aged participants (N=304). Assesses measures of beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral alternatives toward acquiring a credit card. Identifies a multivariate model predicting college student financial development of the attitudes and behavioral tendencies of acquiring a new card.…

Kidwell, Blair; Turrisi, Robert

2000-01-01

293

A Cognitive Cascade in Infancy: Pathways from Prematurity to Later Mental Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a longitudinal study of preterms and full-terms, the present study examined the structure of infant cognition at 12 months, the extent to which five 12-month abilities (attention, processing speed, recognition, recall, and representational competence) mediated the relation from prematurity to mental development at 2-3 years, and…

Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.; Rossem, Ronan V.

2008-01-01

294

The Intranet as a Cognitive Architecture for Training and Education: Basic Assumptions and Development Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper makes basic assumptions regarding the development of an intranet architecture that will actively promote the cognitive apprenticeship of a new community of learners. The authors consider the intranet as a dynamic and virtual environment in which individuals may communicate, share resources, and reciprocally generate and organize…

Seffah, Ahmed; Bouchard, Robert Maurice

295

Cognitive and social factors in the development of infants with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants and young children with Down syndrome can be engaging and affectionate. It seems that in the early months of life their personal relations may be relatively 'spared' the effects of limitations in their capacities for information-processing. Yet how far is this the case as development proceeds? In this paper we discuss some ways in which social and cognitive devel-

Derek G. Moore; John M. Oates; R. Peter Hobson; Julia Goodwin

2002-01-01

296

Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development. NBER Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a sample of 3- and 4-year-old children of female respondents from the 1986 National Longitudinal Surveys Youth Cohort to analyze the relationship between maternal labor supply and children's cognitive development. Respondents were 21 to 29 years old in 1986. Thus, the sample consisted of children of relatively young mothers.…

Blau, Francine D.; Grossberg, Adam J.

297

Developing concepts of childhood autism: The influence of experimental cognitive research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood autism has been reclassified in the DSM-III. This reclassification is seen as the result of significant advances in the conceptualization of the disorder that have accrued over the last 20 yrs. It is argued, from a historical viewpoint, that experimental research focused on perceptual, cognitive, and language development has contributed to the transformation of autism from a psychosis to

Margot R. Prior

1984-01-01

298

Crowding and Cognitive Development: The Mediating Role of Maternal Responsiveness among 36-Month-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Residential crowding in both U.S. and U.K. samples of 36-month-old children is related concurrently to the Bracken scale, a standard index of early cognitive development skills including letter and color identification, shape recognition, and elementary numeric comprehension. In the U.S. sample, these effects also replicate prospectively.…

Evans, Gary W.; Ricciuti, Henry N.; Hope, Steven; Schoon, Ingrid; Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Hazan, Cindy

2010-01-01

299

Commentary/Quartz & Sejnowski: Cognitive development BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES (1997) 20:4 575  

E-print Network

Commentary/Quartz & Sejnowski: Cognitive development BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES (1997) 20:4 575 and earlier selectionist approaches. The right way, the wrong way, and the army way: A dendritic parable Arnold B. Scheibel Departments of Neurobiology and Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences and Brain

Scholl, Brian

300

Environmentally enriched classrooms and the cognitive and perceptual development of Negro preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluated the effects of placing additional equipment in preschool classrooms on the cognitive and perceptual development of 123 Negro preschool children. Ss were randomized into 6 experimental and 6 control classes. Pre- and posttests of the Stanford-Binet IQ, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Performance IQ, and 4 subtests of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities were administered. Both

Thomas V. Busse

1972-01-01

301

Family Interaction and the Social, Emotional and Cognitive Development of Children Following Divorce.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between family interaction, parenting behaviors, and the social, cognitive and emotional development of children in the two years following divorce. Subjects were 48 children (24 boys, 24 girls and their parents) from single parent families in which custody had been granted to the mother and 48 children (24…

Hetherington, E. Mavis; And Others

302

Methodological and Epistemological Issues in the Interpretation of Infant Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary on J. Kagan (2008) addresses 2 issues. The first concerns the importance of studying developmental sequences and processes of change. The second concerns epistemological differences between contemporary neonativist approaches and classical theories of development. The commentary argues that classical theories of infant cognition

Muller, Ulrich; Giesbrecht, Gerald

2008-01-01

303

Journal Section: Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Neural development of binaural tuning through Hebbian learning predicts frequency-  

E-print Network

1 Journal Section: Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Neural development of binaural tuning through of binaural tuning Bertrand Fontaine1,2 and Romain Brette1,2 1Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, CNRS in the horizontal plane. These interaural time differences (ITDs) are encoded by binaural neurons which fire more

Brette, Romain

304

With Eyes to the Future: A Brief History of Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research patterns from the past three decades and several current directions of research are used to describe emerging trends in the study of cognitive development. These trends are discussed as moving the field into new areas, particularly biology, learning, and social context, and contributing to a more integrated understanding of psychological…

Gauvain, Mary

2005-01-01

305

Cognitive Learning Theory Takes a Backseat: Consequences of a Management Development Program for Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the consequences of a cognitive management development program for middle managers in a public organization. The objective was to teach transformational leadership and teamwork but it occasioned a very limited improved articulation of transformational leadership and teamwork and only a modest change in the managers' actions in…

Moesby-Jensen, Cecilie K.

2008-01-01

306

A Cognitive Model for Conceptual Change in Science Instruction with a Focus on Educational Software Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Inventive Model, a constructivist approach to conceptual change, as a theoretical base for science instruction and for software development in science education. Highlights include the hesitancy of some school systems to implement computer-assisted science instruction, student misconceptions, and cognitive approaches to conceptual…

Rezaei, Alireza; Katz, Larry

1998-01-01

307

The Effect of Learning Background and Imagery Cognitive Development on Visual Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research looked into the effect of how cognitive development toward imagery is formed through visual perception by means of a quantitative questionnaire. The main variable was the difference between the learning backgrounds of the interviewees. A two-way ANOVA mixed design was the statistical method used for the analysis of the 2 × 4 (2 by 4)…

Chiang, Shyh-Bao; Sun, Chun-Wang

2013-01-01

308

The Influence of Developmentally Appropriate Practice on Children's Cognitive Development: A Qualitative Metasynthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: As policymakers and advocates across the United States look to early childhood educators to improve children's cognitive development so they enter elementary school ready to learn, debates have emerged over what types of practices these educators should be engaged in to achieve this goal. Historically, the field of early childhood…

Brown, Christopher P.; Lan, Yi-Chin

2013-01-01

309

Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Depression, Part VIII. Developing and Utilizing the Therapeutic Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good therapeutic relationship is essential for the successful implementation of any form of therapy. The present manuscript provides recommendations for developing and utilizing the therapeutic relationship in the cognitive-behavioral treatment of depression. Throughout therapy, the therapist should attempt to: (1) establish an atmosphere of openness and trust, (2) instill hope in the client's potential for change, (3) display empathic

James C. Overholser; Eden J. Silverman

1998-01-01

310

Effectiveness of a Video-Feedback and Questioning Programme to Develop Cognitive Expertise in Sport  

PubMed Central

The importance within sport expertise of cognitive factors has been emphasised in many research studies. Adaptations that take place in athletes’ long-term memories are going to condition their decision-making and performance, and training programmes must be developed that improve these adaptations. In our study, we provide a tactical-cognitive training programme based on video-feedback and questioning in order to improve tactical knowledge in tennis players and verify its effect when transferred to athletes’ decision-making. 11 intermediate tennis players participated in this study (12.9±0.7 years old), distributed into two groups (experimental, n?=?5; control, n?=?6). Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation and strategy planning with a verbal protocol. Decision-making was measured by a systematic observation instrument. Results confirm the effectiveness of a combination of video-feedback and questioning on cognitive expertise, developing adaptations in long-term memory that produce an improvement in the quality of tactical knowledge (content, sophistication and structure). This, in turn, is transferred to the athletes’ decision-making capacity, leading to a higher percentage of successful decisions made during game play. Finally, we emphasise the need to develop effective programmes to develop cognitive expertise and improve athletes' performance, and include it in athletes’ formative stages. PMID:24340012

Garcia-Gonzalez, Luis; Moreno, M. Perla; Moreno, Alberto; Gil, Alexander; del Villar, Fernando

2013-01-01

311

The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

2012-01-01

312

The Influence of Fraternity or Sorority Membership on Students' College Experiences and Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the role of fraternities and sororities on college campuses has come under increasing scrutiny. Results of the National Study of Student Learning (NSSL) indicate that membership in a Greek organization can have a negative effect on students' cognitive development, particularly during the first year of college. The present research sought to assess the generalizability of the NSSL

Gary R. Pike

2000-01-01

313

Predicting Preschool Cognitive Development from Infant Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Psychosocial Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation…

Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.

2006-01-01

314

Exposure to the widely used fungicide mancozeb causes thyroid hormone disruption in rat dams but no behavioral effects in the offspring.  

PubMed

The widely used fungicide mancozeb has been shown to cause hypothyroxinemia and other adverse effects on the thyroid hormone system in adult experimental animals. In humans, hypothyroxinemia early in pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on the developing nervous system and can lead to impaired cognitive function and motor development in children. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether perinatal mancozeb exposure would cause developmental neurotoxicity in rats. Groups of 9-21 time-mated Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg mancozeb/kg body weight (bw)/day by gavage from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 16, and total thyroxine (T(4)) levels were measured in dams during gestation. On PND 16, hormone levels and several organ weights were measured in the offspring, whereas motor activity, startle response, and cognitive function were assessed in the adult offspring. The dose of 150 mg/kg/day caused neurotoxicity in the pregnant dams and was therefore reduced to 100 mg/kg bw/day in mid study. T(4) levels showed a dose-dependent and significant decrease in dams from all three dose groups on GD 15, whereas offspring T(4) levels, thyroid weights, and histology were unaffected on PND 16. No effects on reproductive organ weights were seen, and no behavioral changes were observed. Taken together, these results indicate that in rats, moderate maternal hypothyroxinemia during gestation does not necessarily lead to hyperactivity or reduced special learning abilities in the offspring. Mancozeb exposure did, however, reduce T(4) levels in dams and may therefore still be a potential contributor to thyroid disruption in humans and in result adversely affects the developing brain. PMID:21266532

Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Nellemann, Christine; Kiersgaard, Maria; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hass, Ulla

2011-04-01

315

Development and validation of the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery for Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Neurocognitive assessment in individuals with intellectual disabilities requires a well-validated test battery. To meet this need, the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB) has been developed specifically to assess the cognitive phenotype in Down syndrome (DS). The ACTB includes neuropsychological assessments chosen to 1) assess a range of skills, 2) be non-verbal so as to not confound the neuropsychological assessment with language demands, 3) have distributional properties appropriate for research studies to identify genetic modifiers of variation, 4) show sensitivity to within and between sample differences, 5) have specific correlates with brain function, and 6) be applicable to a wide age range and across contexts. The ACTB includes tests of general cognitive ability and prefrontal, hippocampal and cerebellar function. These tasks were drawn from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB) and other established paradigms. Alongside the cognitive testing battery we administered benchmark and parent-report assessments of cognition and behavior. Individuals with DS (n=74, ages 7-38 years) and mental age (MA) matched controls (n=50, ages 3-8 years) were tested across 3 sites. A subsample of these groups were used for between-group comparisons, including 55 individuals with DS and 36 mental age matched controls. The ACTB allows for low floor performance levels and participant loss. Floor effects were greater in younger children. Individuals with DS were impaired on a number ACTB tests in comparison to a MA-matched sample, with some areas of spared ability, particularly on tests requiring extensive motor coordination. Battery measures correlated with parent report of behavior and development. The ACTB provided consistent results across contexts, including home vs. lab visits, cross-site, and among individuals with a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds and differences in ethnicity. The ACTB will be useful in a range of outcome studies, including clinical trials and the identification of important genetic components of cognitive disability. PMID:21274406

Edgin, Jamie O; Mason, Gina M; Allman, Melissa J; Capone, George T; Deleon, Iser; Maslen, Cheryl; Reeves, Roger H; Sherman, Stephanie L; Nadel, Lynn

2010-09-01

316

The Development and Initial Validation of Social Cognitive Career Theory Instruments to Measure Choice of Medical Specialty and Practice Location  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social cognitive career theory served as the basis for the instrument development for scales assessing self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and goals to predict medical career choice. Lent and Brown's conceptualization of social cognitive constructs guided the development of items to measure choice of medical specialty and practice location. Study…

Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Searle, Judy

2009-01-01

317

The predictive value of science process skills, cognitive development, attitude toward science on academic achievement in a Thai teacher institution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among science process skills, attitude toward science, cognitive development and academic achievement of elementary preservice teachers. Especially, the combined predictive value of science process skills, attitude toward science and cognitive development on student academic achievement were determined. The data were obtained from 85 pre-service elementary teachers at a teachers college

Hussachai Sittirug

1997-01-01

318

Development of an instrument to measure perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning in traditional and virtual classroom higher education settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that addressed cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning

Alfred P. Rovai; Mervyn J. Wighting; Jason D. Baker; Linda D. Grooms

2009-01-01

319

Multiple jeopardy: Risk and protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring  

PubMed Central

Objectives of this study were to ascertain risk and protective factors in the adjustment of 78 school-age and teenage offspring of opioid- and cocaine-abusing mothers. Using a multimethod, multiinformant approach, child outcomes were operationalized via lifetime psychiatric diagnoses and everyday social competence (each based on both mother and child reports), and dimensional assessments of symptoms (mother report). Risk/protective factors examined included the child sociodemographic attributes of gender, age, and ethnicity, aspects of maternal psychopathology, and both mother's and children's cognitive functioning. Results revealed that greater child maladjustment was linked with increasing age, Caucasian (as opposed to African American) ethnicity, severity of maternal psychiatric disturbance, higher maternal cognitive abilities (among African Americans) and lower child cognitive abilities (among Caucasians). Limitations of the study are discussed, as are implications of findings for future research. PMID:9524811

LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; CUSHING, GRETTA; MERIKANGAS, KATHLEEN R.; ROUNSAVILLE, BRUCE J.

2012-01-01

320

Enhancing Cognitive Development through Physics Problem Solving: A Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an ongoing project to reform the introductory algebra-based physics courses at George Washington University, we are developing a taxonomy of introductory physics problems (TIPP) that establishes a connection between the physics problems, the type of physics knowledge they involve and the cognitive processes they develop in students. This taxonomy will provide, besides an algorithm for classifying physics problems, an organized and relatively easy-to-use database of physics problems that contains the majority of already created text-based and research-based types of problems. In addition, this taxonomy will reveal the kinds of physics problems that are still lacking and that are found to be necessary to enhance students' cognitive development. For this reason, we expect it to be a valuable teaching resource for physics instructors which will enable them to select the problems used in their curricular materials based on the specifics of their students' cognition and the learning objectives they want to achieve in their class. This organization scheme will also provide a framework for creating physics-related assessments with a cognitive component.

