These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Parent-offspring resemblance for specific cognitive abilities in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regressions of offspring on midparent value for tests of specific cognitive abilities in Korea were considerably higher than those for Americans of Japanese ancestry or Americans of European ancestry tested in Hawaii. This greater parent-offspring resemblance in Korea may be due to the particular method of test administration or to an increased genetic variance resulting from assortative mating. The pattern

R. C. Johnson; J. C. DeFries; G. E. McClearn; M. P. Mi; M. N. Rashad; S. G. Vandenberg; J. R. Wilson

1978-01-01

2

Juvenile offspring of rats exposed to restraint stress in late gestation have impaired cognitive performance and dysregulated progestogen formation  

PubMed Central

Gestational stress may have lasting effects on the physical and neurocognitive development of offspring. The mechanisms that may underlie these effects are of interest. Progesterone and its 5?-reduced metabolites, dihydroprogesterone and 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (3?,5?-THP), maintain pregnancy, have neurotrophic effects, and can enhance cognitive performance. We hypothesized that some of the deleterious effects of gestational stress on the cognitive performance of offspring may be related to progestogen formation. Pregnant rat dams were exposed to restraint under a bright light (thrice daily for 45 min) on gestational days 17–21 or were minimally handled controls. Dams that were exposed to restraint had lower circulating levels of 3?,5?-THP and significantly greater concentrations of corticosterone at the time of birth than did control dams. Male and female offspring, that were gestationally stressed or not, were cross-fostered to non-manipulated dams. Between postnatal days 28–30, offspring were assessed for object recognition, a prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognitive task. Restraint-exposed offspring performed more poorly in the object recognition task than did control offspring, irrespective of sex. As well, progesterone turnover to its 5?-reduced metabolites in the medial PFC (but not the diencephalon) was significantly reduced among restraint-exposed, compared to control, offspring. Progesterone turnover, and levels of 3?,5?-THP, positively correlated with performance in the object recognition task. Thus, restraint stress in late pregnancy impaired cognitive development and dysregulated progestogen formation in brain. PMID:21034292

Paris, Jason J.; Frye, Cheryl A.

2011-01-01

3

Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in the offspring of parents vulnerable to insomnia: a nuclear family study.  

PubMed

Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal is believed to be a predisposing factor for insomnia; however, there is limited information on the association of familial vulnerability to insomnia and cognitive-emotional hyperarousal. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of stress-related insomnia and examine whether parental vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is associated with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in their offspring. We studied a volunteer sample of 135 nuclear families comprised of 270 middle-aged (51.5 ± 5.4 years) fathers and mothers and one of their biological offspring (n = 135, 20.2 ± 1.1 years). We measured vulnerability to stress-related insomnia (i.e. Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test: FIRST), perceived stress, depression and anxiety in all participants, and arousability, presleep cognitive and somatic arousal, coping and personality in the offspring. We found a heritability estimate of 29% for FIRST scores. High FIRST parents had three to seven times the odds of having offspring highly vulnerable to stress-related insomnia. Offspring of high FIRST parents showed higher arousability, presleep cognitive arousal and emotion-oriented coping. Furthermore, high FIRST mothers contributed to offspring's higher anxiety and lower task-oriented coping, while high FIRST fathers contributed to offspring's higher presleep somatic arousal and conscientiousness. Vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is significantly heritable. Parents vulnerable to stress-related insomnia have offspring with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal who rely upon emotion-oriented coping. These data give support to the notion that arousability and maladaptive coping are key factors in the aetiology of insomnia. PMID:24889269

Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shaffer, Michele L; Olavarrieta-Bernardino, Sara; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O; Vela-Bueno, Antonio

2014-10-01

4

Familial transmission of cognitive abilities in offspring tested in adolescence and adulthood: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a follow-up study of now-adult offspring who originally participated in the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition (HFSC) from 1972 to 1976, 49 females and 46 males from 73 families of Caucasian ancestry and 63 females and 55 males from 92 families of Japanese ancestry were retested (average test-retest interval, 13 years) on the battery of cognitive abilities

Craig T. Nagoshi; Ronald C. Johnson

1993-01-01

5

Paternal influences on offspring development: behavioural and epigenetic pathways.  

PubMed

Although mammalian parent-offspring interactions during early life are primarily through the mother, there is increasing evidence for the impact of fathers on offspring development. A critical issue concerns the pathways through which this paternal influence is achieved. In the present review, we highlight the literature suggesting several of these routes of paternal effects in mammals. First, similar to mothers, fathers can influence offspring development through the direct care of offspring, as has been observed in biparental species. Second, there is growing evidence that, even in the absence of contact with offspring, fathers can transmit environmentally-induced effects (i.e. behavioural, neurobiological and metabolic phenotypes induced by stress, nutrition and toxins) to offspring and it has been speculated that these effects are achieved through inherited epigenetic variation within the patriline. Third, fathers may also impact the quality of mother-infant interactions and thus achieve an indirect influence on offspring. Importantly, these pathways of paternal influence are not mutually exclusive but rather serve as an illustration of the complex mechanisms through which parental influence is achieved. These influences may serve to transmit traits across generations, thus leading to a transgenerational transmission of neurobiological and behavioural phenotypes. PMID:25039356

Braun, K; Champagne, F A

2014-10-01

6

Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring cognition and school performance. A ‘Mendelian randomization’ natural experiment  

PubMed Central

Background There is substantial debate as to whether moderate alcohol use during pregnancy could have subtle but important effects on offspring, by impairing later cognitive function and thus school performance. The authors aimed to investigate the unconfounded effect of moderately increased prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive/educational performance. Methods We used mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and performed both conventional observational analyses and Mendelian randomization using an ADH1B variant (rs1229984) associated with reduced alcohol consumption. Women of White European origin with genotype and self-reported prenatal alcohol consumption, whose offspring’s IQ score had been assessed in clinic (N = 4061 pairs) or Key Stage 2 (KS2) academic achievement score was available through linkage to the National Pupil Database (N = 6268), contributed to the analyses. Results Women reporting moderate drinking before and during early pregnancy were relatively affluent compared with women reporting lighter drinking, and their children had higher KS2 and IQ scores. In contrast, children whose mothers’ genotype predisposes to lower consumption or abstinence during early pregnancy had higher KS2 scores (mean difference +1.7, 95% confidence interval +0.4, +3.0) than children of mothers whose genotype predisposed to heavier drinking, after adjustment for population stratification. Conclusions Better offspring cognitive/educational outcomes observed in association with prenatal alcohol exposure presumably reflected residual confounding by factors associated with social position and maternal education. The unconfounded Mendelian randomization estimates suggest a small but potentially important detrimental effect of small increases in prenatal alcohol exposure, at least on educational outcomes. PMID:24065783

Zuccolo, Luisa; Lewis, Sarah J; Davey Smith, George; Sayal, Kapil; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Alati, Rosa; Ring, Sue; Macleod, John; Golding, Jean; Heron, Jon; Gray, Ron

2013-01-01

7

Maternal hydroxytyrosol administration improves neurogenesis and cognitive function in prenatally stressed offspring.  

PubMed

Prenatal stress is known to induce emotional and cognitive dysfunction in the offspring of both humans and experimental animals. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a major polyphenol in olive oil with reported ability modulating oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, was performed to investigate its preventive effect on prenatal stress-induced behavioral and molecular alterations in offspring. Rats were exposed to restraint stress on days 14-20 of pregnancy. HT was given at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg/day. The spontaneous alternation performance and Morris water maze confirmed the impaired learning capacity and memory performance induced by prenatal stress in both male and female offspring, and these effects were markedly restored in the HT supplement groups. Through tissue analysis of the hippocampi of male offspring, we found that the stress-induced downregulation of neural proteins, including BDNF, GAP43, synaptophysin, NMDAR1, NMDANR2A and NMDANR2B, was prevented by HT. Prenatal stress-induced low expression of glucocorticoid receptor was also increased by HT, although basal fetal serum corticosterone levels were not different among the four groups. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in prenatally stressed rats were confirmed with changes in protein oxidation, SOD activity, the expression of mitochondrial complexes and mitochondrial DNA copy number. Meanwhile, HT significantly increased transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3, as well as phase II enzyme-related proteins, including Nrf2 and HO-1, which may contribute to the decreased oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial function shown with HT supplementation. Taken together, these findings suggest that HT is an efficient maternal nutrient protecting neurogenesis and cognitive function in prenatally stressed offspring. PMID:25442671

Zheng, Adi; Li, Hao; Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Zou, Xuan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Cong; Liu, Jiankang; Feng, Zhihui

2015-02-01

8

Sex-Dependent Cognitive Performance in Baboon Offspring Following Maternal Caloric Restriction in Pregnancy and Lactation  

PubMed Central

In humans a suboptimal diet during development has negative outcomes in offspring. We investigated the behavioral outcomes in baboons born to mothers undergoing moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Maternal nutrient restriction mothers (n = 7) were fed 70% of food eaten by controls (CTR, n = 12) fed ad libitum throughout gestation and lactation. At 3.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) years of age offspring (controls: female [FC, n = 8], male [MC, n = 4]; nutrient restricted: female [FR, n = 3] and male [MR, n = 4]) were administered progressive ratio, simple discrimination, intra-/extra-dimension set shift and delayed matching to sample tasks to assess motivation, learning, attention, and working memory, respectively. A treatment effect was observed in MNR offspring who demonstrated less motivation and impaired working memory. Nutrient-restricted female offspring showed improved learning, while MR offspring showed impaired learning and attentional set shifting and increased impulsivity. In summary, 30% restriction in maternal caloric intake has long lasting neurobehavioral outcomes in adolescent male baboon offspring. PMID:22344725

Rodriguez, Jesse S.; Bartlett, Thad Q.; Keenan, Kathryn E.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Nijland, Mark J.

2012-01-01

9

Is later better or worse? Association of advanced parental age with offspring cognitive ability among half a million young Swedish men.  

PubMed

Parental ages are increasing in the developed world, and postponed parenthood may have a negative association with the cognitive ability of offspring. There is, however, inconclusive evidence regarding the impact of both maternal and paternal ages. We have been able to reduce or eliminate unobserved confounding by using methods that account for fixed parental characteristics shared by brothers. Associations between parental age and intelligence quotient (IQ) among 565,433 Swedish males (birth cohorts 1951 to 1976) were analyzed, with IQ measured at conscription examinations (given between ages 17 and 20 years). When we accounted for the IQ time trend by adjusting for birth year, advanced paternal age showed no association with offspring IQ; however, maternal ages above 30 years were inversely associated with offspring IQ. For example, maternal ages 40-44 years were associated with an offspring IQ that was 0.07 standard deviations lower than that for maternal ages 25-29 years (P < 0.001). However, the IQ trend more than offset the impact of age, as without birth year adjustment, advanced maternal age was positively associated with IQ. Although the results confirmed that maternal age was negatively associated with offspring IQ, the association was small enough that delaying parenthood resulted in higher offspring IQ scores because of the positive IQ test score trend. PMID:23467498

Myrskylä, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

2013-04-01

10

Comparative Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to compare cognitive development in humans and chimpanzees to illuminate the evolutionary origins of human cognition. Comparison of morphological data and life history strongly highlights the common features of all primate species, including humans. The human mother-infant relationship is characterized by the physical separation of…

Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2007-01-01

11

Parental Legacy in Insects: Variation of Transgenerational Immune Priming during Offspring Development  

PubMed Central

In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP) mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i) whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii) whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii) whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO) activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages and depend on the type of immunity (PO or antibacterial activity) as well as the time past offspring immune challenge. PMID:23700423

Trauer, Ute; Hilker, Monika

2013-01-01

12

Maternal protein restriction in the rat during pregnancy and\\/or lactation alters cognitive and anxiety behaviors of female offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal protein deficiencies can developmentally program offspring to lifelong dysfunction of many physiological systems. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during fetal and early postnatal development would negatively affect female offspring anxiety, exploration, associative learning and motivation as measured by the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively. Control

L. A. Reyes-Castro; J. S. Rodriguez; R. Charco; C. J. Bautista; F. Larrea; P. W. Nathanielsz; E. Zambrano

13

Event-related oscillations in offspring of alcoholics: Neuro-cognitive disinhibition as a risk for alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Event-related oscillations (EROs) are increasingly being used to assess neuro-cognitive functioning in normal and clinical populations. The current study compares different frequency activities in offspring of alcoholics (OA) and in normal controls (NC) in order to examine whether the OA group exhibits any abnormality in oscillatory activity while performing a Go/NoGo task. Methods The S-Transform algorithm was employed to decompose the EEG signals into different time-frequency bands, and the oscillatory responses in the P300 time window (300–700 ms) was statistically analyzed in both groups. Results The OA group manifested significantly decreased activity in delta (1–3 Hz), theta (4–7 Hz), and alpha1 (8–9 Hz) bands during the NoGo condition as well as reduced delta and theta activity during the Go condition. This reduction was more prominent in the NoGo than in the Go condition. Conclusions The decreased response in delta, theta, and alpha1 oscillations, especially during the NoGo condition in high risk individuals is perhaps suggestive of cognitive and neural disinhibition, and may serve as an endophenotypic marker in the development of alcoholism and/or other disinhibitory disorders. PMID:16213472

Kamarajan, Chella; Porjesz, Bernice; Jones, Kevin; Chorlian, David; Padmanabhapillai, Ajayan; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Stimus, Arthur; Begleiter, Henri

2013-01-01

14

Maternal Photoperiodic History Affects Offspring Development in Syrian Hamsters  

PubMed Central

During the first 7 weeks of postnatal life, short day lengths inhibit the onset of puberty in many photoperiodic rodents, but not in Syrian hamsters. In this species, timing of puberty and fecundity are independent of the early postnatal photoperiod. Gestational day length affects postnatal reproductive development in several rodents; its role in Syrian hamsters has not been assessed. We tested the hypothesis that cumulative effects of pre- and postnatal short day lengths would restrain gonadal development in male Syrian hamsters. Males with prenatal short day exposure were generated by dams transferred to short day lengths 6 weeks, 3 weeks, and 0 weeks prior to mating. Additional groups were gestated in long day lengths and transferred to short days at birth, at 4 weeks of age, or not transferred (control hamsters). In pups of dams exposed to short day treatment throughout gestation, decreased testis growth was apparent by 3 weeks and persisted through 9 weeks of age, at which time maximum testis size was attained. A subset of males (14%), whose dams had been in short days for 3 to 6 weeks prior to mating displayed pronounced delays in testicular development, similar to those of other photoperiodic rodents. This treatment also increased the percentage of male offspring that underwent little or no gonadal regression postnatally (39%). By 19 weeks of age, males housed in short days completed spontaneous gonadal development. After prolonged long day treatment to break refractoriness, hamsters that initially were classified as nonregressors underwent testicular regression in response to a 2nd sequence of short day lengths. The combined action of prenatal and early postnatal short day lengths diminishes testicular growth of prepubertal Syrian hamsters no later than the 3rd week of postnatal life, albeit to a lesser extent than in other photoperiodic rodents. PMID:18838610

Beery, Annaliese K.; Paul, Matthew J.; Routman, David M.; Zucker, Irving

2009-01-01

15

Effects of paternal age and offspring cognitive ability in early adulthood on the risk of schizophrenia and related disorders.  

PubMed

Advanced paternal age (APA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) are both associated with the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in young adult offspring. We hypothesized that the offspring SSD risk gradient associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ. We investigated joint and separate associations of paternal age and offspring IQ with the risk of SSD. We used IQ routinely measured at conscription in Danish males (n=138,966) from cohorts born in 1955-84 and in 1976-1993 and followed them from a year after the conscription through 2010. We used Cox regression to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of SSD. During the follow-up, 528 men developed SSD (incidence rate [IR] 5.2 and 8.6 per 10,000 person-years in the first and second cohorts, respectively). APA was associated with higher risk of SSD (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.10-1.60 per a ten-year increase in paternal age). A higher IQ was associated with lower SSD risk (IRR, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.74 per one SD increase). The IR of SSD was higher among persons who were draft-exempt for health reasons (<20% of the men). Overall, there was little evidence of lower premorbid IQ in APA-related SSD (individuals who developed SSD and were also offspring of older fathers). Our results do not support the notion that risk gradient for offspring SSD associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ. PMID:25445626

Sørensen, Holger J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B; Ehrenstein, Vera; Petersen, Liselotte

2014-12-01

16

Impacts of Adelphophagic Development on Variation in Offspring Size, Duration of Development, and  

E-print Network

in the adel- phophagic marine gastropod Crepidula cf. onyx. We use these data combined with previously in offspring size. In Crepidula cf. onyx, egg size shows no significant effect of temperature. Hatching size, but the adelphophagic C. cf. onyx did not develop more quickly than C. atrasolea or C. ustulatulina, species

Collin, Rachel

17

Methodological challenges for understanding cognitive development  

E-print Network

Methodological challenges for understanding cognitive development in infants Richard N. Aslin 14627, USA Studies of cognitive development in human infants have relied almost entirely on descriptive mechanisms of cognitive development remain largely unknown, despite attempts to correlate behavioral states

Aslin, Richard N.

18

Childhood, death, and cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employed Piaget's framework for conceptualizing cognitive development to explore and analyze children's attitudes toward death. Ss were 75 6-15 yr olds with at least average intellectual ability, as measured by the WISC Similarities subtest. Conservation tests were used to determine S's primary level of cognitive functioning. Each S was asked the following questions: What makes things die? How can you

Gerald P. Koocher

1973-01-01

19

Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teratological investigations have demonstrated that agents that are relatively harmless to the mother may have significant negative consequences to the fetus. Among these agents, prenatal alcohol, nicotine or cannabis exposure have been related to adverse offspring outcomes. Although there is a relatively extensive body of literature that has focused upon birth and behavioral outcomes in newborns and infants after prenatal

Anja C. Huizink; Eduard J. H. Mulder

2006-01-01

20

Poor maternal nutrition inhibits muscle development in ovine offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal over and restricted nutrition has negative consequences on the muscle of offspring by reducing muscle fiber number and altering regulators of muscle growth. To determine if over and restricted maternal nutrition affected muscle growth and gene and protein expression in offspring, 36 pregnant ewes were fed 60%, 100% or 140% of National Research Council requirements from d 31?±?1.3 of gestation until parturition. Lambs from control-fed (CON), restricted-fed (RES) or over-fed (OVER) ewes were necropsied within 1 d of birth (n?=?18) or maintained on a control diet for 3 mo (n?=?15). Semitendinosus muscle was collected for immunohistochemistry, and protein and gene expression analysis. Results Compared with CON, muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) increased in RES (58%) and OVER (47%) lambs at 1 d of age (P??0.3). Phosphorylated Akt (ser473) was increased in RES at 3 mo compared with CON (P?=?0.006). Conclusions In conclusion, maternal over and restricted nutrient intake alters muscle lipid content and growth of offspring, possibly through altered gene and protein expression. PMID:25247074

2014-01-01

21

Both high and low maternal salt intake in pregnancy alter kidney development in the offspring.  

PubMed

In humans, low glomerular numbers are related to hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal disease in adult life. The present study was designed 1) to explore whether above- or below-normal dietary salt intake during pregnancy influences nephron number and blood pressure in the offspring and 2) to identify potential mechanisms in kidney development modified by maternal sodium intake. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low (0.07%)-, intermediate (0.51%)-, or high (3.0%)-sodium diets during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were weaned at 4 wk and subsequently kept on a 0.51% sodium diet. The kidney structure was assessed at postnatal weeks 1 and 12 and the expression of proteins of interest at term and at week 1. Blood pressure was measured in male offspring by telemetry from postnatal month 2 to postnatal month 9. The numbers of glomeruli at weeks 1 and 12 were significantly lower and, in males, telemetrically measured mean arterial blood pressure after month 5 was higher in offspring of dams on a high- or low- compared with intermediate-sodium diet. A high-salt diet was paralleled by higher concentrations of marinobufagenin in the amniotic fluid and an increase in the expression of both sprouty-1 and glial cell-derived neutrophic factor in the offspring's kidney. The expression of FGF-10 was lower in offspring of dams on a low-sodium diet, and the expression of Pax-2 and FGF-2 was lower in offspring of dams on a high-sodium diet. Both excessively high and excessively low sodium intakes during pregnancy modify protein expression in offspring kidneys and reduce the final number of glomeruli, predisposing the risk of hypertension later in life. PMID:21593188

Koleganova, Nadezda; Piecha, Grzegorz; Ritz, Eberhard; Becker, Luis Eduardo; Müller, Annett; Weckbach, Monika; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Schirmacher, Peter; Gross-Weissmann, Marie-Luise

2011-08-01

22

Mouse Round Spermatids Developed In Vitro from Preexisting Spermatocytes Can Produce Normal Offspring by Nuclear Injection into In Vivo-Developed Mature Oocytes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that mature oocytes injected with nuclei from round spermatids collected from mouse testis can generate normal offspring and that round spermatids can develop in vitro. An undetermined issue is whether spermatids developed in vitro are capable of generating fertile offspring by nuclear injection into oocytes. Herein, we report the production of normal and fertile offspring by

Joel Marh; Laura L. Tres; Yukiko Yamazaki; Ryuzo Yanagimachi; Abraham L. Kierszenbaum

2003-01-01

23

Gender Differences in Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

2011-01-01

24

Housing Pregnant Mice (Mus musculus) in Small Groups Facilitates the Development of Odor-Based Homing in Offspring  

E-print Network

the mother to the offspring. Surrounding the body of data relevant to social effects on development's social context during pregnancy influences postnatal patterns of offspring development. Some researchHousing Pregnant Mice (Mus musculus) in Small Groups Facilitates the Development of Odor

25

Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

1996-01-01

26

Sperm variation within a single ejaculate affects offspring development in Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

It is generally believed that variation in sperm phenotype within a single ejaculate has no consequences for offspring performance, because sperm phenotypes are thought not to reflect sperm genotypes. We show that variation in individual sperm function within an ejaculate affects the performance of the resulting offspring in the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. We experimentally manipulated the time between sperm activation and fertilization in order to select for sperm cohorts differing in longevity within single ejaculates of wild caught male salmon. We found that within-ejaculate variation in sperm longevity significantly affected offspring development and hence time until hatching. Whether these effects have a genetic or epigenetic basis needs to be further evaluated. However, our results provide experimental evidence for transgenerational effects of individual sperm function. PMID:24522632

Immler, Simone; Hotzy, Cosima; Alavioon, Ghazal; Petersson, Erik; Arnqvist, Göran

2014-01-01

27

Preadult Parental Diet Affects Offspring Development and Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

Preadult Parental Diet Affects Offspring Development and Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico Abstract When Drosophila melanogaster larvae are reared on isocaloric diets that the influence of larval diet experienced during just one generation extends into the next generation, even when

Markow, Therese

28

Role of sensory, social, and hormonal signals from the mother on the development of offspring.  

PubMed

For mammals, sensory, social, and hormonal experience early in life is essential for the continuity of the infant's development. These experiences come from the mother through maternal care, and have enduring effects on the physiology and behavior of the adult organism. Disturbing the mother-offspring interaction by maternal deprivation (neglect) or exposure to adverse events as chronic stress, maltreatment, or sexual abuse has negative effects on the mental, psychological, physiological, and behavioral health. Indeed, these kinds of negative experiences can be the source of some neuropsychiatric diseases as depression, anxiety, impulsive aggression, and antisocial behavior. The purpose of this chapter is to review the most relevant evidence that supports the participation of cues from the mother and/or littermates during the postnatal preweaning period for the development of nervous system of the offspring. These findings come from the most frequently utilized experimental paradigms used in animal models, such as natural variations in maternal behavior, handling, partial maternal deprivation, and total maternal deprivation and artificial rearing. Through the use of these experimental procedures, it is possible to positively (handling paradigm), or negatively (maternal deprivation paradigms), affect the offspring's development. Finally, this chapter reviews the importance of the hormones that pups ingest through the maternal milk during early lactation on the development of several physiological systems, including the immune, endocrine systems, as well as on the adult behavior of the offspring. PMID:25287543

Melo, Angel I

2015-01-01

29

HOMOCYSTEINE & COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE FRAMINGHAM OFFSPRING STUDY: AGE IS IMPORTANT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are associated with deficits in cognitive performance in persons free from dementia. The extent to which age modifies these associations is in need of further investigation in large, community-based, prospective studies combining the following elements...

30

Prenatal Exposure to Lamotrigine: Effects on Postnatal Development and Behaviour in Rat Offspring  

PubMed Central

Use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy warrants various side effects and also deleterious effects on fetal development. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to lamotrigine (LTG) on postnatal development and behavioural alterations of offspring. Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150–180?g?b.?wt. were allowed to copulate and pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal cytology. Pregnant rats were treated with LTG (11.5, 23, and 46?mg/kg, p.o) from gestational day 3 (GND 3) and this treatment continued till postnatal day 11 (PND 11). Offspring were separated from their dam on day 21 following parturition. LTG, at 46?mg/kg, p.o, produced severe clinical signs of toxicity leading to death of dam between GND 15 and 17. LTG, at 11.5 and 23?mg/kg, p.o, showed significant alterations in offspring's incisors eruption and vaginal opening when compared to age matched controls. LTG (23?mg/kg, p.o) exposed female offspring expressed hyperactive behaviour and decreased GABA-A receptor expression when compared to control rats. These results reveal that prenatal exposure to LTG may impart differential postnatal behavioural alterations between male and female rats which paves way for further investigations. PMID:24967313

Sathiya, Sekar; Ganesh, Murugan; Kalaivani, Periyathambi; Ranju, Vijayan; Janani, Srinivasan; Pramila, Bakthavachalam; Saravana Babu, Chidambaram

2014-01-01

31

Leptin Replacement Improves Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

Background Leptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown. Objective To evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development. Methodology A 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative missense leptin gene mutation (Cys-to-Thr in codon 105) was treated with recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) at physiologic replacement doses of 0.03 mg/kg/day. Cognitive development was assessed using the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a measure of general verbal and nonverbal functioning; and selected subtests from the NEPSY, a measure of neuropsychological functioning in children. Principal Findings Prior to treatment, the patient was morbidly obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic. Baseline neurocognitive tests revealed slower than expected rates of development (developmental age lower than chronological age) in a majority of the areas assessed. After two years, substantial increases in the rates of development in most neurocognitive domains were apparent, with some skills at or exceeding expectations based on chronological age. We also observed marked weight loss and resolution of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. Conclusions We concluded that replacement with r-metHuLeptin is associated with weight loss and changes in rates of development in many neurocognitive domains, which lends support to the hypothesis that, in addition to its role in metabolism, leptin may have a cognitive enhancing role in the developing central nervous system. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00659828 PMID:18769731

Paz-Filho, Gilberto J.; Babikian, Talin; Asarnow, Robert; Esposito, Karin; Erol, Halil K.; Wong, Ma-Li; Licinio, Julio

2008-01-01

32

Identifying Cognitive Mechanisms Targeted for Treatment Development in Schizophrenia: An  

E-print Network

REVIEW Identifying Cognitive Mechanisms Targeted for Treatment Development in Schizophrenia and development of the ideas that led to the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition barriers to translating paradigms developed in the basic animal and human cognitive neuroscience fields

33

Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia II: Developing  

E-print Network

in treatment development for impaired cognition in schizophre- nia by developing tools from cognitive of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia, which seeks to developREVIEWS Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia II

34

Cognitive development in a secondary science setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations were made of the progressive change in the cognitive development of 141 students over the course of their secondary education in an Australian private school. Cognitive development was measured in years 8, 10 and 12 using Bond's Logical Orerations Test. Rasch analysis of each of the data sets provided ability estimates for students in the year groups of 1993 (year 8), 1995 (year 10) and 1997 (year 12). Twenty-nine students from the year group of 1993 were tested on all three occasions. We analysed data from these 29 students in order to investigate the children's cognitive development across years 8, 10 and 12. We also examined the influence of the Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE) Thinking Science program on the cognitive development and scholastic achievement of these students. We found increased mental growth between years 8 and 10 for most students in the Thinking Science cohort, which could not be predicted from their starting levels. There was a significant correlation between cognitive development and the scholastic achievement of these students. Although boys as a group were more advanced in cognitive development than girls in years 8 and 10, no difference was found in the rate of cognitive change based on sex up to year 10. However girls showed cognitive gains across years 10-12 which were not found in boys. The students who were new to the school also showed increased cognitive development in years 11 and 12. Students who had experienced the Thinking Science course were more cognitively developed than students who joined the school after the intervention had taken place. This study supports the claim of Adey and Shayer that there is a relationship between cognitive development and scholastic achievement, even though we used different measures of cognitive development and scholastic achievement.

Endler, Lorna C.; Bond, Trevor

2000-12-01

35

Persistent hexavalent chromium exposure impaired the pubertal development and ovarian histoarchitecture in wistar rat offspring.  

PubMed

Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a highly toxic metal and a major environmental pollutant. Several studies indicate that CrVI exposure adversely affects reproductive function. We reported that maternal Cr exposure resulted in Cr accumulation in the reproductive organs of female offsprings. CrVI can cross the placental barrier and also can be passed through breastfeeding. The present investigation aimed to determine the persistent (in utero through puberal period) CrVI exposure-induced toxic effects on the reproductive functions of mother and the offspring. Induction of oxidative stress is one of the plausible mechanisms behind Cr-induced cellular deteriorations. Mother rats exposed to CrVI showed reduced reproductive outcome, while the offsprings showed higher accumulation of Cr in ovary, altered steroid, and peptide hormones. Specific activities of antioxidant enzymes were decreased and associated with increased levels of H2 O2 , and lipid peroxidation. CrVI exposure also damaged the ovarian histoarchitecture in various age groups studied. CrVI exposure also delayed the sexual maturation. Results from the present investigation suggest that CrVI exposure from in utero through puberal period significantly damaged the pubertal development through altered antioxidants, anemia, and altered hormone levels. These changes were associated with damaged ovarian histoarchitecture and extended estrous cycle in developing Wistar rats. PMID:22936640

Samuel, Jawahar B; Stanley, Jone A; Sekar, Pasupathi; Princess, Rajendran A; Sebastian, Maria S; Aruldhas, Michael M

2014-05-01

36

Developing Cognitive Control: Three Key Transitions  

PubMed Central

The ability to flexibly break out of routine behaviors develops gradually and is essential for success in life. We discuss three key developmental transitions toward more flexible behavior. First, children develop an increasing ability to overcome habits by engaging cognitive control in response to environmental signals. Second, children shift from recruiting cognitive control reactively, as needed in the moment, to recruiting cognitive control proactively, in preparation for needing it. Third, children shift from relying on environmental signals for engaging cognitive control to becoming more self-directed. All three transitions can be understood in terms of the development of increasingly active and abstract goal representations in prefrontal cortex. PMID:22711982

Munakata, Yuko; Snyder, Hannah R.; Chatham, Christopher H.

2012-01-01

37

Alarm substance from adult zebrafish alters early embryonic development in offspring  

PubMed Central

Alarm substances elicit behavioural responses in a wide range of animals but effects on early embryonic development are virtually unknown. Here we investigated whether skin injury-induced alarm substances caused physiological responses in embryos produced by two Danio species (Danio rerio and Danio albolineatus). Both species showed more rapid physiological development in the presence of alarm substance, although there were subtle differences between them: D. rerio had advanced muscle contraction and heart function, whereas D. albolineatus had advanced heart function only. Hence, alarm cues from injured or dying fish may be of benefit to their offspring, inducing physiological responses and potentially increasing their inclusive fitness. PMID:20071391

Mourabit, S.; Rundle, S. D.; Spicer, J. I.; Sloman, K. A.

2010-01-01

38

Fetal Brain Behavior and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on prenatal brain development, detailing the functions controlled by the medulla, pons, and midbrain, and the implications for cognitive development. Concludes that fetal cognitive motor activity, including auditory discrimination, orienting, the wake-sleep cycle, fetal heart rate accelerations, and defensive reactions,…

Joseph, R.

2000-01-01

39

Enriched environment upregulates growth-associated protein 43 expression in the hippocampus and enhances cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring?  

PubMed Central

In our previous study, we reported that prenatal restraint stress could induce cognitive deficits, which correlated with a change in expression of growth-associated protein 43 in the hippocampus. In this study, we investigated the effects of enriched environment on cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot assay results revealed that growth-associated protein 43 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated on postnatal day 15 in the prenatal restraint stress group. Growth-associated protein 43 expression was significantly lower in the prenatal restraint stress group compared with the negative control and prenatal restraint stress plus enriched environment groups on postnatal days 30 and 50. Morris water maze test demonstrated that cognitive abilities were noticeably increased in rats from the prenatal restraint stress plus enriched environment group on postnatal day 50. These results indicate that enriched environment can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of prenatally stressed offspring by upregulating growth-associated protein 43 expression.

Zhang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Hua; Du, Baoling; Chen, Zhiqiang

2012-01-01

40

Effects of graphene oxide on the development of offspring mice in lactation period.  

PubMed

The potential toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) has attracted much attention with numerous promising biomedical applications in recent years. However, information about GO on the development of filial animals is rare. In this work, we studied the potential developmental toxicity of GO when they entered the body of maternal mice and their offspring by oral exposure with two doses. The results showed that the increase of body weight, body length and tail length of the filial mice received GO at 0.5 mg mL(-1) (about 0.8 mg each mouse) every day in the lactation period was significantly retarded comparing with the control group. The anatomy and histology results revealed the delayed developments of offspring in high dosage group. We also evaluated the possible toxicological mechanism caused by GO and found that the length of the intestinal villus of the filial mice received high concentration GO were decreased significantly compared with the control group. It can be concluded that GO showed many negative effects on the development of mice in the lactation period. These findings can be significant for the development of graphene materials-based drug delivery system and other biomedical applications in the future. PMID:25498802

Fu, Changhui; Liu, Tianlong; Li, Linlin; Liu, Huiyu; Liang, Qinghua; Meng, Xianwei

2015-02-01

41

Ongoing development of social cognition in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age differences in social cognition between adolescents and young adults were investigated. Two large groups of adolescents and young adults were given tasks of theory of mind and emotion recognition. In addition, to control for possibly related basic cognitive development, working memory, speed of processing, and verbal ability were assessed. A strong age effect was revealed across both measures of

Nora C. Vetter; Kristina Leipold; Matthias Kliegel; Louise H. Phillips; Mareike Altgassen

2012-01-01

42

A milk-based wolfberry preparation prevents prenatal stress-induced cognitive impairment of offspring rats, and inhibits oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.  

PubMed

Lycium barbarum (Fructus Lycii, Wolfberry, or Gouqi) belongs to the Solanaceae. The red-colored fruits of L. barbarum have been used for a long time as an ingredient in Chinese cuisine and brewing, and also in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for improving health. However, its effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. In the present study, prevention of a milk-based wolfberry preparation (WP) on cognitive dysfunction was tested in a prenatal stress model with rats and the antioxidant mechanism was tested by in vitro experiments. We found that prenatal stress caused a significant decrease in cognitive function (Morris water maze test) in female offspring. Pretreatment of the mother rats with WP significantly prevented the prenatal stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. In vitro studies showed that WP dose-dependently scavenged hydroxyl and superoxide radicals (determined by an electron spin resonance spectrometric assay), and inhibited FeCl(2)/ascorbic acid-induced dysfunction in brain tissue and tissue mitochondria, including increases in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of complex I, complex II, and glutamate cysteine ligase. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with WP may be an effective strategy for preventing the brain oxidative mitochondrial damage and cognitive dysfunction associated with prenatal stress. PMID:20131093

Feng, Zhihui; Jia, Haiqun; Li, Xuesen; Bai, Zhuanli; Liu, Zhongbo; Sun, Lijuan; Zhu, Zhongliang; Bucheli, Peter; Ballèvre, Olivier; Wang, Junkuan; Liu, Jiankang

2010-05-01

43

Maternal LPS Exposure during Pregnancy Impairs Testicular Development, Steroidogenesis and Spermatogenesis in Male Offspring  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, fetal death, congenital teratogenesis and fetal growth retardation. Here, we explored the effects of maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy on testicular development, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male offspring. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 µg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 13 to GD 17. At fetal period, a significant decrease in body weight and abnormal Leydig cell aggregations were observed in males whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. At postnatal day (PND) 26, anogenital distance (AGD), a sensitive index of altered androgen action, was markedly reduced in male pups whose mothers were exposed to LPS daily from GD13 to GD 17. At PND35, the weight of testes, prostates and seminal vesicles, and serum testosterone (T) level were significantly decreased in LPS-treated male pups. At adulthood, the number of sperm was significantly decreased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to LPS on GD 13–17. Maternal LPS exposure during gestation obviously diminished the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages I–VI, increased the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages IX–XII, and caused massive sloughing of germ cells in seminiferous tubules in mouse testes. Moreover, maternal LPS exposure significantly reduced serum T level in male mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS challenge during pregnancy. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy disrupts T production. The decreased T synthesis might be associated with LPS-induced impairments for spermatogenesis in male offspring. PMID:25255222

Hu, Yong-Fang; Wang, Bi-Wei; Huang, Yin-Yin; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

2014-01-01

44

ANIMAL MODELS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN NEUROTOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The thesis of this chapter has been that spatial delayed alternation versus position discrimination learning can serve as a valuable rodent model of cognitive development in neurotoxicology. his model captures dual process conceptualizations of memory in human neuropsychology and...

45

The biology of mammalian parenting and its effect on offspring social development.  

PubMed

Parents know the transformative nature of having and caring for a child. Among many mammals, giving birth leads from an aversion to infant stimuli to irresistible attraction. Here, we review the biological mechanisms governing this shift in parental motivation in mammals. Estrogen and progesterone prepare the uterus for embryo implantation and placental development. Prolactin stimulates milk production, whereas oxytocin initiates labor and triggers milk ejection during nursing. These same molecules, interacting with dopamine, also activate specific neural pathways to motivate parents to nurture, bond with, and protect their offspring. Parenting in turn shapes the neural development of the infant social brain. Recent work suggests that many of the principles governing parental behavior and its effect on infant development are conserved from rodent to humans. PMID:25124431

Rilling, James K; Young, Larry J

2014-08-15

46

The biology of mammalian parenting and its effect on offspring social development  

PubMed Central

Parents know the transformative nature of having and caring for a child. Among many mammals, giving birth leads from an aversion to infant stimuli to irresistible attraction. Here, we review the biological mechanisms governing this shift in parental motivation in mammals. Estrogen and progesterone prepare the uterus for embryo implantation and placental development. Prolactin stimulates milk production, whereas oxytocin initiates labor and triggers milk ejection during nursing. These same molecules, interacting with dopamine, also activate specific neural pathways to motivate parents to nurture, bond with, and protect their offspring. Parenting in turn shapes the neural development of the infant social brain. Recent work suggests that many of the principles governing parental behavior and its effect on infant development are conserved from rodent to humans. PMID:25124431

Rilling, James K.; Young, Larry J.

2015-01-01

47

Optimizing Cognitive Development over the Life Course and Preventing Cognitive Decline: Introducing the Cognitive Health Environment Life Course Model (CHELM)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Optimal cognitive development is defined in this article as the highest level of cognitive function reached in each cognitive domain given a person's biological and genetic disposition, and the highest possible maintenance of cognitive function over the adult life course. Theoretical perspectives underpinning the development of a framework…

Anstey, Kaarin J.

