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1

An overview of evidence for a causal relationship between dietary availability of choline during development and cognitive function in offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is part of a series intended for non-specialists that will provide an overview of evidence for causal relationships between micronutrient deficiencies and brain function. Here, we review 34 studies in rodents linking the availability of choline during gestation and perinatal development to neurological function or performance of offspring in cognitive and behavioral tests. Experimental designs, major results, and

Joyce C. McCann; Mark Hudes; Bruce N. Ames

2006-01-01

2

The effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats  

PubMed Central

Background Recent findings suggest that the intake of specific nutrients during the critical period in early life influence cognitive and behavioural development profoundly. Antioxidants such as vitamin E have been postulated to be pivotal in this process, as vitamin E is able to protect the growing brain from oxidative stress. Currently tocotrienols are gaining much attention due to their potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. It is thus compelling to look at the effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienols supplementation, on cognition and behavioural development among offsprings of individual supplemented with tocotrienols. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate potential prenatal and early postnatal influence of Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF) supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats. Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base diet plus vehicle (VHCL), base diet plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA), base diet plus Tocotrienol-Rich fraction (TRF), and base diet plus both docosahexaenoic acid, and tocotrienol rich fraction (DTRF) diets for 2 weeks prior to mating. The females (F0 generation) were maintained on their respective treatment diets throughout the gestation and lactation periods. Pups (F1 generation) derived from these dams were raised with their dams from birth till four weeks post natal. The male pups were weaned at 8 weeks postnatal, after which they were grouped into five groups of 10 animals each, and fed with the same diets as their dams for another eight weeks. Learning and behavioural experiments were conducted only in male off-spring rats using the Morris water maze.Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base diet plus vehicle (VHCL), base diet plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA), base diet plus Tocotrienol-Rich fraction (TRF), and base diet plus both docosahexaenoic acid, and tocotrienol rich fraction (DTRF) diets for 2 weeks prior to mating. The females (F0 generation) were maintained on their respective treatment diets throughout the gestation and lactation periods. Pups (F1 generation) derived from these dams were raised with their dams from birth till four weeks post natal. The male pups were weaned at 8 weeks postnatal, after which they were grouped into five groups of 10 animals each, and fed with the same diets as their dams for another eight weeks. Learning and behavioural experiments were conducted only in male off-spring rats using the Morris water maze. Results Results showed that prenatal and postnatal TRF supplementation increased the brain (4–6 fold increase) and plasma ?-tocotrienol (0.8 fold increase) levels in male off-springs. There is also notably better cognitive performance based on the Morris water maze test among these male off-springs. Conclusion Based on these results, it is concluded that prenatal and postnatal TRF supplementation improved cognitive function development in male progeny rats.

2013-01-01

3

Association Between Maternal Depressogenic Cognitive Style During Pregnancy and Offspring Cognitive Style 18 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Objective Understanding the origins of negative cognitive style could provide a means to prevent adult depression. Cognitive style is an important target for intervention because although it is not possible to remove the stress and adversities in people’s lives, it may be possible to modify interpretation of such adversities through cognitive style. Children may develop a negative cognitive style through modeling the style of their mothers. However, findings have been inconsistent on the association. The authors tested the hypothesis that there is an independent association between maternal and offspring depressogenic cognitive style. Method Data from over 4,000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort study in the United Kingdom were used to investigate the association between maternal depressogenic cognitive style before the offspring’s birth and the offspring’s depressogenic cognitive style at age 18. Results A positive association was observed between maternal and offspring cognitive styles: a one-standard-deviation increase in maternal depressogenic cognitive style score during pregnancy was significantly associated with a mean increase of 0.1 standard deviations in offspring depressogenic cognitive style score at age 18. This effect remained after adjusting for maternal and offspring depression and explained 21% of the association between maternal and offspring depression. Conclusions Although the mechanisms remain to be elucidated, the findings are consistent with the idea that a mother’s cognitive style (irrespective of her depression status) influences that of her child. This suggests that interventions to improve a mother’s cognitive style could help prevent her offspring from developing depression during adulthood.

Fernyhough, Charles; Bentall, Richard; Evans, Jonathan; Heron, Jon; Joinson, Carol; Stein, Alan L.; Lewis, Glyn

2013-01-01

4

Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring cognition and school performance. A 'Mendelian randomization' natural experiment  

PubMed Central

Background There is substantial debate as to whether moderate alcohol use during pregnancy could have subtle but important effects on offspring, by impairing later cognitive function and thus school performance. The authors aimed to investigate the unconfounded effect of moderately increased prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive/educational performance. Methods We used mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and performed both conventional observational analyses and Mendelian randomization using an ADH1B variant (rs1229984) associated with reduced alcohol consumption. Women of White European origin with genotype and self-reported prenatal alcohol consumption, whose offspring’s IQ score had been assessed in clinic (N = 4061 pairs) or Key Stage 2 (KS2) academic achievement score was available through linkage to the National Pupil Database (N = 6268), contributed to the analyses. Results Women reporting moderate drinking before and during early pregnancy were relatively affluent compared with women reporting lighter drinking, and their children had higher KS2 and IQ scores. In contrast, children whose mothers’ genotype predisposes to lower consumption or abstinence during early pregnancy had higher KS2 scores (mean difference +1.7, 95% confidence interval +0.4, +3.0) than children of mothers whose genotype predisposed to heavier drinking, after adjustment for population stratification. Conclusions Better offspring cognitive/educational outcomes observed in association with prenatal alcohol exposure presumably reflected residual confounding by factors associated with social position and maternal education. The unconfounded Mendelian randomization estimates suggest a small but potentially important detrimental effect of small increases in prenatal alcohol exposure, at least on educational outcomes.

Zuccolo, Luisa; Lewis, Sarah J; Davey Smith, George; Sayal, Kapil; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Alati, Rosa; Ring, Sue; Macleod, John; Golding, Jean; Heron, Jon; Gray, Ron

2013-01-01

5

Odor identification and cognitive function in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study.  

PubMed

Olfactory impairment is associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about the association of olfactory impairment and cognitive function in middle-aged adults. The association between olfactory impairment and cognitive function tests of attention, processing speed, and executive and psychomotor function was explored in 2837 participants (21-84 years; mean age 49 years) in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Among middle-aged participants (aged 35-64 years), those with impairment on an odor identification test took significantly longer to complete the Trail Making Test (TMT-A and TMT-B) and the Grooved Peg Board (GPB) test, than those without olfactory impairment in regression models adjusted for multiple factors. Similar results were found for the TMT-A and TMT-B, but not the GPB, in the whole cohort. Olfactory impairment was associated with poorer performance on cognitive function tests in a primarily middle-aged cohort. PMID:23789858

Schubert, Carla R; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Fischer, Mary E; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Ronald; Pankratz, Nathan; Zhong, Wenjun; Nondahl, David M

2013-06-21

6

Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female Wistar rats maintained on low-iodine grain were randomly assigned to three groups based on iodated water concentration: low iodine (LI, 1.2??g/d), normal iodine (NI, 5–6??g/d), and 3-fold high iodine (3HI, 15–16??g/d). The present study investigated whether higher-than-normal iodine intake (3HI) by rats from before pregnancy until breastfeeding affects the postnatal (PN) neurodevelopment (PN7 and PN45) of their offspring during particularly sensitive periods in brain development. Results After 12?weeks of treatment (before pregnancy), iodine concentrations in urine and thyroid tissue and circulating thyroxine of adult females correlated with iodine intake. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampi of pups on PN7 and PN45 was decreased in 3HI group compared to the NI controls (P??0.05). Results from the Morris water maze test revealed that pups of the 3HI group had mild learning and spatial memory deficits. Conclusions The neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits of the 3HI pups were mild and temporary, likely related to the changes in hippocampal protein expressions of BDNF and NSP-A.

2012-01-01

7

Sex-Dependent Cognitive Performance in Baboon Offspring Following Maternal Caloric Restriction in Pregnancy and Lactation  

PubMed Central

In humans a suboptimal diet during development has negative outcomes in offspring. We investigated the behavioral outcomes in baboons born to mothers undergoing moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Maternal nutrient restriction mothers (n = 7) were fed 70% of food eaten by controls (CTR, n = 12) fed ad libitum throughout gestation and lactation. At 3.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) years of age offspring (controls: female [FC, n = 8], male [MC, n = 4]; nutrient restricted: female [FR, n = 3] and male [MR, n = 4]) were administered progressive ratio, simple discrimination, intra-/extra-dimension set shift and delayed matching to sample tasks to assess motivation, learning, attention, and working memory, respectively. A treatment effect was observed in MNR offspring who demonstrated less motivation and impaired working memory. Nutrient-restricted female offspring showed improved learning, while MR offspring showed impaired learning and attentional set shifting and increased impulsivity. In summary, 30% restriction in maternal caloric intake has long lasting neurobehavioral outcomes in adolescent male baboon offspring.

Rodriguez, Jesse S.; Bartlett, Thad Q.; Keenan, Kathryn E.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Nijland, Mark J.

2012-01-01

8

Is later better or worse? Association of advanced parental age with offspring cognitive ability among half a million young Swedish men.  

PubMed

Parental ages are increasing in the developed world, and postponed parenthood may have a negative association with the cognitive ability of offspring. There is, however, inconclusive evidence regarding the impact of both maternal and paternal ages. We have been able to reduce or eliminate unobserved confounding by using methods that account for fixed parental characteristics shared by brothers. Associations between parental age and intelligence quotient (IQ) among 565,433 Swedish males (birth cohorts 1951 to 1976) were analyzed, with IQ measured at conscription examinations (given between ages 17 and 20 years). When we accounted for the IQ time trend by adjusting for birth year, advanced paternal age showed no association with offspring IQ; however, maternal ages above 30 years were inversely associated with offspring IQ. For example, maternal ages 40-44 years were associated with an offspring IQ that was 0.07 standard deviations lower than that for maternal ages 25-29 years (P < 0.001). However, the IQ trend more than offset the impact of age, as without birth year adjustment, advanced maternal age was positively associated with IQ. Although the results confirmed that maternal age was negatively associated with offspring IQ, the association was small enough that delaying parenthood resulted in higher offspring IQ scores because of the positive IQ test score trend. PMID:23467498

Myrskylä, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

2013-03-06

9

Carotid Atherosclerosis and Cognitive Function in midlife: the Beaver Dam Offspring Study  

PubMed Central

Background Atherosclerosis may be associated with cognitive function; however the studies are few, especially among midlife adults. Methods Participants in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study who had cognitive test data and gradable carotid artery ultrasound scans were included (n=2794, mean age: 49 years). Atherosclerosis was measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and presence of plaque. Cognitive function was measured by the Trail Making Test (TMT), Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Generalized cognitive function was defined by a summary score calculated from the TMT and GPT. Linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between carotid atherosclerosis and cognitive function tests. Results Larger IMT was associated with lower GPT, MMSE and the summary score adjusting for multiple factors, the coefficients were: 13.8 seconds (p<0.0001), ?0.6 (p=0.007), and 0.47 (p=0.01), respectively for 1 mm increase in IMT. Plaque scores were significantly associated with TMT-B, GPT, MMSE, and the summary score adjusting for age, sex and education. The associations remained statistically significant after further adjustments except for the association with TMT-B, which was attenuated and no longer significant. Conclusions Our results show significant associations between markers of carotid atherosclerosis and cognitive function in a cohort of persons aged 21 to 84 years. Longitudinal studies are needed to further examine these associations.

Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Nieto, F. Javier; Pankow, James S.; Schubert, Carla R.

2011-01-01

10

Comparative Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper aims to compare cognitive development in humans and chimpanzees to illuminate the evolutionary origins of human cognition. Comparison of morphological data and life history strongly highlights the common features of all primate species, including humans. The human mother-infant relationship is characterized by the physical separation…

Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2007-01-01

11

Parental legacy in insects: variation of transgenerational immune priming during offspring development.  

PubMed

In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP) mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i) whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii) whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii) whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO) activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages and depend on the type of immunity (PO or antibacterial activity) as well as the time past offspring immune challenge. PMID:23700423

Trauer, Ute; Hilker, Monika

2013-05-20

12

Prenatal stress disturbs hippocampal KIF17 and NR2B in spatial cognition in male offspring.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have demonstrated that prenatal stress disturbs the hippocampal-mediated learning and memory processes in offspring. The underlying mechanisms for this effect, however, remain vague. It is well documented that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play a pivotal role in learning and memory, which are related to dynamically trafficking and regulating NMDA receptors by their response motor proteins. Over the past few years, increasing numbers of studies have elucidated that hippocampal-mediated learning and memory are regulated by KIF17 (kinesin superfamily motor protein 17), which specifically transports and regulates the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in hippocampal neurons. The present study shows the influence of prenatal stress on KIF17 and NR2B expression and hippocampal NR2A/NR2B ratio partially reflecting function of KIF17, using mice as models. It was found that prenatal stress significantly decreased the hippocampal KIF17 and NR2B level in offspring at postnatal stages of 3 weeks and 9 weeks. Moreover, hippocampal KIF17 in the prenatally stressed pups continued to be weakened even after serial Morris water maze trainings, but not NR2B. Finally, the synaptic NR2A/NR2B level was upregulated in offspring exposed to prenatal stress, which revealed the dysfunction of KIF17. Thus, we conclude that prenatal stress leads to long-lasting deterioration of the expression and function of hippocampal KIF17 in offspring, which may be related to deficits of spatial cognition caused by prenatal stress. These data underpin the hypotheses that a physiopathology of neurodevelopmental origin in early life leads to defects in learning and memory in later life. PMID:23239421

Zhao, Depeng; Liu, Dan; Chen, Xueyu; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ai; Kang, Jiuhong; Zhou, Qian; Duan, Tao

2012-12-14

13

Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring.  

PubMed

Teratological investigations have demonstrated that agents that are relatively harmless to the mother may have significant negative consequences to the fetus. Among these agents, prenatal alcohol, nicotine or cannabis exposure have been related to adverse offspring outcomes. Although there is a relatively extensive body of literature that has focused upon birth and behavioral outcomes in newborns and infants after prenatal exposure to maternal smoking, drinking and, to a lesser extent, cannabis use, information on neurobehavioral and cognitive teratogenic findings beyond these early ages is still quite limited. Furthermore, most studies have focused on prenatal exposure to heavy levels of smoking, drinking or cannabis use. Few recent studies have paid attention to low or moderate levels of exposure to these substances. This review endeavors to provide an overview of such studies, and includes animal findings and potential mechanisms that may explain the mostly subtle effects found on neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to either maternal smoking, alcohol or cannabis use is related to some common neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes, including symptoms of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity), increased externalizing behavior, decreased general cognitive functioning, and deficits in learning and memory tasks. PMID:16095697

Huizink, Anja C; Mulder, Eduard J H

2005-08-10

14

Level of Social-Cognitive Development, Adaptive Functioning, and DSM-III Diagnoses in Adolescent Offspring of Parents With Affective Disorders: Implications of the Development of the Capacity for Mutuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relation between the developmental social-cognitive capacity for interpersonal negotiation and both parental-risk and adolescent-outcome variables in 172 adolescents 11 to 19 years of age. The sample was divided into two groups: those at risk because of affective disorder in one or both of their parents and a comparison group whose parents have never experienced affective illness.

William R. Beardslee; Lynn Hickey Schultz; Robert L. Selman

1987-01-01

15

New views on cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent empirical findings viewed from a cognitive developmental perspective suggest new interpretive stances toward three familiar themes —the fears of infancy, the discontinuous quality of stages in cognitive functioning, and the capacity for resilience in cognitive development. (1) Time of onset and decline of separation anxiety in infants are primarily a function of the infant's level of cognitive development rather

Jerome Kagan

1976-01-01

16

Transgenerational effects of parent and grandparent gender on offspring development in a biparental beetle species.  

PubMed

Parental effects on offspring life-history traits are common and increasingly well-studied. However, the extent to which these effects persist into offspring in subsequent generations has received less attention. In this experiment, maternal and paternal effects on offspring and grand-offspring were investigated in the biparental burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, using a split-family design. This allowed the separation of prenatal and postnatal transgenerational effects. Grandparent and parent gender were found to have a cumulative effect on offspring development and may provide a selection pressure on the division of parental investment in biparental species. PMID:22090206

Lock, Judith E

2011-11-16

17

Transgenerational effects of parent and grandparent gender on offspring development in a biparental beetle species  

PubMed Central

Parental effects on offspring life-history traits are common and increasingly well-studied. However, the extent to which these effects persist into offspring in subsequent generations has received less attention. In this experiment, maternal and paternal effects on offspring and grand-offspring were investigated in the biparental burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, using a split-family design. This allowed the separation of prenatal and postnatal transgenerational effects. Grandparent and parent gender were found to have a cumulative effect on offspring development and may provide a selection pressure on the division of parental investment in biparental species.

Lock, Judith E.

2012-01-01

18

Spatial-anatomical mapping of NoGo-P3 in the offspring of alcoholics: Evidence of cognitive and neural disinhibition as a risk for alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Objective The concept of disinhibition as a behavioral and biological trait has been considered to be involved in the etiology of alcoholism and its co-existing disorders. The magnitude and functional mapping of event-related potential P3(00) components were analyzed, in order to examine the possible response inhibition deficits in the offspring of alcoholics. Method The P3 components were compared between 50 offspring of alcoholics (OA) and a matched normal control group (NC) using a visual Go/NoGo task. The low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to analyze the functional brain mapping between groups. Results The results indicated that the OA group manifested decreased P3 amplitude during the NoGo but not the Go condition compared to the NC group. The voxel-by-voxel analysis in LORETA showed group differences at several brain regions including prefrontal areas during the processing of NoGo but not Go signals. Conclusions The decreased NoGo-P3 suggests that cognitive and neural disinhibition in offspring of alcoholics may serve as a neurocognitive index for a phenotypic marker in the development of alcoholism and related disorders. Significance Dysfunctional neural and response inhibition in the offspring of alcoholics perhaps provides an endophenotypic marker of risk for the development of alcoholism and related disorders.

Kamarajan, Chella; Porjesz, Bernice; Jones, Kevin A.; Chorlian, David B.; Padmanabhapillai, Ajayan; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Stimus, Arthur T.; Begleiter, Henri

2013-01-01

19

Event-related oscillations in offspring of alcoholics: Neuro-cognitive disinhibition as a risk for alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Event-related oscillations (EROs) are increasingly being used to assess neuro-cognitive functioning in normal and clinical populations. The current study compares different frequency activities in offspring of alcoholics (OA) and in normal controls (NC) in order to examine whether the OA group exhibits any abnormality in oscillatory activity while performing a Go/NoGo task. Methods The S-Transform algorithm was employed to decompose the EEG signals into different time-frequency bands, and the oscillatory responses in the P300 time window (300–700 ms) was statistically analyzed in both groups. Results The OA group manifested significantly decreased activity in delta (1–3 Hz), theta (4–7 Hz), and alpha1 (8–9 Hz) bands during the NoGo condition as well as reduced delta and theta activity during the Go condition. This reduction was more prominent in the NoGo than in the Go condition. Conclusions The decreased response in delta, theta, and alpha1 oscillations, especially during the NoGo condition in high risk individuals is perhaps suggestive of cognitive and neural disinhibition, and may serve as an endophenotypic marker in the development of alcoholism and/or other disinhibitory disorders.

Kamarajan, Chella; Porjesz, Bernice; Jones, Kevin; Chorlian, David; Padmanabhapillai, Ajayan; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Stimus, Arthur; Begleiter, Henri

2013-01-01

20

A cognitive development framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prominent stage theories of cognitive development show evidence of a structure in which each stage contains a number of subsidiary\\u000a levels. Comparisons of the stages in these theories have commonly been made through the established links with stages of Piaget’s\\u000a theory. In response to Kagan’s criticism of Piaget’s theory, features of these developmental theories were used in this paper\\u000a as

Warren R. Stanton

1993-01-01

21

Thinking Styles and Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using R. J. Sternberg's (1988, 1997) theory of thinking styles and W. G. Perry's (1970) theory of cognitive development, the author investigated the nature of thinking styles as they relate to cognitive development. Eighty-two Hong Kong university students (44 male, 38 female) responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (R. J. Sternberg & R. K. Wagner, 1992) and the Zhang Cognitive

Li-Fang Zhang

2002-01-01

22

Young Male Offspring of Alcoholic Fathers: Early Developmental and Cognitive Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The early cognitive development and motor development of male preschool children with an alcoholic father were compared with matched control subjects from non-alcoholic families who resided in the same neighborhoods. Families were participants in the Michigan State University Longitudinal Study, into which were recruited all drunk drivers…

Noll, Robert B.; And Others

23

The effects of prenatal maternal stress on children's cognitive development: Project Ice Storm  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists considerable research on the effects of prenatal maternal stress on offspring. Animal studies, using random assignment to experimental and control groups, demonstrate the noxious effects of prenatal maternal stress on physical, behavioural and cognitive development. The generalizability of these results to humans is problematic given that cognitive attributions moderate reactions to stressors. In humans, researchers have relied upon

Suzanne King; David P. Laplante

2005-01-01

24

Cognitive Outcome of Offspring from Dexamethasone-Treated Pregnancies at Risk for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test whether dexamethasone (DEX) treatment of pregnancies at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) impairs cognitive functioning in the offspring. Design Observational follow-up of prenatally DEX-exposed offspring and controls. Methods Study 1 included 140 children age 5-12 years: 67 DEX-exposed (long-term: 8 CAH girls) and 73 unexposed (with 15 CAH girls). Study 2 included 20 participants age 11-24 years: 7 DEX-exposed (long-term: 1 CAH woman) and 13 unexposed (with 4 CAH women). Neuropsychological testing was done in hospital settings or patients' homes. Data analysis aimed at maximizing detection of effects of DEX exposure. Results The vast majority of group comparisons were not marginally or conventionally significant. The few significant findings on short-term prenatal DEX exposure suggested more positive than adverse outcomes. By contrast, the few significant findings in females with CAH and long-term DEX exposure indicated slower mental processing than in controls on several neuropsychological variables, although partial correlations of DEX-exposure duration with cognitive outcome did not corroborate this association. Conclusions Our studies do not replicate a previously reported adverse effect of short-term prenatal DEX exposure on working memory, while our findings on cognitive function in CAH girls with long-term DEX exposure contribute to concerns about potentially adverse cognitive aftereffects of such exposure. Yet, our studies are not definitive, and replications in larger samples are required.

Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; Dolezal, Curtis; Haggerty, Rita; Silverman, Michael; New, Maria I.

2012-01-01

25

The nature of cognitive development.  

PubMed

Theories of cognitive development have led to enduring and fierce arguments that have been long on rhetoric but short on evidence. Constructivist theory has roots in Piagetian notions of cognitive development as proceeding from self-directed action during infancy. Nativist theories subsequently became popular by producing claims of cognitive precocity, but left open many central questions concerning mechanisms of development. Now, a new view of constructivism is experiencing a renaissance, having achieved greater psychophysical, computational and neural plausibility. PMID:12639685

Johnson, Scott P.

2003-03-01

26

Language-based cognitive functioning in parents of offspring with ADHD comorbid for Tourette syndrome or learning disabilities.  

PubMed

The parents of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined for characteristics symptomatic of 2 comorbidities (Co) within their offspring with ADHD: Tourette syndrome (TS) and language-based learning disabilities (LD). A 2 x 2 multivariate analysis of variance design was used; the parents were divided according to whether the offspring with ADHD had TS (Co-TS) or not (No Co-TS) and whether offspring had LD (Co-LD) or not (No Co-LD). Parents (86 mothers and 70 fathers) were administered the short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R; Wechsler, 1981), subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson Cognitive and Achievement Batteries (Woodcock & Johnson, 1989), and word fluency (semantic and letter; Benton & Hamsher, 1989; Wiig & Semel, 1987). The fathers of offspring with Co-TS were more likely to be diagnosed with LD and had lower WAIS-R Vocabulary, Arithmetic, and Picture Arrangement scores. In addition, when the WAIS-R full scale IQ was used as a covariate, these fathers had lower Woodcock-Johnson Oral Vocabulary, Spelling, and Reading scores (as measured by Letter-Word Identification). The mothers of children with Co-TS had lower WAIS-R Vocabulary scores. Parents of the children with No Co-TS showed a higher proportion of error patterns on the word fluency tasks involving repetitions and rule breaks. The findings show that it was the parents of the children with Co-TS, not the parents of the children with Co-LD, who showed language-based learning problems. In separate discriminant analyses for the fathers and mothers, when the aforementioned significant parental measures were used as predictors, 81% of offspring with Co-TS were correctly classified as having a diagnosis of TS, solely on the basis of characteristics in their parents. PMID:10916577

Casey, M B; Cohen, M; Schuerholz, L J; Singer, H S; Denckla, M B

2000-01-01

27

Promoting Student Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on a theoretically grounded counselor preparation curriculum that was designed to enhance the moral reasoning and cognitive complexity of students as well as teach them the basic skills and theories of counselor education. The curriculum for the counselor training was rooted in a teaching–learning framework that included conditions for facilitating cognitive–developmental growth and skill and theoretical training

Johnston M. Brendel; Jered B. Kolbert; Victoria A. Foster

2002-01-01

28

Role of maternal 5-HT1A receptor in programming offspring emotional and physical development  

PubMed Central

Serotonin1A receptor (5-HT1AR) deficiency has been associated with anxiety and depression and mice with genetic receptor inactivation exhibit heightened anxiety. We have reported that 5-HT1AR is not only a genetic but also a maternal “environmental” factor in the development of anxiety in Swiss-Webster mice. Here we tested if the emergence of maternal genotype dependent adult anxiety is preceded by early behavioral abnormalities or if it is manifested following a normal emotional development. Pups born to null or heterozygote mothers had significantly reduced ultrasonic vocalization between postnatal day (P) 4 and 12 indicating an influence of the maternal genotype. The offspring’s own genotype had an effect limited to P4. Furthermore, we observed reduced weight gain in the null offspring of null but not heterozygote mothers indicating that a complete maternal receptor deficiency compromises offspring physical development. Except a short perinatal deficit during the dark period, heterozygote females displayed normal maternal behavior which, with the early appearance of ultrasonic vocalization deficit, suggests a role for 5-HT1AR during pre/perinatal development. Consistent with this notion, adult anxiety in the offspring is determined during the pre/perinatal period. In contrast to heterozygote females, null mothers exhibited impaired pup retrieval and nest building that may explain the reduced weight gain of their offspring. Taken together, our data indicate an important role for the maternal 5-HT1AR in regulating offspring emotional and physical development. Since reduced receptor binding has been reported in depression, including postpartum depression, reduced 5-HT1AR function in mothers may influence the emotional development of their offspring.

van Velzen, Annelies; Toth, Miklos

2010-01-01

29

Development of celiac disease-associated antibodies in offspring of parents with Type I diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and temporal development of antibodies related to celiac disease in\\u000a offspring of parents with Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Methods. Sera from 913 offspring of parents with Type I diabetes prospectively followed from birth to the age of 8 years were tested\\u000a for IgG-transglutaminase antibodies (IgG-tTGCAs), endomysial IgA antibodies

M. Hummel; E. Bonifacio; M. Stern; J. Dittler; A. Schimmel; A. G. Ziegler

2000-01-01

30

Preferential development of Th17 cells in offspring of immunostimulated pregnant mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant mice were stimulated at day 12 of gestation with the nucleotide poly(I:C). At 24h after stimulation, serum levels of maternal cytokines were measured, and at postnatal ages 2 and 3 weeks, offspring were analyzed for T helper (Th) cell subsets. Lymphocytes from offspring of poly(I:C)-injected (vs. control PBS-injected) pregnant dams preferentially developed into T helper 17 (Th17) cells upon

Mili Mandal; Atara C. Marzouk; Robert Donnelly; Nicholas M. Ponzio

2010-01-01

31

Cognitive Developmental Theory and Spiritual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional conceptions of cognitive development have failed to account for changes in adult cognition as well as more subjective and intuitive features of human experience. This paper reviews recent theories and research in cognitive development and spirituality with the aim of providing connections between the two domains. Neo-Piagetian and postformal theories of cognitive development suggest that advances in cognition are

Kelly B. Cartwright

2001-01-01

32

Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teratological investigations have demonstrated that agents that are relatively harmless to the mother may have significant negative consequences to the fetus. Among these agents, prenatal alcohol, nicotine or cannabis exposure have been related to adverse offspring outcomes. Although there is a relatively extensive body of literature that has focused upon birth and behavioral outcomes in newborns and infants after prenatal

Anja C. Huizink; Eduard J. H. Mulder

2006-01-01

33

Both high and low maternal salt intake in pregnancy alter kidney development in the offspring.  

PubMed

In humans, low glomerular numbers are related to hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal disease in adult life. The present study was designed 1) to explore whether above- or below-normal dietary salt intake during pregnancy influences nephron number and blood pressure in the offspring and 2) to identify potential mechanisms in kidney development modified by maternal sodium intake. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low (0.07%)-, intermediate (0.51%)-, or high (3.0%)-sodium diets during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were weaned at 4 wk and subsequently kept on a 0.51% sodium diet. The kidney structure was assessed at postnatal weeks 1 and 12 and the expression of proteins of interest at term and at week 1. Blood pressure was measured in male offspring by telemetry from postnatal month 2 to postnatal month 9. The numbers of glomeruli at weeks 1 and 12 were significantly lower and, in males, telemetrically measured mean arterial blood pressure after month 5 was higher in offspring of dams on a high- or low- compared with intermediate-sodium diet. A high-salt diet was paralleled by higher concentrations of marinobufagenin in the amniotic fluid and an increase in the expression of both sprouty-1 and glial cell-derived neutrophic factor in the offspring's kidney. The expression of FGF-10 was lower in offspring of dams on a low-sodium diet, and the expression of Pax-2 and FGF-2 was lower in offspring of dams on a high-sodium diet. Both excessively high and excessively low sodium intakes during pregnancy modify protein expression in offspring kidneys and reduce the final number of glomeruli, predisposing the risk of hypertension later in life. PMID:21593188

Koleganova, Nadezda; Piecha, Grzegorz; Ritz, Eberhard; Becker, Luis Eduardo; Müller, Annett; Weckbach, Monika; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Schirmacher, Peter; Gross-Weissmann, Marie-Luise

2011-05-18

34

Semiotic Aspects of Cognitive Development: Illustrations From Early Mathematical Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The premise of this article is that cognitive development involves both conceptual and semiotic achievements. From this perspective, the authors emphasize the distinctness of the semiotic issues and develop a differentiated appreciation of semiotic aspects of cognition, particularly in the field of elementary mathematical cognition. The authors provide semiotic analyses of the differences between counting, adding, and multiplying and of

Joe Becker; Maria Varelas

1993-01-01

35

Constructivist Neural Network Models of Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis I investigate the modelling of cognitive development with constructivistneural networks. I argue that the constructivist nature of development, that is,the building of a cognitive system through active interactions with its environment,is an essential property of human development and should be considered in modelsof cognitive development. I evaluate this claim on the basis of evidence from corticaldevelopment, cognitive

Gert Westermann

2000-01-01

36

Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that offspring of mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and are hyperleptinaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and obese as adults. Poor maternal care and bonding can also impact offspring development and disease risk.We therefore hypothesized that prenatal nutrition would affect maternal care and that an interaction may exist between a maternal HF diet and maternal care, subsequently impacting on offspring phenotype.Wistar rats were mated and randomized to control dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Maternal care was assessed by observing maternal licking and grooming of pups between postnatal day (P)3 and P8. Postweaning (P22), offspring were fed a control (–con) or HF (–hf) diet. From P27, pubertal onset was assessed. At ?P105 oestrous cyclicity was investigated. Maternal HF diet reduced maternal care; HF-fed mothers licked and groomed pups less than CON dams.Maternal fat:lean ratio was higher in HF dams at weaning and was associated with higher maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, but there was no effect of maternal care on fat:lean ratio or maternal hormone levels. Both female and male offspring of HF dams were lighter from birth to P11 than offspring of CON dams, but by P19, HF offspring were heavier than controls. Prepubertal retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in pups from HF-fed dams compared to CON and was associated with elevated circulating leptin concentrations in females only, but there was neither an effect of maternal care, nor an interaction between maternal diet and care on prepubertal fat mass. Pups from HF-fed dams went into puberty early and this effect was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet.Maternal and postweaning HF diets independently altered oestrous cyclicity in females: female offspring of HF-fed mothers were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus, whilst female offspring fed a HF diet postweaning were more likely to have irregular oestrous cycles and were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus. These data indicate that maternal HF nutrition during pregnancy and lactation results in a maternal obese phenotype and has significant impact on maternal care during lactation. Maternal and postweaning nutritional signals, independent of maternal care, alter offspring body fat pre-puberty and female reproductive function in adulthood, which may be associated with advanced ovarian ageing and altered fertility. PMID:22411006

Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M

2012-03-12

37

Olive oil consumption during pregnancy and lactation in rats influences mammary cancer development in female offspring.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of variety and quantity of dietary fat consumed by rats during pregnancy and lactation on female offspring's response to chemically induced mammary cancer. Groups of six female rats were fed diets containing 7% corn oil (7-CO), 15% CO (15-CO), 7% olive oil (7-OO), or 15% OO (15-OO) for 5 wk prior to, and during, pregnancy and lactation. Female offspring (n = 15 per group) were fed a 7-CO diet, and mammary cancer was induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Three months following cancer induction tumor incidence and size were recorded, and markers of apoptosis, serum estrogen concentrations, and hepatic phase II enzymes were measured. Tumor incidence was 47% in offspring born to mothers fed the 7-OO diet, rose to 67% in 7-CO and 15-OO offspring, and reached 86% in 15-CO. A trend toward smaller tumors was observed in the 7-OO group, and offspring of mothers fed high-fat diets had significantly more tumors. Estradiol levels at the end of lactation were significantly lower in mothers fed 7-OO but were similar in all groups of offspring. In tumor tissue, Bcl-2 expression was highest in the 15-CO offspring, and Bak expression was significantly higher in rats exposed to OO. A distinct trend toward increased caspase-3 expression (20 kDa) was observed in the 7-OO offspring, and both low-fat diets significantly elevated caspase activity. In healthy mammary tissue, rats exposed to low-fat diets had significantly higher caspase-3 (32-kDa) levels, and caspase-3 activity was significantly higher in the healthy tissue from both OO groups. Hepatic quinone reductase activity was significantly lower in offspring of mothers fed the low-fat diets. These results indicate that perinatal exposure to OO may have a protective effect against future development of mammary cancer in female offspring, whereas high-fat diets fed to pregnant and lactating rats, in particular CO, may be deleterious. PMID:12925305

Stark, Aliza H; Kossoy, George; Zusman, Itshak; Yarden, Ganit; Madar, Zecharia

2003-01-01

38

Mouse Round Spermatids Developed In Vitro from Preexisting Spermatocytes Can Produce Normal Offspring by Nuclear Injection into In Vivo-Developed Mature Oocytes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that mature oocytes injected with nuclei from round spermatids collected from mouse testis can generate normal offspring and that round spermatids can develop in vitro. An undetermined issue is whether spermatids developed in vitro are capable of generating fertile offspring by nuclear injection into oocytes. Herein, we report the production of normal and fertile offspring by

Joel Marh; Laura L. Tres; Yukiko Yamazaki; Ryuzo Yanagimachi; Abraham L. Kierszenbaum

2003-01-01

39

The Heterochronic Evolution of Primate Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

How did primate cognitive development evolve? To study the primate evolution of cognitive development my collaborators and I have focused on the comparative development of logicomathematical and physical cognition in two monkey species, New World capuchins (Cebus appela) and Old World macaques (Macaca fascicularis), two great ape species, common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), and humans. Logicomathematical cognition

Jonas Langer

2006-01-01

40

Cesarean section and development of the immune system in the offspring.  

PubMed

This review examines the relation between the mode of delivery and development of the immune system in the offspring. Recent epidemiological studies provide evidence that elective cesarean section (CS) is associated with aberrant short-term immune responses in the newborn infant, and a greater risk of developing immune diseases such as asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, and celiac disease. However, it is still unknown whether CS causes a long-term effect on the immune system of the offspring that contributes to compromised immune health. With the dramatic increase in the rate of CS today, a greater emphasis should be placed on the discussion among both professionals and childbearing women on potential consequences of CS on the health of the offspring. PMID:22939691

Cho, Clara E; Norman, Mikael

2012-08-10

41

Comparing Spiritual Development and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three spiritual development theories and theorists (i.e., Parks, Fowler, and Helminiak) were compared with traditional cognitive development theory and theorists. The analysis reveals both commonalities between the two sets of theories and unique contributions to an understanding of student development on the part of spiritual development theory.…

Love, Patrick G.

2002-01-01

42

Cognitive Theories of Early Gender Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of cognitive perspectives (cognitive-developmental theory and gender schema theory) to a contemporary understanding of gender development is evaluated. Recent critiques of cognitive approaches are discussed and empirical evidence is presented to counter these critiques. Because of the centrality of early gender development to the cognitive perspective, the latest research is reviewed on how infants and toddlers discriminate the

Carol Lynn Martin; Diane N. Ruble; Joel Szkrybalo

2002-01-01

43

Cognitive Development: An Advanced Textbook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This new text consists of parts of Bornstein and Lamb's Developmental Science, 6th edition along with new introductory material that as a whole provides a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of cognitive development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…

Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Lamb, Michael E., Ed.