Teodorescu, Raluca; Bennhold, Cornelius; Feldman, Gerald

2008-10-01

321

Development Principles for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Integrating Cognitive Theory into the Development of Computer-Based Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a basic development model for an intelligent tutoring system that includes the interface, the expert and learner models, and the pedagogical model. Possibilities for more extensive integration of cognitive learning theories into computer-based instruction (CBI) are illustrated, and two examples of CBI designed from this perspective are…

Orey, Michael A.; Nelson, Wayne A.

1993-01-01

322

Children’s emotional development: Challenges in their relationships to parents, peers, and friends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review outlines the challenges and constraints which relationships to parents, peers, and friends offer for children’s emotional development, including the development of appraisal, experience, expression, and regulation of emotion. Parents are important for their children’s emotional development not only because they are attachment figures but also because of their cognitive and emotional expertise who instruct their offspring on

Maria von Salisch

2001-01-01

323

Working Memory Underpins Cognitive Development, Learning, and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory is the retention of a small amount of information in a readily accessible form. It facilitates planning, comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving. I examine the historical roots and conceptual development of the concept and the theoretical and practical implications of current debates about working memory mechanisms. Then, I…

Cowan, Nelson

2014-01-01

324

Systems and Cascades in Cognitive Development and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large-scale ("N" = 552) controlled multivariate prospective 14-year longitudinal study of a developmental cascade embedded in a developmental system showed that information-processing efficiency in infancy (4 months), general mental development in toddlerhood (18 months), behavior difficulties in early childhood (36 months), psychometric…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Wolke, Dieter

2013-01-01

325

The Motor and Cognitive Development of Overweight Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the development of overweight compared with healthy-weight children attending kindergartens in Munich, Germany. Mean age of the children at the beginning of the study was 53.2 months (SD = 7.5); the duration of the study was 20 months. At the beginning of the study children were classified as overweight (n…

Krombholz, Heinz

2012-01-01

326

Developing Culturally Competent Faculty: A Cognitive, Affective, and Spiritual Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past decade has evidenced significant dialogue on faith-based campuses about the persistent gap between the increasing ethnic diversity of the student population and that of the faculty. While campus administrators and leaders acknowledge the need to address this concern through faculty development, there is a disturbing lack of successful…

Taylor, Deborah L.; Van Zandt, Cassandra; Menjares, Pete C.

2013-01-01

327

Piagetian Cognitive Development Among Prospective Teachers. Technical Report No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Piagetian Task Instrument (PTI) consisting of three tasks developed by Piaget was administered to 141 preservice elementary teachers enrolled in a mathematical class, 19 preservice secondary mathematics teachers, and 11 calculus honors students. This instrument was scored by methods similar to those of Schwebel (ED 063 896) and McKinnon and…

Juraschek, William A.

328

Pathogenic SYNGAP1 mutations impair cognitive development by disrupting maturation of dendritic spine synapses.  

PubMed

Mutations that cause intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are commonly found in genes that encode for synaptic proteins. However, it remains unclear how mutations that disrupt synapse function impact intellectual ability. In the SYNGAP1 mouse model of ID/ASD, we found that dendritic spine synapses develop prematurely during the early postnatal period. Premature spine maturation dramatically enhanced excitability in the developing hippocampus, which corresponded with the emergence of behavioral abnormalities. Inducing SYNGAP1 mutations after critical developmental windows closed had minimal impact on spine synapse function, whereas repairing these pathogenic mutations in adulthood did not improve behavior and cognition. These data demonstrate that SynGAP protein acts as a critical developmental repressor of neural excitability that promotes the development of life-long cognitive abilities. We propose that the pace of dendritic spine synapse maturation in early life is a critical determinant of normal intellectual development. PMID:23141534

Clement, James P; Aceti, Massimiliano; Creson, Thomas K; Ozkan, Emin D; Shi, Yulin; Reish, Nicholas J; Almonte, Antoine G; Miller, Brooke H; Wiltgen, Brian J; Miller, Courtney A; Xu, Xiangmin; Rumbaugh, Gavin

2012-11-01

329

Developing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Depressive Relapse in Youth  

PubMed Central

Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed youth, children and adolescents frequently report ongoing residual symptoms and often relapse following acute treatment. Recent adult trials have begun examining augmentation with psychosocial treatment after successful medication treatment to enhance medication response and prevent future relapse. This strategy has not yet been examined in youth with depression. Here we present initial efforts to develop a sequential, combination treatment strategy to promoting rapid remission and to prevent relapse in depressed youth. We describe efforts to adapt CBT to prevent relapse (RP-CBT) in youth who respond to pharmacotherapy. The goals of RP-CBT include: preventing relapse, increasing wellness, and developing skills to promote and sustain a healthy emotional lifestyle. We describe the rationale for, components of, and methods used to develop RP-CBT. The results from a small open series sample demonstrate feasibility and indicate that youth appear to tolerate RP-CBT well. A future test of the treatment in a randomized controlled trial is described. PMID:20535241

Kennard, Beth D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.

2010-01-01

330

Development of an empirically derived neuropsychological screening battery for mild to moderate cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to develop a screening battery for detecting mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment in adults. Nineteen neuropsychological measures were utilized to develop two proposed screening batteries, and their diagnostic accuracy rates were compared. Demographically corrected norms were utilized to account for the effect that demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, education, and race\\/ethnicity where possible) can have on neuropsychological test performance.

S. Christopher Nunez

2005-01-01

331

Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. PMID:24615961

Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

2014-09-01

332

Androgen-mediated development in male rat offspring exposed to flutamide in utero: permanence and correlation of early postnatal changes in anogenital distance and nipple retention with malformations in androgen-dependent tissues.  

PubMed

Male offspring exposed in utero to antiandrogens often display alterations in androgen-dependent developmental markers (e.g., anogenital distance [AGD], nipple retention) together with clearly adverse responses such as genital malformations and reproductive tract lesions. The objectives of this study were to determine whether in utero exposure to flutamide results in permanent changes in male AGD and nipple retention, characterize the dose-response relationship between flutamide-mediated alterations in these landmarks and clearly adverse antiandrogenic effects, and establish the predictive value and relationship between AGD and nipple retention, and other adverse manifestations. Male offspring were exposed in utero to 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day (po) of flutamide from gestation days 12 to 21. Offspring were uniquely identified at birth, and various androgen-mediated end points (AGD, areola/nipple retention, cryptorchidism, reproductive tract weights, and malformation incidence) were examined throughout life. In utero flutamide exposure significantly decreased the AGD on postnatal day (PND) 1 and increased areola/nipple retention in male rats on PND 13. Flutamide-induced alterations in AGD and areolae/nipples in early postnatal life correlated with a reduction in AGD and retained nipples observed in the adult. Prenatal flutamide exposure resulted in dose-responsive increases in cryptorchidism. Hypospadias were observed in all flutamide-exposed offspring. In utero flutamide exposure induced partial or complete prostate agenesis and decreased the weights of the seminal vesicles, levator ani bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle, testes, and epididymides in a dose-dependent manner. Epididymal malformations were observed mainly in the 50 mg/kg/day flutamide dose group. In general, flutamide-induced alterations in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)- and testosterone (T)-dependent development each had similar respective dose-response curves. DHT-mediated development was more sensitive to in utero flutamide exposure than T-dependent processes. However, the dose-response curves for flutamide-induced changes in cryptorchidism and seminal vesicle weight were intermediate between the dose-response curves for DHT- and T-mediated development, indicating that proper development of these tissues may require both androgens. The LABC also displayed a dose-dependent decrease in weight that was similar to dose-response observed with seminal vesicle weight and was the most sensitive T-dependent end point measured. Flutamide-induced decreases in AGD predicted subsequent malformations as evidenced by logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic analysis of malformations versus AGD. However, the AGD that would predict a 10% incidence of seminal vesicle malformations is equivalent to a female AGD. An almost fully feminized phenotype of 10-12 nipples was observed in animals that had malformations in T-dependent tissues, whereas 6 or more nipples were observed in animals with malformation in DHT-dependent tissues. These data suggest that flutamide-mediated changes in AGD and nipple retention are not sensitive predictors of altered T-mediated development. PMID:11452136

McIntyre, B S; Barlow, N J; Foster, P M

2001-08-01

333

Risk for Suicidal Ideation Among the Offspring of Bipolar Parents: Results From the Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to examine rates and identify risk factors for suicidal ideation among offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Subjects included 388 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder and 250 offspring of matched community controls enrolled in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Offspring of bipolar probands displayed greater rates of lifetime suicidal ideation than offspring

Tina R. Goldstein; Mihaela Obreja; Wael Shamseddeen; Satish Iyengar; David A. Axelson; Benjamin I. Goldstein; Kelly Monk; Mary Beth Hickey; Dara Sakolsky; David J. Kupfer; David A. Brent; Boris Birmaher

2011-01-01

334

A psychology based approach for longitudinal development in cognitive robotics  

PubMed Central

A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behavior that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks. This paper presents an approach to these issues through robotic implementations inspired by the learning behavior of human infants. We describe an approach to developmental learning and present results from a demonstration of longitudinal development on an iCub humanoid robot. The results cover the rapid emergence of staged behavior, the role of constraints in development, the effect of bootstrapping between stages, and the use of a schema memory of experiential fragments in learning new skills. The context is a longitudinal experiment in which the robot advanced from uncontrolled motor babbling to skilled hand/eye integrated reaching and basic manipulation of objects. This approach offers promise for further fast and effective sensory-motor learning techniques for robotic learning. PMID:24478693

Law, J.; Shaw, P.; Earland, K.; Sheldon, M.; Lee, M.

2014-01-01

335

A psychology based approach for longitudinal development in cognitive robotics.  

PubMed

A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behavior that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks. This paper presents an approach to these issues through robotic implementations inspired by the learning behavior of human infants. We describe an approach to developmental learning and present results from a demonstration of longitudinal development on an iCub humanoid robot. The results cover the rapid emergence of staged behavior, the role of constraints in development, the effect of bootstrapping between stages, and the use of a schema memory of experiential fragments in learning new skills. The context is a longitudinal experiment in which the robot advanced from uncontrolled motor babbling to skilled hand/eye integrated reaching and basic manipulation of objects. This approach offers promise for further fast and effective sensory-motor learning techniques for robotic learning. PMID:24478693

Law, J; Shaw, P; Earland, K; Sheldon, M; Lee, M

2014-01-01

336

Paternal low protein diet affects adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic function in mice.  

PubMed

Although the association between maternal periconceptional diet and adult offspring health is well characterised, our understanding of the impact of paternal nutrition at the time of conception on offspring phenotype remains poorly defined. Therefore, we determined the effect of a paternal preconception low protein diet (LPD) on adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic health in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal protein diet (NPD; 18% casein) or LPD (9% casein) for 7 wk before mating. At birth, a reduced male-to-female ratio (P = 0.03) and increased male offspring weight (P = 0.009) were observed in litters from LPD compared with NPD stud males with no differences in mean litter size. LPD offspring were heavier than NPD offspring at 2 and 3 wk of age (P < 0.02). However, no subsequent differences in body weight were observed. Adult male offspring derived from LPD studs developed relative hypotension (decreased by 9.2 mmHg) and elevated heart rate (P < 0.05), whereas both male and female offspring displayed vascular dysfunction and impaired glucose tolerance relative to NPD offspring. At cull (24 wk), LPD males had elevated adiposity (P = 0.04), reduced heart-to-body weight ratio (P = 0.04), and elevated circulating TNF-? levels (P = 0.015) compared with NPD males. Transcript expression in offspring heart and liver tissue was reduced for genes involved in calcium signaling (Adcy, Plcb, Prkcb) and metabolism (Fto) in LPD offspring (P < 0.03). These novel data reveal the impact of suboptimal paternal nutrition on adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis, and provide some insight into the underlying regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24658019

Watkins, Adam J; Sinclair, Kevin D

2014-05-15

337

Sex role orientation, level of cognitive development and mathematics performance in late adolescence.  

PubMed

Sex differences in mathematics performance are found in late adolescence. This study investigates the effects of psychological sex role orientation (BSRI: masculine, feminine, undifferentiated, androgynous) and level of cognitive development (concrete, formal) on performance in mathematics. ANOVA analysis (N = 69; 18 males, 51 females) revealed significant effects for level of cognitive development and for masculine by feminine sex role orientation interaction. Subjects whose BSRI masculine and feminine scores were either both low or both high scored significantly lower on the mathematics test than subjects whose scores on either masculine or feminine scales were high. This indicates lower mathematics performance for androgynous and undifferentiated subjects. This result is hypothesized to be a function of the particular age level of these subjects and their concomitant overconcern with appropriate sex role development. PMID:3812067

Plake, B S; Kaplan, B J; Steinbrunn, J

1986-01-01

338

Cognitive development in introductory physics: A research-based approach to curriculum reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project describes the research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created for designing and clarifying educational objectives, for developing assessments that can evaluate individual component processes of the problem-solving process, and for guiding curriculum design in introductory physics courses, specifically within the context of a "thinking-skills" curriculum. TIPP relies on the following resources: (1) cognitive research findings adopted by physics education research, (2) expert-novice research discoveries acknowledged by physics education research, (3) an educational psychology taxonomy for educational objectives, and (4) various collections of physics problems created by physics education researchers or developed by textbook authors. TIPP was used in the years 2006--2008 to reform the first semester of the introductory algebra-based physics course (called Phys 11) at The George Washington University. The reform sought to transform our curriculum into a "thinking-skills" curriculum that trades "breadth for depth" by focusing on fewer topics while targeting the students' cognitive development. We employed existing research on the physics problem-solving expert-novice behavior, cognitive science and behavioral science findings, and educational psychology recommendations. Our pedagogy relies on didactic constructs such as the GW-ACCESS problem-solving protocol, learning progressions and concept maps that we have developed and implemented in our introductory physics course. These tools were designed based on TIPP. Their purpose is: (1) to help students build local and global coherent knowledge structures, (2) to develop more context-independent problem-solving abilities, (3) to gain confidence in problem solving, and (4) to establish connections between everyday phenomena and underlying physics concepts. We organize traditional and research-based physics problems such that students experience a gradual increase in complexity related to problem context, problem features and cognitive processes needed to solve the problem. The instructional environment that we designed allows for explicit monitoring, control and measurement of the cognitive processes exercised during the instruction period. It is easily adaptable to any kind of curriculum and can be readily adjusted throughout the semester. To assess the development of students' problem-solving abilities, we created rubrics that measure specific aspects of the thinking involved in physics problem solving. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' shift in dispositions towards learning physics. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' level of conceptual understanding. The results feature improvements in students' problem-solving abilities and in their attitudes towards learning physics.