2014-01-01

48

Interactions between causal models, theories, and social cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a model of social cognitive development based not on a single modeling framework or the hypothesis that a single model accounts for children’s developing social cognition. Rather, we advocate a Causal Model approach (cf. Waldmann, 1996), in which models of social cognitive development take the same position as theories of social cognitive development, in that they generate novel empirical

David M. Sobel; David W. Buchanan; Jesse Butterfield; Odest Chadwicke Jenkins

2010-01-01

49

Maternal Cypermethrin Exposure during the Perinatal Period Impairs Testicular Development in C57BL Male Offspring  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have demonstrated that endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) are a possible cause of male reproductive organ malfunction and malformation. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid and a potential EDC. This study aimed to examine the effects of perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP on the development and function of the offspring testes. Pregnant mice were intragastrically administered 0.12 to 12 mg/kg/day CYP from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) to weaning (PD21.5, postnatal day 21.5). Maternal exposure to 0.12, 1.2, and 12 mg/kg/day CYP affected the body and organ weight of the offspring. Exposure of CYP led to a dose-dependent decrease in the male-to-female sex ratio. A histopathological analysis revealed a thinner seminiferous epithelium layer at PD21.5, interstitial hyperplasia at PD45.5, and germ cell vacuolization at PD90.5 in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The TUNEL assay results revealed increased germ cell apoptosis in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The serum testosterone (T) level decreased, whereas the estradiol level increased with age in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The RT-PCR analysis demonstrated decreased expression of T production-related, mitosis-related, and meiosis-related genes in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The in vitro experimental results demonstrated reduced expression of steroidogenesis genes and decreased T levels. It is concluded that perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP affects testes development and function in adults. PMID:24810582

Huang, Chaobin; Li, Xiangdong

2014-01-01

50

Maternal Postnatal Depression and the Development of Depression in Offspring up to 16 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the developmental risk pathway to depression by 16 years in offspring of postnatally depressed mothers. Method: This was a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of postnatally depressed and nondepressed mothers; child and family assessments were made from infancy to 16 years. A total of 702…

Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Goodyer, Ian; Cooper, Peter

2011-01-01

51

Effect of prenatal administration of venlafaxine on postnatal development of rat offspring  

PubMed Central

About 3% of pregnant women are treated with antidepressant drugs during gestation. After delivery the number of treated women increases to 5 to 7%. Most prescribed antidepressants in pregnancy are selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and/or serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram and venlafaxine (VENF). Despite the fact that VENF has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA, experimental studies with this drug are rare. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of prenatal administration of VENF on early postnatal development of rat offspring and selected biochemical variables at weaning of pups. Pregnant female Wistar rats were treated with VENF from day 15 to 20 of gestation at the doses of 7.5, 37.5 and 70 mg/kg. Females were allowed to spontaneously deliver their pups. After delivery the pups were inspected for viability, gross malformation and they were weighed on day 0, 4 and 21 post partum. On day 21 post partum, the pups were killed, brains were removed from the skulls and blood samples were collected for biochemical assay (proteins, glucose-GOD, glucose-HEX, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total antioxidant status). The study showed that prenatal VENF administration resulted in a mild maternal intoxication manifested by decreased body weight gain of pregnant females. There was no effect of the drug tested on the body and brain weights of offspring. No obvious morphological alterations were observed in the delivered pups. Similarly, there were no changes in the selected biochemical variables determined. PMID:23118594

Császárová, Eszter; Brnoliaková, Zuzana; Ujházy, Eduard; Navarová, Jana; Mach, Mojmír

2012-01-01

52

Effects of Ipomoea carnea aqueous fraction intake by dams during pregnancy on the physical and neurobehavioral development of rat offspring.  

PubMed

The effects of daily prenatal exposure to 0.0, 0.7, 3.0 and 15.0 mg/kg of the aqueous extract (AQE) of Ipomoea carnea dried leaves on gestational days 5-21 were studied in rat pups and adult offspring. The physical and reflex developmental parameters, open-field, plus-maze, social interaction, forced swimming, catalepsy and stereotyped behaviors, as well as striatal, cortical and hypothalamic monoamine levels (at 140 days of age) were measured. Maternal and offspring body weights were unaffected by exposure to the different doses of the AQE. High postnatal mortality, smaller size at Day 1 of life, reversible hyperflexion of the carpal joints and delay in the opening of both ears and in negative geotaxis were observed in the offspring exposed to the higher dose of AQE. At 60 and 90 days of age, open-field locomotion frequency was quite different between 0.0 and animals treated with 0.7 and 3.0 mg/kg AQE. No changes were observed in the plus-maze, social interaction, forced swimming, catalepsy, stereotyped behavior and central nervous system monoamines concentrations. Dams treated with the higher AQE dose showed severe cytoplasmic vacuolation in liver, kidney, pancreas and thyroid tissues, in contrast to the mild vacuolation observed in the other experimental groups. No alterations were observed in the histopathological study of the offspring of all experimental groups at 140 days of age. During adulthood, behavior was not modified in offspring exposed to the higher dose of AQE as well as no changes occurred in central nervous system neurotransmitters. The present data show that the offspring development alterations were not severe enough to produce behavioral and central monoamine level changes. PMID:12972075

Schwarz, A; Górniak, S L; Bernardi, M M; Dagli, M L Z; Spinosa, H S

2003-01-01

53

Mouse round spermatids developed in vitro from preexisting spermatocytes can produce normal offspring by nuclear injection into in vivo-developed mature oocytes.  

PubMed

It has been shown that mature oocytes injected with nuclei from round spermatids collected from mouse testis can generate normal offspring and that round spermatids can develop in vitro. An undetermined issue is whether spermatids developed in vitro are capable of generating fertile offspring by nuclear injection into oocytes. Herein, we report the production of normal and fertile offspring by nuclear injection using haploid spermatid donors derived from mouse primary spermatocyte precursors cocultured with Sertoli cells. Cocultured spermatogonia and spermatocytes were characterized by their nuclear immunoreactive patterns determined by an antibody to phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), a marker for DNA double-strand breaks. Cocultured round spermatid progenies display more than one motile flagellum, whose axonemes were recognized by antitubulin immunostaining. Flagellar wavelike movement and flagellar-driven propulsion of round spermatids developed in vitro were documented by videomicroscopy (http://www.sci.ccny.cuny.edu/ approximately kier). We also show that breeding of male and female mouse offspring generated by spermatid nuclear injection produced fertile offspring. In addition to their capacity to produce fertile offspring, cocultured, flagellated round spermatids can facilitate the analysis of the mechanisms of centriolar polarity, duplication, assembly, and flagellar growth, including the intraflagellar transport of cargo proteins. PMID:12620938

Marh, Joel; Tres, Laura L; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Kierszenbaum, Abraham L

2003-07-01

54

Cognitive Process of Development in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

Boddington, Eulalee N.

2009-01-01

55

SOCIAL CLASS AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO FIND OUT WHETHER SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES IN INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT ARE PRESENT IF (1) CHILDREN FROM SOCIALLY DISORGANIZED SLUM FAMILIES ARE COMPARED WITH CHILDREN FROM STABLE, LOW INCOME AND MIDDLE INCOME FAMILIES, (2) THE PIAGET OBJECT SCALE, A NEW MEASURE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT BASED ON PIAGET'S SENSORIMOTOR…

BIRNS, BEVERLY; GOLDEN, MARK

56

Managing and analysing data from a large-scale study on Framingham Offspring relating brain structure to cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY At the Framingham Heart Study under separate research grant funding from the National Institute of Aging, NIH, we are gathering brain structure and cognitive information on the Framingham Ospring, creating one of the largest known data sets to assess changes in brain structure associated with norma- tive ageing and cognitive decline. Subject recruitment, data collection, data management and statistical

Joseph M. Massaro; Ralph B. D'Agostino Srem; Lisa M. Sullivan; Alexa Beiser; Charles DeCarli; Rhoda Au; Merrill F. Elias; Philip A Wolf

2004-01-01

57

Cognitive neuroscience: Development and prospects MICHAEL I POSNER1,  

E-print Network

Cognitive neuroscience: Development and prospects MICHAEL I POSNER1, and SHOBINI RAO2 1 Department to the Indian scientific community. 1. Cognitive neuroscience Cognitive psychology was developed in the 1960s 560 029, India e-mail: mposner@uoregon.edu The field of cognitive neuroscience has enjoyed

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

58

Carbon black nanoparticle exposure during middle and late fetal development induces immune activation in male offspring mice.  

PubMed

Increasing exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) has raised concerns regarding their health and safety profiles in humans and animals, especially in developing organisms, which may display increased sensitivity to NP toxicity. The present study examined the effects of gestational exposure to carbon black NP (CB-NP) on the development of the offspring immune system. Pregnant mice were exposed to CB-NP (95?g/kg body weight) by intranasal instillation on gestational days 9 and 15. The thymus and spleen were collected from their offspring mice on postnatal day (PND) 1, 3 and 5. Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were examined by determining the expression of cell-surface molecules using flow cytometry. Gene expression in the thymus and spleen was examined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Prenatal exposure to CB-NP increased total thymocytes and their immunophenotypes (CD4(-)CD8(-) and CD4(+)CD8(+) cells). It also induced an increase in total lymphocytes, and CD4(-)CD8(-), particularly CD3(-)B220(-)cells, at PND 5 in the spleen of newborn male offspring, reflecting the stimulation of immature splenocytes. Furthermore, mRNA expression of genes related to the induction of peripheral tolerance (i.e. thymic Traf6) was upregulated. These data suggest that respiratory exposure to CB-NP during middle and late gestation may have allergic or inflammatory effects in male offspring, and may provide initial information on the potential developmental immunotoxicity of nanoparticles. PMID:25451823

El-Sayed, Yasser S; Shimizu, Ryuhei; Onoda, Atsuto; Takeda, Ken; Umezawa, Masakazu

2015-01-01

59

Cognitive and socioemotional caregiving in developing countries.  

PubMed

Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving-cognitive and socioemotional-in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving and engaged in more socioemotional than cognitive activities. More than half of mothers played with their children and took them outside, but only a third or fewer read books and told stories to their children. The GDP of countries related to caregiving after controlling for life expectancy and education. The majority of mothers report that they do not leave their under-5s alone. Policy and intervention recommendations are elaborated. PMID:22277006

Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L

2012-01-01

60

Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. We studied two developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving -- cognitive and socioemotional -- in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving and engaged in more socioemotional than cognitive activities. More than half of mothers played with their children and took them outside, but only a third or fewer read books and told stories to their children. The GDP of countries related to caregiving after controlling for life expectancy and education. The majority of mothers report that they do not leave their under-5s alone. Policy and intervention recommendations are elaborated. PMID:22277006

Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

2011-01-01

61

Moderate maternal food restriction in mice impairs physical growth, behavior, and neurodevelopment of offspring.  

PubMed

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) occurs in 3% to 7% of all pregnancies. Recent human studies have indicated that neurodevelopmental disabilities, learning disorders, memory impairment, and mood disturbance are common in IUGR offspring. However, the interactions between IUGR and neurodevelopmental disorders are unclear because of the wide range of causes of IUGR, such as maternal malnutrition, placental insufficiency, pregnancy toxemia, and fetal malformations. Meanwhile, many studies have shown that moderate food restriction enhances spatial learning and improves mood disturbance in adult humans and animals. To date, the effects of maternal moderate food restriction on fetal brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that IUGR would be caused by even moderate food restriction in pregnant females and that the offspring would have neurodevelopmental disabilities. Mid-pregnant mice received moderate food restriction through the early lactation period. The offspring were tested for aspects of physical development, behavior, and neurodevelopment. The results showed that moderate maternal food restriction induced IUGR. Offspring had low birth weight and delayed development of physical and coordinated movement. Moreover, IUGR offspring exhibited mental disabilities such as anxiety and poor cognitive function. In particular, male offspring exhibited significantly impaired cognitive function at 3 weeks of age. These results suggested that a restricted maternal diet could be a risk factor for developmental disability in IUGR offspring and that male offspring might be especially susceptible. PMID:25433908

Akitake, Yoshiharu; Katsuragi, Shinji; Hosokawa, Masato; Mishima, Kenichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Hosoda, Hiroshi

2015-01-01

62

Maternal caffeine exposure alters neuromotor development and hippocampus acetylcholinesterase activity in rat offspring.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal caffeine intake on the neuromotor development of rat offspring and on acetylcholine degradation and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in the hippocampus of 14-day-old infant rats. Rat dams were treated with caffeine (0.3g/L) throughout gestation and lactation until the pups were 14 days old. The pups were divided into three groups: (1) control, (2) caffeine, and (3) washout caffeine. The washout group received a caffeine solution until the seventh postnatal day (P7). Righting reflex (RR) and negative geotaxis (NG) were assessed to evaluate postural parameters as an index of neuromotor reflexes. An open-field (OF) test was conducted to assess locomotor and exploratory activities as well as anxiety-like behaviors. Caffeine treatment increased both RR and NG latency times. In the OF test, the caffeine group had fewer outer crossings and reduced locomotion compared to control, while the washout group showed increased inner crossings in relation to the other groups and fewer rearings only in comparison to the control group. We found decreased AChE activity in the caffeine group compared to the other groups, with no alteration in AChE transcriptional regulation. Chronic maternal exposure to caffeine promotes important alterations in neuromotor development. These results highlight the ability of maternal caffeine intake to interfere with cholinergic neurotransmission during brain development. PMID:25451122

Souza, Ana Claudia; Souza, Andressa; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; De Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; Da Silva, Rosane Souza; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bonan, Carla D; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

2015-01-21

63

Prenatal LPS-exposure - a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia - differentially affects cognitive functions, myelination and parvalbumin expression in male and female offspring.  

PubMed

Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for the offspring to develop schizophrenia. Gender differences can be seen in various features of the illness and sex steroid hormones (e.g. estrogen) have strongly been implicated in the disease pathology. In the present study, we evaluated sex differences in the effects of prenatal exposure to a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in rats. Pregnant dams received LPS-injections (100?g/kg) at gestational day 15 and 16. The offspring was then tested for prepulse inhibition (PPI), locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior and object recognition memory at various developmental time points. At postnatal day (PD) 33 and 60, prenatally LPS-exposed rats showed locomotor hyperactivity which was similar in male and female offspring. Moreover, prenatal LPS-treatment caused PPI deficits in pubertal (PD45) and adult (PD90) males while PPI impairments were found only at PD45 in prenatally LPS-treated females. Following prenatal LPS-administration, recognition memory for objects was impaired in both sexes with males being more severely affected. Additionally, we assessed prenatal infection-induced alterations of parvalbumin (Parv) expression and myelin fiber density. Male offspring born to LPS-challenged mothers showed decreased myelination in cortical and limbic brain regions as well as reduced numbers of Parv-expressing cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. In contrast, LPS-exposed female rats showed only a modest decrease in myelination and Parv immunoreactivity. Collectively, our data indicate that some of the prenatal immune activation effects are sex dependent and further strengthen the importance of taking into account gender differences in animal models of schizophrenia. PMID:25455585

Wischhof, Lena; Irrsack, Ellen; Osorio, Carmen; Koch, Michael

2015-03-01

64

Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

Chouinard, Michelle M.

2007-01-01

65

Language and Cognitive Development Through Multicultural Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers role of multicultural literature in stimulating children's language and cognitive development. Argues that a well-balanced multicultural literature program includes literature that depicts people with a variety of aspirations, from different socioeconomic levels and occupations, and with a range of human characteristics. (DST)

Norton, Donna E.

1985-01-01

66

Missing sights: consequences for visual cognitive development  

E-print Network

visual input was blocked by cataracts, with a larger impairment in the affected eye(s) if the deprivation despite early visual deprivation, while others seem permanently impaired (see Table 1 for examplesMissing sights: consequences for visual cognitive development Daphne Maurer1,2 , Terri L. Lewis1

Dukas, Reuven

67

Father absence and children's cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews literature showing detrimental effects of father absence on children's cognitive development as assessed by standardized IQ and achievement tests and school performance. Differential effects associated with characteristics of the absence (cause, duration, onset), the child (age, sex, race, socioeconomic status), and the skill tested (quantitative, verbal) are examined. The evidence suggests that financial hardship, high levels of anxiety, and,

Marybeth Shinn

1978-01-01

68

Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationship between maternal labor supply and children's cognitive development using a sample of three- and four-year-old children of female respondents from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort. Maternal employment is found to have a negative impact when it occurs during the first year of the child's life and a potentially offsetting positive effect when it

Francine D Blau; Adam J Grossberg

1992-01-01

69

Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

2010-01-01

70

The development of implicit intergroup cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenging the view that implicit social cognition emerges from protracted social learning, research now suggests that intergroup preferences are present at adultlike levels in early childhood. Specifically, the pat- tern of developmental emergence of implicit attitudes is characterized by (i) rapidly emerging implicit prefer- ences for ingroups and dominant groups and (ii) stability of these preferences across development. Together these

Yarrow Dunham; Andrew S. Baron; Mahzarin R. Banaji

2008-01-01

71

Application of Technology to Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a summary of research being conducted at the University of Minnesota in which new technologies are being applied to development of cognition in hearing impaired learners. The study involved an application of concept analysis, information-processing theories, and group-based interactive technology in the teaching of…

Wilson, Louise

72

Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB ( r = 0.54 to 0.57, p < 0.001). Further, IQ emerged as a powerful predictor of SRB after controlling for the effects of all the known covariates like fertility, maternal age, polygyny prevalence, wealth, son preference, latitude, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations.

Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

2013-06-01

73

Assessment of offspring development and behavior following gestational exposure to inhaled methanol in the rat.  

PubMed

The prospect of widespread human exposure associated with its use as an alternative fuel has sparked concern about the toxic potential of inhaled methanol (MeOH). Previous studies have revealed congenital malformations in rats following inhaled MeOH (Nelson et al. (1985). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 5, 727-736) but these studies did not include postnatal behavioral assessment. In the present study, pregnant Long-Evans rats were placed in exposure chambers containing 15,000 ppm MeOH or air for 7 hr/day on Gestational Days (GD) 7-19. The total alveolar dose of methanol was estimated at about 6.1 g/kg/day, for a total dose of about 42.7 g/kg for the entire study. Maternal body weights were recorded daily and blood methanol concentrations were determined at the end of exposure on GD 7, 10, 14, and 18. Following birth (Postnatal Day 0 [PND 0]), a number of tests were performed at various points in development, including: offspring mortality and body wt (PND 1,3), motor activity (PND 13-21, 30, 60), olfactory learning (PND 18), behavioral thermoregulation (PND 20-21), T-maze learning (PND 23-24), acoustic startle response (PND 24, 60), reflex modification audiometry (PND 60), pubertal landmarks (PND 31-56), passive avoidance (PND 72), and visual-evoked potentials (PND 160). Maternal blood MeOH levels, measured from samples taken within 15 min after removal from the exposure chamber, declined from about 3.8 mg/ml on the first day of exposure to 3.1 mg/ml on the 12th day of exposure. MeOH transiently reduced maternal body wt (4-7%) on GD 8-10, and offspring BW (5%) on PND 1. No other test revealed significant effects of MeOH. Prenatal exposure to high levels of inhaled MeOH appears to have little effect on this broad battery of tests beyond PND 1 in the rat. PMID:8566474

Stanton, M E; Crofton, K M; Gray, L E; Gordon, C J; Boyes, W K; Mole, M L; Peele, D B; Bushnell, P J

1995-11-01

74

Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

2001-01-01

75

A trade-off between embryonic development rate and immune function of avian offspring is revealed by considering embryonic temperature  

PubMed Central

Long embryonic periods are assumed to reflect slower intrinsic development that are thought to trade off to allow enhanced physiological systems, such as immune function. Yet, the relatively rare studies of this trade-off in avian offspring have not found the expected trade-off. Theory and tests have not taken into account the strong extrinsic effects of temperature on embryonic periods of birds. Here, we show that length of the embryonic period did not explain variation in two measures of immune function when temperature was ignored, based on studies of 34 Passerine species in tropical Venezuela (23 species) and north temperate Arizona (11 species). Variation in immune function was explained when embryonic periods were corrected for average embryonic temperature, in order to better estimate intrinsic rates of development. Immune function of offspring trades off with intrinsic rates of embryonic development once the extrinsic effects of embryonic temperatures are taken into account. PMID:21227978

Martin, Thomas E.; Arriero, Elena; Majewska, Ania

2011-01-01

76

A trade-off between embryonic development rate and immune function of avian offspring is concealed by embryonic temperature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long embryonic periods are assumed to reflect slower intrinsic development that are thought to trade off to allow enhanced physiological systems, such as immune function. Yet, the relatively rare studies of this trade-off in avian offspring have not found the expected trade-off. Theory and tests have not taken into account the strong extrinsic effects of temperature on embryonic periods of birds. Here, we show that length of the embryonic period did not explain variation in two measures of immune function when temperature was ignored, based on studies of 34 Passerine species in tropical Venezuela (23 species) and north temperate Arizona (11 species). Variation in immune function was explained when embryonic periods were corrected for average embryonic temperature, in order to better estimate intrinsic rates of development. Immune function of offspring trades off with intrinsic rates of embryonic development once the extrinsic effects of embryonic temperatures are taken into account.

Martin, Thomas E.; Arriero, Elena; Majewska, Ania

2011-01-01

77

Cognitive Development of Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has always been a common-sense view that the number of languages that children learn, whether through natural exposure or educational intervention, has consequences for their development. The assumption was that these consequences were potentially damaging. Even now, after approximately 50 years of research on the topic, parents remain…

Barac, Raluca; Bialystok, Ellen

2011-01-01

78

Art Integration and Cognitive Development  

E-print Network

character within the context; constructing and writing a monologue; learningand learning in different ways and different art forms, such as costumes, writing lyrics in certain linguistic forms, and monologues of charactercharacter development including costume, crafts, dances, etc. Story illustrations and poetry were other activities to transfer learning

Baker, Dawn

2013-01-01

79

Close Interrelation of Motor Development and Cognitive Development and of the Cerebellum and Prefrontal Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor development and cognitive development may be fundamentally interrelated. Contrary to popular notions that motor development begins and ends early, whereas cognitive development begins and ends later, both motor and cognitive development display equally protracted developmental timetables. When cognitive development is perturbed, as in a neurodevelopmental disorder, motor development is often adversely af- fected. While it has long been known

Adele Diamond

2000-01-01

80

Effects of Gestational Cadmium Exposure on Pregnancy Outcome and Development in the Offspring at Age 4.5 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential effect of maternal cadmium exposure on pregnancy outcome\\u000a and development in the offspring at age 4.5 years. Between November 2002 and December 2003, 109 normal pregnant women were\\u000a enrolled in our cohort from Da-Ye Country, Hubei Province in Central China. The placental, whole blood, and cord blood levels\\u000a of cadmium

Li-Li Tian; Yong-Cheng Zhao; Xiao-Chun Wang; Jin-Long Gu; Zhi-Juan Sun; Ya-Li Zhang; Ji-Xian Wang

2009-01-01

81

The Integrated Laboratory Program for Cognitive Development Jerome Epstein,  

E-print Network

The Integrated Laboratory Program for Cognitive Development Jerome Epstein, Mathematics Department to develop a program for cognitive development in math and science. The application cited then new research lectures are inefficient at producing meaningful cognitive change, and that hands-on, so-called "guided

Spagnolo, Filippo

82

Maternal ?-linolenic acid availability during gestation and lactation alters the postnatal hippocampal development in the mouse offspring  

PubMed Central

The availability of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is essential for perinatal brain development. While the roles of docosahexaenoic acid (the most abundant ?-3 species) were extensively described, less is known about the role of ?-linolenic acid (ALA), which is the initial molecular species undergoing elongation and desaturation within the ?-3 pathways. This study describes the association between maternal ALA availability during gestation and lactation, and alterations in hippocampal development (dentate gyrus) in the mouse male offspring, at the end of lactation (postnatal day 19, P19). Postnatal ALA supplementation increased cell proliferation (36% more proliferating cells compared to a control group) and early neuronal differentiation, while postnatal ALA deficiency increased cellular apoptosis within the dentate gyrus of suckling pups (61% more apoptotic cells compared to a control group). However, maternal ALA deficiency during gestation prevented the increased neurogenesis induced by postnatal supplementation. Fatty acid analysis revealed that ALA supplementation increased the concentration of the ?-3 species in the maternal liver and serum, but not in the brain of the offspring, excepting for ALA itself. Interestingly, ALA supplementation also increased the concentration of dihomo ?-linolenic acid (a ?-6 species) in the P19 brains, but not in maternal livers or serum. In conclusion, postnatal ALA supplementation enhances neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the offspring at postnatal day 19, but its beneficial effects are offset by maternal ALA deficiency during gestation. These results suggest that ALA is required in both fetal and postnatal stages of brain development. PMID:21964326

Niculescu, Mihai D.; Lupu, Daniel S.; Craciunescu, Corneliu N.

2015-01-01

83

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

PubMed Central

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments. PMID:22356180

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2011-01-01

84

Physical Play and Cognitive Development: Integrating Activity, Cognition, and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that humans may have evolved a special sensitivity to certain types of social information during rough-and-tumble play that facilitates social cognition. Describes the cognitive benefits of physical play as providing a break from demanding intellectual tasks and hypothesizes that physical play is related to gender differences in spatial…

Bjorklund, David F.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas

1998-01-01

85

Maternal and offspring fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants and cognitive function at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children  

PubMed Central

Background In observational epidemiological studies type 2 diabetes (T2D) and both low and high plasma concentrations of fasting glucose have been found to be associated with lower cognitive performance. These associations could be explained by confounding. Methods In this study we looked at the association between genetic variants, known to be robustly associated with fasting glucose and T2D risk, in the mother and her offspring to determine whether there is likely to be a causal link between early life exposure to glucose and child’s intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. We generated a fasting glucose (FGGRS) and a T2D (T2DGRS) genetic risk score and used them in a Mendelian randomization approach. Results We found a strong correlation between the FGGRS and fasting glucose plasma measurements that were available for a subset of children, but no association of either the maternal or the offspring FGGRS with child’s IQ was observed. In contrast, the maternal T2DGRS was positively associated with offspring IQ. Conclusions Maternal and offspring genetic variants which are associated with glucose levels are not associated with offspring IQ, suggesting that there is unlikely to be a causal link between glucose exposure in utero and IQ in childhood. Further exploration in even larger cohorts is required to exclude the possibility that our null findings were due to a lack of statistical power. PMID:23013243

2012-01-01

86

Multifaceted Defense against Antagonistic Microbes in Developing Offspring of the Parasitoid Wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae)  

PubMed Central

Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R)-(-)-mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R)-(-)-mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum). We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R)-(-)-mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several antimicrobials in solution and vapor form has apparently evolved to reliably protect the larvae themselves and their food against a broad range of antagonistic microbes. PMID:24886721

Weiss, Katharina; Parzefall, Christopher; Herzner, Gudrun

2014-01-01

87

Metyrapone alleviates deleterious effects of maternal food restriction on lung development and growth of rat offspring.  

PubMed

Maternal food restriction (MFR) causes intrauterine growth restriction, a known risk factor for developing chronic lung disease. However, it is unknown whether this negative outcome is gender specific or preventable by blocking the MFR-induced hyperglucocorticoidism. Using a well-established rat model, we used metyrapone (MTP), an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, to study the MFR-induced lung changes on postnatal day (p) 21 in a gender-specific manner. From embryonic day 10 until delivery, pregnant dams were fed either an ad libitum diet or a 50% caloric restricted diet with or without MTP supplementation. Postnatally, the offspring were fed ad libitum from healthy dams until p21. Morphometric, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs demonstrated that MTP mitigated the MFR-mediated decrease in alveolar count, decrease in adipogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, increase in myogenic proteins (fibronectin, ?-smooth muscle actin, and calponin), increase in Wnt signaling intermediates (lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and ?-catenin), and increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels. The MFR-induced lung phenotype and the effects of MTP were similar in both genders. To elucidate the mechanism of MFR-induced shift of the adipogenic-to-myogenic phenotype, lung fibroblasts were used to independently study the effects of (1) nutrient restriction and (2) excess steroid exposure. Nutrient deprivation increased myogenic proteins, Wnt signaling intermediates, and GR, all changes blocked by protein supplementation. MTP also blocked, likely by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, the corticosterone-induced increase in myogenic proteins, but had no effect on GR levels. In summary, protein restriction and increased glucocorticoid levels appear to be the key players in MFR-induced lung disease, affecting both genders. PMID:24916330

Paek, David S; Sakurai, Reiko; Saraswat, Aditi; Li, Yishi; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K

2015-02-01

88

Prenatal Bystander Stress Alters Brain, Behavior, and the Epigenome of Developing Rat Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prenatal environment, including prenatal stress, has been extensively studied in laboratory animals and humans. However, studies of the prenatal environment usually directly stress pregnant females, but stress may come ‘indirectly’, through stress to a cage-mate. The current study used indirect prenatal bystander stress and investigated the effects on the gross morphology, pre-weaning behavior, and epigenome of rat offspring. Pregnant

Richelle Mychasiuk; Nichole Schmold; Slava Ilnytskyy; Olga Kovalchuk; Bryan Kolb; Robbin Gibb

2011-01-01

89

--Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Evan Glazer  

E-print Network

72 InterMath 1 --Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Technology). The development of mathematical understanding occurs when technology is used as a cognitive tool that supports to deliver the curriculum through web-based materials and to explore the mathematics using cognitive tools

Spagnolo, Filippo

90

Offspring, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two 1995 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers including the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to practitioners and are frequently accompanied by classroom activities.…

Offspring, 1995

1995-01-01

91

Kreshnik Begolli Doctoral Student in Learning, Cognition and Development  

E-print Network

Kreshnik Begolli Doctoral Student in Learning, Cognition and Development School of Education, UC in Prishtina, Kosova, Kreshnik Begolli is primarily interested in how cognitive science research can help make in Mathematics." Both are motivated by a common desire to use a novel approach of bridging cognitive science

Stanford, Kyle

92

The Influence of Bilingualism on Cognitive Development and Cognitive Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation abstract summarizes a research study which investigated the hypothesis that bilingualism in children would result in: (1) increased ability to analyze syntax; (2) acceleration in the time of arrival of the stage of concrete operational thinking; and (3) an increase in cognitive flexibility or ability to mentally shuffle material.…

Ben-Zeev, Sandra

93

The Cognitive Aging and Neuroimaging (CAN) Lab The Cognitive Aging and Neuroimaging (CAN)Lab investigates the development of both cognitive and neural processes associated  

E-print Network

)Lab investigates the development of both cognitive and neural processes associated with aging -with a focus on ageMRI to elucidate the cognitive and neural processes underlying age-related differences in cognitive controlThe Cognitive Aging and Neuroimaging (CAN) Lab Overview: The Cognitive Aging and Neuroimaging (CAN

Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

94

Maternal low-protein diet during mouse pre-implantation development induces vascular dysfunction and altered renin-angiotensin-system homeostasis in the offspring.  

PubMed

Environmental perturbations during early mammalian development can affect aspects of offspring growth and cardiovascular health. We have demonstrated previously that maternal gestational dietary protein restriction in mice significantly elevated adult offspring systolic blood pressure. Therefore, the present study investigates the key mechanisms of blood pressure regulation in these mice. Following mating, female MF-1 mice were assigned to either a normal-protein diet (NPD; 18 % casein) or an isocaloric low-protein diet throughout gestation (LPD; 9 % casein), or fed the LPD exclusively during the pre-implantation period (3.5 d) before returning to the NPD for the remainder of gestation (Emb-LPD). All offspring received standard chow. At 22 weeks, isolated mesenteric arteries from LPD and Emb-LPD males displayed significantly attenuated vasodilatation to isoprenaline (P = 0.04 and P = 0.025, respectively), when compared with NPD arteries. At 28 weeks, stereological analysis of glomerular number in female left kidneys revealed no significant difference between the groups. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of type 1a angiotensin II receptor, Na+/K+ ATPase transporter subunits and glucocorticoid receptor expression in male and female left kidneys revealed no significant differences between the groups. LPD females displayed elevated serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity (P = 0.044), whilst Emb-LPD males had elevated lung ACE activity (P = 0.001), when compared with NPD offspring. These data demonstrate that elevated offspring systolic blood pressure following maternal gestational protein undernutrition is associated with impaired arterial vasodilatation in male offspring, elevated serum and lung ACE activity in female and male offspring, respectively, but kidney glomerular number in females and kidney gene expression in male and female offspring appear unaffected. PMID:20128937

Watkins, Adam J; Lucas, Emma S; Torrens, Christopher; Cleal, Jane K; Green, Lauren; Osmond, Clive; Eckert, Judith J; Gray, William P; Hanson, Mark A; Fleming, Tom P

2010-06-01

95

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

96

From behaviourism to cognitive behaviourism to cognitive development: Steps in the evolution of instructional design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent history of instructional technology is traced, starting with the work of Skinner, moving on to the task analytic approach of Gagné, and following through to contemporary efforts associated with the “cognitive revolution.” It is suggested that an understanding of the process of cognitive development may enable us to build on and improve earlier approaches, by adapting them more

Robbie Case; Carl Bereiter

1984-01-01

97

The Relation between Cognitive Development and Anxiety Phenomena in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the relation between cognitive development and fear, anxiety, and behavioral inhibition in a non-clinical sample of 226 Dutch children aged 4-9 years. To assess cognitive development, children were tested with Piagetian conservation tasks and a Theory-of-Mind (TOM) test. Fears were measured by means of a self-report scale completed by…

Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter

2009-01-01

98

Epigenetic robotics: modelling cognitive development in robotic systems  

E-print Network

Editorial Epigenetic robotics: modelling cognitive development in robotic systems Action editor), the goal of Epigenetic robotics is to understand, and model, the role of development in the emergence of increasingly complex cognitive structures from physical and social interaction. As such, Epigenetic Robotics

Sandini, Giulio

99

Infant recall memory and communication predicts later cognitive development  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study investigates the relation between recall memory and communication in infancy and later cognitive development. Twenty-six typically developing Swedish children were tested during infancy for deferred imitation (memory), joint attention (JA), and requesting (nonverbal communication); they also were tested during childhood for language and cognitive competence. Results showed that infants with low performance on both deferred imitation at 9 months and joint attention at 14 months obtained a significantly lower score on a test of cognitive abilities at 4 years of age. This long-term prediction from preverbal infancy to childhood cognition is of interest both to developmental theory and to practice. PMID:17138307

Strid, Karin; Tjus, Tomas; Smith, Lars; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Heimann, Mikael

2013-01-01

100

Cognitive style and developing scientific attitudes in the SCIS classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive style refers to an individual's way of perceiving and processing information. Field-dependence-independence is one dimension of cognitive style. Field-dependence and field-independence respectively refer to a global in contrast to an analytical way of perceiving.Global versus analytical cognitive styles have been studied with respect to their differential influence on attitude development in ESS by Walters and Sieben (1974).The present investigator

Carol Wareing

1981-01-01

101

MAP’ing CNS Development and Cognition: An ERKsome Process  

PubMed Central

The ERK MAP kinase signaling cascade plays critical roles in brain development, learning, memory, and cognition. It has recently been appreciated that mutation or deletion of elements within this signaling pathway leads to developmental syndromes in humans that are associated with impaired cognitive function and autism. Here, we review recent studies that provide insight into the biological roles of the ERKs in the brain that may underlie the cognitive deficits seen in these syndromes. PMID:19186160

Samuels, Ivy S.; Saitta, Sulagna C.; Landreth, Gary E.

2013-01-01

102

Ethical principles and guidelines for the development of cognitive systems.  

SciTech Connect

As cognitive systems technologies emerge, so too do the ethical issues surrounding their development and use. To develop cognitive systems technologies responsibly, Sandia National Laboratories is establishing a framework to proactively address both real and potential ethical issues. This report contains the principles and guidelines developers can use to guide them as they are confronted with ethical issues related to developing cognitive systems technologies as they apply to U.S. national security. A process to apply these principles offers a practical way to transfer these principles from paper to a working strategy. Case studies are presented to reflect upon potential scenarios and to consider resolution strategies.

Shaneyfelt, Wendy

2006-05-01

103

The Development of Social Cognition. Studies in Developmental Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining social cognition as our attempts to make sense of how people think, perceive, infer, feel, and react, this book examines both the classical issues and contemporary understanding of theory and research in social cognitive development. The initial chapters highlight one of the central, theoretical tensions in the field, which is whether the…

Hala, Suzanne, Ed.

104

Turkish Middle School Students' Cognitive Development Levels in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' abstract reasoning abilities can differ from one society to another. Students' profiles play significant roles in these differences. The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between middle school students' cognitive development levels and their profiles (age, gender, and science achievement) using the Science Cognitive

Cepni, Salih; Ozsevgec, Tuncay; Cerrah, Lale

2004-01-01

105

Neuromodulation of Behavioral and Cognitive Development across the Life Span  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…

Li, Shu-Chen

2012-01-01

106

A useful prediction variable for student models: cognitive development level  

E-print Network

: Cognitive resources, Piaget, student modeling. Ivon Arroyo Ivon@cs.umass.edu Computer Science Department In this paper we describe the use of Piaget's notion of cognitive development to improve a tutor's reasoning ability (Piaget, 1953). We are interested in finding information that not only predicts a student

Arroyo, Ivon M.

107

Medical Settings as a Context for Research on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical contexts provide a rich opportunity to study important theoretical questions in cognitive development and to investigate the influence of a range of interacting factors relating to the child, the experience, and the broader social context on children's cognition. In the context of examples of research investigating these issues, we…

Salmon, Karen; Brown, Deirdre A.

2013-01-01

108

Dietary early-life exposure to contaminated eels does not impair spatial cognitive performances in adult offspring mice as assessed in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze.  

PubMed

Many environmental contaminants are introduced via the diet and may act as neurotoxins and endocrine disrupters, especially influencing growing organisms in early life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary exposure of dams to fish naturally contaminated with xenobiotics, especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals (e.g. mercury and lead), resulted in cognitive function deficits in adult offspring mice. Daily, four groups of dams (n = 10/group) ingested standard diet plus paste with/without eels, during gestation and lactation, from gestational day (GD) six until post natal day (PND) 21 (weaning). Dams orally ingested a standardized amount of eel (0.8 mgkg(-1)d(-1)) containing the six non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs (?6 NDL-PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) at 0, 85, 216, and 400 ngkg(-1)d(-1). Results showed that early-life exposure to contaminated eels did not (compared to non-exposed controls) impair immediate working memory in the Y-maze in the offspring assessed at PND 38. Furthermore, it did not significantly impact spatial learning and retention memory as measured in the Morris water maze in adult offspring mice (PND 120-123). Our results suggest that perinatal exposure to contaminated eels does not affect spatial cognitive performances, as assessed by the Y-maze and Morris water maze at adult age. Adverse effects of xenobiotics reported earlier might be camouflaged by beneficial eel constituents, such as n-3 fatty acids. However, additional studies are needed to differentiate between potential positive and negative effects following consumption of food items both rich in nutrients and contaminants. PMID:25476192

Dridi, Imen; Leroy, Delphine; Guignard, Cédric; Scholl, Georges; Bohn, Torsten; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Eppe, Gauthier; Soulimani, Rachid; Bouayed, Jaouad

2014-12-01

109

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders in the Offspring of Mothers Exposed to Mild-Moderate Iodine Deficiency: A Possible Novel Iodine Deficiency Disorder in Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of almost 10 yr, we carried out a prospective study of the neuropsychological development of the offspring of 16 women from a moderately iodine-deficient area (area A) and of 11 control women from a marginally iodine-sufficient area (area B) whose thyroid function had been monitored during early gestation. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was diagnosed in

F. Vermiglio; V. P. LO PRESTI; M. MOLETI; M. SIDOTI; G. TORTORELLA; G. SCAFFIDI; M. G. CASTAGNA; F. MATTINA; M. A. VIOLI; A. CRISA; A. ARTEMISIA; F. TRIMARCHI

2004-01-01

110

Effects of gestational cadmium exposure on pregnancy outcome and development in the offspring at age 4.5 years.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential effect of maternal cadmium exposure on pregnancy outcome and development in the offspring at age 4.5 years. Between November 2002 and December 2003, 109 normal pregnant women were enrolled in our cohort from Da-Ye Country, Hubei Province in Central China. The placental, whole blood, and cord blood levels of cadmium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The 106 children at 4.5 years of age given birth by the aforementioned women were followed up and the following rate was 97.25%. Detailed questionnaire surveys, anthropometric measurements were performed, and IQ development was evaluated by Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Revised Edition (WPPSI-R). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that cord blood cadmium level was significantly negatively correlated with fetus development. Low birth weight (less than 2,500 g) occurred significantly more frequently in infants with higher cord blood cadmium than in those exposed to lower levels of cord blood cadmium. Significantly negative correlation was found between cord blood cadmium exposure and WPPSI-R IQ full score after controlling for confounding variables. It was concluded that cord blood cadmium concentration was a factor that influenced fetus growth and later IQ development. PMID:19404590

Tian, Li-Li; Zhao, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Gu, Jin-Long; Sun, Zhi-Juan; Zhang, Ya-Li; Wang, Ji-Xian

2009-12-01

111

Brain Electrical Activity Changes and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship of cognitive developmental changes to physiological and anatomical changes by measuring both types of data within the same subjects. Cortical electrical activity was measured in 24 males between 10 and 12 years of age. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from midline scalp electrodes during a…

Hartley, Deborah; Thomas, David G.