2011-01-01

44

Metformin mitigates the impaired development of skeletal muscle in the offspring of obese mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Maternal obesity is linked with offspring obesity and type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle (SM) insulin resistance is central to the development of diabetes. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is inhibited in SM of fetuses born to obese mothers.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal metformin administration on AMPK activity and reversion of

J F Tong; X Yan; J X Zhao; M J Zhu; P W Nathanielsz; M Du

2011-01-01

45

GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO NONYLPHENOL CAUSES PRECOCIOUS MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examined whether or not exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) during late gestation affects reproductive and mammary development in the offspring of female rats. Time pregnant Long Evans rats were gavaged with NP (10 or 100 mg/kg), atrazine (ATR, 100 mg/kg), or corn oil on ge...

46

The Relationship Between Piagetian Cognitive Development and Cerebral Cognitive Asymmetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews research and opinions concerned with the lateralization of brain functions and cognitive development as described by Piaget. Optimal cognitive functioning in humans is a product of the complete development of interhemispheric communication in the brain. Growth spurts in brain development have been found to correlate closely with…

Brooks, Rick

47

Maternal lead exposure during lactation persistently impairs testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) is a testicular toxicant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maternal Pb exposure during lactation on testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. Maternal mice were exposed to different concentration of lead acetate (200 or 2000?ppm) through drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 0 to PND21. As expected, a high concentration of Pb was measured in the kidneys and liver of pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. In addition, maternal Pb exposure during lactation elevated, to a less extent, Pb content in testes of weaning pups. Testis weight in weaning pups was significantly decreased when maternal mice were exposed to Pb during lactation. The level of serum and testicular T was reduced in Pb-exposed pups. The expression of P450scc, P45017? and 17?-HSD, key enzymes for T synthesis, was down-regulated in testes of weaning pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Interestingly, the level of serum and testicular T remained decreased in adult offspring whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Importantly, the number of spermatozoa was significantly reduced in Pb-exposed male offspring. Taken together, these results suggest that Pb could be transported from dams to pups through milk. Maternal Pb exposure during lactation persistently disrupts testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22806249

Wang, Hua; Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Ning, Huan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Xu, De-Xiang

2012-07-13

48

Effect of prenatal levetiracetam exposure on motor and cognitive functions of rat offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. We aimed to establish the physical, motor, and cognitive teratogenic effect of levetiracetam exposure throughout pregnancy in rats. Methods. Thirty-two Sprague–Dawley pregnant female rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1–3 were treated with different doses of levetiracetam (25, 50, 100mg\\/kg\\/d) from gestational days 1 to 18. Group 4 (control group) was treated with the same volume of saline.

Hamit Ozyurek; Ayhan Bozkurt; Sirri Bilge; Engin Ciftcioglu; Fatih Ilkaya; Duygu Belkis Bas

2010-01-01

49

Effects of perinatal exposure of lithium on neuro-behaviour of developing mice offspring.  

PubMed

Lithium (Li) was given to female Swiss-Webster strain mice at the doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg body weight in their drinking water. Treatment started from the first day of pregnancy until the postnatal day fifteen of delivery. Thereafter, the dams were switched to plain tap water. All offspring were subjected to various tests. The rate of body weight gain was relatively slower in Li exposed pups. Furthermore, the opening of eyes and appearance of body hairs in Li exposed pups were also slower as compared to the controls. The sensory motor reflexes in Li exposed pups were found to be affected in a dose-dependent manner. Significant relative changes were also noticed in the levels of acid and alkaline phosphatases in the liver, and acetylcholinesterase in the brain tissues of the Li exposed developing offspring in a dose-dependent manner. 'Locomotor Activity Test' was performed in the male offspring only which showed a significant suppressive effect on most of the elements of this test due to Li exposure. The present Li effects in the offspring are possibly via in utero action and/or via mother's milk. PMID:23214262

Abu-Taweel, Gasem M

2012-10-01

50

Leptin Replacement Improves Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

Background Leptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown. Objective To evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development. Methodology A 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative missense leptin gene mutation (Cys-to-Thr in codon 105) was treated with recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) at physiologic replacement doses of 0.03 mg/kg/day. Cognitive development was assessed using the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a measure of general verbal and nonverbal functioning; and selected subtests from the NEPSY, a measure of neuropsychological functioning in children. Principal Findings Prior to treatment, the patient was morbidly obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic. Baseline neurocognitive tests revealed slower than expected rates of development (developmental age lower than chronological age) in a majority of the areas assessed. After two years, substantial increases in the rates of development in most neurocognitive domains were apparent, with some skills at or exceeding expectations based on chronological age. We also observed marked weight loss and resolution of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. Conclusions We concluded that replacement with r-metHuLeptin is associated with weight loss and changes in rates of development in many neurocognitive domains, which lends support to the hypothesis that, in addition to its role in metabolism, leptin may have a cognitive enhancing role in the developing central nervous system. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00659828

Paz-Filho, Gilberto J.; Babikian, Talin; Asarnow, Robert; Esposito, Karin; Erol, Halil K.; Wong, Ma-Li; Licinio, Julio

2008-01-01

51

Activation of the Maternal Immune System Alters Cerebellar Development in the Offspring  

PubMed Central

A common pathological finding in autism is a localized deficit in Purkinje cells (PCs). Cerebellar abnormalities have also been reported in schizophrenia. Using a mouse model that exploits a known risk factor for these disorders, maternal infection, we asked if the offspring of pregnant mice given a mid-gestation respiratory infection have cerebellar pathology resembling that seen in these disorders. We also tested the effects of maternal immune activation in the absence of virus by injection of the synthetic dsRNA, poly(I:C). We infected pregnant mice with influenza on embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5), or injected poly(I:C) i.p. on E12.5, and assessed the linear density of PCs in the cerebellum of adult or postnatal day 11 (P11) offspring. To study granule cell migration, we also injected BrdU on P11. Adult offspring of influenza- or poly(I:C)-exposed mice display a localized deficit in PCs in lobule VII of the cerebellum, as do P11 offspring. Coincident with this are heterotopic PCs, as well as delayed migration of granule cells in lobules VI and VII. The cerebellar pathology observed in the offspring of influenza- or poly(I:C)-exposed mice is strikingly similar to that observed in autism. The poly(I:C) findings indicate that deficits are likely caused by the activation of the maternal immune system. Finally, our data suggest that cerebellar abnormalities occur during embryonic development, and may be an early deficit in autism and schizophrenia.

Shi, Limin; Smith, Stephen E. P.; Malkova, Natalia; Tse, Doris; Su, Yixuan; Patterson, Paul H.

2009-01-01

52

Social cognitive development during adolescence  

PubMed Central

Social relationships are particularly important during adolescence. In recent years, histological and MRI studies have shown that the brain is subject to considerable structural development during adolescence. Brain regions that are implicated in social cognition, including parts of prefrontal, parietal and superior temporal cortex, undergo the most pronounced and prolonged change. However, the development of social cognition during adolescence and its neural underpinnings remains poorly understood. Here, we begin by outlining how the brain changes between childhood and adulthood. We then describe findings that have emerged from behavioural and neuroimaging studies of the recognition of facial expression during adolescence. Finally, we present new data that demonstrate development of emotional perspective taking during adolescence. In this study, 112 participants, aged 8–36 years, performed a computerised task that involved taking an emotional perspective either from the participant's own point of view or from that of another person. The results showed that average difference in reaction time (RT) to answer questions in the first person perspective (1PP) and third person perspective (3PP) significantly decreased with age. The RT difference of adults tended to cluster close to the zero line (3PP = 1PP), while a greater proportion of pre-adolescents had higher difference values in both the positive (3PP > 1PP) and negative direction (1PP > 3PP) of the scale. The data suggest that the efficiency, and possibly strategy, of perspective taking develop in parallel with brain maturation and psychosocial development during adolescence.

Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Charman, Tony

2006-01-01

53

Preadult parental diet affects offspring development and metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

When Drosophila melanogaster larvae are reared on isocaloric diets differing in their amounts of protein relative to sugar, emerging adults exhibit significantly different development times and metabolic pools of protein, glycogen and trigylcerides. In the current study, we show that the influence of larval diet experienced during just one generation extends into the next generation, even when that subsequent generation had been shifted to a standard diet during development. Offspring of flies that were reared on high protein relative to sugar underwent metamorphosis significantly faster, had higher reproductive outputs, and different metabolic pool contents compared to the offspring of adults from low protein relative to sugar diets. In addition, isofemale lines differed in the degree to which parental effects were observed, suggesting a genetic component to the observed transgenerational influences. PMID:23555695

Matzkin, Luciano M; Johnson, Sarah; Paight, Christopher; Markow, Therese A

2013-03-26

54

Preadult Parental Diet Affects Offspring Development and Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

When Drosophila melanogaster larvae are reared on isocaloric diets differing in their amounts of protein relative to sugar, emerging adults exhibit significantly different development times and metabolic pools of protein, glycogen and trigylcerides. In the current study, we show that the influence of larval diet experienced during just one generation extends into the next generation, even when that subsequent generation had been shifted to a standard diet during development. Offspring of flies that were reared on high protein relative to sugar underwent metamorphosis significantly faster, had higher reproductive outputs, and different metabolic pool contents compared to the offspring of adults from low protein relative to sugar diets. In addition, isofemale lines differed in the degree to which parental effects were observed, suggesting a genetic component to the observed transgenerational influences.

Matzkin, Luciano M.; Johnson, Sarah; Paight, Christopher; Markow, Therese A.

2013-01-01

55

Effect of Ultralow Doses of Antibodies to Erythropoietin on Antenatal and Postnatal Development of the Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of ultralow doses of antibodies to erythropoietin on antenatal and postnatal development of rat offspring. Daily administration of the preparation on days 1-6, 6-16, and 16-19 of pregnancy did not increase embryonic mortality and was not associated with congenital malformations, fetal growth retardation, high incidence of pathological changes in fetal organs, and delayed ossification (compared to

T. G. Borovskaya; O. P. Loskutova; E. V. Abramova; S. A. Sergeeva; O. I. Epstein; A. M. Dygai; E. D. Goldberg

2003-01-01

56

Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive

Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

2012-01-01

57

Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring  

SciTech Connect

Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the reproductive and neurological development of rat offspring, which may be a cause of concern, as humans are systematically exposed to the compound through usage of sunscreens and other cosmetics.

Axelstad, Marta, E-mail: maap@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Boberg, Julie [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Hougaard, Karin Sorig [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lerso Parkalle 105, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Lund, Soren Peter [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lerso Parkalle 105, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Hass, Ulla [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark)

2011-02-01

58

Cognitive theories of early gender development.  

PubMed

The contribution of cognitive perspectives (cognitive-developmental theory and gender schema theory) to a contemporary understanding of gender development is evaluated. Recent critiques of cognitive approaches are discussed and empirical evidence is presented to counter these critiques. Because of the centrality of early gender development to the cognitive perspective, the latest research is reviewed on how infants and toddlers discriminate the sexes and learn the attributes correlated with sex. The essence of cognitive approaches--emphasis on motivational consequences of gender concepts; the active, self-initiated view of development; and focus on developmental patterns-is highlighted and contrasted with social-cognitive views. The value of cognitive theories to the field is illustrated, and recommendations are made concerning how to construct comprehensive, integrative perspectives of gender development. PMID:12405137

Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N; Szkrybalo, Joel

2002-11-01

59

Cognitive development of learners in pharmacy education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human development involves growth and maturation, including development in the cognitive abilities of learners. Just as Jean Piaget's childhood stages of cognitive development have provided a basis for kindergarten through 12th-grade education, cognitive development theories for adults in higher education have been described. Kohlberg's theory in developmental psychology, Grow's model of self-directed learning, Säljö's conceptions of learning, and Vygotsky's theory

Michael J. Peeters

2011-01-01

60

Transgenerational Effects of Parental Larval Diet on Offspring Development Time, Adult Body Size and Pathogen Resistance in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to affect offspring performance. We set out to investigate the effect of parental larval diet on offspring development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies for the parental generation were raised on either poor or standard diet and then mated in the four possible sex-by-parental diet crosses. Females that were raised on poor food produced larger offspring than females that were raised on standard food. Furthermore, male progeny sired by fathers that were raised on poor food were larger than male progeny sired by males raised on standard food. Development times were shortest for offspring whose one parent (mother or the father) was raised on standard and the other parent on poor food and longest for offspring whose parents both were raised on poor food. No evidence for transgenerational effects of parental diet on offspring disease resistance was found. Although paternal effects have been previously demonstrated in D. melanogaster, no earlier studies have investigated male-mediated transgenerational effects of diet in this species. The results highlight the importance of not only considering the relative contribution each parental sex has on progeny performance but also the combined effects that the two sexes may have on offspring performance.

Valtonen, Terhi M.; Kangassalo, Katariina; Polkki, Mari; Rantala, Markus J.

2012-01-01

61

Ongoing development of social cognition in adolescence.  

PubMed

Age differences in social cognition between adolescents and young adults were investigated. Two large groups of adolescents and young adults were given tasks of theory of mind and emotion recognition. In addition, to control for possibly related basic cognitive development, working memory, speed of processing, and verbal ability were assessed. A strong age effect was revealed across both measures of social cognition. Adolescents performed with a lower accuracy than adults. Further analyses indicated that those age differences remained significant even after controlling for basic cognitive abilities. Exploratory analyses indicated no influence of pubertal phase on social cognition. Results suggest ongoing development of social cognition across adolescence, independent of individual differences in more basic cognitive abilities. PMID:22934659

Vetter, Nora C; Leipold, Kristina; Kliegel, Matthias; Phillips, Louise H; Altgassen, Mareike

2012-08-31

62

Alarm substance from adult zebrafish alters early embryonic development in offspring  

PubMed Central

Alarm substances elicit behavioural responses in a wide range of animals but effects on early embryonic development are virtually unknown. Here we investigated whether skin injury-induced alarm substances caused physiological responses in embryos produced by two Danio species (Danio rerio and Danio albolineatus). Both species showed more rapid physiological development in the presence of alarm substance, although there were subtle differences between them: D. rerio had advanced muscle contraction and heart function, whereas D. albolineatus had advanced heart function only. Hence, alarm cues from injured or dying fish may be of benefit to their offspring, inducing physiological responses and potentially increasing their inclusive fitness.

Mourabit, S.; Rundle, S. D.; Spicer, J. I.; Sloman, K. A.

2010-01-01

63

Applying the Cultural Approach to Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive development is a cultural process. More experienced cultural members and the practices, institutions, and artifacts of the culture provide support and guidance for children as they develop knowledge and thinking skills. In this article, the authors describe the value that is added to our understanding of cognitive development when…

Gauvain, Mary; Beebe, Heidi; Zhao, Shuheng

2011-01-01

64

Developing Cognitive Control: Three Key Transitions  

PubMed Central

The ability to flexibly break out of routine behaviors develops gradually and is essential for success in life. We discuss three key developmental transitions toward more flexible behavior. First, children develop an increasing ability to overcome habits by engaging cognitive control in response to environmental signals. Second, children shift from recruiting cognitive control reactively, as needed in the moment, to recruiting cognitive control proactively, in preparation for needing it. Third, children shift from relying on environmental signals for engaging cognitive control to becoming more self-directed. All three transitions can be understood in terms of the development of increasingly active and abstract goal representations in prefrontal cortex.

Munakata, Yuko; Snyder, Hannah R.; Chatham, Christopher H.

2012-01-01

65

Prenatal exposure to permethrin influences vascular development of fetal brain and adult behavior in mice offspring.  

PubMed

Pyrethroids are one of the most widely used classes of insecticides and show neurotoxic effects that induce oxidative stress in the neonatal rat brain. However, little is still known about effects of prenatal exposure to permethrin on vascular development in fetal brain, central nervous system development, and adult offspring behaviors. In this study, the effects of prenatal exposure to permethrin on the development of cerebral arteries in fetal brains, neurotransmitter in neonatal brains, and locomotor activities in offspring mice were investigated. Permethrin (0, 2, 10, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was orally administered to pregnant females once on gestation day 10.5. The brains of permethrin-treated fetuses showed altered vascular formation involving shortened lengths of vessels, an increased number of small branches, and, in some cases, insufficient fusion of the anterior communicating arteries in the area of circle of Willis. The prenatal exposure to permethrin altered neocortical and hippocampus thickness in the mid brain and significantly increased norepinephrine and dopamine levels at postnatal day 7 mice. For spontaneous behavior, the standing ability test using a viewing jar and open-field tests showed significant decrease of the standing ability and locomotor activity in male mice at 8 or 12 weeks of age, respectively. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to permethrin may affect insufficient development of the brain through alterations of vascular development. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 28:617-629, 2013. PMID:24150868

Imanishi, Satoshi; Okura, Masahiro; Zaha, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Toshifumi; Akanuma, Hiromi; Nagano, Reiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Sone, Hideko

2011-08-24

66

Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: I. The development of the thyroid hormones–neurotransmitters and adenosinergic system interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adequate functioning of the maternal thyroid gland plays an important role to ensure that the offspring develop normally. Thus, maternal hypo- and hyperthyroidism are used from the gestation day 1 to lactation day 21, in general, to recognize the alleged association of offspring abnormalities associated with the different thyroid status. In maternal rats during pregnancy and lactation, hypothyroidism in

O. M. Ahmed; S. M. Abd El-Tawab; R. G. Ahmed

2010-01-01

67

Fetal Brain Behavior and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents information on prenatal brain development, detailing the functions controlled by the medulla, pons, and midbrain, and the implications for cognitive development. Concludes that fetal cognitive motor activity, including auditory discrimination, orienting, the wake-sleep cycle, fetal heart rate accelerations, and defensive reactions,…

Joseph, R.

2000-01-01

68

The development of personalised cognitive prosthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons suffering from mild dementia can benefit from a form of cognitive prosthetic which can be used to assist them with their day to day activities. Within our current work we are aiming to develop a successful user-validated cognitive prosthetic for persons with mild dementia. We have devised a three phased waterfall methodology to support our developments. Based on the

Chris D. Nugent; Richard J. Davies; Mark P. Donnelly; Josef Hallberg; Mossaab Hariz; David Craig; Franka Meiland; Ferial Moelaert; Johan E. Bengtsson; Stefan Savenstedt; Maurice Mulvenna; Rose-Marie Droes

2008-01-01

69

Fetal Brain Behavior and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on prenatal brain development, detailing the functions controlled by the medulla, pons, and midbrain, and the implications for cognitive development. Concludes that fetal cognitive motor activity, including auditory discrimination, orienting, the wake-sleep cycle, fetal heart rate accelerations, and defensive reactions,…

Joseph, R.

2000-01-01

70

Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

2012-01-01

71

Dietary Supplementation of Female Rats with Elk Velvet Antler Improves Physical and Neurological Development of Offspring  

PubMed Central

Elk velvet antler (EVA) has a traditional use for promotion of general health. However, evidence of EVA effects at different lifestages is generally lacking. This paper investigated the effects of long-term maternal dietary EVA supplementation on physical, reflexological and neurological development of rat offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed standard chow or chow containing 10% EVA for 90 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. In each dietary group, 56 male and 56 female pups were assessed for physical, neuromotor, and reflexologic development postnatally. Among the examined physical developmental parameters, incisor eruption occurred one day earlier in pups nursing dams receiving EVA. Among neuromotor developmental parameters, duration of supported and unsupported standing was longer for pups nursing EVA supplemented dams. Acquisition of neurological reflex parameters (righting reflex, negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance acoustic startle) occurred earlier in pups nursing dams receiving EVA. Longterm maternal EVA supplementation prior to and during pregnancy and lactation accelerated certain physical, reflexologic, and neuromotor developmental milestones and caused no discernible adverse effects on developing offspring. The potential benefits of maternal EVA supplementation on postnatal development warrants further investigation to determine whether EVA can be endorsed for the promotion of maternal and child health.

Chen, Jiongran; Woodbury, Murray R.; Alcorn, Jane; Honaramooz, Ali

2012-01-01

72

Semiotic aspects of cognitive development: illustrations from early mathematical cognition.  

PubMed

The premise of this article is that cognitive development involves both conceptual and semiotic achievements. From this perspective, the authors emphasize the distinctness of the semiotic issues and develop a differentiated appreciation of semiotic aspects of cognition, particularly in the field of elementary mathematical cognition. The authors provide semiotic analyses of the differences between counting, adding, and multiplying and of the conventional place-value sign system. The authors introduce the concept of the field of reference of a sign, the differentiation of the field into foreground and background, and the dynamics within the field of reference. Finally, the authors relate these ideas to the dynamics between two dimensions of semiotic relations: the sign-referent dimension and the sign-sign dimension. PMID:8356184

Becker, J; Varelas, M

1993-07-01

73

Severe Maternal Hyperglycemia Exacerbates the Development of Insulin Resistance and Fatty Liver in the Offspring on High Fat Diet  

PubMed Central

Background. Adverse maternal environments may predispose the offspring to metabolic syndrome in adulthoods, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. Methods. Maternal hyperglycemia was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection while control (CON) rats received citrate buffer. Litters were adjusted to eight pups per dam and then weaned to standard diet. Since 13 weeks old, a subset of offspring from STZ and CON dams were switched to high fat diet (HFD) for another 13 weeks. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT and ITT) and insulin secretion assay were performed; serum levels of lipids and leptin were measured. Hepatic fat accumulation and islet area were evaluated through haematoxylin and eosin staining. Results. STZ offspring exhibited lower survival rate, lower birth weights, and growth inhibition which persisted throughout the study. STZ offspring on HFD showed more severe impairment in GTT and ITT, and more profound hepatic steatosis and more severe hyperlipidemia compared with CON-HFD rats. Conclusions. Offspring from diabetic dams would be prone to exhibit low birth weight and postnatal growth inhibition, but could maintain normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. HFD accelerates development of insulin resistance in the offspring of diabetic dams mainly via a compensatory response of islets.

Song, Yong; Li, Jibin; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Qijuan; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jingna; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Zhu; Yu, Chao; Xiao, Xiaoqiu

2012-01-01

74

Cognitive Skill Development in Adult Student Advising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student advising at the University without Walls at the University of Minnesota focuses on developing cognitive skills outlined in Bloom's taxonomy by overseeing student programs and progress through graduation and by early assessment of student skills. Each phase of student advising incorporates one or more specific cognitive skill. (MSE)

Eldred, Marilou Denbo

1981-01-01

75

Cognitive Development and Comprehension of Physics Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated cognitive development of eleventh-grade students (N=389) in Jordan and its relationship to comprehension of concrete and formal physics concepts. Results revealed that cognitive level (17% formal; 52% concrete) was related to comprehension of both concrete and formal concepts. Findings related to sex differences are also reported.…

Billeh, Victor Y.; Khalili, Khalil

1982-01-01

76

Ongoing development of social cognition in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age differences in social cognition between adolescents and young adults were investigated. Two large groups of adolescents and young adults were given tasks of theory of mind and emotion recognition. In addition, to control for possibly related basic cognitive development, working memory, speed of processing, and verbal ability were assessed. A strong age effect was revealed across both measures of

Nora C. Vetter; Kristina Leipold; Matthias Kliegel; Louise H. Phillips; Mareike Altgassen

2012-01-01

77

Adult Cognitive Development A La Piaget.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While Jean Piaget's work as it relates to the development of childhood and adolescent cognition has long been explored, only recently has the usefulness of Piaget's theory in the study of adult cognition been studied. Recent research by educational psychologists has raised serious doubts about Piaget's theoretical position that the highest level…

May, Ruth Graham

78

Perinatal exposure to fluoxetine via placenta and lactation inhibits the testicular development in male rat offspring.  

PubMed

Due to the widespread use of fluoxetine to treat depression, including pregnant and nursing women, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of in utero and lactational exposure to fluoxetine in rat offspring at post natal day 22. Wistar rat dams were orally treated with fluoxetine (5, 10, and 20?mg/kg) from day 13 gestation to day 21 lactation. Exposure to 10 and 20?mg/kg fluoxetine reduced the body and testis weights. The volume of the seminiferous tubules and epithelium were also reduced following 20?mg/kg fluoxetine exposure. The length of the seminiferous tubules and the population of Sertoli cells changed in offspring exposed to fluoxetine. The amount of seminiferous tubules lacking tubular lumen was higher in rats exposed to 20?mg/kg fluoxetine. Plasma testosterone showed no significant change. In conclusion, fluoxetine exposure via the placenta and lactation may inhibit and delay testicular development, adversely affecting several testicular parameters important for the establishment of sperm production in adulthood. PMID:23651434

de Oliveira, Waldo Monteiro; de Sá, Iana Raphaela; de Torres, Sandra Maria; de Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Andrade, Anderson Martino; Maia, Frederico Celso Lyra; Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro Amaro

2013-05-08

79

Pelage insulation, litter size, and ambient temperature impact maternal energy intake and offspring development during lactation  

PubMed Central

Energy balance during lactation critically influences survival and growth of a mother’s offspring, and hence, her reproductive success. Most experiments have investigated the influence of a single factor (e.g., ambient temperature [Ta] or litter size) on the energetics of lactation. Here, we determined the impact of multiple interventions, including increased conductive heat loss consequent to dorsal fur removal, cold exposure (Ta of 5°C versus 23°C), and differential lactational load from litters of different sizes (2 or 4 pups), on maternal energy balance and offspring development of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Lower Ta, fur removal, and larger litters were associated with increased maternal food consumption. Females exposed to multiple challenges (e.g., both fur loss and lower Ta) ate substantially more food than those exposed to a single challenge, with no apparent ceiling to elevated food intake (increases up to 538%). Thus, energy intake of dams under these conditions does not appear to be limited by feeding behavior or the size of the digestive tract. Housing at 5°C attenuated pup weight gain and increased pup mortality to more than 5 times that of litters housed at 23°C. Increases in the dam’s conductive heat loss induced by fur removal did not affect pup weight gain or survival, suggesting that effects of low Ta on pup weight gain and survival reflect limitations in the pups’ ability to ingest or incorporate energy.

Paul, Matthew J.; Tuthill, Christiana; Kauffman, Alexander S.; Zucker, Irving

2010-01-01

80

Maternal food restriction: Effects on offspring development, learning, and a program of therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Purdue Wistar rats were fed either ad lib or placed on a 50% ad-lib diet beginning 20 days prior to mating and continuing throughout gestation and lactation. At birth, offspring were cross-fostered to provide for independent evaluation of the pre- and postnatal effects of maternal malnutrition. All offspring were fed on an ad-lib diet following weaning. Offspring body weight

David A. Vore; Donald R. Ottinger

1970-01-01

81

Cognitive engagement and attitude development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of thinking that underlies and supports an attitude is integral to it and deserves greater attention. The present study examines this aspect of attitudes by investigating the effects of different forms of cognitive engagement on the thinking underlying attitudes toward capital punishment. Urban community college students in three interactive conditions engaged in dyadic discussion of the topic with

Joseph Lao; Deanna Kuhn

2002-01-01

82

ANIMAL MODELS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN NEUROTOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The thesis of this chapter has been that spatial delayed alternation versus position discrimination learning can serve as a valuable rodent model of cognitive development in neurotoxicology. his model captures dual process conceptualizations of memory in human neuropsychology and...

83

Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A more pessimistic assessment to study the effects of maternal employment on children's learning abilities is presented. Parental investments during infancy and childhood not only result in improved cognitive development but also in overall improvement in learning abilities.

Ruhm, Christopher J.

2004-01-01

84

Cognitive development in a secondary science setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were made of the progressive change in the cognitive development of 141 students over the course of their secondary\\u000a education in an Australian private school. Cognitive development was measured in years 8, 10 and 12 usingBond's Logical Orerations Test. Rasch analysis of each of the data sets provided ability estimates for students in the year groups of 1993 (year

Lorna C. Endler; Trevor Bond

2000-01-01

85

Maternal Obesity during the Preconception and Early Life Periods Alters Pancreatic Development in Early and Adult Life in Male Mouse Offspring  

PubMed Central

Maternal obesity induced by a high fat (HF) diet may program susceptibility in offspring, altering pancreatic development and causing later development of chronic degenerative diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Female mice were fed standard chow (SC) or an HF diet for 8 weeks prior to mating and during the gestational and lactational periods. The male offspring were assessed at birth, at 10 days, and at 3 months of age. The body mass (BM) gain was 50% greater before pregnancy and 80% greater during pregnancy in HF dams than SC dams. Dams fed an HF diet showed higher oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), blood pressure, serum corticosterone, and insulin levels than dams fed SC. At 10 days of age and at 3 mo old the HF offspring showed greater BM and higher blood glucose levels than the SC offspring. The mean diameter of the islets had increased by 37% in the SC offspring and by 155% in the HF offspring at 10 days of age. The islet mass ratio (IM/PM) was 88% greater in the HF offspring at 10 days of age, and 107% greater at 3 mo of age, compared to the values obtained at birth. The HF offspring had a beta cell mass (BCM)/PM ratio 54% lower than SC offspring at birth. However, HF offspring displayed a 146% increase in the BCM/PM ratio at 10 days of age, and 112% increase at 3 months of age than values at birth. A 3 mo of age, the HF offspring showed a greater OGTT and higher levels of than SC offspring. In conclusion, a maternal HF diet consumed during the preconceptional period and throughout the gestational and lactational periods in mice results in dramatic alterations in the pancreata of the offspring.

Bringhenti, Isabele; Moraes-Teixeira, Jessica Andrade; Cunha, Michelle Rabello; Ornellas, Fernanda; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

2013-01-01

86

Exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles affects reproductive development and biodistribution in offspring rats.  

PubMed

Understanding reproductive development effects and transferable properties to next generation of zinc oxide nanoparticles is necessary for prevention of its potential risks. To accomplish this, rats were exposed to zinc oxide nanomaterials (500 mg/kg bw) of less than 100 nm beginning 2 weeks before mating to postnatal day 4. In addition, body distribution of zinc concentration was evaluated in dams and offspring. Rat treated with nano-zinc oxide showed reduced number of born/live pups, decreased body weights of pups and increased fetal resorption. Zinc oxide nanomaterials were also distributed to organs such as mammary tissue of dams and liver and kidney of pups. These results indicate that zinc oxide nanoparticles-exposure before and during pregnancy and lactation could pose health risks to pregnant women and their fetus. PMID:23824008

Jo, Eunhye; Seo, Gyounbaek; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Lee, Mimi; Lee, Byoung cheun; Eom, Igchun; Kim, Philje; Choi, Kyunghee

2013-01-01

87

Maternal Postnatal Depression and the Development of Depression in Offspring up to 16 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the developmental risk pathway to depression by 16 years in offspring of postnatally depressed mothers. Method: This was a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of postnatally depressed and nondepressed mothers; child and family assessments were made from infancy to 16 years. A total of 702…

Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Goodyer, Ian; Cooper, Peter

2011-01-01

88

Maternal Postnatal Depression and the Development of Depression in Offspring up to 16 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the developmental risk pathway to depression by 16 years in offspring of postnatally depressed mothers. Method: This was a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of postnatally depressed and nondepressed mothers; child and family assessments were made from infancy to 16 years. A total of 702…

Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Goodyer, Ian; Cooper, Peter

2011-01-01

89

Effect of prenatal administration of venlafaxine on postnatal development of rat offspring  

PubMed Central

About 3% of pregnant women are treated with antidepressant drugs during gestation. After delivery the number of treated women increases to 5 to 7%. Most prescribed antidepressants in pregnancy are selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and/or serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram and venlafaxine (VENF). Despite the fact that VENF has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA, experimental studies with this drug are rare. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of prenatal administration of VENF on early postnatal development of rat offspring and selected biochemical variables at weaning of pups. Pregnant female Wistar rats were treated with VENF from day 15 to 20 of gestation at the doses of 7.5, 37.5 and 70 mg/kg. Females were allowed to spontaneously deliver their pups. After delivery the pups were inspected for viability, gross malformation and they were weighed on day 0, 4 and 21 post partum. On day 21 post partum, the pups were killed, brains were removed from the skulls and blood samples were collected for biochemical assay (proteins, glucose-GOD, glucose-HEX, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total antioxidant status). The study showed that prenatal VENF administration resulted in a mild maternal intoxication manifested by decreased body weight gain of pregnant females. There was no effect of the drug tested on the body and brain weights of offspring. No obvious morphological alterations were observed in the delivered pups. Similarly, there were no changes in the selected biochemical variables determined.

Csaszarova, Eszter; Brnoliakova, Zuzana; Ujhazy, Eduard; Navarova, Jana; Mach, Mojmir

2012-01-01

90

Effect of prenatal administration of venlafaxine on postnatal development of rat offspring.  

PubMed

About 3% of pregnant women are treated with antidepressant drugs during gestation. After delivery the number of treated women increases to 5 to 7%. Most prescribed antidepressants in pregnancy are selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and/or serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram and venlafaxine (VENF). Despite the fact that VENF has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA, experimental studies with this drug are rare. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of prenatal administration of VENF on early postnatal development of rat offspring and selected biochemical variables at weaning of pups. Pregnant female Wistar rats were treated with VENF from day 15 to 20 of gestation at the doses of 7.5, 37.5 and 70 mg/kg. Females were allowed to spontaneously deliver their pups. After delivery the pups were inspected for viability, gross malformation and they were weighed on day 0, 4 and 21 post partum. On day 21 post partum, the pups were killed, brains were removed from the skulls and blood samples were collected for biochemical assay (proteins, glucose-GOD, glucose-HEX, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total antioxidant status). The study showed that prenatal VENF administration resulted in a mild maternal intoxication manifested by decreased body weight gain of pregnant females. There was no effect of the drug tested on the body and brain weights of offspring. No obvious morphological alterations were observed in the delivered pups. Similarly, there were no changes in the selected biochemical variables determined. PMID:23118594

Dubovický, Michal; Császárová, Eszter; Brnoliaková, Zuzana; Ujházy, Eduard; Navarová, Jana; Mach, Mojmír

2012-06-01

91

Effects of maternal xenoestrogen exposure on development of the reproductive tract and mammary gland in female CD1 mouse offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the effects of maternal exposure to xenoestrogen, at levels comparable to or greater than human exposure, on development of the reproductive tract and mammary glands in female CD-1 mouse offspring. Effects of genistein (GEN), resveratrol (RES), zearalenone (ZEA), bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) were examined. Beginning on gestational day 15, pregnant

Yasuyoshi Nikaido; Katsuhiko Yoshizawa; Naoyuki Danbara; Miki Tsujita-Kyutoku; Takashi Yuri; Norihisa Uehara; Airo Tsubura

2004-01-01

92

The links between prenatal stress and offspring development and psychopathology: disentangling environmental and inherited influences  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with later adverse health and adjustment outcomes. This is generally presumed to arise through early environmentally mediated programming effects on the foetus. However, associations could arise through factors that influence mothers' characteristics and behaviour during pregnancy which are inherited by offspring. Method A ‘prenatal cross-fostering’ design where pregnant mothers are related or unrelated to their child as a result of in vitro fertilization (IVF) was used to disentangle maternally inherited and environmental influences. If links between prenatal stress and offspring outcome are environmental, association should be observed in unrelated as well as related mother–child pairs. Offspring birth weight and gestational age as well as mental health were the outcomes assessed. Results Associations between prenatal stress and offspring birth weight, gestational age and antisocial behaviour were seen in both related and unrelated mother–offspring pairs, consistent with there being environmental links. The association between prenatal stress and offspring anxiety in related and unrelated groups appeared to be due to current maternal anxiety/depression rather than prenatal stress. In contrast, the link between prenatal stress and offspring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was only present in related mother–offspring pairs and therefore was attributable to inherited factors. Conclusions Genetically informative designs can be helpful in testing whether inherited factors contribute to the association between environmental risk factors and health outcomes. These results suggest that associations between prenatal stress and offspring outcomes could arise from inherited factors and post-natal environmental factors in addition to causal prenatal risk effects.

Rice, F.; Harold, G. T.; Boivin, J.; van den Bree, M.; Hay, D. F.; Thapar, A.

2010-01-01

93

Mouse round spermatids developed in vitro from preexisting spermatocytes can produce normal offspring by nuclear injection into in vivo-developed mature oocytes.  

PubMed

It has been shown that mature oocytes injected with nuclei from round spermatids collected from mouse testis can generate normal offspring and that round spermatids can develop in vitro. An undetermined issue is whether spermatids developed in vitro are capable of generating fertile offspring by nuclear injection into oocytes. Herein, we report the production of normal and fertile offspring by nuclear injection using haploid spermatid donors derived from mouse primary spermatocyte precursors cocultured with Sertoli cells. Cocultured spermatogonia and spermatocytes were characterized by their nuclear immunoreactive patterns determined by an antibody to phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), a marker for DNA double-strand breaks. Cocultured round spermatid progenies display more than one motile flagellum, whose axonemes were recognized by antitubulin immunostaining. Flagellar wavelike movement and flagellar-driven propulsion of round spermatids developed in vitro were documented by videomicroscopy (http://www.sci.ccny.cuny.edu/ approximately kier). We also show that breeding of male and female mouse offspring generated by spermatid nuclear injection produced fertile offspring. In addition to their capacity to produce fertile offspring, cocultured, flagellated round spermatids can facilitate the analysis of the mechanisms of centriolar polarity, duplication, assembly, and flagellar growth, including the intraflagellar transport of cargo proteins. PMID:12620938

Marh, Joel; Tres, Laura L; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Kierszenbaum, Abraham L

2003-03-05

94

Cognitive Process during Incremental Software Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirically studying the incremental software development process could provide some insights on the cognitive process and the knowledge involved. In this study, we conducted a case study on incremental software development with ten pairs of intermediate programmers. We applied the dialog-based protocol to collect the data, and the self-directed learning as an encoding scheme to analyze the empirical data. The

Shaochun Xu; Zendi Cui; Yufeng Gui

2007-01-01

95

Cognitive Process of Development in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

Boddington, Eulalee N.