Teodorescu, Raluca Elena

339

The development of emotion regulation: an fMRI study of cognitive reappraisal in children, adolescents and young adults  

E-print Network

The ability to use cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions is an adaptive skill in adulthood, but little is known about its development. Because reappraisal is thought to be supported by linearly developing prefrontal ...

Gabrieli, John D. E.

340

Pre- and/or postnatal protein restriction in rats impairs learning and motivation in male offspring  

PubMed Central

Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong health complications including affective and cognitive disorders. Little is known about the effects of suboptimal intra-uterine environments on associative learning and motivational behavior. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation would impair offspring associative learning and motivation as measured by operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively. Control mothers were fed 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second letter lactation diet), to evaluate effects of maternal diet on male offspring behavior. Impaired learning was observed during fixed ratio-1 operant conditioning in RC offspring that required more sessions to learn vs. the CC offspring (9.4 ± 0.8 and 3.8 ± 0.3 sessions, respectively, p<0.05). Performance in fixed ratio-5 conditioning showed the RR (5.4 ± 1.1), CR (4.0 ± 0.8), and RC (5.0 ± 0.8) offspring required more sessions to reach performance criterion than CC offspring (2.5 ± 0.5, p<0.05). Furthermore, motivational effects during the progressive ratio test revealed less responding in the RR (48.1 ± 17), CR (74.7 ± 8.4), and RC (65.9 ± 11.2) for positive reinforcement vs. the CC offspring (131.5 ± 7.5, p<0.05). These findings demonstrate negative developmental programming effects due to perinatal isocaloric low protein diet on learning and motivation behavior with the nutritional challenge in the prenatal period showing more vulnerability in offspring behavior. PMID:21078378

Reyes-Castro, LA; Rodriguez, JS; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, GL; Wimmer, RD; McDonald, TJ; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, PW; Zambrano, E

2011-01-01

341

Linking the developmental and degenerative theories of schizophrenia: association between infant development and adult cognitive decline.  

PubMed

Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative theories may be viewed as incompatible accounts that compete to explain the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, it is possible that neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes could both reflect common underlying causal mechanisms. We hypothesized that cognitive dysfunction would gradually deteriorate over time in schizophrenia and the degree of this deterioration in adulthood would be predicted by an infant measure of neurodevelopment. We aimed to examine the association between age of learning to stand in infancy and deterioration of cognitive function in adulthood. Participants were nonpsychotic control subjects (n = 76) and participants with schizophrenia (n = 36) drawn from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study. The schizophrenia group showed greater deterioration in abstraction with memory than controls, but there were no differences between schizophrenia and controls in rate of change of other cognitive measures. Age of learning to stand in infancy significantly inversely predicted later deterioration of abstraction with memory in adult schizophrenia (later infant development linked to greater subsequent cognitive deterioration during adulthood), possibly suggesting a link between abnormal neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes in schizophrenia. PMID:24583905

Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Isohanni, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Haapea, Marianne; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Graham K

2014-11-01

342

Cognitive Load Theory and Complex Learning: Recent Developments and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) has focused on instructional methods to decrease extraneous cognitive load so that available cognitive resources can be fully devoted to learning. This article strengthens the cognitive base of CLT by linking cognitive processes to the processes used by biological evolution. The article discusses recent…

van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Sweller, John

2005-01-01

343

The impact of preschool education component of ICDS on mental and cognitive development of children.  

PubMed

The aim of this evaluation was to assess the impact of nonformal preschool education of the mental and cognitive development of rural and urban children from the Ludhiana Integrated Child Development Services (ICDs) district, Punjab, India; comparisons were made with non-ICDs attenders. 30 anganwadi community workers (AWWs) with ICDs were randomly selected equally from a total of about 200 workers in urban and rural blocks. 360 children aged 3-6 years; equally divided among urban and rural areas, were selected; 180 of these children, equally divided between urban and rural areas, were controls of nonattenders of preschool. Information about cognitive and mental development was obtained from AWWs records and interviews, parents, and a cognitive ability test. Mean test scores among rural ICDS attenders aged 3-4 years of age were 73.77 compared with 67.33 for nonattenders. The scores for rural ICDs attenders 4-5 years old was 95.60 vs. 82.20 for nonattenders. For the 5-6 year old group, scores for rural ICDs attenders were 104.23 compared with 93.27 for nonattenders. The scores were statistically significant for score differences for all age groups in the rural population and the urban population. Urban ICDS attenders scored 73/87 compared with 65.57 for nonattenders aged 3-4 years. Urban ICDS attenders aged 4-5 years scored 92.97 compared with 83.23 for nonattenders. Urban ICDS attenders aged 5-6 years scored 105.03 compared with 92.57 for nonattenders. There were no significant differences between rural and urban attenders or nonattenders for any age group. There was a significant (p .001) correlation between age and cognitive ability: rural attenders, r = .81; rural nonattenders, r = .78; urban attenders, r - 84, urban nonattenders r = 86. The findings supported previous studies, by, for instance, Adhish et al. on cognitive differences between children in ICDs and non ICDs villages. Place of residence was not found to be related to mental development. There was an increase in the cognitive development with the advancement of age. PMID:12287142

Raizada, N; Sachar, R K; Bhatia, R C; Sehgal, R; Soni, R K

1993-01-01

344

Contributions of Domain-General Cognitive Resources and Different Forms of Arithmetic Development to Pre-Algebraic Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of domain-general cognitive resources and different forms of arithmetic development to individual differences in pre-algebraic knowledge. Children (n = 279, mean age = 7.59 years) were assessed on 7 domain-general cognitive resources as well as arithmetic calculations and word problems…

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Powell, Sarah R.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Vernier, Emily; Namkung, Jessica M.; Vukovic, Rose K.

2012-01-01

345

The "Cognitive-Affective Filter" in Teacher Development: Transmission-Based and Interpretation-Based Schemas for Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two orientations to the learning process: "transmission," transfer of information from source to receiver; and "interpretation," development of knowledge through the interaction of receiver with source. Transmission- or interpretation-based values are like a cognitive-affective filter because they form a cognitive and an emotional frame…

Pennington, Martha C.

1996-01-01

346

Corporal Punishment by Mothers and Development of Children's Cognitive Ability: A Longitudinal Study of Two Nationally Representative Age Cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis that the use of corporal punishment (CP), such as slapping a child's hand or “spanking,” is associated with restricted development of cognitive ability. Cognitive ability was measured at the start of the study and 4 years later for 806 children age 2–4 and 704 children age 5–9 in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. The

Murray A. Straus; Mallie J. Paschall

2009-01-01

347

Reading Acquisition, Cognitive and Visual Development, and Self-Esteem in Four Children with Cerebral Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During a longitudinal in-depth study of the reading acquisition and cognitive and visual development of four children with cerebral visual impairment, the children's visual acuity improved, but their full-scale IQs declined, mostly because of difficulties in abstract thinking, visual cognitive organization, and extremely low processing speed. The…

Ek, Ulla; Fellenius, Kerstin; Jacobson, Lena

2003-01-01

348

Verbal and Visual Memory Impairments Among Young Offspring and Healthy Adult Relatives of Patients With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Selective Generational Patterns Indicate Different Developmental Trajectories  

PubMed Central

Objective: Memory deficits have been shown in patients affected by schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP)/mood disorder. We recently reported that young high-risk offspring of an affected parent were impaired in both verbal episodic memory (VEM) and visual episodic memory (VisEM). Understanding better the trajectory of memory impairments from childhood to adult clinical status in risk populations is crucial for early detection and prevention. In multigenerational families densely affected by SZ or BP, our aim was to compare the memory impairments observed in young nonaffected offspring with memory functioning in nonaffected adult relatives and patients. Methods: For 20 years, we followed up numerous kindreds in the Eastern Québec population. After having characterized the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders phenotypes, we assessed cognition (N = 381) in 3 subsamples in these kindreds and in controls: 60 young offspring of a parent affected by SZ or BP, and in the adult generations, 92 nonaffected adult relatives and 40 patients affected by SZ or BP. VEM was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test and VisEM with the Rey figures. Results: The VEM deficits observed in the offspring were also found in adult relatives and patients. In contrast, the VisEM impairments observed in the young offspring were present only in patients, not in the adult relatives. Conclusion: Implications for prevention and genetic mechanisms can be drawn from the observation that VEM and VisEM would show distinct generational trajectories and that the trajectory associated with VisEM may offer a better potential than VEM to predict future risk of developing the disease. PMID:20410238

Maziade, Michel; Rouleau, Nancie; Merette, Chantal; Cellard, Caroline; Battaglia, Marco; Marino, Cecilia; Jomphe, Valerie; Gilbert, Elsa; Achim, Amelie; Bouchard, Roch-Hugo; Paccalet, Thomas; Paradis, Marie-Eve; Roy, Marc-Andre

2011-01-01

349

Mood lability among offspring of parents with bipolar disorder and community controls  

PubMed Central

Objectives Early identification of bipolar disorder (BP) symptomatology is crucial for improving the prognosis of this illness. Increased mood lability has been reported in BP. However, mood lability is ubiquitous across psychiatric disorders and may be a marker of severe psychopathology and not specific to BP. To clarify this issue, this study examined the prevalence of mood lability and its components in offspring of BP parents and offspring of community control parents recruited through the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study. Methods Forty-one school-age BP offspring of 38 BP parents, 257 healthy or non-BP offspring of 174 BP parents, and 192 offspring of 117 control parents completed a scale that was developed to evaluate mood lability in youth, i.e., the Children’s Affective Lability Scale (CALS). Results A factor analysis of the parental CALS, and in part the child CALS, revealed Irritability, Mania, and Anxiety/Depression factors, with most of the variance explained by the Irritability factor. After adjusting for confounding factors (e.g., parental and offspring non-BP psychopathology), BP offspring of BP parents showed the highest parental and child total and factor scores, followed by the non-BP offspring of BP parents, and then the offspring of the controls. Conclusions Mood lability overall and mania-like, anxious/depressed, and particularly irritability symptoms may be a prodromal phenotype of BP among offspring of parents with BP. Prospective studies are warranted to clarify whether these symptoms will predict the development of BP and/or other psychopathology. If confirmed, these symptoms may become a target of treatment and biological studies before BP develops. PMID:23551755

Birmaher, Boris; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Axelson, David A; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Fan, Jieyu; Iyengar, Satish; Ha, Wonho; Diler, Rasim S; Goldstein, Tina; Brent, David; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Sakolsky, Dara; Kupfer, David J

2013-01-01

350

Student Cognitive Difficulties and Mental Model Development of Complex Earth and Environmental Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students organize scientific knowledge and reason about environmental issues through manipulation of mental models. The nature of the environmental sciences, which are focused on the study of complex, dynamic systems, may present cognitive difficulties to students in their development of authentic, accurate mental models of environmental systems. The inquiry project seeks to develop and assess the coupling of information technology (IT)-based learning with physical models in order to foster rich mental model development of environmental systems in geoscience undergraduate students. The manipulation of multiple representations, the development and testing of conceptual models based on available evidence, and exposure to authentic, complex and ill-constrained problems were the components of investigation utilized to reach the learning goals. Upper-level undergraduate students enrolled in an environmental geology course at Texas A&M University participated in this research which served as a pilot study. Data based on rubric evaluations interpreted by principal component analyses suggest students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry is limited and the ability to cross scales and link systems proved problematic. Results categorized into content knowledge and cognition processes where reasoning, critical thinking and cognitive load were driving factors behind difficulties in student learning. Student mental model development revealed multiple misconceptions and lacked complexity and completeness to represent the studied systems. Further, the positive learning impacts of the implemented modules favored the physical model over the IT-based learning projects, likely due to cognitive load issues. This study illustrates the need to better understand student difficulties in solving complex problems when using IT, where the appropriate scaffolding can then be implemented to enhance student learning of the earth system sciences.

Sell, K.; Herbert, B.; Schielack, J.

2004-05-01

351

Cognitive development and children's perceptions of fruit and vegetables; a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Most children do not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake. Since preference is an important predictor of intake, more knowledge is needed about children's preferences and about how these preferences develop. As most research about preferences has ignored cognitive development, this study was designed to explore the relation between children's perceptions and preferences for fruit and vegetables and their cognitive development. Methods The study population consisted of eight 4–5-year-old children, eight 7–8-year-old children and twelve 11–12-year-old children, recruited via a primary school in Wageningen, The Netherlands. Qualitative in-depth information was obtained by duo-interviews and focus group discussions. A structured guide with questions and game tasks was applied to address different domains in a consistent way. Results The developmental progress at the abstraction level was seen in children's reasoning across all domains. Children's preferences expanded and increased in complexity as they moved to a higher age bracket. The most important determinants for liking and disliking shifted from appearance and texture attributes in 4–5-year-olds towards taste attributes in 11–12-year-olds. Children's knowledge of basic tastes increased. Their understanding of health improved as they grew older. The emergence of social norms and perspectives of others as the children grew older was also seen in relation to fruit and vegetables. Child-reported parental strategies to stimulate healthy eating appeared to vary with age in line with cognitive development. Conclusion Cognitive development is paralleled by changes in the importance given to the attributes that determine whether a child likes or dislikes fruits and vegetables; children's understanding of and reasoning about health; and parental use of strategies. These developmental differences should be incorporated in programs designed to increase long-term fruit and vegetable intake in children. PMID:17620131

Zeinstra, Gertrude G; Koelen, Maria A; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

2007-01-01

352

Cognitive Recovery and Development after Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood: A Person-Oriented, Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Influence of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on cognitive recovery and subsequent development is poorly understood. In this longitudinal study we used cluster analysis to explore acute stage individual profiles of injury age and cognition in 118 children with traumatic brain injury. Repeated measures of cognitive function were conducted at 30 months, indicating recovery, and 10 years post-injury, indicating development. Nine clusters were identified. Recovery was evident in three clusters, two of them with low functioning profiles. Developmental gains occurred for three clusters and an acute profile of higher freedom from distractibility (FFD) and lower processing speed (PS) was related to positive differences. One cluster, average low functioning and especially low verbal comprehension, demonstrated a slower development than peers. This suggests that developmental change after TBI in childhood takes place on a continuum, with both chance of long-term catching up, and risk of poor development. An acute profile of higher FFD and lower PS seemed to reflect injury consequences and were followed by developmental gains. These results challenge previous findings, and warrant further investigation. PMID:23025803

Catroppa, Cathy; Godfrey, Celia; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte; Anderson, Vicki

2013-01-01

353

Impact of maternal prenatal stress on growth of the offspring.  