112

Close Interrelation of Motor Development and Cognitive Development and of the Cerebellum and Prefrontal Cortex.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that motor and cognitive development may be fundamentally interrelated. Summarizes evidence of close co-activation of the neocerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in functional neuroimaging, similarities in the cognitive sequelae of damage to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the neocerebellum, motor deficits in "cognitive"…

Diamond, Adele

2000-01-01

113

The value of assessing cognitive function in drug development  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the value and utility of measuring cognitive function in the development of new medicines by reference to the most widely used automated system in clinical research. Evidence is presented from phase 1 to 3 of the nature and quality of the information that can be obtained by applying the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system to ongoing clinical trials. Valuable evidence can be obtained even in the first trial in which a novel compound is administered to man. One application of such testing is to ensure that novel compounds are relatively free from cognition-impairing properties, particularly in relation to competitor products. Another is to ensure that unwanted interactions with alcohol and other medications do not occur, or, if they do, to put them in context. In many patient populations, cognitive dysfunction occurs as a result of the disease process, and newer medicines which can treat the symptoms of the disease without further impairing function can often reveal benefits as the disease-induced cognitive dysfunction is reduced. Another major application is to identify benefits for compounds designed to enhance cognitive function. Such effects can be sought in typical phase 1 trials, or a scopolamine model of the core deficits of Alzheimer's disease can be used to screen potential antidernentia drugs. Ultimately, of course, such effects can be demonstrated using properly validated and highly sensitive automated procedures in the target populations. The data presented demonstrate that the concept of independently assessing a variety of cognitive functions is crucial in helping differentiate drugs, types of dementia, and different illnesses. Such information offers a unique insight into how the alterations to various cognitive functions will manifest themselves in everyday behavior. This reveals a major limitation of scales that yield a single score, because such limited information does not permit anything but a quantitative interpretation; and the concept of “more” cognitive function or “less” is manifestly inappropriate for something as complex and diverse as the interplay between cognitive function and human behavior. Finally, the next generations of cognitive testing are described. Testing via the telephone has just been introduced and will have dramatic effects on the logistics of conducting cognitive testing in large patient trials. Testing via the Internet is not far off either, and will come fully into play as the proportion of homes connected to the Internet increases in Europe and North America. There are no sound reasons for not wishing to include cognitive function testing in the development protocol of any novel medicine. PMID:22033754

Wesnes, Keith A.

2000-01-01

114

Need for Cognition as a Predictor of Psychosocial Identity Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the hypothesis that psychosocial identity development is related to need for cognition (NFC), a social-cognitive individual-difference variable defined as the desire to engage in effortful thinking (J. T. Cacioppo, R. E. Petty, J. Feinstein, & W. Jarvis, 1996). They administered 2 measures of psychosocial identity—a scale from the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status 2 (EOMEIS-2;

David Njus; Dan R. Johnson

2008-01-01

115

Cognition and affect in the development of sense of place  

E-print Network

of the meanings they assoriate with these places. while early work on place emphasized orientation, imageabi lity, and preference, the major emphasis of present research is in the area of cognitive development based largely on the work of Jean Piaget. Piaget..., 1974a), both selfconscious and unselfconscious (Relph, 1976), and both cognitive and affective (Firey, 1945; Piaget and Weil, 1951). These definitions and charac- terizations are the beginning attempts at describing the processes by which sense...

Engman, Dianne Lynn

2012-06-07

116

Effect of maternal obesity with and without gestational diabetes on offspring subcutaneous and preperitoneal adipose tissue development from birth up to year-1  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may independently influence offspring fat mass and metabolic disease susceptibility. In this pilot study, body composition and fat distribution in offspring from obese women with and without GDM and lean women were assessed within the 1st year of life, and maternal and newborn plasma factors were related to offspring adipose tissue distribution. Methods Serum and plasma samples from pregnant obese women with (n?=?16) or without (n?=?13) GDM and normoglycemic lean women (n?=?15) at 3rd trimester and offspring cord plasma were used for analyzing lipid profiles, insulin and adipokine levels. At week-1 and 6, month-4 and year-1, offspring anthropometrics and skinfold thickness (SFT) were measured and abdominal subcutaneous (SCA) and preperitoneal adipose tissue (PPA) were determined by ultrasonography. Results Cord insulin was significantly increased in the GDM group, whereas levels of cord leptin, total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were similar between the groups. Neonates of the GDM group showed significantly higher SFT and fat mass until week-6 and significantly increased SCA at week-1 compared to the lean group that persisted as strong trend at week-6. Interestingly, PPA in neonates of the GDM group was significantly elevated at week-1 compared to both the lean and obese group. At month-4 and year-1, significant differences in adipose tissue growth between the groups were not observed. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that cord insulin levels are independently related to neonatal PPA that showed significant relation to PPA development at year-1. Maternal fasted C-peptide and HMW adiponectin levels at 3rd trimester emerged to be determinants for PPA at week-1. Conclusion Maternal pregravid obesity combined with GDM leads to newborn hyperinsulinemia and increased offspring fat mass until week-6, whereas pregravid obesity without GDM does not. This strongly suggests the pivotal role of GDM in the adverse offspring outcome. Maternal C-peptide and HMW adiponectin levels in pregnancy emerge to be predictive for elevated PPA in newborns and might be indicative for the obesity risk at later life. Altogether, the findings from our pilot study warrant evaluation in long-term studies. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004370 PMID:24720885

2014-01-01

117

The effects of a remediated fly ash spill and weather conditions on reproductive success and offspring development in tree swallows.  

PubMed

Animals are exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors during reproduction that may individually or interactively influence reproductive success and offspring development. We examined the effects of weather conditions, exposure to element contamination from a recently remediated fly ash spill, and the interaction between these factors on reproductive success and growth of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) across nine colonies. Females breeding in colonies impacted by the spill transferred greater concentrations of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), strontium, and thallium to their eggs than females in reference colonies. Parental provisioning of emerging aquatic insects resulted in greater blood Se concentrations in nestlings in impacted colonies compared to reference colonies, and these concentrations remained stable across 2 years. Egg and blood element concentrations were unrelated to reproductive success or nestling condition. Greater rainfall and higher ambient temperatures during incubation were later associated with longer wing lengths in nestlings, particularly in 2011. Higher ambient temperatures and greater Se exposure posthatch were associated with longer wing lengths in 2011 while in 2012, blood Se concentrations were positively related to wing length irrespective of temperature. We found that unseasonably cold weather was associated with reduced hatching and fledging success among all colonies, but there was no interactive effect between element exposure and inclement weather. Given that blood Se concentrations in some nestlings exceeded the lower threshold of concern, and concentrations of Se in blood and Hg in eggs are not yet declining, future studies should continue to monitor exposure and effects on insectivorous wildlife in the area. PMID:25690609

Beck, Michelle L; Hopkins, William A; Jackson, Brian P; Hawley, Dana M

2015-03-01

118

Relation between Science Teachers' Assessment Tools and Students' Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to determine students' achievement, science teachers have to develop their own assessment tools. This study attempts to find out the relationship between the teachers' assessment tools and students' cognitive development according to the teachers' teaching experiences. Six open-ended survey questions were developed and delivered to 59…

Ozsevgec, Tuncay; Cepni, Salih

2006-01-01

119

Relation between Science Teachers' Assessment Tools and Students Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to determine students' achievement, science teachers have to develop their own assessment tools. This study attempts to find out the relationship between the teachers' assessment tools and students' cognitive development according to the teachers' teaching experiences. Six open-ended survey questions were developed and delivered to 59…

Ozsevgec, Tuncay; Cepni, Salih

2006-01-01

120

Mechanisms of Cognitive and Social Development: One Psychology or Two?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanistic and organismic paradigms in developmental psychology have tended to be narrowly applied to the particular phenomena they handle best: the development of social behavior in the case of the mechanistic paradigm and cognitive development in the case of the organismic paradigm. The study of moral development offers a potential point of intersection between the two traditions, but a

Deanna Kuhn

1978-01-01

121

The impact of parental diagnosis of borderline personality disorder on offspring: Learning from clinical practice.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore mental health clinicians' opinions regarding the impact of a parental diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) on offspring and factors that may protect these children from developing emotional and/or behavioural difficulties. Expert opinions from 64 clinicians were collected through a voluntary and anonymous online qualitative survey. Thematic analysis of the data revealed five main themes relating to the impact of parental BPD symptoms on offspring. Children in these families were observed to develop behavioural, emotional and interpersonal difficulties, disturbances to cognitive processes and self dysfunction. A number of protective factors for offspring were also identified, such as supportive social networks, therapeutic intervention and child and parent characteristics. A model for the potential transgenerational transmission of emotional dysregulation from parent to child was proposed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25200499

Bartsch, Dianna R; Roberts, Rachel M; Davies, Matthew; Proeve, Michael

2014-09-01

122

Early Bifrontal Brain Injury: Disturbances in Cognitive Function Development  

PubMed Central

We describe six psychomotor, language, and neuropsychological sequential developmental evaluations in a boy who sustained a severe bifrontal traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 19 months of age. Visuospatial, drawing, and writing skills failed to develop normally. Gradually increasing difficulties were noted in language leading to reading and spontaneous speech difficulties. The last two evaluations showed executive deficits in inhibition, flexibility, and working memory. Those executive abnormalities seemed to be involved in the other impairments. In conclusion, early frontal brain injury disorganizes the development of cognitive functions, and interactions exist between executive function and other cognitive functions during development. PMID:21188227

Bonnier, Christine; Costet, Aurélie; Hmaimess, Ghassan; Catale, Corinne; Maillart, Christelle; Marique, Patricia

2010-01-01

123

Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based

B. J. Casey; Jay N. Giedd; Kathleen M. Thomas

2000-01-01

124

Adverse effects on development of the reproductive system in male offspring of rats given monobutyl phthalate, a metabolite of dibutyl phthalate, during late pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the adverse effects of monobutyl phthalate (MBuP), a major metabolite of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), on development of the reproductive system in offspring following maternal administration during late pregnancy, and to assess the role of MBuP in the antiandrogenic effects of DBP. Pregnant rats were given MBuP by gastric intubation at 250, 500,

Makoto Ema; Emiko Miyawaki

2001-01-01

125

Critical period for adverse effects on development of reproductive system in male offspring of rats given di- n-butyl phthalate during late pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the susceptible days for the adverse effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on development of reproductive system in male offspring following maternal administration on successive 3-day period during late pregnancy. Pregnant rats were given DBP by gastric intubation at 1000 or 1500 mg\\/kg on days 12–14 or 18–20 of pregnancy or at 500,

Makoto Ema; Emiko Miyawaki; Kunio Kawashima

2000-01-01

126

Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the “Mozart Effect” studies to participation in piano lessons or other music training over time. This literature review suggest that, just as a

Rebecca Ann Shore

2010-01-01

127

A Delineation of Epistemic Possibilities in Explanations of Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several epistemic formulations have been advanced to explain cognitive development. Many writers have divided the field of psychology into three basic underlying models: the mechanistic, organismic, and dialectic models. An examination of epistemic positions reveals five broadly defined positions on how behavior develops within a given organism.…

Price, Reese E.

128

Cognition at Work: The Development of Vocational Expertise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains eight papers examining vocational expertise and how best to develop it. The first paper, "Vocational Expertise" (John Stevenson), presents five approaches to developing it. The role of context in patterning cognition is considered in "Authenticity in Workplace Learning Settings" (Stephen Billett). In "Learning in Apprenticeship…

Stevenson, J., Ed.

129

Breastfeeding and Trajectories of Children's Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the association of breastfeeding practices with the growth trajectories of children's cognitive development. We used data from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) with variables on presence and duration of breastfeeding and standardized test scores obtained…

Huang, Jin; Peters, Kristen E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Witko, Christopher

2014-01-01

130

Cognitive development, epistemic doubt, and identity formation in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to evaluate the part that nascent skeptical doubt plays in shaping the course of adolescent social-cognitive development. It is argued that the intellectual changes that accompany the acquisition of formal operational competence set in motion a series of developments that seriously undermine the typical adolescent's previous sense of epistemic certainty. An epistemic model is proposed, leading

Michael C. Boyes; Michael Chandler

1992-01-01

131

Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the "Mozart Effect" studies to participation in piano lessons…

Shore, Rebecca Ann

2010-01-01

132

Cognitive Function in Individuals with Atypical Pubertal Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 55 growth-disturbed children, aged 8-17, was conducted to assess how rate of physical maturation and pubertal development influences cognitive and neuropsychological functioning. The sample included 27 boys with short stature and delayed pubertal development (SSB), 15 girls with delayed puberty (DPG), and 13 girls with precocious…

Rovet, Joanne F.; And Others

133

The development and initial validation of the cognitive fusion questionnaire.  

PubMed

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) emphasizes the relationship a person has with their thoughts and beliefs as potentially more relevant than belief content in predicting the emotional and behavioral consequences of cognition. In ACT, "defusion" interventions aim to "unhook" thoughts from actions and to create psychological distance between a person and their thoughts, beliefs, memories, and self-stories. A number of similar concepts have been described in the psychology literature (e.g., decentering, metacognition, mentalization, and mindfulness) suggesting converging evidence that how we relate to mental events may be of critical importance. While there are some good measures of these related processes, none of them provides an adequate operationalization of cognitive fusion. Despite the centrality of cognitive fusion in the ACT model, there is as yet no agreed-upon measure of cognitive fusion. This paper presents the construction and development of a brief, self-report measure of cognitive fusion: The Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ). The results of a series of studies involving over 1,800 people across diverse samples show good preliminary evidence of the CFQ's factor structure, reliability, temporal stability, validity, discriminant validity, and sensitivity to treatment effects. The potential uses of the CFQ in research and clinical practice are outlined. PMID:24411117

Gillanders, David T; Bolderston, Helen; Bond, Frank W; Dempster, Maria; Flaxman, Paul E; Campbell, Lindsey; Kerr, Sian; Tansey, Louise; Noel, Penelope; Ferenbach, Clive; Masley, Samantha; Roach, Louise; Lloyd, Joda; May, Lauraine; Clarke, Susan; Remington, Bob

2014-01-01

134

Please cite this article in press as: Moore, H., et al., Harnessing cognitive neuroscience to develop new treatments for improv-ing cognition in schizophrenia: CNTRICS selected cognitive paradigms for animal models. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (2013),  

E-print Network

to develop new treatments for improv- ing cognition in schizophrenia: CNTRICS selected cognitive paradigms.elsevier.com/locate/neubiorev Editorial Harnessing cognitive neuroscience to develop new treatments for improving cognition Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative was developed. The goal of CNTRICS

135

Early markers of cognitive enhancement: developing an implicit measure of cognitive performance.  

PubMed

There is intense interest in the development of effective cognitive enhancing drugs which would have therapeutic application across a number of neurological and psychological disorders including dementia, schizophrenia and depression. However, development in this area has been limited by the absence of sensitive biomarkers which can be used to detect and refine therapeutic-like action in phase 1 clinical studies. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop a measure of cognition relevant to the action of candidate cognitive enhancers which might be sensitive to pharmacological manipulation in healthy volunteers. Healthy volunteers (n?=?34) were randomised to receive a single dose of modafinil (100 mg) or placebo. Five hours post dose, attentional flexibility in learning was assessed using a novel implicit learning task. Volunteers also completed an auditory digit span task and visual analogue scales (VAS). Modafinil increased alertness as measured by the VAS. In the implicit learning task, modafinil enhanced learning rates in terms of both accuracy and reaction time, suggesting an increase in implicit rule learning. These results suggest that the novel learning task should be explored as a biomarker of early cognitive improvement which could be more sensitive than conventional measures. PMID:23820927

Pringle, Abbie; Browning, Michael; Parsons, Elizabeth; Cowen, Phil J; Harmer, Catherine J

2013-12-01

136

Development of cognitive and affective control networks and decision making.  

PubMed

Cognitive control and decision making are two important research areas in the realm of higher-order cognition. Control processes such as interference control and monitoring in cognitive and affective contexts have been found to influence the process of decision making. Development of control processes follows a gradual growth pattern associated with the prolonged maturation of underlying neural circuits including the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and the medial prefrontal cortex. These circuits are also involved in the control of processes that influences decision making, particularly with respect to choice behavior. Developmental studies on affective control have shown distinct patterns of brain activity with adolescents showing greater activation of amygdala whereas adults showing greater activity in ventral prefrontal cortex. Conflict detection, monitoring, and adaptation involve anticipation and subsequent performance adjustments which are also critical to complex decision making. We discuss the gradual developmental patterns observed in two of our studies on conflict monitoring and adaptation in affective and nonaffective contexts. Findings of these studies indicate the need to look at the differences in the effects of the development of cognitive and affective control on decision making in children and particularly adolescents. Neuroimaging studies have shown the involvement of separable neural networks for cognitive (medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate) and affective control (amygdala, ventral medial prefrontal cortex) shows that one system can affect the other also at the neural level. Hence, an understanding of the interaction and balance between the cognitive and affective brain networks may be crucial for self-regulation and decision making during the developmental period, particularly late childhood and adolescence. The chapter highlights the need for empirical investigation on the interaction between the different aspects of cognitive control and decision making from a developmental perspective. PMID:23317840

Kar, Bhoomika R; Vijay, Nivita; Mishra, Shreyasi

2013-01-01

137

Mechanism of Earthquake Simulation as a Prenatal Stressor Retarding Rat Offspring Development and Chinese Medicine Correcting the Retardation: Hormones and Gene-Expression Alteration  

PubMed Central

We aimed to investigate the mechanism of shaking as a prenatal stressor impacting the development of the offspring and Chinese medicines correcting the alterations. Pregnant rats were randomized into earthquake simulation group (ESG), herbal group (HG) which received herbal supplements in feed after shaking, and control group (CG). Findings revealed body weight and open field test (OFT) score of ESG offspring were statistically inferior to the CG and HG offspring. The corticosterone levels of ESG were higher than those of CG but not than HG. The dopamine level of ESG was slightly lower than that of the CG and of HG was higher than that of ESG. The 5-HT of ESG was higher than CG and HG. The growth hormone level of the ESG was significantly lower than ESG but not than CG. Gene expression profile showed 81 genes upregulated and 39 genes downregulated in ESG versus CG, and 60 genes upregulated and 28 genes downregulated in ESG versus HG. Eighty-four genes were found differentially expressed in ESG versus CG comparison and were normalized in ESG versus HG. We conclude that maternal shaking negatively affected physical and nervous system development, with specific alterations in neurohormones and gene expression. Chinese herbal medicine reduced these negative outcomes. PMID:23304210

Zhang, X. G.; Zhang, H.; Tan, R.; Peng, J. C.; Liang, X. L.; Liu, Q.; Wang, M. Q.; Yu, X. P.

2012-01-01

138

Imaging Patterns of Brain Development and their Relationship to Cognition.  

PubMed

We present a brain development index (BDI) that concisely summarizes complex imaging patterns of structural brain maturation along a single dimension using a machine learning methodology. The brain was found to follow a remarkably consistent developmental trajectory in a sample of 621 subjects of ages 8-22 participating in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, reflected by a cross-validated correlation coefficient between chronologic age and the BDI of r = 0.89. Critically, deviations from this trajectory related to cognitive performance. Specifically, subjects whose BDI was higher than their chronological age displayed significantly superior cognitive processing speed compared with subjects whose BDI was lower than their actual age. These results indicate that the multiparametric imaging patterns summarized by the BDI can accurately delineate trajectories of brain development and identify individuals with cognitive precocity or delay. PMID:24421175

Erus, Guray; Battapady, Harsha; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E; Davatzikos, Christos; Gur, Ruben C

2014-01-27

139

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: current developments in mechanism and prevention.  

PubMed

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle disorder of thought processes, which may influence isolated domains of cognition and has a significant impact on patient health. The reported incidence of POCD varies enormously due to lack of formal criteria for the assessment and diagnosis of POCD. The significant risk factors of developing POCD mainly include larger and more invasive operations, duration of anesthesia, advanced age, history of alcohol abuse, use of anticholinergic medications, and other factors. The release of cytokines due to the systemic stress response caused by anesthesia and surgical procedures might induce the changes of brain function and be involved in the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The strategies for management of POCD should be a multimodal approach involving close cooperation between the anesthesiologist, surgeon, geriatricians, and family members to promote early rehabilitation and avoid loss of independence in these patients. PMID:25306127

Wang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Wu, Haibo; Lei, Liming; Xu, Shiqin; Shen, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xirong; Shen, Rong; Xia, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Yusheng; Wang, Fuzhou

2014-01-01

140

Initiation of intracellular offspring in Epulopiscium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Epulopiscium spp. are the largest heterotrophic bac- teria yet described. A distinguishing feature of the Epulopiscium group is their viviparous production of multiple, internal offspring as a means of cellular reproduction. Based on their phylogenetic position, among low G + C Gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria, and the remarkable morphological similarity between developing endospores and Epulopiscium offspring, we hypothesized that intracellular

Esther R. Angert; Kendall D. Clements

141

The Social Context of Cognitive Development. The Guilford Series on Social and Emotional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that sociocultural approaches to cognitive development provide valuable insights into the influences on learning of relationship and cultural variables, this book discusses recent theory and research on the social context of cognitive development. The book takes the view that the social settings in which children live and grow provide both…

Gauvain, Mary

142

Cognitive rehabilitation for mild cognitive impairment: developing and piloting an intervention.  

PubMed

This was an exploratory study, with the purpose of developing and piloting an intervention for people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and their family members using cognitive rehabilitation. A case series design was used with pre- and post-intervention and 3-month follow-up outcome measures. Five participants (two males, three females; mean age 75 years) with a diagnosis of MCI attended the memory clinic with a family member. Intervention consisted of six to eight individual sessions of cognitive rehabilitation consisting of personalized interventions to address individually relevant goals delivered weekly. The main rehabilitation strategies utilized were external aids, personal diary, face-name association, relaxation, and encouraging participants to develop habits and routines. The primary outcome measure was goal attainment as assessed by Goal Attainment Scaling. Secondary outcome measures included measures of memory, anxiety, depression, and activities of daily living. Qualitative data were collected post-intervention by interview. Post-intervention 84% of the goals were attained, with 68% maintained at a 3-month follow-up. Mean anxiety and depression scores decreased during the intervention. No significant changes were recorded on a test of memory. The findings suggest that the strongest effect was in relation to compensatory strategies for prospective and episodic memory deficits. Feedback from participants during qualitative interviews indicated that they found strategies useful and implemented them in their daily routines. The findings support the use of a dyadic cognitive rehabilitation intervention for people with MCI and memory difficulties. PMID:24955493

O'Sullivan, Maria; Coen, Robert; O'Hora, Denis; Shiel, Agnes

2015-05-01

143

Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement.  

PubMed

For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects. PMID:25555255

Jackson, Margot I

2015-02-01

144

The Link between Nutrition and Cognitive Development in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New findings about child nutrition and cognitive development indicate that undernourished children are typically fatigued and uninterested in their social environments. Such children are less likely to establish relationships or to explore and learn from their surroundings. Undernourished children are also more susceptible to illness and, thus,…

Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

145

A Tutorial Introduction to Bayesian Models of Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an introduction to Bayesian inference as it is used in probabilistic models of cognitive development. Our goal is to provide an intuitive and accessible guide to the "what", the "how", and the "why" of the Bayesian approach: what sorts of problems and data the framework is most relevant for, and how and why it may be useful for…

Perfors, Amy; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Xu, Fei

2011-01-01

146

Using EEG to Study Cognitive Development: Issues and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental research is enhanced by use of multiple methodologies for examining psychological processes. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for the study of developmental changes in brain-behavior relations. In this review, we highlight some of the challenges for using EEG in cognitive development

Bell, Martha Ann; Cuevas, Kimberly

2012-01-01

147

Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender-role development and functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and selfregulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked conduct

Milad Khajehpour; Sayid Dabbagh Ghazvini; Elham Memari; Mohammad Rahmani

2011-01-01

148

Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender role development and functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experi- ences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide

Kay Bussey; Albert Bandura

1999-01-01

149

Social Cognitive Theory of Gender Development and Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender role development and functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked

Kay Bussey; Albert Bandura

1999-01-01

150

Cognitive Development and Miscue Patterns of Differentially Skilled Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since psycholinguistic research suggests that readers ascribe meaning by sampling grapho-phonemic, syntactic, and semantic text features, a study was conducted to investigate which cue strategies readers of different abilities utilized, and whether these strategies were mediated by levels of cognitive development. The subjects were 50 second grade…

Wangberg, Elaine; Thompson, Bruce

151

Trajectories of Cognitive Development among American Indian Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than do those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage, and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants…

Mitchell, Christina M.; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N.

2011-01-01

152

Mapping brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive mapping of brain structure and function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has opened up unprecedented opportunities for studying the neural substrates underlying cognitive development. There is an emerging consensus of a continuous increase through- out adolescence in the volume of white matter, both global and local. There is less agreement on the meaning of asynchronous age-related decreases in the

Tomas ÿ Paus

2005-01-01

153

Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive

Barrouillet, Pierre

2011-01-01

154

The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

2013-01-01

155

Parental Involvement in Young Children's Computer Use and Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, young children are using computers; however, the role of the parent in facilitating this type of learning is not yet clear. This study investigates the relationship between parental involvement in computer use and cognitive development in their children. Parents of Head Start children who owned a computer (n = 136) reported on the…

McCarrick, Katy; Li, Xiaoming; Fish, Angela; Holtrop, Teresa; Bhavnagri, Navaz P.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Butler, Sheretta; Partridge, Ty

2007-01-01

156

Cognitive Development Amanda Woodward, professor of psychology, studies babies because  

E-print Network

fitting babies as young as 3 months old with Velcro "sticky mittens" designed by Amy NeedhamCognitive Development in Infants Amanda Woodward, professor of psychology, studies babies because. In particular, Woodward probes how babies view other people. Human beings constantly infer other people's mental

Hill, Wendell T.

157

Cognitive development after traumatic brain injury in young children  

PubMed Central

The primary aims of this study were to examine post-injury cognitive development in young children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to investigate the role of the proximal family environment in predicting cognitive outcomes. Age at injury was 3–6 years, and TBI was classified as severe (n = 23), moderate (n = 21), and complicated mild (n = 43). A comparison group of children who sustained orthopedic injuries (OI, n = 117) was also recruited. Child cognitive assessments were administered at a post-acute baseline evaluation and repeated at 6, 12, and 18 months post-injury. Assessment of the family environment consisted of baseline measures of learning support and stimulation in the home and of parenting characteristics observed during videotaped parent–child interactions. Relative to the OI group, children with severe TBI group had generalized cognitive deficiencies and those with less severe TBI had weaknesses in visual memory and executive function. Although deficits persisted or emerged across follow-up, more optimal family environments were associated with higher scores for all injury groups. The findings confirm other reports of poor recovery of cognitive skills following early childhood TBI and suggest environmental influences on outcomes. PMID:19849883

GERRARD-MORRIS, AIMEE; TAYLOR, H. GERRY; YEATES, KEITH OWEN; WALZ, NICOLAY CHERTKOFF; STANCIN, TERRY; MINICH, NORI; WADE, SHARI L.

2014-01-01

158

Cognitive development: children's knowledge about the mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews theory and research on the development of children's knowledge about the mental world, focusing especially on work done during the past 15 years under the rubric of theory-of-mind development. The three principal approaches to explaining this development--theory theory, modular theory, and simulation theory--are described first. Next comes a description of infant precursors or protoforms of theory-of-mind knowledge

John H. Flavell

1999-01-01

159

Dynamic Modeling, Chaos, and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the essential constructs involved in dynamic modeling, in relation to issues in psychological development. Presents several instances of how the principles of dynamic systems can be translated into mathematical formalism. Concludes that transition is a key invariance in development and that single subject, longitudinal designs are…

Howe, Mark L.; Rabinowitz, F. Michael

1994-01-01

160

Childhood cognitive development as a skill.  

PubMed

Theories view childhood development as being either driven by structural maturation of the brain or being driven by skill-learning. It is hypothesized here that working memory (WM) development during childhood is partly driven by training effects in the environment, and that similar neural mechanisms underlie training-induced plasticity and childhood development. In particular, the functional connectivity of a fronto-parietal network is suggested to be associated with WM capacity. The striatum, dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) activity, and corticostriatal white-matter tracts, on the other hand, seem to be more important for plasticity and change of WM capacity during both training and development. In this view, the development of WM capacity during childhood partly involves the same mechanisms as skill-learning. PMID:25042686

Klingberg, Torkel

2014-11-01

161

Imaging the developing brain: what have we learned about cognitive development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human brain undergoes significant changes in both its structural architecture and functional organization across the life span. Advances in neuroimaging tech- niques over the past decade have allowed us to track these changes safely in the human in vivo. We review the imaging literature on the neurobiology of cognitive development, focusing specifically on cognitive task- dependent changes observed in

B. J. Casey; Nim Tottenham; Conor Liston; Sarah Durston

2005-01-01

162

Dialectic Operations: The Final Period of Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments for an extension of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development have been derived from philosophical and historical consideration of modern natural sciences. Implicit contradictions, which characterize these sciences as well as common thought, can be systematically apprehended only through a dialectic reinterpretation. The dialectic basis of Piaget’s theory is expressed in his assimilation-accommodation paradigm. But development is interpreted as a

Klaus F. Riegel

1973-01-01

163

Neural Substrates of the Development of Cognitive Control in Children Ages 5–10 Years  

E-print Network

Cognitive conflict detection and resolution develops with age across childhood and likely supports age-related increases in other aspects of cognitive and emotional development. Little is known about the neural correlates ...

Sheridan, Margaret

164

Developing Computational Thinking through Grounded Embodied Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to examine the use of grounded embodied pedagogy, construction of Imaginary Worlds (Study 1), and context of instructional materials (Study 2) for developing learners' Computational Thinking (CT) Skills and Concept knowledge during the construction of digital artifacts using Scratch, a block-based programming…

Fadjo, Cameron Lawrence

2012-01-01

165

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

166

Comparing decalage and development with cognitive developmental tests.  

PubMed

The use of Rasch measurement techniques with data from developmental psychology has provided important insights into human development (e.g., Bond, 1997, 2003; Dawson, 2002 a, b;). In particular, Rasch methods support investigations into what has been, up until now, intractable theoretical and empirical problems. Research into the development of formal operational thinking using the Rasch model (Bond 1995 a, b; Bond and Bunting, 1995; Bond and Fox, 2001) substantiates important aspects of the original theorizing of Piaget (Inhelder and Piaget, 1955/1958), which was based wholly on qualitative structural analyses of children's problem-solving responses. Common-person equating of student performances has been used across different formal operational thinking tasks to estimate the relative difficulties of tasks measuring the same underlying developmental construct (Bond, 1995b; Bond and Fox, 2001). Repeated person performance measures on the same task have been used in order to estimate cognitive development over time. Rasch measurement estimates of cognitive development do not exceed 0.5 logits per annum (Bond, 1996; Endler, 1998; Stanbridge, 2001); a result that has been estimated independently in two large research projects in the United Kingdom (Shayer, 1999) and in Papua-New Guinea (Lake, 1996). Interestingly, difficulty differences (decalage) between tests of formal thought are as large as 2.0 logits (Bond, 1995a; Bond, 1996; Bond and Fox, 2001), confounding attempts to differentiate development from decalage. Given the problems and possibilities raised by the Rasch measurement quantification of cognitive development, this article canvasses the promise of using Rasch modelling techniques to investigate systematically these fundamental aspects of human cognitive performance. PMID:20693700

Bond, Trevor

2010-01-01

167

Maternal micronutrients and brain global methylation patterns in the offspring.  

PubMed

Objectives Studies have established the association of maternal nutrition and increased risk for non-communicable diseases. It has been suggested that this involves epigenetic modifications in the genome. However, the role of maternal micronutrients in the one-carbon cycle in influencing brain development of the offspring through methylation is unexplored. It is also unclear whether epigenomic marks established during early development can be reversed by a postnatal diet. The present study reports the effect of maternal micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids on global DNA methylation patterns in the brain of the Wistar rat offspring at three timepoints (at birth, postnatal day 21, and 3 months of age). Method Pregnant rats were divided into control (n = 8) and five treatment groups (n = 16 dams in each group) at two levels of folic acid (normal and excess folate) in the presence and absence of vitamin B12 (NFBD, EFB, and EFBD). Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was given to vitamin B12 deficient groups (NFBDO and EFBDO). Following delivery, eight dams from each group were shifted to control diet and remaining continued on the same treatment diet. Results Our results demonstrate that maternal micronutrient imbalance results in global hypomethylation in the offspring brain at birth. At adult age the cortex of the offspring displayed hypermethylation as compared with control, in spite of a postnatal control diet. In contrast, prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was able to normalize methylation at 3 months of age. Discussion Our findings provide clues for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in reversing methylation patterns thereby highlighting its contribution in neuroprotection and cognition. PMID:24257323

Sable, Pratiksha; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

2015-01-01

168

Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development  

PubMed Central

Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

Wass, Sam V.

2015-01-01

169

Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development.  

PubMed

Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

Wass, Sam V

2015-03-01

170

Relational processing in higher cognition: Implications for analogy, capacity and cognitive development.  

E-print Network

Relational processing in higher cognition: Implications for analogy, capacity and cognitive relations capture the structure sensitivity of higher cognitive processes while they can also be compared of higher cognitive processes in a way that enables them to be distinguished systematically from more basic

Wilson, Bill

171

Cognitive, Affective, and Meta-Cognitive Skill Development through Instrumental Music: A Positive Impact on Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the skills students develop through participation in instrumental music and the effect it has on their academic achievement through student and parent/guardian surveys. Fifty-eight percent of cognitive skills were identified as being obtained by a majority of students, 70% of affective skills, and 71% of meta-cognitive skills…

Hollenbeck, Lisa

2008-01-01

172

Incidental Science Knowledge in Fifth Grade Children: A Study of Its Relationship with Cognitive Development and Cognitive Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-three elementary school children were tested on Incidental Science Knowledge, i.e., knowledge acquired by chance outside school, and the results obtained were correlated with intellectual development and cognitive style as measured by interviews and group testing, respectively. Indicates that cognitive style and misconception play a…

Di Gennaro, Menina; And Others

1992-01-01

173

Maternal obesity induced by a high fat diet causes altered cellular development in fetal brains suggestive of a predisposition of offspring to neurological disorders in later life  

PubMed Central

Fetal development in an obese maternal intrauterine environment has been shown to predispose the offspring for a number of metabolic disorders in later life. The observation that a large percentage of women of child-bearing age in the US are overweight/obese during pregnancy is therefore a source of concern. A high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in female rats has been used as a model for maternal obesity. The objective of this study was to determine cellular development in brains of term fetuses of obese rats fed a HF diet from the time of weaning. Fetal brains were dissected out on gestational day 21 and processed for immunohistochemical analysis in the hypothalamic as well as extra-hypothalamic regions. The major observation of this study is that fetal development in the obese HF female rat induced several alterations in the HF fetal brain. Marked increases were observed in orexigenic signaling and a significant decrease was observed for anorexigenic signaling in the vicinity of the 3rd ventricle in HF brains. Additionally, our results indicated diminished proliferation and maturation of stem-like cells in the hypothalamus (3rd ventricular region) as well as in the cortex. The results from the present study indicate developmental alterations in the hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic regions in the HF fetal brain suggestive of a predisposition for the development of obesity and possibly neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the offspring. PMID:24043569

Stachowiak, Ewa K.; Srinivasan, Malathi; Stachowiak, Michal K.; Patel, Mulchand S.

2013-01-01

174

Reading Instruction Affects the Cognitive Skills Supporting Early Reading Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the cognitive skills associated with early reading development when children were taught by different types of instruction. Seventy-nine children (mean age at pre-test 4;10 (0.22 S.D.) and post-test 5;03 (0.21 S.D.)) were taught to read either by an eclectic approach which included sight-word learning, guessing from context and…

McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Medford, Emma

2012-01-01

175

Prevention of Intellectual Disabilities: Early Interventions to Improve Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conceptual framework that has guided three randomized, controlled early intervention trials designed to improve cognitive development and social competence in high-risk young children from birth to 3 years of age. Two of the projects (Abecedarian and CARE) enrolled infants from economically and socially low-resource families and the other project (IHDP) was an eight-site randomized controlled trial

Craig T. Ramey; Sharon Landesman Ramey

1998-01-01

176

The Influence of Parenting Styles on Children's Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Based on a larger longitudinal project of family stress and children’s development, the primary objective of the current study was to investigate the relationships between parenting styles and children’s cognitive ability in families with young elementary school-aged children. Parents completed a self-administered survey on family experiences, including parenting styles. Children were interviewed at their schools where the Brief Intellectual

Amy E. Tiller; M. E. Betsy Garrison; Kathryn Cramer; Vicky Tiller

177

The Role of Falsification in the Development of Cognitive Architectures: Insights from a Lakatosian Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive ar- chitectures should be understood as theories that develop over time. However, Newell's own candidate cognitive

Richard P. Cooper

2007-01-01

178

Finding Shortest Path for Developed Cognitive Map Using Medial Axis  

E-print Network

this paper presents an enhancement of the medial axis algorithm to be used for finding the optimal shortest path for developed cognitive map. The cognitive map has been developed, based on the architectural blueprint maps. The idea for using the medial-axis is to find main path central pixels; each center pixel represents the center distance between two side boarder pixels. The need for these pixels in the algorithm comes from the need of building a network of nodes for the path, where each node represents a turning in the real world (left, right, critical left, critical right...). The algorithm also ignores from finding the center pixels paths that are too small for intelligent robot navigation. The Idea of this algorithm is to find the possible shortest path between start and end points. The goal of this research is to extract a simple, robust representation of the shape of the cognitive map together with the optimal shortest path between start and end points. The intelligent robot will use this algorithm i...

Farhan, Hazim A; Al-Ghazi, Suhaib I

2011-01-01

179

Effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate exposure on offspring development and male reproduction of rat.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to assess the effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) exposure during late gestation on offspring's development and reproductive system of male rats. Pregnant rats were treated orally with DBP (2, 10, 50 mg/kg), BBP (4, 20, 100 mg/kg), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) 6 ?g/kg (positive control) from GD14 to parturition. A significant reduction in dams' body weight on GD21 in DBP-, BBP-, and DES-treated groups was observed. The gestation length was considerably elevated in the treated groups. Decline in male pups' body weight was significant at PND75 in DBP- (50 mg/kg), BBP- (20,100 mg/kg), and DES-treated groups. The weight of most of the reproductive organs and sperm quality parameters was impaired significantly in DBP- (50 mg/kg) and BBP- (100 mg/kg) treated groups. Further, a non-significant decline in testicular spermatid count and daily sperm production was also monitored in treated groups. A significant reduction in serum testosterone level in BBP (100 mg/kg), whereas the testicular activity of 17?-HSD was declined non-significantly in the treated groups with respect to control. The data suggests that DBP and BBP exposure during late gestation period might have adverse effects on offspring's development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis in adult rats. PMID:24213843

Ahmad, Rahish; Gautam, A K; Verma, Y; Sedha, S; Kumar, Sunil

2014-02-01

180

Acquiring neural signals for developing a perception and cognition model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of how humans process information, determine salience, and combine seemingly unrelated information is essential to automated processing of large amounts of information that is partially relevant, or of unknown relevance. Recent neurological science research in human perception, and in information science regarding contextbased modeling, provides us with a theoretical basis for using a bottom-up approach for automating the management of large amounts of information in ways directly useful for human operators. However, integration of human intelligence into a game theoretic framework for dynamic and adaptive decision support needs a perception and cognition model. For the purpose of cognitive modeling, we present a brain-computer-interface (BCI) based humanoid robot system to acquire brainwaves during human mental activities of imagining a humanoid robot-walking behavior. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model. The BCI system consists of a data acquisition unit with an electroencephalograph (EEG), a humanoid robot, and a charge couple CCD camera. An EEG electrode cup acquires brainwaves from the skin surface on scalp. The humanoid robot has 20 degrees of freedom (DOFs); 12 DOFs located on hips, knees, and ankles for humanoid robot walking, 6 DOFs on shoulders and arms for arms motion, and 2 DOFs for head yaw and pitch motion. The CCD camera takes video clips of the human subject's hand postures to identify mental activities that are correlated to the robot-walking behaviors. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model.

