Sample records for offspring cognitive development

  1. Effect of neonatal handling and paternal care on offspring cognitive development in the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus).

    PubMed

    Bredy, Timothy W; Lee, Anna W; Meaney, Michael J; Brown, Richard E

    2004-06-01

    In the laboratory rat and mouse, neonatal handling enhances hippocampal-dependent learning in adulthood, an effect mediated by changes in maternal behavior toward the handled young. In the present study, we examined the interaction between neonatal handling and biparental care during the early postnatal period and its effect on cognitive function in adult California mice (Peromyscus californicus). We characterized the parental behavior of handled and nonhandled father-present and father-absent families over the first 15 days of life. We then assessed cognitive performance of male and female offspring in the Barnes maze and object recognition test after they were 60 days of age. We found that the amount of licking and grooming received by pups was decreased in father-absent families. By postnatal days 12-15, licking and grooming in handled, father-absent families were equivalent to that of nonhandled, father-present families. Handling enhanced novel object recognition in father-present male mice with no effect in females. In the nonhandled group, the presence of the father had no effect on object recognition learning in male or female mice. Handling also enhanced spatial learning in the Barnes maze. In nonhandled families, the presence of the father appeared to have no effect on spatial learning in the male offspring. Interestingly, spatial learning in nonhandled, father-absent, female offspring was similar to that of handled animals. The average amount of licking and grooming received by pups was negatively correlated with the average number of errors made on the first day of reversal training in the Barnes maze. These data support previous findings that neonatal handling facilitates learning and memory in adulthood, suggest that under certain environmental conditions, there is a sex difference in the response of pups to paternal care, and further demonstrate the importance of active parental investment for offspring cognitive development. PMID:15215039

  2. Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in the offspring of parents vulnerable to insomnia: a nuclear family study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shaffer, Michele L; Olavarrieta-Bernardino, Sara; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O; Vela-Bueno, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal is believed to be a predisposing factor for insomnia; however, there is limited information on the association of familial vulnerability to insomnia and cognitive-emotional hyperarousal. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of stress-related insomnia and examine whether parental vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is associated with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in their offspring. We studied a volunteer sample of 135 nuclear families comprised of 270 middle-aged (51.5 ± 5.4 years) fathers and mothers and one of their biological offspring (n = 135, 20.2 ± 1.1 years). We measured vulnerability to stress-related insomnia (i.e. Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test: FIRST), perceived stress, depression and anxiety in all participants, and arousability, presleep cognitive and somatic arousal, coping and personality in the offspring. We found a heritability estimate of 29% for FIRST scores. High FIRST parents had three to seven times the odds of having offspring highly vulnerable to stress-related insomnia. Offspring of high FIRST parents showed higher arousability, presleep cognitive arousal and emotion-oriented coping. Furthermore, high FIRST mothers contributed to offspring's higher anxiety and lower task-oriented coping, while high FIRST fathers contributed to offspring's higher presleep somatic arousal and conscientiousness. Vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is significantly heritable. Parents vulnerable to stress-related insomnia have offspring with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal who rely upon emotion-oriented coping. These data give support to the notion that arousability and maladaptive coping are key factors in the aetiology of insomnia. PMID:24889269

  3. The sperm of aging male bustards retards their offspring's development

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Brian T.; Saint Jalme, Michel; Hingrat, Yves; Lacroix, Frederic; Sorci, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Understanding whether the sperm of older males has a diminished capacity to produce successful offspring is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. We investigate this issue using 10 years of reproductive data on captive long-lived houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), where the use of artificial insemination techniques means parents can only influence offspring quality via their gametes. Here we show that paternal aging reduces both the likelihood that eggs hatch and the rate at which chicks grow, with older males producing the lightest offspring after the first month. Surprisingly, this cost of paternal aging on offspring development is of a similar scale to that associated with maternal aging. Fitting with predictions on germline aging, the sperm of immature males produce the fastest growing offspring. Our findings thus indicate that any good genes benefit that might be offered by older ‘proven' males will be eroded by aging of their germline DNA. PMID:25647605

  4. Paternal influences on offspring development: behavioural and epigenetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Braun, K; Champagne, F A

    2014-10-01

    Although mammalian parent-offspring interactions during early life are primarily through the mother, there is increasing evidence for the impact of fathers on offspring development. A critical issue concerns the pathways through which this paternal influence is achieved. In the present review, we highlight the literature suggesting several of these routes of paternal effects in mammals. First, similar to mothers, fathers can influence offspring development through the direct care of offspring, as has been observed in biparental species. Second, there is growing evidence that, even in the absence of contact with offspring, fathers can transmit environmentally-induced effects (i.e. behavioural, neurobiological and metabolic phenotypes induced by stress, nutrition and toxins) to offspring and it has been speculated that these effects are achieved through inherited epigenetic variation within the patriline. Third, fathers may also impact the quality of mother-infant interactions and thus achieve an indirect influence on offspring. Importantly, these pathways of paternal influence are not mutually exclusive but rather serve as an illustration of the complex mechanisms through which parental influence is achieved. These influences may serve to transmit traits across generations, thus leading to a transgenerational transmission of neurobiological and behavioural phenotypes. PMID:25039356