2009-01-01

96

Pinealon protects the rat offspring from prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia  

PubMed Central

The offspring of rats with experimental hyperhomocysteinemia caused by alimentary loading with dietary methionine within pregnancy has been studied. Using pinealon (Glu-Asp-Arg) under these conditions was found to result in the offspring cognitive function being improved significantly and their cerebellum neurons becoming more resistant to oxidative stress. This may be proved by the fact that the administration of pinealon to pregnant rats loaded with methionine improved their offspring spatial orientation and learning ability and decreased both reactive oxygen species accumulation and the number of necrotic cells in the population of the neurons isolated from the cerebellum of the offspring developed under the prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia. Our experiments allowed confirming the neuroprotective properties of pinealon, which is in agreement with the previous data obtained by us in vitro.

Arutjunyan, Alexander; Kozina, Lyudmila; Stvolinskiy, Sergey; Bulygina, Yelena; Mashkina, Anna; Khavinson, Vladimir

2012-01-01

97

Leptin Replacement Improves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLeptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown.ObjectiveTo evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development.MethodologyA 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative missense leptin gene mutation (Cys-to-Thr in codon 105) was treated with recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) at physiologic

Gilberto J. Paz-Filho; Talin Babikian; Robert Asarnow; Karin Esposito; Halil K. Erol; Ma-Li Wong; Julio Licinio; Bernhard Baune

2008-01-01

98

Prenatal maternal restraint stress exposure alters the reproductive hormone profile and testis development of the rat male offspring.  

PubMed

Several studies have demonstrated that the presence of stressors during pregnancy induces adverse effects on the neuroendocrine system of the offspring later in life. In the present work, we investigated the effects of early programming on the male reproductive system, employing a prenatal stress (PS) paradigm. This study found that when pregnant dams were placed in a plastic restrainer three times a day during the last week of pregnancy, the offspring showed reduced anogenital distance and delayed testicular descent. Serum luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were decreased at postnatal day (PND) 28 and testosterone was decreased at PND 75. Increased testosterone plus dihydrotestosterone (T?+?DHT) concentrations correlated with increased testicular 5? Reductase-1 (5?R-1) mRNA expression at PND 28. Moreover, PS accelerated spermatogenesis at PND 35 and 60, and increased mean seminiferous tubule diameter in pubertal offspring and reduced Leydig cell number was observed at PND 35 and 60. PS offspring had increased androgen receptor (AR) mRNA level at PND 28, and at PND 35 had increased the numbers of Sertoli cells immunopositive for AR. Overall, the results confirm that stress during gestation can induce long-term effects on the male offspring reproductive system. Of particular interest is the pre-pubertal imbalance of circulating hormones that probably trigger accelerated testicular development, followed by an increase in total androgens and a decrease in testosterone concentration during adulthood. Exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment might prepare for harsh external conditions by triggering early puberty, increasing reproductive potential. PMID:23252714

Pallarés, María Eugenia; Adrover, Ezequiela; Baier, Carlos Javier; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Monteleone, Melisa C; Brocco, Marcela A; González-Calvar, Silvia I; Antonelli, Marta C

2013-02-07

99

Maternal effects due to male attractiveness affect offspring development in the zebra finch.  

PubMed

Maternal effects occur when offspring phenotype is influenced by environmental factors experienced by the mother. Mothers are predicted to invest differentially in offspring in ways that will maximize offspring fitness depending on the environment she expects them to encounter. Here, we test for maternal effects in response to mate attractiveness on offspring developmental traits in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. We controlled for parental genetic quality by manipulating male attractiveness using coloured leg rings and by randomly assigning mating pairs. The potential confounding effect of differential nestling care was controlled for by cross-fostering clutches and by allowing for variance due to foster father attractiveness in general linear models. We found a difference in egg mass investment between attractiveness groups and, importantly, we found that all of the offspring traits we measured varied with the attractiveness of the father. This provides strong evidence for maternal effects in response to mate attractiveness. Furthermore, due to the experiment design, we can conclude that these effects were mediated by differential investment of egg resources and not due to genetic differences or differences in nestling care. PMID:16790409

Gilbert, L; Williamson, K A; Hazon, N; Graves, J A

2006-07-22

100

Exploring cognitive skill development in midwifery education.  

PubMed

Changes in maternity services and the role of the midwife mean that the midwife must provide flexible, evidence-based, woman-centred care. As the lead professional, the midwife must use a high level of professional judgement, clinical reasoning and decision-making to enable choice while ensuring the safety and wellbeing of mother and infant. Delayed development of these cognitive skills is suggested by the continuing theory-practice gap, suboptimal practice and students requiring to conform to non-evidence-based practice. The purpose of this research was to explore midwifery students' understanding and experience of the development of cognitive skills. The research employed analysis of undergraduate midwifery programme documentation and a focus group discussion with student midwives from second and third year of the programme. Document analysis and thematic analysis of the interview data indicated a lack of emphasis on cognitive skill development and a sense that these skills improve naturally through exposure to clinical practice. The findings suggest a need to change our approach to learning in clinical practice and to conduct further research to improve understanding of mechanisms to support the development of cognitive skills. PMID:22683107

Lake, Suzanne; McInnes, Rhona J

2012-06-09

101

Senior Leader Cognitive Development through Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Senior executives who completed the two-year distance education program of the United States Army War College showed significant development of their strategic-level cognitive skills. The Modified Career Path Appreciation (MCPA) survey was administered to seventy participants at the beginning of their graduate program in strategic studies and at…

Myers, Susan R.

2008-01-01

102

Cognitive Development of Children: Symposium I A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Abstracts of two symposium papers are provided, giving: (1) the results of a study of the effect of child-rearing practices on the cognitive development of children under 5 years of age in Jakarta; and (2) the results of an investigation of West German preschool children's preferences and abilities in relation to conceptual styles. Comparing 100…

Gunarsa, Singgih D.; And Others

103

Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

Chouinard, Michelle M.

2007-01-01

104

Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

Chouinard, Michelle M.

2007-01-01

105

Father absence and children's cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews literature showing detrimental effects of father absence on children's cognitive development as assessed by standardized IQ and achievement tests and school performance. Differential effects associated with characteristics of the absence (cause, duration, onset), the child (age, sex, race, socioeconomic status), and the skill tested (quantitative, verbal) are examined. The evidence suggests that financial hardship, high levels of anxiety, and,

Marybeth Shinn

1978-01-01

106

Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationship between maternal labor supply and children's cognitive development using a sample of three- and four-year-old children of female respondents from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort. Maternal employment is found to have a negative impact when it occurs during the first year of the child's life and a potentially offsetting positive effect when it

Francine D Blau; Adam J Grossberg

1992-01-01

107

Missing sights: consequences for visual cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of early-onset blindness on the development of the visual system have been explained traditionally by the stabilization of transient connections through Hebbian competition. Although many of the findings from congenital cataract and congenital blindness are consistent with that view, there is inconsistent evidence from studies of visual cognition in children treated for visual deprivation from cataract, case reports

Daphne Maurer; Terri L. Lewis; Catherine J. Mondloch

2005-01-01

108

The Development of Spatial Cognition: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is presented of the literature on the development of environmental cognition, i.e., how children and adults come to know the form of the physical environment. Literature is reviewed from psychology, geography, urban design and planning. Major the...

R. A. Hart G. T. Moore

1971-01-01

109

Cognitive Development of Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There has always been a common-sense view that the number of languages that children learn, whether through natural exposure or educational intervention, has consequences for their development. The assumption was that these consequences were potentially damaging. Even now, after approximately 50 years of research on the topic, parents remain…

Barac, Raluca; Bialystok, Ellen

2011-01-01

110

Cognitive Development and Television Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine whether several key concepts related to child development could be extended to existing theory and research concerning the comprehension of television by kindergartners and early primary school children. Much of the current research in the effects tradition has concentrated on the role of television in eliciting aggressive behavior. A neglected area is

Roger Jon Desmond

1978-01-01

111

The development of personalised cognitive prosthetics.  

PubMed

Persons suffering from mild dementia can benefit from a form of cognitive prosthetic which can be used to assist them with their day to day activities. Within our current work we are aiming to develop a successful user-validated cognitive prosthetic for persons with mild dementia. We have devised a three phased waterfall methodology to support our developments. Based on the evaluation of the first of these phases which involved the processes of user requirements gathering, prototype development and evaluation of in situ deployment of the technology we have been able to guide the technical development within the second phase of our work. Within this paper we provide an overview of the first phase of our methodology and demonstrate how we have used the results from this to guide the second phase of our work, especially with regards to the notion of personalisation. PMID:19162773

Nugent, Chris D; Davies, Richard J; Donnelly, Mark P; Hallberg, Josef; Hariz, Mossaab; Craig, David; Meiland, Franka; Moelaert, Ferial; Bengtsson, Johan E; Savenstedt, Stefan; Mulvenna, Maurice; Dröes, Rose-Marie

2008-01-01

112

Role of selenium and glutathione peroxidase on development, growth, and oxidative balance in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se), an essential trace metal, is important in both growth and reproduction and is the constituent of different selenoproteins. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) family is the most studied as it prevents oxidative stress. Liver oxidation is considered as another mechanism involved in low birth weight. Therefore, in order to ascertain whether GPx is related to the effects of Se on growth during gestation and lactation, three groups of rat pups were used: control, Se deficient (SD), and Se supplemented (SS). Morphological parameters and reproductive indices were evaluated. Hepatic Se levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption while spectrophotometry was used for activity of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in liver and western blotting for expression of hepatic GPx1 and GPx4. The SD diet increased mortality at birth; decreased viability and survival indices; and stunted growth, length, and liver development in offspring, thus decreasing hepatic Se levels, GPx, glutathione reductase, and catalase activities, while increasing superoxide dismutase activity and protein oxidation. The SS diet counteracted all the above results. GPx1 expression was heavily regulated by Se dietary intake; however, although Se dietary deficiency reduced GPx4 expression, this decrease was not as pronounced. Therefore, it can be concluded that Se dietary intake is intimately related to growth, length, and directly regulating GPx activity primarily via GPx1 and secondly to GPx4, thus affecting liver oxidation and development. These results suggest that if risk of uterine growth retardation is suspected, or if a neonate with low birth weight presents with signs of liver oxidation, it may be beneficial to know about Se status. PMID:24080144

Nogales, Fátima; Ojeda, M Luisa; Fenutría, María; Murillo, M Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia

2013-10-29

113

A placebo-controlled comparison between betamethasone and dexamethasone for fetal maturation: Differences in neurobehavioral development of mice offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether antenatal betamethasone or dexamethasone is the preferred drug by use of neurobehavioral development assessment of exposed mice offspring.STUDY DESIGN: Thirty adult CD-1 mice were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 10) to be administered a single subcutaneous dose of either a placebo (0.9% sodium chloride), betamethasone (0.10 mg), or dexamethasone

William F. Rayburn; H. Dix Christensen; Christina L. Gonzalez

1997-01-01

114

Right amygdala volume in adolescent and young adult offspring from families at high risk for developing alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Neurobiological factors have been implicated in the increased susceptibility for developing alcohol dependence that offspring from alcoholic families exhibit. The P300 component of the event-related potential shows developmental changes during childhood and adolescence that appear to be related to risk status. The underlying structural changes that accompany these neurophysiological changes are not well understood.Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was used

Shirley Y Hill; Michael D De Bellis; Matcheri S Keshavan; Lisa Lowers; Sa Shen; Julie Hall; Timothy Pitts

2001-01-01

115

Multivitamin supplementation of Wistar rats during pregnancy accelerates the development of obesity in offspring fed an obesogenic diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The effect of gestational multivitamin supplementation on the development of obesity in rat offspring fed an obesogenic diet was investigated.Design:Pregnant Wistar rats (n=10 per group) were fed the AIN-93G diet with the recommended vitamin (RV) content or a 10-fold increase (high vitamin, HV). At weaning, 10 males and 10 females, from separate dams, and from each gestational diet group were

I M Y Szeto; P J Das; A Aziz; G H Anderson

2009-01-01

116

Adolescent psychosocial, social, and cognitive development.  

PubMed

The goal of adolescence is to gain independence and establish a secure identity. • Adolescents’ cognitive development can result in abstract thinking that can predispose them to risktaking behavior and a sense of invincibility. • Clinicians can use the primary care visit to promote independence and prepare parents for the features experienced during adolescent development. • Parental or supervisory monitoring is critical in ensuring that teens remain safe while gradually becoming more independent. PMID:23908362

Sanders, Renata Arrington

2013-08-01

117

Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

2001-01-01

118

Maternal immune activation causes age- and region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring throughout development.  

PubMed

Maternal infection is a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Indeed, modeling this risk factor in mice through maternal immune activation (MIA) causes ASD- and SZ-like neuropathologies and behaviors in the offspring. Although MIA upregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines in the fetal brain, whether MIA leads to long-lasting changes in brain cytokines during postnatal development remains unknown. Here, we tested this possibility by measuring protein levels of 23 cytokines in the blood and three brain regions from offspring of poly(I:C)- and saline-injected mice at five postnatal ages using multiplex arrays. Most cytokines examined are present in sera and brains throughout development. MIA induces changes in the levels of many cytokines in the brains and sera of offspring in a region- and age-specific manner. These MIA-induced changes follow a few, unexpected and distinct patterns. In frontal and cingulate cortices, several, mostly pro-inflammatory, cytokines are elevated at birth, followed by decreases during periods of synaptogenesis and plasticity, and increases again in the adult. Cytokines are also altered in postnatal hippocampus, but in a pattern distinct from the other regions. The MIA-induced changes in brain cytokines do not correlate with changes in serum cytokines from the same animals. Finally, these MIA-induced cytokine changes are not accompanied by breaches in the blood-brain barrier, immune cell infiltration or increases in microglial density. Together, these data indicate that MIA leads to long-lasting, region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring-similar to those reported for ASD and SZ-that may alter CNS development and behavior. PMID:22841693

Garay, Paula A; Hsiao, Elaine Y; Patterson, Paul H; McAllister, A K

2012-07-25

119

Maternal and offspring fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants and cognitive function at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children  

PubMed Central

Background In observational epidemiological studies type 2 diabetes (T2D) and both low and high plasma concentrations of fasting glucose have been found to be associated with lower cognitive performance. These associations could be explained by confounding. Methods In this study we looked at the association between genetic variants, known to be robustly associated with fasting glucose and T2D risk, in the mother and her offspring to determine whether there is likely to be a causal link between early life exposure to glucose and child’s intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. We generated a fasting glucose (FGGRS) and a T2D (T2DGRS) genetic risk score and used them in a Mendelian randomization approach. Results We found a strong correlation between the FGGRS and fasting glucose plasma measurements that were available for a subset of children, but no association of either the maternal or the offspring FGGRS with child’s IQ was observed. In contrast, the maternal T2DGRS was positively associated with offspring IQ. Conclusions Maternal and offspring genetic variants which are associated with glucose levels are not associated with offspring IQ, suggesting that there is unlikely to be a causal link between glucose exposure in utero and IQ in childhood. Further exploration in even larger cohorts is required to exclude the possibility that our null findings were due to a lack of statistical power.

2012-01-01

120

Stimulation of development of rabbit offspring by probiotic bacteria of the mother’s soft faeces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of mother?offspring interactions at various stages of ontogeny is important for understanding physiological characteristics, both species- and individual-specific, and the formation of adult behavior [1]. These processes during the lactation period have been studied well in rodents and lagomorphs. The prepubertal period is less investigated. In lactating female Rattus norvegicus and Acomys cahirinus (rats and spiny mice, respectively),

N. A. Ushakova; E. V. Fedosov; A. A. Kozlova; E. V. Kotenkova

2008-01-01

121

Growth and Development of Mice Offspring After Irradiation in Utero with 2,450-MHz Microwaves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mice offspring irradiated in utero with 2,450-MHz radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 0 or 28 mW/cm. sq. (whole-body averaged specific absorption rate = 0 or 16.5 W/kg) for 100 minutes daily on days 6 through 17 of gestation were evaluated for maturation an...

E. Berman H. B. Carter D. House

1984-01-01

122

Prenatal Bystander Stress Alters Brain, Behavior, and the Epigenome of Developing Rat Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prenatal environment, including prenatal stress, has been extensively studied in laboratory animals and humans. However, studies of the prenatal environment usually directly stress pregnant females, but stress may come ‘indirectly’, through stress to a cage-mate. The current study used indirect prenatal bystander stress and investigated the effects on the gross morphology, pre-weaning behavior, and epigenome of rat offspring. Pregnant

Richelle Mychasiuk; Nichole Schmold; Slava Ilnytskyy; Olga Kovalchuk; Bryan Kolb; Robbin Gibb

2011-01-01

123

Physical Play and Cognitive Development: Integrating Activity, Cognition, and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proposes that humans may have evolved a special sensitivity to certain types of social information during rough-and-tumble play that facilitates social cognition. Describes the cognitive benefits of physical play as providing a break from demanding intellectual tasks and hypothesizes that physical play is related to gender differences in spatial…

Bjorklund, David F.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas

1998-01-01

124

Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Development of Cognitive Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As cognitive systems technologies emerge, so too do the ethical issues surrounding their development and use. To develop cognitive systems technologies responsibly, Sandia National Laboratories is establishing a framework to proactively address both real ...

W. L. Shaneyfelt

2006-01-01

125

Regulatory Brain Development: Balancing Emotion and Cognition  

PubMed Central

Emotion regulation is a critical aspect of children's social development, yet few studies have examined the brain mechanisms involved in the development of emotion regulation. Theoretical accounts have conceptualized emotion regulation as relying upon prefrontal control of limbic regions, specifying the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a key brain region for the regulation of emotion. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 5- to 11-year-olds during emotion regulation and processing of emotionally expressive faces revealed that older children preferentially recruited the more dorsal “cognitive” areas of the ACC, while younger children preferentially engaged the more ventral “emotional” areas. Additionally, children with more fearful temperaments exhibited more ventral ACC activity while less fearful children exhibited increased activity in the dorsal ACC. These findings provide insight into a potential neurobiological mechanism underlying well-documented behavioral and cognitive changes from more emotional to more cognitive regulatory strategies with increasing age, as well as individual differences in this developmental process as a function of temperament. Our results hold important implications for our understanding of normal development and should also help to inform our understanding and management of emotional disorders.

Perlman, Susan B.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

2010-01-01

126

Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to triphenyltin chloride on pregnancy outcome and postnatal development in rat offspring.  

PubMed

The organotin compound (OTC) triphenyltin (TPT) is used extensively as a herbicide, pesticide and fungicide in agriculture as well as, together with tributyltin (TBT), in marine antifouling paints. We studied the effects of in utero exposure to 2 or 6 mg triphenyltinchloride (TPTCl)/kgb.w. on pregnancy outcome and postnatal development in rat offspring. Gravid Wistar rats were treated per gavage from gestational day 6 until the end of lactation. In the 6 mg TPTCl dose group gestational mortality in dams as well as an increased incidence of anticipated and delayed parturition was observed. Furthermore, treatment resulted in a significant increase in perinatal mortality, a decrease in lactational body weight gain as well as in delayed physical maturation of offspring. Similarily, exposure to 2mg TPTCl/kgb.w. resulted in a significant increase in perinatal mortality and in delayed eye opening. Lactational body weight gain and other landmarks of physical maturation were unaffected in the low dose group. We conclude, that in utero exposure to TPTCl at the described dose levels severely affected pregnancy outcome and perinatal survival of offspring. These results were unexpected, as in two earlier studies with pubertal rats TPTCl at the same dose levels no signs of general toxicity were observed. PMID:17644232

Grote, Konstanze; Hobler, Carolin; Andrade, Anderson J M; Grande, Simone Wichert; Gericke, Christine; Talsness, Chris E; Appel, Klaus E; Chahoud, Ibrahim

2007-06-16

127

Close Interrelation of Motor Development and Cognitive Development and of the Cerebellum and Prefrontal Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor development and cognitive development may be fundamentally interrelated. Contrary to popular notions that motor development begins and ends early, whereas cognitive development begins and ends later, both motor and cognitive development display equally protracted developmental timetables. When cognitive development is perturbed, as in a neurodevelopmental disorder, motor development is often adversely af- fected. While it has long been known

Adele Diamond

2000-01-01

128

Parenting practices and intergenerational associations in cognitive ability  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive ability is an important contributor to life chances, with implications for cycles of advantage or disadvantage across generations. Parenting practices are known to influence offspring cognitive development, but the extent to which these mediate intergenerational continuities and discontinuities in cognitive ability has not been adequately studied. Methods We used factor analysis to derive summary measures of parenting practices, and regression analyses and path modelling to test associations between these and cognitive function at age 8 years in 1690 first offspring of the British 1946 birth cohort. Analyses allowed for direct and indirect effects of parental original and achieved social circumstances, educational attainment and own childhood cognitive ability. Additional covariates were provided by indicators of parental physical and mental health. Results Regression analyses revealed that three aspects of parenting, intellectual home environment, parental aspiration and cognitive stimulation, were positively and independently associated with offspring childhood cognitive ability, whereas coercive discipline was negatively and independently associated. Path modelling was appropriate for intellectual environment, which also revealed direct and indirect effects of parental cognitive ability and educational and occupational attainment on offspring cognitive ability. Conclusion Parenting practices, particularly provision of an intellectual environment, were directly associated with offspring cognitive development. These data add to the relatively few studies that examine intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in cognitive ability.

Byford, M; Kuh, D; Richards, M

2012-01-01

129

Offspring, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These two 1995 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers including the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to practitioners and are frequently accompanied by classroom activities.…

Offspring, 1995

1995-01-01

130

Long-term impact of intrauterine MCMV infection on development of offspring nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study examined the impacts of intrauterine murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection on the long-term learning and memory\\u000a of offspring. Sexually matured male and female BALB\\/C mice without MCMV infection were identified by ELISA and then mated.\\u000a Seventy pregnant mice were randomly divided into the virus group (n=40) and the control group (n=30), in which the pregnant mice were subjected to

Juanjuan Chen; Yan Feng; Li Chen; Juan Xiao; Tao Liu; Zongzhi Yin; Suhua Chen

2011-01-01

131

Maternal and offspring pools of osteocalcin influence brain development and functions.  

PubMed

The powerful regulation of bone mass exerted by the brain suggests the existence of bone-derived signals modulating this regulation or other functions of the brain. We show here that the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin crosses the blood-brain barrier, binds to neurons of the brainstem, midbrain, and hippocampus, enhances the synthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters, inhibits GABA synthesis, prevents anxiety and depression, and favors learning and memory independently of its metabolic functions. In addition to these postnatal functions, maternal osteocalcin crosses the placenta during pregnancy and prevents neuronal apoptosis before embryos synthesize this hormone. As a result, the severity of the neuroanatomical defects and learning and memory deficits of Osteocalcin(-/-) mice is determined by the maternal genotype, and delivering osteocalcin to pregnant Osteocalcin(-/-) mothers rescues these abnormalities in their Osteocalcin(-/-) progeny. This study reveals that the skeleton via osteocalcin influences cognition and contributes to the maternal influence on fetal brain development. PMID:24074871

Oury, Franck; Khrimian, Lori; Denny, Christine A; Gardin, Antoine; Chamouni, Alexandre; Goeden, Nick; Huang, Yung-Yu; Lee, Hojoon; Srinivas, Prashanth; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Suyama, Shigetomo; Langer, Thomas; Mann, John J; Horvath, Tamas L; Bonnin, Alexandre; Karsenty, Gerard

2013-09-26

132

Cognitive Complexity and Cognitive–Affective Integration: Related or Separate Domains of Adult Development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a latent variable approach to describe two broad domains of adult development and their interrelations. One domain was cognitive complexity and was defined by crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence, and reflective cognition. The other domain was cognitive–affective integration and was operationalized in terms of coping and defense strategies (i.e., integrated and defensive coping). It was hypothesized that these

Gisela Labouvie-Vief; Manfred Diehl

2000-01-01

133

The effects of prenatal maternal stress on children's cognitive development: Project Ice Storm.  

PubMed

There exists considerable research on the effects of prenatal maternal stress on offspring. Animal studies, using random assignment to experimental and control groups, demonstrate the noxious effects of prenatal maternal stress on physical, behavioural and cognitive development. The generalizability of these results to humans is problematic given that cognitive attributions moderate reactions to stressors. In humans, researchers have relied upon maternal anxiety or exposure to life events as proxies for the stressors used with animals. Yet, the associations between maternal anxiety or potentially non-independent life events and problems in infants are confounded by genetic transmission of temperament from mother to child. We summarize the literature on prenatal maternal stress and infant cognitive development, leading to the conclusion that the human literature lacks the ability to separate the effects of the objective exposure to a stressor and the mother's subjective reaction. We then describe our prospective Project Ice Storm in which we are following 150 children who were exposed in utero to a natural disaster. We demonstrate significant effects of the objective severity of exposure on cognitive and language development at age two years with important moderating effects of the timing during pregnancy. The implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:16019596

King, Suzanne; Laplante, David P

2005-03-01

134

Age-dependent effects of prenatal stress on the corticolimbic dopaminergic system development in the rat male offspring.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that prenatal stress (PS) exerts an impairment of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) system metabolism especially after puberty, suggesting a particular sensitivity of DA development to variations in gonadal hormonal peaks. Furthermore we demonstrated that PS alters the long term androgens profile of the rat male offspring from prepubertal to adult stages. In this work we evaluated the sexual hormones activational effects on the DA system by analysing PS effects on the dopaminergic D2-like (D2R) and on the gonadal hormones receptor levels on cortical and hippocampal areas of prepubertal and adult male offspring. We further evaluated the dendritic arborization in the same areas by quantifying MAP2 immunoexpresion. Our results show that PS affected oestrogen receptor alpha (ER?) expression: mRNA er1s and ER? protein levels were decreased on prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of adult offspring. Moreover, PS reduced D2R protein levels in hippocampus of prepubertal rats. Morphological studies revealed that prepubertal PS rats presented decreased MAP2 immunoexpression in both areas suggesting that PS reduces the number of dendritic arborizations. Our findings suggest that PS exerts long-term effects on the DA system by altering the normal connectivity in the areas, and by modulating the expression of D2R and ER? in an age-related pattern. Since the developing forebrain DA system was shown to be influenced by androgen exposure, and PS was shown to disrupt perinatal testosterone surges, our results suggest that prenatal insults might be affecting the organizational role of androgens and differentially modulating their activational role on the DA development. PMID:24013886

Pallarés, María Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier; Adrover, Ezequiela; Monteleone, Melisa Carolina; Brocco, Marcela Adriana; Antonelli, Marta Cristina

2013-09-08

135

Bilingualism and cognitive development in relation to threshold theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive development, as predicted by threshold theory. This theory maintains that there may be levels of linguistic proficiency which bilingual children must attain in order to avoid cognitive deficits and to allow the cognitive benefits. On the whole, the results were consistent with the theory, in that an overall

Lina A. Ricciardelli

1992-01-01

136

Measuring higher cognitive development in anatomy and physiology students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the higher cognitive development of college science students, performance on lecture exams at different cognitive levels was measured in a two-semester sequence of anatomy and physiology at Idaho State University. Lecture exams consisted of multiple-choice test items, each classified at various cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. These included the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels. The investigation comprised

Christopher Dobson

2001-01-01

137

Some Instructional Implications from a Mathematical Model of Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive development and various educational implications are discussed in terms of Donald Saari's model of the interaction of a learner and the enviroment and the constraints imposed by the inefficiency of the learner's cognitive system. Saari proposed a hierarchical system of cognitive structures such that the relationships between structures…

Mierkiewicz, Diane B.

138

Metaethical cognition and epistemic reasoning development in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates whether epistemic cognition in moral domain (dubbed metaethical cognition) develops analogously to epistemic reasoning regarding empirical knowledge. The study’s conceptual framework distinguishes two main areas of metaethical cognition (beliefs about the nature of moral judgments and conceptions of the process of moral judgment formation), and three metaethical stances (intuitionism, subjectivism, and transsubjectivism). In a sample of

Tobias Krettenauer

2004-01-01

139

Effect of obesity on rat reproduction and on the development of their adult offspring.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the reproductive parameters of obese Wistar rats and to determine the frequency of their obese adult offspring. Neonatal rats were divided into two groups: F1 generation, induced to obesity by monosodium glutamate (MSG; F1MSG, N = 30), and rats given saline (F1CON, N = 13). At 90 days of age all animals were mated, producing the F2 offspring (F2CON, N = 28; F2MSG, N = 15). Reproductive parameters (fertility, pregnancy, and delivery indexes) were evaluated in F1 rats. F2 newborns were weighed, and the obesity parameter for F1 and F2 generations was determined from months 5 to 7 of life. At month 7, periovarian fat was weighed and no differences were found. Mean newborn weight also did not differ. The F1 and F2MSG groups presented approximately 90% of obese rats since month 5 of life, whereas F1 and F2CON groups presented only 33%. There was no difference in periovarian weight among groups. Although obesity did not affect reproductive parameters, obese dams (F1MSG) were responsible for the appearance of obesity in the subsequent generation. Thus, obesity induced by neonatal MSG administration did not interfere with reproduction, but did provide a viable model for obesity in second-generation adult Wistar rats. This model might contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in transgenerational obesity. PMID:18235969

Campos, K E; Volpato, G T; Calderon, I M P; Rudge, M V C; Damasceno, D C

2008-01-11

140

The Intergenerational Effects of Parental Schooling on the Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Development of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, using the National Child Development Study, estimates the causal relationship between parents' schooling and children's cognitive and non-cognitive development using the 1947 compulsory schooling legislation in Great Britain. The least squares estimates suggest strong correlations between parental education and these developmental…

Silles, Mary A.

2011-01-01

141

Female effects on offspring energetic status and consequences on early development in yolk feeding brown trout (Salmo trutta).  

PubMed

Energetic status can be defined as the interaction between energy stores and metabolic rate. In salmonids, it is variable and influences the timing of emergence, and therefore may have strong effects on both juvenile and maternal fitness. The aim of this study is to (i) describe the ontogeny of energy use for different brown trout clutches to understand how such a variability of energetic status is developed at the end of incubation and (ii) to estimate maternal influences over offspring physiological processes. Using individual measures of total mass and metabolism throughout ontogeny combined with a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach, we successfully described clutch-specific (i) metabolic trajectories, (ii) use of yolk resources and the building of new tissues throughout ontogeny. Our results show that females laying large eggs have offspring with lower metabolic costs and higher yolk conversion efficiencies. Females also influence within clutch variance of metabolic and yolk consumption rates leading to potential developmental variations. These results are discussed with regard to their consequences on early life history through the critical period of emergence. PMID:22777730

Régnier, Thomas; Bolliet, Valérie; Gaudin, Philippe; Labonne, Jacques

2012-07-01

142

Computer-simulated development process of Chinese characters font cognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research of Chinese characters cognition is an important research aspect of cognitive science and computer science, especially artificial intelligence. In this paper, according as the traits of Chinese characters the database of Chinese characters font representations and the model of computer simulation of Chinese characters font cognition are constructed from the aspect of cognitive science. The font cognition of Chinese characters is actual a gradual process and there is the accumulation of knowledge. Through using the method of computer simulation, the development model of Chinese characters cognition was constructed. And this is the important research content of Chinese characters cognition. This model is based on self-organizing neural network and adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural network. By Combining the SOFM and ART2 network, two sets of input were trained. Through training and testing methods, the development process of Chinese characters cognition based on Chinese characters cognition was simulated. Then the results from this model and could be compared with the results that were obtained only using SOFM. By analyzing the results, this simulation suggests that the model is able to account for some empirical results. So, the model can simulate the development process of Chinese characters cognition in a way.

Chen, Jing; Mu, Zhichun; Sun, Dehui; Hu, Dunli

2008-11-01

143

Developing Cognition with Collaborative Robotic Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognition, faculty related to perception, imagination, memory, and problem solving, refers to internal mental processes through which sensorial input is acquired, elaborated, used, and stored. One of its importances relies on the fact that it affects in a direct way the learning potential. It has been shown that, even thou cognitive processes…

Mitnik, Ruben; Nussbaum, Miguel; Recabarren, Matias

2009-01-01

144

Cognitive Development of Rural Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 3-year longitudinal study assessed cognitive changes among rural children 3 to 5 years old and validated the construct validity of the Nebraska Wisconsin Cognitive Assessment Battery (NEWCAB). Multistage area sampling techniques were used with a repeated measures, control group design. Participants in the sample were 40 3-year-olds, 57…

Kalyan-Masih, V.

145

Cognitive Radio Platform Development for Interoperability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a general method to reconfigure a software defined radio (SDR) using a set of intelligent algorithms called a cognitive engine (CE) to create a cognitive radio (CR) that provides a user with a required quality of service (QoS). The proposed architecture relies on the CE to generate an XML document that describes the SDR behavior.

D. Scaperoth; B. Le; T. Rondeau; D. Maldonado; C. W. Bostian; S. Harrison

2006-01-01

146

Developing Cognition with Collaborative Robotic Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognition, faculty related to perception, imagination, memory, and problem solving, refers to internal mental processes through which sensorial input is acquired, elaborated, used, and stored. One of its importances relies on the fact that it affects in a direct way the learning potential. It has been shown that, even thou cognitive processes…

Mitnik, Ruben; Nussbaum, Miguel; Recabarren, Matias

2009-01-01

147

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

148

Development of a Brief Cognitive Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Neurocognitive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a brief cognitive screen for possible Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and other neurocognitive impairment in a sample of general medical patients. Two hundred community-dwelling general medical patients aged 65 or older participated in this study. Age and education corrected scores from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Mattis Dementia

John L. Woodard; Elinor S. W. Dorsett; James G. Cooper; Bruce P. Hermann; Mark A. Sager

2005-01-01

149

ASSESSING ACADEMIC CHALLENGES FOR THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continual improvement of higher education is a concern for anyone who believes that students should be completing their higher education experience with a well-developed ability to think critically at higher levels of cognition. While research has been conducted that assesses the role of teacher behaviors and characteristics and instructional methods in the development of students ' cognitive ability, little

David F. McCormick; M. Susie Whittington

2000-01-01

150

Categorizing and combining theories of cognitive development and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper considers the centrality of meta-theoretical belief systems (MTBSs) for theories of cognitive development and learning. It is argued that MTBSs guide and constrain the construction of theoretical models and developmental mechanisms. Moreover, it is shown how MTBSs can be effectively used to categorize theories and to address the issue of whether theories of cognitive development and learning

James P. Byrnes

1992-01-01

151

What have we learned about cognitive development from neuroimaging?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in many domains of cognition occur with development. In this paper, we discuss neuroimaging approaches to understanding these changes at a neural level. We highlight how modern imaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are being used to examine how cognitive development is supported by the maturation of the brain. Some reports

Sarah Durston; B. J. Casey

2006-01-01

152

Integrating Cognitive Task Analysis into Instructional Systems Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of instructional systems development (ISD) focuses on recent developments in cognitive task analysis and describes the Integrated Task Analysis Model, a framework for integrating cognitive and behavioral task analysis methods within the ISD model. Three components of expertise are analyzed: skills, knowledge, and mental models. (96…

Ryder, Joan M.; Redding, Richard E.

1993-01-01

153

Restructuring Heterogeneous Classes for Cognitive Development: Social Interactive Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study of students in grades three, four, and five that tried an educational application derived from the social constructivism view based on theories of Vygotsky and Piaget to improve cognitive development in a heterogeneous class. Path analysis showed that complex learning techniques are related to cognitive development. (Author/LRW)|

Ben-Ari, Rachel; Kedem-Friedrich, Peri

2000-01-01

154

Maternal "junk-food" feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring  

PubMed Central

Individuals exposed to high-fat, high-sugar diets before birth have an increased risk of obesity in later life. Recent studies have shown that these offspring exhibit increased preference for fat, leading to suggestions that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar foods results in permanent changes within the central reward system that increase the subsequent drive to overconsume palatable foods. The present study has determined the effect of a maternal “junk-food” diet on the expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring of rat dams at 6 wk and 3 mo of age. We show that offspring of junk-food-fed (JF) dams exhibit higher fat intake from weaning until at least 3 mo of age (males: 16±0.6 vs. 11±0.8 g/kg/d; females: 19±1.3 vs. 13±0.4 g/kg/d; P<0.01). mRNA expression of ?-opioid receptor (Mu) was 1.6-fold higher (P<0.01) and dopamine active transporter (DAT) was 2-fold lower (P<0.05) in JF offspring at 6 wk of age. By 3 mo, these differences were reversed, and Mu mRNA expression was 2.8-fold lower (P<0.01) and DAT mRNA expression was 1.9-fold higher (P<0.01) in the JF offspring. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar diets results in altered development of the central reward system, resulting in increased fat intake and altered response of the reward system to excessive junk-food intake in postnatal life.—Ong, Z. Y., Muhlhausler, B. S. Maternal “junk-food” feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring.

Ong, Z. Y.; Muhlhausler, B. S.

2011-01-01

155

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders in the Offspring of Mothers Exposed to Mild-Moderate Iodine Deficiency: A Possible Novel Iodine Deficiency Disorder in Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of almost 10 yr, we carried out a prospective study of the neuropsychological development of the offspring of 16 women from a moderately iodine-deficient area (area A) and of 11 control women from a marginally iodine-sufficient area (area B) whose thyroid function had been monitored during early gestation. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was diagnosed in

F. Vermiglio; V. P. LO PRESTI; M. MOLETI; M. SIDOTI; G. TORTORELLA; G. SCAFFIDI; M. G. CASTAGNA; F. MATTINA; M. A. VIOLI; A. CRISA; A. ARTEMISIA; F. TRIMARCHI

2004-01-01

156

The Relationships Between Cognitive Deficits and Spiritual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

An individual’s spirituality is shaped and supported by his or her cognitive capacities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between various cognitive deficits and the spiritual development in individuals who qualified for special education under the category of Specific Learning Disability. Participants were randomly selected through systematic sampling of students and former students of Kellyville Public

Charles Nolan Thomas

2008-01-01

157

Neuromodulation of Behavioral and Cognitive Development across the Life Span  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…

Li, Shu-Chen

2012-01-01

158

The Development of Social Cognition. Studies in Developmental Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defining social cognition as our attempts to make sense of how people think, perceive, infer, feel, and react, this book examines both the classical issues and contemporary understanding of theory and research in social cognitive development. The initial chapters highlight one of the central, theoretical tensions in the field, which is whether…

Hala, Suzanne, Ed.