Li, Wei; Li, Yunyi; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Lynch, Robert

2012-06-01

181

Part I: Cognitive Development in Children--Piaget Development and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author gives a general introduction of a few ideas on cognitive development in children. In the first part, he deals with the topic of development, a process which concerns the totality of the structures of knowledge. He reviews the stages of development of operational structures, distinguishes four main stages of development,…

Piaget, Jean

2003-01-01

182

An information theory analysis of spatial decisions in cognitive development  

PubMed Central

Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain) as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages 5 to 10 years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of “cognitive entropy” were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1) the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2) the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured “chunking” of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework.

Scott, Nicole M.; Sera, Maria D.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

2015-01-01

183

Gestational Hypothyroidism Increases the Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background: Maternal thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in appropriate fetal development during gestation. Offspring that have been gestated under maternal hypothyroidism suffer cognitive impairment. Thyroid hormone deficiency during gestation can significantly impact the central nervous system by altering the migration, differentiation, and function of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Given that gestational hypothyroidism alters the immune cell ratio in offspring, it is possible that this condition could result in higher sensitivity for the development of autoimmune diseases. Methods: Adult mice gestated under hypothyroidism were induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Twenty-one days after EAE induction, the disease score, myelin content, immune cell infiltration, and oligodendrocyte death were evaluated. Results: We observed that mice gestated under hypothyroidism showed higher EAE scores after disease induction during adulthood compared to mice gestated in euthyroidism. In addition, spinal cord sections of mice gestated under hypothyroidism that suffered EAE in adulthood showed higher demyelination, CD4+ and CD8+ infiltration, and increased oligodendrocyte death. Conclusions: These results show for the first time that a deficiency in maternal thyroid hormones during gestation can influence the outcome of a central nervous system inflammatory disease, such as EAE, in their offspring. These data strongly support evaluating thyroid hormones in pregnant women and treating hypothyroidism during pregnancy to prevent increased susceptibility to inflammatory diseases in the central nervous system of offspring. PMID:23777566

Albornoz, Eduardo A.; Carreño, Leandro J.; Cortes, Claudia M.; Gonzalez, Pablo A.; Cisternas, Pablo A.; Cautivo, Kelly M.; Catalán, Tamara P.; Opazo, M. Cecilia; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Berman, Joan W.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.

2013-01-01

184

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Subjects at Ultrahigh Risk for Developing Psychosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Evidence for the effectiveness of treatments for subjects at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for developing psycho- sis remains inconclusive. Objective: A new cognitive behav- ioral intervention specifically targeted at cognitive biases (ie, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for UHR patients plus treatment as usual (TAU) called CBTuhr) is com- pared with TAU in a group of young help-seeking UHR subjects. Methods:

Mark van der Gaag; Dorien H. Nieman; Judith Rietdijk; Sara Dragt; Helga K. Ising; Rianne M. C. Klaassen; Maarten Koeter; Pim Cuijpers; Lex Wunderink; Don H. Linszen; GGZ Friesland

2012-01-01

185

Promoting Conceptual Development in Physics Teacher Education: Cognitive-Historical Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Induction Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In teaching physics, the history of physics offers fruitful starting points for designing instruction. I introduce here an approach that uses historical cognitive processes to enhance the conceptual development of pre-service physics teachers' knowledge. It applies a method called cognitive-historical approach, introduced to the cognitive sciences…

Mantyla, Terhi

2013-01-01

186

Cross-Cultural Studies on Cognitive Development of Chinese Children from Different Nationalities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed are recent studies of the cognitive development of Chinese children. The discussion identifies: (1) systematic studies of children's cognitive development; (2) studies on the development of thinking; (3) studies of memory development; and (4) studies on the influences of various national cultures and education on the development of…

Menglan, Zuo; Chang, Wei

187

Sleep deprivation during late pregnancy produces hyperactivity and increased risk-taking behavior in offspring.  

PubMed

Sleep deprivation in women resulting from their modern lifestyle, especially during pregnancy, is a serious concern as it can affect the health of the newborn. Anxiety disorders and cognitive deficits in the offspring are also on the rise. However, experimental studies on the effects of sleep loss during pregnancy, on emotional development and cognitive function of the newborn, are scanty in literature. In the current study, female rats were sleep-deprived for 5h by gentle handling, during the 6 days of the third trimester (days 14-19 of pregnancy). The effects of this sleep deprivation on anxiety-related behaviors of pups during their peri-adolescence age were studied using elevated plus maze (EPM). In addition to body weights of dams and offspring, the maternal behavior was also monitored. The weanlings of sleep-deprived dams showed heightened risk-taking behavior as they made increased explorations into the open arms of EPM. They also showed higher mobility in comparison to the control group. Though the body weights of sleep-deprived dams were comparable to those of the control group, their newborns had lower birth weight. Nevertheless, these pups gained weight and reached the control group values during the initial post-natal week. But after weaning, their rate of growth was lower than that of the control group. This is the first report providing evidences for the role of sleep during late pregnancy in shaping the neuropsychological development in offspring. PMID:25446439

Radhakrishnan, Arathi; Aswathy, B S; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan; Gulia, Kamalesh K

2015-01-30

188

Developing Collaboration Awareness Support from a Cognitive Perspective Pedro Antunes  

E-print Network

, the later because it may cause poverty of attention [10]. In this paper we review some cognitive models circumstances these components may contribute to cognitive problems such as information overload, stress

Antunes, Pedro

189

Development and Validation of the Cognitive Behavioral Physical Activity Questionnaire.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . Develop and demonstrate preliminary validation of a brief questionnaire aimed at assessing social cognitive determinants of physical activity (PA) in a college population. Design . Quantitative and observational. Setting . A midsized northeastern university. Subjects . Convenience sample of 827 male and female college students age 18 to 24 years. Measures . International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a PA stage-of-change algorithm. Analysis . A sequential process of survey development, including item generation and data reduction analyses by factor analysis, was followed with the goal of creating a parsimonious questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used for confirmatory factor analysis and construct validation was confirmed against self-reported PA and stage of change. Validation analyses were replicated in a second, independent sample of 1032 college students. Results . Fifteen items reflecting PA self-regulation, outcome expectations, and personal barriers explained 65% of the questionnaire data and explained 28.6% and 39.5% of the variance in total PA and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA, respectively. Scale scores were distinguishable across the stages of change. Findings were similar when the Cognitive Behavioral Physical Activity Questionnaire (CBPAQ) was tested in a similar and independent sample of college students (40%; R(2) moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA = .40; p < .001). Conclusion . The CBPAQ successfully explains and predicts PA behavior in a college population, warranting its incorporation into future studies aiming at understanding and improving on PA behavior in college students. PMID:25162324

Schembre, Susan M; Durand, Casey P; Blissmer, Bryan J; Greene, Geoffrey W

2014-08-27

190

X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

Walzer, Stanley

1985-01-01

191

A Systemic Model of Development: Strategically Enhancing Students' Cognitive, Psychomotor, Affective and Social Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges of the 21st century create an imperative for engineering educators: to design learning experiences that result in engineering professionals with a sophisticated level of cognitive, psychomotor, social and affective development. We propose a tool for the design process. Our systemic model of development (SMD) is based on a large body of learning theory and empirical data. It maps

Linda Vanasupa; Jonathan Stolk; Trevor Harding; Richard Savage

2007-01-01

192

Measurement Issues in the Use of Cognitive Neuroscience Tasks in Drug Development for Impaired Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Report of the  

E-print Network

Measurement Issues in the Use of Cognitive Neuroscience Tasks in Drug Development for Impaired initial benchmark goals for psychometric develop- ment for cognitive neuroscience tasks. Key words Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Report of the Second Consensus Building Conference of the CNTRICS Initiative

193

Working Memory Underpins Cognitive Development, Learning, and Education.  

PubMed

Working memory is the retention of a small amount of information in a readily accessible form. It facilitates planning, comprehension, reasoning, and problem-solving. I examine the historical roots and conceptual development of the concept and the theoretical and practical implications of current debates about working memory mechanisms. Then I explore the nature of cognitive developmental improvements in working memory, the role of working memory in learning, and some potential implications of working memory and its development for the education of children and adults. The use of working memory is quite ubiquitous in human thought, but the best way to improve education using what we know about working memory is still controversial. I hope to provide some directions for research and educational practice. PMID:25346585

Cowan, Nelson

2014-06-01

194

The Effects of Cognitive Conflict Management on Cognitive Development and Science Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three teaching methods were compared in this study, namely a Cognitive Conflict Management Module (CCM) that is infused into Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE), (Module A) CASE without CCM (Module B) and a conventional teaching method. This study employed a pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design using non-equivalent…

Budiman, Zainol Badli; Halim, Lilia; Mohd Meerah, Subahan; Osman, Kamisah

2014-01-01

195

Information Literacy and its Relationship to Cognitive Development and Reflective Judgment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article maps the Association of College and Research Libraries' Information Competency Standards for Higher Education to the cognitive development levels developed by William G. Perry and Patricia King and Karen Kitchener to suggest which competencies are appropriate for which level of cognitive development. (Contains 1 table.)

Jackson, Rebecca

2008-01-01

196

From neural development to cognition: unexpected roles for chromatin  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-sequencing studies in human neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders have uncovered mutations in many chromatin regulators. These human genetic studies, along with studies in model organisms, are providing insight into chromatin regulatory mechanisms in neural development and how alterations to these mechanisms can cause cognitive deficits, such as intellectual disability. We discuss several implicated chromatin regulators, including BAF (also known as SWI/SNF) and CHD8 chromatin remodellers, HDAC4 and the Polycomb component EZH2. Interestingly, mutations in EZH2 and certain BAF complex components have roles in both neurodevelopmental disorders and cancer, and overlapping point mutations are suggesting functionally important residues and domains. We speculate on the contribution of these similar mutations to disparate disorders. PMID:23568486

Ronan, Jehnna L.; Wu, Wei

2014-01-01

197

Student Cognitive and Affective Development in the Context of Classroom-Level Curriculum Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the impact of teacher curriculum approaches (curriculum-transmitter/curriculum-developer/curriculum-maker) on student cognitive change (reading, writing, speaking, and listening abilities) and their affective change (motivation and interests). This study's conceptual framework was grounded in teacher curriculum…

Shawer, Saad Fathy; Gilmore, Deanna; Banks-Joseph, Susan Rae

2008-01-01

198

Development of anxiety-like behavior via hippocampal IGF-2 signaling in the offspring of parental morphine exposure: effect of enriched environment.  

PubMed

Opioid addiction is a major social, economic, and medical problem worldwide. Long-term adverse consequences of chronic opiate exposure not only involve the individuals themselves but also their offspring. Adolescent maternal morphine exposure results in behavior and morphologic changes in the brain of their adult offspring. However, few studies investigate the effect of adult opiate exposure on their offspring. Furthermore, the underlying molecular signals regulating the intergenerational effects of morphine exposure are still elusive. We report here that morphine exposure of adult male and female rats resulted in anxiety-like behavior and dendritic retraction in the dentate gyrus (DG) region of the hippocampus in their adult offspring. The behavior and morphologic changes were concomitant with the downregulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 signaling in the granular zone of DG. Overexpression of hippocampal IGF-2 by bilateral intra-DG injection of lentivirus encoding the IGF-2 gene prevented anxiety-like behaviors in the offspring. Furthermore, exposure to an enriched environment during adolescence corrected the reduction of hippocampal IGF-2 expression, normalized anxiety-like behavior and reversed dendritic retraction in the adult offspring. Thus, parental morphine exposure can lead to the downregulation of hippocampal IGF-2, which contributed to the anxiety and hippocampal dendritic retraction in their offspring. An adolescent-enriched environment experience prevented the behavior and morphologic changes in their offspring through hippocampal IGF-2 signaling. IGF-2 and an enriched environment may be a potential intervention to prevention of anxiety and brain atrophy in the offspring of parental opioid exposure. PMID:24889368

Li, Chang-Qi; Luo, Yan-Wei; Bi, Fang-Fang; Cui, Tao-Tao; Song, Ling; Cao, Wen-Yu; Zhang, Jian-Yi; Li, Fang; Xu, Jun-Mei; Hao, Wei; Xing, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Fiona H; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Dai, Ru-Ping

2014-11-01

199

The role of falsification in the development of cognitive architectures: insights from a lakatosian analysis.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive architectures should be understood as theories that develop over time. However, Newell's own candidate cognitive architecture adhered only loosely to Lakatosian principles. This paper reconsiders the role of falsification and the potential utility of Lakatosian principles in the development of cognitive architectures. It is argued that a lack of direct falsifiability need not undermine the scientific development of a cognitive architecture if broadly Lakatosian principles are adopted. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the Lakatosian concepts of positive and negative heuristics for theory development and of general heuristic power offer methods for guiding the development of an architecture and for evaluating the contribution and potential of an architecture's research program. PMID:21635306

Cooper, Richard P

2007-05-01

200

Social Experience and the Development of Social Cognition in Orthopedically Disabled and Non Disabled Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated were the cognitive and social development of 40 orthopedially handicapped children ages 6 to 12 years. Social development was measured by the Children's Social Relations Rating Scale, the Children's Social Relations Interview Schedule, and the Children's Role Taking Task. The Concrete Operations Tasks assessed cognitive ability. Data…

Volpe, Richard

201

Mother's Age at Arrival in the United States and Early Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the cognitive development of young children from diverse backgrounds with a particular focus on ethnic and nativity differences in home environments. Hypotheses are developed addressing the extent to which home environment and parenting practices mediate the relationship between mother's age at arrival and cognitive

Glick, Jennifer E.; Bates, Littisha; Yabiku, Scott T.

2009-01-01

202

Quality of Family Context or Sibling Status? Influences on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes the influence of socioeconomic status, quality of family context and sibling status on cognitive development in a sample of 551 five-year-old children. The regression analyses confirmed the predictive value of socioeconomic status and quality of family context on cognitive development. The quality of family context mediates the…

Freijo, Enrique B. Arranz; Oliva, Alfredo; Olabarrieta, Fernando; Martin, Juan Luis; Manzano, Ainhoa; Richards, Martin P. M.

2008-01-01

203

The Journey from Child to Scientist: Integrating Cognitive Development and the Education Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impulse to investigate the natural world is deeply rooted in our earliest childhood experiences. This notion has long guided researchers to uncover the cognitive mechanisms underlying the development of scientific reasoning in children. Until recently, however, research in cognitive development and education followed largely independent…

Carver, Sharon M., Ed.; Shrager, Jeff, Ed.

2012-01-01

204

Play, Cognitive Development, and the Social World: Piaget, Vygotsky, and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a critical overview of research on play and cognitive development and an analysis of the two major theoretical frameworks that have informed it. Until recently, the dominant influence in this area has been that of Piaget, whose approach to play formed an integral part of his larger theory of cognitive development. Although the Piagetian research program is

Ageliki Nicolopoulou

1993-01-01

205

Rate of Physical Growth and Its Affect on Head Start Children's Motor and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…

Marcon, Rebecca A.

206

Neddylation inhibition impairs spine development, destabilizes synapses and deteriorates cognition.  

PubMed

Neddylation is a ubiquitylation-like pathway that controls cell cycle and proliferation by covalently conjugating Nedd8 to specific targets. However, its role in neurons, nonreplicating postmitotic cells, remains unexplored. Here we report that Nedd8 conjugation increased during postnatal brain development and is active in mature synapses, where many proteins are neddylated. We show that neddylation controls spine development during neuronal maturation and spine stability in mature neurons. We found that neddylated PSD-95 was present in spines and that neddylation on Lys202 of PSD-95 is required for the proactive role of the scaffolding protein in spine maturation and synaptic transmission. Finally, we developed Nae1(CamKII?-CreERT2) mice, in which neddylation is conditionally ablated in adult excitatory forebrain neurons. These mice showed synaptic loss, impaired neurotransmission and severe cognitive deficits. In summary, our results establish neddylation as an active post-translational modification in the synapse regulating the maturation, stability and function of dendritic spines. PMID:25581363

Vogl, Annette M; Brockmann, Marisa M; Giusti, Sebastian A; Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Vercelli, Claudia A; Bauder, Corinna A; Richter, Julia S; Roselli, Francesco; Hafner, Anne-Sophie; Dedic, Nina; Wotjak, Carsten T; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela M; Choquet, Daniel; Turck, Christoph W; Stein, Valentin; Deussing, Jan M; Refojo, Damian

2015-02-01

207

Operationalizing Cognitive Science and Technologies' Research and Development; the "Brain and Cognition Study Group (BCSG)" Initiative from Shiraz, Iran.  

PubMed

Recent advances in brain and cognitive science studies have revolutionized concepts in neural dynamics, regulating mechanisms, coding systems and information processing networks which govern our function and behavior. Hidden aspects of neurological and psychiatric diseases are being understood and hopes for their treatment are emerging. Although the two comprehensive mega-projects on brain mapping are in place in the United States and Europe; the proportion of science contributed by the developing countries should not be downsized. With the granted supports from the Cognitive Sciences and Technologies Council (CSTC), Iran can take its role in research on brain and cognition further. The idea of research and development in Cognitive Sciences and Technologies (CST) is being disseminated across the country by CSTC. Towards this goal, the first Shiraz interdisciplinary meeting on CST was held on 9 January 2014 in Namazi hospital, Shiraz. CST research priorities, infrastructure development, education and promotion were among the main topics discussed during this interactive meeting. The steering committee of the first CST meeting in Shiraz decided to frame future research works within the "Brain and Cognition Study Group-Shiraz" (BCSG-Shiraz). The study group comprises scientific leaders from various allied disciplines including neuroscience, neurosurgery, neurology, psychiatry, psychology, radiology, physiology, bioengineering, biophysics, applied physics and telecommunication. As the headquarter for CST in the southern Iran, BCSG-Shiraz is determined to advocate "brain and cognition" awareness, education and research in close collaboration with CSTC. Together with CSTC, Shiraz Neuroscience Research center (SNRC) will take the initiative to cross boundaries in interdisciplinary works and multi-centric research projects within the study group. PMID:25337368

Ashjazadeh, Nahid; Boostani, Reza; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Farrokhi, Majidreza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Hatam, Gholamreza; Hadianfard, Habib; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Mousavi, Maryam; Montakhab, Afshin; Nili, Majid; Razmkon, Ali; Salehi, Sina; Sodagar, Amir Mohammad; Setoodeh, Peiman; Taghipour, Mousa; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Vesal, Abdolkarim

2014-01-01

208

Health and development in the first 4 years of life in offspring of women with schizophrenia and affective psychoses: Well-Baby Clinic information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of genetic high-risk (HR) groups provides the opportunity to study diathesis characteristics associated with schizophrenia (Sc) and affective psychoses. High-risk offspring of women with a history of schizophrenia, affective and other psychoses (n=84), as well as normal-risk control (NC) offspring (n=100), were studied from 0 to 4 years of age, using prospectively recorded information from Well-Baby Clinic (WBC)

Karin M Henriksson; Thomas F McNeil

2004-01-01

209

Change in offspring sex ratio over a very short season in Lincoln’s Sparrows: the potential role of bill development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex ratios of offspring are targets of natural selection that can affect parental energy\\u000aexpenditure and fitness, adult sex ratios, and population dynamics. Parents may manipulate offspring sex ratios\\u000abased on sex differences in potential reproductive success. In Lincoln’s Sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii), male bill shape\\u000ais associated with the quality of songs, and song quality predicts female preferences in

E. B. Graham; S. P. Caro; K. W. Sockman

2011-01-01

210

A Study of Cognitive Development and Verbal Fluency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of cognitive skills training on the verbal fluency of children in a bilingual environment. After a 14-week period, cognitive skills training had no significant impact on the verbal fluency of 103 fifth graders in south Texas. (MT)

Vida, Rosa Maria; Vargas, Quintin, III

1985-01-01

211

Promoting Conceptual Development in Physics Teacher Education: Cognitive-Historical Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Induction Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In teaching physics, the history of physics offers fruitful starting points for designing instruction. I introduce here an approach that uses historical cognitive processes to enhance the conceptual development of pre-service physics teachers' knowledge. It applies a method called cognitive-historical approach, introduced to the cognitive sciences by Nersessian (Cognitive Models of Science. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 3-45, 1992). The approach combines the analyses of actual scientific practices in the history of science with the analytical tools and theories of contemporary cognitive sciences in order to produce knowledge of how conceptual structures are constructed and changed in science. Hence, the cognitive-historical analysis indirectly produces knowledge about the human cognition. Here, a way to use the cognitive-historical approach for didactical purposes is introduced. In this application, the cognitive processes in the history of physics are combined with current physics knowledge in order to create a cognitive-historical reconstruction of a certain quantity or law for the needs of physics teacher education. A principal aim of developing the approach has been that pre-service physics teachers must know how the physical concepts and laws are or can be formed and justified. As a practical example of the developed approach, a cognitive-historical reconstruction of the electromagnetic induction law was produced. For evaluating the uses of the cognitive-historical reconstruction, a teaching sequence for pre-service physics teachers was conducted. The initial and final reports of twenty-four students were analyzed through a qualitative categorization of students' justifications of knowledge. The results show a conceptual development in the students' explanations and justifications of how the electromagnetic induction law can be formed.

Mäntylä, Terhi

2013-06-01

212

Psychiatric Disorders in Preschool Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate lifetime prevalence and specificity of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and severity of depressive and manic symptoms at intake in preschool offspring of parents with Disorder I–II. Methods 121 offspring ages 2–5 years old of 83 parents with Bipolar Disorder and 102 offspring of 65 demographically matched control parents (29 with non-Bipolar psychiatric disorders and 36 without any lifetime psychopathology) were recruited. Parents with Bipolar Disorder were recruited through advertisement and adult outpatient clinics and control parents were ascertained at random from the community. Subjects were evaluated with standardized instruments. All staff were blind to parental diagnoses. Results After adjusting for within-family correlations and both biological parents’ non-Bipolar psychopathology, compared to the offspring of the control parents, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, particularly those older than 4 years old, showed an 8-fold increased life-time prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and significantly higher rates of ? 2 psychiatric disorders. While only 3 offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder had mood disorders, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, especially those with ADHD and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder, had significantly more severe current manic and depressive symptomatology than the offspring of the controls. Conclusions Preschool offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder are at increased risk for ADHD and demonstrate increased subthreshold manic and depressive symptomatology. Longitudinal follow-up is warranted to evaluate whether these children are at high-risk to develop mood and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:20080982

Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Obreja, Mihaela; Hickey, Mary Beth; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Shamseddeen, Wael; Diler, Rasim; Kupfer, David

2010-01-01

213

Environmental enrichment models a naturalistic form of maternal separation and shapes the anxiety response patterns of offspring.  

PubMed

Environmental enrichment (EE) mimics positive life experiences by providing enhanced social and physical stimulation. Placement into EE following weaning, or in later life, confers beneficial outcomes on both emotional and cognitive processes. However, anxiety-like behavior is also reported, particularly in rats exposed to enhanced housing during early development. Notably, the quality of maternal behavior affects stress regulation and emotional stability in offspring, yet the impact of environmental context on maternal care has not been thoroughly evaluated, or are the influences of EE on their offspring understood. To investigate the role of EE on these factors we analyzed the details of mother-neonate interactions, and juvenile offspring performance on several anxiety measures. Additionally, we evaluated neurochemical differences (i.e. serotonin, corticosterone, GABA, glutamate) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus as a function of EE, Communal Nesting (CN) and Standard Care (SC). Although EE dams spent significantly less time on the nest and had lower nursing frequencies compared to SC dams, there were no differences in maternal licking/grooming. In offspring, EE increased GLUR1 level and GABA concentrations in the prefrontal cortex of both juvenile male and female rats. A similar pattern for glutamate was only observed in males. Although EE offspring spent less time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze and had faster escape latencies in a light-dark test, there were no other indications of anxiety-like behavior on these measures or when engaged in social interaction with a conspecific. In the wild, rats live in complicated and variable environments. Consequently dams must leave their nest to defend and forage, limiting their duration of direct contact. EE exposure in early development may mimic this naturalistic maternal separation, shaping parental behavior and offspring resiliency to stressors. PMID:25437120

Connors, E J; Migliore, M M; Pillsbury, S L; Shaik, A N; Kentner, A C

2015-02-01

214

Developmental Counselling and Therapy: Integrating Constructivism and Cognitive Development in Counselling Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Developmental Counseling and Therapy (DCT) as model of helping based on Piagetian and constructivist concepts. Notes that client functioning is understood in terms of four levels of cognitive developmental functioning which parallel levels of cognitive development described by Piaget. Describes starting with client's predominant…

Daniels, Thomas G.

1994-01-01

215

Evaluation of Cognitive Development: An Observational Technique--Pre-Reading Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method of evaluation of prereading skills in preprimary school children is described. The method, employing a check list, can provide either a record of class performance, or a cognitive profile of an individual student. The instrument is divided into 8 major task areas that may be seen as plateaus of cognitive development of prereading skills.…

Goolsby, Thomas M., Jr.

216

Cortical software re-use: a computational principle for cognitive development in robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a candidate for consideration as a computational principle for cognitive development in autonomous robots. The candidate in question is the theory of cortical software re-use (CSRU), and we make the case in this paper that it provides a mechanism for the incremental construction of cognitive and language systems from simpler sensory-motor components.

Ronan G. Reilly; Ioana D. Marian

2002-01-01

217

Cognitive Level of Development and Mathematical Fluency of First Grade Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to investigate the cognitive level of development and mathematical fluency of first grade children. A total of (N = 100) 6- and 7-year-olds from two low socioeconomic level elementary schools participated in this study. Piaget's conservation-of-liquid task was administered to children to determine their cognitive level of…

Wubbena, Zane C.

2010-01-01

218

Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

2012-01-01

219

The Effects of Parent-Child Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) Interaction on Young Children's Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addressed the effect of parent-child Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) interaction on cognitive development in early childhood. It measured the MLE interactions of 14 parents with their preschool children in the contexts of free-play and structured tasks. The children were assessed for their manifest cognitive performance and learning…

Russell, Christina; Amod, Zaytoon; Rosenthal, Lesley

2008-01-01

220

Cognitive Development of Fluent Word Reading Does Not Qualitatively Differ between Transparent and Opaque Orthographies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the transparency of a writing system is hypothesized to systematically influence the cognitive skills associated with reading development, results of cross-language investigations are inconsistent and usually do not address this issue in a developmental context. We therefore investigated the cognitive dynamics of reading fluency of…

Vaessen, Anniek; Bertrand, Daisy; Toth, Denes; Csepe, Valeria; Faisca, Luis; Reis, Alexandra; Blomert, Leo

2010-01-01

221

A Data-Acquisition Model for Learning and Cognitive Development and Its Implications for Autism  

E-print Network

A Data-Acquisition Model for Learning and Cognitive Development and Its Implications for Autism that represents what has been heard and observed. Autism is viewed as the consequence of a dis- order in the data cognitive deficits associated with autism, including weak central coherence, impaired theory of mind

Halpern, Joseph Y.

222

Development of Online Cognitive and Algorithm Tests as Assessment Tools in Introductory Computer Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the online cognitive and algorithm tests, which were developed in order to determine if certain cognitive factors and fundamental algorithms correlate with the performance of students in their introductory computer science course. The tests were implemented among Management Information Systems majors from the Philippines and…

Avancena, Aimee Theresa; Nishihara, Akinori; Vergara, John Paul

2012-01-01

223

Parent Cognitions and Parent-Infant Interaction: The Relationship with Development in the First 12 Months  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined parent cognitions and parent-infant interaction in terms of their contribution to infant development in the first 12 months. With a sample of 95 mother-infant dyads, results using structural equation modelling confirmed the expected finding that parent-infant interaction mediates the association between parent cognitions and…

Ferrier-Lynn, Melissa; Skouteris, Helen

2008-01-01

224

Cognitive aging as an extension of brain development: A model linking learning, brain plasticity, and neurodegeneration  

E-print Network

Differences in cognitive aging rates among mammals suggest that the pace of brain aging is geneticallyReview Cognitive aging as an extension of brain development: A model linking learning, brain plasticity, and neurodegeneration Joa~o Pedro de Magalha~es a,*, Anders Sandberg b a Department of Genetics

de Magalhães, João Pedro

225

The Use of Event-Related Potentials in the Study of Early Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying normal infant development is a challenge for cognitive scientists in general and for neuroscientists in particular because: (1) physiological indices of infant cognition are generally noisy and technically difficult to obtain; and (2) interindividual variability and a paucity of established results make data interpretation very complex,…

Thierry, Guillaume

2005-01-01

226

Experimental comparison of the reproductive outcomes and early development of the offspring of rats given five common types of drinking water.  

PubMed

Tap water (unfiltered), filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water) are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients) of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague-Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI) and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA); the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy. PMID:25279561

Zeng, Hui; Shu, Wei-qun; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Lin; Wang, Da-hua; Fu, Wen-juan; Wang, Ling-qiao; Luo, Jiao-hua; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Yao; Qiu, Zhi-qun; Huang, Yu-jing

2014-01-01

227

Development of an Instrument for Evaluating Anxiety Caused by Cognitive Conflict  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics learning situations often involve many cognitive conflicts between a student's present understandings and new information being learned. Cognitive conflict is known as an important factor in conceptual change. Therefore, it is important to help physics teachers and students develop skills and knowledge for more effective conflict management. However there is no readily available method to monitor the existence and features of cognitive conflicts that students may encounter during their learning. We focus the study on student anxiety caused by cognitive conflict so that we can improve student motivation. This study is targeted to develop an easy-to-use instrument that can be implemented in the classrooms to monitor student anxiety in cognitive conflict situations and the effects on student motivation. In this paper, we will discuss the structure of this instrument and show results from using this tool in our Physics by Inquiry class.

Kim, Yeounsoo; Bao, Lei

2010-01-18

228

The Effect of Maternal Nutrition on the Development of the Offspring: An International Symposium. Nutrition Reports International, Special Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contents of this symposium include the following papers: "Effect of Maternal Protein Malnutrition on Neonatal Lung Development and Mitochondrial Function," E. J. Hawrylewicz, J. Q. Kissane, W. H. Blair and C. A. Heppner; "Effect of the Level of Nutrition on Rates of Cell Proliferation and of RNA and Protein Syntheses in the Rat," L. M. Roeder;…

Roeder, Lois M., Ed.

1973-01-01

229

What hinders child semantic computation: children's universal quantification and the development of cognitive control.  

PubMed

Recent studies on the acquisition of semantics have argued that knowledge of the universal quantifier is adult-like throughout development. However, there are domains where children still exhibit non-adult-like universal quantification, and arguments for the early mastery of relevant semantic knowledge do not explain what causes such non-adult-like interpretations. The present study investigates Japanese four- and five-year-old children's atypical universal quantification in light of the development of cognitive control. We hypothesized that children's still-developing cognitive control contributes to their atypical universal quantification. Using a combined eye-tracking and interpretation task together with a non-linguistic measure of cognitive control, we revealed a link between the achievement of adult-like universal quantification and the development of flexible perspective-switch. We argue that the development of cognitive control is one of the factors that contribute to children's processing of semantics. PMID:22182242

Minai, Utako; Jincho, Nobuyuki; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

2012-11-01

230

RUNNING HEAD: A SCALED WORLD FOR APPLIED COGNITIVE RESEARCH Contending with complexity: Developing and Using a Scaled World in  

E-print Network

RUNNING HEAD: A SCALED WORLD FOR APPLIED COGNITIVE RESEARCH Contending with complexity: Developing and Using a Scaled World in Applied Cognitive Research Brian D. Ehret Wayne D. Gray George Mason University with complexity: Developing and using a scaled world in applied cognitive research. Human Factors, 42(1), 8

Gray, Wayne

231

The Integration of Cognition and Emotion during Infancy and Early Childhood: Regulatory Processes Associated with the Development of Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 4 1/2-years of…

Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann

2007-01-01

232

The Concept of Word in Young Children as a Function of Level of Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The developmental nature of the reflective concept of "word" in young children was investigated and the degree to which these developmental aspects of metalinguistic awareness correspond to levels of cognitive development as described by Piaget was studied. (HOD)

Templeton, Shane; Spivey, Edwinna M.

1980-01-01

233

Cognitive assessment of social anxiety: Development and validation of a self-statement questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent emphasis on cognitive factors in the treatment of emotional problems has stimulated the development of cognitive assessment techniques. This paper presents the development and initial validation of an instrument to assess self-statements about social interactions. The 30-item questionnaire contains 15 positive (facilitative) and 15 negative (inhibitory) self-statements that were derived from subjects who listed thoughts while imagining difficult

Carol R. Glass; Thomas V. Merluzzi; Joan L. Biever; Kathryn H. Larsen

1982-01-01

234

Developing embodied cognition: insights from children’s concepts and language processing  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, theories of embodied cognition have become increasingly influential with research demonstrating that sensorimotor experiences are involved in cognitive processing; however, this embodied research has primarily focused on adult cognition. The notion that sensorimotor experience is important for acquiring conceptual knowledge is not a novel concept for developmental researchers, and yet theories of embodied cognition often do not fully integrate developmental findings. We propose that in order for an embodied cognition perspective to be refined and advanced as a lifelong theory of cognition, it is important to consider what can be learned from research with children. In this paper, we focus on development of concepts and language processing, and examine the importance of children's embodied experiences for these aspects of cognition in particular. Following this review, we outline what we see as important developmental issues that need to be addressed in order to determine the extent to which language and conceptual knowledge are embodied and to refine theories of embodied cognition. PMID:24904513

Wellsby, Michele; Pexman, Penny M.

2014-01-01

235

Cognitive and Social Constructivism: Developing Tools for an Effective Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective classroom, where teachers and students are communicating optimally, is dependent on using constructivist strategies, tools and practices. There are two major types of constructivism in the classroom: (1) Cognitive or individual constructivism depending on Piaget's theory, and (2) Social constructivism depending on Vygotsky's theory.…

Powell, Katherine C.; Kalina, Cody J.

2009-01-01

236

Educating the Developing Mind: The View from Cognitive Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demetriou, Spanoudis, and Mouyi have provided a comprehensive view of the relation between a model of the mind and the process of education. The model they propose is based on cognitive theories of mental action, rather than neuroscientific evidence. I argue here that that is the correct approach, for a model of the information processing…

Hunt, Earl

2012-01-01

237

Learning Style Profile Handbook: I. Developing Cognitive Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) published a new learning style instrument in 1986--the NASSP Learning Style Profile (LSP). The LSP yields independent scores on 24 discrete elements of learning style. Its purpose is to provide educators with a well-validated and easy to use instrument for diagnosing cognitive styles,…

Jenkins, John M.; And Others

238

Avram Noam Chomsky and His Cognitive Development Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, cognitive scientist, logician, historian, political critic and activist. Chomsky is an Institute Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy at MIT where he has worked for over fifty years. Chomsky has been described as the father of modern linguistics and a major…

Costley, Kevin C.; Nelson, Jaime

2013-01-01

239

On the Implications of Curvilinear Trajectories for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles featured in this issue make apparent the variety of perceptual and cognitive competencies that follow curvilinear developmental courses as well as the complexities inherent in accounting for such phenomena. What is revealed is the way in which a fit is achieved between organisms and the environments they occupy. Curvilinear…

Friend, Margaret

2004-01-01

240

Does Parental Divorce Affect Adolescents' Cognitive Development? Evidence from  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyse data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 to investigate whether experiencing parental divorce during ado- lescence reduces measured cognitive ability. To account for the potential en- dogeneity of parental divorce we employ a difference-in-differences model that relies on observing tenagers' outcomes before and after divorce. We find that parental divorce does not negatively

Anna Sanz de Galdeano; Daniela Vuri

241

Marital Conflict, Allostatic Load, and the Development of Children's Fluid Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

Relations between marital conflict, children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and fluid cognitive performance were examined over three years to assess allostatic processes. Participants were 251 children reporting on marital conflict, baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to a lab challenge were recorded, and fluid cognitive performance was measured using the Woodcock-Johnson III. A cross-lagged model showed that higher levels of marital conflict at age 8 predicted weaker RSA-R at age 9 for children with lower baseline RSA. A growth model showed that lower baseline RSA in conjunction with weaker RSA-R predicted the slowest development of fluid cognitive performance. Findings suggest that stress may affect development of physiological systems regulating attention, which are tied to the development of fluid cognitive performance. PMID:23534537

Hinnant, J. Benjamin; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

242

The Teacher's Guide to Diversity: Building a Knowledge Base. Volume I: Human Development, Culture, and Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the reigning theories of human development and cognition? How are human development and culture related? How does identity development intersect with achievement motivation? What is intelligence? How can our knowledge of human development inform our work as educators working with an increasingly diverse student population? What is known…

Trumbull, Elise; Pacheco, Maria

2005-01-01

243

Neurobehavioral toxic effects of perinatal oral exposure to aluminum on the developmental motor reflexes, learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters of mice offspring.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) is a known neurotoxicant and circumstantial evidence has linked this metal with several neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, but no causal relationship has yet been proved. Al-induced behavioral alterations as well as cognitive deficits and rodent brain neurotransmitter level, are well known in adults but the exact mechanism in the offspring of perinatally Al exposed dams is not yet understood properly and needs more attention. In the present study, the perinatal oral exposure of the dams to 300 and 600mg/kg/day Al (aluminum chloride) resulted in significant and deleterious effects in the offspring inflicting a dose-dependent reduction in postnatal body weight gain, delays in opening of the eyes and appearance of body hair fuzz, and deficits in the sensory motor reflexes of the mice pups during weaning period (from the day of birth to postnatal day 21). During adolescent ages of the male offspring, a significant and dose-dependent deficit was also observed in their locomotor activity at postnatal day 22 (PD 22), learning capability (at PD 25), and cognitive behavior (at PD 30-36). Furthermore, a significant and dose-dependent disturbance in the levels of neurotransmitters like dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) was also observed in the forebrain region of the offspring at PD 7, PD 14, PD 21, PD 30, and PD 36. Thus, perinatal Al exposure, particularly during pregnancy and lactation period, can affect the in utero developing fetus and postnatal developing sucklings, raising the concerns that during a critical perinatal period of brain development, Al exposure has potential and long lasting neurotoxic hazards and might modify the properties of the dopaminergic system and thus can change the threshold of that system or other related systems at later ages. A reduced use of Al during pregnancy is of crucial importance in preventing Al-induced delayed neurotoxicity in the offspring. PMID:22115621

Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

2012-03-01

244

Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. Subjects/Methods: We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. Results: We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ?4.1 × 10?5) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10?18), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. Conclusions: We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study. PMID:24398642

Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

2014-01-01

245

The Evolution of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Schizophrenia: Current Practice and Recent Developments  

PubMed Central

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) evolved from behavioral theory and developed to focus more on cognitive models that incorporated reappraisal of thinking errors and schema change strategies. This article will describe the key elements of CBT for schizophrenia and the current evidence of its efficacy and effectiveness. We conclude with a description of recent concepts that extend the theoretical basis of practice and expand the range of CBT strategies for use in schizophrenia. Mindfulness, meta-cognitive approaches, compassionate mind training, and method of levels are postulated as useful adjuncts for CBT with psychotic patients. PMID:19661198

Tai, Sara; Turkington, Douglas

2009-01-01

246

Humor development: an important cognitive and social skill in the growing child.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe McGhee's (1979) stages of humor development from 18 months to 12 years as they relate to Piaget's cognitive stages (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2001) and social development. Humor develops in stages just as other aspects of child development. It parallels and enhances physical, cognitive, language, and psychosocial skill attainment (Franzini, 2002; Robinson, 1991). Knowledge of humor development will provide therapists with an additional tool to facilitate communication with their pediatric clients by helping therapists consider children's developmental levels when using humor in therapeutic contexts. PMID:15760826

Southam, Marti

2005-01-01

247

Cognitive development in benign focal epilepsies of childhood.  