PubMed

Unperturbed fetal development is essential for future health of an individual. Previous studies have linked diseases of aging to harmful alterations that happen during fetal development. Given the significant long-term impact that intrauterine environment has on an individual's life, it was hypothesized that maternal stress during pregnancy will have negative effects on the offspring's prenatal and postnatal growth. To test this, twenty-eight female and seven male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were purchased and bred to produce 176 offspring. During pregnancy, dams were randomly divided into four groups (n=7, per group) and immobilization stress induced as follows; Group 1 (GW1): immobilization stress on days 1-7 of pregnancy, Group 2 (GW2): on days 8-14, Group 3 (GW3): on days 15-21, Group 4 (Controls): left undisturbed. Maternal cortisol hormone, food intake, and weight gain were monitored during pregnancy. Pups were raised under normal laboratory conditions and sacrificed at ages: 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks to determine the effect of prenatal stress. At necropsy, the tibia was removed and processed for histology. Differences among groups were determined by T-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Linear regression analysis was performed to establish the relationship between stress in utero and indicators of bone development in offspring. P values ? 0.05 were considered significant. Cortisol hormone levels in controls were lower than those of stressed animals. Stressed dams consumed 12.5% less food per day compared to controls. Animals in GW1 and GW2 gained less weight during pregnancy but had larger litters than did GW3 or the control group. Offspring born to GW3 were heavier compared to all other groups. GW3 offspring had a higher rate of bone formation. In conclusion, stress during pregnancy resulted in increased cortisol and reduced food intake in mothers, but faster growth and higher weight gain in offspring compared to controls. PMID:24490112

Amugongo, Sarah K; Hlusko, Leslea J

2014-02-01

354

Viewing Clinical Research Career Development Through the Lens of Social Cognitive Career Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues such as, over commitment, insufficient time, and lack of funding, threaten physicians’ entry and sustainability in\\u000a a research career pathway. Social cognitive career theory is presented as a conceptual framework to critically examine the\\u000a limitations of the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) efforts to promote the career development of physician–scientists.\\u000a Special attention is given to the unique challenges of

Lori L. Bakken; Angela Byars-Winston; Min-fen Wang

2006-01-01

355

Combining Mindfulness Meditation with Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Insomnia: A Treatment-Development Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This treatment-development study is a Stage I evaluation of an intervention that combines mindfulness meditation with cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Thirty adults who met research diagnostic criteria for Psychophysiological Insomnia (Edinger et al., 2004) participated in a 6-week, multi-component group intervention using mindfulness meditation, sleep restriction, stimulus control, sleep education, and sleep hygiene. Sleep diaries and self-reported pre-sleep arousal

Jason C. Ong; Shauna L. Shapiro; Rachel Manber

2008-01-01

356

Self-esteem and cognitive development in the era of the childhood obesity epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Consequences of obesity for mental health and cognitive development are not established to the same degree as those for chronic diseases. This study aims to document the interrelationships between body weight, self-esteem and school performance in childhood. Height and weight measurements and self-report of self-esteem, diet quality and physical activity of 4945 grade 5 students were linked with standardized

F. Wang; P. J. Veugelers

2008-01-01

357

Developing an integrated treatment for substance use and depression using cognitive–behavioral therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing a unified treatment approach to meet the substance abuse and mental health needs of clients is the preferred model for addressing co-occurring disorders. We developed a group-based cognitive-behavioral (CBT) integrated treatment for depression and substance use disorders (SUD) that could be delivered by counselors in SUD treatment settings and evaluated its feasibility and acceptability. We conducted an in-depth case

Karen Chan Osilla; Kimberly A. Hepner; Ricardo F. Muñoz; Stephanie Woo; Katherine Watkins

2009-01-01

358

The Effects of Breast Milk Versus Infant Formulae on Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially-available infant formulae are designed to provide infants with the same nutritional value as breast milk; however, there are many biological components (i.e., maternally-derived antibodies) that cannot be reproduced. There is evidence in the literature to support the hypothesis that feeding with breast milk provides benefits to the infant in terms of development and cognitive outcome. The most studied components

Jennie Yum

2007-01-01

359

Factors modifying the risk of IDDM in offspring of an IDDM parent.  

PubMed

Offspring of mothers with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) have a much lower risk of IDDM than do offspring of diabetic fathers, and this risk is particularly low for offspring born to diabetic mothers over the age of 25 years. To determine whether increasing maternal age also protects the offspring of IDDM fathers from IDDM, we surveyed 367 IDDM fathers (IDDM onset before age 35) who first came to the Joslin Clinic (Boston, MA) between 1945 and 1969. Of the 840 offspring of these men, IDDM developed in 28 before the age of 20, giving a cumulative risk of 5.1 +/- 1.0% (means +/- SE). Because this is similar to the result of our earlier study of IDDM fathers, the two groups were combined to give 1,084 offspring, 39 having IDDM (cumulative risk of IDDM 5.4 +/- 0.9% by age 20), for comparison with our cohort of 1,391 offspring of 739 IDDM mothers. In that cohort, IDDM developed in 20 offspring before the age of 20 years, giving a cumulative risk of 2.1 +/- 0.5%. The risk of diabetes in offspring was higher if the parent's IDDM was diagnosed before age 11 than if it was diagnosed later: 9.3 compared with 4.0% (P = 0.006) for the offspring of IDDM fathers and 2.7 compared with 1.8% for the offspring of IDDM mothers (P = 0.06). In the families in which the father's IDDM was diagnosed after age 11, a protective effect of maternal age > or = 25, similar to that in families of IDDM mothers, seems to be present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7883117

el-Hashimy, M; Angelico, M C; Martin, B C; Krolewski, A S; Warram, J H

1995-03-01

360

The development of children's understanding of death: cognitive and psychodynamic considerations.  

PubMed

The cognitive and emotional development of children and adolescents follows a biologically driven, environmentally mediated, and predictable but not entirely invariate sequence. Piagetian, psychoanalytic, and other schools of thought inform an understanding of child development; some of the theories are empirically validated, some not. This framework enables clinicians and parents to approach their children, ill or well, from a developmentally informed perspective. At the same time, as Spinetta's [17] case-controlled study of 6 to 10-year-old children hospitalized either with cancer or non-life limiting illness demonstrated, serious illness itself accelerates cognitive development in often unpredicted ways: "To equate awareness of death with the ability to conceptualize it and express the concept in an adult man-ner denies the possibility of an awareness of death at a less cognitive level. If it is true that the perception of death can be engraved at some level that precedes a child's ability to talk about it, then a child might well understand that he is going to die long before he can say so." In the following articles,the editors invite a critical reading of the empiric and descriptive literature of pediatric palliative medicine that allows an informed and individualized approach to these extraordinary children and their families. PMID:16797438

Poltorak, Dunya Yaldoo; Glazer, John P

2006-07-01

361

The Role of Corpus Callosum Development in Functional Connectivity and Cognitive Processing  

PubMed Central

The corpus callosum is hypothesized to play a fundamental role in integrating information and mediating complex behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that lack of normal callosal development can lead to deficits in functional connectivity that are related to impairments in specific cognitive domains. We examined resting-state functional connectivity in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) and matched controls using magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEG-I) of coherence in the alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (12–30 Hz) and gamma (30–55 Hz) bands. Global connectivity (GC) was defined as synchronization between a region and the rest of the brain. In AgCC individuals, alpha band GC was significantly reduced in the dorsolateral pre-frontal (DLPFC), posterior parietal (PPC) and parieto-occipital cortices (PO). No significant differences in GC were seen in either the beta or gamma bands. We also explored the hypothesis that, in AgCC, this regional reduction in functional connectivity is explained primarily by a specific reduction in interhemispheric connectivity. However, our data suggest that reduced connectivity in these regions is driven by faulty coupling in both inter- and intrahemispheric connectivity. We also assessed whether the degree of connectivity correlated with behavioral performance, focusing on cognitive measures known to be impaired in AgCC individuals. Neuropsychological measures of verbal processing speed were significantly correlated with resting-state functional connectivity of the left medial and superior temporal lobe in AgCC participants. Connectivity of DLPFC correlated strongly with performance on the Tower of London in the AgCC cohort. These findings indicate that the abnormal callosal development produces salient but selective (alpha band only) resting-state functional connectivity disruptions that correlate with cognitive impairment. Understanding the relationship between impoverished functional connectivity and cognition is a key step in identifying the neural mechanisms of language and executive dysfunction in common neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders where disruptions of callosal development are consistently identified. PMID:22870191

Findlay, Anne M.; Honma, Susanne; Jeremy, Rita J.; Strominger, Zoe; Bukshpun, Polina; Wakahiro, Mari; Brown, Warren S.; Paul, Lynn K.; Barkovich, A. James; Mukherjee, Pratik; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.

2012-01-01

362

Paternal ethanol exposure and behavioral abnormities in offspring: associated alterations in imprinted gene methylation.  

PubMed

Research confirms that maternal ethanol (EtOH) exposure can induce physical and mental disorders in offspring, yet the effect of paternal ethanol exposure on offspring is unclear. Methylation alterations in imprinted genes may be related to the well-documented teratogenic effects of ethanol. Here, we report that ethanol (0, 1.1, 3.3 g/kg) was administered intragastrically to male mice and a behavioral study was performed on their F1 generation. Data show that F1 mice with fathers exposed to the highest dose of ethanol had delayed cognitive performance and increased anxiety and depression. A specific circling behavior was observed in the offspring of the paternally ethanol-exposed group. The degree of methylation and mRNA expression of H19, Peg3, Ndn and Snrpn were assessed in paternal sperm and in the cerebral cortices of each offspring. It did affect methylation in paternal sperm (H19 and Peg3) and in the offspring's cerebral cortices (CpG7 and CpG11 in Peg3 and Snrpn), but the level of mRNA expression has not changed. In the circling mice, the highest ethanol exposure increase in methylation (CpG 1, 2, 7 and 11) and decreases in mRNA of Peg3.Thus, chronic paternal ethanol exposure can affect the methylation of imprinted genes in sire sperm that may be passed on to offspring, giving rise to mental deficits. PMID:24486713

Liang, Fei; Diao, Lei; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Huijun; Zhou, Wenhao; Huang, Guoying; Ma, Duan

2014-06-01

363

Current Parental Depression and Offspring Perceived Self-Competence: A Quasi-Experimental Examination  

PubMed Central

A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52%) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins (CoT) designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended-family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression. PMID:22692226

Class, Quetzal A.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, E. L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

2013-01-01

364

The risks of parenthood II. Parent-offspring conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Previous work has demonstrated the value of dynamic programming models for the analysis of parental decision making. In the present paper we extend this approach to analyse conflicts between parents and their offspring, and develop a dynamic ESS model of feeding and fledging of nestling birds. In order to simplify the formulation and solution of the dynamic ESS model, we

Colin W. Clark; Ronald C. Ydenberg

1990-01-01

365

Effects of maternal depression on cognitive development of children over the first 7 years of life.  

PubMed

The effects of postnatal depression on cognitive test scores at 20 months and 4; 8 years of age as well as the timing (onset in the early postnatal period versus later), severity, number of episodes, duration of longest phase, recency, and chronicity of material depression on children's cognitive scores at 6; 3 years was investigated. In South Bavaria, Germany, 1,329 mothers of singletons were screened when the children were 6; 3 years of age for the presence of depressive symptoms since the birth of their infant. A standard interview (SADS-L) was used to ascertain DSM-IV diagnosis and details of depressive episodes. Ninety-two mothers were diagnosed as having suffered DSM-IV defined depression (7%). Seven hundred and twenty-one mothers had no depressive episodes or symptoms from their children's birth until 6; 3 years and were used as control group. The children had been assessed with the Griffiths Scales of Babies' Abilities (20 months), the Columbia Mental Maturity Scales (CMM) at 4; 8 years, and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) at 6; 3 years. No significant main effects of severity, timing of onset, duration, or chronicity of depression of the child's cognitive development were found. Significant interactions of gender with chronicity of maternal depression (i.e. early-onset major and repeated episodes) were detected. Low SES boys or boys born at neonatal risk of mothers with chronic depression had lower Achievement Scores in the K-ABC at 6; 3 years than children of mothers with less severe depression or controls. It is concluded that maternal depression per se has negligible effects on children's cognitive development. Long-term effects may be found when maternal depression is chronic, the child is a boy and neonatal risk-born, or the family suffers other social risks. PMID:11464967

Kurstjens, S; Wolke, D

2001-07-01

366

Maternal high fat diet consumption during the perinatal period programs offspring behavior.  

PubMed

The environment that a developing offspring experiences during the perinatal period is markedly influenced by maternal health and diet composition. Evidence from both epidemiological studies and animal models indicates that maternal diet and metabolic status play a critical role in programming the neural circuitry that regulates behavior, resulting in long-term consequences for offspring behavior. Maternal diet and metabolic state influence the behavior of offspring directly by impacting the intrauterine environment and indirectly by modulating maternal behavior. The mechanisms by which maternal diet and metabolic profile shape the perinatal environment remain largely unknown, but recent research has found that increases in inflammatory cytokines, nutrients (glucose and fatty acids), and hormones (insulin and leptin) affect the environment of the developing offspring. Offspring exposed to maternal obesity and high fat diet consumption during development are more susceptible to developing mental health and behavioral disorders such as anxiety, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. Recent evidence suggests that this increased risk for behavioral disorders is driven by modifications in the development of neural pathways involved in behavioral regulation. In particular, research indicates that the development of the serotonergic system is impacted by exposure to maternal obesity and high fat diet consumption, and this disruption may underlie many of the behavioral disturbances observed in these offspring. Given the high rates of obesity and high fat diet consumption in pregnant women, it is vital to examine the influence that maternal nutrition and metabolic profile have on the developing offspring. PMID:23085399

Sullivan, Elinor L; Nousen, Elizabeth K; Chamlou, Katherine A

2014-01-17

367

Increased anxiety-like behavior but no cognitive impairments in adult rats exposed to constant light conditions during perinatal development  

PubMed Central

Background. Shift-work is suggested to affect fetal development negatively. In particular, maternal hormonal disturbance arising from sleep deprivation or circadian rhythm changes may disturb fetal growth or lead to complications during pregnancy. Exposure to constant light is an environmental stressor that can affect the circadian system and has been shown to induce neurochemical and behavioral changes when used during the prenatal and/or postnatal period in experimental animals. However, studies investigating long-term effects of constant light in the offspring are sparse. Methods. An accidental power outage resulted in pregnant females being housed under constant light (LL) conditions for seven days of the offspring perinatal development (embryonic day 20 to postnatal day 4). The long-term effects of constant light on the behavior in the adult offspring were assessed by means of open field, object recognition, and water maze tests. Results. In adulthood, LL-animals displayed an intact recognition memory and no deficits in spatial learning or memory. In the open field test, LL-animals exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior, observed as significantly more thigmotaxis and less ambulation. These results were confirmed in the other behavioral tests as the LL-animals spent less time exploring the objects in the object recognition test, and showed thigmotactic behavior also in the water maze test. Conclusion. The results confirm that early life experience can cause changes in brain development that shape brain function and add to the sparse literature on long-term effects of constant light conditions during perinatal development on specific behaviors in adulthood. PMID:23902426

Roman, Erika

2013-01-01

368

Keeping Kids on Track: Impacts of a Parenting-Focused Early Head Start Program on Attachment Security and Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: The home-based Early Head Start program in this local study aimed to promote children's early attachment and cognitive development by establishing supportive relationships with parents and guiding responsive parenting and positive parent–child play interactions. To test the effectiveness of this approach, we studied the development of secure base behavior and cognitive skills in infants and toddlers from low-income

Lori A. Roggman; Lisa K. Boyce; Gina A. Cook

2009-01-01

369

Cognitive development in Silver-Russell syndrome: a sibling-controlled study.  