159

Neuromodulation of Behavioral and Cognitive Development across the Life Span  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…

Li, Shu-Chen

2012-01-01

160

Cognitive and verbal development of discordant twins without neurological morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this longitudinal study are to investigate the cognitive and verbal development of discordant twins without neurological morbidity. Twenty pairs (40 infants) of discordant twins (discordance range 15–41%) were examined. A follow?up study was carried out of 11 selected pairs (22 infants), with biological and cognitive measures at birth, at 1 year, at 2 years and at 4

2007-01-01

161

Cognitive development in children with chronic protein energy malnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is associated with both structural and functional pathology of the brain. A wide range of cognitive deficits has been reported in malnourished children. Effect of chronic protein energy malnutrition (PEM) causing stunting and wasting in children could also affect the ongoing development of higher cognitive processes during childhood (>5 years of age). The present study examined the effect

Bhoomika R Kar; Shobini L Rao; B A Chandramouli

2008-01-01

162

The Role of Cognitive Skills in Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of improved schooling, a central part of most development strategies, has become controversial because expansion of school attainment has not guaranteed improved economic conditions. This paper reviews the role of cognitive skills in promoting economic well-being, with a particular focus on the role of school quality and quantity. It concludes that there is strong evidence that the cognitive

Eric A. Hanushek; Ludger Woessmann

2008-01-01

163

Patterns of Low-Birth-Weight Children's Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated developmental patterns of cognitive performance over first 3 years of life in sample of 762 low birthweight premature children. Intelligence test scores were obtained at 12, 24, and 36 months adjusted age. Five developmental patterns were identified. Results reveal patterns of cognitive development can be discriminated by three…

Liaw, Fong-Ruey; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

1993-01-01

164

Maternal Prenatal Cortisol and Infant Cognitive Development: Moderation by Infant-Mother Attachment  

PubMed Central

Background: Experimental animal studies suggest that early glucocorticoid exposure may have lasting effects on the neurodevelopment of the offspring; animal studies also suggest that this effect may be eliminated by positive postnatal rearing. The relevance of these findings to humans is not known. Methods: We prospectively followed 125 mothers and their normally developing children from pregnancy through 17 months postnatal. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infants were assessed at an average age of 17 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and ratings of infant-mother attachment classification were made from the standard Ainsworth Strange Situation assessment. Results: Prenatal cortisol exposure, indexed by amniotic fluid levels, negatively predicted cognitive ability in the infant, independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors. This association was moderated by child–mother attachment: in children with an insecure attachment the correlation was (r(54) = ?.47, p <.001); in contrast, the association was nonexistent in children who had a secure attachment (r(70) = ?.05, ns). Conclusions: These findings mimic experimental animal findings and provide the first direct human evidence that increased cortisol in utero is associated with impaired cognitive development, and that its impact is dependent on the quality of the mother-infant relationship.

Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G

2010-01-01

165

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cognitive development.  

PubMed

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an Omega-3 fatty acid) and arachindonic acid (AA, an Omega-6 fatty acid) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs) that are important for cognitive development. Research has shown that LCPs are associated with improved visual and cognitive development: breast-fed children had higher IQ scores compared with children who received an infant formula that did not contain LCPs. Because breast milk contains LCPs and the formulae in these studies did not, it is possible that LCPs may contribute to improved cognitive development. PMID:12630150

Willatts, Peter

2002-01-01

166

Cognition, Behavior, and Development in Joubert Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a series of studies of children with Joubert syndrome who were examined in three investigations from 1994 through 1998. Neuropsychologic screening of 10 of 40 children showed a variety of deficits in cognition, verbal memory, visuomotor, motor, and language-related tasks. Parent report of developmental attainments revealed only 3 of 40 children functioning in the borderline range,

Eileen B. Fennell; Jill C. Gitten; Duane E. Dede; Bernard L. Maria

1999-01-01

167

Mild cognitive impairment: historical development and summary of research  

PubMed Central

This review article broadly traces the historical development, diagnostic criteria, clinical and neuropathological characteristics, and treatment strategies related to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), The concept of MCI is considered in the context of other terms that have been developed to characterize the elderly with varying degrees of cognitive impairment Criteria based on clinical global scale ratings, cognitive test performance, and performance on other domains of functioning are discussed. Approaches employing clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, biological, and molecular genetic methodology used in the validation of MCI are considered, including results from cross-sectional, longitudinal, and postmortem investigations. Results of recent drug treatment studies of MCI and related methodological issues are also addressed.

Golomb, James; Kluger, Alan; Ferris, Steven H

2004-01-01

168

Development of Gauges for the QinetiQ Cognition Monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a new version of the calibration procedure for the QinetiQ Cognition Monitor so that\\u000a it can be implemented to support the development of a cognitive cockpit at NAVAIR. A new signal cleaning procedure for processing\\u000a the electro-encephalogram (EEG) automatically is outlined and the results from tests in the UK and US are summarized. It

Andy Belyavin; Chris Ryder; Blair Dickson

2007-01-01

169

The Relation Between Cognitive Development and Anxiety Phenomena in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relation between cognitive development and fear, anxiety, and behavioral inhibition in a non-clinical sample\\u000a of 226 Dutch children aged 4–9 years. To assess cognitive development, children were tested with Piagetian conservation tasks\\u000a and a Theory-of-Mind (TOM) test. Fears were measured by means of a self-report scale completed by the children, while anxiety\\u000a symptoms and behavioral inhibition were indexed

Suzanne Broeren; Peter Muris

2009-01-01

170

Lifestyle counselling targeting infant's mother during the child's first year and offspring weight development until 4 years of age: a follow-up study of a cluster RCT  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of intensified lifestyle counselling targeting infants' mothers on offspring weight development during the first 4?years of life. Design and setting Follow-up of a cluster-randomised controlled trial in primary care child health clinics during 2004–2006 in Finland. Participants received a follow-up survey during 2010 concerning weight and height measurements of their offspring. Number of clusters was six and the response rate to the follow-up 71.9% (N=64/89). Participants The participants (N=89) were mothers of infants aged 2–10?months. Intervention The intervention included individual counselling on diet and physical activity when the infant was 2–10?months of age and an option to attend supervised group exercise sessions. Primary and secondary outcome measures The authors analysed the secondary outcome of the intervention study: the weight development of the offspring. The primary outcome was the proportion of women returning to their prepregnancy weight by 10?months post partum, reported earlier. Results Multilevel mixed effect non-linear regression models included group, age of the child and interaction between group and age of the child. The increase of BMI z-score between 24 and 48?months was slower among the intervention group offspring (?0.034 to ?0.002, p=0.028) as compared with control group. Z-scores for weight-for-length/height did not differ between groups when the period 0–48?months was analysed (p=0.23) but for the period of 24–48?months, between-group differences were significant (p=0.012). Conclusions Lifestyle counselling targeting mothers during the child's first year may be effective in slowing offspring weight gain until 4?years of age. However, larger studies are needed to confirm the findings which may have the potential in combatting the obesity epidemic. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN21512277.

Raitanen, Jani; Keskinen, Paivi; Saari, Antti; Luoto, Riitta

2012-01-01

171

Effect of Maternal Lipopolysaccharide Administration on the Development of Dopaminergic Receptors and Transporter in the Rat Offspring  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological evidence supports that maternal infection during gestation are notable risk factors for developmental mental illnesses including schizophrenia and autism. In prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model of immune activation in rats, the offspring exhibit significant impairments in behaviors mediated by central dopamine (DA) system. This study aimed to examine the temporal and regional pattern of postnatal DA development in the male offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats administered with 100 µg/kg LPS or saline at gestational days 15/16. Using ligand autoradiography, D1 and D2 dopamine receptors (D1R, D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) binding levels were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and sub cortical regions (dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core and shell) at pre pubertal (P35) and post pubertal ages (P60). We found a significant decrease in D2R ligand [3H] YM-90151-2 binding in the medial PFC (mPFC) in prenatal LPS-treated animals at P35 and P60 compared to respective saline groups. The decrease in D2R levels was not observed in the striatum or accumbens of maternal LPS-treated animals. No significant changes were observed in [3H] SCH23390 binding to D1R. However, the level of [125I] RTI-121 binding to DAT was selectively reduced in the nucleus accumbens core and shell at P35 in the prenatal LPS group. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that number of D2R immunopositive cells in infralimbic/prelimbic (IL/PL) part of mPFC was significantly reduced in the LPS group at P60. Prenatal LPS treatment did not significantly affect either the total number of mature neurons or parvalbumin (PV)-immunopositive interneurons in this region. However the number of PV and D2R co-labeled neurons was significantly reduced in the IL/PL subregion of PFC of LPS treated animals. Our data suggests D2R deficit in the PFC and PV interneurons may be relevant to understanding mechanisms of cortical dysfunctions described in prenatal infection animal models as well as schizophrenia.

Baharnoori, Moogeh; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K.; Srivastava, Lalit K.

2013-01-01

172

Close Interrelation of Motor Development and Cognitive Development and of the Cerebellum and Prefrontal Cortex.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that motor and cognitive development may be fundamentally interrelated. Summarizes evidence of close co-activation of the neocerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in functional neuroimaging, similarities in the cognitive sequelae of damage to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the neocerebellum, motor deficits in "cognitive"…

Diamond, Adele

2000-01-01

173

The value of assessing cognitive function in drug development  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the value and utility of measuring cognitive function in the development of new medicines by reference to the most widely used automated system in clinical research. Evidence is presented from phase 1 to 3 of the nature and quality of the information that can be obtained by applying the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system to ongoing clinical trials. Valuable evidence can be obtained even in the first trial in which a novel compound is administered to man. One application of such testing is to ensure that novel compounds are relatively free from cognition-impairing properties, particularly in relation to competitor products. Another is to ensure that unwanted interactions with alcohol and other medications do not occur, or, if they do, to put them in context. In many patient populations, cognitive dysfunction occurs as a result of the disease process, and newer medicines which can treat the symptoms of the disease without further impairing function can often reveal benefits as the disease-induced cognitive dysfunction is reduced. Another major application is to identify benefits for compounds designed to enhance cognitive function. Such effects can be sought in typical phase 1 trials, or a scopolamine model of the core deficits of Alzheimer's disease can be used to screen potential antidernentia drugs. Ultimately, of course, such effects can be demonstrated using properly validated and highly sensitive automated procedures in the target populations. The data presented demonstrate that the concept of independently assessing a variety of cognitive functions is crucial in helping differentiate drugs, types of dementia, and different illnesses. Such information offers a unique insight into how the alterations to various cognitive functions will manifest themselves in everyday behavior. This reveals a major limitation of scales that yield a single score, because such limited information does not permit anything but a quantitative interpretation; and the concept of “more” cognitive function or “less” is manifestly inappropriate for something as complex and diverse as the interplay between cognitive function and human behavior. Finally, the next generations of cognitive testing are described. Testing via the telephone has just been introduced and will have dramatic effects on the logistics of conducting cognitive testing in large patient trials. Testing via the Internet is not far off either, and will come fully into play as the proportion of homes connected to the Internet increases in Europe and North America. There are no sound reasons for not wishing to include cognitive function testing in the development protocol of any novel medicine.

Wesnes, Keith A.

2000-01-01

174

Offspring from Mouse Embryos Developed Using a Simple Incubator-Free Culture System with a Deoxidizing Agent  

PubMed Central

To culture preimplantation embryos in vitro, water-jacketed CO2 incubators are used widely for maintaining an optimal culture environment in terms of gas phase, temperature and humidity. We investigated the possibility of mouse embryo culture in a plastic bag kept at 37°C. Zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization or collected from naturally mated B6D2F1 female mice were put in a drop of medium on a plastic culture dish and then placed in a commercially available plastic bag. When these were placed in an oven under air at 37°C for 96 h, the rate of blastocyst development and the cell numbers of embryos decreased. However, when the concentration of O2 was reduced to 5% using a deoxidizing agent and a small oxygen meter, most zygotes developed into blastocysts. These blastocysts were judged normal according to their cell number, Oct3/4 and Cdx2 gene expression levels, the apoptosis rate and the potential for full-term development after embryo transfer to pseudopregnant recipients. Furthermore, using this system, normal offspring were obtained simply by keeping the bag on a warming plate. This culture method was applied successfully to both hybrid and inbred strains. In addition, because the developing embryos could be observed through the transparent wall of the bag, it was possible to capture time-lapse images of live embryos until the blastocyst stage without needing an expensive microscope-based incubation chamber. These results suggest that mouse zygotes are more resilient to their environment than generally believed. This method might prove useful in economical culture systems or for the international shipment of embryos.

Itoi, Fumiaki; Tokoro, Mikiko; Terashita, Yukari; Yamagata, Kazuo; Fukunaga, Noritaka; Asada, Yoshimasa; Wakayama, Teruhiko

2012-01-01

175

Offspring from mouse embryos developed using a simple incubator-free culture system with a deoxidizing agent.  

PubMed

To culture preimplantation embryos in vitro, water-jacketed CO(2) incubators are used widely for maintaining an optimal culture environment in terms of gas phase, temperature and humidity. We investigated the possibility of mouse embryo culture in a plastic bag kept at 37°C. Zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization or collected from naturally mated B6D2F1 female mice were put in a drop of medium on a plastic culture dish and then placed in a commercially available plastic bag. When these were placed in an oven under air at 37°C for 96 h, the rate of blastocyst development and the cell numbers of embryos decreased. However, when the concentration of O(2) was reduced to 5% using a deoxidizing agent and a small oxygen meter, most zygotes developed into blastocysts. These blastocysts were judged normal according to their cell number, Oct3/4 and Cdx2 gene expression levels, the apoptosis rate and the potential for full-term development after embryo transfer to pseudopregnant recipients. Furthermore, using this system, normal offspring were obtained simply by keeping the bag on a warming plate. This culture method was applied successfully to both hybrid and inbred strains. In addition, because the developing embryos could be observed through the transparent wall of the bag, it was possible to capture time-lapse images of live embryos until the blastocyst stage without needing an expensive microscope-based incubation chamber. These results suggest that mouse zygotes are more resilient to their environment than generally believed. This method might prove useful in economical culture systems or for the international shipment of embryos. PMID:23056643

Itoi, Fumiaki; Tokoro, Mikiko; Terashita, Yukari; Yamagata, Kazuo; Fukunaga, Noritaka; Asada, Yoshimasa; Wakayama, Teruhiko

2012-10-09

176

Parent-Offspring Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

synopsis. When parent-offspring relations in sexually reproducing species are viewed from the standpoint of the offspring as well as the parent, conflict is seen to be an expected feature of such relations. In particular, parent and offspring are expected to disagree over how long the period of parental investment should last, over the amount of parental investment that should be

ROBERT L. TRIVERS

1974-01-01

177

Infant eyes: A window on cognitive development  

PubMed Central

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking “under the hood” if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants’ gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous datasets from eye-trackers requires users to think hard about what they are measuring and what these measures mean for making inferences about underlying cognitive processes. The present commentary highlights these concerns, both technical and interpretive, and reviews the five articles that comprise this Special Issue.

Aslin, Richard N.

2011-01-01

178

Low-Dose, Gestational Exposure to Atrazine Does Not Alter Postnatal Reproductive Development of Male Offspring  

EPA Science Inventory

There is growing evidence that xenobiotic exposure during the perinatal period may result in a variety of adverse outcomes when the developing organism attains adulthood. Maternal stress and subsequent exposure of the fetus to excess glucocorticoids may underlie these effects. Pr...

179

Maternal protein deficiency affects mesenchymal stem cell activity in the developing offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental influences such as maternal nutrition, programme skeletal growth during intrauterine and early postnatal life. However, the mechanism whereby the skeletal growth trajectory is modified remains unclear. We have addressed this using a rat model of maternal protein insufficiency to investigate the cellular mechanisms involved in the programming of bone development. The aims of this study

Richard O. C Oreffo; Benjamin Lashbrooke; Helmtrud I Roach; Nicholas M. P Clarke; Cyrus Cooper

2003-01-01

180

Content Analysis of Cognitive Bias: Development of a Standardized Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to develop a standardized content analytic measure of cognitive bias as conceptualized in\\u000a Beck's (1987) cognitive theory of depression. In a pilot study it was determined that a written stimulus format was preferable\\u000a to an audiotaped stimulus format with respect to comprehensibility. Valence and expectancy ratings collected in this pilot\\u000a study also served as

Heather M. Hartman-Hall; David A. F. Haaga

1999-01-01

181

Deprivation of parenting disrupts development of homeostatic and reward systems in marmoset monkey offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEarly environment is a major determinant of long-term mental health, evidenced by the relationship between early-life neglect or abuse and chronically increased vulnerability to developmental psychopathology, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Animal studies can increase understanding of environmentally mediated causal risk processes. We describe how daily deprivation of biological parenting in primate infants disrupts development of homeostatic and reward systems

Christopher R Pryce; Andrea C Dettling; Marianne Spengler; Christian R Schnell; Joram Feldon

2004-01-01

182

Phenobarbitone: adverse effects on reproductive performance and offspring development in the Mongolian gerbil, (Meriones unguiculatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenobarbitone at a concentration of 500 mg\\/l in drinking fluid of gerbils during pregnancy (60 mg\\/kg) and lactation (136 mg\\/kg) markedly reduced the proportion of animals bearing litters, decreased pup weights at birth and during later life and delayed development of the self-righting reflex, auditory startle reaction, eye opening and full fur coverage. It also prolonged the period of suckling.

Jan B. Chapman; Margaret G. Cutler

1988-01-01

183

Environmental stimulation, parental nurturance and cognitive development in humans.  

PubMed

The effects of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance on brain development have been studied extensively in animals. Much less is known about the relations between childhood experience and cognitive development in humans. Using a longitudinally collected data set with ecologically valid in-home measures of childhood experience and later in-laboratory behavioral measures of cognitive ability, we were able to test hypotheses concerning the effects of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance. A double dissociation was found: On the one hand, there was a selective relation between parental nurturance and memory development, consistent with the animal literature on maternal buffering of stress hormone effects on hippocampal development. On the other hand, there was a selective relation between environmental stimulation and language development. The relevance of these findings to socioeconomic gradients in cognitive ability is discussed. PMID:18810850

Farah, Martha J; Betancourt, Laura; Shera, David M; Savage, Jessica H; Giannetta, Joan M; Brodsky, Nancy L; Malmud, Elsa K; Hurt, Hallam

2008-09-01

184

Experiential and Cognitive Sources of Moral Development in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined three issues in adult moral development: (a) the relationship between cognitive and moral development; (b) the relationship between social experiences and rate of moral development; and (c) sex differences in moral orientations. Participants were university employees and their spouses. These 62 adults completed a questionnaire regarding social experiences in various areas of their lives. Later they were

Lawrence J. Walker

1986-01-01

185

Skeletal development of greyhounds, German shepherd dogs and their crossbreed offspring. An investigation with special reference to hip dysplasia.  

PubMed

Skeletal development (appearance of secondary ossification centers) of Greyhounds, German Shepherds and their crossbreed offspring was studied. It was found that Greyhounds were more mature at birth than German Shepherds. Crossbreeds held an intermediate position. After about 16 weeks the skeletal age of German Shepherds was more advanced than that of Greyhounds and Crossbreeds. Of 28 German Shepherds which were radiographed at 6 months of age 6 (21%) had hip dysplasia. Four of these were sacrificed and necropsied together with 3 radiographically normal litter mates. These "normal" pups had incipient macroscopic and histologic signs of hip dysplasia. All Greyhounds and Crossbreeds, which were radiographed at about 6 months of age, had normal hips. Three Greyhounds and 7 Crossbreeds were necropsied at 6 months of age. Their hip joints were normal. All German Shepherds had unstable hips (post mortem) from an age of 4 weeks while Greyhounds and Crossbreeds had stable or only slightly unstable hips. On the basis of previous experiments with estradiol induced hip dysplasia it was suggested that German Shepherd are under influence of more maternal estrogens during fetal life than Greyhounds and Crossbreeds. The accelerated skeletal maturation and early sexual maturity of German Shepherds indicate an early and/or higher production of endogenous estrogens, which retards growth of cartilage, initiating the vicious circle of hip dysplasia. It was concluded that investigations of estrogen levels and further studies of skeletal development of dogs with and without hip dysplasia are necessary before any definite conclusion on etiology and pathogenesis of spontaneously occurring hip dysplasia can be drawn. PMID:1066037

1975-01-01

186

Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring.Groups of 14–18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500,

Marta Axelstad; Julie Boberg; Karin Sørig Hougaard; Sofie Christiansen; Pernille Rosenskjold Jacobsen; Karen Riiber Mandrup; Christine Nellemann; Søren Peter Lund; Ulla Hass

2011-01-01

187

Cognitive Load Theory and Complex Learning: Recent Developments and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) has focused on instructional methods to decrease extraneous cognitive load so that available cognitive resources can be fully devoted to learning. This article strengthens the cognitive base of CLT by linking cognitive processes to the processes used by biological evolution. The article discusses recent developments in CLT related to the current view in instructional design

Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer; John Sweller

2005-01-01

188

Oral Tolerance Induced by Transfer of Food Antigens via Breast Milk of Allergic Mothers Prevents Offspring from Developing Allergic Symptoms in a Mouse Food Allergy Model  

PubMed Central

We examined whether maternal exposure to food antigens during lactation and maternal allergic status would affect the development of food allergy in offspring. OVA-sensitized or OVA-nonsensitized BALB/c female mice were exposed or unexposed to OVA during lactation. After weaning, their offspring were systemically sensitized twice with OVA and repeatedly given OVA by oral intubation. While 97.1% of the mice breastfed by OVA-nonsensitized and OVA-unexposed mothers developed allergic diarrhea, 59.7% of the mice breastfed by OVA-exposed nonallergic mothers during lactation and 24.6% of the mice breastfed by OVA-exposed allergic mothers during lactation developed food allergy. Furthermore, OVA was detected in breast-milk from OVA-exposed nonallergic mothers during lactation (4.6 ± 0.5??g/mL). In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 titers were markedly increased in breast milk from allergic mothers (OVA-sensitized and OVA-unexposed mother: 11.0 ± 0.5, OVA-sensitized and OVA-exposed mother: 12.3 ± 0.3). Our results suggest that oral tolerance induced by breast milk-mediated transfer of dietary antigens along with their specific immunoglobulins to offspring leads to antigen-specific protection from food allergy.

Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tsubota, Yuma; Kodama, Toshihisa; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Kadowaki, Makoto

2012-01-01

189

The cognitive neuroscience of prehension: recent developments  

PubMed Central

Prehension, the capacity to reach and grasp, is the key behavior that allows humans to change their environment. It continues to serve as a remarkable experimental test case for probing the cognitive architecture of goal-oriented action. This review focuses on recent experimental evidence that enhances or modifies how we might conceptualize the neural substrates of prehension. Emphasis is placed on studies that consider how precision grasps are selected and transformed into motor commands. Then, the mechanisms that extract action relevant information from vision and touch are considered. These include consideration of how parallel perceptual networks within parietal cortex, along with the ventral stream, are connected and share information to achieve common motor goals. On-line control of grasping action is discussed within a state estimation framework. The review ends with a consideration about how prehension fits within larger action repertoires that solve more complex goals and the possible cortical architectures needed to organize these actions.

2010-01-01

190

Transgenerational effects of maternal exposure to chemicals on the functional development of the brain in the offspring.  

PubMed

In order to prevent health risk from environmental chemicals, particularly for progeny, we have been performing a risk assessment for various chemicals including therapeutic agents. This paper reports the functional effects of maternal exposure to psychoactive drugs, anticancer drugs, or herbicides on the offspring of rats. Maternal exposure to imipramine in a dose equivalent to the therapeutic dose per unit body weight induced hyperthermic response to chlorpromazine in the male offspring, while normal control rats showed a marked hypothermia. Exposure to ethosuximide resulted in an increase in play fighting behavior in young offspring that was fostered by lactating normal mothers. Single exposures to nimustine or cisplatin, anticancer drugs, at a different gestational stage resulted in an acceleration of growth when exposed at the earlier stage of gestation. Moreover, cisplatin-exposed rats were emotionally unstable, showing a short latent time to the first line-crossing in an open-field during infantile period. The rats exposed to glufosinate ammonium, an herbicide, during the time of neurogenesis in the hippocampus showed a decrease in the wet-dog shakes response to kainic acid at six weeks of age. These results suggest that maternal exposure to chemicals during pregnancy induces a variety of functional abnormalities in the brain of the offspring dependent on the pharmacologic action of chemicals and the stage of gestation even with a single exposure. PMID:9498910

Fujii, T

1997-05-01

191

Cognitive Development and the Cognition of Horizontal and Vertical Social Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was hypothesized that children, like adults, cognize social groups by applying social schemata. Their facility with social schemata was predicted to be a function of their level of cognitive development. When children were asked to complete partial social structures, formal and concrete operational, but not preoperational children, readily…

Walker, Charles J.; Zwycewicz, Anne Marie

192

Mechanism of earthquake simulation as a prenatal stressor retarding rat offspring development and chinese medicine correcting the retardation: hormones and gene-expression alteration.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the mechanism of shaking as a prenatal stressor impacting the development of the offspring and Chinese medicines correcting the alterations. Pregnant rats were randomized into earthquake simulation group (ESG), herbal group (HG) which received herbal supplements in feed after shaking, and control group (CG). Findings revealed body weight and open field test (OFT) score of ESG offspring were statistically inferior to the CG and HG offspring. The corticosterone levels of ESG were higher than those of CG but not than HG. The dopamine level of ESG was slightly lower than that of the CG and of HG was higher than that of ESG. The 5-HT of ESG was higher than CG and HG. The growth hormone level of the ESG was significantly lower than ESG but not than CG. Gene expression profile showed 81 genes upregulated and 39 genes downregulated in ESG versus CG, and 60 genes upregulated and 28 genes downregulated in ESG versus HG. Eighty-four genes were found differentially expressed in ESG versus CG comparison and were normalized in ESG versus HG. We conclude that maternal shaking negatively affected physical and nervous system development, with specific alterations in neurohormones and gene expression. Chinese herbal medicine reduced these negative outcomes. PMID:23304210

Zhang, X G; Zhang, H; Tan, R; Peng, J C; Liang, X L; Liu, Q; Wang, M Q; Yu, X P

2012-11-26

193

Brief maternal exposure of rats to the xenobiotics dibutyl phthalate or diethylstilbestrol alters adult-type Leydig cell development in male offspring  

PubMed Central

Maternal exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics or phthalates has been implicated in the distortion of early male reproductive development, referred to in humans as the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. It is not known, however, whether such early gestational and/or lactational exposure can influence the later adult-type Leydig cell phenotype. In this study, Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP; from gestational day (GD) 14.5 to postnatal day (PND) 6) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; from GD14.5 to GD16.5) during a short gestational/lactational window, and male offspring subsequently analysed for various postnatal testicular parameters. All offspring remained in good health throughout the study. Maternal xenobiotic treatment appeared to modify specific Leydig cell gene expression in male offspring, particularly during the dynamic phase of mid-puberty, with serum INSL3 concentrations showing that these compounds led to a faster attainment of peak values, and a modest acceleration of the pubertal trajectory. Part of this effect appeared to be due to a treatment-specific impact on Leydig cell proliferation during puberty for both xenobiotics. Taken together, these results support the notion that maternal exposure to certain xenobiotics can also influence the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population, possibly through an effect on the Leydig stem cell population.

Ivell, Richard; Heng, Kee; Nicholson, Helen; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

2013-01-01

194

Environmental Stimulation, Parental Nurturance and Cognitive Development in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance on brain development have been studied extensively in animals. Much less is known about the relations between childhood experience and cognitive development in humans. Using a longitudinally collected data set with ecologically valid in-home measures of childhood experience and…

Farah, Martha J.; Betancourt, Laura; Shera, David M.; Savage, Jessica H.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Malmud, Elsa K.; Hurt, Hallam

2008-01-01

195

Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the “Mozart Effect” studies to participation in piano lessons or other music training over time. This literature review suggest that, just as a

Rebecca Ann Shore

2010-01-01

196

Teaching Career Development from a Cognitive Developmental Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes the cognitive developmental paradigm for developing and teaching career development courses in secondary schools. Proposes the major Piagetian constructs of interaction, equilibration, assimilation, and accommodation as a means of intervening in both the structure and function of the career thinking of adolescents. (Author)

Young, Richard A.

1981-01-01

197

Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the "Mozart Effect" studies to participation in piano lessons…

Shore, Rebecca Ann

2010-01-01

198

Cognitive conceptions of language and the development of autobiographical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early development of autobiographical memory is a useful case study both for exam- ining general relations between language and memory, and for investigating the promise and the difficulty of interdisciplinar y research in the cognitive sciences of memory. An otherwise promising social-interacti onist view of autobiographical memory development relies in part on an overly linguistic conception of mental representation.

199

Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

2008-01-01

200

Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the "Mozart Effect" studies to participation in piano lessons…

Shore, Rebecca Ann

2010-01-01

201

Cognitive development, epistemic doubt, and identity formation in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to evaluate the part that nascent skeptical doubt plays in shaping the course of adolescent social-cognitive development. It is argued that the intellectual changes that accompany the acquisition of formal operational competence set in motion a series of developments that seriously undermine the typical adolescent's previous sense of epistemic certainty. An epistemic model is proposed, leading

Michael C. Boyes; Michael Chandler

1992-01-01

202

Cognitive Processes and Theory Development: A Reply to Spencer and Karmiloff-Smith.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on the role of enculturation in children's cognitive development by distinguishing between, and elaborating upon, three factors: (1) cultural context; (2) cognitive contents; and (3) cognitive processes. Suggests problems inherent in positing homologies between children's cognitive development and the historical development of scientific…

Gellatly, Angus

1997-01-01

203

In-utero exposure to DDT and cognitive development among infants and school-aged children  

PubMed Central

Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for control of infectious diseases in several countries. In-utero exposure to DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been associated with developmental and cognitive impairment among children. We examined this association in an historical cohort in which the level of exposure was greater than in previous studies. Methods The association of in-utero DDT and DDE exposure with infant and child neurodevelopment was examined in approximately 1100 subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective birth cohort enrolling pregnant women from 12 study centers in the U.S. from 1959 to 1965. Maternal DDT and DDE concentrations were measured in archived serum specimens. Infant mental and motor development was assessed at age 8 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and child cognitive development was assessed at age 7 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Results Although levels of both DDT and DDE were relatively high in this population (median DDT concentration, 8.9 µg/L; DDE, 24.5 µg/L), neither was related to Mental or Psychomotor Development scores on the Bayley Scales or to Full-Scale IQ at 7 years of age. Categorical analyses showed no evidence of dose-response for either maternal DDT or DDE, and estimates of the association between continuous measures of exposure and neurodevelopment were indistinguishable from 0. Conclusions Adverse associations were not observed between maternal serum DDT and DDE concentrations and offspring neurodevelopment at 8 months or 7 years of age in this cohort.

Jusko, Todd A.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2012-01-01

204

Does breastfeeding at six months predict cognitive development?  

PubMed

There is controversy over whether the method of feeding in infancy affects intellectual development. We investigated the relationship between breastfeeding status at 6 months of age and long-term cognitive development in a cohort of 375 children born in Port Pirie, South Australia, between 1979 and 1982. Cognitive assessments were conducted at ages 2, 4, 7 and 11 to 13 years. After adjustment for sociodemographic, environmental and biomedical factors, a small, statistically non-significant, beneficial effect of breastfeeding on cognitive functioning was observed. Compared with the bottle-fed children, the breast-fed children had a 3.4 (95% CI -0.1 to 6.9), 1.3 (-2.3 to 4.9), 1.2 (-2.0 to 4.4) and 0.8 (-1.9 to 3.5) point advantage on the Bayley Mental Developmental Index at age 2 years, the McCarthy General Cognitive Index at age 4 years and the Wechsler Full-Scale IQ at ages 7 and 11 to 13 years, respectively. Our data suggest that any beneficial effect of breastfeeding on cognitive development is quite small in magnitude. PMID:9744183

Wigg, N R; Tong, S; McMichael, A J; Baghurst, P A; Vimpani, G; Roberts, R

1998-04-01

205

Long term cognitive development in children with prolonged crying  

PubMed Central

Background: Long term studies of cognitive development and colic have not differentiated between typical colic and prolonged crying. Objective: To evaluate whether colic and excessive crying that persists beyond 3 months is associated with adverse cognitive development. Design: Prospective cohort study. A sample of 561 women was enrolled in the second trimester of pregnancy. Colic and prolonged crying were based on crying behaviour assessed at 6 and 13 weeks. Children's intelligence, motor abilities, and behaviour were measured at 5 years (n = 327). Known risk factors for cognitive impairment were ascertained prenatally, after birth, at 6 and 13 weeks, at 6, 9, and 13 months, and at 5 years of age. Results: Children with prolonged crying (but not those with colic only) had an adjusted mean IQ that was 9 points lower than the control group. Their performance and verbal IQ scores were 9.2 and 6.7 points lower than the control group, respectively. The prolonged crying group also had significantly poorer fine motor abilities compared with the control group. Colic had no effect on cognitive development. Conclusions: Excessive, uncontrolled crying that persists beyond 3 months of age in infants without other signs of neurological damage may be a marker for cognitive deficits during childhood. Such infants need to be examined and followed up more intensively.

Rao, M; Brenner, R; Schisterman, E; Vik, T; Mills, J

2004-01-01

206

Cognitive Development at the Middle-Division Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the primary goals, as students transition from the lower-division to upper-division courses is to facilitate the cognitive development needed for work as a physicist. The Paradigms in Physics curriculum (junior-level courses developed at Oregon State University) addresses this goal by coaching students to coordinate different modes of reasoning, highlighting common techniques and concepts across physics topics, and setting course expectations to be more aligned with the professional culture of physicists. This poster will highlight some of the specific ways in which we address these cognitive changes in the context of classical mechanics and E&M.

Manogue, Corinne A.; Gire, Elizabeth

2010-03-11

207

Developing Cognitive Models for Social Simulation from Survey Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The representation of human behavior and cognition continues to challenge the modeling and simulation community. The use of survey and polling instruments to inform belief states, issue stances and action choice models provides a compelling means of developing models and simulations with empirical data. Using these types of data to population social simulations can greatly enhance the feasibility of validation efforts, the reusability of social and behavioral modeling frameworks, and the testable reliability of simulations. We provide a case study demonstrating these effects, document the use of survey data to develop cognitive models, and suggest future paths forward for social and behavioral modeling.

Alt, Jonathan K.; Lieberman, Stephen

208

Contributions of Neuroscience to Our Understanding of Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

One major contribution of neuroscience to understanding cognitive development has been in demonstrating that biology is not destiny—that is, demonstrating the remarkable role of experience in shaping the mind, brain, and body. Only rarely has neuroscience provided wholly new insights into cognitive development, but often it has provided evidence of mechanisms by which observations of developmental psychologists could be explained. Behavioral findings have often remained controversial until an underlying biological mechanism for them was offered. Neuroscience has demonstrated promise for detecting cognitive problems before they are behaviorally observable—and, hence, promise for early intervention. In this article, we discuss examples drawn from imitation and mirror neurons, phenylketonuria (PKU) and prefrontal dopamine, maternal touch and stress reactivity, and non-genetic (behavioral) intergenerational transmission of biological characteristics.

Diamond, Adele; Amso, Dima

2008-01-01

209

Stagewise cognitive development: an application of catastrophe theory.  

PubMed

In this article an overview is given of traditional methodological approaches to stagewise cognitive developmental research. These approaches are evaluated and integrated on the basis of catastrophe theory. In particular, catastrophe theory specifies a set of common criteria for testing the discontinuity hypothesis proposed by Piaget. Separate criteria correspond to distinct methods used in cognitive developmental research. Such criteria are, for instance, the detection of spurts in development, bimodality of test scores, and increased variability of responses during transitional periods. When a genuine stage transition is present, these criteria are expected to be satisfied. A revised catastrophe model accommodating these criteria is proposed for the stage transition in cognitive development from the preoperational to the concrete operational stage. PMID:1502272

van der Maas, H L; Molenaar, P C

1992-07-01

210

Parallel distributed processing: Implications for cognition and development. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief overview of the connectionist or parallel distributed processing framework for modeling cognitive processes, and considers the application of the connectionist framework to problems of cognitive development. Several aspects of cognitive development might result from the process of learning as it occurs in multi-layer networks. This learning process has the characteristic that it reduces the discrepancy between expected and observed events. As it does this, representations develop on hidden units which dramatically change both the way in which the network represents the environment from which it learns and the expectations that the network generates about environmental events. The learning process exhibits relatively abrupt transitions corresponding to stage shifts in cognitive development. These points are illustrated using a network that learns to anticipate which side of a balance beam will go down, based on the number of weights on each side of the fulcrum and their distance from the fulcrum on each side of the beam. The network is trained in an environment in which weight more frequently governs which side will go down. It recapitulates the states of development seen in children, as well as the stage transitions, as it learns to represent weight and distance information.

McClelland, J.L.

1988-07-11

211

Embryonic exposure to dimethoate and/or deltamethrin impairs sexual development and programs reproductive success in adult male offspring mice.  