PubMed

Benign focal epilepsy of childhood (BFEC) is the most common form of epilepsy, in children from 3 to 12 years. Its prognosis is always favourable as far as the epilepsy is concerned. Nevertheless, recent clinical data suggest that children affected by BFEC are more likely to show learning difficulties and behavioural disturbances than their peers. We report here the preliminary findings of a prospective study of 22 children affected with BFEC. Electroclinical and neuropsychological changes observed during the first 18 months of the follow-up strengthen the conclusion of recent neuropsychological studies stressing the correlation between epilepsy and cognitive performances. The cognitive deficits affecting mainly non-verbal functions were significantly correlated with the frequency of seizures and spike-wave discharges and to the lateralization of the epileptic focus in the right hemisphere, whereas frontal functions like attention control, response organization and fine motor speed, were impaired in the presence of active BFEC independently of the lateralization of the epileptic focus. Our results indicate that maturing cognitive functions subserved by a cortical area distant from the epileptic focus are susceptible to interference with epilepsy. PMID:10575241

Metz-Lutz, M N; Kleitz, C; de Saint Martin, A; Massa, R; Hirsch, E; Marescaux, C

1999-11-01

248

Effects of parental larval diet on egg size and offspring traits in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

If a mother's nutritional status predicts the nutritional environment of the offspring, it would be adaptive for mothers experiencing nutritional stress to prime their offspring for a better tolerance to poor nutrition. We report that in Drosophila melanogaster, parents raised on poor larval food laid 3–6% heavier eggs than parents raised on standard food, despite being 30 per cent smaller. Their offspring developed 14 h (4%) faster on the poor food than offspring of well-fed parents. However, they were slightly smaller as adults. Thus, the effects of parental diet on offspring performance under malnutrition apparently involve both adaptive plasticity and maladaptive effects of parental stress. PMID:19875510

Vijendravarma, Roshan K.; Narasimha, Sunitha; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

2010-01-01

249

Importance of early lighting conditions in maternal care by dam as well as anxiety and memory later in life of offspring.  

PubMed

Rodent studies have revealed that the early rearing environment plays an important role in the development of stress vulnerability, memory and cognition. Although early lighting conditions (ELC) are involved in these neuronal developments through both maternal and offspring behavior, their influence has not been fully elucidated. Thus, by using Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined whether ELC affected maternal care by the dam and the subsequent neurodevelopment of the offspring. Prolonged dark phase conditions (PDC) (light/dark, 6/18 h) and prolonged light phase conditions (light/dark, 18/6 h) were administered from postnatal day 2 to postnatal day 14. Throughout this period, maternal care and the circadian rhythmicity of dams were investigated. In adolescence and adulthood of the offspring, we measured anxiety-like behavior, social interaction, object recognition memory, activity rhythm and corticosterone response to stress with hippocampal expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate and glucocorticoid receptor mRNAs. PDC altered maternal care and circadian rhythmicity in the dam compared with normal lighting conditions and prolonged light phase conditions. PDC markedly increased anxiety-like behavior, decreased social interaction and object recognition memory, and inhibited corticosterone feedback in offspring later in life. Furthermore, hippocampal levels of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B mRNA in rats subjected to PDC were significantly lower than in animals subjected to normal lighting conditions. In the adult offspring, the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity was not affected. These findings suggested that ELC affect mother-infant interactions and subsequently at least partially alter the neurobehavioral development of offspring. PMID:17328777

Toki, Shigeru; Morinobu, Shigeru; Imanaka, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Honma, Ken-ichi

2007-02-01

250

Development in mastering of rational number concepts and rational number operations: the role of gender, cognitive style and intellectual skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we report data on the role played by cognitive factors in mathematics learning. A total of 54 Italian seventh?grade students were tested to determine their cognitive characteristics, intellectual development and cognitive style. These variables, together with the students’ gender, were correlated to the score results in two multiple?choice tests on rational number concepts (RNC) and rational number

V. Picciarelli; M. Di Gennaro; A. Loconsole; R. Stella

1995-01-01

251

Cognitive and social development in the second year of life: A Neo-Piagetian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Case’s Neo-Piagetian theory, the cognitive and social development of the child in the second year of life is investigated.\\u000a In a longitudinal repeated measures design, using cognitive and social tasks, 18 mother-infant pairs were studied in respect\\u000a to the transition period from the first (sensorimotor) stage to the second (interrelational) stage. Results strongly support\\u000a the prediction that a new

Karen L. Leitner

1989-01-01

252

Does estrogen affect the development of abnormal vascular function in offspring of rats fed a low-protein diet in pregnancy?  

PubMed

It is established that there are gender-related differences in the effects on offspring blood pressure induced by maternal protein restriction in animal studies. Since such effects may depend on estrogen levels, we hypothesized that lower estrogen would induce an earlier onset of hypertension caused by maternal under-nutrition. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing either 18% (C) or 9% (R) casein throughout pregnancy. Half of the offspring in both C and R groups were ovariectomized on day 50 (CX, RX), and the other half underwent a sham operation (CO, RO). On d 175, offspring were killed for small artery reactivity and histologic investigation. Birth weight and later growth were not significantly different between C and R. RX had higher systolic blood pressure than CX on d125, but no difference was seen between RO and CO. On d 175, systolic blood pressure was higher in R than in C, whether or not ovariectomized. Dilator responses to acetylcholine and bradykinin in small mesenteric arteries were significantly attenuated in RX, although responses to SNP and isoprenaline showed no attenuation in R. The ratio of coronary peri-vascular fibrosis to total vascular area was higher in R, and the fibrosis became prominent in ovariectomized rats. These findings suggest that estrogen plays an important role in limiting the elevation of offspring blood pressure induced by maternal under-nutrition, possibly via BK-mediated mechanisms. The processes may underlie gender and life course patterns of hypertension and also the developmental origins of this disease. PMID:16641213

Musha, Yuka; Itoh, Shigeru; Hanson, Mark A; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki

2006-06-01

253

8 Dynamic cycles of cognitive and brain development: Measuring growth in mind, brain, and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview Since the seminal work of Jean Piaget on the relation between knowledge and general biology, researchers have started to understand the basic neurocognitive processes in the unfolding of human development. In particular, recent dynamic growth models illuminate the complex, interrelated changes that take place during brain growth, cognitive development, and learning. Neurocognitive development should be conceived not as a

Kurt W. Fischer

254

Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Developments: Implications for Clinical Assessment in Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescence is a time of significant physical, social, and emotional developments, accompanied by changes in cognitive and language skills. Underlying these are significant developments in brain structures and functions including changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter tracts. Among the brain regions that develop during…

Ciccia, Angela Hein; Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.

2009-01-01

255

The development of cognitive control in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is caused by the most common human microdeletion, and it is associated with cognitive impairments across many domains. While impairments in cognitive control have been described in children with 22q11.2DS, the nature and development of these impairments are not clear. Children with 22q11.2DS and typically developing children (TD) were tested on four well-validated tasks aimed at measuring specific foundational components of cognitive control: response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. Molecular assays were also conducted in order to examine genotype of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a gene located within the deleted region in 22q11.2DS and hypothesized to play a role in cognitive control. Mixed model regression analyses were used to examine group differences, as well as age-related effects on cognitive control component processes in a cross-sectional analysis. Regression models with COMT genotype were also conducted in order to examine potential effects of the different variants of the gene. Response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were impaired in children with 22q11.2DS relative to TD children, even after accounting for global intellectual functioning (as measured by full-scale IQ). When compared with TD individuals, children with 22q11.2DS demonstrated atypical age-related patterns of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Both groups demonstrated typical age-related associations with working memory. The results of this cross-sectional analysis suggest a specific aberration in the development of systems mediating response inhibition in a sub-set of children with 22q11.2DS. It will be important to follow up with longitudinal analyses to directly examine these developmental trajectories, and correlate neurocognitive variables with clinical and adaptive outcome measures. PMID:24959159

Shapiro, Heather M.; Tassone, Flora; Choudhary, Nimrah S.; Simon, Tony J.

2014-01-01

256

Impact on Infants’ Cognitive Development of Antenatal Exposure to Iron Deficiency Disorder and Common Mental Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and common mental disorders (CMD) on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. Methods A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12–20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb <11 g/dL and serum ferritin <15 ng/mL. CMD symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam validation. Infant cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Ed. Path analyses were performed to determine the direct and indirect, partly or fully mediated, causal effects of the antenatal exposures. Results A total of 497 pregnant women were recruited, of those 378 women provided complete data which were included in the analyses. Statistically significant direct adverse effects of persistent antenatal IDA (estimated difference of ?11.62 points; 95% CI ?23.01 to ?0.22) and antenatal CMD (?4.80 points; 95% CI: ?9.40 to ?0.20) on infant Bayley cognitive scores at six months were found. Higher birthweight, household wealth, and self-rated sufficient supply of breastmilk were associated with higher cognitive scores. Maternal age >30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants’ Bayley cognitive scores. Conclusions These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries. PMID:24086390

Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane

2013-01-01

257

Cognitive Training for Schizophrenia in Developing Countries: A Pilot Trial in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia can massively impact functionality and quality of life, furthering the importance of cognitive training. Despite the development of the field in Europe and in the United States, no programmes have been developed and tested in developing countries. Different cultural backgrounds, budget restrictions, and other difficulties may render treatment packages created in high income countries difficult for adoption by developing nations. We performed a pilot double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in order to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of an attention and memory training programme specially created in a developing nation. The intervention used simple, widely available materials, required minimal infrastructure, and was conducted in groups. The sample included seventeen stable Brazilians with schizophrenia. Sessions were conducted weekly during five months. The cognitive training group showed significant improvements in inhibitory control and set-shifting over time. Both groups showed improvements in symptoms, processing speed, selective attention, executive function, and long-term visual memory. Improvements were found in the control group in long-term verbal memory and concentration. Our findings reinforce the idea that cognitive training in schizophrenia can be constructed using simple resources and infrastructure, facilitating its adoption by developing countries, and it may improve cognition. PMID:24288608

Pontes, Livia M. M.; Martins, Camila B.; Napolitano, Isabel C.; Fonseca, Juliana R.; Oliveira, Graça M. R.; Iso, Sandra M. K.; Menezes, Anny K. P. M.; Vizzotto, Adriana D. B.; di Sarno, Elaine S.; Elkis, Hélio

2013-01-01

258

Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development  

PubMed Central

Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition. PMID:24592214

Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

2014-01-01

259

Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24?h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology. PMID:25071719

Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

2014-01-01

260

Using the MATRICS to guide development of a preclinical cognitive test battery for research in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are among the core symptoms of the disease, correlate with functional outcome, and are not well treated with current antipsychotic therapies. In order to bring together academic, industrial, and governmental bodies to address this great ‘unmet therapeutic need’, the NIMH sponsored the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative. Through careful factor analysis and consensus of expert opinion, MATRICS identified seven domains of cognition that are deficient in schizophrenia (attention/vigilance, working memory, reasoning and problem solving, processing speed, visual learning and memory, verbal learning and memory, and social cognition) and recommended a specific neuropsychological test battery to probe these domains. In order to move the field forward and outline an approach for translational research, there is a need for a “preclinical MATRICS” to develop a rodent test battery that is appropriate for drug development. In this review, we outline such an approach and review current rodent tasks that target these seven domains of cognition. The rodent tasks are discussed in terms of their validity for probing each cognitive domain as well as a brief overview of the pharmacology and manipulations relevant to schizophrenia for each task. PMID:19269307

YOUNG, Jared W; POWELL, Susan; RISBROUGH, Victoria; MARSTON, Hugh M; GEYER, Mark A

2009-01-01

261

Developing a Cognitive Training Strategy for First-Episode Schizophrenia: Integrating Bottom-Up and Top-Down Approaches.  

PubMed

It is clear that people with schizophrenia typically have cognitive problems in multiple domains as part of their illness. The cognitive deficits are among the main contributors to limitations in their everyday functioning, including their work recovery. Cognitive remediation has been applied successfully to help people with long-term, persistent schizophrenia to improve their cognitive functioning, but it is only beginning to be applied with individuals who have recently had a first episode of psychosis. Several different approaches to cognitive training have been developed. Some approaches emphasize extensive systematic practice with lower-level cognitive processes and building toward higher-level processes ("bottom-up"), while others emphasize greater focus on high-level cognitive processes that normally integrate and organize lower-level processes ("top-down"). Each approach has advantages and disadvantages for a disorder like schizophrenia, with its multiple levels of cognitive dysfunction. In addition, approaches to cognitive remediation differ in the extent to which they systematically facilitate transfer of learning to everyday functioning. We describe in this article the cognitive training approach that was developed for a UCLA study of people with a recent first episode of schizophrenia, a group that may benefit greatly from early intervention that focuses on cognition and recovery of work functioning. This approach integrated bottom-up and top-down computerized cognitive training and incorporated an additional weekly group session to bridge between computerized training and application to everyday work and school functioning. PMID:25489275

Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Hayata, Jacqueline N; Medalia, Alice; Bell, Morris D

2014-07-01

262

Experimental evidence for offspring learning in parent-offspring communication.  

PubMed Central

The offspring of birds and mammals solicit food from their parents by a combination of movements and vocalizations that have come to be known collectively as 'begging'. Recently, begging has most often been viewed as an honest signal of offspring need. Yet, if offspring learn to adjust their begging efforts to the level that rewards them most, begging intensities may also reflect offsprings' past experience rather than their precise current needs. Here we show that bird nestlings with equal levels of need can learn to beg at remarkably different levels. These experiments with hand-raised house sparrows (Passer domesticus) indicated that chicks learn to modify begging levels within a few hours. Moreover, we found that the begging postures of hungry chicks in natural nests are correlated with the average postures that had previously yielded them parental feedings. Such learning challenges parental ability to assess offspring needs and may require that, in response, parents somehow filter out learned differences in offspring signals. PMID:12233768

Kedar, H; Rodríguez-Gironés, M A; Yedvab, S; Winkler, D W; Lotem, A

2000-01-01

263

The Cognitive Development of Young Dual Language Learners: A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

Dual language exposure and bilingualism are relatively common experiences for children. The present review set out to synthesize the existing research on cognitive development in bilingual children and to identify the gaps and the methodological concerns present in the existing research. A search of major data bases for research conducted with typically-developing, preschool-age dual language learners between 2000-2013 yielded 102 peer-reviewed articles. The existing evidence points to areas of cognitive development in bilingual children where findings are robust or inconclusive, and reveals variables that influence performance. The present review also identifies areas for future research and methodological limitations. PMID:25284958

Barac, Raluca; Bialystok, Ellen; Castro, Dina C.; Sanchez, Marta

2014-01-01

264

The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-being of African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination\\u000a and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13–18, completed measures of\\u000a cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on the cognitive development measure,\\u000a youth were categorized as having pre-formal or formal reasoning abilities. The

Eleanor K. Seaton

2010-01-01

265

Parent–offspring recognition in tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent–offspring recognition appears to be highly developed in species in which the risk of misdirecting care is high (e.g. colonial species). Some of the best evidence for this relationship comes from comparative work on swallows of the family Hirundinidae. Using methods followed in earlier studies, we determined whether parent–offspring recognition occurs in the tree swallow,Tachycineta bicolora non-colonial species closely related

MARTY L LEONARD; ANDREW G HORN; CORY R BROWN; NICOLE J FERNANDEZ

1997-01-01

266

Oxidative stress and altered lipid homeostasis in the programming of offspring fatty liver by maternal obesity  

PubMed Central

Changes in the maternal nutritional environment during fetal development can influence offspring's metabolic risk in later life. Animal models have demonstrated that offspring of diet-induced obese dams develop metabolic complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms in young offspring that lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female offspring of C57BL/6J dams fed either a control or obesogenic diet were studied at 8 wk of age. We investigated the roles of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in contributing to fatty liver in offspring. There were no differences in body weight or adiposity at 8 wk of age; however, offspring of obese dams were hyperinsulinemic. Oxidative damage markers were significantly increased in their livers, with reduced levels of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1. Mitochondrial complex I and II activities were elevated, while levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c were significantly reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase was significantly increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Offspring of obese dams also had significantly greater hepatic lipid content, associated with increased levels of PPAR? and reduced triglyceride lipase. Liver glycogen and protein content were concomitantly reduced in offspring of obese dams. In conclusion, offspring of diet-induced obese dams have disrupted liver metabolism and develop NAFLD prior to any differences in body weight or body composition. Oxidative stress may play a mechanistic role in the progression of fatty liver in these offspring. PMID:24789994

Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Musial, Barbara; Fowden, Abigail; Ozanne, Susan E.

2014-01-01

267

Oxidative stress and altered lipid homeostasis in the programming of offspring fatty liver by maternal obesity.  

PubMed

Changes in the maternal nutritional environment during fetal development can influence offspring's metabolic risk in later life. Animal models have demonstrated that offspring of diet-induced obese dams develop metabolic complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms in young offspring that lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female offspring of C57BL/6J dams fed either a control or obesogenic diet were studied at 8 wk of age. We investigated the roles of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in contributing to fatty liver in offspring. There were no differences in body weight or adiposity at 8 wk of age; however, offspring of obese dams were hyperinsulinemic. Oxidative damage markers were significantly increased in their livers, with reduced levels of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1. Mitochondrial complex I and II activities were elevated, while levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c were significantly reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase was significantly increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Offspring of obese dams also had significantly greater hepatic lipid content, associated with increased levels of PPAR? and reduced triglyceride lipase. Liver glycogen and protein content were concomitantly reduced in offspring of obese dams. In conclusion, offspring of diet-induced obese dams have disrupted liver metabolism and develop NAFLD prior to any differences in body weight or body composition. Oxidative stress may play a mechanistic role in the progression of fatty liver in these offspring. PMID:24789994

Alfaradhi, Maria Z; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Musial, Barbara; Fowden, Abigail; Ozanne, Susan E

2014-07-01

268

The Development of an Emotional Response to Writing Measure: The Affective Cognition Writing Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to develop and initiate the validation of the Affective Cognition Writing Survey (ACWS), a psychological instrument used to measure emotional expression through writing. Procedures for development and validation of the instrument are reported. Subsequently, factor analysis extracted six factors: Positive Processing,…

Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.; Jain, Sachin

2010-01-01

269

Breast feeding and cognitive development at age 1 and 5 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo examine whether duration of breast feeding has any effect on a child's cognitive or motor development in a population with favourable environmental conditions and a high prevalence of breast feeding.METHODSIn 345 Scandinavian children, data on breast feeding were prospectively recorded during the first year of life, and neuromotor development was assessed at 1 and 5 years of age. Main

N K Angelsen; T Vik; G Jacobsen; L S Bakketeig

2001-01-01

270

What Affect Student Cognitive Style in the Development of Hypermedia Learning System?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent developments in learning technology such as hypermedia is becoming widespread and offer significant contribution to improve the delivery of learning and teaching materials. A key factor in the development of hypermedia learning system is cognitive style (CS) as it relates to users' information processing habits, representing individual…

Lee, Catherine Hui Min; Cheng, Yuk Wing; Rai, Shri; Depickere, Arnold

2005-01-01

271

Where Cognitive Development and Aging Meet: Face Learning Ability Peaks after Age 30  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on age-related cognitive change traditionally focuses on either development or aging, where development ends with adulthood and aging begins around 55 years. This approach ignores age-related changes during the 35 years in-between, implying that this period is uninformative. Here we investigated face recognition as an ability that may…

Germine, Laura T.; Duchaine, Bradley; Nakayama, Ken

2011-01-01

272

Cognitive Development among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health, and Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the relationship between early cognitive development, socioeconomic status (SES), child health, and parenting quality in a developing country. We use a sample of more than 3,000 predominantly poor preschool-aged children from Ecuador, and analyze determinants of their scores on a widely used test of language ability. We find that…

Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert

2007-01-01

273

Design early considered harmful: graduated exposure to complexity and structure based on levels of cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recognized that the natural tendency to teach according to the structure of one's own understanding runs contrary to established models of cognitive development. Bloom's Taxonomy has provided a basis for establishing a more efficacious pedagogy. Emphasizing a hierarchical progression of skill sets and gradual learning through example, our approach advocates teaching software development from the inside\\/out rather than

Duane Buck; David J. Stucki

2000-01-01

274

Measuring the Combined Risk to Young Children's Cognitive Development: An Alternative to Cumulative Indices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In studies of child development, the combined effect of multiple risks acting in unison has been represented in a variety of ways. This investigation builds upon this preceding work and presents a new procedure for capturing the combined effect of multiple risks. A representative sample of 2,899 British children had their cognitive development

Hall, James E.; Sammons, Pam; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Taggart, Brenda; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Smees, Rebecca

2010-01-01

275

Language and cognitive development in 47, XXX females followed since birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, data are presented on language and cognitive development in an unselected group of eleven 47, XXX females, followed since birth, who are now 6–14 years old. The results of the Yale Developmental Exam (at 2 years) and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) (at 4–6 years) show an early delay in language development. Those girls who

B. Pennington; M. Puck; A. Robinson

1980-01-01

276

Engineering approach for Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate cognitive decision aiding systems development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our concurrent engineering approach for the Rotorcraft Pilots Associate (RPA) program. The process integrates knowledge acquisition, rapid prototyping, and evaluation into a system development process. The approach is an iterative process which gathers knowledge, uses rapid prototyping to develop Cognitive Decision Aiding System software, uses simulation and embedded measures of effectiveness and measures of performance to evaluate

B. McBryan; J. Hall

1994-01-01

277

Postinstitutionalized Children's Development: Growth, Cognitive, and Language Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective Children adopted internationally from institutions are a growing population presenting to professional care providers. Although postinstitutionalized (PI) children are adopted from multiple world regions, current knowledge is predominantly based on those adopted from Romania and Eastern European countries. This study examines and compares developmental outcomes of PI children adopted from multiple world regions. Method Five to 11 years after adoption, 8- through 11-year-old PI children (N = 91), children internationally adopted early from foster care (N = 109), and nonadopted children (N = 69) completed screening measures assessing vision, hearing, growth, and cognitive and language abilities. Parents completed questionnaires on service utilization, school performance, preadoptive history, and postadoption environment. Results Forty-four percent of PI children's growth was stunted (height <10th percentile) at adoption. At assessment, although physically smaller, nearly all PI children had average growth parameters. Relative to nonadopted children and children adopted early from foster care, PI children performed more poorly on cognitive and language screens with increased time in institution related to lower performance. Notably, group means on these measures were within the average range. PI children were more likely to be falling behind academically and to use intervention services. Family environment did not differ between PI and nonadopted children. There were few differences for PI children by world region of adoption once accounting for duration of institutionalization. Conclusions Despite currently living in similar environments, PI children have specific needs that differ from early-adopted and nonadopted children. Consideration of multiple factors, including length of institutionalization, is essential when providing care for these children. PMID:19692931

Loman, Michelle M.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Frenn, Kristin A.; Pollak, Seth D.; Gunnar, Megan R.

2010-01-01

278

Developing a Clinically Relevant Model of Cognitive Training After Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.  

PubMed

Background. Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), clinical cognitive training paradigms harness implicit and explicit learning and memory systems to improve function; however, these systems are differentially affected by TBI, highlighting the need for an experimental TBI model that can test efficacy of cognitive training approaches. Objectives. To develop a clinically relevant experimental cognitive training model using the Morris water maze (MWM) wherein training on implicitly learned task components was provided to improve behavioral performance post-TBI. Methods. Eighty-one adult male rats were divided by injury status (controlled cortical impact [CCI]/Sham), non-spatial cognitive training (CogTrained/No-CogTrained), and extra-maze cues (Cued/Non-Cued) during MWM testing. Platform latencies, thigmotaxis, and search strategies were assessed during MWM trials. Results. Cognitive training was associated with improved platform latencies, reduced thigmotaxis, and more effective search strategy use for Sham and CCI rats. In the Cued and Non-Cued MWM paradigm, there were no differences between CCI/CogTrained and Sham/No-CogTrained groups. During novel testing conditions, CogTrained groups applied implicitly learned knowledge/skills; however, sham-cued CogTrained/rats better incorporated extramaze cues into their search strategy than the CCI-Cued group. Cognitive training had no effects on contusion size or hippocampal cell survival. Conclusions. The results provide evidence that CCI-CogTrained rats that learned the nonspatial components of the MWM task applied these skills during multiple conditions of the place-learning task, thereby mitigating cognitive deficits typically associated with this injury model. The results show that a systematic application of clinically relevant constructs associated with cognitive training paradigms can be used with experimental TBI to affect place learning. PMID:25239938

Brayer, Samuel W; Ketcham, Scott; Zou, Huichao; Hurwitz, Max; Henderson, Christopher; Fuletra, Jay; Kumar, Krishma; Skidmore, Elizabeth; Thiels, Edda; Wagner, Amy K

2014-09-19

279

Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children’s Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035

Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

2014-01-01

280

Developing a fluid intelligence scale through a combination of Rasch modeling and cognitive psychology.  

PubMed

Ability testing has been criticized because understanding of the construct being assessed is incomplete and because the testing has not yet been satisfactorily improved in accordance with new knowledge from cognitive psychology. This article contributes to the solution of this problem through the application of item response theory and Susan Embretson's cognitive design system for test development in the development of a fluid intelligence scale. This study is based on findings from cognitive psychology; instead of focusing on the development of a test, it focuses on the definition of a variable for the creation of a criterion-referenced measure for fluid intelligence. A geometric matrix item bank with 26 items was analyzed with data from 2,797 undergraduate students. The main result was a criterion-referenced scale that was based on information from item features that were linked to cognitive components, such as storage capacity, goal management, and abstraction; this information was used to create the descriptions of selected levels of a fluid intelligence scale. The scale proposed that the levels of fluid intelligence range from the ability to solve problems containing a limited number of bits of information with obvious relationships through the ability to solve problems that involve abstract relationships under conditions that are confounded with an information overload and distraction by mixed noise. This scale can be employed in future research to provide interpretations for the measurements of the cognitive processes mastered and the types of difficulty experienced by examinees. PMID:24773034

Primi, Ricardo

2014-09-01

281

Self-Regulated Strategy Development: Relationship to the Social-Cognitive Perspective and the Development of Self-Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research investigating how students who struggle with learning, as well as typically achieving students, can develop powerful self-regulation and academic strategies has become a major endeavor in both general and special education. In this article, we examine how one model of cognitive strategies instruction, Self-Regulated Strategy Development

Zito, Jennifer R.; Adkins, Mary; Gavins, Marva; Harris, Karen R.; Graham, Steve

2007-01-01

282

Impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognition, motor skills and hippocampal neurogenesis in developing C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

Maternal intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is critical during perinatal development of the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 PUFA in the brain and influences neuronal membrane function and neuroprotection. The present study aims to assess the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA availability during the gestational and postnatal period on cognition, brain metabolism and neurohistology in C57BL/6J mice. Female wild-type C57BL/6J mice at day 0 of gestation were randomly assigned to either an n-3 PUFA deficient diet (0.05% of total fatty acids) or an n-3 PUFA adequate diet (3.83% of total fatty acids) containing preformed DHA and its precursor ?-linolenic acid. Male offspring remained on diet and performed cognitive tests during puberty and adulthood. In adulthood, animals underwent (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess brain energy metabolites. Thereafter, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed assessing inflammation, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Compared to the n-3 PUFA deficient group, pubertal n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice demonstrated increased motor coordination. Adult n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice exhibited increased exploratory behavior, sensorimotor integration and spatial memory, while neurogenesis in the hippocampus was decreased. Selected brain regions of n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice contained significantly lower levels of arachidonic acid and higher levels of DHA and dihomo-?-linolenic acid. Our data suggest that dietary n-3 PUFA can modify neural maturation and enhance brain functioning in healthy C57BL/6J mice. This indicates that availability of n-3 PUFA in infant diet during early development may have a significant impact on brain development. PMID:25444517

Janssen, Carola I F; Zerbi, Valerio; Mutsaers, Martina P C; de Jong, Bas S W; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Geenen, Bram; Heerschap, Arend; Muskiet, Frits A J; Jouni, Zeina E; van Tol, Eric A F; Gross, Gabriele; Homberg, Judith R; Berg, Brian M; Kiliaan, Amanda J

2015-01-01

283

The effects of maternal corticosterone levels on offspring behavior in fast- and slow-growth garter snakes ( Thamnophis elegans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During embryonic development, viviparous offspring are exposed to maternally circulating hormones. Maternal stress increases offspring exposure to corticosterone and this hormonal exposure has the potential to influence developmental, morphological and behavioral traits of the resulting offspring. We treated pregnant female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) with low levels of corticosterone after determining both natural corticosterone levels in the field and pre-treatment

Kylie A. Robert; Carol Vleck; Anne M. Bronikowski

2009-01-01

284

The Coemergence of Cognition, Language, and Speech Motor Control in Early Development: A Longitudinal Correlation Study  

PubMed Central

Although the development of spoken language is dependent on the emergence of cognitive, language, and speech motor skills, knowledge about how these domains interact during the early stages of communication development is currently limited. This exploratory investigation examines the strength of associations between longitudinal changes in articulatory kinematics and development of skills in multiple domains thought to support early communication development. Twenty-four infants were investigated every three months between the ages of 9 and 21 months. Movements of the upper lip, lower lip, and jaw were transduced using a three-dimensional motion capture system to obtain age-related changes in movement speed and range of movement. Standardized measures of cognition and language from the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd edition and the MacArthur-Bates Child Development Inventory were also collected. Significant associations were identified between orofacial kinematic and the standardized measures of language and cognitive skills, even when age served as covariate. These findings provide preliminary evidence of interactions between cognition, language, and speech motor skills during early communication development. Further work is needed to identify and quantify causal relations among these co-emerging skills. PMID:21035125

Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

2010-01-01

285

Interdisciplinary perspectives on the development, integration, and application of cognitive ontologies.  

PubMed

We discuss recent progress in the development of cognitive ontologies and summarize three challenges in the coordinated development and application of these resources. Challenge 1 is to adopt a standardized definition for cognitive processes. We describe three possibilities and recommend one that is consistent with the standard view in cognitive and biomedical sciences. Challenge 2 is harmonization. Gaps and conflicts in representation must be resolved so that these resources can be combined for mark-up and interpretation of multi-modal data. Finally, Challenge 3 is to test the utility of these resources for large-scale annotation of data, search and query, and knowledge discovery and integration. As term definitions are tested and revised, harmonization should enable coordinated updates across ontologies. However, the true test of these definitions will be in their community-wide adoption which will test whether they support valid inferences about psychological and neuroscientific data. PMID:24999329

Hastings, Janna; Frishkoff, Gwen A; Smith, Barry; Jensen, Mark; Poldrack, Russell A; Lomax, Jane; Bandrowski, Anita; Imam, Fahim; Turner, Jessica A; Martone, Maryann E

2014-01-01

286

Interdisciplinary perspectives on the development, integration, and application of cognitive ontologies  

PubMed Central

We discuss recent progress in the development of cognitive ontologies and summarize three challenges in the coordinated development and application of these resources. Challenge 1 is to adopt a standardized definition for cognitive processes. We describe three possibilities and recommend one that is consistent with the standard view in cognitive and biomedical sciences. Challenge 2 is harmonization. Gaps and conflicts in representation must be resolved so that these resources can be combined for mark-up and interpretation of multi-modal data. Finally, Challenge 3 is to test the utility of these resources for large-scale annotation of data, search and query, and knowledge discovery and integration. As term definitions are tested and revised, harmonization should enable coordinated updates across ontologies. However, the true test of these definitions will be in their community-wide adoption which will test whether they support valid inferences about psychological and neuroscientific data. PMID:24999329

Hastings, Janna; Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Smith, Barry; Jensen, Mark; Poldrack, Russell A.; Lomax, Jane; Bandrowski, Anita; Imam, Fahim; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E.

2014-01-01

287

Self-locomotion and spatial language and spatial cognition: insights from typical and atypical development  

PubMed Central

Various studies have shown that occurrence of locomotion in infancy is correlated with the development of spatial cognitive competencies. Recent evidence suggests that locomotor experience might also be important for the development of spatial language. Together these findings suggest that locomotor experience might play a crucial role in the development of linguistic-cognitive spatial skills. However, some studies indicate that, despite their total deprivation of locomotor experience, young children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have the capacity to acquire and use rich spatial representations including good spatial language. Nonetheless, we have to be cautious about what the striking performances displayed by SMA children can reveal on the link between motor and spatial development, as the dynamics of brain development in atypically developing children are different from typically developing children. PMID:24917836

Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Rivière, James

2014-01-01

288

Large offspring syndrome  

PubMed Central

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a human loss-of-imprinting syndrome primarily characterized by macrosomia, macroglossia, and abdominal wall defects. BWS has been associated with misregulation of two clusters of imprinted genes. Children conceived with the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) appear to have an increased incidence of BWS. As in humans, ART can also induce a similar overgrowth syndrome in ruminants which is referred to as large offspring syndrome (LOS). The main goal of our study is to determine if LOS shows similar loss-of-imprinting at loci known to be misregulated in BWS. To test this, Bos taurus indicus × Bos taurus taurus F1 hybrids were generated by artificial insemination (AI; control) or by ART. Seven of the 27 conceptuses in the ART group were in the > 97th percentile body weight when compared with controls. Further, other characteristics reported in BWS were observed in the ART group, such as large tongue, umbilical hernia, and ear malformations. KCNQ1OT1 (the most-often misregulated imprinted gene in BWS) was biallelically-expressed in various organs in two out of seven overgrown conceptuses from the ART group, but shows monoallelic expression in all tissues of the AI conceptuses. Furthermore, biallelic expression of KCNQ1OT1 is associated with loss of methylation at the KvDMR1 on the maternal allele and with downregulation of the maternally-expressed gene CDKN1C. In conclusion, our results show phenotypic and epigenetic similarities between LOS and BWS, and we propose the use of LOS as an animal model to investigate the etiology of BWS. PMID:23751783

Chen, Zhiyuan; Robbins, Katherine Marie; Wells, Kevin Dale; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

2013-01-01

289

Improving Adult Literacy Outcomes: Lessons from Cognitive Research for Developing Countries. Directions in Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult literacy program outcomes have been disappointing. A number of principals and methods from cognitive and neuropsychological research can be used to make literacy instruction more effective, including the following: improving cognitive function; fast reading; reading practice; literacy as a motivator; and improving use of class time.…

Abadzi, Helen

290

Development of a computerized tool for the chinese version of the montreal cognitive assessment for screening mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is used for screening mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and the Beijing version (MoCA-BJ) is widely used in China. We aimed to develop a computerized tool for MoCA-BJ (MoCA-CC). Methods: MoCA-CC used person-machine interaction instead of patient-to-physician interaction; other aspects such as the scoring system did not differ from the original test. MoCA-CC, MoCA-BJ and routine neuropsychological tests were administered to 181 elderly participants (MCI = 96, normal controls [NC] = 85). Results: A total of 176 (97.24%) participants were evaluated successfully by MoCA-CC. Cronbach's ? for MoCA-CC was 0.72. The test-retest reliability (retesting after six weeks) was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82; P < 0.001). Significant differences were observed in total scores (t = 9.38, P < 0.001) and individual item scores (t = 2.18-8.62, P < 0.05) between the NC and MCI groups, except for the score for "Naming" (t = 0.24, P = 0.81). The MoCA-CC total scores were highly correlated with the MoCA-BJ total scores (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) in the MCI participants. The area under receiver-operator curve for the prediction of MCI was 0.97 (95% confidence interval = 0.95-1.00). At the optimal cut-off score of 25/26, MoCA-CC demonstrated 95.8% sensitivity and 87.1% specificity. Conclusion: The MoCA-CC tool developed here has several advantages over the paper-pencil method and is reliable for screening MCI in elderly Chinese individuals, especially in the primary clinical setting. It needs to be validated in other diverse and larger populations. PMID:25362894

Yu, Ke; Zhang, Shangang; Wang, Qingsong; Wang, Xiaofei; Qin, Yang; Wang, Jian; Li, Congyang; Wu, Yuxian; Wang, Weiwen; Lin, Hang

2014-11-01

291

Assessing the application of cognitive moral development theory to business ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive moral development (CMD) theory has been accepted as a construct to help explain business ethics, social responsibility and other organizational phenomena. This article critically assesses CMD as a construct in business ethics by presenting the history and criticisms of CMD. The value of CMD is evaluated and problems with using CMD as one predictor of ethical decisions are addressed.

John Fraedrich; Debbie M. Thorne; O. C. Ferrell

1994-01-01

292

Understanding Writing Problems in Young Children: Contributions of Cognitive Skills to the Development of Written Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While several models of adult writing have been proposed and studied, the development of writing skills in young children has only recently garnered attention. Using measures of fine-motor, language, working memory, and attention/executive functions, the current study explored motor and cognitive skills that may contribute to writing skill in…

Childress, Amy

2011-01-01

293

Implications of Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms for Early Cognitive and Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistically, women, particularly pregnant women and new mothers, are at heightened risk for depression. The present review describes the current state of the research linking maternal depressed mood and children's cognitive and language development. Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, whether during the prenatal period, postpartum period,…

Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.

2006-01-01

294

Applications of social cognitive theory to the career development of women of color  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a review of the literature on the educational and career development of women of color within the context of social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994; 1996). Specifically, possible gender, ethnic, racial, and cultural influences on career self-efficacy and outcome expectations are explored to delinate the potential mechanisms whereby ethnicity, culture, and ethnic and racial

Gail Hackett

1998-01-01

295

Effectiveness of a Video-Feedback and Questioning Programme to Develop Cognitive Expertise in Sport  

PubMed Central

The importance within sport expertise of cognitive factors has been emphasised in many research studies. Adaptations that take place in athletes’ long-term memories are going to condition their decision-making and performance, and training programmes must be developed that improve these adaptations. In our study, we provide a tactical-cognitive training programme based on video-feedback and questioning in order to improve tactical knowledge in tennis players and verify its effect when transferred to athletes’ decision-making. 11 intermediate tennis players participated in this study (12.9±0.7 years old), distributed into two groups (experimental, n?=?5; control, n?=?6). Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation and strategy planning with a verbal protocol. Decision-making was measured by a systematic observation instrument. Results confirm the effectiveness of a combination of video-feedback and questioning on cognitive expertise, developing adaptations in long-term memory that produce an improvement in the quality of tactical knowledge (content, sophistication and structure). This, in turn, is transferred to the athletes’ decision-making capacity, leading to a higher percentage of successful decisions made during game play. Finally, we emphasise the need to develop effective programmes to develop cognitive expertise and improve athletes' performance, and include it in athletes’ formative stages. PMID:24340012

García-González, Luis; Moreno, M. Perla; Moreno, Alberto; Gil, Alexander; del Villar, Fernando

2013-01-01

296

Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Internet-Facilitated Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Maternal Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Develop and pilot an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Method: Mothers (N = 70) of children enrolled in Head Start, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session,…

Sheeber, Lisa B.; Seeley, John R.; Feil, Edward G.; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Kosty, Derek B.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

2012-01-01

297

Iron Deficiency and the Cognitive and Psychomotor Development of Children: A Pilot Study with Institutionalized Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a pilot study, involving 48 institutionalized infants and toddlers, which aimed to treat iron deficiency anemia and to discover other factors contributing to the problem. Results indicate improvement in cognitive development after the administration of iron among three groups, while no significant differences were observed in psychomotor…

Driva, A.; And Others

1985-01-01

298

Methods of Investigating Cognitive Development of Children in Rural Kenya: Some Kamba Results. Staff Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little cognitive development research has been done among African children, and most of the completed studies have relied on "translated" versions of Western test materials that are inappropriate to the African milieu. This paucity of research has had two affects: (1) rural African children have been represented as somewhat less advanced…

Fjellman, Janet S.

299

Primal Splitting as a Basis for Emotional and Cognitive Development in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of good primal splitting as the basis for the child's emotional and cognitive development. A theoretical introduction analyses the possible pathologies of primal splitting, as they were first pointed out by Melanie Klein and then by some post-Kleinian authors, in particular Donald Meltzer. This is followed by…

Caccia, Ornella

2009-01-01

300

Key Steps in Developing a Cognitive Vaccine against Traumatic Flashbacks: Visuospatial Tetris versus Verbal Pub Quiz  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFlashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event) are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a ‘cognitive vaccine’ [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be

Emily A. Holmes; Ella L. James; Emma J. Kilford; Catherine Deeprose; Kenji Hashimoto

2010-01-01

301

Systematic Review of Cognitive Development across Childhood in Down Syndrome: Implications for Treatment Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is conjecture regarding the profile of cognitive development over time in children with Down syndrome (DS). Characterising this profile would be valuable for the planning and assessment of intervention studies. Method: A systematic search of the literature from 1990 to the present was conducted to identify longitudinal data on…

Patterson, T.; Rapsey, C. M.; Glue, P.