PubMed

This study examined cognitive development in Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), a condition with intrauterine growth retardation, persisting short stature, and specific stigmata. Neuropsychological function and cognitive abilities were assessed in a sample of 36 children with SRS (21 males, 15 females; mean age 7 years 6 months, SD 2 years 8 months; age range 3 to 12 years) and 25 normally developing siblings (mean age 8 years 6 months, SD 2 years 7 months; age range 3 to 12 years) using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Special measures were taken to control for confounding factors and sample bias. Mean overall IQ score in the total SRS sample (95.7, SD 10.63), as measured by the Mental Processing Composite Scale, was significantly reduced (p=0.021) compared with test norms (IQ 100, SD 15), indicating a moderate cognitive impairment. Subscale analysis revealed some specific deficiencies. However, these cannot be attributed to an established category of specific learning disorder. The mean score in the Achievement Scale (91.25, SD 14.92), which is more sensitive to educational influences, showed stronger deficits (p=0.001). The sibling control group achieved a slightly better mean IQ score (104.20, SD 12.32) than test norms (p=0.10). Direct analysis of paired differences between the subsample of children with SRS and a sibling among the control group (n=25) revealed a significant mean difference of 8.08 IQ points (p=0.011). Risk factor analysis revealed that cognitive development is not associated with birth length (p=0.404), birthweight (p=0.820), growth hormone therapy (p=0.810), phenotypic severity (p=0.828), or sex (p=0.880). Two children with maternal uniparental disomy for the entire chromosome 7 had markedly lower IQ scores (81 and 84 respectively). In contrast to the few previous findings, children with SRS show only moderate, but significant, impairments in cognitive outcome, which are more striking in our sample when compared with siblings than with test norms. PMID:15132265

Noeker, Meinolf; Wollmann, Hartmut A

2004-05-01

370

A new direction for cognitive development in nursing to prepare the practitioners of the future.  

PubMed

The quest to improve metacognitive control of critical thinking abilities has gained increasing importance throughout the world during the past thirty years. Self-regulated learning, a concept within the construct of critical thinking, is currently receiving much attention from educational theorists. A self-regulated individual requires a dependable experiential knowledge base, uses cognitive critical thinking strategies in a reflective manner, and is affected by social and cultural influences. One purpose of this article is to review the significant legacy of cognitive research in nursing. The research is categorized according to the concepts of the self-regulation learning model; metacognitive self-regulation (critical thinking, information processing), behavioral self-regulation (reflective practice) and environmental self-regulation (social interaction, clinical context). Another purpose of the article is to explore some self-regulated learning techniques that could be used to improve metacognitive control of critical thinking abilities in practice situations. Nursing leaders in service and education should consider a new approach for cognitive development in practice, since the result could be outcomes that are more closely aligned with mandates of governing bodies, growth of the discipline and patient welfare. PMID:12004394

Kuiper, R

2000-01-01

371

Cognitive, emotional and social development in adolescents born to substance using women.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to investigate the long-term developmental consequences of being born to a substance-using mother, focusing on cognitive functions, attention, emotional and social development. The longitudinal sample comprised 48 adolescents aged 12-16 at the time of follow-up assessments, which included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children, The Tower of London test and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The adolescents scored significantly lower than the norms on Wechsler's subtests and Full-Scale IQ, and on The Everyday Attention test. There were few differences on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The girls reported significantly more hyperactivity than the British norms, and the teachers reported higher impact scores in boys, compared to the British norms. Thus, the results on cognitive consequences of maternal substance use appear to be very substantial while the emotional and social consequences do not. The results suggest serious negative effects of substance exposure in utero on attention and cognitive functioning in general. PMID:24828950

Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Nielsen, Tine; Vedal, Sissel; Olofsson, May

2014-08-01

372

The persistence of maternal distress and symptoms of distress in adult offspring.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of maternal psychological distress symptoms during offspring's preschool, middle childhood, and adolescent years on the distress symptoms of offspring in adulthood. Data were derived from the British Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of children born in a one-week period in 1970. Results indicated that greater symptoms of maternal distress that persisted over multiple stages of offspring development were generally associated with greater symptoms of distress in adult offspring. The effect of greater maternal distress symptoms that persisted across preschool, middle childhood, and adolescence on adult offspring, however, was not significantly different from the long term effects of a single, but early, exposure to maternal distress once offspring's psychosocial adjustment during adolescence was considered. The relationship between mother and offspring distress symptoms did not vary for male and female offspring. The results provide general support for a cumulative effect perspective in that continuous exposure to maternal distress symptoms had negative consequences in adulthood, and that the adult effect of exposure in early or middle childhood was explained by adolescent adjustment. PMID:19190834

Hamilton, Hayley A

2009-09-01

373

Taiwanese adolescent cognitive autonomy and identity development: the relationship of situational and agential factors.  

PubMed

Taiwanese professionals have adopted information about adolescent psychosocial development from Western societies. However, scholars know little about whether they have properly applied the models to both rural and urban youth. The purpose of this study was to examine the development of cognitive autonomy and ego identity in Taiwanese adolescents from Taipei City and surrounding rural counties. We controlled for gender and examined both situational (residential location, family income, and school type) and agential factors (culture value affiliation, attachment, and resiliency) to determine the extent to which each predicted psychosocial developmental outcomes. Among all the factors in this study, resiliency had the most distinctive relationship with adolescent psychosocial development. Each factor successfully predicted specific aspects of psychosocial development for these youth. We conclude with a discussion of the utility of using Western models of development. PMID:22046991

Lee, Chien-Ti; Beckert, Troy E

2012-01-01

374

Preventive advice given by patients with type 2 diabetes to their offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Patients' advice-giving behaviour could be a useful preventive strategy for type 2 diabetes. Aim To investigate the conditions under which patients offer advice to their offspring and to assess the factors that facilitate advice giving. Design of study Cross-sectional observational study. Setting A general hospital with a diabetes clinic in a metropolitan suburb in Japan. Method Parents with type 2 diabetes (n = 221) who had offspring aged 20–49 years inclusive without diabetes completed a self-administered questionnaire containing items relating to advice-giving behaviour, demographic characteristics, risk perception, and their disease status. Results A total of 184 (83.3%) patients responded that parental advice-giving behaviour is needed for their offspring, while 138 (62.4%) actually advised their offspring. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that patients who were female (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03 to 3.65, P = 0.041), living with their offspring (OR =1.92, 95% CI = 1.04 to 3.57, P = 0.038), had complications (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.25 to 6.00, P = 0.029), or perceived that their offspring had a high risk of developing diabetes (OR =1.45, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.93, P = 0.011) were most likely to advise their offspring. Conclusion Patients with type 2 diabetes recognised the need to give advice about preventive behaviour to their offspring but were not necessarily engaging in advice-giving behaviour. Advice-giving behaviour was affected by the parents' own disease status, their perception of their offspring's risk of developing diabetes, and the relationship between the patients and their offspring. PMID:19105914

Nishigaki, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Koji; Kato, Naoko; Seki, Naoto; Yokomura, Taeko; Yokoyama, Mitsunao; Kazuma, Keiko

2008-01-01

375

Archaeology and cognitive evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeology can provide two bodies of information relevant to the understanding of the evolution of human cognition - the timing of developments, and the evolutionary context of these developments. The challenge is methodological. Archaeology must doc- ument attributes that have direct implications for underlying cognitive mechanisms. One example of such a cognitive archaeology is found in spatial cognition. The archaeological

Thomas Wynn

2002-01-01

376

Development of cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention for patients with Dhat syndrome  

PubMed Central

Dhat syndrome is a culture-bound syndrome prevalent in the natives of the Indian subcontinent characterized by excessive concern about harmful consequences of loss of semen (ICD-10). Treatment offered to the patients suffering from it continues to be esoteric, unstructured and without standardization. The present study aimed to develop and examine the feasibility of Cognitive – Behavior Therapy module for patients with Dhat syndrome. A draft module was developed based on existing theoretical knowledge and suggestions from five mental health professionals. This module was then applied on five patients with Dhat syndrome to assess and judge the suitability of the module. The pre and post-assessments were carried out using Sexual Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire - II, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, The Cognitive-Somatic Anxiety Scale, Screener for Somatoform Disorder, International Index for Erectile Function, Clinical Global Impressions, The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment - BREF. Experiences and insights gained from each patient were used to refine the module before applying on the next patient. The final module consisted of the following components was developed: Basic sex education, cognitive restructuring, relaxation training, imaginal desensitization, masturbatory training as homework and Kegel's exercises and ‘start-stop technique’ and ‘squeeze technique’ for sexual dysfunctions. Results of the study reveal that it is feasible to carry out the CBT module in clinical settings. Number of sessions ranged from 11 to 16 sessions. The duration of the session was 45 minutes on the average. Findings of the present study revealed improvement in sexual knowledge, anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms. Implications and limitations of the study are highlighted and suggestions for future research offered. PMID:23372242

Salam, K. P. Abdul; Sharma, Mahendra P.; Prakash, Om

2012-01-01

377

Improving a newly developed patient-reported outcome for thyroid patients, using cognitive interviewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To improve a newly developed patient-reported outcome measure for thyroid patients using cognitive interviewing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Thirty-one interviews using immediate retrospective and expansive probing were conducted among patients with non-toxic goiter\\u000a (n = 4), nodular toxic goiter (n = 5) Graves’ disease (n = 6), thyroid eye-disease (n = 6), and primary hypothyroidism (n = 10). The questionnaire was revised successively. Six iterative rounds of interviews were conducted. Identified problems

Torquil Watt; Åse Krogh Rasmussen; Mogens Groenvold; Jakob Bue Bjorner; Sara Hope Watt; Steen Joop Bonnema; Laszlo Hegedüs; Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen

2008-01-01

378

Microduplication of 3p26.3 Implicated in Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

We report here a 34-month-old boy with global developmental delay referred for molecular karyotyping and fragile X studies. Molecular karyotype analysis revealed a microduplication in the 3p26.3 region involving part of the CHL1 and CNTN6 genes. Several deletions, one translocation, and one duplication have previously been described in this region of chromosome 3. The CHL1 gene has been proposed as a dosage-sensitive gene with a central role in cognitive development, and so the microduplication reported here appears to be implicated in our patient's phenotype. PMID:24778888

Te Weehi, Leah; Maikoo, Raj; Mc Cormack, Adrian; Mazzaschi, Roberto; Ashton, Fern; Zhang, Liangtao; George, Alice M.; Love, Donald R.

2014-01-01

379

Development of Mentalizing and Communication: From Viewpoint of Developmental Cybernetics and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to mentalize is essential for human socialization. Such ability is strongly related to communication. In this paper, I discuss the development of mentalizing and communication from the perspectives of a new idea, Developmental Cybernetics, and developmental cognitive neuroscience. Children only attributed intention to a robot when they saw it behaving as a human and displaying social signals such as eye gaze. The emergence of powerful new methods and tools, such as neuroimaging, now allows questions about mentalizing to resolved more directly than before.

Itakura, Shoji

380

Anticipatory guidance for cognitive and social-emotional development: Birth to five years  

PubMed Central

The present article serves as a quick office reference for clinicians, providing anticipatory guidance about the cognitive and social-emotional development of newborns, and children up to five years of age. The present review links recommendations to specific evidence in the medical literature, citing sources of developmental standards and advice, so that these may be further explored if desired. Practising primary care providers have indicated that these are areas of child development that are not well addressed by training and other available resources. The present article includes parenting information on important clinical presentations with which clinicians may be less familiar, such as promoting attachment, prosocial behaviours, healthy sleep habits, self-discipline and problem-solving; as well as on managing behaviours that are part of normal development, such as separation anxiety, tantrums, aggression, picky eating and specific fears. Information on the development of language, literacy and socialization are also included. PMID:23372397

Dosman, Cara; Andrews, Debbi

2012-01-01

381

Training the developing brain, part I: cognitive developmental considerations for training youth.  

PubMed

Based on the fundamental principles of pediatric exercise science and developmental physiology, childhood provides a critical window to develop the physical readiness of youth through age-related training programs that are designed purposely to teach and reinforce fundamental movement skills to enhance preparedness for physical activity and sport. Successful implementation of developmental programs requires age-related instruction by qualified professionals who understand the physical and psychosocial uniqueness of children and adolescents. An understanding of the interaction of physical and cognitive development is needed to design and implement training strategies that optimize training outcomes. Regular training with structured and integrative modalities throughout the developmental years as part of physical education, recreation, and sports practice can improve athletic performance while reducing common sports-related injuries and can facilitate the adoption of healthy lifestyles throughout adulthood. In this commentary, we outline cognitive developmental considerations in youth that may influence the design and implementation of training programs aimed at optimizing motor skill development in youth. PMID:24030303

Myer, Gregory D; Kushner, Adam M; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kiefer, Adam; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Clark, Joseph F

2013-01-01

382

Variability of cognitive development in children with Down syndrome: Relevance of good reasons for using the cluster procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this cross-sectional study was to demonstrate that, in addition to a main change during childhood, the cognitive development of children with Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by interindividual variability in their cognitive functioning. Eighty-eight French children with DS took part in this experiment. They were divided into six chronological age groups: 6 years (N=9), 7 years

R. Tsao; C. Kindelberger

2009-01-01

383

Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across pre-reproductive age classes in the semi-free ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (max. n=977 mothers, 6240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly “burn off” as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life. PMID:23315583

Blomquist, Gregory E.