PubMed

Pesticides can be toxic to desirable plants and animals, including humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive effects of low doses of pesticides on male offspring of exposed pregnant mice. Three groups of five female mice were treated daily by oral gavage with dimethoate (5 mg kg(-1) per day), deltamethrin (5 mg kg(-1) per day) and their mixture at 5 mg kg(-1) per day from day 3 to day 21 of pregnancy. Fertility, sexual behaviour and a number of reproductive endpoints, such as organ weights, sperm evaluations and testicular histology, were examined on four adult male offspring of exposed pregnant mice. When compared with control, a dose of deltamethrin 5 mg kg j(-1) causes a decrease in the absolute and relative weight of the testes of exposed mice and it affects their fertility by reducing the density, mobility and vitality of sperm and increasing the number of abnormal forms of these cells (P ? 0.01). The same results were obtained in mice exposed to a dose of 5 mg kg j(-1) combination of dimethoate and deltamethrin. This study demonstrated that deltamethrin and combination of dimethoate and deltamethrin caused a decrease in the absolute and relative weight of the testes, which affected the sperm parameters of male offspring of exposed mice to a low dose of these pesticides during pregnancy. PMID:22077240

Ben Slima, A; Ben Abdallah, F; Keskes-Ammar, L; Mallek, Z; El Feki, A; Gdoura, R

2011-11-11

212

Cognitive development, philosophy and children's literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The child is bom with rudimentary thinking ability and develops this throughout life. However, not all thinking is good thinking, and educators should be aiming to encourage the best thinking possible. I consider the key educational factors in assisting the development of good thinking, based on theories of the social construction of thinking through dialogue. After considering the prevalent approach

Tim Sprod

1995-01-01

213

Regulatory brain development: Balancing emotion and cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion regulation is a critical aspect of children's social development, yet few studies have examined the brain mechanisms involved in its development. Theoretical accounts have conceptualized emotion regulation as relying on prefrontal control of limbic regions, specifying the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a key brain region. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in 5- to 11-year-olds during emotion regulation and processing

Susan B. Perlman; Kevin A. Pelphrey

2010-01-01

214

Using EEG to Study Cognitive Development: Issues and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developmental research is enhanced by use of multiple methodologies for examining psychological processes. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for the study of developmental changes in brain-behavior relations. In this review, we highlight some of the challenges for using EEG in cognitive development

Bell, Martha Ann; Cuevas, Kimberly

2012-01-01

215

Effects of Science Instructional Method Upon Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effects of certain types of science experiences ("hands-on" versus "non-hands-on") on the development of selected cognitive abilities as inferred by performance on Piagetian-type tasks. Thirty-six students from first, third, and fifth grades were randomly chosen as subjects. Eighteen of the students from each grade…

Cohen, Herbert G.

216

The Development of Cognitive Structures about Alcoholic Beverages among Preschoolers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When in childhood concepts about alcohol and drinking begin to develop has just begun to be investigated. A study was conducted to examine cognitive, maturational, and differential exposure influences on the acquisition of concepts about alcoholic beverages in preschool children. Knowledge about alcoholic beverages and drinking was assessed in 65…

Greenberg, Gregory S.; And Others

217

Cognitive-Linguistic Foundations of Early Spelling Development in Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing spelling skills in English is a particularly demanding task for Chinese speakers because, unlike many other bilinguals learning English as a second language, they must learn two languages with different orthography as well as phonology. To disentangle socioeconomic and pedagogical factors from the underlying cognitive-linguistic…

Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

2011-01-01

218

Trajectories of Cognitive Development among American Indian Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than do those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage, and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants…

Mitchell, Christina M.; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N.

2011-01-01

219

Developing and Testing a Sorting Measure of Interpersonal Cognitive Complexity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study compared the newly developed Interpersonal Complexity Sort (ICS) with the widely used measure of cognitive differentiation, the Role Category Questionnaire (RCQ). Both measures were tested for relationships between the two measures and between each measure and previous associated impression structure dependent measures. Using a trait…

Williams, Sheryl L.

220

Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender-role development and functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and selfregulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked conduct

Milad Khajehpour; Sayid Dabbagh Ghazvini; Elham Memari; Mohammad Rahmani

2011-01-01

221

Using EEG to Study Cognitive Development: Issues and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental research is enhanced by use of multiple methodologies for examining psychological processes. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for the study of developmental changes in brain-behavior relations. In this review, we highlight some of the challenges for using EEG in cognitive development

Bell, Martha Ann; Cuevas, Kimberly

2012-01-01

222

Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

2009-01-01

223

Sustainable “what”? A cognitive approach to understanding sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the meaning of sustainable development held by New Zealand “thought leaders” and “influencers” promoting sustainability, business, or sustainable business. It seeks to compare inductively derived worldviews with theories associated with sustainability and the humanity-nature relationship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Worldviews were explored through a cognitive mapping exercise. A total of 21 thought

Christine Byrch; Kate Kearins; Markus Milne; Richard Morgan

2007-01-01

224

Processes of Moral Development: Cognitive or Social Disequilibrium?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the processes of development in Kohlberg's (1981) moral systems and in Haan's (1983) interactional formulation, by comparing the effects of two curricular experiences for university students. The experiences were: discussion of hypothetical dilemmas which was designed to promote cognitive disequilibrium, and playing moral games, which was…

Haan, Norma

1985-01-01

225

Developing a scale to assess cognitive responses to frightening films  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was based on the premise that cognitive processes play a role in an individual's fear response to scary movies. One implication of this assumption is that past experiences stored in long?term memory may be an important component of the fear response. The present research was undertaken to develop a reliable and valid measure of the nature of these

Glenn G. Sparks

1986-01-01

226

Learning Cognitive Load Models for Developing Team Shared Mental Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive studies indicate that members of a high per- forming team often develop shared mental models to pre- dict others' needs and coordinate their behaviors. The concept of shared mental models is especially useful in the study of human-centered collaborative systems that require humans to team with autonomous agents in com- plex activities. We take the position that in a

Xiaocong Fan

227

Social Cognitive Theory of Gender Development and Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender role development and functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked

Kay Bussey; Albert Bandura

1999-01-01

228

Intelligence and abstraction réfléchissante in Piaget's theory of cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses J. MacNamara's (1976) claim that Piaget's theory of cognitive development is circular, intelligence being introduced in the guise of abstraction réfléchissante to explain its own formation. In addition, the role of abstraction réfléchissante and the meaning and bases of intelligence are examined. (French abstract)

Henry Markovits

1978-01-01

229

Topics in Cognitive Development: Language and Operational Thought. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the second volume in a series that records the official Symposium Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Society and examines the theoretical, empirical, and applied aspects of Jean Piaget's seminal epistemology. The 12 papers are divided into four areas: language development, formal reasoning, social cognition, and applied research. The topics…

Presseisen, Barbara Z.; And Others

230

A Comprehension and Cognitive Development Approach to School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the Comprehension and Cognitive Development (CCD) approach of the National Urban Alliance for Effective Education to instructional planning and delivery improvement. CCD is a cross-disciplinary approach that recognizes that mathematics, science, and language arts demand comprehension of textual material and identification and transfer…

Cooper, Eric J.; Levine, Daniel U.

1993-01-01

231

Mapping brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive mapping of brain structure and function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has opened up unprecedented opportunities for studying the neural substrates underlying cognitive development. There is an emerging consensus of a continuous increase through- out adolescence in the volume of white matter, both global and local. There is less agreement on the meaning of asynchronous age-related decreases in the

Tomas ÿ Paus

2005-01-01

232

How To Develop Cognitive Flexibility in a WWW Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive flexibility is indispensable for applying knowledge to new situations. The development of this ability depends on certain conditions such as the attainment of a deep comprehension of the subject matter and the exposure to different knowledge representations. This paper focuses on these conditions and describes a study designed to foster…

Carvalho, Ana Amelia Amorim

233

Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive

Barrouillet, Pierre

2011-01-01

234

Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Moral Development in Undergraduate Business Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and cognitive moral development (CMD) in undergraduate business students. The ability model of emotional intelligence was used in this study, which evaluated possible relationships between EI and CMD in a sample of 82 undergraduate business students. The sample population was…

McBride, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

235

Topics in Cognitive Development: Language and Operational Thought. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second volume in a series that records the official Symposium Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Society and examines the theoretical, empirical, and applied aspects of Jean Piaget's seminal epistemology. The 12 papers are divided into four areas: language development, formal reasoning, social cognition, and applied research. The topics of…

Presseisen, Barbara Z.; And Others

236

Studies of offspring of parents with bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children and adolescents who are the biological offspring of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) (bipolar offspring) represent a population rich in potential for revealing important aspects in the development of BD. Multiple cross-sectional assessments of psychopathology in bipolar offspring have confirmed high incidences of BD, as well as mood and behavioral disorders, and other psychopathology in this population. Longitudinal studies

Kiki Chang; Hans Steiner; Terence Ketter

2003-01-01

237

Cognitive development after traumatic brain injury in young children.  

PubMed

The primary aims of this study were to examine post-injury cognitive development in young children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to investigate the role of the proximal family environment in predicting cognitive outcomes. Age at injury was 3-6 years, and TBI was classified as severe (n = 23), moderate (n = 21), and complicated mild (n = 43). A comparison group of children who sustained orthopedic injuries (OI, n = 117) was also recruited. Child cognitive assessments were administered at a post-acute baseline evaluation and repeated at 6, 12, and 18 months post-injury. Assessment of the family environment consisted of baseline measures of learning support and stimulation in the home and of parenting characteristics observed during videotaped parent-child interactions. Relative to the OI group, children with severe TBI group had generalized cognitive deficiencies and those with less severe TBI had weaknesses in visual memory and executive function. Although deficits persisted or emerged across follow-up, more optimal family environments were associated with higher scores for all injury groups. The findings confirm other reports of poor recovery of cognitive skills following early childhood TBI and suggest environmental influences on outcomes. PMID:19849883

Gerrard-Morris, Aimee; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Minich, Nori; Wade, Shari L

2009-10-22

238

Convergent validity of group tests of cognitive development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to investigate the convergent validity of individual clinical task interviews as presented by Piaget and Inhelder paired with three widely used group tests of cognitive development. These tests are designed to assess the acquisition of cognitive abilities. The three group test raw scores paired with summed raw scores on four concrete-formal task interviews yielded the following Pearson product-moment correlations: Reasoning Test (Ankney and Joyce), 0.43; Logical Reasoning Test (Burney), 0.61; Classroom Test of Formal Operations (Lawson), 0.37. The raw data was then ranked into cognitive level groups and presented on contingency tables. The following contingency coefficients were determined: Logical Reasoning Test, 0.52; Logical Reasoning Test (adjusted), 0.61; Classroom Test of Formal Operations, 0.50. This study reflects that the Reasoning Test tends to indicate lower cognitive levels of subjects when paired with summed scores on the clinical task interviews, whereas the Logical Reasoning Test and the Classroom Test of Formal Operations tend to indicate higher cognitive levels of subjects when paired with summed scores on the clinical task interviews. In each case the correlations do not appear to be sufficiently strong to warrant selection or categorization of an individual student based on his/her test performance.

Stefanich, Greg P.; Unruh, Roy D.; Perry, Bruce; Phillips, Gary

239

The Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale: development and psychometric characteristics.  

PubMed

In this study, an Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale was developed to assess cognitive distortions in individuals' interpersonal relationships. The sample comprised 425 university students. A factor analysis yielded three factors: Interpersonal Rejection, Unrealistic Relationship Expectation and Interpersonal Misperception. To examine construct validity the correlations between the scores on the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Scale (.54), the Irrational Belief Scale (.54), and the Conflict Tendency Scale (.53) were estimated. The first factor, the second factor, and the total scale discriminated married individuals who had low and high conflict intensity and conflict frequency. The reliability of the scale was estimated by performing a test-retest correlation (.74). Cronbach internal consistency coefficient alpha was .67. PMID:15460384

Hamamci, Zeynep; Büyüköztürk, Sener

2004-08-01

240

A Milk-Based Wolfberry Preparation Prevents Prenatal Stress-Induced Cognitive Impairment of Offspring Rats, and Inhibits Oxidative Damage and Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycium barbarum (Fructus Lycii, Wolfberry, or Gouqi) belongs to the Solanaceae. The red-colored fruits of L. barbarum have been used for a long time as an ingredient in Chinese cuisine and brewing, and also in traditional Chinese herbal medicine\\u000a for improving health. However, its effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. In the present study, prevention\\u000a of a

Zhihui FengHaiqun; Haiqun Jia; Xuesen Li; Zhuanli Bai; Zhongbo Liu; Lijuan Sun; Zhongliang Zhu; Peter Bucheli; Olivier Ballèvre; Junkuan Wang; Jiankang Liu

2010-01-01

241

Operant Learning, Cognitive Development, and Job Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between learning and development in the most general terms, discusses the developmental distinction between concrete and formal operational thought as manifested in adult behavior, and considers the implications of the concrete-formal dichotomy for the design and use of job aids. Notes and a bibliography are provided.…

Harmon, N. Paul; King, David R.

1979-01-01

242

Can Emphasising Cognitive Development Improve Academic Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Children ordinarily begin their formal education at the age when the great majority of them are capable of understanding the role of addition and subtraction in changing number. In determining critical differences they can apply the oddity principle--the first "pure" abstraction that children ever develop--understanding that when all…

Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K.; Gadzichowski, Marinka K.; Gallington, Deborah A.; Saracina, Robin P.

2008-01-01

243

Stability and Change of Cognitive Attributes in Children with Uneven/Delayed Cognitive Development from Preschool through Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of an ongoing clinical service program for children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analyzed the cognitive attributes of 362 Taiwanese children (average age 48.5 plus or minus 12.9 month-old) with uneven/delayed cognitive development as they were assessed repeatedly with average duration of 39.7 plus or…

Yang, Pinchen; Lung, For-Wey; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

2010-01-01

244

Development of intergeneric and intrageneric somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cat embryos and the determination of telomere length in cloned offspring.  

PubMed

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) holds potential as a useful tool for agricultural and biomedical applications. In vitro development of marbled cat intergeneric SCNT reconstructed into domestic cat cytoplast revealed that cloned, marbled cat embryo development was blocked at the morula stage. No pregnancies resulted from the transfer of one- to eight-cell stage embryos into domestic cat surrogate mothers. This suggested that abnormalities occurred in the cloned marbled cat embryos, which may be associated with incomplete reprogramming during early embryo development. Two pregnancies were established in surrogate mothers that received cloned domestic cat embryos, but SCNT offspring developed abnormally. Some specific phenotypes that were observed included incomplete abdominal wall disclosure, improper fetal development. In addition, some of the fetuses were mummified or stillbirths. The two live births died within 5 days. Telomere lengths of cloned kittens as determined by qualtitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were inconclusive: some were found to be shorter, longer, or the same as donor control cells. Our findings support the hypothesis that telomere lengths do not govern the health of these cloned animals. A lack of complete reprogramming may lead to developmental failure and the abnormalities observed in cloned offspring. PMID:22217197

Imsoonthornruksa, Sumeth; Sangmalee, Anawat; Srirattana, Kanokwan; Parnpai, Rangsun; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena

2012-01-04

245

Prenatal stress and cognitive development and temperament in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in rodents and nonhuman primates indicate that maternal stress during pregnancy can influence the developing fetus, resulting in delay of motor and cognitive development and impaired adaptation to stressful situations. These effects may be mediated by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. We examined whether stress during pregnancy predicted developmental outcome of human infants in a prospective design. Self-report data about

Jan K. Buitelaar; Anja C. Huizink; Edu J. Mulder; Pascalle G. Robles de Medina; Gerard H. A. Visser

2003-01-01

246

Imaging the developing brain: what have we learned about cognitive development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human brain undergoes significant changes in both its structural architecture and functional organization across the life span. Advances in neuroimaging tech- niques over the past decade have allowed us to track these changes safely in the human in vivo. We review the imaging literature on the neurobiology of cognitive development, focusing specifically on cognitive task- dependent changes observed in

B. J. Casey; Nim Tottenham; Conor Liston; Sarah Durston

2005-01-01

247

Maternal age affects offspring lifespan of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Offspring from older parents often have shorter adult lifespans than offspring of younger mothers. We examine the effects of offspring genotype, maternal age and paternal age on offspring survival, development and adult lifespan in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus . 2. Females took about a quarter of a day longer to develop from an egg to an adult

C. W. Fox; M. L. Bush; W. G. Wallin

2003-01-01

248

Maternal obesity induced by a high fat diet causes altered cellular development in fetal brains suggestive of a predisposition of offspring to neurological disorders in later life.  

PubMed

Fetal development in an obese maternal intrauterine environment has been shown to predispose the offspring for a number of metabolic disorders in later life. The observation that a large percentage of women of child-bearing age in the US are overweight/obese during pregnancy is therefore a source of concern. A high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in female rats has been used as a model for maternal obesity. The objective of this study was to determine cellular development in brains of term fetuses of obese rats fed a HF diet from the time of weaning. Fetal brains were dissected out on gestational day 21 and processed for immunohistochemical analysis in the hypothalamic as well as extra-hypothalamic regions. The major observation of this study is that fetal development in the obese HF female rat induced several alterations in the HF fetal brain. Marked increases were observed in orexigenic signaling and a significant decrease was observed for anorexigenic signaling in the vicinity of the 3rd ventricle in HF brains. Additionally, our results indicated diminished migration and maturation of stem-like cells in the 3rd ventricular region as well as in the brain cortex. The results from the present study indicate developmental alterations in the hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic regions in the HF fetal brain suggestive of a predisposition for the development of obesity and possibly neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the offspring. PMID:24043569

Stachowiak, Ewa K; Srinivasan, Malathi; Stachowiak, Michal K; Patel, Mulchand S

2013-09-17

249

Taxonomy Development and Knowledge Representation of Nurses' Personal Cognitive Artifacts  

PubMed Central

Nurses prepare knowledge representations, or summaries of patient clinical data, each shift. These knowledge representations serve multiple purposes, including support of working memory, workload organization and prioritization, critical thinking, and reflection. This summary is integral to internal knowledge representations, working memory, and decision-making. Study of this nurse knowledge representation resulted in development of a taxonomy of knowledge representations necessary to nursing practice. This paper describes the methods used to elicit the knowledge representations and structures necessary for the work of clinical nurses, described the development of a taxonomy of this knowledge representation, and discusses translation of this methodology to the cognitive artifacts of other disciplines. Understanding the development and purpose of practitioner’s knowledge representations provides important direction to informaticists seeking to create information technology alternatives. The outcome of this paper is to suggest a process template for transition of cognitive artifacts to an information system.

McLane, Sharon; Turley, James P.

2009-01-01

250

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

251

Identifying Cognitive Mechanisms Targeted for Treatment Development in Schizophrenia: An Overview of the First Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) Initiative  

PubMed Central

This overview describes the generation and development of the ideas that led to the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative. It also describes the organization, process and products of the first meeting. The CNTRICS initiative involves a series of three conferences that will systematically address barriers to translating paradigms developed in the basic animal and human cognitive neuroscience fields for use in translational research aimed at developing novel treatments for cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The articles in this special section report on the results of the first conference, which used a criterion based consensus-building process to develop a set of cognitive constructs to be targeted for translation efforts.

Carter, Cameron S.; Barch, Deanna M.; Buchanan, Robert W.; Bullmore, Ed; Krystal, John H.; Cohen, Jonathan; Geyer, Mark; Green, Michael; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Robbins, Trevor; Silverstein, Steven; Smith, Edward E.; Strauss, Milton; Wykes, Til; Heinssen, Robert

2008-01-01

252

Comparing decalage and development with cognitive developmental tests.  

PubMed

The use of Rasch measurement techniques with data from developmental psychology has provided important insights into human development (e.g., Bond, 1997, 2003; Dawson, 2002 a, b;). In particular, Rasch methods support investigations into what has been, up until now, intractable theoretical and empirical problems. Research into the development of formal operational thinking using the Rasch model (Bond 1995 a, b; Bond and Bunting, 1995; Bond and Fox, 2001) substantiates important aspects of the original theorizing of Piaget (Inhelder and Piaget, 1955/1958), which was based wholly on qualitative structural analyses of children's problem-solving responses. Common-person equating of student performances has been used across different formal operational thinking tasks to estimate the relative difficulties of tasks measuring the same underlying developmental construct (Bond, 1995b; Bond and Fox, 2001). Repeated person performance measures on the same task have been used in order to estimate cognitive development over time. Rasch measurement estimates of cognitive development do not exceed 0.5 logits per annum (Bond, 1996; Endler, 1998; Stanbridge, 2001); a result that has been estimated independently in two large research projects in the United Kingdom (Shayer, 1999) and in Papua-New Guinea (Lake, 1996). Interestingly, difficulty differences (decalage) between tests of formal thought are as large as 2.0 logits (Bond, 1995a; Bond, 1996; Bond and Fox, 2001), confounding attempts to differentiate development from decalage. Given the problems and possibilities raised by the Rasch measurement quantification of cognitive development, this article canvasses the promise of using Rasch modelling techniques to investigate systematically these fundamental aspects of human cognitive performance. PMID:20693700

Bond, Trevor

2010-01-01

253

Maternal dental history, child's birth outcome and early cognitive development.  

PubMed

Prenatal exposure to high levels of mercury, radiation and inflammation have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes such as increases in preterm delivery, low birthweight and delayed neurodevelopment. Few data are available to evaluate the potential effects of prenatal low-level exposure to these factors as may occur during dental care. We evaluated maternal dental history prior to and during pregnancy in relation to birth outcomes and early communicative development among offspring in a large cohort (n = 7375) of British children born in 1991-92. Dental history was assessed by questionnaire. The child's communicative development was assessed using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory at 15 months of age. Total mercury was measured in umbilical cord tissue for a subset of the children. Overall, dental care, including amalgam fillings, was not associated with birth outcomes or language development. Having X-rays taken during pregnancy was not associated with birthweight measured continuously (b = 14.7, P = 0.4), but was associated with slightly increased odds of having a term, low-birthweight baby (OR 1.9, [95% confidence interval 1.0, 3.4]). More detailed evaluation of the potential adverse effects of elective dental treatment during pregnancy, particularly dental X-rays, may be warranted. PMID:17697075

Daniels, Julie L; Rowland, Andrew S; Longnecker, Matthew P; Crawford, Peter; Golding, Jean

2007-09-01

254

Do Cognitive Attributions for Smoking Predict Subsequent Smoking Development?  

PubMed Central

To develop more effective anti-smoking programs, it is important to understand the factors that influence people to smoke. Guided by attribution theory, a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate how individuals’ cognitive attributions for smoking were associated with subsequent smoking development and through which pathways. Middle and high school students in seven large cities in China (N=12,382; 48.5% boys and 51.5% girls) completed two annual surveys. Associations between cognitive attributions for smoking and subsequent smoking initiation and progression were tested with multilevel analysis, taking into account plausible moderation effects of gender and baseline smoking status. Mediation effects of susceptibility to smoking were investigated using statistical mediation analysis (MacKinnon, 2008). Six out of eight tested themes of cognitive attributions were associated with subsequent smoking development. Curiosity (?=0.11, p<0.001) and autonomy (?=0.08, p=0.019) were associated with smoking initiation among baseline non-smokers. Coping (?=0.07, p<0.001) and social image (?=0.10, p=<.0001) were associated with smoking progression among baseline lifetime smokers. Social image (?=0.05, p=0.043), engagement (?=0.07, p=0.003), and mental enhancement (?=0.15, p<0.001) were associated with smoking progression among baseline past 30-day smokers. More attributions were associated with smoking development among males than among females. Susceptibility to smoking partially mediated most of the associations, with the proportion of mediated effects ranging from 4.3% to 30.8%. This study identifies the roles that cognitive attributions for smoking play in subsequent smoking development. These attributions could be addressed in smoking prevention programs.

Guo, Qian; Unger, Jennifer B.; Azen, Stanley P.; MacKinnon, David P.; Johnson, C. Anderson

2011-01-01

255

Breast-Feeding Influences Cognitive Development in Filipino Children1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of breast-feeding (BF) for cognitive development has been researched widely over the past several decades. Although scholars agree that children who breast-feed are generally more intelligent, it is uncertain whether this advantage is due to BF effects or to other accompanying healthy characteristics of women who breast-feed. This is a problem in nearly every study, and even in

Melissa C. Daniels; Linda S. Adair

256

Prevention of Intellectual Disabilities: Early Interventions to Improve Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conceptual framework that has guided three randomized, controlled early intervention trials designed to improve cognitive development and social competence in high-risk young children from birth to 3 years of age. Two of the projects (Abecedarian and CARE) enrolled infants from economically and socially low-resource families and the other project (IHDP) was an eight-site randomized controlled trial

Craig T. Ramey; Sharon Landesman Ramey

1998-01-01

257

Cognitive development and theories of mind: towards a contextual approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests both theoretical and empirical reasons for proposing a joint approach to two fast-evolving research areas\\u000a in developmental psychology: contextual perspective on cognition and learning and studies on children’s theories of mind.\\u000a We will first review the general assumptions of contextualism and three main contextual approaches; then the more relevant\\u000a perspectives on theories of mind development will be

Olga Liverta-Sernpio; Antonella Marchetti

1997-01-01

258

Reading Instruction Affects the Cognitive Skills Supporting Early Reading Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the cognitive skills associated with early reading development when children were taught by different types of instruction. Seventy-nine children (mean age at pre-test 4;10 (0.22 S.D.) and post-test 5;03 (0.21 S.D.)) were taught to read either by an eclectic approach which included sight-word learning, guessing from context and…

McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Medford, Emma

2012-01-01

259

The Influence of Parenting Styles on Children's Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Based on a larger longitudinal project of family stress and children’s development, the primary objective of the current study was to investigate the relationships between parenting styles and children’s cognitive ability in families with young elementary school-aged children. Parents completed a self-administered survey on family experiences, including parenting styles. Children were interviewed at their schools where the Brief Intellectual

Amy E. Tiller; M. E. Betsy Garrison; Kathryn Cramer; Vicky Tiller

260

Piaget, Marx, and Buck-Morss on Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piaget’s and Marx’s cognitive theories of development are briefly compared and contrasted. This provides the necessary background and context for a critical look at Buck-Morss’ Marxian interpretation of cross-cultural differences in performance on Piagetian abstract formal reasoning tests. It is concluded that Buck-Morss’ view does not have contemporary truth value in light of certain non-real contractions which are inherent in

Allan R. Buss

1977-01-01

261

The Effect of Early Music Training on Child Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between participation in a structured music curriculum and cognitive development was studied with 71 4- through 6-year olds. Children were pre- and posttested with six subtests of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, fourth edition (SB) and the Young Child Music Skills Assessment (MSA). Approximately one half of the sample participated in a 30-week, 75-minute weekly, parent-involved music curriculum. Statistical

Terry D Bilhartz; Rick A Bruhn; Judith E Olson

1999-01-01

262

Compulsory Ethics Education and the Cognitive Moral Development of Salespeople: A Quasi-Experimental Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated several basic research questions suggesting a positive relationship between education and cognitive moral development. More specifically, these research questions examined the relationship between government mandated ethics education and cognitive moral development by testing the efficacy of a compulsory ethics intervention. Kohlberg's (1969, 1984) Cognitive Moral Development Theory was applied to test the efficacy of compulsory ethics education

George Izzo

2000-01-01

263

An Exploration of the Dynamic Relationship between Health and Cognitive Development in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an empirical exploration of the dynamic relationship between health and cognitive development in a longitudinal data set compiled from two nationally representative cross-sections of children. Our results indicate that there is feedback both from health to cognitive development and from cognitive development to health, but the latter of these relationships is stronger. They also indicate that estimates

Robert A. Shakotko; Linda N. Edwards; Michael Grossman

1982-01-01

264

Implicit cognitive development in cultural tools and children: lessons from Maya Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinacantec Maya weaving tools and apprenticeship practices contain an implicit theory of cognitive development that corresponds to Piaget and Inhelder’s explicit theory of cognitive development [The Child’s Conception of Space, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1956]. A set of preoperational and concrete operational spatial problems from the weaving domain provided empirical support for the ethnotheory of cognitive development implicit in

Ashley E. Maynard; Patricia M. Greenfield

2003-01-01

265

Altered expression of Armet and Mrlp51 in the oocyte, preimplantation embryo, and brain of mice following oocyte in vitro maturation but postnatal brain development and cognitive function are normal.  

PubMed

Despite the efforts to recapitulate the follicle environment, oocytes from in vitro maturation (IVM) have poorer developmental potential than those matured in vivo and the effects on the resultant offspring are of concern. The aim of this study was to determine altered gene expression in oocytes following IVM and to evaluate the expression of the arginine rich, mutated in early stage of tumors gene (Armet) and mitochondrial ribosomal protein L51 (Mrpl51) in embryos and brains of fetal/postnatal mice and the brain development of IVM offspring. An IVM mouse model was established while oocytes matured in vivo were used as the controls. Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) and RT-PCR/western blot were used to analyze the differential expression of genes/proteins between IVM and the control group. HE staining and water maze were used to assess the histological changes in brain tissue and cognition of the offspring. The rates of fertilization, cleavage, and live birth were significantly decreased in IVM group. Thirteen genes were upregulated in IVM oocytes compared with the control, including Armet and Mrpl51. The higher level of Armet in IVM oocytes was retained in brain of newborn mice, which could be related to the upregulation of activating transcription factor 6 (Atf6) and X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1), while Mrpl51 was expressed normally in brain of postnatal mice. No significant differences were detected in brain weight, neuronal counts, and the cognition in the offspring between the two groups. The present results suggested that IVM could affect the pregnancy outcome and the Armet and Mrpl51 gene/protein expression. The change in Armet expression lasted while the change of Mrpl51 disappeared after birth. However, the brain development of the offspring seemed to be unaffected by IVM. PMID:21730110

Wang, Ning; Wang, Liya; Le, Fang; Zhan, Qitao; Zheng, Yingming; Ding, Guolian; Chen, Xijing; Sheng, Jianzhong; Dong, Minyue; Huang, Hefeng; Jin, Fan

2011-07-05

266

Measuring higher cognitive development in anatomy and physiology students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To estimate the higher cognitive development of college science students, performance on lecture exams at different cognitive levels was measured in a two-semester sequence of anatomy and physiology at Idaho State University. Lecture exams consisted of multiple-choice test items, each classified at various cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. These included the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels. The investigation comprised students who completed both semesters from the same instructor during the same academic year. Data was collected on two separate cohorts of students. One completed the sequence during 1998--1999 and the other during the 1999--2000 school year. Student performance was assessed on four exams each semester, for a total of eight exams each year of the study. Based on preliminary analysis of the 1998--1999 data, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was incorporated as an independent and discipline-neutral measure of higher-level thinking. The CCTST was administered during the beginning, middle, and end of the 1999--2000 school year. Two years of data analysis confirmed the cumulative hierarchical relationship of the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels of the taxonomy. Performance at successively higher cognitive levels was significantly and consistently lower than at preceding levels. Higher-level thinking was substantially more difficult for students than lower-level thinking. Students averaged 73% at the knowledge level and 53% at the application and analysis levels on lecture exams. No improvement in higher-level thinking was detected at either the application and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy or on the CCTST over two semesters. The ability to detect improvement was likely complicated by varying exam topics and a lack of student motivation on the CCTST. The results of this investigation highlight the need for higher cognitive development across the curriculum. The findings have implications for curricular decision-making and course management, and are relevant at an institutional and an individual course level. This study demonstrates how Bloom's Taxonomy can provide a framework for systematically and purposefully monitoring higher-level thinking in students. At the very least, Bloom's Taxonomy provides a mechanism for distinguishing among students who can and cannot perform at higher cognitive levels.

Dobson, Christopher

267

Toxic effects of irgarol and diuron on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus early development, fertilization, and offspring quality.  

PubMed

Irgarol and Diuron are the most representative "organic booster biocides" that replaced organotin compounds in antifouling paints. It cannot be assumed beforehand that their use will have no environmental impact: more ecotoxicological data and a significant environmental monitoring are required. Spermio and embryotoxicities of the biocides Irgarol and Diuron were investigated on Paracentrotus lividus, the dominant echinoid species of the Mediterranean Sea. Spermiotoxicity was studied by assessing the effects of sperm exposure on fertilization rate as well as on the induction of transmissible damages to the offspring. Embryotoxicity was studied by assessing the developmental defects in the exposed larvae. The experimental results show a Diuron EC50 of 2.39 (+/- 0.21) mg/L with a NOEL of 0.25 mg/L for embryos, and of 5.09 (+/- 0.45) mg/L with a NOEL of 0.5 mg/L for sperms, respectively. Data obtained from the embryotoxicity test on Irgarol [EC50 0.99 (+/- 0.69) mg/L] are of the same order of magnitude as the literature data about Japanese urchins. Spermiotoxicity tests show an Irgarol EC50 of 9.04 (+/- 0.45) mg/L with a NOEL of 0.1 mg/L. These data show the different sensitivities of the two tests: embryos are more sensitive than sperms for both the tested chemicals and Diuron seems to be the less toxic one. Moreover, as a major output of the experimental work, tested herbicides exert transmissible damage to spermatozoa evidenced by larval malformations in the offspring, mainly P1 type (skeletal alterations). The comparison of the endpoints results offers an interesting indication of a probable different mode of action (Irgarol seems to interact with calcium homeostasis) of the two biocides. PMID:16446998

Manzo, S; Buono, S; Cremisini, C

2006-01-30

268

Need for cognition as a predictor of psychosocial identity development.  

PubMed

The authors examined the hypothesis that psychosocial identity development is related to need for cognition (NFC), a social-cognitive individual-difference variable defined as the desire to engage in effortful thinking (J. T. Cacioppo, R. E. Petty, J. Feinstein, & W. Jarvis, 1996). They administered 2 measures of psychosocial identity-a scale from the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status 2 (EOMEIS-2; G. R. Adams, L. Bennion, & K. Huh, 1989) and the Identity subscale of the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI; D. A. Rosenthal, R. M. Gurney, & S. M. Moore, 1981)-and the NFC scale to 200 incoming college students and approximately half of those students about 15 months later. Results indicate that people with higher psychosocial identity levels had higher NFC scores at both time periods. In addition, higher Time 1 NFC scores were related to higher Time 2 EOMEIS-2 achieved scores and lower Time 2 foreclosure and diffusion scores, and changes in NFC over the course of the study were positively correlated with EPSI changes and negatively correlated with changes in EOMEIS-2 foreclosure and diffusion scores. Results provide support for the importance of a cognitive and motivational individual-difference variable in the development of a unique and cohesive identity. PMID:19049242

Njus, David; Johnson, Dan R

2008-11-01

269

Folic acid supplementation provided in utero and during lactation reduces the number of terminal end buds of the developing mammary glands in the offspring.  

PubMed

Folate may prevent or promote cancer development and progression depending on the timing of intervention. Intrauterine exposure to folic acid has drastically increased in North America due to mandatory fortification and supplemental use of folic acid, which may influence the risk of breast cancer in the offspring. We investigated the effect of maternal folic acid supplementation, equivalent to the likely average post-fortification folate intake of a North American woman taking multivitamins containing folic acid, on terminal end buds, which reliably predict mammary tumor risk at adulthood in rodents. Female rats were placed on a control or supplemental diet for 3 weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Female pups were placed on the control diet at weaning until 50 days of age. The pups from the folic acid supplemented dams had a significantly lower number of terminal end buds than the pups from the dams fed the control diet (p=0.014). Our data suggest for the first time that folic acid supplementation provided in utero and during lactation may lower mammary tumor risk in the offspring. PMID:19264391

Sie, Karen K Y; Chen, Jianmin; Sohn, Kyong-Jin; Croxford, Ruth; Thompson, Lilian U; Kim, Young-In

2009-03-04

270

Breast-feeding influences cognitive development in Filipino children.  

PubMed

The importance of breast-feeding (BF) for cognitive development has been researched widely over the past several decades. Although scholars agree that children who breast-feed are generally more intelligent, it is uncertain whether this advantage is due to BF effects or to other accompanying healthy characteristics of women who breast-feed. This is a problem in nearly every study, and even in studies controlling for known confounding variables, residual confounding remains a concern. This study tried a new approach, evaluating the relation between BF and cognitive development or ability in a population in which BF was inversely correlated with socioeconomic advantages and other healthy maternal behaviors. Normal birthweight (NBW, n = 1790) and low birthweight (LBW, n = 189) (<2500 g) infants born in 1983-84 in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines were followed from birth through middle childhood. Cognitive ability was assessed at ages 8.5 and 11.5 y with the Philippines Nonverbal Intelligence Test. Multivariable linear regressions were created to estimate crude and adjusted relations of various BF measures and later cognitive ability. After controlling for confounding variables, scores at 8.5 y were higher for infants breast-fed longer (1.6 points and 9.8 points higher among NBW and LBW infants, respectively, breast-fed for 12 to <18 mo vs. <6 mo). BF coefficients in both NBW and LBW 11.5-y models were attenuated but remained positive. This analysis highlights the importance of long-term BF after initial introduction of complementary foods, particularly in LBW infants born close to term. PMID:16251616

Daniels, Melissa C; Adair, Linda S

2005-11-01

271

The Role of Falsification in the Development of Cognitive Architectures: Insights from a Lakatosian Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive ar- chitectures should be understood as theories that develop over time. However, Newell's own candidate cognitive

Richard P. Cooper

2007-01-01

272

The Development of Expertise in Geography: A Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Geographic Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally recognized that geographic education and cognitive development are intertwined at the precollege level. Here we argue that college-level instruction likewise depends upon appreciating the cognitive-developmental level of students as well as their level of geographic expertise. In particular, we set geographic instruction within a Piagetian approach to cognitive development and illustrate this approach by reference to two

Roger M. Downs; Lynn S. Liben

1991-01-01

273

Stability and change of cognitive attributes in children with uneven\\/delayed cognitive development from preschool through childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an ongoing clinical service program for children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analyzed the cognitive attributes of 362 Taiwanese children (average age 48.5±12.9 month-old) with uneven\\/delayed cognitive development as they were assessed repeatedly with average duration of 39.7±22.6 months from preschool through early childhood. The objectives were to determine the stability and related

Pinchen Yang; For-Wey Lung; Yuh-Jyh Jong; Hsiu-Yi Hsu; Cheng-Chung Chen

2010-01-01

274

[Effects on children's cognitive development of chronic exposure to screens].  