2013-01-01

302

Perceptions and Practices of Stimulating Children's Cognitive Development among Moroccan Immigrant Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored the perceptions of children's cognitive development among Moroccan Arabic and Berber immigrant mothers who cannot read, who are less educated, middle educated or highly educated in the Netherlands. A series of in-depth interviews was conducted with 22 mothers with young children (mean age = 5 years and 6 months). Qualitative data…

el Moussaoui, Nabila; Braster, Sjaak

2011-01-01

303

Contributions of Societal Modernity to Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Four Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of…

Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

2009-01-01

304

The Influence of Developmentally Appropriate Practice on Children's Cognitive Development: A Qualitative Metasynthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: As policymakers and advocates across the United States look to early childhood educators to improve children's cognitive development so they enter elementary school ready to learn, debates have emerged over what types of practices these educators should be engaged in to achieve this goal. Historically, the field of early childhood…

Brown, Christopher P.; Lan, Yi-Chin

2013-01-01

305

Longitudinal analyses of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a prospective cohort study of 249 children from birth to two years of age, we assessed the relation between prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development. On the basis of lead levels in umbilical-cord blood, children were assigned to one of three prenatal-exposure groups: low (less than 3 micrograms per deciliter), medium (6 to 7 micrograms per

D. Bellinger; A. Leviton; C. Waternaux; H. Needleman; M. Rabinowitz

1987-01-01

306

The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

2012-01-01

307

Crowding and Cognitive Development: The Mediating Role of Maternal Responsiveness among 36-Month-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Residential crowding in both U.S. and U.K. samples of 36-month-old children is related concurrently to the Bracken scale, a standard index of early cognitive development skills including letter and color identification, shape recognition, and elementary numeric comprehension. In the U.S. sample, these effects also replicate prospectively.…

Evans, Gary W.; Ricciuti, Henry N.; Hope, Steven; Schoon, Ingrid; Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Hazan, Cindy

2010-01-01

308

Predicting Preschool Cognitive Development from Infant Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Psychosocial Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation…

Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.

2006-01-01

309

Impact of Service-Learning and Social Justice Education on College Students' Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the Measure of Epistemology Reflection to explore the impact of service-learning and social justice education on college students' cognitive development. Six service-learning courses taught with or without a social justice emphasis were studied. Results showed that service-learning courses in general had a positive impact on…

Wang, Yan; Rodgers, Robert

2006-01-01

310

Synapse formation and cognitive brain development: effect of docosahexaenoic acid and other dietary constituents  

E-print Network

against age-related cognitive decline and the risk of developing Alzheimer disease [7-9]. Docosahexaenoic, this treatment is also known to increase synaptic proteins (eg, synapsin-l, syntaxin-3, GluR-l, PSD-95 others, changing the "fluidity" of neuronal mem- branes [11], and thereby alternating the activities

Wurtman, Richard

311

Cognitive Development of Fourth Graders in a High-Stakes State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jean Piaget's classic theory of cognitive development would imply that the higher-order items on the Kentucky state assessment would only be possible for students well into concrete operations or beginning formal operations. The implication would be that Kentucky fourth graders who are not fully concrete yet may be hitting a developmental ceiling…

Aagaard, Lola; Boram, Robert

312

Item Equivalence in English and Chinese Translation of a Cognitive Development Test for Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a study of potential sources of item nonequivalence between English and Chinese language versions of a cognitive development test for preschool-aged children. Items were flagged for potential nonequivalence through statistical and judgment-based procedures, and the relationship between flag status and item…

He, Wei; Wolfe, Edward W.

2010-01-01

313

Development of the BACKIE questionnaire: A measure of children's behaviors, attitudes, cognitions, knowledge, and injury experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to develop a standardized questionnaire (BACKIE) that would assess the Behaviors (B), Attitudes (A), Cognitions (C), Knowledge (K), and Injury Experiences (IE) that elementary-school children possess pertaining to seven types of injuries, including: falls; motor vehicle collisions; burns; drowning; choking\\/suffocation; poisoning; and bicycle\\/pedestrian injuries.

Barbara A. Morrongiello; Michael Cusimano; Benjamin K. Barton; Elizabeth Orr; Mary Chipman; Jeffrey Tyberg; Abhaya Kulkarini; Nazilla Khanlou; Ralph Masi; Tsegaye Bekele

2010-01-01

314

Cognitive and social factors in the development of infants with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants and young children with Down syndrome can be engaging and affectionate. It seems that in the early months of life their personal relations may be relatively 'spared' the effects of limitations in their capacities for information-processing. Yet how far is this the case as development proceeds? In this paper we discuss some ways in which social and cognitive devel-

Derek G. Moore; John M. Oates; R. Peter Hobson; Julia Goodwin

2002-01-01

315

Cognitive Developmental Level Gender, and the Development of Learned Helplessness on Mathematical Calculation and Reasoning Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to test whether a learned helplessness treatment would decrease performance on mathematical tasks and to extend learned helplessness findings to include the cognitive development dimension. Results showed no differential advantages to either sex in resisting effects of learned helplessness or in benefiting from strategy…

Monaco, Nanci M.; Gentile, J. Ronald

1987-01-01

316

With Eyes to the Future: A Brief History of Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research patterns from the past three decades and several current directions of research are used to describe emerging trends in the study of cognitive development. These trends are discussed as moving the field into new areas, particularly biology, learning, and social context, and contributing to a more integrated understanding of psychological…

Gauvain, Mary

2005-01-01

317

Vygotsky, Piaget, and Bandura: Perspectives on the Relations between the Social World and Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we examine the theories of Vygotsky, Piaget, and Bandura as they deal with the relation between the social world and cognitive development. The prevailing belief is that these theories are quite different from each other. We consider a number of factors that contribute to this belief. One is the easy categorization afforded by current ‘world views’ in

Jonathan R. H. Tudge; Paul A. Winterhoff

1993-01-01

318

Biomedical Engineering and Cognitive Science Secondary Science Curriculum Development: A Three Year Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on a multi-year effort to create and evaluate cognitive-based curricular materials for secondary school science classrooms. A team of secondary teachers, educational researchers, and academic biomedical engineers developed a series of curriculum units that are based in biomedical engineering for secondary level students in…

Klein, Stacy S.; Sherwood, Robert D.

2005-01-01

319

The Relations between Frontal Brain Electrical Activity and Cognitive Development during Infancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between changes in electroencephalograms and the development of the ability to perform cognitive tasks involving frontal lobe functioning in infants of 7 to 12 months of age. Infants who successfully found a hidden object showed changes in the power of brain electrical activity in the frontal lobe. (BC)

Bell, Martha Ann; Fox, Nathan A.

1992-01-01

320

Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Mother-Infant Interaction and the Infant's Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between mother-infant behavior and the infant's performance on perceptual-cognitive tasks as a function of the infant's sex. A total of 189 12-week-old infants and their mothers were observed in their homes during 2 hours of infant awake time. In addition, the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales…

Gallas, Howard B.; Lewis, Michael

321

Viewing Clinical Research Career Development through the Lens of Social Cognitive Career Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues such as, over commitment, insufficient time, and lack of funding, threaten physicians' entry and sustainability in a research career pathway. Social cognitive career theory is presented as a conceptual framework to critically examine the limitations of the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) efforts to promote the career development of…

Bakken, Lori L.; Byars-Winston, Angela; Wang, Min-fen

2006-01-01

322

Early Childhood Computer Experience and Cognitive Development among Urban Low-Income Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the association between home computer experience and cognitive development among preschool children in inner-city Head Start programs. Approximately 200 children enrolled in four Head Start centers in Detroit, Michigan were recruited to participate in this study. Data was collected from parents regarding the children's…

Fish, Angela M.; Li, Xiaoming; McCarrick, Katy; Butler, Sheretta T.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan; Holtrop, Teresa; Partridge, Ty

2008-01-01

323

Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development. NBER Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a sample of 3- and 4-year-old children of female respondents from the 1986 National Longitudinal Surveys Youth Cohort to analyze the relationship between maternal labor supply and children's cognitive development. Respondents were 21 to 29 years old in 1986. Thus, the sample consisted of children of relatively young mothers.…

Blau, Francine D.; Grossberg, Adam J.

324

Humour in Cognitive and Social Development: Creative Artists and Class Clowns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a number of characteristics of gifted children reported by teachers and researchers. Such characteristics may include curiosity, advanced mathematical skills, large vocabulary, acute sense of humour. This paper examines the demands that humour, as a creative activity, makes on cognitive and social development. It is derived from research…

Jewell, Paul

2005-01-01

325

The Interaction of Selective Attention and Cognitive Development on Achievement in Nigerian Secondary School Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study tried to examine the interaction between two independent variables of selective attention and cognitive development on Achievement in Genetics at the Secondary School level. In looking at the problem of this study three null hypotheses were generated for testing at 0.05 level of significance. Factorial Analysis of Variance design with…

Okoye, Namdi N. S.

2009-01-01

326

Development of classification models for early identification of persons at risk for persistent cognitive decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective\\u000a   To develop two classification models for use in primary care to aid early identification of persons at risk for persistent\\u000a cognitive decline.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   Data were used from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), an ongoing populationbased study. The study sample consisted\\u000a of 2,021 non-demented men and women aged 58–88 years. Data on relevant predictors of persistent cognitive decline were

T. N. van den Kommer; H. C. Comijs; M. G. Dik; C. Jonker; D. J. H. Deeg

2008-01-01

327

The Effect of Breastfeeding and Stimulation in the Home on Cognitive Development in One-Year-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the effects of breastfeeding on child cognitive development has produced conflicting results, and many studies do not account for infant stimulation in the home. The aim of this study is to determine whether breastfeeding predicts enhanced cognitive development in one-year-old infants after controlling for the main socio-economic and…

Sloan, Seaneen; Stewart, Moira; Dunne, Laura

2010-01-01

328

The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

Seaton, Eleanor K.

2010-01-01

329

Development and Pilot Testing of a Novel Compensatory Cognitive Training Intervention for People with Psychosis  

PubMed Central

The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia have a profound impact on everyday functioning and level of community integration for affected individuals. Cognitive training (CT) interventions may help improve these impairments. We developed and pilot tested a 12-week, group based CT intervention that focused on compensatory strategies and habit learning. Participants were randomly assigned to CT plus standard pharmacotherapy or standard pharmacotherapy (SP) alone and were assessed at baseline, three months (i.e., post-intervention), and at six months. Effect sizes were calculated comparing change in the CT group with change in the SP group. CT had medium to large positive effects on attention, learning, memory, executive functioning, functional capacity, negative symptoms, and subjective quality of life. Most effects became stronger at follow-up, but the effect on negative symptoms was not maintained. Immediately post-treatment, compared with SP subjects, CT participants reported fewer cognitive problems and greater use of cognitive strategies; many of these effects were maintained, but were generally weaker, at six-month follow-up. The initial effect sizes for this compensatory CT intervention suggest that it holds promise for improving cognitive performance, functional capacity, negative symptoms, and quality of life. It is proposed that CT emphasizing habit learning may result in long term changes in ability to function independently in the community. PMID:19198664

Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Savla, Gauri N.; Zurhellen, Cynthia H.; Heaton, Robert K.; Jeste, Dilip V.

2009-01-01

330

The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology  

PubMed Central

The circumplex model of affect proposes that all affective states arise from cognitive interpretations of core neural sensations that are the product of two independent neurophysiological systems. This model stands in contrast to theories of basic emotions, which posit that a discrete and independent neural system subserves every emotion. We propose that basic emotion theories no longer explain adequately the vast number of empirical observations from studies in affective neuroscience, and we suggest that a conceptual shift is needed in the empirical approaches taken to the study of emotion and affective psychopathologies. The circumplex model of affect is more consistent with many recent findings from behavioral, cognitive neuroscience, neuroimaging, and developmental studies of affect. Moreover, the model offers new theoretical and empirical approaches to studying the development of affective disorders as well as the genetic and cognitive underpinnings of affective processing within the central nervous system. PMID:16262989

Posner, Jonathan; Russell, James A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

2008-01-01

331

Impaired brain development and reduced cognitive function in phospholipase D-deficient mice.  

PubMed

The phospholipases D (PLD1 and 2) are signaling enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid, a lipid second messenger involved in cell proliferation, and choline, a precursor of acetylcholine (ACh). In the present study, we investigated development and cognitive function in mice that were deficient for PLD1, or PLD2, or both. We found that PLD-deficient mice had reduced brain growth at 14-27 days post partum when compared to wild-type mice. In adult PLD-deficient mice, cognitive function was impaired in social and object recognition tasks. Using brain microdialysis, we found that wild-type mice responded with a 4-fold increase of hippocampal ACh release upon behavioral stimulation in the open field, while PLD-deficient mice released significantly less ACh. These results may be relevant for cognitive dysfunctions observed in fetal alcohol syndrome and in Alzheimer' disease. PMID:24813107

Burkhardt, Ute; Stegner, David; Hattingen, Elke; Beyer, Sandra; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Klein, Jochen

2014-06-20

332

Transgenerational left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension in offspring after uteroplacental insufficiency in male rats.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have shown an association between low birthweight and adult disease development with transmission to subsequent generations. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of intrauterine growth restriction in rats, induced by uteroplacental insufficiency, on cardiac structure, number, size, nuclearity, and adult blood pressure in first (F1) and second (F2) generation male offspring. Uteroplacental insufficiency or sham surgery was induced in F0 Wistar-Kyoto pregnant rats in late gestation giving rise to F1 restricted and control offspring, respectively. F1 control and restricted females were mated with normal males, resulting in F2 control and restricted offspring, respectively. F1 restricted male offspring were significantly lighter at birth (P < 0.05), but there were no differences in birthweight of F2 offspring. Left ventricular weights and volumes were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in F1 and F2 restricted offspring at day 35. Left ventricular cardiomyocyte number was not different in F1 and F2 restricted offspring. At 6 months-of-age, F1 and F2 restricted offspring had elevated blood pressure (8-15 mmHg, P < 0.05). Our findings demonstrate the emergence of left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension, with no change in cardiomyocyte number, in F1 restricted male offspring, and this was transmitted to the F2 offspring. The findings support transgenerational programming effects. PMID:25199478

Master, Jordanna S; Zimanyi, Monika A; Yin, Kom V; Moritz, Karen M; Gallo, Linda A; Tran, Melanie; Wlodek, Mary E; Black, Mary J

2014-11-01

333

Does attainment of Piaget's formal operational level of cognitive development predict student understanding of scientific models?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of scientific models and their uses is a concept that has become a key benchmark in many of the science standards of the past 30 years, including the proposed Next Generation Science Standards. Knowledge of models is linked to other important nature of science concepts such as theory change which are also rising in prominence in newer standards. Effective methods of instruction will need to be developed to enable students to achieve these standards. The literature reveals an inconsistent history of success with modeling education. These same studies point to a possible cognitive development component which might explain why some students succeeded and others failed. An environmental science course, rich in modeling experiences, was used to test both the extent to which knowledge of models and modeling could be improved over the course of one semester, and more importantly, to identify if cognitive ability was related to this improvement. In addition, nature of science knowledge, particularly related to theories and theory change, was also examined. Pretest and posttest results on modeling (SUMS) and nature of science (SUSSI), as well as data from the modeling activities themselves, was collected. Cognitive ability was measured (CTSR) as a covariate. Students' gain in six of seven categories of modeling knowledge was at least medium (Cohen's d >.5) and moderately correlated to CTSR for two of seven categories. Nature of science gains were smaller, although more strongly correlated with CTSR. Student success at creating a model was related to CTSR, significantly in three of five sub-categories. These results suggest that explicit, reflective experience with models can increase student knowledge of models and modeling (although higher cognitive ability students may have more success), but successfully creating models may depend more heavily on cognitive ability. This finding in particular has implications in the grade placement of modeling standards and curriculum chosen to help these students, particularly those with low cognitive ability, to meet the standards.

Lahti, Richard Dennis, II

334

Enhancing Cognitive Development through Physics Problem Solving: A Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of an ongoing project to reform the introductory algebra-based physics courses at George Washington University, we are developing a taxonomy of introductory physics problems (TIPP) that establishes a connection between the physics problems, the type of physics knowledge they involve and the cognitive processes they develop in students. This taxonomy will provide, besides an algorithm for classifying physics problems, an organized and relatively easy-to-use database of physics problems that contains the majority of already created text-based and research-based types of problems. In addition, this taxonomy will reveal the kinds of physics problems that are still lacking and that are found to be necessary to enhance studentsâ cognitive development. For this reason, we expect it to be a valuable teaching resource for physics instructors which will enable them to select the problems used in their curricular materials based on the specifics of their studentsâ cognition and the learning objectives they want to achieve in their class. This organization scheme will also provide a framework for creating physics-related assessments with a cognitive component.

Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Bennhold, Cornelius; Feldman, Gerald

2008-09-18

335

A new treatment for cognitive disorders related to in utero exposure to alcohol?  

PubMed Central

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has detrimental effects on fetal central nervous system development. Maternal alcohol consumption prior to and during pregnancy significantly affects cognitive functions in offspring, which may be related to changes in cyclin-dependent kinase 5 because it is associated with modulation of synaptic plasticity and impaired learning and memory. In this study, we examined adult offspring in a maternal alcohol consumption model in rats. Y-maze test results showed that in utero exposure to alcohol impairs learning and memory capacities. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 mRNA and protein expressions in the hippocampus of the offspring were significantly elevated, as assayed by quantitative real-time PCR and reverse transcription-PCR, immunofluorescence, and immuno-precipitation. Our experimental findings strongly suggest that altered cyclin-dependent kinase 5 may mediate impaired learning and memory in adult rats that were exposed to alcohol by maternal consumption while in utero. PMID:25206467

Li, Shuang; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Bin; Lin, Jianying; Xu, Chunyang; Yang, Wancai; Hao, Wei; Zhang, Ruiling

2013-01-01

336

Neuroimaging, a new tool for investigating the effects of early diet on cognitive and brain development  

PubMed Central

Nutrition is crucial to the initial development of the central nervous system (CNS), and then to its maintenance, because both depend on dietary intake to supply the elements required to develop and fuel the system. Diet in early life is often seen in the context of “programming” where a stimulus occurring during a vulnerable period can have long-lasting or even lifetime effects on some aspect of the organism's structure or function. Nutrition was first shown to be a programming stimulus for growth, and then for cognitive behavior, in animal studies that were able to employ methods that allowed the demonstration of neural effects of early nutrition. Such research raised the question of whether nutrition could also programme cognition/brain structure in humans. Initial studies of cognitive effects were observational, usually conducted in developing countries where the presence of confounding factors made it difficult to interpret the role of nutrition in the cognitive deficits that were seen. Attributing causality to nutrition required randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and these, often in developed countries, started to appear around 30 years ago. Most demonstrated convincingly that early nutrition could affect subsequent cognition. Until the advent of neuroimaging techniques that allowed in vivo examination of the brain, however, we could determine very little about the neural effects of early diet in humans. The combination of well-designed trials with neuroimaging tools means that we are now able to pose and answer questions that would have seemed impossible only recently. This review discusses various neuroimaging methods that are suitable for use in nutrition studies, while pointing out some of the limitations that they may have. The existing literature is small, but examples of studies that have used these methods are presented. Finally, some considerations that have arisen from previous studies, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed. PMID:23964224

Isaacs, Elizabeth B.

2013-01-01

337

EARLY WHEEZING PHENOTYPES AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF 3-YEAR OLDS. COMMUNITY-RECRUITED BIRTH COHORT STUDY  

PubMed Central

The main purpose of the study was to answer the question whether young children without clinical diagnosis of asthma but experiencing early wheezing disorders and therefore being at high risk of developing asthma may have cognitive deficits. In the ongoing birth cohort study wheezing symptoms were recorded postpartum over two first years of age and subsequently cognitive status of children at the age of 3 years was assessed with the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI). In the statistical analysis a wide range of modifying and confounding factors (maternal education, gender of children, prenatal exposure to lead and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were considered to assess the independent effect of early wheezing phenotypes on cognitive development of children. The MDI score correlated inversely with the number of wheezing days recorded over 24 months (r = ?0.13, p=0.007), lead cord blood concentration (r = ? 0.12, p = ? 0.02), number of siblings (r = ? 0.17, p = 0.0006) and the number of cigarettes smoked daily by other household members at home over the pregnancy period (r = ? 0.18, p = 0.0002). While the children who experienced wheezing over the first year of age showed deficit of 2 MDI scores (beta coeff. = ?2.31, 95%CI: ?4.63 to 0.02), those with persistent wheezing had the score deficit of 4 points (beta coeff. = ? 4.41, 95%CI: ?8.27 to ?0.55). To our knowledge, it is the first report in the literature showing that early wheezing is associated the cognitive deficit in a community-recruited very young children. Observed cognitive deficit in early wheezers may be caused by RSV infections or can be related to lower lung function attributed to persistent wheezing, which reducing oxygen supply would affect rapidly developing brain. PMID:19548966

Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.; Jankowski, Jeffery; Maugeri, Umberto; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Skarupa, Anita; Edwards, Susan; Lisowska-Miszczyk, Ilona

2013-01-01

338

The Mystery of Cognitive Structure and How We Can Detect It: Tracking the Development of Cognitive Structures over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many research studies have clearly demonstrated the importance of cognitive structures as the building blocks of meaningful learning and retention of instructional materials. Identifying the learners' cognitive structures will help instructors to organize materials, identify knowledge gaps, and relate new materials to existing slots or anchors…

Ifenthaler, Dirk; Masduki, Iskandaria; Seel, Norbert M.

2011-01-01

339

Multiple jeopardy: Risk and protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring  

PubMed Central

Objectives of this study were to ascertain risk and protective factors in the adjustment of 78 school-age and teenage offspring of opioid- and cocaine-abusing mothers. Using a multimethod, multiinformant approach, child outcomes were operationalized via lifetime psychiatric diagnoses and everyday social competence (each based on both mother and child reports), and dimensional assessments of symptoms (mother report). Risk/protective factors examined included the child sociodemographic attributes of gender, age, and ethnicity, aspects of maternal psychopathology, and both mother's and children's cognitive functioning. Results revealed that greater child maladjustment was linked with increasing age, Caucasian (as opposed to African American) ethnicity, severity of maternal psychiatric disturbance, higher maternal cognitive abilities (among African Americans) and lower child cognitive abilities (among Caucasians). Limitations of the study are discussed, as are implications of findings for future research. PMID:9524811

LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; CUSHING, GRETTA; MERIKANGAS, KATHLEEN R.; ROUNSAVILLE, BRUCE J.

2012-01-01

340

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Subjects at Ultrahigh Risk for Developing Psychosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background : Evidence for the effectiveness of treatments for subjects at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for developing psychosis remains inconclusive. Objective : A new cognitive behavioral intervention specifically targeted at cognitive biases (ie, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [CBT] for UHR patients plus treatment as usual [TAU] called CBTuhr) is compared with TAU in a group of young help-seeking UHR subjects. Methods : A total of 201 patients were recruited at 4 sites and randomized. In most cases, CBTuhr was an add-on therapy because most people were seeking help for a comorbid disorder. The CBT was provided for 6 months, and the follow-up period was 18 months. Results : In the CBTuhr condition, 10 patients transitioned to psychosis compared with 22 in the TAU condition (? 2 (1) = 5.575, P = .03). The number needed to treat (NNT) was 9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.7–89.9). At 18-month follow-up the CBTuhr group was significantly more often remitted from an at-risk mental state, with a NNT of 7 (95% CI: 3.7–71.2). Intention-to-treat analysis, including 5 violations against exclusion criteria, showed a statistical tendency (? 2 (1) = 3.338, P = .06). Conclusions : Compared with TAU, this new CBT (focusing on normalization and awareness of cognitive biases) showed a favorable effect on the transition to psychosis and reduction of subclinical psychotic symptoms in subjects at UHR to develop psychosis. PMID:22941746

van der Gaag, Mark

2012-01-01

341

The development of emotion regulation: an fMRI study of cognitive reappraisal in children, adolescents and young adults  

E-print Network

The ability to use cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions is an adaptive skill in adulthood, but little is known about its development. Because reappraisal is thought to be supported by linearly developing prefrontal ...

Gabrieli, John D. E.

342

The Development of Cognitive Vulnerability to Hopelessness Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

While several studies have supported the hopelessness theory's claim that depressogenic inferential styles serve as vulnerability factors to depression, little research has examined how these styles de- velop. The current study examined three theories of their development in children between the ages of 7 and 13. Results supported two of these theories, indicating that children with pessimistic infer- ential styles

Sabina Sarin; John R. Z. Abela

2005-01-01

343

Professional Development through "Kizuki"--Cognitive, Emotional, and Collegial Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author traced an English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher's professional development by examining her narrative and identifying the transformation of her awareness or "kizuki". "Kizuki," which is unique to Japanese culture, implies a sudden feeling of inner understanding of a phenomenon and can be roughly translated as "becoming aware of",…

Sakamoto, Nami

2011-01-01

344

The Motor and Cognitive Development of Overweight Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the development of overweight compared with healthy-weight children attending kindergartens in Munich, Germany. Mean age of the children at the beginning of the study was 53.2 months (SD = 7.5); the duration of the study was 20 months. At the beginning of the study children were classified as overweight (n…

Krombholz, Heinz

2012-01-01

345

Developing Culturally Competent Faculty: A Cognitive, Affective, and Spiritual Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past decade has evidenced significant dialogue on faith-based campuses about the persistent gap between the increasing ethnic diversity of the student population and that of the faculty. While campus administrators and leaders acknowledge the need to address this concern through faculty development, there is a disturbing lack of successful…

Taylor, Deborah L.; Van Zandt, Cassandra; Menjares, Pete C.

2013-01-01

346

Systems and Cascades in Cognitive Development and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large-scale ("N" = 552) controlled multivariate prospective 14-year longitudinal study of a developmental cascade embedded in a developmental system showed that information-processing efficiency in infancy (4 months), general mental development in toddlerhood (18 months), behavior difficulties in early childhood (36 months), psychometric…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Wolke, Dieter

2013-01-01

347

What Infants Know: The New Cognitive Science of Early Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that beyond the individual variations among humans, there is a body of mental abilities common to every human being, this book examines the debate among researchers about the extent to which humans are "preprogrammed," and suggests a new scientific psychology of human development. By examining experimental data obtained from adults,…

Mehler, Jacques; Dupoux, Emmanuel

348

Helping Young Children Develop Cognitive Skills in a Bilingual-Multicultural Environment. Bilingual/Bicultural Child Development Associate Pilot Project: Module VIII.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, the seventh in a series of 16, provides an introduction to cognitive development in young children for bilingual/bicultural preschool teacher trainees. Perceptual skills (visual, figure-ground, part-whole, spatial, auditory and tactile discrimination) and cognitive processes and concepts…

Coleman, Joyce H.

349

Twenty years and going strong: A dynamic systems revolution in motor and cognitive development  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the major contributions of dynamic systems theory in advancing thinking about development, the empirical insights the theory has generated, and the key challenges for the theory on the horizon. The first section discusses the emergence of dynamic systems theory in developmental science, the core concepts of the theory, and the resonance it has with other approaches that adopt a systems metatheory. The second section reviews the work of Esther Thelen and colleagues, who revolutionized how researchers think about the field of motor development. It also reviews recent extensions of this work to the domain of cognitive development. Here, the focus is on dynamic field theory, a formal, neurally grounded approach that has yielded novel insights into the embodied nature of cognition. The final section proposes that the key challenge on the horizon is to formally specify how interactions among multiple levels of analysis interact across multiple time scales to create developmental change. PMID:22125575

Spencer, John P.; Perone, Sammy; Buss, Aaron T.

2011-01-01

350

Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind”) in offspring of mothers with psychoses  

PubMed Central

Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind”) and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions. PMID:24749009

Maróthi, Rebeka

2014-01-01

351

Systems and Cascades in Cognitive Development and Academic Achievement  

PubMed Central

A large-scale (N = 552) controlled multivariate prospective 14-year longitudinal study of a developmental system showed that information-processing efficiency in infancy (4 months), general mental development in toddlerhood (18 months), behavior difficulties in early childhood (36 months), psychometric intelligence in middle childhood (8 years), and maternal education either directly or indirectly (or both) contribute to academic achievement in adolescence (14 years). PMID:22974268

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Wolke, Dieter

2012-01-01

352

Contributions of Domain-General Cognitive Resources and Different Forms of Arithmetic Development to Pre-Algebraic Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of domain-general cognitive resources and different forms of arithmetic development to individual differences in pre-algebraic knowledge. Children (n = 279, mean age = 7.59 years) were assessed on 7 domain-general cognitive resources as well as arithmetic calculations and word problems…

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Powell, Sarah R.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Vernier, Emily; Namkung, Jessica M.; Vukovic, Rose K.

2012-01-01

353

Variability of Cognitive Development in Children with Down Syndrome: Relevance of Good Reasons for Using the Cluster Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of this cross-sectional study was to demonstrate that, in addition to a main change during childhood, the cognitive development of children with Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by interindividual variability in their cognitive functioning. Eighty-eight French children with DS took part in this experiment. They were divided into…

Tsao, R.; Kindelberger, C.

2009-01-01

354

A psychology based approach for longitudinal development in cognitive robotics.  

PubMed

A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behavior that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks. This paper presents an approach to these issues through robotic implementations inspired by the learning behavior of human infants. We describe an approach to developmental learning and present results from a demonstration of longitudinal development on an iCub humanoid robot. The results cover the rapid emergence of staged behavior, the role of constraints in development, the effect of bootstrapping between stages, and the use of a schema memory of experiential fragments in learning new skills. The context is a longitudinal experiment in which the robot advanced from uncontrolled motor babbling to skilled hand/eye integrated reaching and basic manipulation of objects. This approach offers promise for further fast and effective sensory-motor learning techniques for robotic learning. PMID:24478693

Law, J; Shaw, P; Earland, K; Sheldon, M; Lee, M

2014-01-01

355

A psychology based approach for longitudinal development in cognitive robotics  

PubMed Central

A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behavior that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks. This paper presents an approach to these issues through robotic implementations inspired by the learning behavior of human infants. We describe an approach to developmental learning and present results from a demonstration of longitudinal development on an iCub humanoid robot. The results cover the rapid emergence of staged behavior, the role of constraints in development, the effect of bootstrapping between stages, and the use of a schema memory of experiential fragments in learning new skills. The context is a longitudinal experiment in which the robot advanced from uncontrolled motor babbling to skilled hand/eye integrated reaching and basic manipulation of objects. This approach offers promise for further fast and effective sensory-motor learning techniques for robotic learning. PMID:24478693

Law, J.; Shaw, P.; Earland, K.; Sheldon, M.; Lee, M.

2014-01-01

356

Student Cognitive Difficulties and Mental Model Development of Complex Earth and Environmental Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students organize scientific knowledge and reason about environmental issues through manipulation of mental models. The nature of the environmental sciences, which are focused on the study of complex, dynamic systems, may present cognitive difficulties to students in their development of authentic, accurate mental models of environmental systems. The inquiry project seeks to develop and assess the coupling of information technology (IT)-based learning with physical models in order to foster rich mental model development of environmental systems in geoscience undergraduate students. The manipulation of multiple representations, the development and testing of conceptual models based on available evidence, and exposure to authentic, complex and ill-constrained problems were the components of investigation utilized to reach the learning goals. Upper-level undergraduate students enrolled in an environmental geology course at Texas A&M University participated in this research which served as a pilot study. Data based on rubric evaluations interpreted by principal component analyses suggest students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry is limited and the ability to cross scales and link systems proved problematic. Results categorized into content knowledge and cognition processes where reasoning, critical thinking and cognitive load were driving factors behind difficulties in student learning. Student mental model development revealed multiple misconceptions and lacked complexity and completeness to represent the studied systems. Further, the positive learning impacts of the implemented modules favored the physical model over the IT-based learning projects, likely due to cognitive load issues. This study illustrates the need to better understand student difficulties in solving complex problems when using IT, where the appropriate scaffolding can then be implemented to enhance student learning of the earth system sciences.

Sell, K.; Herbert, B.; Schielack, J.

2004-05-01

357

Cognitive development and children's perceptions of fruit and vegetables; a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Most children do not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake. Since preference is an important predictor of intake, more knowledge is needed about children's preferences and about how these preferences develop. As most research about preferences has ignored cognitive development, this study was designed to explore the relation between children's perceptions and preferences for fruit and vegetables and their cognitive development. Methods The study population consisted of eight 4–5-year-old children, eight 7–8-year-old children and twelve 11–12-year-old children, recruited via a primary school in Wageningen, The Netherlands. Qualitative in-depth information was obtained by duo-interviews and focus group discussions. A structured guide with questions and game tasks was applied to address different domains in a consistent way. Results The developmental progress at the abstraction level was seen in children's reasoning across all domains. Children's preferences expanded and increased in complexity as they moved to a higher age bracket. The most important determinants for liking and disliking shifted from appearance and texture attributes in 4–5-year-olds towards taste attributes in 11–12-year-olds. Children's knowledge of basic tastes increased. Their understanding of health improved as they grew older. The emergence of social norms and perspectives of others as the children grew older was also seen in relation to fruit and vegetables. Child-reported parental strategies to stimulate healthy eating appeared to vary with age in line with cognitive development. Conclusion Cognitive development is paralleled by changes in the importance given to the attributes that determine whether a child likes or dislikes fruits and vegetables; children's understanding of and reasoning about health; and parental use of strategies. These developmental differences should be incorporated in programs designed to increase long-term fruit and vegetable intake in children. PMID:17620131

Zeinstra, Gertrude G; Koelen, Maria A; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

2007-01-01

358

A prospective longitudinal study on visuo-cognitive development in Dravet syndrome: Is there a "dorsal stream vulnerability"?  

PubMed

A group of five DS patients whose first development was already reported were longitudinally followed up till the scholar age. Beside the general and epileptic clinical evolution, visual and cognitive functions were investigated in order to define their trajectory and possibly provide information about mechanisms of cognitive decline as well as to improve prognosis and tertiary prevention. Neuropsychological assessment was performed with a test battery investigating the development of visual function that progressively integrates into extrastriate components and higher cognitive skills (global form and motion coherence, stereopsis, crowding cards, ABCDEFV battery, general intelligence and specific cognitive tests). Main results showed a fall in visuo-motor items including global motion coherence and specific cognitive skills, presenting a continuity of the visual function deterioration extended from basic abilities to visuo-motor dorsal pathway skills. Moreover, a case whose previous visual and cognitive functions had been in the normal range began showing a visual deterioration with increasing age, followed by the cognitive decline; that prevents from excluding in early ages a poor development in presence of a normal visual function. A dorsal stream vulnerability seems thus shown in this sample of DS patients, like in other genetic syndromes (Williams, Prader Willi. fragile-X), providing new information about mechanisms underlying cognitive decline and suggesting a possible strategy to improve their neuropsychological outcome. Larger cohorts may confirm whether these findings are part of a specific pattern of DS neuropsychological phenotype. PMID:25524843

Ricci, D; Chieffo, D; Battaglia, D; Brogna, C; Contaldo, I; De Clemente, V; Losito, E; Dravet, Ch; Mercuri, E; Guzzetta, F

2015-01-01

359

Pesticides used in cotton production affect reproductive development, endocrine regulation, liver status and offspring fitness in African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).  

PubMed

We exposed African catfish Clarias gariepinus from embryo-larvae stage to adult stage (13months old, BW) to chronic doses of Tihan 175 O-TEQ and endosulfan (Thionex) and assessed the impact of this exposure on endocrine regulation, liver status and offspring fitness. Endosulfan exposure caused a significant increase in plasma estradiol-17? (E2) and decreased plasma testosterone (T) but not 11 ketotestosterone (11-KT). Tihan decreased significantly plasma E2 and 11-KT, but not T. Endosulfan doses altered gonad histology and induced high proportions (18-30% of males) of ovotestis in males and follicular atretic oocytes in females, indicating occurrence of feminization in fish. Tihan also altered gonad histology but only one case of ovotestis was observed at the highest dose. Presence of foam cells in lobular lumen, fibrosis, necrosis, and immature cells released in lobular lumen were found in male gonads and melano-macrophage centers (MMCs), necrosis, fibrosis and vacuolation were observed in female gonads. Fish livers also suffered injuries such as MMCs, necrosis, fibrosis, vacuolation, dilatation of sinusoids, and nuclear pleomorphism. Chronic Tihan and Thionex exposures decreased fertilization rate, hatching rate, ova and larval weight, as well as larval resistance to osmotic choc. They also delayed hatching and increased abnormalities in the F1 generation, all these indicators suggesting transgenerational effects of these compounds. PMID:25445569

Agbohessi, Prudencio T; Toko, Ibrahim I; Atchou, Vincent; Tonato, Roland; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, Patrick

2014-10-15

360

Child care quality and cognitive development: trajectories leading to better preacademic skills.  

PubMed

The associations between trajectories of child care quality from ages 2 to 4 years and children's cognitive performance at 4 years (n = 250) were tested. Distinct quality trajectories were identified: low and high ascending Teaching and Interactions trajectory; low and high Provision for Learning trajectory. Membership in the high ascending Teaching and Interactions trajectory was associated with better numeracy (effect size [ES] = .39, confidence interval [CI] = .21-.66), receptive vocabulary (ES = .41, CI = .14-.68), and school readiness (ES = .32, CI = .06-.58). The results suggest that a pattern of increasing quality of teacher-child interactions during the preschool years, particularly with regard to supporting the development of language, has a moderate impact on children's cognitive development. PMID:23083205

Côté, Sylvana M; Mongeau, Chantal; Japel, Christa; Xu, Qian; Séguin, Jean R; Tremblay, Richard E

2013-01-01

361

Selective organ specific inflammation in offspring harbouring microchimerism from strongly alloreactive mothers.  

PubMed

The origins of autoimmunity are not yet understood despite significant advances in immunology. The trafficking of maternal cells to the offspring represents the very first immunological event in foetal life and is reinforced during lactation. The persistence of maternal cells in offspring's tissues and circulation has been associated with several autoimmune disorders. However a direct causal effect has never been demonstrated. Maternal T cells specifically targeting foetal insulin producing cells have been shown to generate islet inflammation without directly participating in this process. Our objective was to evaluate if alloreactive maternal cells could directly trigger a graft-versus host like reaction or indirectly influence the development of the offspring's regulatory T cells favouring autoimmunity. We adopted a breeding strategy comparing genetically identical offspring from either strongly alloreactive transgenic mothers compared to immunodeficient mothers. We detected maternal alloreactive T cells in the offspring and early signs of inflammation in small intestine of 6 weeks old offspring. Interestingly, CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell frequency was diminished in mesenteric lymph nodes from eight months old offspring born of alloreactive mothers compared to offspring of immunodeficient mothers. Our study favours a hypothesis where highly alloreactive maternal cell microchimerism indirectly predisposes offspring to autoimmunity. PMID:24268809

Leveque, Lucie; Hodgson, Samantha; Peyton, Stephen; Koyama, Motoko; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

2014-05-01

362

Endocrine Substrates of Cognitive and Affective Changes During Pregnancy and Postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy and motherhood constitute periods of tremendous hormonal variation that orchestrate parturition, lactation, maternal care, maternal aggression, and recognition of offspring, among other functions. Cognitive processing also varies during pregnancy and motherhood and may serve an adaptive function in preparation for parturition and rearing. Additionally, maternal experience may have enduring consequences for the brain, behavior, and cognition long after offspring

Joanna L. Workman; Cindy K. Barha; Liisa A. M. Galea

2012-01-01

363

The Effects of Breast Milk Versus Infant Formulae on Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially-available infant formulae are designed to provide infants with the same nutritional value as breast milk; however, there are many biological components (i.e., maternally-derived antibodies) that cannot be reproduced. There is evidence in the literature to support the hypothesis that feeding with breast milk provides benefits to the infant in terms of development and cognitive outcome. The most studied components

Jennie Yum

2007-01-01

364

Relation of moral and cognitive development to dimensions of juvenile delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using H. C. Quay's (1972) typology, 3 groups of 12 Ss each––adolescent psychopathic, neurotic, and subcultural delinquent males (mean age 15.68 yrs)––and a matched nondelinquent control group were individually administered L. Kohlberg's (1964, 1969) structured moral dilemmas, 2 Piagetian tasks of cognitive development (pendulum and balance), and an adaptation of J. Flavell's (1968) role-taking task. Psychopathic Ss were more immature

Gregory J. Jurkovic; Norman M. Prentice

1977-01-01

365

Grades of undernutrition and socioeconomic status influence cognitive development in school children of Kolkata.  