2012-01-01

384

Paternal social enrichment effects on maternal behavior and offspring growth  

PubMed Central

Paternal environmental experiences are significant predictors of developmental outcomes in offspring and can occur even in the absence of paternal care. Although there has been a recent focus on the role of environmentally induced changes in the male germline in producing these effects, the potential mediating role of mothers has not been investigated. A role for mothers in the transmission of paternal effects has been well acknowledged in behavioral ecology, which predicts that females will dynamically adjust their reproductive investment in response to the qualities of their mate. In the present study, we show that a lifetime of socially enriched compared with impoverished housing conditions shifts anxiety-like behavior and gene expression of male mice. Females that mate with enriched-reared males exhibit increased levels of pup nursing and licking toward their offspring, which are associated with changes in gene expression within the maternal hypothalamus. Significantly, these changes in maternal behavior are correlated with the general levels of anxiety exhibited by their male mates. Further, we show that paternal environmental enrichment results in increased growth of their offspring. These results suggest that maternal–paternal interactions at mating may guide offspring development, with significant implications for the transgenerational transmission of paternal environmental experiences. PMID:23045657

Mashoodh, Rahia; Franks, Becca; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

2012-01-01

385

The role of Nox2-derived ROS in the development of cognitive impairment after sepsis  

PubMed Central

Background Sepsis- associated encephalopathy (SAE) is an early and common feature of severe infections. Oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of SAE. The goal of this study was to investigate the involvement of NADPH oxidase in neuroinflammation and in the long-term cognitive impairment of sepsis survivors. Methods Sepsis was induced in WT and gp91phox knockout mice (gp91phox-/-) by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce fecal peritonitis. We measured oxidative stress, Nox2 and Nox4 gene expression and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus at six hours, twenty-four hours and five days post-sepsis. Mice were also treated with apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Behavioral outcomes were evaluated 15 days after sepsis with the inhibitory avoidance test and the Morris water maze in control and apocynin-treated WT mice. Results Acute oxidative damage to the hippocampus was identified by increased 4-HNE expression in parallel with an increase in Nox2 gene expression after sepsis. Pharmacological inhibition of Nox2 with apocynin completely inhibited hippocampal oxidative stress in septic animals. Pharmacologic inhibition or the absence of Nox2 in gp91phox-/- mice prevented glial cell activation, one of the central mechanisms associated with SAE. Finally, treatment with apocynin and inhibition of hippocampal oxidative stress in the acute phase of sepsis prevented the development of long-term cognitive impairment. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Nox2 is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in the oxidative damage to the hippocampus in SAE and that Nox2-derived ROS are determining factors for cognitive impairments after sepsis. These findings highlight the importance of Nox2-derived ROS as a central mechanism in the development of neuroinflammation associated with SAE. PMID:24571599

2014-01-01

386

Neuropsychological functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder following forced displacement in older adults and their offspring.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate neuropsychological performance in an untried trauma sample of older adults displaced during childhood at the end of World War II (WWII) with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as transgenerational effects of trauma and PTSD on their offspring. Displaced older adults with (n=20) and without PTSD (n=24) and nondisplaced healthy individuals (n=11) as well as one of their respective offspring were assessed with a large battery of cognitive tests (primarily targeting memory functioning). No evidence for deficits in neuropsychological performance was found in the aging group of displaced people with PTSD. Moreover, no group difference emerged in the offspring groups. Findings may be interpreted as first evidence for a rather resilient PTSD group of older adults that is available for assessment 60 years after displacement. PMID:23896354

Jelinek, Lena; Wittekind, Charlotte E; Moritz, Steffen; Kellner, Michael; Muhtz, Christoph

2013-12-15

387

Maternal insulin resistance and transient hyperglycemia impact the metabolic and endocrine phenotypes of offspring.  

PubMed

Studies in both humans and rodents suggest that maternal diabetes leads to a higher risk of the fetus developing impaired glucose tolerance and obesity during adulthood. However, the impact of hyperinsulinemia in the mother on glucose homeostasis in the offspring has not been fully explored. We aimed to determine the consequences of maternal insulin resistance on offspring metabolism and endocrine pancreas development using the LIRKO mouse model, which exhibits sustained hyperinsulinemia and transient increase in blood glucose concentrations during pregnancy. We examined control offspring born to either LIRKO or control mothers on embryonic days 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 and postpartum days 0, 4, and 10. Control offspring born to LIRKO mothers displayed low birth weights and subsequently rapidly gained weight, and their blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were higher than offspring born to control mothers in early postnatal life. In addition, concentrations of plasma leptin, glucagon, and active GLP-1 were higher in control pups from LIRKO mothers. Analyses of the endocrine pancreas revealed significantly reduced ?-cell area in control offspring of LIRKO mothers shortly after birth. ?-Cell proliferation and total islet number were also lower in control offspring of LIRKO mothers during early postnatal days. Together, these data indicate that maternal hyperinsulinemia and the transient hyperglycemia impair endocrine pancreas development in the control offspring and induce multiple metabolic alterations in early postnatal life. The relatively smaller ?-cell mass/area and ?-cell proliferation in these control offspring suggest cell-autonomous epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of islet growth and development. PMID:25249504

Kahraman, Sevim; Dirice, Ercument; De Jesus, Dario F; Hu, Jiang; Kulkarni, Rohit N

2014-11-15

388

Brain Imaging and Cognitive Predictors of Stroke and Alzheimer Disease in the Framingham Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Exposure to vascular risk factors has a gradual deleterious effect on brain MRI and cognitive measures. We explored whether a pattern of these measures exists that predicts stroke and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk. Methods A cognitive battery was administered to 1,679 dementia and stroke-free Framingham Offspring (age>55; mean=65.7±7.0) between 1999 and 2004; participants were also free of other neurological conditions that could affect cognition and >90% also had brain MRI examination. We related cognitive and MRI measures to risks of incident stroke and AD during up to 10 years of follow-up. As a secondary analysis, we explored these associations in the FHS Original cohort (mean age 67.5±7.3 and 84.8±3.3 at the cognitive assessment and MRI examination, respectively). Results A total of 55 Offspring participants sustained strokes and 31 developed AD. Offspring who scored <1.5 standard-deviations below predicted mean scores, for age and education, on an executive function test, had a higher risk of future stroke (HR=2.27;95%CI:1.06–4.85) and AD (3.60;95%CI:1.52–8.52); additional cognitive tests also predicted AD. Participants with low (<20%ile) total brain volume and high (>20%ile) white matter hyperintensity volume had a higher risk of stroke (HR=1.97;95%CI:1.03–3.77 and HR=2.74;95%CI:1.51–5.00, respectively) but not AD. Hippocampal volume at the bottom quintile predicted AD in the Offspring and Original cohorts (HR=4.41;95%CI:2.00–9.72 and HR=2.37;95%CI:1.12–5.00, respectively). A stepwise increase in stroke risk was apparent with increasing numbers of these cognitive and imagingmarkers. Conclusions Specific patterns of cognitive and brain structural measures observed even in early aging predict stroke risk and may serve as biomarkers for risk prediction. PMID:23920020

Weinstein, Galit; Beiser, Alexa S.; DeCarli, Charles; Au, Rhoda; Wolf, Philip A.; Seshadri, Sudha

2013-01-01

389

Prenatal and Family Risks of Children Born to Mothers with Epilepsy: Effects on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The offspring of mothers with epilepsy are considered to be at developmental risk during pregnancy from: (1) generalized maternal seizures (hypoxia); (2) teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); and (3) adverse socio-familial conditions associated with having a chronically sick mother. Sixty-seven children of mothers with epilepsy and 49…

Titze, Karl; Koch, Sabine; Helge, Hans; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Rauh, Hellgard; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

2008-01-01

390

Effects of gestational stress: 1. Evaluation of maternal and juvenile offspring behavior.  

PubMed

In both humans and animals, stress experienced during gestation is associated with physiological changes and disruptions in emotional function and cognitive ability in offspring; however, much less is known about the effects of such stress in mothers. In animal models, physical restraint is commonly employed to induce stress during gestation and results in elevated postpartum maternal anxiety and changes in maternal care. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the consequences of restraint stress applied on gestation days 10 through 19 in mother rats and their juvenile offspring. Progeny were reared by birth mothers. Preterm anxiety was assessed in the elevated plus maze and maternal behavior in the retrieval test. Cognitive (T-maze) and anxiety measures (elevated plus maze and emergence) were applied to a subset of male and female offspring at 30-31 days of age. Weight and litter characteristics were also recorded. Mother rats exposed to stress during gestation had attenuated weight gain, elevated anxiety-like behavior, and reduced maternal care. Stressed mothers also had fewer pups and an elevated offspring mortality rate. The consequences of gestational stress in offspring were subtle and gender-dependent. Only juvenile females displayed marginal effects of gestational stress in the form of elevated anxiety-like behavior and attenuated weight gain. In the current study, although gestational stress had robust effects in the mother rat, these did not translate to similar changes in offspring behavior. The importance of focusing research on maternal responses to gestational stress is highlighted by these findings. PMID:18456246

Baker, Stephanie; Chebli, Mark; Rees, Stephanie; Lemarec, Nathalie; Godbout, Roger; Bielajew, Catherine

2008-06-01

391

Senior-driven design and development of tablet-based cognitive games.  

PubMed

This paper describes the design and development of a tablet-based gaming platform targeting the senior population, aiming at improving their overall wellbeing by stimulating their cognitive capabilities and promoting social interaction between players. To achieve these goals, we started by performing a study of the specific characteristics of the senior user as well as what makes a game appealing to the player. Furthermore we investigated why the tablet proves to be an advantageous device to our target audience. Based on the results of our research, we developed a solution that incorporates cognitive and social mechanisms into its games, while performing iterative evaluations together with the final user by adopting a user-centered design methodology. In each design phase, a pre-selected group of senior participants experimented with the game platform and provided feedback to improve its features and usability. Through a series of short-term and a long-term evaluation, the game platform proved to be appealing to its intended users, providing an enjoyable gaming experience. PMID:23739372

Marques, João; Vasconcelos, Ana; Teixeira, Luís F

2013-01-01

392

Becoming a scientist: The role of undergraduate research in students' cognitive, personal, and professional development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this ethnographic study of summer undergraduate research (UR) experiences at four liberal arts colleges, where faculty and students work collaboratively on a project of mutual interest in an apprenticeship of authentic science research work, analysis of the accounts of faculty and student participants yields comparative insights into the structural elements of this form of UR program and its benefits for students. Comparison of the perspectives of faculty and their students revealed considerable agreement on the nature, range, and extent of students' UR gains. Specific student gains relating to the process of becoming a scientist were described and illustrated by both groups. Faculty framed these gains as part of professional socialization into the sciences. In contrast, students emphasized their personal and intellectual development, with little awareness of their socialization into professional practice. Viewing study findings through the lens of social constructivist learning theories demonstrates that the characteristics of these UR programs, how faculty practice UR in these colleges, and students' outcomes - including cognitive and personal growth and the development of a professional identity - strongly exemplify many facets of these theories, particularly, student-centered and situated learning as part of cognitive apprenticeship in a community of practice.

Hunter, Anne-Barrie; Laursen, Sandra L.; Seymour, Elaine

2007-01-01

393

Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Development: Attention to Relations and Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing evidence indicates a suite of generalized differences in the attentional and cognitive processing of adults from Eastern and Western cultures. Cognition in Eastern adults is often more relational and in Western adults is more object focused. Three experiments examined whether these differences characterize the cognition of preschool…

Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B.

2012-01-01

394

Re-Examining the Associations between Family Backgrounds and Children's Cognitive Developments in Early Ages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent English study found that children from poor families who did well in cognitive tests at age three are expected to be overtaken in the cognitive test by the age of seven by children from rich families who did poorly in cognitive tests at age three. The conclusion was that family background seems to have a dominant influence on a child's…

Tu, Yu-Kang; Law, Graham R.

2010-01-01

395

Therapists' Cognitive Complexity: Review of Theoretical Models and Development of an Integrated Approach for Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapists' cognitive complexity can influence a variety of clinical and educational processes, from how they make decisions to their engagement in classes and supervision. To date, cognitive complexity models have not been adapted or advanced to meet the demands of clinical training. We provide a review and critique of the current cognitive complexity models and examine the measures typically associated

Jesse Owen; Lori D. Lindley

2010-01-01

396

Exposure to a maternal n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet during brain development provokes excessive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress and behavioral indices of depression and anxiety in male rat offspring later in life.  

PubMed

Brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) accumulates rapidly during brain development and is essential for normal neurological function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether brain development was the critical period in which DHA deficiency leads to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to stress later in life. Rats were exposed to an n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet or the same diet supplemented with fish oil as an n-3 fatty acid-adequate diet either throughout the preweaning period from embryo to weaning at 3 weeks old or during the postweaning period from 3 to 10 weeks old. Exposure to the n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet during the preweaning period resulted, at weaning, in a significant decrease in hypothalamic DHA levels and a reduced male offspring body weight. DHA deficiency during the preweaning period significantly increased and prolonged restraint stress-induced changes in colonic temperature and serum corticosterone levels, caused a significant increase in GABA(A) antagonist-induced heart rate changes and enhanced depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and anxiety-like behavior in the plus-maze test in later life. These effects were not seen in male rats fed the n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet during the postweaning period. These results suggest that brain development is the critical period in which DHA deficiency leads to excessive HPA responses to stress and elevated behavioral indices of depression and anxiety in adulthood. We propose that these effects of hypothalamic DHA deficiency during brain development may involve a GABA(A) receptor-mediated mechanism. PMID:22818715

Chen, Hui-Feng; Su, Hui-Min

2013-01-01

397

Maternal high-fat diet and offspring expression levels of vitamin k-dependent proteins.  

PubMed

Studies suggest that bone growth and development and susceptibility to vascular disease in later life are influenced by maternal nutrition during intrauterine and early postnatal life. There is evidence for a role of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) including osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein, periostin, and growth-arrest specific- protein 6, in both bone and vascular development. We have examined whether there are alterations in these VKDPs in bone and vascular tissue from offspring of mothers subjected to a nutritional challenge: a high-fat diet during pregnancy and postnatally, using 6-week-old mouse offspring. Bone site-specific and sex-specific differences across femoral and vertebral bone in male and female offspring were observed. Overall a high-fat maternal diet and offspring diet exacerbated the bone changes observed. Sex-specific differences and tissue-specific differences were observed in VKDP levels in aorta tissue from high-fat diet-fed female offspring from high-fat diet-fed mothers displaying increased levels of Gas6 and Ggcx compared with those of female controls. In contrast, differences were seen in VKDP levels in femoral bone of female offspring with lower expression levels of Mgp in offspring of mothers fed a high-fat diet compared with those of controls. We observed a significant correlation in Mgp expression levels within the femur to measures of bone structure of the femur and vertebra, particularly in the male offspring cohort. In summary, the current study has highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition on offspring bone development and the correlation of VKDPs to bone structure. PMID:25279792

Lanham, S A; Cagampang, F R; Oreffo, R O C

2014-12-01

398

The influence of maternal prenatal and early childhood nutrition and maternal prenatal stress on offspring immune system development and neurodevelopmental disorders  

PubMed Central

The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of maternal prenatal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood) as well as maternal prenatal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early interventions. PMID:23914151

Marques, Andrea Horvath; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Roth, Christine; Susser, Ezra; Bj?rke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

2013-01-01

399

How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables  

PubMed Central

Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development. PMID:24672420

Miendlarzewska, Ewa A.; Trost, Wiebke J.