PubMed

During the last few years, the time spent in front of various screens, including TV sets, video games, smartphones and computers, has dramatically increased. Numerous studies show, with a remarkable consistency, that this trend has a strong negative influence on the cognitive development of children and teenagers. The affected fields include, in particular, scholastic achievement, language, attention, sleep and aggression. We believe that this often disregarded - not to say denied - problem should now be considered a major public health issue. Primary care physicians should inform parents and children about this issue to support efficient prevention. PMID:22609414

Harlé, B; Desmurget, M

2012-05-18

275

Gestational Hypothyroidism Increases the Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Adult Offspring.  

PubMed

Background: Maternal thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in appropriate fetal development during gestation. Offspring that have been gestated under maternal hypothyroidism suffer cognitive impairment. Thyroid hormone deficiency during gestation can significantly impact the central nervous system (CNS) by altering the migration, differentiation, and function of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Given that gestational hypothyroidism alters the immune cell ratio in offspring, it is possible that this condition could result in higher sensitivity for the development of autoimmune diseases. Methods: Adult mice gestated under hypothyroidism were induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Twenty-one days after EAE induction, the disease score, myelin content, immune cell infiltration, and oligodendrocyte death were evaluated. Results: We observed that mice gestated under hypothyroidism showed higher EAE scores after disease induction during adulthood compared to mice gestated in euthyroidism. In addition, spinal cords sections of mice gestated under hypothyroidism that suffered EAE at the adulthood showed higher demyelination, CD4+ and CD8+ infiltration and increased oligodendrocyte death. Conclusions: These results show for the first time that a deficiency in maternal thyroid hormones during gestation can influence the outcome of a CNS inflammatory disease, such as EAE, in their offspring. These data strongly support evaluating thyroid hormones in pregnant women and treating hypothyroidism during pregnancy to prevent increased susceptibility to inflammatory diseases in the CNS of offspring. PMID:23777566

Albornoz, Eduardo A; Carreño, Leandro J; Cortés, Claudia; Gonzalez, Pablo A; Cisternas, Pablo A; Cautivo, Kelly M; Catalan, Tamara P; Opazo, M Cecilia; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Berman, Joan W; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M; Riedel, Claudia Andrea

2013-06-18

276

Early Childhood Development Interventions and Cognitive Development of Young Children in Rural Vietnam1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the long-term benefits of interventions that aim to promote early childhood development programs. The goal of this research was to determine whether an early childhood development intervention added to a nutrition intervention during preschool ages had lasting effects on the cognitive develop- ment of school-age children in communes of Thanh Hoa province in rural Vietnam. The

Koichiro Watanabe; Rafael Flores; Junko Fujiwara; Lien Thi; Huong Tran

277

The developing utility of zebrafish models for cognitive enhancers research.  

PubMed

Whereas cognitive impairment is a common symptom in multiple brain disorders, predictive and high-throughput animal models of cognition and behavior are becoming increasingly important in the field of translational neuroscience research. In particular, reliable models of the cognitive deficits characteristic of numerous neurobehavioral disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia have become a significant focus of investigation. While rodents have traditionally been used to study cognitive phenotypes, zebrafish (Danio rerio) are gaining popularity as an excellent model to complement current translational neuroscience research. Here we discuss recent advances in pharmacological and genetic approaches using zebrafish models to study cognitive impairments and to discover novel cognitive enhancers and neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:23449968

Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

2012-09-01

278

The Developing Utility of Zebrafish Models for Cognitive Enhancers Research  

PubMed Central

Whereas cognitive impairment is a common symptom in multiple brain disorders, predictive and high-throughput animal models of cognition and behavior are becoming increasingly important in the field of translational neuroscience research. In particular, reliable models of the cognitive deficits characteristic of numerous neurobehavioral disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia have become a significant focus of investigation. While rodents have traditionally been used to study cognitive phenotypes, zebrafish (Danio rerio) are gaining popularity as an excellent model to complement current translational neuroscience research. Here we discuss recent advances in pharmacological and genetic approaches using zebrafish models to study cognitive impairments and to discover novel cognitive enhancers and neuroprotective mechanisms.

Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

2012-01-01

279

Maternal diabetes programs hypertension and kidney injury in offspring.  

PubMed

We investigated whether maternal diabetes programs the offspring to develop hypertension and kidney injury in adulthood and examined potential underlying mechanisms. In a murine model we studied the offspring of three groups of dams (non-diabetic, diabetic, and diabetic treated with insulin). Mean systolic blood pressure in the offspring was monitored from 8 to 20 weeks. Body and kidney weights in the offspring of diabetic mothers were significantly lower than in offspring of non-diabetic mothers. Offspring of diabetic mothers developed hypertension, microalbuminuria, and glucose intolerance. Increased accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the glomeruli and marked upregulation of angiotensinogen, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene expression were evident in the renal cortex of hypertensive offspring of diabetic mothers. By contrast, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) gene expression was lower in the hypertensive offspring of diabetic mothers than in that of non-diabetic mothers. These changes were prevented in the offspring of insulin-treated diabetic mothers. These data indicate that maternal diabetes induces perinatal programming of hypertension, renal injury, and glucose intolerance in the offspring and suggest a central role for the activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system and TGF-beta1 gene expression in this process. PMID:20422227

Chen, Yun-Wen; Chenier, Isabelle; Tran, Stella; Scotcher, Michael; Chang, Shiao-Ying; Zhang, Shao-Ling

2010-04-27

280

Promoting Conceptual Development in Physics Teacher Education: Cognitive-Historical Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Induction Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In teaching physics, the history of physics offers fruitful starting points for designing instruction. I introduce here an approach that uses historical cognitive processes to enhance the conceptual development of pre-service physics teachers' knowledge. It applies a method called cognitive-historical approach, introduced to the cognitive

Mantyla, Terhi

2013-01-01

281

Genetic and Environmental Covariation between Verbal and Nonverbal Cognitive Development in Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite cognitive neuroscience's emphasis on the modularity of cognitive processes, multivariate genetic re- search indicates that the same genetic factors largely affect diverse cognitive abilities, at least from middle childhood onward. We explored this issue for verbal and nonverbal cognitive development in infancy in a study of 1,937 pairs of same-sex 2-year-old twins born in England and Wales in 1994.

Thomas S. Price; Thalia C. Eley; Philip S. Dale; Jim Stevenson; Kim Sandino; Robert Plomin

2000-01-01

282

Cognitive activities delay onset of memory decline in persons who develop dementia  

PubMed Central

Background: Persons destined to develop dementia experience an accelerated rate of decline in cognitive ability, particularly in memory. Early life education and participation in cognitively stimulating leisure activities later in life are 2 factors thought to reflect cognitive reserve, which may delay the onset of the memory decline in the preclinical stages of dementia. Methods: We followed 488 initially cognitively intact community residing individuals with epidemiologic, clinical, and cognitive assessments every 12 to 18 months in the Bronx Aging Study. We assessed the influence of self-reported participation in cognitively stimulating leisure activities on the onset of accelerated memory decline as measured by the Buschke Selective Reminding Test in 101 individuals who developed incident dementia using a change point model. Results: Each additional self-reported day of cognitive activity at baseline delayed the onset of accelerated memory decline by 0.18 years. Higher baseline levels of cognitive activity were associated with more rapid memory decline after that onset. Inclusion of education did not significantly add to the fit of the model beyond the effect of cognitive activities. Conclusions: Our findings show that late life cognitive activities influence cognitive reserve independently of education. The effect of early life education on cognitive reserve may be mediated by cognitive activity later in life. Alternatively, early life education may be a determinant of cognitive reserve, and individuals with more education may choose to participate in cognitive activities without influencing reserve. Future studies should examine the efficacy of increasing participation in cognitive activities to prevent or delay dementia. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; BL = baseline; CAS = Cognitive Activity Scale; CI = confidence interval; DSM = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; dx = diagnosis; NIA = National Institute on Aging; SRT = Selective Reminding Test; WAIS VIQ = Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Verbal IQ.

Hall, C B.; Lipton, R B.; Sliwinski, M; Katz, M J.; Derby, C A.; Verghese, J

2009-01-01

283

Business Simulations and Cognitive Learning: Developments, Desires, and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the research associated with the assessment of the cognitive learning that occurs through participation in a simulation exercise. It summarizes the "objective" evidence regarding cognitive learning versus the "perceptions" of cognitive learning achieved as reported by participants and instructors. The authors also explain…

Anderson, Philip H.; Lawton, Leigh

2009-01-01

284

A Systemic Model of Development: Strategically Enhancing Students' Cognitive, Psychomotor, Affective and Social Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges of the 21st century create an imperative for engineering educators: to design learning experiences that result in engineering professionals with a sophisticated level of cognitive, psychomotor, social and affective development. We propose a tool for the design process. Our systemic model of development (SMD) is based on a large body of learning theory and empirical data. It maps

Linda Vanasupa; Jonathan Stolk; Trevor Harding; Richard Savage

2007-01-01

285

X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

Walzer, Stanley

1985-01-01

286

No Evidence for an Association of Coxsackie Virus Infections during Pregnancy and Early Childhood with Development of Islet Autoantibodies in Offspring of Mothers or Fathers with Type 1 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent case-control studies reported an increased frequency of antibodies against Coxsackie virus (CV) antigens in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and during pregnancy in mothers of diabetic offspring, suggesting a role for CV infections in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, it is not known whether CV infections are causally related to the development of islet

M Füchtenbusch; A Irnstetter; G Jäger; A.-G Ziegler

2001-01-01

287

Dimensional psychopathology in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the dimensional psychopathology in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) with offspring of community control parents as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Methods Offspring of parents with BP, who were healthy or had no non-BP disorders (n = 319) and bipolar spectrum disorders (n = 35), and offspring of community controls (n = 235) ages 6–18 years old were compared using the CBCL, the CBCL-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP), and a sum of the CBCL items associated with mood lability. The results were adjusted for multiple comparisons and any significant between-group demographic and clinical differences in both biological parents and offspring. Results With few exceptions, several CBCL (e.g., Total, Internalizing, and Aggression Problems), CBCL-DP, and mood lability scores in non-BP offspring of parents with BP were significantly higher than in offspring of control parents. In addition, both groups of offspring showed significantly lower scores in most scales when compared with offspring of parents with BP who already developed BP. Similar results were obtained when analyzing the rates of subjects with CBCL T-scores that were two standard deviations or higher above the mean. Conclusions Even before developing BP, offspring of parents with BP had more severe and higher rates of dimensional psychopathology than offspring of control parents. Prospective follow-up studies in non-BP offspring of parents with BP are warranted to evaluate whether these dimensional profiles are prodromal manifestations of mood or other disorders and can predict those who are at higher risk to develop BP.

Diler, Rasim Somer; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Obreja, Mihaela; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina; Sakolsky, Dara; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Kupfer, David

2011-01-01

288

Development of stereotypies and polydipsia in wild caught bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and their laboratory-bred offspring. Is polydipsia a symptom of diabetes mellitus?  

PubMed

The development of stereotypies and polydipsia was studied in wild caught bank voles (P: n=92) and their laboratory-bred offspring (F1: n=248). All animals were kept isolated in barren cages in the laboratory. In the P generation, no individuals developed stereotypies, but 22% developed polydipsia (>21 ml/day water intake against normally 10 ml/day). Polydipsia was more frequent among males (34%) than females (13%). In F1, 30% developed locomotor stereotypies alone, 21% showed polydipsia alone, and, additionally, 7% developed both stereotypies and polydipsia. Fewer males than females developed stereotypies (23% vs. 38%), whereas polydipsia was more frequent in males than in females (30% vs. 11%). The occurrence and distribution of polydipsia among sexes were the same in F1 and P. The distribution of different types of stereotypies in stereotyping voles were backward somersaulting (BS, 80%), high-speed jumping (JUMP, 29%), pacing following a fixed route (PF, 12%) and windscreen wiper movement (WIN, 5%). Some individuals (10%) showed two or more different types of stereotypies. The average age for developing stereotypies was 96 days while polydipsia was registered at the age of 63 days in both sexes. Voles showing both polydipsia and stereotypies developed polydipsia later (79 days) than polydipsic voles not showing stereotypies. This difference was especially pronounced in stereotyping females in which the occurrence of polydipsia was postponed to the age of 114 days. Polydipsic voles were tested positive for glucosuria indicating that polydipsia could be a symptom of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that the development of stereotypies and polydipsia among bank voles in the laboratory are the results of frustration and prolonged stress. Stereotypies seem to depend on frustrative experiences early in life, while polydipsia may be related to diabetes mellitus caused by the experience of prolonged stress. Moreover, circumstances related to the development of stereotypies may be adaptive by reducing the risks of prolonged stress, including the development of fatal polydipsia. PMID:10844158

Schoenecker; Heller; Freimanis

2000-07-01

289

The Influence of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors on the Development of Rifle Marksmanship Skills. CRESST Report 753  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this report, researchers examined rifle marksmanship development within a skill development framework outlined by Chung, Delacruz, de Vries, Bewley, and Baker (2006). Thirty-three novice shooters used an M4 rifle training simulator system to learn to shoot an 8-inch target at a simulated distance of 200 yards. Cognitive, psychomotor, and…

Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

2009-01-01

290

Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: II-the developmental pattern of neurons in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.  

PubMed

Excessive concentrations of free radicals in the developing brain may lead to neurons maldevelopment and neurons damage and death. Thyroid hormones (THs) states play an important role in affecting the modulation of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. Thus, the objective of this study was to clarify the effect of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rat dams on the neurons development of different brain regions of their offspring at several postnatal weeks in relation to changes in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. The adult female rats were administered methimazole (MMI) in drinking water (0.02% w/v) from gestation day 1 to lactation day 21 to induce hypothyroidism and exogenous thyroxine (T4) in drinking water (0.002% w/v) beside intragastric incubation of 50--200 T4 ?g/kg body weight (b. wt.) to induce hyperthyroidism. In normal female rats, the sera total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) levels were detectably increased at day 10 post-partum than those at day 10 of pregnancy. Free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations in normal offspring were elevated at first, second and third postnatal weeks in an age-dependent manner. In hypothyroid group, a marked depression was observed in sera of dam TT3 and TT4 as well as offspring FT3, FT4 and GH, while there was a significant increase in TSH level with the age progress. The reverse pattern to latter state was recorded in hyperthyroid group. Concomitantly, in control offspring, the rate of neuron development in both cerebellar and cerebral cortex was increased in its density and complexity with age progress. This development may depend, largely, on THs state. Both maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism caused severe growth retardation in neurons of these regions of their offspring from the first to third weeks. Additionally, in normal offspring, seven antioxidant enzymes, four non-enzymatic antioxidants and one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation, LPO) followed a synchronized course of alterations in cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. In both thyroid states, the oxidative damage has been demonstrated by the increased LPO and inhibition of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in most examined ages and brain regions. These disturbances in the antioxidant defense system led to deterioration in the neuronal maturation and development. In conclusion, it can be suggested that the maldevelopment of neurons and dendrites in different brain regions of offspring of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid mother rat dams may be attributed, at least in part, to the excess oxidative stress and deteriorated antioxidant defense system in such conditions. PMID:22664656

Ahmed, O M; Ahmed, R G; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M

2012-06-01

291

Pre and\\/or postnatal protein restriction in rats impairs learning and motivation in male offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong health complications including affective and cognitive disorders. Little is known about the effects of suboptimal intra-uterine environments on associative learning and motivational behavior. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation would impair offspring associative learning and motivation as measured by operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively.

L. A. Reyes-Castro; J. S. Rodriguez; G. L. Rodríguez-González; R. D. Wimmer; T. J. McDonald; F. Larrea; P. W. Nathanielsz; E. Zambrano

2011-01-01

292

Development of the adolescent brain: implications for executive function and social cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is a time of considerable development at the level of behaviour, cognition and the brain. This article reviews histological and brain imaging studies that have demonstrated specific changes in neural architecture during puberty and adolescence, outlining trajectories of grey and white matter development. The implications of brain development for executive functions and social cognition during puberty and adolescence are

Sarah-Jayne Blakemore; Suparna Choudhury

2006-01-01

293

Psychologists experience of cognitive behaviour therapy in a developing country: a qualitative study from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Psychological therapies especially Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) are used widely in the West to help patients with psychiatric problems. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has an established evidence base for the treatment of different emotional disorders. In spite of these developments in the developed world, patients in most developing countries hardly benefit from non pharmacological interventions. Although a significant number of

Farooq Naeem; Mary Gobbi; Muhammad Ayub; David Kingdon

2010-01-01

294

Information Literacy and its Relationship to Cognitive Development and Reflective Judgment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article maps the Association of College and Research Libraries' Information Competency Standards for Higher Education to the cognitive development levels developed by William G. Perry and Patricia King and Karen Kitchener to suggest which competencies are appropriate for which level of cognitive development. (Contains 1 table.)|

Jackson, Rebecca

2008-01-01

295

Health and development in the first 4 years of life in offspring of women with schizophrenia and affective psychoses: Well-Baby Clinic information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of genetic high-risk (HR) groups provides the opportunity to study diathesis characteristics associated with schizophrenia (Sc) and affective psychoses. High-risk offspring of women with a history of schizophrenia, affective and other psychoses (n=84), as well as normal-risk control (NC) offspring (n=100), were studied from 0 to 4 years of age, using prospectively recorded information from Well-Baby Clinic (WBC)

Karin M Henriksson; Thomas F McNeil

2004-01-01

296

Developmental stimulation in child care centers contributes to young infants' cognitive development.  

PubMed

This study examined whether the quality of caregiver behavior in child care centers contributes to infant cognitive development at 9 months of age. Sixty-four infants (34 boys) were observed with their primary caregivers in child care centers at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Caregiver behavior was rated for sensitivity and for stimulation of infant development during one-to-one caregiving interactions. Infant cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (Mental Development Index). Higher levels of developmental stimulation in the centers predicted higher levels of infant cognitive development at 9 months, beyond infant cognitive development at 3 months (just before entering child care), parental education, and maternal sensitivity. The results suggest that even small increases in developmental stimulation provided in child care centers in the first year of life may foster infants' cognitive development. PMID:20493531

Albers, Esther M; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

2010-05-20

297

Cognitive Competence as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on discussing critical thinking and creative thinking as the core cognitive competence. It reviews and compares several theories of thinking, highlights the features of critical thinking and creative thinking, and delineates their interrelationships. It discusses cognitive competence as a positive youth development construct by linking its relationships with adolescent development and its contributions to adolescents' learning and wellbeing. Critical thinking and creative thinking are translated into self-regulated cognitive skills for adolescents to master and capitalize on, so as to facilitate knowledge construction, task completion, problem solving, and decision making. Ways of fostering these thinking skills, cognitive competence, and ultimately positive youth development are discussed.

Sun, Rachel C. F.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.

2012-01-01

298

Cognitive competence as a positive youth development construct: a conceptual review.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on discussing critical thinking and creative thinking as the core cognitive competence. It reviews and compares several theories of thinking, highlights the features of critical thinking and creative thinking, and delineates their interrelationships. It discusses cognitive competence as a positive youth development construct by linking its relationships with adolescent development and its contributions to adolescents' learning and wellbeing. Critical thinking and creative thinking are translated into self-regulated cognitive skills for adolescents to master and capitalize on, so as to facilitate knowledge construction, task completion, problem solving, and decision making. Ways of fostering these thinking skills, cognitive competence, and ultimately positive youth development are discussed. PMID:22654575

Sun, Rachel C F; Hui, Eadaoin K P

2012-04-24

299

Cognitive competence as a positive youth development construct: conceptual bases and implications for curriculum development.  

PubMed

This paper outlines the conceptual bases of "cognitive competence" as a positive youth development construct and the implications for curriculum development. Cognitive competence refers to the cognitive processes that comprise (i) creative thinking, which includes various creative thinking styles, such as legislative, global, and local thinking styles; and (ii) critical thinking, which includes reasoning, making inferences, self-reflection, and coordination of multiple views. Based on the adolescent development progression on cognitive competence, and with reference to Hong Kong Chinese context, six units are designed to promote creative and critical thinking for Secondary 1-3 students in the Project P.A.T.H.S., supported by the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust. In the Secondary 1 curriculum, the goals of the units are to enable students to recognize different but inter-related thinking styles and to apply these thinking skills to deal with daily life issues. The goal in the Secondary 2 curriculum is to enhance students' creative thinking skills to solve problems, whereas the goal in the Secondary 3 curriculum is to enhance students' critical thinking skills to accept beliefs and make decisions. PMID:17068922

Sun, Rachel C F; Hui, Eadaoin K P

300

Trends in the development of communication networks: Cognitive networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main challenges already faced by communication networks is the efficient management of increasing complexity. The recently proposed concept of cognitive network appears as a candidate that can address this issue. In this paper, we survey the existing research work on cognitive networks, as well as related and enabling techniques and technologies. We start with identifying the most

Carolina Fortuna; Mihael Mohorcic

2009-01-01

301

Relation of cognitive activity to risk of developing Alzheimer disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Frequent cognitive activity in old age has been associated with reduced risk of Alz- heimer disease (AD), but the basis of the association is uncertain. Methods: More than 700 old people underwent annual clinical evaluations for up to 5 years. At baseline, they rated current and past frequency of cognitive activity with the current activity measure administered annually thereafter.

R. S. Wilson; P. A. Scherr; J. A. Schneider; Y. Tang; D. A. Bennett

2007-01-01

302

Developing Cognitive Potential in Vocational High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effectiveness of Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment program (FIE) in improving the cognitive performance of slow learners was tested for one year with low performing vocational high school students in Ontario (Canada). Improved cognitive performance was noted for FIE students, although changes in personality and attitude were substantiated…

Narrol, Harvey; And Others

1982-01-01

303

Stagewise Cognitive Development: An Application of Catastrophe Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article an overview is given of traditional methodological approaches to stagewise cognitive developmental research. These approaches are evaluated and integrated on the basis of catastrophe theory. In particular, catastrophe theory specifies a set of common criteria for testing the discontinuity hypothesis proposed by Piaget. Separate criteria correspond to distinct methods used in cognitive developmental research. Such criteria are,

Peter C. M. Molenaar

1992-01-01

304

Psychiatric Disorders in Preschool Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate lifetime prevalence and specificity of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and severity of depressive and manic symptoms at intake in preschool offspring of parents with Disorder I–II. Methods 121 offspring ages 2–5 years old of 83 parents with Bipolar Disorder and 102 offspring of 65 demographically matched control parents (29 with non-Bipolar psychiatric disorders and 36 without any lifetime psychopathology) were recruited. Parents with Bipolar Disorder were recruited through advertisement and adult outpatient clinics and control parents were ascertained at random from the community. Subjects were evaluated with standardized instruments. All staff were blind to parental diagnoses. Results After adjusting for within-family correlations and both biological parents’ non-Bipolar psychopathology, compared to the offspring of the control parents, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, particularly those older than 4 years old, showed an 8-fold increased life-time prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and significantly higher rates of ? 2 psychiatric disorders. While only 3 offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder had mood disorders, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, especially those with ADHD and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder, had significantly more severe current manic and depressive symptomatology than the offspring of the controls. Conclusions Preschool offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder are at increased risk for ADHD and demonstrate increased subthreshold manic and depressive symptomatology. Longitudinal follow-up is warranted to evaluate whether these children are at high-risk to develop mood and other psychiatric disorders.

Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Obreja, Mihaela; Hickey, Mary Beth; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Shamseddeen, Wael; Diler, Rasim; Kupfer, David

2010-01-01

305

Cognitive Sex Differences and Their Practical Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a growing awareness among researchers that the magnitude of cognitive sex differences is affected by a number of subject variables. To examine spatial and verbal cognitive sex differences as a function of personal and family handedness, the 478 offspring who participated in the Minnesota family study and 454 offspring who participated in…

McGee, Mark G.

306

Cheating honeybee workers produce royal offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

of developing into males develop into females via thelytokous parthenogenesis. We show that this ability allows workers to compete directly with the queen over the production of new queens. Genetic analyses using microsatellites revealed that 23 out of 39 new queens produced by seven colonies were offspring of workers and not the resident queen. Of these, eight were laid by

Lyndon A. Jordan; Michael H. Allsopp; Benjamin P. Oldroyd; Theresa C. Wossler; Madeleine Beekman

2008-01-01

307

Psychosocial Impairment in Offspring of Depressed Parents  

PubMed Central

Background Offspring of depressed parents experience impairment in a number of domains of functioning. Few studies have examined the impact of both maternal and paternal depression and comorbid psychopathology on offspring functioning. Method Participants in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) were administered diagnostic interviews and completed measures of psychosocial functioning during adolescence and again during young adulthood. Diagnostic interviews were also conducted with the mothers and fathers of the target individual. Results After controlling for relevant demographic characteristics, parental comorbid psychopathology, and offspring psychopathology, maternal depression was associated with greater levels of physical symptoms during adolescence, and with higher levels of minor stressors and a greater risk for using mental health services in young adulthood. Paternal depression was associated with offspring experiencing more major stressors, having lower perceived social competence, and being at greater risk for suicide attempts during adolescence, as well as lower perceived social competence in young adulthood. Conclusions Offspring of depressed parents demonstrate impairment in a variety of domains, regardless of the presence of their own psychopathology. Further research on the mechanisms that lead to these impairments, as well as research that examines the role of these psychosocial impairments in the subsequent development of psychopathology is warranted.

Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.

2005-01-01

308

Cognitively Guided Instruction: A Research-Based Teacher Professional Development Program for Elementary School Mathematics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI) is a professional development program based on an integrated program of research focused on (a) the development of students' mathematical thinking; (b) instruction that influences that development; (c) teachers knowled...

E. Fennema L. Levi M. L. Franke S. B. Empson T. P. Carpenter

2000-01-01

309

Student Cognitive and Affective Development in the Context of Classroom-level Curriculum Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study examined the impact of teacher curriculum approaches (curriculum-transmitter\\/ curriculum-developer\\/ curriculum- maker) on student cognitive change (reading, writing, speaking, and listening abilities) and their affective change (motivation and interests). This study's conceptual framework was grounded in teacher curriculum development (Ben-Peretz 1990; Remillard 1999; Craig 2006), curriculum implementation (Snyder, Bolin, and Zumwalt 1992; Randolph, Duffy, and Mattingly 2007), curriculum-making

Saad Fathy Shawer; Deanna Gilmore; Susan Rae Banks-Joseph

2008-01-01

310

Maternal Stress and Effects of Prenatal Air Pollution on Offspring Mental Health Outcomes in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Low socioeconomic status is consistently associated with reduced physical and mental health, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Increased levels of urban air pollutants interacting with parental stress have been proposed to explain health disparities in respiratory disease, but the impact of such interactions on mental health is unknown. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether prenatal air pollution exposure and stress during pregnancy act synergistically on offspring to induce a neuroinflammatory response and subsequent neurocognitive disorders in adulthood. Methods: Mouse dams were intermittently exposed via oropharyngeal aspiration to diesel exhaust particles (DEP; 50 ?g × 6 doses) or vehicle throughout gestation. This exposure was combined with standard housing or nest material restriction (NR; a novel model of maternal stress) during the last third of gestation. Results: Adult (postnatal day 60) offspring of dams that experienced both stressors (DEP and NR) displayed increased anxiety, but only male offspring of this group had impaired cognition. Furthermore, maternal DEP exposure increased proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-1? levels within the brains of adult males but not females, and maternal DEP and NR both decreased anti-inflammatory IL-10 in male, but not female, brains. Similarly, only DEP/NR males showed increased expression of the innate immune recognition gene toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) and its downstream effector, caspase-1. Conclusions: These results show that maternal stress during late gestation increases the susceptibility of offspring—particularly males—to the deleterious effects of prenatal air pollutant exposure, which may be due to a synergism of these factors acting on innate immune recognition genes and downstream neuroinflammatory cascades within the developing brain. Citation: Bolton JL, Huff NC, Smith SH, Mason SN, Foster WM, Auten RL, Bilbo SD. 2013. Maternal stress and effects of prenatal air pollution on offspring mental health outcomes in mice. Environ Health Perspect 121:1075–1082;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306560

Huff, Nicole C.; Smith, Susan H.; Mason, S. Nicholas; Foster, W. Michael; Auten, Richard L.; Bilbo, Staci D.

2013-01-01

311

Early Cognitive and Communication Development in Children With Focal Brain Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early cognitive and language development of children with congenital focal brain lesions, documented by magnetic resonance imaging, was studied in 18 cases, 9 with left-hemisphere damage and 9 with right-hemisphere damage, at about 2 (Time 1) and 4 years of age (Time 2). All of the children showed normal cognitive development, but their global Griffiths Developmental Scales scores were lower

Anna M. Chilosi; Paola Cipriani; Barbara Bertuccelli; Lucia Pfanner; Giovanni Cioni

2001-01-01

312

Comprehension of complex sentences in children at three levels of cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between level of cognitive development and the comprehension of complex sentences in children. Twenty males and 20 females at the preoperational and concrete operational levels of cognitive development who were attending regular first-, fourth-, and seventh-grade classes served as subjects. Four examples each of parallel and nonparallel function forms of

Eileen P. abrahamsen; Seymour Rigrodsky

1984-01-01

313

The role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in infancy are necessary for normal brain growth and development, and may play an important role in the development of infant cognition. Several randomized, controlled studies have evaluated the effects of feeding both term and preterm infants formula containing LCPUFA or no LCPUFA on a variety of measures of cognitive behaviour. Studies of the

P. Willatts; J. S. Forsyth

2000-01-01

314

Insights From Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a critical role in the development of academic skills such as reading. This

Kelly B. Cartwright

2012-01-01

315

A Comparison of Community College and College Education Sophomores Using Piaget's Cognitive Development Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the background, methods, and findings of a study contrasting the levels of cognitive development of community college and university students. Reveals that 48% of both student groups tested were incapable of performing at the formal-operational level (as described in Piaget's Cognitive Development Model). Discusses implications for…

Plymale, Sallie H.; Jarrell, Betty Joan

1981-01-01

316

Cognitive and Social Development in the Second Year of Life: A Neo-Piagetian Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a study of 18 pairs of mothers and infants of 14-22 months to determine the cognitive and social development of the child in its second year. Results support the prediction that a new stage of development is achieved between 18 and 22 months in both cognitive and social domains. (RJC)|

Leitner, Karen L.

1989-01-01

317

Play, Cognitive Development, and the Social World: Piaget, Vygotsky, and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a critical overview of research on play and cognitive development and an analysis of the two major theoretical frameworks that have informed it. Until recently, the dominant influence in this area has been that of Piaget, whose approach to play formed an integral part of his larger theory of cognitive development. Although the Piagetian research program is

Ageliki Nicolopoulou

1993-01-01

318

The Journey from Child to Scientist: Integrating Cognitive Development and the Education Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impulse to investigate the natural world is deeply rooted in our earliest childhood experiences. This notion has long guided researchers to uncover the cognitive mechanisms underlying the development of scientific reasoning in children. Until recently, however, research in cognitive development and education followed largely independent…

Carver, Sharon M., Ed.; Shrager, Jeff, Ed.

2012-01-01

319

Experimental evidence for offspring learning in parent-offspring communication.  

PubMed Central

The offspring of birds and mammals solicit food from their parents by a combination of movements and vocalizations that have come to be known collectively as 'begging'. Recently, begging has most often been viewed as an honest signal of offspring need. Yet, if offspring learn to adjust their begging efforts to the level that rewards them most, begging intensities may also reflect offsprings' past experience rather than their precise current needs. Here we show that bird nestlings with equal levels of need can learn to beg at remarkably different levels. These experiments with hand-raised house sparrows (Passer domesticus) indicated that chicks learn to modify begging levels within a few hours. Moreover, we found that the begging postures of hungry chicks in natural nests are correlated with the average postures that had previously yielded them parental feedings. Such learning challenges parental ability to assess offspring needs and may require that, in response, parents somehow filter out learned differences in offspring signals.

Kedar, H; Rodriguez-Girones, M A; Yedvab, S; Winkler, D W; Lotem, A

2000-01-01

320

Gender Differences in the Association of Smoking and Drinking with the Development of Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Modifiable lifestyle-related factors such as smoking and alcohol drinking are associated with cognitive impairment in the elderly population but the relationships have shown various results. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol drinking and smoking in the early 60 s with the risk of developing incident cognitive impairment. In 1999, we evaluated cognitive function, smoking, and drinking status in 3,174 inhabitants aged 60–64 years in a rural area of Korea, with a follow-up assessment of cognitive function 7 years later. A total of 1,810 individuals who did not show cognitive impairment at baseline were included. A stratified analysis was applied to evaluate how smoking and alcohol drinking affected the risk of developing cognitive impairment based on gender. Current smokers showed a higher risk for developing cognitive impairment than did never smokers (odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–2.15). The OR for female current smokers compared with never smokers was 1.62 (95% CI, 1.05–2.52), and smokers with higher pack-years were more likely to develop cognitive impairment than never smokers, showing a dose–response relationship (P for trend?=?0.004). Frequent alcohol consumption increased the risk of developing cognitive impairment (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.01–2.78), and a dose–response relationship was observed among male subjects (P for trend?=?0.044). Infrequent drinking in females decreased the odds of developing cognitive impairment (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42–1.00), whereas frequent drinking tended to increase the odds, although this trend was not significant, suggesting a U-shaped relationship. Although the sample was small for some analyses, especially in female, our data suggest that smoking and drinking in the early 60 s are associated with a risk of developing cognitive impairment, and this relationship is characterized by gender differences.

Park, Boyoung; Park, Jonghan; Jun, Jae Kwan; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina

2013-01-01

321

Cognitive Development and the Ability to Infer Others' Perceptions of Self  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of cognitive and social cognitive tests were administered to sixth grade students as part of a larger study of early adolescent development. Relationships between logico-mathematical cognitive ability and the social abilities of person-perception and perspective-taking were examined. Subjects were asked to describe themselves as they would imagine their mother, their father, and their best friend would. No significant

Harold D. Jarcho; Anne C. Petersen

1981-01-01

322

Maternal enrichment affects prenatal hippocampal proliferation and open-field behaviors in female offspring mice.  

PubMed

The maternal environment is thought to be important for fetal brain development. However, the effects of maternal environment are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether enrichment of the maternal environment can influence prenatal brain development and postnatal behaviors in mice. An enriched environment is a housing condition with several objects such as a running wheel, tube and ladder, which are thought to increase sensory, cognitive and motor stimulation in rodents compared with standard housing conditions. First, we measured the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of fetuses from pregnant dams housed in an enriched environment. Our results revealed that maternal enrichment influences cell proliferation in the hippocampus of female, but not male, fetuses. Second, we used the open-field test to investigate postnatal behaviors in the offspring of dams housed in the enriched environment during pregnancy. We found that maternal enrichment significantly affects the locomotor activity and time spent in the center of the open-field in female, but not male, offspring. These results indicate that maternal enrichment influences prenatal brain development and postnatal behaviors in female offspring. PMID:19429048

Maruoka, Takashi; Kodomari, Ikuko; Yamauchi, Rena; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji

2009-02-27

323

The mediating role of interpersonal cognition on the relationships between personality and adolescent ego development.  

PubMed

The author investigated whether interpersonal cognition mediated the relationships between defense, social sensitivity, and ego development. Participants (N = 616; M age = 15.66 years, SD = .52 year; 276 boys) from northwestern Taiwan completed a battery of questionnaires. Structural equation modeling and mediation analyses supported the hypothesis that interpersonal cognition would mediate the path between defense and ego development, and the path between social sensitivity and ego development. Defense and social sensitivity were found to have direct effects on ego development. The study provides evidence of the mediating effect of interpersonal cognition on the association between personality and ego development. PMID:23534193

Liu, Yih-Lan

324

The Quality of Cultural Tools and Cognitive Development: Gal’perin’s Perspective and Its Implications1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vygotsky theorized that instruction plays a key part in cognitive development by providing culturally evolved cognitive tools which, once internalized by the child, mediate and advance the child’s cognitive functioning. Gal’perin further elaborated this approach arguing that it is the quality (specific character) of cognitive tools (such as concepts, criteria, schemas) acquired by the child that to a large extent

Igor M. Arievitch; Anna Stetsenko

2000-01-01

325

Reducing depressive intrusions via a computerized cognitive bias modification of appraisals task: Developing a cognitive vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feature of depression is the distressing experience of intrusive, negative memories. The maladaptive appraisals of such intrusions have been associated with symptom persistence. This study aimed to experimentally manipulate appraisals about depressive intrusions via a novel computerized cognitive bias modification (CBM) of appraisals paradigm, and to test the impact on depressive intrusion frequency for a standardized event (a depressive

Tamara J. Lang; Michelle L. Moulds; Emily A. Holmes

2009-01-01

326

The Effect of Maternal Nutrition on the Development of the Offspring: An International Symposium. Nutrition Reports International, Special Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contents of this symposium include the following papers: "Effect of Maternal Protein Malnutrition on Neonatal Lung Development and Mitochondrial Function," E. J. Hawrylewicz, J. Q. Kissane, W. H. Blair and C. A. Heppner; "Effect of the Level of Nutrition on Rates of Cell Proliferation and of RNA and Protein Syntheses in the Rat," L. M. Roeder;…

Roeder, Lois M., Ed.