PubMed

Cognitive development of children is influenced by different environmental factors like nutritional and socio-economic status. The objectives of the present study were to determine the influence of grades of undernutrition and socio-economic status (SES) on the cognitive development of school children of Kolkata. Five hundred sixty six (566) school children having 5-12 years of age were selected from different schools of Kolkata. The cognitive development was measured by the scores of Raven's colored progressive matrices (RCPM). The chronic and acute nutritional statuses were measured from height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) Z scores respectively with reference to the values of WHO. SES was determined by updated Kuppuswamy scale. The prevalences of undernutrition in the observed children were 57.95% (according to HAZ) and 52.82% (according to WAZ). The age dependent growth curve of RCPM scores of the observed children remains in between the 10th and 25th centile of British children. The children belonging to superior and intellectual deficit IQ classes were 21.55 and 36.40%, respectively of the total subjects. Most of the subjects belong to lower middle (39.93%) and upper middle (36.40%) class of SES. RCPM scores of school children were gradually decreased with the grades of undernutrition and SES. RCPM scores were significantly correlated with HAZ, WAZ, SES, age, and sex (P?cognitive development of school children of Kolkata is influenced by the grade of undernutrition and SES. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:274-285, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25348835

Ghosh, Satabdi; Chowdhury, Sutanu Dutta; Chandra, Ananga Mohan; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

2015-02-01

366

Association of traffic-related air pollution with cognitive development in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAir pollution from traffic has been associated with cardiorespiratory diseases in children and adults, but there is little information on its potential neurotoxic effects. This study aimed to investigate the association between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), as a marker of traffic-related air pollution, and cognitive development in children.MethodsA population-based birth cohort from southern Spain was followed from the age

Carmen Freire; Rosa Ramos; Raquel Puertas; Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa; Jordi Julvez; Inmaculada Aguilera; Francisco Cruz; Mariana-Fatima Fernandez; Jordi Sunyer; Nicolas Olea

2010-01-01

367

Development of Cognitive Skills in Children with Motor Coordination Impairments at 12Month Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study presents a 1-year follow-up investigation of the development of executive functions (i.e., inhibition, updating, and shifting) in children with motor coordination impairments. Cognitive and motor coordination skills of children (N = 94) aged between 5 and 7 years with and without motor coordination impairments were compared. A second focus of the study was on pre-academic skills. The

Eva Michel; Marianne Roethlisberger; Regula Neuenschwander; Claudia M. Roebers

2011-01-01

368

Do Artificial Sweeteners ingested in Pregnancy affect the Offspring?  

Microsoft Academic Search

RATS treated with approximately 20 mg\\/kg of cyclamate each day have been found to behave abnormally1 and it is believed that the behavioural changes may be induced during meiosis and embryonic development2. The offspring are hyperactive and slow to develop a response to food reward and, once trained, they are deficient, in comparison with controls, in tasks requiring response inhibition.

David Stone; Edward Matalka; Barbara Pulaski

1971-01-01

369

Recessive mutations in SPTBN2 implicate ?-III spectrin in both cognitive and motor development.  

PubMed

?-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding ?-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5), an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as "Lincoln ataxia," because the largest known family is descended from relatives of the United States President Abraham Lincoln. Using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a homozygous stop codon in SPTBN2 in a consanguineous family in which childhood developmental ataxia co-segregates with cognitive impairment. The cognitive impairment could result from mutations in a second gene, but further analysis using whole-genome sequencing combined with SNP array analysis did not reveal any evidence of other mutations. We also examined a mouse knockout of ?-III spectrin in which ataxia and progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells has been previously reported and found morphological abnormalities in neurons from prefrontal cortex and deficits in object recognition tasks, consistent with the human cognitive phenotype. These data provide the first evidence that ?-III spectrin plays an important role in cortical brain development and cognition, in addition to its function in the cerebellum; and we conclude that cognitive impairment is an integral part of this novel recessive ataxic syndrome, Spectrin-associated Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia type 1 (SPARCA1). In addition, the identification of SPARCA1 and normal heterozygous carriers of the stop codon in SPTBN2 provides insights into the mechanism of molecular dominance in SCA5 and demonstrates that the cell-specific repertoire of spectrin subunits underlies a novel group of disorders, the neuronal spectrinopathies, which includes SCA5, SPARCA1, and a form of West syndrome. PMID:23236289

Lise, Stefano; Clarkson, Yvonne; Perkins, Emma; Kwasniewska, Alexandra; Sadighi Akha, Elham; Schnekenberg, Ricardo Parolin; Suminaite, Daumante; Hope, Jilly; Baker, Ian; Gregory, Lorna; Green, Angie; Allan, Chris; Lamble, Sarah; Jayawant, Sandeep; Quaghebeur, Gerardine; Cader, M Zameel; Hughes, Sarah; Armstrong, Richard J E; Kanapin, Alexander; Rimmer, Andrew; Lunter, Gerton; Mathieson, Iain; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Buck, David; Taylor, Jenny C; Bentley, David; McVean, Gilean; Donnelly, Peter; Knight, Samantha J L; Jackson, Mandy; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Németh, Andrea H

2012-01-01

370

Experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism alters crucial enzyme activities in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the offspring rat.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone insufficiency during neurodevelopment can result into significant structural and functional changes within the developing central nervous system (CNS), and is associated with the establishment of serious cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptomatology. The aim of the present study was to shed more light on the effects of gestational and/or lactational maternal exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism as a multilevel experimental approach to the study of hypothyroidism-induced changes on crucial brain enzyme activities of 21-day-old Wistar rat offspring in a brain region-specific manner. This experimental approach has been recently developed and characterized by the authors based on neurochemical analyses performed on newborn and 21-day-old rat offspring whole brain homogenates; as a continuum to this effort, the current study focused on two CNS regions of major significance for cognitive development: the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. Maternal exposure to PTU in the drinking water during gestation and/or lactation resulted into changes in the activities of acetylcholinesterase and two important adenosinetriphosphatases (Na(+),K(+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPase), that seemed to take place in a CNS-region-specific manner and that were dependent upon the PTU-exposure timeframe followed. As these findings are analyzed and compared to the available literature, they: (i) highlight the variability involved in the changes of the aforementioned enzymatic parameters in the studied CNS regions (attributed to both the different neuroanatomical composition and the thyroid-hormone-dependent neurodevelopmental growth/differentiation patterns of the latter), (ii) reveal important information with regards to the neurochemical mechanisms that could be involved in the way clinical hypothyroidism could affect optimal neurodevelopment and, ultimately, cognitive function, as well as (iii) underline the need for the adoption of more consistent approaches towards the experimental simulation of congenital and early-age-occurring hypothyroidism. PMID:24972880

Koromilas, Christos; Tsakiris, Stylianos; Kalafatakis, Konstantinos; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Kimpizi, Despoina; Bimpis, Alexios; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Liapi, Charis

2015-02-01

371

Insulin resistance in offspring of hypertensive parents.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine if insulin resistance is present in normotensive adults at increased risk of developing hypertension. DESIGN--Normotensive subjects with at least one hypertensive parent were paired with offspring of normotensive parents (controls), being matched for age, sex, social class, and physical activity. SETTING--Outpatient clinic. SUBJECTS--30 paired subjects (16 men and 14 women) with and without a family history of hypertension, aged 18-32, with a body mass index < 25 kg/m2, with blood pressure < 130/85 mm Hg, and not taking drugs. INTERVENTIONS--Euglycaemic glucose clamp (two hour infusion of insulin 1 mU/kg/min) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (injection of 100 ml 20% glucose). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Insulin mediated glucose disposal and insulin secretion. RESULTS--The offspring of hypertensive parents had slightly higher blood pressure than did the controls (mean 117 (SD 6) v 108 (5) mm Hg systolic, p = 0.013; 76 (7) v 67 (6) mm Hg diastolic, p = 0.017). Their insulin mediated glucose disposal was lower than that of controls (29.5 (6.5) v 40.1 (8.6) mumol/kg/min, p = 0.002), but, after adjustment for blood pressure, the difference was not significant (difference 6.9 (95% confidence interval -1.5 to 15.3), p = 0.10). Insulin secretion in the first hour after injection of glucose was slightly but not significantly higher in the offspring of hypertensive patients (9320 (5484) v 6723 (3751) pmol.min/l). The two groups had similar concentrations of plasma glucose (5.2 (0.3) v 5.1 (0.4) mmol/l), serum cholesterol (4.4 (0.8) v 4.6 (0.8) mmol/l), serum triglyceride (0.89 (0.52) v 0.68 (0.27) mmol/l), and serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.81 (0.65) v 2.79 (0.61) mmol/l). The offspring of hypertensive parents, however, had lower serum concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.24 (0.31) v 1.56 (0.35) mmol/l, p = 0.002) and higher serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (0.7 (0.4) v 0.4 (0.4) mmol/l, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS--Young normotensive subjects who are at increased risk of developing hypertension are insulin resistant. PMID:8343735

Beatty, O L; Harper, R; Sheridan, B; Atkinson, A B; Bell, P M

1993-01-01

372

Prenatal allergen and diesel exhaust exposure and their effects on allergy in adult offspring mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have suggested that prenatal exposure to either allergens or air pollution may increase the risk for the development of allergic immune responses in young offspring. However, the effects of prenatal environmental exposures on adult offspring have not been well-studied. We hypothesized that combined prenatal exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) allergen and diesel exhaust particles will be

Lin Corson; Huaijie Zhu; Chunli Quan; Gabriele Grunig; Manisha Ballaney; Ximei Jin; Frederica P Perera; Phillip H Factor; Lung-Chi Chen; Rachel L Miller

2010-01-01

373

Low Cortisol and Risk for PTSD in Adult Offspring of Holocaust Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study examined the asso- ciation between cortisol and putative risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of subjects at in- creased risk for the development of PTSD. Method: Twenty-four-hour urinary corti- sol excretion was measured in 35 adult offspring of Holocaust survivors and 15 healthy comparison subjects who were not offspring of Holocaust survivors. Sub-

Rachel Yehuda; Linda M. Bierer; James Schmeidler; Daniel H. Aferiat; M. S. W. Ilana Breslau; Susan Dolan

2000-01-01

374

Parental care in Sphaerium striatinum Lamarck: evidence for retention of competent offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The timing of offspring release is a fundamental turning point in the life history of any organism. It repre - sents the end to many of the most costly forms of parental care (e.g., provisioning of nutrients for developing eggs and zygotes) and the beginning of an independent life for the offspring. Generally temporal variation in this event is attrib

Mark A. Beekey; Ronald H. Karlson; Alyse R. Greenberg

2000-01-01

375

Parental dietary fat intake alters offspring microbiome and immunity1  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms underlying modern increases in prevalence of human inflammatory diseases remain unclear. The hygiene hypothesis postulates that decreased microbial exposure has, in part, driven this immune dysregulation. However, dietary fatty acids also influence immunity, partially through modulation of responses to microbes. Prior reports have described the direct effects of high fat diets on the gut microbiome and inflammation, and some have additionally shown metabolic consequences for offspring. Our study sought to expand on these previous observations to identify the effects of parental diet on offspring immunity using mouse models to provide insights into challenging aspects of human health. To test the hypothesis that parental dietary fat consumption during gestation and lactation influences offspring immunity, we compared pups of mice fed either a Western diet fatty acid profile or a standard low fat diet. All pups were weaned onto the control diet to specifically test the effects of early developmental fat exposure on immune development. Pups from Western diet breeders were not obese or diabetic, but still had worse outcomes in models of infection, autoimmunity, and allergic sensitization. They had heightened colonic inflammatory responses, with increased circulating bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and muted systemic LPS responsiveness. These deleterious impacts of the Western diet were associated with alterations of the offspring gut microbiome. These results indicate that parental fat consumption can leave a “lard legacy” impacting offspring immunity and suggest inheritable microbiota may contribute to the modern patterns of human health and disease. PMID:23935191

Myles, Ian A.; Vithayathil, Paul J.; Segre, Julia A.; Datta, Sandip K.

2013-01-01

376

The development of individual cognitive stimulation therapy (iCST) for dementia  

PubMed Central

Background Adopting a systematic approach to the development of an intervention, supported by robust theoretical, empirical, and clinical rationales represents best practice. The Medical Research Council (MRC) provides a framework for a systematic step-wise approach to the evaluation of complex interventions. This study describes the development phase of the individual cognitive stimulation therapy (iCST) for dementia trial, within this framework. Methods In the preclinical phase, a recent Cochrane Review of cognitive stimulation for dementia and the current literature on individual cognitive stimulation interventions were examined to establish an evidence base. In addition, people with dementia, carers, and care staff were consulted regarding the acceptability of iCST, and a panel was put together to advise the team on the adaptation of group cognitive stimulation therapy (CST). Phase I (modeling) involved consultations with service users and experts in a series of focus groups, interviews, an online survey, and a consensus conference. Finally, Phase II field testing of the intervention was carried out. Results Two drafts of the materials were produced before a final version ready for use in the main randomized controlled trial (RCT). Key changes between the drafts included: editorial amendments to improve the clarity of instructions, emphasize the person centeredness of the approach, and reduce the overall length of the introduction section; the simplification of academic terminology and activities deemed “too difficult”; adjustments made to the monitoring-progress forms and session rating scale to enhance user-friendliness; the addition of a “Getting started” section; amendments made to the content of the toolkit; and clearer distinction made between the level of difficulty of activities. Conclusion The rigorous development of the intervention was beneficial as the feasibility of the intervention was explored both in theory and practice, and consulting with service users ensured that materials were appropriately tailored to their needs. A Phase III RCT is currently being conducted to determine the effectiveness of iCST.

Yates, Lauren A; Leung, Phuong; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Spector, Aimee; Orrell, Martin

2015-01-01

377

Focused Attention, Heart Rate Deceleration, and Cognitive Development in Preterm and Full-Term Infants  

PubMed Central

The majority of children who are born very preterm escape major impairment, yet more subtle cognitive and attention problems are very common in this population. Previous research has linked infant focused attention during exploratory play to later cognition in children born full-term and preterm. Infant focused attention can be indexed by sustained decreases in heart rate (HR). However there are no preterm studies that have jointly examined infant behavioral attention and concurrent HR response during exploratory play in relation to developing cognition. We recruited preterm infants free from neonatal conditions associated with major adverse outcomes, and further excluded infants with developmental delay (Bayley Mental Development Index [MDI < 70]) at 8 months corrected age (CA). During infant exploratory play at 8 months CA, focused attention and concurrent HR response were compared in 83 preterm infants (born 23–32 weeks gestational age [GA]) who escaped major impairment to 46 full-term infants. Focused attention and HR response were then examined in relation to Bayley MDI, after adjusting for neonatal risk. MDI did not differ by group, yet full-term infants displayed higher global focused attention ratings. Among the extremely preterm infants born <29 weeks, fewer days on mechanical ventilation, mean longest focus, and greater HR deceleration during focused attention episodes, accounted for 49% of adjusted variance in predicting concurrent MDI. There were no significant associations for later-born gestational age (29–32 weeks) or full-term infants. Among extremely preterm infants who escape major impairment, our findings suggest unique relationships between focused attention, HR deceleration, and developing cognition. PMID:22487941

Petrie Thomas, Julianne H.; Whitfield, Michael F.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Synnes, Anne R.; Grunau, Ruth E.

2012-01-01

378

Participatory Development and Analysis of a Fuzzy Cognitive Map of the Establishment of a Bio-based Economy in the Humber  

E-print Network

Participatory Development and Analysis of a Fuzzy Cognitive Map of the Establishment of a Bio in the Humber region of the UK. The cognitive map developed during the initial workshop consisted of sixteen 29, 2013 Abstract Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) is a widely used participatory modelling methodology

Lloyd, David

379

The effect of brief neonatal cryoanesthesia on physical development and adult cognitive function in mice  

PubMed Central

Deep hypothermia (cryoanesthesia) is often used as general anesthesia during surgery in neonatal rodents. Neonatal cryoanesthesia has been used recently to generate somatic brain transgenic (SBT) mouse models via intracerebral ventricular injection of rAAV vectors into both non-transgenic mice and numerous transgenic mouse models. Since, the evaluation of cognition is one of the main experimental endpoints in many of these studies, we examined the consequences of brief neonatal cryoanesthesia on the physical development and mnemonic function of adult mice. Two groups of 129FVBF1 pups from reciprocal breeding crosses underwent cryoanesthesia for 6 (Cryo6) or 12 (Cryo12) min, respectively, within the first hours (< 12hr) of postnatal life. A group of pups separated from the nest and kept in ambient temperature of 33 °C for 6 min served as a control. Our results revealed that lowering the temperature of pups to ~8 °C (Cryo6) or ~5 °C (Cryo12) did not affect their body weight at pre-weaning stage and in the adulthood. The evaluation of cognitive function in adult mice revealed strong and comparable to controls spatial reference, and context and tone fear memories of neonatally cryoanesthetized mice. Also, the experimental and control groups had comparable brain weight at the end of the study. Our results demonstrate that neonatal cryoanesthesia, lasting up to 12 min, has no adverse effects on the body weight of mice during development, and on their cognition in the adulthood. PMID:24239696

Janus, Christopher; Golde, Todd

2013-01-01

380

Invariance of cognitive triage in the development of recall in adulthood.  

PubMed

Past research has demonstrated that cognitive triage (weak-strong-weak recall pattern) is a robust effect that optimises children's recall. The aim of the current research was to determine whether adults' free recall also exhibits triage and whether cognitive triage is less marked with older than younger adults' recall. Younger and older adults memorized 16 unrelated words until all items were recalled perfectly. The triage pattern existed for both the younger and older adults' recall and there was evidence for age differences in triage. Our results are consistent with claims of greater verbatim forgetting and increased susceptibility to output interference with age in adulthood. Further research is needed to determine whether fuzzy-trace theory adequately explains the ageing of triage and what factors play a role in the development of this pattern of recall in adulthood. PMID:19468958

Marche, Tammy A; Howe, Mark L; Lane, David G; Owre, Keith P; Briere, Jennifer L

2009-07-01

381

Toward the Development of Cognitive Task Difficulty Metrics to Support Intelligence Analysis Research  

SciTech Connect

Intelligence analysis is a cognitively complex task that is the subject of considerable research aimed at developing methods and tools to aid the analysis process. To support such research, it is necessary to characterize the difficulty or complexity of intelligence analysis tasks in order to facilitate assessments of the impact or effectiveness of tools that are being considered for deployment. A number of informal accounts of ''What makes intelligence analysis hard'' are available, but there has been no attempt to establish a more rigorous characterization with well-defined difficulty factors or dimensions. This paper takes an initial step in this direction by describing a set of proposed difficulty metrics based on cognitive principles.

Greitzer, Frank L.

2005-08-08

382

[Williams syndrome: a window to the development of cognitive and neural processes].  

PubMed

Williams syndrome (SW) is a rare (2-5/100,000) genetic human disorder characterised by a typical facies and mental retardation with a deficit in the visuo-spatial cognitive function and a relative preservation of linguistic abilities. This syndrome also includes morphological anomalies and metabolic-functional impairments, likely deficits in the pattern of brain ontogenesis. Neuropsychological and somatic features of the SW individuals are illustrated, and the correspondent genetic bases, recently identified, are presented. The possible role of NGF (nerve growth factor), a particular neurotrophin involved in the development of brain cholinergic system and the associated behavioural functions, in the aetiology of the typical mental retardation of SW patients, is critically discussed. Prospect of researches, including the identification of potential neurobiological markers and the definition of appropriate cognitive profiles of the SW, in order to precociously diagnose this syndrome, and a more thorough investigation of factors affecting phenotypic expression of this genetically determined pathological condition, are reviewed. PMID:9470250

Capirci, O; Queyras, A; Alleva, E; Volterra, V

1997-01-01

383

Keeping Kids on Track: Impacts of a Parenting-Focused Early Head Start Program on Attachment Security and Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: The home-based Early Head Start program in this local study aimed to promote children's early attachment and cognitive development by establishing supportive relationships with parents and guiding responsive parenting and positive parent–child play interactions. To test the effectiveness of this approach, we studied the development of secure base behavior and cognitive skills in infants and toddlers from low-income

Lori A. Roggman; Lisa K. Boyce; Gina A. Cook

2009-01-01

384

Ratings of everyday academic and cognitive skills in evaluation of school learning and learning problems: initial scale development and validation  

E-print Network

Ratings of Everyday Academic and Cognitive Skills in Evaluation of School Learning and Learning Problems: Initial Scale Development and Validation. (August 2008) Gordon Dale Lamb, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Cecil R... to administer, and comprehensive assessment of a child’s typical functioning in various academic and cognitive domains. The purpose for this dissertation was to develop the initial scale and conduct analyses to provide evidence of its reliability and validity...

Lamb, Gordon Dale

2008-10-10

385

Maternal Obesity at Conception Programs Obesity in the Offspring  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The risk of obesity in adult-life is subject to programming during gestation. To examine whether in utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in the offspring, we have developed an overfeeding-based model of maternal obesity in rats utilizing intragastric feeding of diets via ...

386

New evidence about language and cognitive development based on a longitudinal study: hypotheses for intervention.  

PubMed

We review findings from a four-year longitudinal study of language learning conducted on two samples: a sample of typically developing children whose parents vary substantially in socioeconomic status, and a sample of children with pre- or perinatal brain injury. This design enables us to study language development across a wide range of language learning environments and a wide range of language learners. We videotaped samples of children's and parents' speech and gestures during spontaneous interactions at home every four months, and then we transcribed and coded the tapes. We focused on two behaviors known to vary across individuals and environments-child gesture and parent speech-behaviors that have the potential to index, and perhaps even play a role in creating, differences across children in linguistic and other cognitive skills. Our observations have led to four hypotheses that have promise for the development of diagnostic tools and interventions to enhance language and cognitive development and brain plasticity after neonatal injury. One kind of hypothesis involves tools that could identify children who may be at risk for later language deficits. The other involves interventions that have the potential to promote language development. We present our four hypotheses as a summary of the findings from our study because there is scientific evidence behind them and because this evidence has the potential to be put to practical use in improving education. PMID:24911049

Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C; Hedges, Larry V; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Small, Steven L

2014-09-01

387

Effects of weaning biscuits on the nutritional profile and the cognitive development in preschool children  

PubMed Central

Aim To study the effect of weaning biscuits supplementation of the nutritional parameters and cognitive performance of the selected children. Methods Three primary schools situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 150 school children, 61 from primary school I, 46 from primary school II and 43 from primary school III comprised the study sample. About 80 primary school children with Grade II malnutrition were selected for the experimental study. Home diet without any supplementation was followed by Group I (n = 20, control group), potato flour biscuit was supplemented to Group II (n = 20), wheat biscuits was given to Group III (n = 20) and ragi biscuits were given to Group IV (n = 20) for the period of 3 months. Parameters like anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin content clinical picture and cognitive performance were analyzed before and after supplementation. Results Results about Group I (control group) showed no significant difference in height, weight and clinical picture and cognitive performance after three months on their home diet. In Group II, III and IV significant increase in all the above parameters was noticed. More increase was found in Group II children supplemented with potato flour biscuits for a period of 3 months. About cognitive performance better results was obtained in Group II followed by Group III (supplemented with wheat biscuits) and Group IV (supplemented with ragi biscuits). Least was obtained by control group children who are in their home diet. Conclusion All these observations evident that if such weaning biscuits made with potato flour, wheat and Ragi can form a daily ingredient in their diets, it will bring out better all round development of the children. PMID:20167064

2010-01-01

388

Archaeology and cognitive evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeology can provide two bodies of information relevant to the understanding of the evolution of human cognition - the timing of developments, and the evolutionary context of these developments. The challenge is methodological. Archaeology must doc- ument attributes that have direct implications for underlying cognitive mechanisms. One example of such a cognitive archaeology is found in spatial cognition. The archaeological

Thomas Wynn

2002-01-01

389

The Other Side of Cognitive Control: Can a Lack of Cognitive Control Benefit Language and Cognition?  

E-print Network

The Other Side of Cognitive Control: Can a Lack of Cognitive Control Benefit Language and Cognition Cognitive control refers to the regulation of mental activity to support flexible cognition across different domains. Cragg and Nation (2010) propose that the development of cognitive control in children parallels

Thompson-Schill, Sharon

390

Breast milk and cognitive development—the role of confounders: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The association between breastfeeding and child cognitive development is conflicted by studies reporting positive and null effects. This relationship may be confounded by factors associated with breastfeeding, specifically maternal socioeconomic class and IQ. Design Systematic review of the literature. Setting and participants Any prospective or retrospective study, in any language, evaluating the association between breastfeeding and cognitive development using a validated method in healthy term infants, children or adults, was included. Primary and secondary outcome measures Extracted data included the study design, target population and sample size, breastfeeding exposure, cognitive development assessment tool used and participants’ age, summary of the results prior to, and following, adjustment for confounders, and all confounders adjusted for. Study quality was assessed as well. Results 84 studies met our inclusion criteria (34 rated as high quality, 26 moderate and 24 low quality). Critical assessment of accepted studies revealed the following associations: 21 null, 28 positive, 18 null after adjusting for confounders and 17 positive—diminished after adjusting for confounders. Directionality of effect did not correlate with study quality; however, studies showing a decreased effect after multivariate analysis were of superior quality compared with other study groupings (14/17 high quality, 82%). Further, studies that showed null or diminished effect after multivariate analysis corrected for significantly more confounders (7.7±3.4) as compared with those that found no change following adjustment (5.6±4.5, p=0.04). The majority of included studies were carried out during childhood (75%) and set in high-income countries (85.5%). Conclusions Much of the reported effect of breastfeeding on child neurodevelopment is due to confounding. It is unlikely that additional work will change the current synthesis. Future studies should attempt to rigorously control for all important confounders. Alternatively, study designs using sibling cohorts discordant for breastfeeding may yield more robust conclusions. PMID:23975102

Walfisch, Asnat; Sermer, Corey; Cressman, Alex; Koren, Gideon

2013-01-01

391

APOE4 protects the cognitive development in children with heavy diarrhea burdens in Northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

Polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein E (APOE) have constituted the major rationale to identify potential risk groups for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease and help to predict recovery of cognitive function after brain injury. However, the APOE impact on cognitive development in children living in poor areas of the developing world, where we have discovered profound significant associations of early childhood diarrhea (at 0-2 y) with lasting impairments of growth, cognition, and school performance, is not known. Therefore, we conducted APOE genotyping in 72 Brazilian shantytown children under active surveillance since birth, using purified DNA extracted from buccal cell samples. We found a high frequency of APOE4 alleles (18% versus 9-11% expected) in children with lower diarrhea burdens. When we examined the children who experienced the heavier diarrhea burdens (greater than or equal to the median of seven illnesses in the first 2 y of life), those with APOE4 did significantly better in the coding subtest (p=0.01) when compared with APOE4-negative children with similar diarrhea burdens. Positive correlations between the APOE4 occurrence and coding scores remained, even after adjusting for family income, maternal education, and breast-feeding. Moreover, the APOE4-positive group, under heavy burdens of diarrhea, had preserved semantic fluency and the mean difference in fluency scores, p=0.025, a standardized coefficient for disproportional verbal fluency impairment. Our findings show that APOE4 is relatively common in favela children and suggest a protective role of the APOE4 allele in children with a history of heavy burdens of diarrhea in their first 2 y of life. PMID:15611352

Oriá, Reinaldo B; Patrick, Peter D; Zhang, Hong; Lorntz, Breyette; de Castro Costa, Carlos Maurício; Brito, Gerly A C; Barrett, Leah J; Lima, Aldo A M; Guerrant, Richard L

2005-02-01

392

Development of cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention for patients with Dhat syndrome  

PubMed Central

Dhat syndrome is a culture-bound syndrome prevalent in the natives of the Indian subcontinent characterized by excessive concern about harmful consequences of loss of semen (ICD-10). Treatment offered to the patients suffering from it continues to be esoteric, unstructured and without standardization. The present study aimed to develop and examine the feasibility of Cognitive – Behavior Therapy module for patients with Dhat syndrome. A draft module was developed based on existing theoretical knowledge and suggestions from five mental health professionals. This module was then applied on five patients with Dhat syndrome to assess and judge the suitability of the module. The pre and post-assessments were carried out using Sexual Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire - II, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, The Cognitive-Somatic Anxiety Scale, Screener for Somatoform Disorder, International Index for Erectile Function, Clinical Global Impressions, The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment - BREF. Experiences and insights gained from each patient were used to refine the module before applying on the next patient. The final module consisted of the following components was developed: Basic sex education, cognitive restructuring, relaxation training, imaginal desensitization, masturbatory training as homework and Kegel's exercises and ‘start-stop technique’ and ‘squeeze technique’ for sexual dysfunctions. Results of the study reveal that it is feasible to carry out the CBT module in clinical settings. Number of sessions ranged from 11 to 16 sessions. The duration of the session was 45 minutes on the average. Findings of the present study revealed improvement in sexual knowledge, anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms. Implications and limitations of the study are highlighted and suggestions for future research offered. PMID:23372242

Salam, K. P. Abdul; Sharma, Mahendra P.; Prakash, Om

2012-01-01

393

Development of Mentalizing and Communication: From Viewpoint of Developmental Cybernetics and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to mentalize is essential for human socialization. Such ability is strongly related to communication. In this paper, I discuss the development of mentalizing and communication from the perspectives of a new idea, Developmental Cybernetics, and developmental cognitive neuroscience. Children only attributed intention to a robot when they saw it behaving as a human and displaying social signals such as eye gaze. The emergence of powerful new methods and tools, such as neuroimaging, now allows questions about mentalizing to resolved more directly than before.

Itakura, Shoji

394

Development of Android apps for cognitive assessment of dementia and delirium.  

PubMed

The next generation of medical technology applications for hand-held portable platforms will provide a core change in performance and sophistication, transforming the way health care professionals interact with patients. This advance is particularly apparent in the delivery of cognitive patient assessments, where smartphones and tablet computers are being used to assess complex neurological conditions to provide objective, accurate and reproducible test results. This paper reports on two such applications (apps) that have been developed to assist healthcare professionals with the detection and diagnosis of dementia and delirium. PMID:25570415

Weir, Alexander J; Paterson, Craig A; Tieges, Zoe; MacLullich, Alasdair M; Parra-Rodriguez, Mario; Della Sala, Sergio; Logie, Robert H

2014-08-01

395

Anticipatory guidance for cognitive and social-emotional development: Birth to five years.  

PubMed

The present article serves as a quick office reference for clinicians, providing anticipatory guidance about the cognitive and social-emotional development of newborns, and children up to five years of age. The present review links recommendations to specific evidence in the medical literature, citing sources of developmental standards and advice, so that these may be further explored if desired. Practising primary care providers have indicated that these are areas of child development that are not well addressed by training and other available resources. The present article includes parenting information on important clinical presentations with which clinicians may be less familiar, such as promoting attachment, prosocial behaviours, healthy sleep habits, self-discipline and problem-solving; as well as on managing behaviours that are part of normal development, such as separation anxiety, tantrums, aggression, picky eating and specific fears. Information on the development of language, literacy and socialization are also included. PMID:23372397

Dosman, Cara; Andrews, Debbi

2012-02-01

396

Preventive advice given by patients with type 2 diabetes to their offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Patients' advice-giving behaviour could be a useful preventive strategy for type 2 diabetes. Aim To investigate the conditions under which patients offer advice to their offspring and to assess the factors that facilitate advice giving. Design of study Cross-sectional observational study. Setting A general hospital with a diabetes clinic in a metropolitan suburb in Japan. Method Parents with type 2 diabetes (n = 221) who had offspring aged 20–49 years inclusive without diabetes completed a self-administered questionnaire containing items relating to advice-giving behaviour, demographic characteristics, risk perception, and their disease status. Results A total of 184 (83.3%) patients responded that parental advice-giving behaviour is needed for their offspring, while 138 (62.4%) actually advised their offspring. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that patients who were female (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03 to 3.65, P = 0.041), living with their offspring (OR =1.92, 95% CI = 1.04 to 3.57, P = 0.038), had complications (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.25 to 6.00, P = 0.029), or perceived that their offspring had a high risk of developing diabetes (OR =1.45, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.93, P = 0.011) were most likely to advise their offspring. Conclusion Patients with type 2 diabetes recognised the need to give advice about preventive behaviour to their offspring but were not necessarily engaging in advice-giving behaviour. Advice-giving behaviour was affected by the parents' own disease status, their perception of their offspring's risk of developing diabetes, and the relationship between the patients and their offspring. PMID:19105914

Nishigaki, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Koji; Kato, Naoko; Seki, Naoto; Yokomura, Taeko; Yokoyama, Mitsunao; Kazuma, Keiko

2008-01-01

397

Cognitive Science 37 (2013) 13681381 Copyright 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc. All rights reserved.  

E-print Network

, despite appearances to the contrary. Keywords: Cognitive development; Imaginative cognitionCognitive Science 37 (2013) 1368­1381 Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc. All rights reasoning engage the same component cognitive abilities: disengaging with current reality, making inferences

Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

398

Maternal immunomodulation of the offspring's immunological system.  

PubMed

The mother's and the offspring's immunological system are closely related thus one can influence the other. This hypothesis drove our aim to study the impact of the mother's immunological status over the immunological response of their offspring. For this, female mice tolerant or allergic to peanuts were exposed or not to a challenge diet containing peanuts during the gestation-lactation period (TEP/AEP; TNEP/ANEP, respectively). After weaning the offspring was submitted to the peanut allergy or peanut tolerization protocol and then challenged with a peanut diet. Our results showed that when the offspring is submitted to the allergy induction protocol, they behave differently depending on their mother's immunological status. Offspring born to TEP mothers produced the lowest antibody titters while those born to AEP mothers produced the highest antibody titters compared to mice born to TNEP and ANEP. On the other hand when the offspring was submitted to the tolerization protocol all groups presented low antibody titers with no significant difference between groups, independent of the mothers immunological status and/or contact with peanuts during the gestation-lactation period. The analysis of the histological profile of the offspring correlates well to the serological response. In other words, offspring born to TEP mothers and submitted to the allergy induction protocol presented a normal histological profile, while the offspring born to AEP mothers produced the worst gut inflammation. These results indicate that mothers, exposed to the antigen (by the oral route) during gestation, actively influence the immune response of their offspring. This work sheds some light on the importance of the immunomodulation induced by dietary antigens during gestation and their influence on the immunological response of their offspring. However, more work is needed to elucidate the molecular and cellular components of this regulatory phenomenon. PMID:25104403

Campos, Sylvia M N; de Oliveira, Vivian L; Lessa, Leonardo; Vita, Melissa; Conceição, Marcia; Andrade, Luiz Antonio Botelho; Teixeira, Gerlinde Agate Platais Brasil

2014-11-01

399

Consideration of species differences in developing novel molecules as cognition enhancers  

PubMed Central

The NIH-funded CNTRICS initiative has coordinated efforts to promote the vertical translation of novel procognitive molecules from testing in mice, rats and non-human primates, to clinical efficacy in patients with schizophrenia. CNTRICS highlighted improving construct validation of tasks across species to increase the likelihood that the translation of a candidate molecule to humans will be successful. Other aspects of cross-species behaviors remain important however. This review describes cognitive tasks utilized across species, providing examples of differences and similarities of innate behavior between species, as well as convergent construct and predictive validity. Tests of attention, olfactory discrimination, reversal learning, and paired associate learning are discussed. Moreover, information on the practical implication of species differences in drug development research is also provided. The issues covered here will aid in task development and utilization across species as well as reinforcing the positive role preclinical research can have in developing procognitive treatments for psychiatric disorders. PMID:23064177

Young, Jared W.; Jentsch, J David; Bussey, Timothy J; Wallace, Tanya L; Hutchenson, Daniel M

2012-01-01

400

Cognitive-Developmental Assessments 1 Designing Cognitive-Developmental Assessments  

E-print Network

for promoting further development. To this end, we integrate research on cognition and development with advancesCognitive-Developmental Assessments 1 Designing Cognitive-Developmental Assessments: A Case Study or quote without permission of the authors. #12;Cognitive-Developmental Assessments 2 Designing Cognitive

Junker, Brian

401

Becoming a scientist: The role of undergraduate research in students' cognitive, personal, and professional development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this ethnographic study of summer undergraduate research (UR) experiences at four liberal arts colleges, where faculty and students work collaboratively on a project of mutual interest in an apprenticeship of authentic science research work, analysis of the accounts of faculty and student participants yields comparative insights into the structural elements of this form of UR program and its benefits for students. Comparison of the perspectives of faculty and their students revealed considerable agreement on the nature, range, and extent of students' UR gains. Specific student gains relating to the process of becoming a scientist were described and illustrated by both groups. Faculty framed these gains as part of professional socialization into the sciences. In contrast, students emphasized their personal and intellectual development, with little awareness of their socialization into professional practice. Viewing study findings through the lens of social constructivist learning theories demonstrates that the characteristics of these UR programs, how faculty practice UR in these colleges, and students' outcomes - including cognitive and personal growth and the development of a professional identity - strongly exemplify many facets of these theories, particularly, student-centered and situated learning as part of cognitive apprenticeship in a community of practice.

Hunter, Anne-Barrie; Laursen, Sandra L.; Seymour, Elaine

2007-01-01

402

Cognitive development in females with PCDH19 gene-related epilepsy.  

PubMed

Mutations in the PCDH19 gene are now recognized to cause epilepsy in females and are claiming increasing interest in the scientific world. Clinical features and seizure semiology have been described as heterogeneous. Intellectual disability might be present, ranging from mild to severe; behavioral and psychiatric problems are a common feature of the disorder, including aggressiveness, depressed mood, and psychotic traits. The purpose of our study was to describe the cognitive development in 11 girls with a de novo mutation in PCDH19 and early-onset epilepsy. Six patients had average mental development or mild intellectual disability regardless of persistence of seizures in clusters. Five patients presented moderate or severe intellectual disability and autistic features. In younger patients, we found that despite an average developmental quotient, they all presented a delay of expressive language acquisition and lower scores at follow-up testing completed at older ages, underlining that subtle dysfunctions might be present. Larger cohort and long-term follow-up might be useful in defining cognitive features and in improving the care of patients with PCDH19. PMID:25499160

Cappelletti, Simona; Specchio, Nicola; Moavero, Romina; Terracciano, Alessandra; Trivisano, Marina; Pontrelli, Giuseppe; Gentile, Simonetta; Vigevano, Federico; Cusmai, Raffaella

2015-01-01

403

Offspring of Depressed Parents: 20 Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was a 20-year fol- low-up of offspring of depressed and non- depressed parents to determine the mag- nitude and continuity of the risk of parental depression to the offspring. Method: The authors followed 151 off- spring of moderately to severely de- pressed parents or nonpsychiatrically ill comparison subjects for about 20 years, to a mean age of

Myrna M. Weissman; P. Wickramaratne; Y. Nomura; V. Warner; D. Pilowsky; H. Verdeli

2006-01-01

404

Re-Examining the Associations between Family Backgrounds and Children's Cognitive Developments in Early Ages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent English study found that children from poor families who did well in cognitive tests at age three are expected to be overtaken in the cognitive test by the age of seven by children from rich families who did poorly in cognitive tests at age three. The conclusion was that family background seems to have a dominant influence on a child's…

Tu, Yu-Kang; Law, Graham R.

2010-01-01

405

Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Development: Attention to Relations and Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing evidence indicates a suite of generalized differences in the attentional and cognitive processing of adults from Eastern and Western cultures. Cognition in Eastern adults is often more relational and in Western adults is more object focused. Three experiments examined whether these differences characterize the cognition of preschool…

Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B.