2014-01-01

400

How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.  

PubMed

Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development. PMID:24672420

Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Trost, Wiebke J

2013-01-01

401

Psychologists experience of cognitive behaviour therapy in a developing country: a qualitative study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological therapies especially Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) are used widely in the West to help patients with psychiatric problems. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has an established evidence base for the treatment of different emotional disorders. In spite of these developments in the developed world, patients in most developing countries hardly benefit from non pharmacological interventions. Although a significant number of psychologists are trained in Pakistan each year, psychological interventions play only a minor role in treatment plans in Pakistan. We conducted interviews with psychologists in Pakistan, to explore their experiences and their views on "providing CBT in Pakistan". These interviews were conducted as part of a project whose focus was to try to develop culturally-sensitive CBT in Pakistan. Methods In depth semi structured interviews were conducted with 5 psychologists working in psychiatry departments in Lahore, Pakistan. Results All the psychologists reported that psychotherapies, including CBT, need adjustments for use in Pakistan, although they were not able to elicit on these in details. Four major themes were discovered, hurdles in therapy, therapy related issues, involvement of the family and modification in therapy. The biggest hurdles in therapy were described to be service and resource issues. Conclusions For CBT to be acceptable, accessible and effective in Non Western cultures numerous adjustments need to be made, taking into consideration; factors related to service structure and delivery, patient's knowledge and beliefs about health and the therapy itself. Interviews with the psychologists in these countries can give us insights which can guide development of therapy and manuals to support its delivery. PMID:20181039

2010-01-01

402

The predictive value of science process skills, cognitive development, attitude toward science on academic achievement in a Thai teacher institution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among science process skills, attitude toward science, cognitive development and academic achievement of elementary preservice teachers. Especially, the combined predictive value of science process skills, attitude toward science and cognitive development on student academic achievement were determined. The data were obtained from 85 pre-service elementary teachers at a teachers college in Thailand. Science process skills, attitude toward science in school and cognitive development were addressed by the Thai translation of the respective instruments: Dillashaw and Okey's (1980) Test of Science Process Skills (TIPS), Germann's (1988) Attitude Toward Science in School Assessment (ATSSA) and Tobin and Capie's (1981) Test Of Logical Thinking (TOLT). Grade point average (GPA) in science courses and overall college grade point average (GPA) as a measure of academic achievement were taken from students' records. Data were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistic, the Pearson Product Moment correlation, stepwise multiple linear regression and canonical correlation. Results indicated a significant high correlation between pre-service teachers' science process skills and cognitive development, overall college GPA, GPA in science courses, and between overall college GPA and GPA in science courses; significant moderate correlation between cognitive development and overall college GPA, and GPA in science courses; significant low correlation between attitude toward science and GPA in science courses. In addition, science process skills was an effective predictor of individual academic achievement.

Sittirug, Hussachai

403

Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.  

PubMed Central

According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits. PMID:15451693

Evans, Jonathan P.; Kelley, Jennifer L.; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

2004-01-01

404

Maternal Immune Activation Alters Nonspatial Information Processing in the Hippocampus of the Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

The observation that maternal infection increases the risk for schizophrenia in the offspring suggests that the maternal immune system plays a key role in the etiology of schizophrenia. In a mouse model, maternal immune activation (MIA) by injection of poly(I:C) yields adult offspring that display abnormalities in a variety of behaviors relevant to schizophrenia. As abnormalities in the hippocampus are a consistent observation in schizophrenia patients, we examined synaptic properties in hippocampal slices prepared from the offspring of poly(I:C)- and saline-treated mothers. Compared to controls, CA1 pyramidal neurons from adult offspring of MIA mothers display reduced frequency and increased amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In addition, the specific component of the temporoammonic pathway that mediates object-related information displays increased sensitivity to dopamine. To assess hippocampal network function in vivo, we used expression of the immediate early gene, c-Fos, as a surrogate measure of neuronal activity. Compared to controls, the offspring of poly(I:C)-treated mothers display a distinct c-Fos expression pattern in area CA1 following novel object, but not novel location, exposure. Thus, the offspring of MIA mothers may have an abnormality in modality-specific information processing. Indeed, the MIA offspring display enhanced discrimination in a novel object recognition, but not in an object location, task. Thus, analysis of object and spatial information processing at both synaptic and behavioral levels reveals a largely selective abnormality in object information processing in this mouse model. Our results suggest that altered processing of object-related information may be part of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia-like cognitive behaviors. PMID:20227486

Ito, Hiroshi T.; Smith, Stephen E. P.; Hsiao, Elaine; Patterson, Paul H.

2010-01-01

405

Effects of Gestational Exposure to Decabromodiphenyl Ether on Reproductive Parameters, Thyroid Hormone Levels, and Neuronal Development in Sprague-Dawley Rats Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a class of brominated flame retardants that are recognized as global environmental contaminants with potential adverse effects on human health. This study examined the effects of prenatal exposure to PBDE on reproductive organs, neuronal development, and levels of thyroid hormones. Pregnant rats were exposed to the vehicle or deca-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE) (BDE-209; 5, 40, or

Tae Hyung Kim; Young Jun Lee; Ena Lee; Min Sun Kim; Seung Jun Kwack; Kyu Bong Kim; Ki Kyung Chung; Tae Seok Kang; Soon Young Han; Jaewon Lee; Byung Mu Lee; Hyung Sik Kim

2009-01-01

406

Negative life experiences and the development of cluster C personality disorders: a cognitive perspective.  

PubMed

Early negative experiences have long been thought to play an important role in the development of personality disorders. Most of the literature regarding these early life experiences has focused on borderline personality disorder, with only occasional focus on other personality disorders. Utilizing cognitive theory of personality disorders (Beck et al., 2004), the authors conceptualize cluster C personality disorders (avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive). They then critically review the relevant literature on early negative life experiences and later development of these disorders to determine whether the theory is supported by the empirical data. The theory regarding avoidant and dependent personality disorders has limited support, whereas data relating to obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are much weaker. Implications and future research suggestions are discussed. PMID:21877958

Birgenheir, Denis G; Pepper, Carolyn M

2011-01-01

407

The development of creative cognition across adolescence: distinct trajectories for insight and divergent thinking.  

PubMed

We examined developmental trajectories of creative cognition across adolescence. Participants (N = 98), divided into four age groups (12/13 yrs, 15/16 yrs, 18/19 yrs, and 25-30 yrs), were subjected to a battery of tasks gauging creative insight (visual; verbal) and divergent thinking (verbal; visuo-spatial). The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. The 25-30-year-olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. No age-group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. On divergent thinking in the visuo-spatial domain, however, only 15/16-year-olds outperformed 12/13-year-olds; a model with peak performance for 15/16-years-old showed the best fit. The results for the different creativity processes are discussed in relation to cognitive and related neurobiological models. We conclude that mid-adolescence is a period of not only immaturities but also of creative potentials in the visuo-spatial domain, possibly related to developing control functions and explorative behavior. PMID:23278922

Kleibeuker, Sietske W; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A

2013-01-01

408

Development, survival, and phenotypic plasticity in anthropogenic landscapes: trade-offs between offspring quantity and quality in the nettle-feeding peacock butterfly.  

PubMed

Habitats selected for development may have important fitness consequences. This is relevant within the framework of niche shifts in human-dominated landscapes. Currently, the peacock butterfly (Aglais io) occurs ubiquitously, covering many habitat types, whereas its distribution used to be much more restricted. Indeed, its host plant (stinging nettle Urtica dioica) was limited to natural forest gaps on relatively nitrogen-rich soil, but due to land use changes and eutrophication, host plants are now quasi-omnipresent in Western Europe. In order to assess the impact of specific anthropogenic habitat types on host plant quality and environmental conditions for phenotypic trait values, an experiment was conducted in woodlands, field margins, and urban gardens. Larval development was studied in field enclosures, and adult traits were analyzed to test predicted effects of warmer and more nitrogen-rich conditions in field margins compared to woodlands and urban gardens. Survival to the adult stage was highest in woodlands and lowest in field margins, and whilst development time did not differ amongst habitat types, butterflies that developed in field margins were larger and had higher lipid content and wing loadings than conspecifics from woodlands and urban gardens. Nettles in field margins provided warmer microclimates. However, and contrary to predictions, the nitrogen level within host plant leaves was highest in woodlands. Hence, anthropogenic landscapes may pose a conflict for choosing what is ultimately the best breeding habitat, as survival was highest in woodlands (followed by urban gardens), but adults with highest fitness predictions were produced in field margins (and secondarily urban gardens). PMID:25015122

Serruys, Mélanie; Van Dyck, Hans

2014-10-01

409

Maternally Administered Sustained-Release Naltrexone in Rats Affects Offspring Neurochemistry and Behaviour in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Naltrexone is not recommended during pregnancy. However, sustained-release naltrexone implant use in humans has resulted in cases of inadvertent foetal exposure. Here, we used clinically relevant dosing to examine the effects of maternally administered sustained-release naltrexone on the rat brain by examining offspring at birth and in adulthood. Maternal treatment (naltrexone or placebo implant) started before conception and ceased during gestation, birth or weaning. Morphometry was assessed in offspring at birth and adulthood. Adult offspring were evaluated for differences in locomotor behaviour (basal and morphine-induced, 10 mg/kg, s.c.) and opioid neurochemistry, propensity to self-administer morphine and cue-induced drug-seeking after abstinence. Blood analysis confirmed offspring exposure to naltrexone during gestation, birth and weaning. Naltrexone exposure increased litter size and reduced offspring birth-weight but did not alter brain morphometry. Compared to placebo, basal motor activity of naltrexone-exposed adult offspring was lower, yet they showed enhanced development of psychomotor sensitization to morphine. Developmental naltrexone exposure was associated with resistance to morphine-induced down-regulation of striatal preproenkephalin mRNA expression in adulthood. Adult offspring also exhibited greater operant responding for morphine and, in addition, cue-induced drug-seeking was enhanced. Collectively, these data show pronounced effects of developmental naltrexone exposure, some of which persist into adulthood, highlighting the need for follow up of humans that were exposed to naltrexone in utero. PMID:23300784

Krstew, Elena V.; Tait, Robert J.; Hulse, Gary K.

2012-01-01

410

Development of an Adaptive Learning System with Multiple Perspectives based on Students' Learning Styles and Cognitive Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, an adaptive learning system is developed by taking multiple dimensions of personalized features into account. A personalized presentation module is proposed for developing adaptive learning systems based on the field dependent/independent cognitive style model and the eight dimensions of Felder-Silverman's learning style. An…

Yang, Tzu-Chi; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Stephen Jen-Hwa

2013-01-01

411

A Comparison of U.S. and Chinese University Students' Cognitive Development: The Cross-Cultural Applicability of Perry's Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-cultural generalizability of William Perry's (1970) theory of intellectual and ethical development was examined via the Zhang Cognitive Development Inventory (ZCDI; L. F. Zhang, 1995, which is based on Perry's theory), with 3 samples of college students, 1 from the United States and 2 from the People's Republic of China. The ZCDI was shown to be reliable and valid

Li-Fang Zhang

1999-01-01

412

The Uses of Longitudinal Data and Person-Centered Analyses in the Study of Cognitive and Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers in the fields of cognitive and language development have made less use of large-scale longitudinal designs and of person-centered approaches to data analysis than have researchers in the fields of social and personality development. It is argued that differences among domains of developmental psychology in the research methods employed…

Hoff, Erika

2006-01-01

413

Qualitative differences among gender-stereotyped toys: Implications for cognitive and social development in girls and boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it has been suggested that the early play experiences of girls and boys may contribute to gender differences in cognitive and social development, empirical support for this hypothesis is limited. This paper reports the development of a system of toy classification and may permit a more programmatic investigation of this problem. One hundred adult subjects rated 50 children's toys

Cynthia L. Miller

1987-01-01

414

Development of Knowledge Frameworks and Higher Order Cognitive Operations among Secondary School Students Who Studied a Unit on Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express…

Bischoff, Paul J.; Anderson, O. Roger

2001-01-01

415

Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

2009-01-01

416

What changes in neural oscillations can reveal about developmental cognitive neuroscience: Language development as a case in point  

PubMed Central

EEG is a primary method for studying temporally precise neuronal processes across the lifespan. Most of this work focuses on Event Related Potentials (ERPs); however, using time-locked time frequency analysis to decompose the EEG signal can identify and distinguish multiple changes in brain oscillations underlying cognition (Bastiaansen et al., 2010). Further this measure is thought to reflect changes in inter-neuronal communication more directly than ERPs (Nunez & Srinivasan, 2006). Although time frequency has elucidated cognitive processes in adults, applying it to cognitive development is still rare. Here, we review the basics of neuronal oscillations, some of what they reveal about adult cognitive function, and what little is known relating to children. We focus on language because it develops early and engages complex cortical networks. Additionally, because time frequency analysis of the EEG related to adult language comprehension has been incredibly informative, using similar methods with children will shed new light on current theories of language development and increase our understanding of how neural processes change over the lifespan. Our goal is to emphasize the power of this methodology and encourage its use throughout developmental cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24060670

Maguire, Mandy J.; Abel, Alyson D.

2013-01-01

417

Body Size and Intelligence in 6-year-olds: Are Offspring of Teenage Mothers at Risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Children born to teenage mothers are at risk for more physical and cognitive problems than those born to adult mothers. Our\\u000a objective was to examine differences in size and intelligence between two cohorts of offspring born to adolescent (n = 357) and adult mothers (n = 668) who attended the same prenatal clinic. Methods Two prospective study cohorts assessed children from gestation through

Marie D. Cornelius; Lidush Goldschmidt; Jennifer A. Willford; Sharon L. Leech; Cynthia Larkby; Nancy L. Day

2009-01-01

418

The maternal environment affects offspring viability via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size.  

PubMed

Environmental conditions that reproductive females experience can influence patterns of offspring provisioning and fitness. In particular, prey availability can influence maternal reproduction and, in turn, affect the viability of their offspring. Although such maternal effects are widespread, the mechanisms by which these effects operate are poorly understood. We manipulated the amount of prey available to female brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) to evaluate how this factor affects patterns of reproductive investment (total egg output, egg size, yolk steroids) and offspring viability (morphology, growth, survival). Experimental reduction of yolk in a subset of eggs enabled us to evaluate a potential causal mechanism (yolk investment) that mediates the effect of maternal prey availability on offspring viability. We show that limited prey availability significantly reduced egg size, which negatively influenced offspring size, growth, and survival. Experimental yolk removal from eggs directly reduced offspring size, which, in turn, negatively affected offspring growth and survival. These findings show that maternal environments (i.e., low prey) can affect offspring fitness via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size and highlight the complex set of indirect effects by which maternal effects can operate. PMID:24642545

Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B

2014-01-01

419

Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.  