1973-01-01

327

Stress During Gestation Alters Postpartum Maternal Care and the Development of the Offspring in a Rodent Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental adversity can alter parental care and thus influence child development. We addressed the question of whether stressors can directly affect parental behavior using a rodent model of stable, individual differences in maternal behavior. Methods: Lactating rat mothers were characterized as high or low in pup-directed licking\\/grooming (LG) behavior, rebred, and subjected to 7 days

Frances A. Champagne; Michael J. Meaney

2006-01-01

328

Cognitive theory in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: progress, development and future directions.  

PubMed

Important developments have taken place in cognitive theory of eating disorders (EDs) (and also in other disorders) since the review paper published by M.J. Cooper in 1997. The relevant empirical database has also expanded. Nevertheless, cognitive therapy for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, although helpful to many patients, leaves much to be desired. The current paper reviews the relevant empirical evidence collected, and the theoretical revisions that have been made to cognitive models of eating disorders, since 1997. The status and limitations of these developments are considered, including whether or not they meet the criteria for "good" theory. New theoretical developments relevant to cognitive explanations of eating disorders (second generation theories) are then presented, and the preliminary evidence that supports these is briefly reviewed. The lack of integration between cognitive theories of EDs and risk (vulnerability) factor research is noted, and a potential model that unites the two is noted. The implications of the review for future research and the development of cognitive theory in eating disorders are then discussed. These include the need for study of cognitive constructs not yet fully integrated (or indeed not yet applied clinically) into current theories and the need for cognitive theories of eating disorders to continue to evolve (as they have indeed done since 1997) in order to fully integrate such constructs. Treatment studies incorporating these new developments also urgently need to be undertaken. PMID:15914267

Cooper, Myra J

2005-03-31

329

Development of an instrument for measuring cognitive conflict in secondary-level science classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on conceptual change theory, cognitive conflict is known as an important factor in conceptual change even though there are still questions about its positive and negative effects on science learning. However, there is no reliable method by which to assess the cognitive conflict students experience in their learning. The purpose of this research was to develop an instrument for measuring secondary students' cognitive conflict levels as they learned science. The results of this study indicate that our instrument is a valid and reliable tool for measuring cognitive conflict levels. Factor analysis supported the model that cognitive conflict consists of four constructs: recognition of an anomalous situation, interest, anxiety, and cognitive reappraisal of the conflict situation. Implications for instruction and possibilities for future research are discussed.

Lee, Gyoungho; Kwon, Jaesool; Park, Sang-Suk; Kim, Jung-Whan; Kwon, Hyeok-Gu; Park, Hac-Kyoo

2003-08-01

330

Effect of parental hypoxic exposure on embryonic development of the offspring of two serpulid polychaetes: Implication for transgenerational epigenetic effect.  

PubMed

Sperm production and motility, fecundity, and egg size, complexity and viability of serpulid polychaetes Hydroides elegans and Hydroides diramphus after 2-week treatment to hypoxia (2 mg O2 l(-1)) was compared with those under normoxia (6 mg O2 l(-1)). Despite reduced fecundity, the effect of parental hypoxic exposure on gamete quality was not discernible for both species. However, regardless of their subsequent dissolved oxygen environment, eggs spawned by H. elegans after hypoxic exposure were found to have lower fertilization success, slower embryonic development and a significantly higher yield of malformed embryos than those with a parental normoxic treatment. In contrast, neither fertilization success nor rate of embryonic development was affected for H. diramphus. The results implied that hypoxia was a potential stress reducing the recruitment of H. elegans through non-adaptive epigenetic effect, whereas H. diramphus was a more tolerant species to survive hypoxic events. PMID:23906470

Leung, J Y S; Cheung, S G; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Chiu, J M Y; Thiyagarajan, V; Shin, P K S

2013-07-29

331

Four Challenges, and a Proposed Solution, for Cognitive System Engineering - System Development Integration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Productively integrating Cognitive System Engineering (CSE) into system design and development processes depends on successfully addressing four challenges: determining which content produced by the CSE community adds specific value to system development,...

C. R. Hale V. A. Schmidt

2008-01-01

332

Developing a Mouse Model of Sensory and Cognitive Deficits for Multiple Sclerosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this project, we have been developing a novel mouse model of multiple sclerosis with a focus on cognitive dysfunction associated with defective myelin. We have developed this model using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and have obtaine...

A. Gow B. Diamond

2012-01-01

333

Children's Search for Gender CuesCognitive Perspectives on Gender Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young children search for cues about gender—who should or should not do a particular activity, who can play with whom, and why girls and boys are different. From a vast array of gendered cues in their social worlds, children quickly form an impressive constellation of gender cognitions, including gender self-conceptions (gender identity) and gender stereotypes. Cognitive perspectives on gender development

Carol Lynn Martin; Diane Ruble

2004-01-01

334

Developmental Counselling and Therapy: Integrating Constructivism and Cognitive Development in Counselling Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Developmental Counseling and Therapy (DCT) as model of helping based on Piagetian and constructivist concepts. Notes that client functioning is understood in terms of four levels of cognitive developmental functioning which parallel levels of cognitive development described by Piaget. Describes starting with client's predominant…

Daniels, Thomas G.

1994-01-01

335

The Development of a Method to Assess Patients' Cognitive Representations of Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The study describes the development of a new method for assessing cognitive representations of epilepsy.Methods. The study was a cross-sectional design contrasting the cognitive representations of three groups of epilepsy patients, varying in recency of onset (acute vs chronic) and the location of medical management (hospital vs community). A total of 94 patients were studied: 21 recent onset, 47

Steven Kemp; Stephen Morley

2001-01-01

336

Stages of Cognitive Development in Uncertain-Logic-Based AI Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel theory of stages in cognitive development is presented, loosely corresponding to Piagetan theory but specifically oriented toward AI systems centered on uncertain inference components. Four stages are articulated (infantile, concrete, formal and reflexive), and are characterized both in terms of external cognitive achievements (a la Piaget) and in terms of internal inference control dynamics. The theory is illustrated

Ben Goertzel; Stephan Vladimir Bugaj

337

Cognitive Teaching Methods for Special Education: Development of Approaches for Intervention and Assessment in Germany.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical development of special education in Germany is summarized. Four cognitive teaching methods for special education are described: cognitive behavior modification with a focus on problem solving and metacognition, intelligence training based on inductive thinking, application of Piagetian concepts, and dynamic testing. (Author/JDD)

Lauth, Gerhard W.; Wiedl, Karl H.

1989-01-01

338

Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

2012-01-01

339

Parent-Child Co-Viewing of Television and Cognitive Development of the Chinese Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship between parent-child co-viewing of television and the cognitive development of the child. Both survey and experiment methods were employed to determine the participants' television viewing habits and their cognitive achievements after watching a pre-recorded programme under different conditions. The…

Jinqiu, Zhao; Xiaoming, Hao

2004-01-01

340

Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

Cartwright, Kelly B.

2012-01-01

341

The Development of Cognitive Abilities and Social Identities in Children: The Case of Ethnic Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the development of social identities in children has largely adhered to a cognitive developmental framework. However, to date, there has been little or no direct empirical demonstration of cognitive developmental levels associated with age accounting for variations in the expression of social identities. The current study directly assessed this hypothesis within ethnic identity. Ethnic identity in school-age

Katheryn A. Ocampo; George P. Knight; Martha E. Bernal

1997-01-01

342

Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

Cartwright, Kelly B.

2012-01-01

343

Parent-Child Co-Viewing of Television and Cognitive Development of the Chinese Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between parent-child co-viewing of television and the cognitive development of the child. Both survey and experiment methods were employed to determine the participants' television viewing habits and their cognitive achievements after watching a pre-recorded programme under different conditions. The…

Jinqiu, Zhao; Xiaoming, Hao

2004-01-01

344

Culture and Cognitive Development: Giyoo Hatano's Insights and the Questions They Open  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To bring out Giyoo Hatano's contributions to the understanding of culture and cognitive development, we note first his special style--thoughtful, inventive, and always focused on central issues and on combining theory with data--and then, for three areas, some of the conceptual advances he proposed. The areas have to do with ties between cognitive

Goodnow, Jacqueline J.; Peterson, Candi; Lawrence, Jeanette A.

2007-01-01

345

Development of Online Cognitive and Algorithm Tests as Assessment Tools in Introductory Computer Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the online cognitive and algorithm tests, which were developed in order to determine if certain cognitive factors and fundamental algorithms correlate with the performance of students in their introductory computer science course. The tests were implemented among Management Information Systems majors from the Philippines and…

Avancena, Aimee Theresa; Nishihara, Akinori; Vergara, John Paul

2012-01-01

346

Maternal Transfer of BDE-47 to Offspring and Neurobehavioral Development in C57BL/6J Mice  

PubMed Central

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used worldwide in a variety of commercial goods, and are now widely found in both environmental and biological samples. BDE-47 is one of the most pervasive of these PBDE congeners and therefore is of particular concern. In this study C57BL/6J mice were exposed perinatally to 0.03, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg/day of BDE-47, a dose range chosen to encompass human exposure levels. Tissue levels of BDE-47 were measured in the blood, brain, fat and milk of dams and in whole fetal homogenate and blood and brain of pups on gestational day (GD) 15, and postnatal days (PND) 1, 10 and 21. From GD 15 to PND 1 levels of BDE-47 increased within dam tissue and then decreased from PND 1 to 21. Over the period of lactation levels in dam milk were comparatively high when compared to both brain and blood for all dose groups. Measurable levels of BDE-47 were found in the fetus on GD 15 confirming gestational exposure. From PND 1 to 21, levels of BDE-47 in pup tissue increased over the period of lactation due to the transfer of BDE-47 through milk. Behavioral tests of fine motor function and learning and memory were carried out between postnatal weeks 5–17 in order to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of BDE-47. Behavioral deficits were only seen in the Barnes spatial maze where mice in the three exposure groups had longer latencies and traveled longer distances to find the escape hole when compared to vehicle control mice. These results support the conclusions that perinatal exposure to BDE-47 can have neurodevelopmental consequences, and that lactational exposure represents a significant exposure risk during development.

Koenig, Claire M.; Lango, Jozsef; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.

2012-01-01

347

The development of the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern score and its application to the American diet in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.  

PubMed

Previous Mediterranean diet scores were simple to apply but may not be appropriate for non-Mediterranean populations. We developed a Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score (MSDPS) to assess the conformity of an individual's diet to a traditional Mediterranean-style diet. The MSDPS is based on the recommended intakes of 13 food groups in the Mediterranean diet pyramid. Each food group is scored from 0 to 10 depending on the degree of correspondence with recommendations. Exceeding the recommendations results in a lower score proportional to the degree of overconsumption. The sum of the component scores is standardized to a 0-100 scale and weighted by the proportion of energy consumed from Mediterranean diet foods. We applied the MSDPS to dietary data collected at the 7th examination of the Framingham Offspring Cohort and tested the content validity of the score against selected nutrients known to be associated with the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern. The mean MSDPS was 24.8 (range, 3.1-60.7). Participants with a higher MSDPS were more likely to be women, older, multivitamin users, to have lower BMI and waist circumferences, and less likely to be current smokers. The MSDPS demonstrated content validity through expected positive associations with intakes of dietary fiber, (n-3) fatty acids, antioxidant vitamins, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, and inverse associations with those of added sugar, glycemic index, saturated fat, and trans-fat, and the (n-6):(n-3) fatty acid ratio. The MSDPS is a useful instrument to measure overall diet quality according to the principles of a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern. PMID:19357215

Rumawas, Marcella E; Dwyer, Johanna T; McKeown, Nicola M; Meigs, James B; Rogers, Gail; Jacques, Paul F

2009-04-08

348

Problem Solving and Reasoning Skills Cognitive Development Model for Severely Disadvantaged Puerto Rican College Students. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through the Problem Solving and Reasoning Skills Cognitive Development Model for Severely Disadvantaged Puerto Rican College Students, the Ana G. Mendez Educational Foundation developed a model for cognitive skills development for disadvantaged, low-achieving Hispanics. The program incorporates cognitive skills into existing remedial courses in…

Ana G. Mendez Educational Foundation, Rio Piedras, PR.

349

The Relationship of Cognitive Development to Age, When Education and Intelligence Are Controlled For  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study 165 volunteers aged 18–87 were recruited from educational, employment, church, and social organizations and administered 3 paper-and-pencil instruments: the Quick Test, a measure of verbal–perceptual intelligence; the Scale of Intellectual Development, a Perry measure of cognitive development; and an inventory of life experiences. Age was found to be negatively related to cognitive development, as was extent of

Albert B. Hood; David L. Deopere

2002-01-01

350

Incidental Science Knowledge in Fifth Grade Children: a study of its relationship with cognitive development and cognitive style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty?three elementary school children were tested on Incidental Science Knowledge (ISK), i.e. the knowledge of science acquired by chance outside school, and the results obtained were correlated with their Intellectual Development (ID) and Cognitive Style (CS). While the ID was evaluated by Piagetian?like clinical interviews, the data on CS and ISK were collected during normal classroom activities by group tests.

Menina Di Gennaro; Vittorio Picciarelli; Daniela Schirinzi; Luigi Bilancia

1992-01-01

351

Cognitive and Social Constructivism: Developing Tools for an Effective Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective classroom, where teachers and students are communicating optimally, is dependent on using constructivist strategies, tools and practices. There are two major types of constructivism in the classroom: (1) Cognitive or individual constructivism depending on Piaget's theory, and (2) Social constructivism depending on Vygotsky's theory.…

Powell, Katherine C.; Kalina, Cody J.

2009-01-01

352

Development of Cognitive Structures about Alcoholic Beverages among Preschoolers: II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about very young children's conception of alcoholic beverages and their uses. A study was conducted to determine whether preschool children's ability to correctly access a cognitive network about alcoholic beverages can be related to differences in family exposure to alcohol. Preschoolers (N=57) between the ages of 2.5 and 6 years…

Noll, Robert B.; And Others

353

Cognitive Functioning and the Early Development of PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional studies of chronic PTSD reveal deficits in verbal memory. We studied cognitive functioning and its relationship to current and subsequent PTSD severity during an early phase of trauma response. Thirty-eight participants with traumatic injuries and only posttrauma incident psychopathology were evaluated shortly after admission to a Level I Trauma Center. Neuropsychological measures were obtained at baseline and assessment of

Victoria Bustamante; Thomas A. Mellman; Daniella David; Ana I. Fins

2001-01-01

354

Educating the Developing Mind: The View from Cognitive Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Demetriou, Spanoudis, and Mouyi have provided a comprehensive view of the relation between a model of the mind and the process of education. The model they propose is based on cognitive theories of mental action, rather than neuroscientific evidence. I argue here that that is the correct approach, for a model of the information processing…

Hunt, Earl

2012-01-01

355

Class composition influences on pupils' cognitive development 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of low-achieving children in a class can affect the progress of individual pupils in that class. Having a large proportion of low achievers in a class could slow down growth in cognitive achievement but, might also boost such growth, due to the effects of specialist teaching geared to low achievers' needs. In a longitudinal study of 8,684 pupils

Thea Peetsma; Ineke van der Veen; Pjotr Koopman; Erik van Schooten

2006-01-01

356

The development of reading impairment: A cognitive neuroscience model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses recent cognitive neuroscience investigations into the biological bases of developmental dyslexia, a common disorder impacting approximately 5 to 17 percent of the population (Stanovich, 1986, Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly 21: 360-407). Our aim is to summarize central findings from several lines of evidence that

Bruce D. McCandliss; Kimberly G. Noble

2003-01-01

357

Development of Cognitive Structures about Alcoholic Beverages among Preschoolers: II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little is known about very young children's conception of alcoholic beverages and their uses. A study was conducted to determine whether preschool children's ability to correctly access a cognitive network about alcoholic beverages can be related to differences in family exposure to alcohol. Preschoolers (N=57) between the ages of 2.5 and 6 years…

Noll, Robert B.; And Others

358

Exploring Science: The Cognition and Development of Discovery Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores individual cognitive processes and the psychology of scientific discovery. Nine studies are presented that investigate childrens' and adults' attempts to make scientific discoveries from a theoretical perspective. Contents include: (1) "Investigating Scientific Thinking: Why and How"; (2) "Scientific Discovery as Problem…

Klahr, David

359

The place of structured experience in early cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of structured or programmed experience in early cognitive learning, as embodied in prevalent approaches to the acceleration of such learning and to preschool education. Starting from a brief overview of research on the effects of training on the acquisition of conservation, the argument is presented that this concept is normally acquired as a by-product of

Joachim F. Wohlwill

1970-01-01

360

Avram Noam Chomsky and His Cognitive Development Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, cognitive scientist, logician, historian, political critic and activist. Chomsky is an Institute Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy at MIT where he has worked for over fifty years. Chomsky has been described as the father of modern linguistics and a major…

Costley, Kevin C.; Nelson, Jaime

2013-01-01

361

Does Parental Divorce Affect Adolescents' Cognitive Development? Evidence from  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyse data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 to investigate whether experiencing parental divorce during ado- lescence reduces measured cognitive ability. To account for the potential en- dogeneity of parental divorce we employ a difference-in-differences model that relies on observing tenagers' outcomes before and after divorce. We find that parental divorce does not negatively

Anna Sanz de Galdeano; Daniela Vuri

362

Teaching Cognitive-Moral Development in College (A Generalist Approach).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines methods of teaching moral issues to undergraduate students using works of Lawrence Kohlberg, William Perry, Jr., Erik Erikson, and Elisabeth Kubler-Ross in conjunction with literary tests. Encourages comparative and illustrative studies of literature and film. Suggests student participation in cognitive and moral decision making of…

Gross, Francis L., Jr.

1981-01-01

363

The Development of Cognitive Skills To Support Inquiry Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing the value of inquiry learning as an educational method, it is argued, rests on thorough, detailed knowledge of the cognitive skills it is intended to promote. Mental models, as representations of the reality being investigated in inquiry learn- ing, stand to influence strategies applied to the task. In the research described here, the hypothesis is investigated that students at

Deanna Kuhn; John Black; Alla Keselman; Danielle Kaplan

2000-01-01

364

Cognitive Styles and Hypermedia Navigation: Development of a Learning Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews published findings from empirical studies of hypermedia learning and cognitive styles and classifies them into five themes: nonlinear learning, learner control, navigation in hyperspace, matching and mismatching, and learning effectiveness. Presents a learning model and discusses implications for the design of hypermedia learning systems.…

Chen, Sherry Y.; Macredie, Robert D.

2002-01-01

365

Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.  

PubMed

Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD) or 50% dietary restriction (DR) groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks), we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (Ppar?) and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c) mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure. PMID:23741310

Shimizu, Noriyuki; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Nishi, Yuina; Harada, Saki; Iwaki, Yohei; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Séi, Hiroyoshi

2013-05-31

366

Early development in Dravet syndrome; visual function impairment precedes cognitive decline.  

PubMed

Aim of the study was to describe prospectively the early neuropsychological evolution including the first pre-cognitive stages of the Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy in Infancy (SMEI) or Dravet syndrome. Five cases, four of whom since before a diagnostic evidence of the Dravet syndrome, were followed up. Full clinical assessment including developmental, visual function and behaviour assessments were serially performed. In four cases, a variable onset age of cognitive decline assessed with developmental scales was preceded some months before by an impairment of visual function; the remaining patient during all the course of follow-up till 51 months of age showed a normal development without visual impairment. A cognitive decline with variable onset was generally confirmed in Dravet syndrome. The previous early impairment of visual function seems to herald the cognitive decline and provides useful prognostic information; furthermore, it possibly suggests some clues for a better understanding of the mechanisms of cognitive deterioration in this syndrome. PMID:21109403

Chieffo, Daniela; Ricci, Daniela; Baranello, Giovanni; Martinelli, Diego; Veredice, Chiara; Lettori, Donatella; Battaglia, Domenica; Dravet, Charlotte; Mercuri, Eugenio; Guzzetta, Francesco

2010-11-24

367

Impact of Service-Learning and Social Justice Education on College Students' Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used the Measure of Epistemology Reflection to explore the impact of service-learning and social justice education on college students' cognitive development. Six service-learning courses taught with or without a social justice emphasis were studied. Results showed that ser- vice-learning courses in general had a positive impact on students' cognitive development, while service-learning courses with a social justice emphasis

Yan Wang; Robert Rodgers

2006-01-01

368

Cognitive development, egocentrism, self-esteem, and adolescent contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive development, egocentrism, and self-esteem were examined in relation to contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Subjects were 300 high school students and college freshmen (age range=14–19 years) who completed a battery of self-report instruments. Based on multiple regression, analysis of covariance, and discriminant function analyses, findings revealed that adolescents who had higher scores on the cognitive development and self-esteem scales

Grayson N. Holmbeck; Raymond E. Crossman; Mary L. Wandrei; Elizabeth Gasiewski

1994-01-01

369

Does parent education moderate relations between low birth weight and child cognitive development outcomes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using baseline and 3-year data from The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examined the potential for mothers' and fathers' education to buffer at-risk and low birth weight (LBW) children from poor cognitive development outcomes at age 3. Findings suggest that mothers' and fathers' education may both buffer at-risk children from poor cognitive development outcomes, although in different ways.

Bharathi J. Zvara; Sarah J. Schoppe-Sullivan

2010-01-01

370

The Association between Early Adolescent Boys' Cognitive Development, Father Attitudes and Nonverbal Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Piaget's equilibration theory, father dogmatism and empathy was hypothesized to influence sons' cognitive development through non-verbal behavior in father-son interactions. Subjects were 52 pairs of fathers and their sons drawn from first-year high school students of bi-parental families. Fathers' dogmatism and empathy was assessed by questionnaire, sons' cognitive development with Piaget's permutation task using the clinical procedure, and

Richard E. Tremblay; Serge Larivee; Jacques C. Gregoire

1985-01-01

371

A STUDY OF THE PIAGETIAN LEVELS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AMONG NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to confirm that cognitive development in non- Western children follows the same sequential succession of stages ay described by Piaget. A sample of ninety-nine Form Three students from Oyo State, Nigeria, was administered two Piagetian-oriented paper and pencil measures of cognitive development. Overall classification of the students indicated that 14.29%, 52.4% and 33.67% were

OLUBUSUYI FAJEMIDAGBA

372

The Integration of Cognition and Emotion during Infancy and Early Childhood: Regulatory Processes Associated with the Development of Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 4 1/2-years of…

Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann

2007-01-01

373

The Correlation Between Brain Development, Language Acquisition, and Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

There continues to be a debate whether educators should use brain research to their advantage in the classroom. This debate\\u000a should not prevent educators from using their new found knowledge toward enhancing their students’ learning. By understanding\\u000a how the brain learns, educators are able to determine what developmental level the child is physically, mentally, socially,\\u000a and cognitively. The more knowledge

Leslie Haley Wasserman

2007-01-01

374

Cognitive development in patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (Sanfilippo syndrome)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of one\\u000a of the enzymes involved in the degradation of heparan sulfate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MPS III is characterized by progressive mental deterioration resulting in severe dementia. A number of potentially disease-modifying\\u000a therapies are studied. As preservation of cognitive function is the ultimate goal of treatment, assessment

Marlies J Valstar; Jan Pieter Marchal; Martha Grootenhuis; Vivian Colland; Frits A Wijburg

2011-01-01

375

Marital Conflict, Allostatic Load, and the Development of Children's Fluid Cognitive Performance.  

PubMed

Relations between marital conflict, children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and fluid cognitive performance were examined over 3 years to assess allostatic processes. Participants were 251 children reporting on marital conflict, baseline RSA, and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to a lab challenge were recorded, and fluid cognitive performance was measured using the Woodcock-Johnson III. A cross-lagged model showed that higher levels of marital conflict at age 8 predicted weaker RSA-R at age 9 for children with lower baseline RSA. A growth model showed that lower baseline RSA in conjunction with weaker RSA-R predicted the slowest development of fluid cognitive performance. Findings suggest that stress may affect development of physiological systems regulating attention, which are tied to the development of fluid cognitive performance. PMID:23534537

Hinnant, J Benjamin; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Buckhalt, Joseph A

2013-03-27

376

Cognitive Development in the Southern African Context. Papers of a Seminar on Cognitive Development (Pretoria, South Africa, November 1, 1990). [Occasional Paper Nr. 50.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is a compilation of papers presented at a seminar on cognitive development in South Africa and one additional paper. The papers were intended to stimulate research and stress the need for program evaluations. Papers concerned: (1) an initiative to improve black primary school teachers' English language, thinking, and teaching skills,…

van Niekerk, Hetta, Comp.

377

Effects of parental larval diet on egg size and offspring traits in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

If a mother's nutritional status predicts the nutritional environment of the offspring, it would be adaptive for mothers experiencing nutritional stress to prime their offspring for a better tolerance to poor nutrition. We report that in Drosophila melanogaster, parents raised on poor larval food laid 3–6% heavier eggs than parents raised on standard food, despite being 30 per cent smaller. Their offspring developed 14 h (4%) faster on the poor food than offspring of well-fed parents. However, they were slightly smaller as adults. Thus, the effects of parental diet on offspring performance under malnutrition apparently involve both adaptive plasticity and maladaptive effects of parental stress.

Vijendravarma, Roshan K.; Narasimha, Sunitha; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

2010-01-01

378

Neurobehavioral toxic effects of perinatal oral exposure to aluminum on the developmental motor reflexes, learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters of mice offspring.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) is a known neurotoxicant and circumstantial evidence has linked this metal with several neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, but no causal relationship has yet been proved. Al-induced behavioral alterations as well as cognitive deficits and rodent brain neurotransmitter level, are well known in adults but the exact mechanism in the offspring of perinatally Al exposed dams is not yet understood properly and needs more attention. In the present study, the perinatal oral exposure of the dams to 300 and 600mg/kg/day Al (aluminum chloride) resulted in significant and deleterious effects in the offspring inflicting a dose-dependent reduction in postnatal body weight gain, delays in opening of the eyes and appearance of body hair fuzz, and deficits in the sensory motor reflexes of the mice pups during weaning period (from the day of birth to postnatal day 21). During adolescent ages of the male offspring, a significant and dose-dependent deficit was also observed in their locomotor activity at postnatal day 22 (PD 22), learning capability (at PD 25), and cognitive behavior (at PD 30-36). Furthermore, a significant and dose-dependent disturbance in the levels of neurotransmitters like dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) was also observed in the forebrain region of the offspring at PD 7, PD 14, PD 21, PD 30, and PD 36. Thus, perinatal Al exposure, particularly during pregnancy and lactation period, can affect the in utero developing fetus and postnatal developing sucklings, raising the concerns that during a critical perinatal period of brain development, Al exposure has potential and long lasting neurotoxic hazards and might modify the properties of the dopaminergic system and thus can change the threshold of that system or other related systems at later ages. A reduced use of Al during pregnancy is of crucial importance in preventing Al-induced delayed neurotoxicity in the offspring. PMID:22115621

Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

2011-11-13

379

The evolution of cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia: current practice and recent developments.  

PubMed

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) evolved from behavioral theory and developed to focus more on cognitive models that incorporated reappraisal of thinking errors and schema change strategies. This article will describe the key elements of CBT for schizophrenia and the current evidence of its efficacy and effectiveness. We conclude with a description of recent concepts that extend the theoretical basis of practice and expand the range of CBT strategies for use in schizophrenia. Mindfulness, meta-cognitive approaches, compassionate mind training, and method of levels are postulated as useful adjuncts for CBT with psychotic patients. PMID:19661198

Tai, Sara; Turkington, Douglas

2009-08-06

380

Development of and change in cognitive control: A comparison of children, young adults, and older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive control involves adjustments in behavior to conflicting information, develops throughout childhood, and declines\\u000a in aging. Accordingly, developmental and age-related changes in cognitive control and response-conflict detection were assessed\\u000a in a response-compatibility task. We recorded performance measures, pre-response time (pre-RT) activity and medial frontal\\u000a negativity (MFN)—sequentially occurring, putative event-related potential (ERP) indexes, respectively, of cognitive control\\u000a and response-conflict detection. When

David Friedman; Doreen Nessler; Yael M. Cycowicz; Cort Horton

2009-01-01

381

Poor maternal environment enhances offspring disease resistance in an invertebrate  

PubMed Central

Natural populations vary tremendously in their susceptibility to infectious disease agents. The factors (environmental or genetic) that underlie this variation determine the impact of disease on host population dynamics and evolution, and affect our capacity to contain disease outbreaks and to enhance resistance in agricultural animals and disease vectors. Here, we show that changes in the environmental conditions under which female Daphnia magna are kept can more than halve the susceptibility of their offspring to bacterial infection. Counter-intuitively, and unlike the effects typically observed in vertebrates for transfer of immunity, mothers producing offspring under poor conditions produced more resistant offspring than did mothers producing offspring in favourable conditions. This effect occurred when mothers who were well provisioned during their own development then found themselves reproducing in poor conditions. These effects likely reflect adaptive optimal resource allocation where better quality offspring are produced in poor environments to enhance survival. Maternal exposure to parasites also reduced offspring susceptibility, depending on host genotype and offspring food levels. These maternal responses to environmental conditions mean that studies focused on a single generation, and those in which environmental variation is experimentally minimized, may fail to describe the crucial parameters that influence the spread of disease. The large maternal effects we report here will, if they are widespread in nature, affect disease dynamics, the level of genetic polymorphism in populations, and likely weaken the evolutionary response to parasite-mediated selection.

Mitchell, Suzanne E; Read, Andrew F

2005-01-01

382

Cheating honeybee workers produce royal offspring.  

PubMed

The Cape bee (Apis mellifera capensis) is unique among honeybees in that workers can lay eggs that instead of developing into males develop into females via thelytokous parthenogenesis. We show that this ability allows workers to compete directly with the queen over the production of new queens. Genetic analyses using microsatellites revealed that 23 out of 39 new queens produced by seven colonies were offspring of workers and not the resident queen. Of these, eight were laid by resident workers, but the majority were offspring of parasitic workers from other colonies. The parasites were derived from several clonal lineages that entered the colonies and successfully targeted queen cells for parasitism. Hence, these parasitic workers had the potential to become genetically reincarnated as queens. Of the daughter queens laid by the resident queen, three were produced asexually, suggesting that queens can 'choose' to produce daughter queens clonally and thus have the potential for genetic immortality. PMID:18048282

Jordan, Lyndon A; Allsopp, Michael H; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Wossler, Theresa C; Beekman, Madeleine

2008-02-01

383

The Development of Cognitive and Academic Abilities: Growth Curves From an Early Childhood Educational Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Abecedarian Project, a prospective randomized trial, the effects of early educational intervention on patterns of cognitive and academic development among poor, minority children were examined. Participants in the follow-up were 104 of the original 111 participants in the study (98% African American). Early treatment was full-time, high-quality, educational child care from infancy to age 5. Cognitive test scores

Frances A. Campbell; Elizabeth P. Pungello; Shari Miller-Johnson; Margaret Burchinal; Craig T. Ramey

2001-01-01

384

Lessons Learned from Developing Cognitive Support for Communication, Entertainment, and Creativity for Older People with Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed cognitive support for people with dementia in three areas of activity : communication, entertainment and\\u000a creativity. In each case the cognitive support was intended to in some way replace an effective working memory. With all three\\u000a projects our findings have been a mix of expected results and surprises. We are still working out the implications of some

Norman Alm; Arlene Astell; Gary Gowans; Richard Dye; Maggie Ellis; Phillip Vaughan; Philippa Riley

2009-01-01

385

Brain Activity and Cognitive Status in Pediatric Patients: Development of a Clinical Assessment Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test the validity of a new computerized task to assess children's cognitive problem-solving skills using the brain event-related potentials. This event-related potential-computerized cognitive problem-solving task does not require a child to give a verbal or motor (ie, pointing) response. The event-related potential waveforms were recorded from 20 typically developing children. Two nonverbal, problem-solving

Joseph M. Byrne; John F. Connolly; Shannon E. MacLean; Tricia L. Beattie; Joseph M. Dooley; Kevin E. Gordon

2001-01-01

386

Cognitive Variability in the Development of the Concept of Family: A Contextualist or a Gradualist View?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate the existence of cognitive variability in the development of the concept of\\u000a family and to highlight its relevance to a model of conceptual change. Cognitive variability is indicated by the existence\\u000a of a variety of knowledge states displayed across tasks. It is argued that stable and transitional knowledge states can be\\u000a captured

MARÍA JOSÉ RODRIGO; Beatriz Triana; María Simón

387

Support for the Cognitive-Developmental Theory of Moral Development and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have developed the Moral Judgment Test (MJT) on the basis of ideas taken from philosophers (e.g., Habermas, Apel), psychologists (Piaget's notion of affective-cognitive parallelism, Kohlberg's definition of morality as a competence, G.A. Kelly' personal construct theory, H.H. Kelley's idea of subjective variance analysis, Jim Rest's postulate of hierarchical moral preferences), cognitive test theorists (Torgerson's concept of response scaling, N.

Georg Lind

2006-01-01

388

Development and Pilot Testing of a Novel Compensatory Cognitive Training Intervention for People with Psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia have a profound impact on everyday functioning and level of community integration for affected individuals. Cognitive training (CT) interventions may help improve these impairments. We developed and pilot-tested a 12-week, group-based CT intervention that focused on teaching compensatory strategies and helping participants make these strategies habitual (i.e., habit learning). Participants were randomly assigned to CT

ELIZABETH W. TWAMLEY; GAURI N. SAVLA; CYNTHIA H. ZURHELLEN; ROBERT K. HEATON; DILIP V. JESTE

2008-01-01

389

Reliability and Validity of the Complex Postformal Thought Questionnaire: Assessing Adults’ Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies investigated the psychometric properties of the complex postformal thought (PFT) questionnaire (Sinnott, unpublished\\u000a scale, 1998; Sinnott and Johnson 1997), which is a measure of adult cognitive development. The scale was found to be moderately reliable (? = .63). To assess construct\\u000a validity, a comparison of participants’ performance on the PFT scale to their performance on the Need for Cognition scale

Kelly B. Cartwright; M. Paz Galupo; Seth D. Tyree; Jennifer Gavin Jennings

2009-01-01

390

A prospective longitudinal study of early cognitive development in tuberous sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a prospective longitudinal study of cognitive development in a series of 20 clinic-referred infants with Tuberous Sclerosis. The infants were seen between the ages of 11 and 37 months and were assessed regularly at 6-month periods using a within-subjects repeated measures design. Assessment using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, a measure of cognitive and motor showed that

Ayla Humphrey; Jayne Williams; Eleanor Pinto; Patrick F. Bolton

2004-01-01

391

Cognitive Expertise, Emotional Development and Reflective Capacity: Clinical Skills for Improved Pain Care  

PubMed Central

The overarching goal of medical training is to nurture the growth of knowledgeable, caring and insightful clinicians guided by the ideals of medical professionalism. Recent definitions of professional competence identify essential clinical skills, including cognitive expertise, emotional competence, and reflective capacity. This modern framework reflects the increasingly complex nature of the patient-clinician interaction, in which the clinician must exchange diagnostic information while supportively engaging the patient on a deeper, affective level. The affective dimension can be particularly potent when pain is the primary symptom, as it is for the majority of medical visits. Unfortunately, however, current models of professionalism, used as an early guide for medical trainees to develop an understanding of the clinical exchange, largely focus on interactions in the cognitive domain. To emphasize the importance of emotions in professional development, we propose the Cognitive and Emotional Preparedness Model (CEPM), which describes the clinical encounter occurring on two channels, one cognitive and the other emotional, and stresses the importance of multidimensional development in preparing the clinician to 1) communicate clinical information, 2) provide emotional support, and 3) actively reflect on experiences for continued improvement. Together, acquisition of knowledge, emotional development, and reflective skill will improve the clinical interaction. Perspective The proficiency of medical trainees in developing clinical skills profoundly shapes patient satisfaction and treatment outcomes. This article reviews the cognitive, emotional and reflective development of medical trainees and presents a model illustrating how clinical development impacts pain care. For improved efficacy, pain education should be calibrated to students' developmental needs.

Murinson, Beth B.; Agarwal, Aakash K.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.

2008-01-01

392

The Development of Graphophonological-Semantic Cognitive Flexibility and Its Contribution to Reading Comprehension in Beginning Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reading-specific and general color-shape cognitive flexibility were assessed in 68 first and second graders to examine: 1) the development of graphophonological-semantic cognitive flexibility (the ability to process concurrently phonological and semantic aspects of print) in comparison to color-shape cognitive flexibility, 2) the contribution of…

Cartwright, Kelly B.; Marshall, Timothy R.; Dandy, Kristina L.; Isaac, Marisa C.

2010-01-01

393

Maternal infection and fever during late gestation are associated with altered synaptic transmission in the hippocampus of juvenile offspring rats.  