2012-01-01

406

Offspring Generation Method for interactive Genetic Algorithm considering Multimodal Preference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In interactive genetic algorithms (iGAs), computer simulations prepare design candidates that are then evaluated by the user. Therefore, iGA can predict a user's preferences. Conventional iGA problems involve a search for a single optimum solution, and iGA were developed to find this single optimum. On the other hand, our target problems have several peaks in a function and there are small differences among these peaks. For such problems, it is better to show all the peaks to the user. Product recommendation in shopping sites on the web is one example of such problems. Several types of preference trend should be prepared for users in shopping sites. Exploitation and exploration are important mechanisms in GA search. To perform effective exploitation, the offspring generation method (crossover) is very important. Here, we introduced a new offspring generation method for iGA in multimodal problems. In the proposed method, individuals are clustered into subgroups and offspring are generated in each group. The proposed method was applied to an experimental iGA system to examine its effectiveness. In the experimental iGA system, users can decide on preferable t-shirts to buy. The results of the subjective experiment confirmed that the proposed method enables offspring generation with consideration of multimodal preferences, and the proposed mechanism was also shown not to adversely affect the performance of preference prediction.

Ito, Fuyuko; Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Miki, Mitsunori; Yokouchi, Hisatake

407

Paternal social enrichment effects on maternal behavior and offspring growth.  

PubMed

Paternal environmental experiences are significant predictors of developmental outcomes in offspring and can occur even in the absence of paternal care. Although there has been a recent focus on the role of environmentally induced changes in the male germline in producing these effects, the potential mediating role of mothers has not been investigated. A role for mothers in the transmission of paternal effects has been well acknowledged in behavioral ecology, which predicts that females will dynamically adjust their reproductive investment in response to the qualities of their mate. In the present study, we show that a lifetime of socially enriched compared with impoverished housing conditions shifts anxiety-like behavior and gene expression of male mice. Females that mate with enriched-reared males exhibit increased levels of pup nursing and licking toward their offspring, which are associated with changes in gene expression within the maternal hypothalamus. Significantly, these changes in maternal behavior are correlated with the general levels of anxiety exhibited by their male mates. Further, we show that paternal environmental enrichment results in increased growth of their offspring. These results suggest that maternal-paternal interactions at mating may guide offspring development, with significant implications for the transgenerational transmission of paternal environmental experiences. PMID:23045657

Mashoodh, Rahia; Franks, Becca; Curley, James P; Champagne, Frances A

2012-10-16

408

Prenatal and Family Risks of Children Born to Mothers with Epilepsy: Effects on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The offspring of mothers with epilepsy are considered to be at developmental risk during pregnancy from: (1) generalized maternal seizures (hypoxia); (2) teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); and (3) adverse socio-familial conditions associated with having a chronically sick mother. Sixty-seven children of mothers with epilepsy and 49…

Titze, Karl; Koch, Sabine; Helge, Hans; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Rauh, Hellgard; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

2008-01-01

409

How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.  

PubMed

Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development. PMID:24672420

Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Trost, Wiebke J

2013-01-01

410

The Importance of Cognition, Metacognition and Motivation in the Character Development through Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a discussion paper in order to show the importance of cognition, metacognition and motivation in an individual's character development through Science. Two studies were illustrated for this reason. By means of the first study it is aimed to provide students with better comprehension skills in Science field by encouraging them to raise an interest in Science and, using this positive environment developed through motivation, build desired and expected behaviors in the society. The study has been applied to 660 students between 2000-2002 at VKV Koc School, Turkey. The other study examined how an individual reacts to questions about self-recognition of that individual's unique selfhood; that individual's feeling fulfilled; that individual's realizing the importance of his impact on his global society. For this, an online survey was conducted. There were 93-submissions gathered from different countries with different education levels and age groups. This study was conducted in the spring 2006.

Baykent, Derya; E?me, Isa

2007-04-01

411

Individual differences in maternal response to immune challenge predict offspring behavior: Contribution of environmental factors  

PubMed Central

Maternal infection during pregnancy elevates risk for schizophrenia and related disorders in offspring. Converging evidence suggests the maternal inflammatory response mediates the interaction between maternal infection, altered brain development, and behavioral outcome. The extent to which individual differences in the maternal response to immune challenge influence the development of these abnormalities is unknown. The present study investigated the impact of individual differences in maternal response to the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on offspring behavior. We observed significant variability in body weight alterations of pregnant rats induced by administration of poly I:C on gestational day 14. Furthermore, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss predicted MK-801 and amphetamine stimulated locomotor abnormalities in offspring. MK-801 stimulated locomotion was altered in offspring of all poly I:C treated dams; however, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss resulted in decreased and modestly increased locomotion, respectively. Adult offspring of poly I:C treated dams that lost weight exhibited significantly decreased amphetamine stimulated locomotion, while offspring of poly I:C treated dams without weight loss performed similarly to vehicle controls. Social isolation and increased maternal age predicted weight loss in response to poly I:C but not vehicle injection. In combination, these data identify environmental factors associated with the maternal response to immune challenge and functional outcome of offspring exposed to maternal immune activation. PMID:21255612

Bronson, Stefanie L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul S.; Kern, Joseph R.; Richtand, Neil M.

2011-01-01

412

Learning and Cognitive Development: Representative Samples (Reading, Number Concepts, Writing) And Experimental Longitudinal Methods. Child Learning Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monograph presents the findings of a decade long research project on the cognitive learning of children. Several other areas of general significance involved in the work are also treated. These include: (1) the importance of the work to the development of basic learning theory; (2) certain developments in methodology and in a philosophy of…

Staats, Arthur W.; And Others

413

Cognitive Development How much do toddlers really learn from watching educational videos and listening to classical music? Why are  

E-print Network

to Prevent Social Anxiety Disorders Nathan Fox's research at the Child Development Laboratory has enabled implications for the study of social cognition disorders like autism. Nathan Fox uses neural imaging technology to predict the development of anxiety disorders and design early- tage therapeutic interventions.s Tracy De

Hill, Wendell T.

414

Development of an Adaptive Learning System with Multiple Perspectives based on Students' Learning Styles and Cognitive Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, an adaptive learning system is developed by taking multiple dimensions of personalized features into account. A personalized presentation module is proposed for developing adaptive learning systems based on the field dependent/independent cognitive style model and the eight dimensions of Felder-Silverman's learning style. An…

Yang, Tzu-Chi; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Stephen Jen-Hwa

2013-01-01

415

Development of Knowledge Frameworks and Higher Order Cognitive Operations among Secondary School Students Who Studied a Unit on Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express…

Bischoff, Paul J.; Anderson, O. Roger

2001-01-01

416

Language, Cognitive Flexibility, and Explicit False Belief Understanding: Longitudinal Analysis in Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that language plays a role in theory-of-mind (ToM) development is supported by a number of lines of evidence (e.g., H. Lohmann & M. Tomasello, 2003). The current study sought to further investigate the relations between maternal language input, memory for false sentential complements, cognitive flexibility, and the development of…

Farrant, Brad M.; Maybery, Murray T.; Fletcher, Janet

2012-01-01

417

What changes in neural oscillations can reveal about developmental cognitive neuroscience: Language development as a case in point  

PubMed Central

EEG is a primary method for studying temporally precise neuronal processes across the lifespan. Most of this work focuses on Event Related Potentials (ERPs); however, using time-locked time frequency analysis to decompose the EEG signal can identify and distinguish multiple changes in brain oscillations underlying cognition (Bastiaansen et al., 2010). Further this measure is thought to reflect changes in inter-neuronal communication more directly than ERPs (Nunez & Srinivasan, 2006). Although time frequency has elucidated cognitive processes in adults, applying it to cognitive development is still rare. Here, we review the basics of neuronal oscillations, some of what they reveal about adult cognitive function, and what little is known relating to children. We focus on language because it develops early and engages complex cortical networks. Additionally, because time frequency analysis of the EEG related to adult language comprehension has been incredibly informative, using similar methods with children will shed new light on current theories of language development and increase our understanding of how neural processes change over the lifespan. Our goal is to emphasize the power of this methodology and encourage its use throughout developmental cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24060670

Maguire, Mandy J.; Abel, Alyson D.

2013-01-01

418

Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.  

PubMed Central

According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits. PMID:15451693

Evans, Jonathan P.; Kelley, Jennifer L.; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

2004-01-01

419

Transmission/Disequilibrium Tests Incorporating Unaffected Offspring  

PubMed Central

We propose a new method for family-based tests of association and linkage called transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring (TDTU). This new approach, constructed based on transmission/disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits (QTDT), provides a natural extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) to utilize transmission information from heterozygous parents to their unaffected offspring as well as the affected offspring from ascertained nuclear families. TDTU can be used in various study designs and can accommodate all types of independent nuclear families with at least one affected offspring. When the study sample contains only case-parent trios, the TDTU is equivalent to TDT. Informative-transmission disequilibrium test (i-TDT) and generalized disequilibrium test(GDT) are another two methods that can use information of both unaffected offspring and affected offspring. In contract to i-TDT and GDT, the test statistic of TDTU is simpler and more explicit, and can be implemented more easily. Through computer simulations, we demonstrate that power of the TDTU is slightly higher compared to i-TDT and GDT. All the three methods are more powerful than method that uses affected offspring only, suggesting that unaffected siblings also provide information about linkage and association. PMID:25535968

Zeng, Zheng; Shu, Chang; Long, Lu; Lu, Jianhua; Huang, Yangxin; Yin, Ping

2014-01-01

420

Adult offspring perspectives on parental hoarding behaviors.  

PubMed

Hoarding disorder (HD) is characterized by difficulty discarding unneeded items and the accumulation of items within living spaces and is associated with significant functional impairment and distress. Along with the negative impact of hoarding on the individual, HD is substantially impairing for family members, and linked to disruptions in family functioning. The present study utilized a path model analysis to examine the associations between an array of hoarding variables hypothesized to impact family functioning and parent-offspring relationships in 150 adult-aged children of hoarders who responded to online requests to participate in a research study. It was hypothesized that increased hoarding severity, decreased insight, and increased family accommodation (i.e., act of family members facilitating or assisting in hoarding behaviors) would be associated with decreased family functioning, decreased quality of parent-offspring relationships, and increased offspring impairment. Results from the path model revealed that family functioning mediated the relationship between hoarding severity and parent-offspring relationship. Diminished insight in the hoarding parent (as reported by the offspring) was associated with increased familial conflict and family functioning partially mediated the relationship between insight and quality of parent-offspring relationship. Increased family accommodation was significantly associated with increased impairment (work, social, and family domains) in offspring of hoarders. PMID:25129564

Park, Jennifer M; Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A

2014-12-15

421

Maternally Administered Sustained-Release Naltrexone in Rats Affects Offspring Neurochemistry and Behaviour in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Naltrexone is not recommended during pregnancy. However, sustained-release naltrexone implant use in humans has resulted in cases of inadvertent foetal exposure. Here, we used clinically relevant dosing to examine the effects of maternally administered sustained-release naltrexone on the rat brain by examining offspring at birth and in adulthood. Maternal treatment (naltrexone or placebo implant) started before conception and ceased during gestation, birth or weaning. Morphometry was assessed in offspring at birth and adulthood. Adult offspring were evaluated for differences in locomotor behaviour (basal and morphine-induced, 10 mg/kg, s.c.) and opioid neurochemistry, propensity to self-administer morphine and cue-induced drug-seeking after abstinence. Blood analysis confirmed offspring exposure to naltrexone during gestation, birth and weaning. Naltrexone exposure increased litter size and reduced offspring birth-weight but did not alter brain morphometry. Compared to placebo, basal motor activity of naltrexone-exposed adult offspring was lower, yet they showed enhanced development of psychomotor sensitization to morphine. Developmental naltrexone exposure was associated with resistance to morphine-induced down-regulation of striatal preproenkephalin mRNA expression in adulthood. Adult offspring also exhibited greater operant responding for morphine and, in addition, cue-induced drug-seeking was enhanced. Collectively, these data show pronounced effects of developmental naltrexone exposure, some of which persist into adulthood, highlighting the need for follow up of humans that were exposed to naltrexone in utero. PMID:23300784

Krstew, Elena V.; Tait, Robert J.; Hulse, Gary K.

2012-01-01

422

Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.  

PubMed

Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate. PMID:23937357

Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

2013-09-01

423

Early renal structure alteration in rat offspring from dams fed low protein diet.  

PubMed

To investigate the early renal alterations due to severe maternal protein restriction (MPR) Wistar dams received 23% (normal protein, NP) or 5% (low protein, LP) chow during gestation and lactation periods. In NP offspring at birth, the cortex-to-medulla (C/M) ratio was 35% greater in female than in male offspring and the mature/immature glomeruli ratio was lower in both sexes of LP offspring than in the matched NP ones (by 20%). At birth and at weaning the kidney of the LP offspring showed fewer glomeruli (40% less) than the age-matched NP offspring. The NP female offspring had almost 20% fewer glomeruli than the matched male offspring. At weaning, the number of glomeruli was positively correlated with BM at birth (R=0.86; P<0.001). The effects of gender and maternal protein restriction, both individually and overall, based on biometrical and stereological parameters were: day 1, MPR largely responsible for the majority of alterations observed in LP groups, however gender influenced C/M ratio; day 21, MPR and gender interacted and modified the number of glomeruli per kidney. The early adverse of MPR effect on renal development is disproportionate between mature and immature glomeruli at birth leading to fewer glomeruli at weaning. This supports epidemiological data in humans underlying why fetuses with low birth weight carry an increased risk of mortality from chronic diseases in adulthood, including hypertension. PMID:16890246

Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

2006-10-26

424

Development, survival, and phenotypic plasticity in anthropogenic landscapes: trade-offs between offspring quantity and quality in the nettle-feeding peacock butterfly.  

PubMed

Habitats selected for development may have important fitness consequences. This is relevant within the framework of niche shifts in human-dominated landscapes. Currently, the peacock butterfly (Aglais io) occurs ubiquitously, covering many habitat types, whereas its distribution used to be much more restricted. Indeed, its host plant (stinging nettle Urtica dioica) was limited to natural forest gaps on relatively nitrogen-rich soil, but due to land use changes and eutrophication, host plants are now quasi-omnipresent in Western Europe. In order to assess the impact of specific anthropogenic habitat types on host plant quality and environmental conditions for phenotypic trait values, an experiment was conducted in woodlands, field margins, and urban gardens. Larval development was studied in field enclosures, and adult traits were analyzed to test predicted effects of warmer and more nitrogen-rich conditions in field margins compared to woodlands and urban gardens. Survival to the adult stage was highest in woodlands and lowest in field margins, and whilst development time did not differ amongst habitat types, butterflies that developed in field margins were larger and had higher lipid content and wing loadings than conspecifics from woodlands and urban gardens. Nettles in field margins provided warmer microclimates. However, and contrary to predictions, the nitrogen level within host plant leaves was highest in woodlands. Hence, anthropogenic landscapes may pose a conflict for choosing what is ultimately the best breeding habitat, as survival was highest in woodlands (followed by urban gardens), but adults with highest fitness predictions were produced in field margins (and secondarily urban gardens). PMID:25015122

Serruys, Mélanie; Van Dyck, Hans

2014-10-01

425

Principles of Development and Developmental Change Underlying Theories of Cognitive and Moral Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development defined as increasingly complex and adaptive forms of seeing, knowing, and caring sheds light on how to identify aims of educational programs designed to foster development. Educators who aspire to promote development as well as content mastery help students understand the basis for their decisions, explore alternative bases and…

King, Patricia M.

2009-01-01

426

High suicide risk after the development of cognitive and working memory deficits caused by cannabis, cocaine and ecstasy use.  

PubMed

We report the case of attempted suicide by a 30-year-old man who had significant cognitive deficits that developed after at least three years of polysubstance use with cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") and cocaine. The patient reported increasing difficulties in his professional and interpersonal life which may have been associated with his cognitive dysfunction caused by his poly-drug use. In this setting, the patient complained of increasing symptoms of depression, including feelings of hopelessness and helplessness, and multi somatic complaints (based on DSM-IV criteria). These depressive symptoms led to the development of active suicidal ideation and ultimately to a suicide attempt. We propose that the patient's cognitive deficits resulted directly from his polysubstance use and contributed to his depression, suicide attempt and current serious suicidal ideation. PMID:19263559

Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto

2007-03-01

427

Key Steps in Developing a Cognitive Vaccine against Traumatic Flashbacks: Visuospatial Tetris versus Verbal Pub Quiz  

PubMed Central

Background Flashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event) are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a ‘cognitive vaccine’ [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be addressed for clinical translation: (1) Would all games have this effect via distraction/enjoyment, or might some games even be harmful? (2) Would effects be found if administered several hours post-trauma? Accordingly, we tested Tetris versus an alternative computer game – Pub Quiz – which we hypothesized not to be helpful (Experiments 1 and 2), and extended the intervention interval to 4 hours (Experiment 2). Methodology/Principal Findings The trauma film paradigm was used as an experimental analog for flashback development in healthy volunteers. In both experiments, participants viewed traumatic film footage of death and injury before completing one of the following: (1) no-task control condition (2) Tetris or (3) Pub Quiz. Flashbacks were monitored for 1 week. Experiment 1: 30 min after the traumatic film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz led to a significant increase in flashbacks. Experiment 2: 4 hours post-film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz did not. Conclusions/Significance First, computer games can have differential effects post-trauma, as predicted by a cognitive science formulation of trauma memory. In both Experiments, playing Tetris post-trauma film reduced flashbacks. Pub Quiz did not have this effect, even increasing flashbacks in Experiment 1. Thus not all computer games are beneficial or merely distracting post-trauma - some may be harmful. Second, the beneficial effects of Tetris are retained at 4 hours post-trauma. Clinically, this delivers a feasible time-window to administer a post-trauma “cognitive vaccine”. PMID:21085661

Holmes, Emily A.; James, Ella L.; Kilford, Emma J.; Deeprose, Catherine

2010-01-01

428

Protein restriction during pregnancy induces hypertension and impairs endothelium-dependent vascular function in adult female offspring.  

PubMed

Intrauterine undernutrition plays a role in the development of adult hypertension. Most studies are done in male offspring to delineate the mechanisms whereby blood pressure may be raised; however, the vascular mechanisms involved in female offspring are unclear. Female offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a control (C; 18%) or a low-protein (LP; 6%) diet during pregnancy were used. Birth weight and later growth were markedly lower in LP than in C offspring. LP offspring exhibited impaired estrous cyclicity with increased mean arterial pressure. Hypotensive response to acetylcholine (ACh) and the hypertensive response to phenylephrine (PE) were greater in LP than in C rats. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced greater hypertensive responses in C than in LP rats. Endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries from LP offspring exhibited increased contractile responses to PE and reduced vasodilation in response to ACh. In endothelium-denuded arteries, relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside were similar in both groups. Basal and ACh-induced increase in vascular nitrite/nitrate production was lower in LP than in C offspring. L-NAME or 1H-1,2,4-oxadiazolo-4,3-quinoxalin-1-one inhibited ACh relaxations and enhanced PE contractions in C offspring, but had minimal effect in LP rats. The decreased NO-mediated vascular response might explain the increased vascular contraction and arterial pressure in female offspring with low birth weight. PMID:18957856

Sathishkumar, Kunju; Elkins, Rebekah; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

2009-01-01

429

Development of a Modified Naturalistic Action Test for Korean Patients With Impaired Cognition  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a modified Naturalistic Action Test (m-NAT) for Korean patients with impaired cognition. The NAT was originally designed to assess everyday action impairment associated with higher cortical dysfunction. Methods We developed the m-NAT by adapting the NAT for the Korean cultural background. The m-NAT was modeled as closely as possible on the original version in terms of rules and scoring. Thirty patients receiving neurorehabilitation (twenty-three stroke patients, five traumatic brain injury patients, and two dementia patients) and twenty healthy matched controls were included. Inter-rater reliability was assessed between two raters. Validity was evaluated by comparing the m-NAT score with various measures of attention, executive functions, and daily life. Results Performance on the m-NAT in terms of the total score was significantly different between patients and controls (p<0.01). Patients made significantly more total errors than controls (p<0.01). Omissions error was the most frequent type of error in patient group. Intraclass correlation coefficients for total m-NAT score was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 0.97; p<0.001); total error was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.89 to 0.92; p<0.001). Total m-NAT score showed moderate to strong correlations with Stroop test interference score & index, Trail Making Test parts A and B, Sustained Attention to Response Task commission error, Functional Independence Measure, Korean instrumental activities of daily living, Korean version of the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, and Executive Behavior Scale (p<0.05). Conclusion The m-NAT showed very good inter-rater reliability and adequate validity. The m-NAT adjusted to Korean cultural background can be useful in performance-based assessment of naturalistic action for clinical and research purposes. PMID:23525262

Jung, Mi Ae; Kang, Youn Joo; Kim, Yon Joon

2013-01-01

430

Maternal protein restriction leads to hyperresponsiveness to stress and salt-sensitive hypertension in male offspring.  

PubMed

Low birth weight humans often exhibit hypertension during adulthood. Studying the offspring of rat dams fed a maternal low-protein diet is one model frequently used to study the mechanisms of low birth weight-related hypertension. It remains unclear whether this model replicates key clinical findings of hypertension and increased blood pressure responsiveness to stress or high-salt diet. We measured blood pressure via radiotelemetry in 13-wk-old male offspring of maternal normal- and low-protein dams. Neither group exhibited hypertension at baseline; however, 1 h of restraint was accompanied by a significantly greater blood pressure response in low-protein compared with normal-protein offspring. To enhance the effect of a high-salt diet on blood pressure, normal- and low-protein offspring underwent right uninephrectomy, while controls underwent sham surgery. After 5 weeks on a high-salt diet (4% NaCl), mean arterial pressure in the Low-Protein+Sham offspring was elevated by 6 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.05 vs. baseline), while it remained unchanged in the normal-protein offspring. In the two uninephrectomized groups, blood pressure increased further, but was of similar magnitude. Glomerular filtration rate in the low-protein uninephrectomized offspring was 50% less than that in normal-protein offspring with intact kidneys. These data indicate that, while male low-protein offspring are not hypertensive during young adulthood, their blood pressure is hyperresponsive to restraint stress and is salt sensitive, and their glomerular filtration rate is more sensitive to hypertension-causing insults. Collectively, these may predispose for the development of hypertension later in life. PMID:20200128

Augustyniak, Robert A; Singh, Karan; Zeldes, Daniel; Singh, Melissa; Rossi, Noreen F

2010-05-01

431

Lower Maternal Folate Status in Early Pregnancy Is Associated with Childhood Hyperactivity and Peer Problems in Offspring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy has been linked with fetal brain development and psychopathology in the offspring. We examined for associations of maternal folate status and dietary intake during pregnancy with brain growth and childhood behavioural difficulties in the offspring. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, maternal red…

Schlotz, Wolff; Jones, Alexander; Phillips, David I. W.; Gale, Catharine R.; Robinson, Sian M.; Godfrey, Keith M.

2010-01-01

432

Maternal Periconceptional and Gestational Low Protein Diet Affects Mouse Offspring Growth, Cardiovascular and Adipose Phenotype at 1 Year of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human and animal studies have revealed a strong association between periconceptional environmental factors, such as poor maternal diet, and an increased propensity for cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adult offspring. Previously, we reported cardiovascular and physiological effects of maternal low protein diet (LPD) fed during discrete periods of periconceptional development on 6-month-old mouse offspring. Here, we extend the analysis in

Adam J. Watkins; Emma S. Lucas; Adrian Wilkins; Felino R. A. Cagampang; Tom P. Fleming

2011-01-01

433

Pre-gestational stress alters stress-response of pubertal offspring rat in sexually dimorphic and hemispherically asymmetric manner  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing evidence that maternal stress may have long-term effects on brain development in the offspring. In this study, we examined whether pre-gestational stress might affect offspring rats on the medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) dopaminergic activity in response to acute stress in puberty and if so, whether such effects exhibited hemispheric asymmetry or sexual dimorphism. Results We used behavioral tests to assess the model of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). We found that the activity in the open field test and sucrose intake test were lower for maternal rats in the CUS group than those in the control group. Offspring rats in the CUS group floated more and swam or climbed less as compared to the offsprings in the control group in the forced swimming test. The floating time was longer and swimming or climbing time was shorter in the female offspring rats than those in the males. Serum corticosterone and corticotrophin-releasing hormone levels were significantly higher for CUS maternal rats and their offsprings than the respective controls. The ratio of dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) to dopamine (DA), DA transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET) were lower in the mPFC of offspring rats in the CUS group than the control group. Levels of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in the left mPFC of female offspring rats and in the right mPFC of both female and male offspring rats were lower in the CUS group than those in the controls, but there was no difference in the left mPFC of male offspring between the CUS and control groups. DOPAC, the ratio of DOPAC to DA, NET and COMT were lower in the right mPFC than in the left mPFC of offspring rats in the CUS group. The ratio of DOPAC to DA in the right mPFC was lower in the female offspring rats than male offspring rats in the CUS group. The NET and COMT levels in both left and right mPFC were lower in the female offspring rats than those of the male offsprings in the CUS group. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that the effect of pre-gestational stress on the mPFC dopaminergic activity in response to acute stress exhibited hemispheric asymmetry and sexual dimorphism in the pubertal offspring rats. PMID:23829597

2013-01-01

434

Selective cognitive deficits in adult rats after prenatal exposure to inhaled ethanol.  

PubMed

Increased use of ethanol blends in gasoline suggests a need to assess the potential public health risks of exposure to these fuels. Ethanol consumed during pregnancy is a teratogen. However, little is known about the potential developmental neurotoxicity of ethanol delivered by inhalation, the most likely route of exposure from gasoline-ethanol fuel blends. We evaluated the potential cognitive consequences of ethanol inhalation by exposing pregnant Long Evans rats to clean air or ethanol vapor from gestational days 9-20, a critical period of neuronal development. Concentrations of inhaled ethanol (5000, 10,000, or 21,000 ppm for 6.5h/day) produced modeled peak blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in exposed dams of 2.3, 6.8, and 192 mg/dL, respectively. In offspring, no dose-related impairments were observed on spatial learning or working memory in the Morris water maze or in operant delayed match-to-position tests. Two measures showed significant effects in female offspring at all ethanol doses: 1) impaired cue learning after trace fear conditioning, and 2) an absence of bias for the correct quadrant after place training during a reference memory probe in the Morris water maze. In choice reaction time tests, male offspring (females were not tested) from the 5000 and 10,000 ppm groups showed a transient increase in decision times. Also, male offspring from the 21,000 ppm group made more anticipatory responses during a preparatory hold period, suggesting a deficit in response inhibition. The increase in anticipatory responding during the choice reaction time test shows that inhaled ethanol yielding a peak BEC of ~200mg/dL can produce lasting effects in the offspring. The lack of a dose-related decrement in the effects observed in females on cue learning and a reference memory probe may reflect confounding influences in the exposed offspring possibly related to maternal care or altered anxiety levels in females. The surprising lack of more pervasive cognitive deficits, as reported by others at BECs in the 200mg/dL range, may reflect route-dependent differences in the kinetics of ethanol. These data show that response inhibition was impaired in the offspring of pregnant rats that inhaled ethanol at concentrations at least 5 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations observed during normal automotive transport and fueling operations, which rarely exceed 100 ppb. PMID:25020118

Oshiro, W M; Beasley, T E; McDaniel, K L; Taylor, M M; Evansky, P; Moser, V C; Gilbert, M E; Bushnell, P J

2014-01-01

435

Uses of Rasch scaling in the measurement of cognitive development and growth.  

PubMed

This report describes two types of findings: (a) the consistency between two major cognitive tests in terms of their developmental scales based on item-response theory, and (b) the initial development of ideas and methods for the revival of the classic concept of ratio IQ. The ratio IQ (e.g., Stanford-Binet, 1937) was formed by the division of mental age (derived from test performance) by chronological age multiplied by 100. Following a multitude of criticisms about the scaling qualities of the ratio IQ, it was mostly abandoned by the major intelligence batteries, beginning with the Wechsler scales in the 1940's, in favor of standard scores. This study presents a new approach to age equivalence scores as a basis for mental age, and the calculation of ratio IQ, based on Rasch-model item response theory. The new ratio IQ was compared statistically with standard-score IQ (mean 100, SD 15) from the Leiter International Performance Scale--Revised (Leiter-R) and from the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery--Revised (WJ-R). The essential element of the new ratio IQ is the W-scale, a Rasch-based score employed in the WJ-R and in the Leiter-R. Mental age was estimated from the W-scale estimate of ability and chronological age from a W-scale age equivalence for each month of age. Statistical results showed a highly similar growth curve for the W-scale scores on the Leiter-R and the WJ-R, even though the two scales have different content and standardization samples. Also, high correlations were found between the new ratio IQ and standard-score IQ (e.g., correlations ranging from .87 to .95 depending on age range). Criterion-related evidence of validity was found in the correlation of .82 between the new ratio IQ and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Third Edition (WISC-III) standard-score IQ and in correlations with achievement-test scores. Finally, the ratio IQ showed predictable mean differences between groups of children with typical cognitive ability, cognitive delay levels of performance and giftedness. The standard deviation of the new ratio IQ was somewhat variable across age groups, however, so new interpretive guidelines would be needed if the new index is to employed in published tests. Implications of the scaling methods are discussed. PMID:11272618

Roid, G H; Woodcock, R W

2000-01-01

436

Parental Age Effects on Cortical Morphology in Offspring  

PubMed Central

The age at which a parent has a child impacts the child's cognition and risk for mental illness. It appears that this risk is curvilinear, with both age extremes associated with lower intelligence and increased prevalence of some neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known of the neural mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. We extracted lobar volumes, surface areas, and cortical thickness from 489 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired on 171 youth. Using linear mixed model regression, we determined the association between parental age and offspring's neuroanatomy, adjusting for offspring's age, sex, intelligence, and parental socioeconomic class. For gray matter volumes, quadratic paternal and maternal age terms contributed significantly (maternal quadratic age effect: t = ?2.2, P = 0.03; paternal quadratic age effect: t = ?2.4, P = 0.02) delineating an inverted “U” relationship between parental age and gray matter volume. Cortical volume increased with both advancing paternal and maternal age until around the early 30s after which it fell. Paternal age effects were more pronounced on cortical surface area, whereas maternal age impacted more on cortical thickness. There were no significant effects of parental age on white matter volumes. These parental age effects on cerebral morphology may form part of the link between parental age extremes and suboptimal neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:21817090

Shaw, P.; Gilliam, M.; Malek, M.; Rodriguez, N.; Greenstein, D.; Clasen, L.; Evans, A.; Rapoport, J.; Giedd, J.

2012-01-01

437

A Study of Cognitive Skills Development Through Art Experiences; An Educational Program for Language and Hearing Impaired and Asphasic Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighteen students, 8 to 15 years of age, from six classes in the School for Language and Hearing Impaired Children in New York City, learned mathematical concepts of conservation, grouping, ordering, and a spatial orientation through procedures developed for teaching and evaluating cognitive achievement of painting and drawing tasks. The students…

Silver, Rawley A.; And Others

438

Impacts of Good Practices on Cognitive Development, Learning Orientations, and Graduate Degree Plans during the First Year of College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimated separately the unique effects of three dimensions of good practice and the global effects of a composite measure of good practices on the cognitive development, orientations to learning, and educational aspirations of students during their first year of college. Analyses of longitudinal data from a representative sample of…

Cruce, Ty M.; Wolniak, Gregory C.; Seifert, Tricia A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

2006-01-01

439

What the Resident Meant to Say: Use of Cognitive Interviewing Techniques to Develop Questionnaires for Nursing Home Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Emphasis on consumer-centered care for frail and institutionalized older adults has increased the development and adaptation of surveys for this population. Conventional methods used to pretest survey items fail to investigate underlying sources of measurement error. However, the use of the cognitive interview (CI), a method for studying…

Housen, Patricia; Shannon, George R.; Simon, Barbara; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Cadogan, Mary P.; Sohn, Linda; Jones, Malia; Buchanan, Joan L.; Saliba, Debra

2008-01-01

440

High Suicide Risk after the Development of Cognitive and Working Memory Deficits Caused by Cannabis, Cocaine and Ecstasy Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the case of attempted suicide by a 30-year-old man who had significant cognitive deficits that developed after at least three years of polysubstance use with cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") and cocaine. The patient reported increasing difficulties in his professional and interpersonal life which may have been…

Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto

2007-01-01

441

Ethnic Group Differences in Early Head Start Parents Parenting Beliefs and Practices and Links to Children's Early Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…

Keels, Micere

2009-01-01

442

The Effect of Cleft Lip on Cognitive Development in School-Aged Children: A Paradigm for Examining Sensitive Period Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Our previous investigation showed that infants with cleft lip who had undergone late (three-month) surgical repair (but not those with early, neonatal, repair) had significantly poorer cognitive development at 18 months than a group of unaffected control children. These differences were mediated by the quality of early mother-infant…

Hentges, Francoise; Hill, Jonathan; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Goodacre, Tim; Moss, Tony; Murray, Lynne

2011-01-01

443

THE IMPACT OF COGNITIVE MATURITY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEX-ROLE ATTITUDES IN THE YEARS 4 TO 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A SERIES OF STUDIES WAS CONDUCTED TO CLARIFY THE ROLE OF INTELLIGENCE IN PERSONALITY ORGANIZATION AND TO ASSESS A COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL INTERPRETATION OF IQ-PERSONALITY CORRELATIONS. THE SPECIFIC FOCUS OF THE STUDY WAS THE RELATIONSHIP OF INTELLECTUAL MATURITY TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEX-ROLE ATTITUDES. AGE-DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN SEX-ROLE…

KOHLBERG, LAWRENCE; ZIGLER, EDWARD

444

A Relational Frame Account of the Development of Complex Cognitive Phenomena: Perspective-taking, False Belief Understanding, and Deception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive psychologists have devoted considerable attention to the complex skills described as perspective-taking, understanding false belief, and deception. Much of the available research on these phenomena has been driven by a conceptual approach referred to as 'Theory of Mind'. The current paper reviews the Theory of Mind account of perspective- taking, false belief and deception in terms of the development

Louise McHugh; Yvonne Barnes-Holmes; Dermot Barnes-Holmes

2004-01-01

445

Effects of Perinatal HIV Infection and Early Institutional Rearing on Physical and Cognitive Development of Children in Ukraine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…

Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie

2010-01-01

446

Cultivating an Ethic of Environmental Sustainability: Integrating Insights from Aristotelian Virtue Ethics and Pragmatist Cognitive Development Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite increased attention for environmental sustainability programming, large-scale adoption of pro-environmental behaviors has been slow and largely short-term. This article analyzes the crucial role of ethics in this respect. The authors utilize an interdisciplinary approach drawing on virtue ethics and cognitive development theory to…

York, Travis; Becker, Christian

2012-01-01

447

Elementary Teachers' Application of Jean Piaget's Theories of Cognitive Development during Social Studies Curriculum Debates in Arizona  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we explore educators' use of Jean Piaget's theories concerning cognitive development to refute proposed social studies standards in Arizona. We describe the work of Piaget as well as the National Association for the Education of Young Children's developmentally appropriate practices as they apply to primary-grade children's…

Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Perry, Nancy

2007-01-01

448

In Mark Johnson (Ed.), Brain development and cognition: A reader (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2002.  

E-print Network

In Mark Johnson (Ed.), Brain development and cognition: A reader (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2002. CONNECTIONISM AND THE STUDY OF CHANGE Elizabeth A. Bates Jeffrey L. Elman University and Clancy, in press; Elman et al., 1996; Johnson, 1997), "maturation" refers to the timely appearance

449

Neurocognitive Approaches to Developmental Disorders of Numerical and Mathematical Cognition: The Perils of Neglecting the Role of Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper provides a critical overview of how adult neuropsychological models have been applied to the study of the atypical development of numerical cognition. Specifically, the following three assumptions are challenged: 1. Profiles of strength and weaknesses do not change over developmental time. 2. Similar neuronal structures are…

Ansari, Daniel

2010-01-01

450

On Broadening the Cognitive, Motivational, and Sociostructural Scope of Theorizing About Gender Development and Functioning: Comment on Martin, Ruble, and Szkrybalo (2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their article on gender development, C. L. Martin, D. N. Ruble, and J. Szkrybalo (2002) contrasted their conception of gender development with that of social cognitive theory. The authors of this commentary correct misrepresentations of social cognitive theory and analyze the conceptual and empirical status of Martin et al.'s (2002) theory that gender stereotype matching is the main motivating

Albert Bandura; Kay Bussey

2004-01-01

451

Extending Participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping with a Control Nodes Methodology: a case study of the development bio-based economy in the  

E-print Network

stakeholders collaboratively develop a cognitive map (a weighted, directed graph), representing the perceivedExtending Participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping with a Control Nodes Methodology: a case study of the development bio-based economy in the Humber region, UK Alexandra S. Penn1 , Christopher J.K. Knight, Georgios

Lloyd, David

452

Nutritional condition and physiology of paternal care in two congeneric species of black bass (Micropterus spp.) relative to stage of offspring development.  

PubMed

Parental care requires a complex integration of physiology and behaviour, yet little is known about the physiological and energetic consequences or correlates of these behaviours. Using two species of male black bass (smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu; largemouth bass, M. salmoides) as a model, the focus of this study was to determine the biochemical and hematological indicators of change in nutritional status and potential for chronic stress. This was accomplished by randomly sampling individuals at four stages across parental care. Additionally, a subset of individuals was repeatedly sampled at three brood development stages to track changes in biochemical factors within the individual. Though there were changes in physiological factors across parental care in randomly sampled fish of both species (declines in plasma glucose in largemouth bass; decreases in hematocrit and plasma chloride in smallmouth bass), repeated sampling of individuals was determined to be a more appropriate sampling technique due to natural variability in biochemical factors among individual fish. Repeated sampling of smallmouth bass did not adversely influence physiological metrics or brood abandonment. However, there were higher incidences of nest abandonment in repeatedly sampled largemouth bass. Amongst the repeatedly sampled smallmouth bass, nutritional indicators such as plasma triglyceride levels decreased indicating individual fasting across the majority of parental care. Increases in plasma calcium and magnesium towards the end of care indicated that feeding most likely resumed when the brood was close to independence after approximately 3 weeks of care. Lastly, several indicators of chronic stress, such as plasma glucose and chloride levels, increased throughout the parental care period. These sublethal stressors are indicative of decreasing body condition associated with prolonged activity and fasting which may have marked impacts on the ability of an individual to continue parental care for the current brood and impact subsequent individual fitness. Further research into the mechanistic relationships between behaviour, physiology, and energetics during the parental care period will provide a better understanding of the decisions by individuals facing multiple trade-offs that ultimately lead to differences in individual fitness. PMID:18839181

Hanson, Kyle C; Cooke, Steven J

2009-04-01

453

The Role of Socio-Communicative Rearing Environments on the Development of Social and Physical Cognition in Apes  

PubMed Central

The cultural intelligence hypothesis (CIH) claims that humans' advanced cognition is a direct result of human culture and that children are uniquely specialized to absorb and utilize this cultural experience (Tomasello, 2000). Comparative data demonstrating that 2.5 year old human children outperform apes on measures of social cognition but not on measures of physical cognition support this claim (E. Herrmann, J. Call, M. V. Hernandez-Lloreda, B. Hare, & M. Tomasello, 2007). However, the previous study failed to control for rearing when comparing these two species. Specifically, the human children were raised in a human culture whereas the apes were raised in standard sanctuary settings. To further explore the CIH, here we compared the performance on multiple measures of social and physical cognition in a group of standard reared apes raised in conditions typical of zoo and biomedical laboratory settings to that of apes reared in an enculturated socio-communicatively rich environment. Overall, the enculturated apes significantly outperformed their standard reared counterparts on the cognitive tasks and this was particularly true for measures of communication. Furthermore, the performance of the enculturated apes was very similar to previously reported data from 2.5 year old children. We conclude that apes who are reared in a human-like socio-communicatively rich environment develop superior communicative abilities compared to apes reared in standard laboratory settings, which supports some assumptions of the cultural intelligence hypothesis. PMID:22010903

Russell, J. L.; Lyn, H.; Schaeffer, J. A.; Hopkins, W. D.

2011-01-01

454

Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.  

PubMed Central

Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in t