PubMed

Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

2000-07-22

420

Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.  

PubMed Central

Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

2000-01-01

421

Key Steps in Developing a Cognitive Vaccine against Traumatic Flashbacks: Visuospatial Tetris versus Verbal Pub Quiz  

PubMed Central

Background Flashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event) are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a ‘cognitive vaccine’ [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be addressed for clinical translation: (1) Would all games have this effect via distraction/enjoyment, or might some games even be harmful? (2) Would effects be found if administered several hours post-trauma? Accordingly, we tested Tetris versus an alternative computer game – Pub Quiz – which we hypothesized not to be helpful (Experiments 1 and 2), and extended the intervention interval to 4 hours (Experiment 2). Methodology/Principal Findings The trauma film paradigm was used as an experimental analog for flashback development in healthy volunteers. In both experiments, participants viewed traumatic film footage of death and injury before completing one of the following: (1) no-task control condition (2) Tetris or (3) Pub Quiz. Flashbacks were monitored for 1 week. Experiment 1: 30 min after the traumatic film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz led to a significant increase in flashbacks. Experiment 2: 4 hours post-film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz did not. Conclusions/Significance First, computer games can have differential effects post-trauma, as predicted by a cognitive science formulation of trauma memory. In both Experiments, playing Tetris post-trauma film reduced flashbacks. Pub Quiz did not have this effect, even increasing flashbacks in Experiment 1. Thus not all computer games are beneficial or merely distracting post-trauma - some may be harmful. Second, the beneficial effects of Tetris are retained at 4 hours post-trauma. Clinically, this delivers a feasible time-window to administer a post-trauma “cognitive vaccine”. PMID:21085661

Holmes, Emily A.; James, Ella L.; Kilford, Emma J.; Deeprose, Catherine

2010-01-01

422

Pre-gestational stress alters stress-response of pubertal offspring rat in sexually dimorphic and hemispherically asymmetric manner  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing evidence that maternal stress may have long-term effects on brain development in the offspring. In this study, we examined whether pre-gestational stress might affect offspring rats on the medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) dopaminergic activity in response to acute stress in puberty and if so, whether such effects exhibited hemispheric asymmetry or sexual dimorphism. Results We used behavioral tests to assess the model of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). We found that the activity in the open field test and sucrose intake test were lower for maternal rats in the CUS group than those in the control group. Offspring rats in the CUS group floated more and swam or climbed less as compared to the offsprings in the control group in the forced swimming test. The floating time was longer and swimming or climbing time was shorter in the female offspring rats than those in the males. Serum corticosterone and corticotrophin-releasing hormone levels were significantly higher for CUS maternal rats and their offsprings than the respective controls. The ratio of dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) to dopamine (DA), DA transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET) were lower in the mPFC of offspring rats in the CUS group than the control group. Levels of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in the left mPFC of female offspring rats and in the right mPFC of both female and male offspring rats were lower in the CUS group than those in the controls, but there was no difference in the left mPFC of male offspring between the CUS and control groups. DOPAC, the ratio of DOPAC to DA, NET and COMT were lower in the right mPFC than in the left mPFC of offspring rats in the CUS group. The ratio of DOPAC to DA in the right mPFC was lower in the female offspring rats than male offspring rats in the CUS group. The NET and COMT levels in both left and right mPFC were lower in the female offspring rats than those of the male offsprings in the CUS group. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that the effect of pre-gestational stress on the mPFC dopaminergic activity in response to acute stress exhibited hemispheric asymmetry and sexual dimorphism in the pubertal offspring rats. PMID:23829597

2013-01-01

423

Lower Maternal Folate Status in Early Pregnancy Is Associated with Childhood Hyperactivity and Peer Problems in Offspring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy has been linked with fetal brain development and psychopathology in the offspring. We examined for associations of maternal folate status and dietary intake during pregnancy with brain growth and childhood behavioural difficulties in the offspring. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, maternal red…

Schlotz, Wolff; Jones, Alexander; Phillips, David I. W.; Gale, Catharine R.; Robinson, Sian M.; Godfrey, Keith M.

2010-01-01

424

Parental Age Effects on Cortical Morphology in Offspring  

PubMed Central

The age at which a parent has a child impacts the child's cognition and risk for mental illness. It appears that this risk is curvilinear, with both age extremes associated with lower intelligence and increased prevalence of some neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known of the neural mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. We extracted lobar volumes, surface areas, and cortical thickness from 489 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired on 171 youth. Using linear mixed model regression, we determined the association between parental age and offspring's neuroanatomy, adjusting for offspring's age, sex, intelligence, and parental socioeconomic class. For gray matter volumes, quadratic paternal and maternal age terms contributed significantly (maternal quadratic age effect: t = ?2.2, P = 0.03; paternal quadratic age effect: t = ?2.4, P = 0.02) delineating an inverted “U” relationship between parental age and gray matter volume. Cortical volume increased with both advancing paternal and maternal age until around the early 30s after which it fell. Paternal age effects were more pronounced on cortical surface area, whereas maternal age impacted more on cortical thickness. There were no significant effects of parental age on white matter volumes. These parental age effects on cerebral morphology may form part of the link between parental age extremes and suboptimal neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:21817090

Shaw, P.; Gilliam, M.; Malek, M.; Rodriguez, N.; Greenstein, D.; Clasen, L.; Evans, A.; Rapoport, J.; Giedd, J.

2012-01-01

425

Parental age effects on cortical morphology in offspring.  

PubMed

The age at which a parent has a child impacts the child's cognition and risk for mental illness. It appears that this risk is curvilinear, with both age extremes associated with lower intelligence and increased prevalence of some neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known of the neural mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. We extracted lobar volumes, surface areas, and cortical thickness from 489 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired on 171 youth. Using linear mixed model regression, we determined the association between parental age and offspring's neuroanatomy, adjusting for offspring's age, sex, intelligence, and parental socioeconomic class. For gray matter volumes, quadratic paternal and maternal age terms contributed significantly (maternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.2, P = 0.03; paternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.4, P = 0.02) delineating an inverted "U" relationship between parental age and gray matter volume. Cortical volume increased with both advancing paternal and maternal age until around the early 30s after which it fell. Paternal age effects were more pronounced on cortical surface area, whereas maternal age impacted more on cortical thickness. There were no significant effects of parental age on white matter volumes. These parental age effects on cerebral morphology may form part of the link between parental age extremes and suboptimal neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:21817090

Shaw, P; Gilliam, M; Malek, M; Rodriguez, N; Greenstein, D; Clasen, L; Evans, A; Rapoport, J; Giedd, J

2012-06-01

426

Studies of age-correlated features of cognitive-behavioral development in children and adolescents with genetic disorders.  

PubMed

Studies of age-related features of cognitive-behavioral deficits produced by genetic mutations permit us to draw inferences about how brain development may be related cognitive ability as the child ages. Except for Down syndrome (DS) and the fragile X mutation (FRAXA), little is known about the longitudinal changes in cognitive-behavioral development in individuals with genetic abnormalities producing learning disabilities (LD) or mental retardation (MR). The purpose of this prospective study was to compare and contrast age related to cognitive abilities, adaptive and maladaptive behaviors in children and adolescents in the same age range, diagnosed with one of three genetic disorders: the FRAXA mutation, Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). We also sought to examine whether cognitive-behavioral abilities associated with these three genetic disorders were related systematically to age. We examined 108 children, ages 4-15 years, with FRAXA, WBS, or NF1. Results show that there is a significant negative correlation between age and IQ, and between age and adaptive behavior (DQ) scores, in children with FRAXA and WBS, but not in children with NF1. All three groups of children have unusually high proportions of maladaptive behavior, ranging from 1/6 children with NF1 to 2/3 children with FRAXA. Cognitive and adaptive behavior profiles of children with FRAXA and WBS were also surprisingly similar. Our findings suggest the need for examining longitudinal developmental cognitive-behavioral changes in children and adolescents with all genetic disorders that produce LD or MR. PMID:17853466

Fisch, Gene S; Carpenter, Nancy; Howard-Peebles, Patricia N; Holden, Jeanette J A; Tarleton, Jack; Simensen, Richard; Nance, Walter

2007-10-15

427

Does solitary incubation enhance egg water uptake and offspring quality in a lizard that produces single-egg clutches?  

PubMed

Many organisms invariably produce one offspring per reproductive bout, but experimental tests of adaptive explanations for this reproductive pattern are rare. To address this issue, we studied a lizard (Anolis sagrei) that produces one egg at a time to test the hypothesis that solitary incubation (due to single-egg clutches) eliminates competition with adjacent eggs for moisture and thus enhances offspring quality via increased egg water uptake during development. Our findings suggest that solitary incubation does not affect rates of moisture uptake by eggs or offspring size. However, egg moisture uptake and offspring size were negatively affected when eggs were adjacent to an egg that died during development. Depending on rates of infertile eggs or embryo mortality in the field, single-egg clutches may improve developmental environments and enhance offspring fitness. These results highlight the importance of considering the role of plastic embryonic responses during development in explaining reproductive patterns. PMID:21370483

Warner, Daniel A; Chapman, Michelle N

2011-03-01

428

Does atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (AVRT) or atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) in children affect their cognitive and emotional development?  

PubMed

The current study sought to assess cognitive and emotional functions among children and adolescents with atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (AVRT) and atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT). 113 patients (62 girls and 51 boys ages, 9-18 years) scheduled for radiofrequency ablation due to AVRT or AVNRT underwent neuropsychologic examination. The study excluded patients who had experienced cardiac arrest, congenital heart defects, neurologic disorders, or other diseases affecting cognitive or emotional development. Standardized tests for examining verbal and visual memory as well as visual-spatial functioning were performed. For patients exhibiting deficits in two or more tests, a diagnosis of "cognitive deficits" was determined. Levels of anxiety were tested using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Cognitive deficits were found in 47.8 % of the patients. The age at first arrhythmia attack was related to memory dysfunction. The mean age at which the first symptoms occurred was significantly lower for patients with deficits (8.3 years) than for patients who had no deficit (10.2 years) (t = 2.15; p = 0.03). Boys exhibited a significantly higher level of trait anxiety than girls (t = 3.42; p = 0.0009). A significant negative correlation was found between anxiety and the age at appearance of the first symptoms (r = -0.26; p = 0.005). These findings led us to conclude that cognitive and emotional developments can be negatively affected by AVNRT and AVRT, particularly if tachycardia appears early in life. PMID:23129107

Maryniak, Agnieszka; Bielawska, Alicja; Bieganowska, Katarzyna; Miszczak-Knecht, Maria; Walczak, Franciszek; Szumowski, Lukasz

2013-04-01

429

Risk for Suicidal Ideation Among the Offspring of Bipolar Parents: Results from the Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine rates and identify risk factors for suicidal ideation among offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Methods Subjects included 388 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder and 250 offspring of matched community controls enrolled in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Results Offspring of bipolar probands displayed greater rates of lifetime suicidal ideation than offspring of controls (33% versus 20%). Factors most strongly associated with lifetime suicidal ideation in offspring of bipolar parents included offspring mood disorder, hostility, recent sexual abuse, and family conflict. Conclusions Offspring of parents with bipolar disorder are at elevated risk for suicidal ideation as compared with offspring of controls. Suicide risk assessment in this population should attend to specific risk factors identified. PMID:21827311

Goldstein, Tina R.; Obreja, Mihaela; Shamseddeen, Wael; Iyengar, Satish; Axelson, David A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Sakolsky, Dara; Kupfer, David J.; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris

2012-01-01

430

Selective cognitive deficits in adult rats after prenatal exposure to inhaled ethanol.  

PubMed

Increased use of ethanol blends in gasoline suggests a need to assess the potential public health risks of exposure to these fuels. Ethanol consumed during pregnancy is a teratogen. However, little is known about the potential developmental neurotoxicity of ethanol delivered by inhalation, the most likely route of exposure from gasoline-ethanol fuel blends. We evaluated the potential cognitive consequences of ethanol inhalation by exposing pregnant Long Evans rats to clean air or ethanol vapor from gestational days 9-20, a critical period of neuronal development. Concentrations of inhaled ethanol (5000, 10,000, or 21,000ppm for 6.5h/day) produced modeled peak blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in exposed dams of 2.3, 6.8, and 192mg/dL, respectively. In offspring, no dose-related impairments were observed on spatial learning or working memory in the Morris water maze or in operant delayed match-to-position tests. Two measures showed significant effects in female offspring at all ethanol doses: 1) impaired cue learning after trace fear conditioning, and 2) an absence of bias for the correct quadrant after place training during a reference memory probe in the Morris water maze. In choice reaction time tests, male offspring (females were not tested) from the 5000 and 10,000ppm groups showed a transient increase in decision times. Also, male offspring from the 21,000ppm group made more anticipatory responses during a preparatory hold period, suggesting a deficit in response inhibition. The increase in anticipatory responding during the choice reaction time test shows that inhaled ethanol yielding a peak BEC of ~200mg/dL can produce lasting effects in the offspring. The lack of a dose-related decrement in the effects observed in females on cue learning and a reference memory probe may reflect confounding influences in the exposed offspring possibly related to maternal care or altered anxiety levels in females. The surprising lack of more pervasive cognitive deficits, as reported by others at BECs in the 200mg/dL range, may reflect route-dependent differences in the kinetics of ethanol. These data show that response inhibition was impaired in the offspring of pregnant rats that inhaled ethanol at concentrations at least 5 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations observed during normal automotive transport and fueling operations, which rarely exceed 100 ppb. PMID:25020118

Oshiro, W M; Beasley, T E; McDaniel, K L; Taylor, M M; Evansky, P; Moser, V C; Gilbert, M E; Bushnell, P J

2014-01-01

431

Offspring of patients treated for unilateral Wilms' tumor in childhood  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven women and the wives of nine men who survived unilateral Wilms' tumor in childhood had a total of 59 live born offspring. Among the 33 infants born to women who had received orthovoltage abdominal irradiation, ten weighed less than 2500 g at birth and three died during the perinatal period. In addition, one term infant of normal weight died of complications of a breech delivery. Only one of 26 infants born to the wives of Wilms' tumor patients and unirradiated female patients weighed less than 2500 g at birth and none died. The frequency of congenital malformations and spontaneous abortions in this series was not increased, and no offspring has developed cancer. The findings suggest that the risk of Wilms' tumor is low among progeny of survivors of nonfamilial, unilateral lesions. Damage from abdominal irradiation given to girls with Wilms' tumor may predispose them to the subsequent delivery of low birthweight children.

Green, D.M.; Fine, W.E.; Li, F.P.