PubMed

Prenatal exposure to infection is known to affect brain development and has been linked to increased risk for schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to investigate whether maternal infection and associated fever near term disrupts synaptic transmission in the hippocampus of the offspring. We used LPS to mimic bacterial infection and trigger the maternal inflammatory response in near-term rats. LPS was administered to rats on embryonic days 15 and 16 and hippocampal synaptic transmission was evaluated in the offspring on postnatal days 20-25. Only offspring from rats that showed a fever in response to LPS were tested. Schaffer collateral-evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) and fiber volleys in CA1 of hippocampal slices appeared smaller in offspring from the LPS group compared with controls, but, when the fEPSPs were normalized to the amplitude of fiber volleys, they were larger in the LPS group. In addition, intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons was heightened, as antidromic field responses in the LPS group were greater than those from control. Short-, but not long-term plasticity was impaired since paired-pulse facilitation of the fEPSP was attenuated in the LPS group, whereas no differences in long-term potentiation were noted. These results suggest that LPS-induced inflammation during pregnancy produces in the offspring a reduction in presynaptic input to CA1 with compensatory enhancements in postsynaptic glutamatergic response and pyramidal cell excitability. Neurodevelopmental disruption triggered by prenatal infection can have profound effects on hippocampal synaptic transmission, likely contributing to the memory and cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. PMID:18753265

Lowe, Germaine C; Luheshi, Giamal N; Williams, Sylvain

2008-08-27

394

Parent-offspring conflict and the genetics of offspring solicitation and parental response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solicitation displays by offspring and responses by parents are commonly regarded as phenotypic expressions of the conflict over parental investment between genes expressed in offspring and their parents. Models for the resolution of the parent-offspring conflict have assumed genetic variation for levels of both offspring solicitation and parental response in order to allow offspring and parental strategies to coevolve and

MATHIAS KO; HEINZ RICHNER

2001-01-01

395

8 Dynamic cycles of cognitive and brain development: Measuring growth in mind, brain, and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview Since the seminal work of Jean Piaget on the relation between knowledge and general biology, researchers have started to understand the basic neurocognitive processes in the unfolding of human development. In particular, recent dynamic growth models illuminate the complex, interrelated changes that take place during brain growth, cognitive development, and learning. Neurocognitive development should be conceived not as a

Kurt W. Fischer

396

On the Problem of Development of Cognitive Abilities in Preschool Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational objective of the Russian "Development" curriculum for children ages 3-7 is the development of creative and intellectual abilities. Theoretical foundations for the curriculum include the works of Vygotsky, Venger, Leontev, and Zaporozhets, which offer ideas such as: (1) child development is the unity of affective and cognitive

Diachenko, O. M.

397

Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Developments: Implications for Clinical Assessment in Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adolescence is a time of significant physical, social, and emotional developments, accompanied by changes in cognitive and language skills. Underlying these are significant developments in brain structures and functions including changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter tracts. Among the brain regions that develop during…

Ciccia, Angela Hein; Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.

2009-01-01

398

Cash Transfers, Behavioral Changes, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cash transfer programs have become extremely popular in the developing world. A large literature analyzes their effects on schooling, health and nutrition, but relatively little is known about possible impacts on child development. This paper analyzes the impact of a cash transfer program on early childhood cognitive development. Children in households randomly assigned to receive benefits had significantly higher levels

Karen Macours; Norbert Schady; Renos Vakis

2012-01-01

399

Cash Transfers, Behavioral Changes, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cash transfer programs have become extremely popular in the developing world. There is a large literature on the effects of these programs on schooling, health and nutrition, but relatively little is known about possible impacts on child development. This paper analyzes the impact of a cash transfer program on cognitive development in early childhood in rural Nicaragua. Identification is based

Karen Macours; Norbert Schady; Renos Vakis

2012-01-01

400

Cash Transfers, Behavioral Changes, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cash transfer programs have become extremely popular in the developing world. There is a large literature on the effects of these programs on schooling, health and nutrition, but relatively little is known about possible impacts on child development. This paper analyzes the impact of a cash transfer program on cognitive development in early childhood in rural Nicaragua. Identification is based

Karen Macours; Norbert Schady; Renos Vakis

2011-01-01

401

Impact on Infants' Cognitive Development of Antenatal Exposure to Iron Deficiency Disorder and Common Mental Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and common mental disorders (CMD) on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. Methods A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12–20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb <11 g/dL and serum ferritin <15 ng/mL. CMD symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam validation. Infant cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Ed. Path analyses were performed to determine the direct and indirect, partly or fully mediated, causal effects of the antenatal exposures. Results A total of 497 pregnant women were recruited, of those 378 women provided complete data which were included in the analyses. Statistically significant direct adverse effects of persistent antenatal IDA (estimated difference of ?11.62 points; 95% CI ?23.01 to ?0.22) and antenatal CMD (?4.80 points; 95% CI: ?9.40 to ?0.20) on infant Bayley cognitive scores at six months were found. Higher birthweight, household wealth, and self-rated sufficient supply of breastmilk were associated with higher cognitive scores. Maternal age >30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants’ Bayley cognitive scores. Conclusions These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.

Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane

2013-01-01

402

A cognitive perspective on object relations, drive development and ego structure in the second and third years of life.  

PubMed

This paper extends a recent line of research by correlating Piaget's theory of cognitive development with several psychoanalytic perspectives on development during the second and third years of life. The concrete, imagistic, unintegrated nature of mental representations associated by Mahler and Kernberg with this period, along with the mental operation of splitting, are related to preconceptual representation, a cognitive mode described by Piaget. Psychoanalytic perspectives on the body ego and object world associated with the anal period are also seen to involve concrete, unintegrated representations which show correspondence with preconceptual cognition. Parallels are explored between cognitive stages and the psychoanalytic understanding of ego and superego development. While psychoanalysis is not a cognitive psychology, aspects of its theory are concerned with cognitive structure and are enriched by a consideration of cognitive development. PMID:2606598

Posener, J A

1989-01-01

403

Maternal and developmental immune challenges alter behavior and learning ability of offspring  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of the offspring immune response during development is known to influence growth and behavioral phenotype. However, the potential for maternal antibodies to block the behavioral effects of immune activation during the neonatal period has not been assessed. We challenged female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) prior to egg laying and then challenged offspring during the nestling and juvenile periods with one of two antigens (keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). We then tested the effects of maternal and neonatal immune challenges on offspring growth rates and neophobia and learning ability of offspring during adulthood. Neonatal immune challenge depressed growth rates. Neophobia of adult offspring was influenced by a combination of maternal treatment, offspring treatment, and offspring sex. Males challenged with LPS during the nestling and juvenile periods had reduced learning performance in a novel foraging task; however, female learning was not impacted. Offspring challenged with the same antigen as mothers exhibited similar growth suppression and behavioral changes as offspring challenged with a novel antigen. Thus, developmental immune challenges have long-term effects on the growth and behavioral phenotype of offspring. We found limited evidence that matching of maternal and offspring challenges reduces the effects of immune challenge in the altricial zebra finch. This may be a result of rapid catabolism of maternal antibodies in altricial birds. Our results emphasize the need to address sex differences in the long-term effects of developmental immune challenge and suggest neonatal immune activation may be one proximate mechanism underlying differences in adult behavior.

Grindstaff, Jennifer L.; Hunsaker, Veronica R.; Cox, Shelby N.

2012-01-01

404

Cognitive engineering in algorithm development for multisensor data fusion in military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In battlefield situations, human operators are bombarded with substantial amounts of information and expected to make near-instantaneous decisions. The large amounts of information, coupled with short decision times and the need to reduce the potential of making incorrect decisions, create the possibility for information overload. This problem is especially prominent in military applications involving imagery from multiple sensors. Computer-based algorithms for fusing pertinent sets of imagery have proven somewhat useful for alleviating this problem. However, little research has been done on designing multisensor data fusion systems using principles of cognitive engineering, which involves the consideration of human cognition during the design process. The design of a sensor fusion system using principles from cognitive engineering would create a more natural relationship between human and machine, and would thus be extremely effective in reducing operator error in military situations. This paper explores the need for integrating human reasoning and cognition in algorithm development for multisensor fusion applications.

Kight, Amanda C.; Narayanan, S.

2004-04-01

405

The initial development of an instrument to assess the psychosocial needs and unmet needs of young people who have a parent with cancer: piloting the offspring cancer needs instrument (OCNI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study aimed to identify the psychosocial needs of young people (12–24 years) who have a parent with cancer and to assess\\u000a whether these needs are being met. This paper also presented the initial steps in the development of a need-based measure—the\\u000a Offspring Cancer Needs Instrument (OCNI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Study 1 used qualitative methods to identify the needs of the target population, including

Pandora Patterson; Angela Pearce; Emma Slawitschka

406

Teenage parents and their offspring.  

PubMed

Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development. PMID:8669783

Kaufman, J

1996-06-18

407

Applying New Approaches From Cognitive Neuroscience to Enhance Drug Development for the Treatment of Impaired Cognition in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

New approaches to the measurement of cognition in schizophrenia include the use of tasks from experimental cognitive psychology to examine the integrity of specific cognitive systems and the application of these tasks in noninvasive neuroimaging (e.g., functional magnetic reso- nance imaging (fMRI)) studies that directly measure the effects of drugs on cognition-related brain activity. These approaches offer many advantages, including

Cameron S. Carter

2005-01-01

408

Mother-offspring interactions in zebu cattle.  

PubMed

The knowledge of the interaction between mother and offspring might contribute to enhance the welfare of the offspring and to improve the reproductive efficiency of the cow. However, there is still little information available about such interaction in some cattle breeds. A series of observational studies were set up, addressing the mother-offspring relationships of Nelore, Guzerat and Gyr cattle breeds. Firstly, the behaviour of cows and calves around the time of parturition was described, and then, the underlying factors that affect the calves' survival and development were studied. Special attention was given to the failure or delay in the first suckling. The results together are indicative of genetic variability for some studied variables, indicating the possibility of selection for calf vigour (using latency to stand up and latency to suckle as its indicators) and maternal ability (using percentage of time in contact with the calves), in spite of the estimates of heritability were low and presented high standard deviation for all variables. The individual variability in their suckling behaviour and the efficiency in first suckling cannot be explained by a single isolated underlying factor. By now, there are some results available, although there are many questions without answers. The field is still open for the development of future research. PMID:18638126

da Costa, M J R Paranhos; Schmidek, A; Toledo, L M

2008-07-01

409

Developing models of how cognitive improvements change functioning: Mediation, moderation and moderated mediation  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive remediation (CRT) affects functioning but the extent and type of cognitive improvements necessary are unknown. Aim To develop and test models of how cognitive improvement transfers to work behaviour using the data from a current service. Method Participants (N49) with a support worker and a paid or voluntary job were offered CRT in a Phase 2 single group design with three assessments: baseline, post therapy and follow-up. Working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning and work outcomes were assessed. Results Three models were tested (mediation — cognitive improvements drive functioning improvement; moderation — post treatment cognitive level affects the impact of CRT on functioning; moderated mediation — cognition drives functioning improvements only after a certain level is achieved). There was evidence of mediation (planning improvement associated with improved work quality). There was no evidence that cognitive flexibility (total Wisconsin Card Sorting Test errors) and working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III digit span) mediated work functioning despite significant effects. There was some evidence of moderated mediation for planning improvement if participants had poorer memory and/or made fewer WCST errors. The total CRT effect on work quality was d = 0.55, but the indirect (planning-mediated CRT effect) was d = 0.082 Conclusion Planning improvements led to better work quality but only accounted for a small proportion of the total effect on work outcome. Other specific and non-specific effects of CRT and the work programme are likely to account for some of the remaining effect. This is the first time complex models have been tested and future Phase 3 studies need to further test mediation and moderated mediation models.

Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Huddy, Vyv; Taylor, Rumina; Wood, Helen; Ghirasim, Natalia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Landau, Sabine

2012-01-01

410

Cognitive Function is Associated with the Development of Mobility Impairments in Community-Dwelling Elders  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association of cognitive function with the risk of incident mobility impairments and the rate of declining mobility in older adults. Design Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting Retirement communities across metropolitan Chicago. Participants 1154 ambulatory elders from two longitudinal studies without baseline clinical dementia or history of stroke or Parkinson’s disease. Measurements All participants underwent baseline cognitive testing and annual mobility exams. Mobility impairments were based on annual timed walking performance. A composite mobility measure which summarized gait and balance measures was used to examine the annual rate of mobility change. Results During follow-up of 4.5 years, 423 of 836 (50.6%) participants developed impaired mobility. In a proportional hazards model controlled for age, sex, education and race, each 1-unit higher level of baseline global cognition was associated with a reduction to about half in the risk of mobility impairments (HR=0.51, 95% CI 0.40, 0.66) and was similar to a participant being about 13 years younger at baseline. These results did not vary by sex or race and were unchanged in analyses controlling for BMI, physical activity, vascular diseases and risk factors. The level of cognition in 5 different cognitive abilities was also related to incident mobility impairment. Cognition showed similar associations with incident loss of the ability to ambulate. Linear mixed-effects models showed that global cognition at baseline was associated with the rate of declining mobility. Conclusions Among ambulatory elders, cognition is associated with incident mobility impairment and mobility decline.

Buchman, Aron S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.

2010-01-01

411

The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-being of African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination\\u000a and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13–18, completed measures of\\u000a cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on the cognitive development measure,\\u000a youth were categorized as having pre-formal or formal reasoning abilities. The

Eleanor K. Seaton

2010-01-01

412

Cognitive Development among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health, and Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examine the relationship between early cognitive development, socioeconomic status (SES), child health, and parenting quality in a developing country. We use a sample of more than 3,000 predominantly poor preschool-aged children from Ecuador, and analyze determinants of their scores on a widely used test of language ability. We find that…

Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert

2007-01-01

413

Cognitive development and children's perceptions of fruit and vegetables; a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most children do not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake. Since preference is an important predictor of intake, more knowledge is needed about children's preferences and about how these preferences develop. As most research about preferences has ignored cognitive development, this study was designed to explore the relation between children's perceptions and preferences for fruit and

Gertrude G Zeinstra; Maria A Koelen; Frans J Kok; Cees de Graaf

2007-01-01

414

The Integration of Cognitive and Sociocultural Theories of Literacy Development: Why? How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive and sociocultural theories of literacy development are historically considered incommensurable in practice and in research. Cognitivists view literacy development as a succession of qualitatively varied skills whereas socioculturalists view literacy as socially and culturally embedded. Traditional educational discourses tend to reflect…

Davidson, Katherine

2010-01-01

415

Does One Size Fit All?: The Challenge of Social Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how selected aspects of participants' histories and future plans influence their social cognitive development in a service learning class. Found that individual circumstances and group norms affect development more profoundly than the elements of program design that have traditionally received the most attention. (EV)

Sperling, Rick; Wang, Vivian Ota; Kelly, Janice M.; Hritsuk, Beth

2003-01-01

416

Professional development in statistics, technology, and cognitively demanding tasks: classroom implementation and obstacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attending professional development programmes can support teachers in applying new strategies for teaching mathematics and statistics. This study investigated (a) the extent to which the participants in a professional development programme subsequently used the techniques they had learned when teaching mathematics and statistics and (b) the obstacles they encountered in enacting cognitively demanding instructional tasks in their classrooms. The programme

Gregory D. Foley; Heba Bakr Khoshaim; Maha Alsaeed; S. Nihan Er

2012-01-01

417

Professional development in statistics, technology, and cognitively demanding tasks: classroom implementation and obstacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attending professional development programmes can support teachers in applying new strategies for teaching mathematics and statistics. This study investigated (a) the extent to which the participants in a professional development programme subsequently used the techniques they had learned when teaching mathematics and statistics and (b) the obstacles they encountered in enacting cognitively demanding instructional tasks in their classrooms. The programme

Gregory D. Foley; Heba Bakr Khoshaim; Maha Alsaeed; S. Nihan Er

2011-01-01

418

New Trends in Integrative Cognitive Science: Approaches to Development and Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new trend in Cognitive Science is the use of artificial agents and systems to investigate learning and development of complex organisms in natural environments. This work, in contrast with traditional AI work, takes into account principles of neural development, problems of embodiment, and complexities of the environment. Current and future promises and challenges for this approach are defined and

Gedeon O. Deák; Marni Stewart Bartlett; Tony Jebara

419

New trends in Cognitive Science: Integrative approaches to learning and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new trend in Cognitive Science is the use of artificial agents and systems to investigate learning and development of complex organisms in natural environments. This work, in contrast with traditional AI work, takes into account principles of neural development, problems of embodiment, and complexities of the environment. Current and future promises and challenges for this approach are defined and

Gedeon O. Deák; Marni Stewart Bartlett; Tony Jebara

2007-01-01

420

Breast feeding and cognitive development at age 1 and 5 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo examine whether duration of breast feeding has any effect on a child's cognitive or motor development in a population with favourable environmental conditions and a high prevalence of breast feeding.METHODSIn 345 Scandinavian children, data on breast feeding were prospectively recorded during the first year of life, and neuromotor development was assessed at 1 and 5 years of age. Main

N K Angelsen; T Vik; G Jacobsen; L S Bakketeig

2001-01-01

421

A Time-Series Analysis of Transition in Social-Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study employs a time-series analysis of naturalistic developmental functioning to describe characteristics of transition in social development. A special education classroom of eight preadolescents, ages 11 and 12, provided subjects for this study. Transitional patterns in social cognitive development were studied in children's…

Jaquette, Daniel S.

422

The effect of vaccination on children's physical and cognitive development in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) in the Philippines to link vaccination in the first 2 years of life with later physical and cognitive development in children. We use propensity score matching to estimate the causal effect of vaccination on child development. We find no effect of vaccination on later height or weight, but

David E. Bloom; David Canning; Erica S. Shenoy

2011-01-01

423

The effect of vaccination on children's physical and cognitive development in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) in the Philippines to link vaccination in the first 2 years of life with later physical and cognitive development in children. We use propensity score matching to estimate the causal effect of vaccination on child development. We find no effect of vaccination on later height or weight, but

David E. Bloom; David Canning; Erica S. Shenoy

2012-01-01

424

The Role of Maternal Literacy in Child Health and Cognitive Development in Rural Guatemala.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing evidence supporting the powerful role that maternal education plays in child growth and cognitive development in developing countries. This study examined the contribution of maternal literacy in mediating the relationship between maternal education and variation in child outcomes from birth to 7 years of age. It was hypothesized…

Khandke, Veena; Pollitt, Ernesto; Gorman, Kathleen S.

425

Current developments of metacognitive concepts and their clinical implications: mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

High relapse and recurrence rate of depression put financial pressure on already stretched resources for health care. Therefore, the demand for the development of prophylactic treatments in order to keep patients well, once recovered, has increased during the last decade. The development of a new therapy manual for group interventions, ‘Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy for Depression’ (MBCT), appears to be one

Nicole Scherer-Dickson

2004-01-01

426

Brain Development and Cognitive, Psychosocial, and Psychiatric Functioning in Classical 21- Hydroxylase Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis characteristic of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21- hydroxylase deficiency (21- OHD) is likely to affect brain development, yet neuroanatomic work is only beginning. Fetal hyperandrogenemia in 46, XX 21- OHD leads to masculinized brain organization and, consequently, at later stages of development, to masculinized gender-related behavior and cognitive function, including, although

Heino F. L Meyer-Bahlburg

2011-01-01

427

Measuring the Combined Risk to Young Children's Cognitive Development: An Alternative to Cumulative Indices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In studies of child development, the combined effect of multiple risks acting in unison has been represented in a variety of ways. This investigation builds upon this preceding work and presents a new procedure for capturing the combined effect of multiple risks. A representative sample of 2,899 British children had their cognitive development

Hall, James E.; Sammons, Pam; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Taggart, Brenda; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Smees, Rebecca

2010-01-01

428

White matter growth as a mechanism of cognitive development in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the functional role of white matter growth in cognitive development. Specifically, we used hierarchical regression analyses to test the unique contributions of age versus white matter integrity in accounting for the development of information processing speed. Diffusion tensor imaging was acquired for 17 children and adolescents (age range 6–17 years), with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA)

Donald J. Mabbott; Michael Noseworthy; Eric Bouffet; Suzanne Laughlin; Conrad Rockel

2006-01-01

429

Stimulating transitions in moral reasoning as a function of stage of cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined L. Kohlberg's proposition that cognitive development is necessary though not sufficient for moral development. The specific hypothesis tested, in a pre–posttest control group design involving 44 female adolescents (mean age 16.2 yrs), was that Moral Stage 3 Ss who have attained \\

Lawrence J. Walker; Boyd S. Richards

1979-01-01

430

Development of the Adolescent Brain: Implications for Executive Function and Social Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adolescence is a time of considerable development at the level of behaviour, cognition and the brain. This article reviews histological and brain imaging studies that have demonstrated specific changes in neural architecture during puberty and adolescence, outlining trajectories of grey and white matter development. The implications of brain…

Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Choudhury, Suparna

2006-01-01

431

Making Care Decisions for Cognitively Impaired Parents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This qualitative hermeneutic/phenomenological study was conducted to answer the question, 'What is the experience of making care decisions for cognitively impaired parents.' A purposeful sample consisted of 22 adult offspring aged 35-64 (14 daughters, 6 s...

K. C. Cook

2005-01-01

432

Development and evaluation of social cognitive measures related to adolescent dietary behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to develop and evaluate the reliability and factorial validity, of social-cognitive measures related to adolescent healthy eating behaviors. Methods A questionnaire was developed based on constructs from Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and included the following scales: self-efficacy, intentions (proximal goals), situation (perceived environment), social support, behavioral strategies, outcome expectations and expectancies. The questionnaire was administered with a two week test-retest among secondary school students (n?=?173, age?=?13.72?±?1.24). Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to examine model-fit for each scale using multiple indices including: chi-square index, comparative-fit index (CFI), goodness-of-fit index (GFI), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Reliability properties were also examined (ICC and Cronbach’s alpha). Results The reliability and factorial validity of each scale is supported: fit indices suggest each model to be an adequate-to-exact fit to the data; internal consistency was acceptable-to-good (?=0.65?0.79); rank order repeatability was strong (ICC?=?0.81?0.89). Conclusions and implications Results support the reliability and factorial validity of social cognitive scales relating to healthy eating behaviors among adolescents. As such, the developed scales have utility for identifying potential social cognitive correlates of adolescent dietary behavior, mediators of dietary behavior change and validity testing of theoretical models based on Social Cognitive Theory.

2012-01-01

433

Maternal Obesity during Gestation Impairs Fatty Acid Oxidation and Mitochondrial SIRT3 Expression in Rat Offspring at Weaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's risk of obesity in later life. We have also previously reported that offspring of obese rat dams develop hepatic steatosis, mild hyperinsulinemia, and a lipogenic gene signature in the liver at postnatal day (PND)21. In the current study, we examined systemic and hepatic adaptations in male Sprague-Dawley offspring from lean and

Sarah J. Borengasser; Franchesca Lau; Ping Kang; Michael L. Blackburn; Martin J. J. Ronis; Thomas M. Badger; Kartik Shankar; Giorgio Sesti

2011-01-01

434

Maternal obesity during gestation impairs fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial SIRT3 expression in rat offspring at weaning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring’s risk of obesity in later life. We have also previously reported that offspring of obese rat dams develop hepatic steatosis, mild hyperinsulinemia, and a lipogenic gene signature in the liver at postnatal day (PND) 21. In the current s...

435

Exposure to TCDD during development permanently alters reproductive function in male Long Evans rats and hamsters: reduced ejaculated and epididymal sperm numbers and sex accessory gland weights in offspring with normal androgenic status.  

PubMed

Prenatal administration of relatively low doses of TCDD alters reproductive development and fertility of the progeny. Fertility was reduced in the progeny of Wistar rats exposed to 0.5 micrograms TCDD/kg/day from Gestational Day (GD) 6 to GD 15. In a three-generation reproduction study, TCDD reduced fertility of Sprague-Dawley rats in the F1 and F2 but not the F0 (no developmental exposure) generation at 0.01 microgram/kg/day in the diet. Furthermore, administration of TCDD on GD 15 (at 0.064 to 1 microgram/kg) both demasculinized and feminized morphology and behavior of Holtzman male rat offspring. Our objectives were to expand the observations of Mably et al. (1992, Toxicol, Appl. Pharmacol. 114, 97-107, 108-117, 118-126) on the effects of gestational administration of a single dose of TCDD to another strain of rat and another species, the hamster. In the first study, Long Evans (LE) hooded rats were dosed by gavage with 1 microgram TCDD/kg on GD 8 (during the period of major organogenesis) or GD 15 (the gestational day used by Mably et al.). In the second study, pregnant Syrian hamsters, a species relatively insensitive to the lethal effects of TCDD, were dosed on GD 11, equivalent to GD 15 in the rat, with TCDD at 2 micrograms/kg. When LE rats were dosed on GD 15, or when hamsters were dosed on GD 11, puberty (preputial separation) was delayed by about 3 days, ejaculated sperm counts were reduced by at least 58%, and epididymal sperm storage was reduced by 38%. Testicular sperm production was less affected. The sex accessory glands were also reduced in size in LE rat offspring treated on GD 15 despite the fact that serum testosterone (T), T production by the testis in vitro, and androgen receptor (AR) levels were not reduced. Some reproductive measures, such as anogenital distance and male sex behavior, were altered by TCDD treatment in rat but not hamster offspring. Since T and AR levels appeared normal in the sex accessory glands and the epididymis following perinatal TCDD exposure, the alterations in these tissues are not likely to have resulted from an alteration of the androgenic status of the male offspring. PMID:7878665

Gray, L E; Kelce, W R; Monosson, E; Ostby, J S; Birnbaum, L S

1995-03-01

436

Maternal nutrient restriction predisposes ventricular remodeling in adult sheep offspring.  

PubMed

Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy is associated with the development of a "thrifty phenotype" in offspring, conferring increased prevalence of metabolic diseases in adulthood. To explore the possible mechanisms behind heart diseases in adulthood following maternal nutrient restriction, dams were fed a nutrient-restricted (NR: 50%) or control (100%) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation. Both groups were then fed 100% of requirements to lambing. At 6 years of age, female offspring of NR and control ewes of similar weight and body condition were subjected to ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable diet for 12 weeks. Cardiac geometry, post-insulin receptor signaling, autophagy and proinflammatory cytokines were evaluated in hearts from adult offspring. Our results indicated that maternal nutrient restriction overtly increased body weight gain and triggered cardiac remodeling in offspring following the 12-week ad libitum feeding. Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) was increased in left but not right ventricles from NR offspring. Levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 were up-regulated in left ventricles, whereas expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and toll-like receptor-4 was enhanced in right ventricles, in adult offspring of maternal nutrition-restricted ewes. No significant differences were found in pan-IRS1, pan-AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), pan-Akt, phosphorylated AMPK, phosphorylated Akt, glucose transporter 4, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, Beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light-chain 3 II proteins in left and right ventricles between the control and NR offspring. These data revealed that maternal nutrient restriction during early to mid gestation may predispose adult offspring to cardiac remodeling possibly associated with phosphorylation of IRS1 as well as proinflammatory cytokines but not autophagy. PMID:23333094

Ge, Wei; Hu, Nan; George, Lindsey A; Ford, Stephen P; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Jun

2013-01-17

437

The Coemergence of Cognition, Language, and Speech Motor Control in Early Development: A Longitudinal Correlation Study  

PubMed Central

Although the development of spoken language is dependent on the emergence of cognitive, language, and speech motor skills, knowledge about how these domains interact during the early stages of communication development is currently limited. This exploratory investigation examines the strength of associations between longitudinal changes in articulatory kinematics and development of skills in multiple domains thought to support early communication development. Twenty-four infants were investigated every three months between the ages of 9 and 21 months. Movements of the upper lip, lower lip, and jaw were transduced using a three-dimensional motion capture system to obtain age-related changes in movement speed and range of movement. Standardized measures of cognition and language from the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd edition and the MacArthur-Bates Child Development Inventory were also collected. Significant associations were identified between orofacial kinematic and the standardized measures of language and cognitive skills, even when age served as covariate. These findings provide preliminary evidence of interactions between cognition, language, and speech motor skills during early communication development. Further work is needed to identify and quantify causal relations among these co-emerging skills.

Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

2010-01-01

438

The thrifty phenotype hypothesis: thrifty offspring or thrifty mother?  

PubMed

Medical research is increasingly focusing on the contribution of nutritional programming to disease in later life. Programming is a process whereby a stimulus during a critical window of time permanently affects subsequent structure, function or developmental schedule of the organism. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis is widely used to interpret such studies, with early growth restriction seen as adaptation to environmental deprivation. However, such permanent adjustment is less beneficial than maintaining flexibility so as to recover from early growth deficits if the environment improves. Thus, the existing thrifty phenotype hypothesis fails to explain why plasticity is lost so early in development in species with extended growth. One explanation is that the developing organism simply cannot maintain phenotypic plasticity throughout the period of organ growth. This article adds a life history perspective, arguing that programming of the offspring may in some species benefit maternal fitness more than it does that of individual offspring. Closing the critical window early in development allows the preservation of maternal strategy in offspring phenotype, which in humans benefits the mother by constraining offspring demand after weaning. The offspring gains by being buffered against environmental fluctuations during the most sensitive period of development, allowing coherent adaptation of organ growth to the state of the environment. The critical window is predicted to close when offspring physiology becomes independent of maternal physiology, the timing of which depends on offspring trait. Because placental nutrition and lactation buffer against short-term environmental fluctuations, maternal strategy is predicted to derive from long-term experience, encapsulated in maternal size and nutritional status. Such an approach implies that public health programmes for improving birth weight may be more effective if they target maternal development rather than nutrition during pregnancy. Equally, aggressive nutritional management of infants born small or pre-term may induce the very environmental fluctuations that are naturally softened by maternal nutrition. PMID:12634051

Wells, Jonathan C K

2003-03-01

439

The integration of cognition and emotion during infancy and early childhood: Regulatory processes associated with the development of working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 412-years of age in a study designed to examine

Christy D. Wolfe; Martha Ann Bell

2007-01-01

440

Vitamin A supplementation in rats under pregnancy and nursing induces behavioral changes and oxidative stress upon striatum and hippocampus of dams and their offspring.  

PubMed

Vitamin A is important for both development and maintenance of adult brain homeostasis. However, excessive vitamin A exposure has been linked to cognitive impairments and may induce congenital defects, including neuronal malformations. Recently, we demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation is able to alter behavioral parameters and induce a pro-oxidant state in hippocampus and striatum of adult male rat. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation in pregnant and nursing rats on maternal and offspring striatum and hippocampus. Wistar female rats (7 per group) were orally supplemented with retinyl palmitate (2500, 12,500 and 25,000 IU/kg/day) or saline (control) throughout pregnancy and nursing. Homing test was performed at postnatal days (PND) 5 and 10 for offspring, while open field test (OFT) was carried out at PND19 and 20 for dams and offspring, respectively. Redox parameters were evaluated at PND21 for both. Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy and nursing increased superoxide dismutase/catalase (SOD/CAT) ratio and oxidative damage in maternal and offspring striatum and hippocampus. Additionally, supplementation induced behavioral alterations. In conclusion, we suggest some caution regarding vitamin A intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding, since oxidative stress can disturb several biological phenomena, including neuronal signaling and neurotransmission, which may induce several behavioral deficits. PMID:21092734

Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Morrone, Maurílio; Simões-Pires, André; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

2010-11-17

441

Accelerating Leadership Development via Immersive Learning and Cognitive Apprenticeship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors put forward an approach to leadership development that builds on the principle of accelerated learning. They argue that leadership development, particularly in a period of recession or slow economic growth, needs to deliver results more quickly and with fewer resources. Indeed, they raise the question of whether or not this is what is…

Backus, Clark; Keegan, Kevin; Gluck, Charles; Gulick, Lisa M. V.

2010-01-01

442

Developing Motivation and Cognitive Learning Strategies Through an Undergraduate Learning Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the effects on student motivation and cognitive learning strategies of an approach involving an undergraduate learner-centered community of learners approach to instruction. Six learning communities were created using the following objectives: integrated courses, active and collaborative learning, and opportunities for learning through information technology and library resources. Instructors attended ten workshops designed to assist them in developing

Candice R. Stefanou; Jill D. Salisbury-Glennon

2002-01-01

443

Cognitive Coaching: A Critical Phase in Professional Development to Implement Sheltered Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This documentary account describes professional development for teachers in the USA serving culturally and linguistically diverse students. The purpose of the project was to monitor effectiveness of training in Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) and to assess the value of cognitive coaching. Quantitative and qualitative data…

Batt, Ellen G.

2010-01-01

444

Posibilidades y limites de un fomento cognitivo temprano (Possibilities and Limits of Early Cognitive Development).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses preschool education and the research conducted in that field on various relevant topics in an effort to establish recommendations and programs. Cognitive development is the main issue and is seen as a product of maturation as well as of a broad base of experience which results from interaction between the mind and the…

Schmalohr, Emil

445

Early Childhood Computer Experience and Cognitive Development among Urban Low-Income Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the association between home computer experience and cognitive development among preschool children in inner-city Head Start programs. Approximately 200 children enrolled in four Head Start centers in Detroit, Michigan were recruited to participate in this study. Data was collected from parents regarding the children's…

Fish, Angela M.; Li, Xiaoming; McCarrick, Katy; Butler, Sheretta T.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan; Holtrop, Teresa; Partridge, Ty

2008-01-01

446

The Development of Mathematical Thinking as a Function of the Interaction between Affective and Cognitive Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally accepted that mathematical reasoning, like language acquisition, is part of normal cognitive development. This paper proposes that other variables must be considered when explaining the differences in the acquisition of mathematical reasoning skills in young children. Considered is some of the evidence that suggests that certain…

Kaplan, Rochelle G.

447

Cognitive Coping Tool Kit for Psychosis: Development of a Group-Based Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of…

Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica

2007-01-01

448

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Schizophrenia – A Review of Development, Evidence and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders were once thought to be impervious to psychological treatments; however, there is accumulating evidence that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can result in significant clinical benefit to these patients. Aim: This paper aims to describe the development and adaptation of CBT in the treatment of schizophrenia, to summarise the evidence to support CBT as a

Nicholas Tarrier

2005-01-01

449

Bonobos Exhibit Delayed Development of Social Behavior and Cognition Relative to Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Phenotypic changes between species can occur when evolution shapes development. Here, we tested whether differences in the social behavior and cognition of bonobos and chimpanzees derive from shifts in their ontogeny, look- ing at behaviors pertaining to feeding competition in partic- ular. We found that as chimpanzees (n = 30) reached adulthood, they became increasingly intolerant of sharing food,

Victoria Wobber; Richard Wrangham; Brian Hare

2010-01-01

450

Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Internet-Facilitated Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Maternal Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Develop and pilot an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Method: Mothers (N = 70) of children enrolled in Head Start, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session,…

Sheeber, Lisa B.; Seeley, John R.; Feil, Edward G.; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Kosty, Derek B.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

2012-01-01

451

Key Steps in Developing a Cognitive Vaccine against Traumatic Flashbacks: Visuospatial Tetris versus Verbal Pub Quiz  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFlashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event) are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a ‘cognitive vaccine’ [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be

Emily A. Holmes; Ella L. James; Emma J. Kilford; Catherine Deeprose; Kenji Hashimoto

2010-01-01

452

Cognitive aging as an extension of brain development: A model linking learning, brain plasticity, and neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in cognitive aging rates among mammals suggest that the pace of brain aging is genetically determined. In this work, we investigate the possibility that brain aging is an extension of brain development. It is possible that a subset of developmental mechanisms are extreme cases of antagonistic pleiotropy in that they are necessary for reaching adulthood and yet later cause

João Pedro de Magalhães; Anders Sandberg

2005-01-01

453

Cognitive Coping Tool Kit for Psychosis: Development of a Group-Based Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT…

Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica

2007-01-01

454

Development and Validation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Skills Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several theories exist to describe why patients improve in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in only a limited number of studies has CBT skill acquisition been examined, particularly among patients with complex clinical profiles. Thus, the overarching aim of this research was to develop a tool to measure patients’ use of CBT skills, such that it would have clinical utility for

Karen L. Jacob; Michael S. Christopher; Edmund C. Neuhaus

2011-01-01

455

Human resource development of noncommissioned officers in the army; a cognitive style perspective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the assessed performances of non-commissioned officers in aprogramme perceived as an important career enhancing activity for British military personnel. We introduce the idea of cognitive style as an important individual difference affecting performance on programmes of training and development and the implications for career progression. The research methodology adopted involved mixed methods as an alternative way of

Arthur Morgan; Steve Rayner

2011-01-01

456

Development of the Interplay Between Automatic Processes and Cognitive Resources in Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account was tested of the development of the interplay between automatic processes and cognitive resources in reading. According to compensatory-encoding theory, with advancing skill, readers increasingly keep automatic processes from faltering and provide timely, accurate data to working memory by pausing, looking back, rereading, and compensating in other ways when automatic processes fail. Reading skill profiles (e.g., word naming,

Jeffrey J. Walczyk; Min Wei; Diana A. Griffith-Ross; Sarah E. Goubert; Alison L. Cooper; Peijia Zha

2007-01-01

457

The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

2012-01-01

458

The Role of Corpus Callosum Development in Functional Connectivity and Cognitive Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corpus callosum is hypothesized to play a fundamental role in integrating information and mediating complex behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that lack of normal callosal development can lead to deficits in functional connectivity that are related to impairments in specific cognitive domains. We examined resting-state functional connectivity in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) and matched controls using

Leighton B. N. Hinkley; Elysa J. Marco; Anne M. Findlay; Susanne Honma; Rita J. Jeremy; Zoe Strominger; Polina Bukshpun; Mari Wakahiro; Warren S. Brown; Lynn K. Paul; A. James Barkovich; Pratik Mukherjee; Srikantan S. Nagarajan; Elliott H. Sherr

2012-01-01

459

An investigation of the cognitive development of Italian?English bilinguals and Italian monolinguals from Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cognitive development of Italian?English bilinguals and Italian monolinguals was studied on measures of metalinguistic awareness, creativity, nonverbal abilities, and reading achievement. On the whole, results were found to be consistent with Cummins' Threshold Hypothesis, in that an overall superiority was found only for those children who had attained a high degree of bilingualism.

Lina A. Ricciardelli

1993-01-01

460

Towards the Development of an Adaptive Communication Tool Promoting Cognitive and Communication Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this paper discusses the results of an initial qualitative experimental study towards the d