  5. Odor Identification and Cognitive Function in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Carla R.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Fischer, Mary E.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Ronald; Pankratz, Nathan; Zhong, Wenjun; Nondahl, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory impairment is associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about the association of olfactory impairment and cognitive function in middle-aged adults. The association between olfactory impairment and cognitive function tests of attention, processing speed and executive and psychomotor function was explored in 2837 participants (21–84 years; mean age 49 years) in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Among middle-aged participants (aged 35–64 years), those with impairment on an odor identification test took significantly longer to complete the Trail Making Test (TMT-A and TMT-B) and the Grooved Peg Board (GPB) test, than those without olfactory impairment in regression models adjusted for multiple factors. Similar results were found for the TMT-A and TMT-B, but not the GPB, in the whole cohort. Olfactory impairment was associated with poorer performance on cognitive function tests in a primarily middle-aged cohort. PMID:23789858

  6. Parental Legacy in Insects: Variation of Transgenerational Immune Priming during Offspring Development

    PubMed Central

    Trauer, Ute; Hilker, Monika

    2013-01-01

    In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP) mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i) whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii) whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii) whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO) activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages and depend on the type of immunity (PO or antibacterial activity) as well as the time past offspring immune challenge. PMID:23700423

  7. On Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavell, John H.

    1982-01-01

    If human cognitive development advances through a series of broad and general stages, then the child's mind at any developmental point should seem consistent and similar across situations in its maturity level and general style. However, there appear to be factors and conditions that promote homogeneity and heterogeneity in the child's cognitive

  8. Phenotypic dysregulation of microglial activation in young offspring rats with maternal sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiuying; Xie, Xiaofang; Fan, Yonghua; Zhang, Jinqiang; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Xiaohui; Yan, Shuo; Chen, Yubo; Peng, Cheng; You, Zili

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential adverse effects of maternal sleep deprivation (MSD) on physiological and behavioral aspects of offspring, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study was intended to investigate the roles of microglia on neurodevelopment and cognition in young offspring rats with prenatal sleep deprivation. Pregnant Wistar rats received 72?h sleep deprivation in the last trimester of gestation, and their prepuberty male offspring were given the intraperitoneal injection with or without minocycline. The results showed the number of Iba1(+) microglia increased, that of hippocampal neurogenesis decreased, and the hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory were impaired in MSD offspring. The classical microglial activation markers (M1 phenotype) IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, CD68 and iNOS were increased, while the alternative microglial activation markers (M2 phenotype) Arg1, Ym1, IL-4, IL-10 and CD206 were reduced in hippocampus of MSD offspring. After minocycline administration, the MSD offspring showed improvement in MWM behaviors and increase in BrdU(+)/DCX(+) cells. Minocycline reduced Iba1(+) cells, suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory molecules, and reversed the reduction of M2 microglial markers in the MSD prepuberty offspring. These results indicate that dysregulation in microglial pro- and anti-inflammatory activation is involved in MSD-induced inhibition of neurogenesis and impairment of spatial learning and memory. PMID:25830666

  9. Comparative cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to compare cognitive development in humans and chimpanzees to illuminate the evolutionary origins of human cognition. Comparison of morphological data and life history strongly highlights the common features of all primate species, including humans. The human mother-infant relationship is characterized by the physical separation of mother and infant, and the stable supine posture of infants, that enables vocal exchange, face-to-face communication, and manual gestures. The cognitive development of chimpanzees was studied using the participation observation method. It revealed that humans and chimpanzees show similar development until 3 months of age. However, chimpanzees have a unique type of social learning that lacks the social reference observed in human children. Moreover, chimpanzees have unique immediate short-term memory capabilities. Taken together, this paper presents a plausible evolutionary scenario for the uniquely human characteristics of cognition. PMID:17181706

  10. Effects of afobazole on cognitive behavior of the offspring of rats exposed to tobacco smoke during gestation period.

    PubMed

    Shreder, O V; Solomina, A S; Tsorin, I B; Trofimov, S S; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

    2011-05-01

    Experiments on the model of foraging behavior formation under conditions of free choice (T-maze) revealed learning failure against the background of reduced motor activity in the offspring of rats exposed to tobacco smoke on gestation days 1-20. Afobazole administered to pregnant rats orally in doses of 1 or 10 mg/kg daily during the whole gestation and/or entering rat pup body with breast milk from mothers receiving 200 mg/kg to day 20 of their life normalized their learning capacity. The formation of short-term and long-term memory in animals receiving afobazole did not differ from the control. Hence, afobazole corrects cognitive disorders in rats exposed to tobacco smoke during prenatal development. PMID:22442799

  11. Maternal protein restriction in the rat during pregnancy and\\/or lactation alters cognitive and anxiety behaviors of female offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Reyes-Castro; J. S. Rodriguez; R. Charco; C. J. Bautista; F. Larrea; P. W. Nathanielsz; E. Zambrano

    Maternal protein deficiencies can developmentally program offspring to lifelong dysfunction of many physiological systems. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during fetal and early postnatal development would negatively affect female offspring anxiety, exploration, associative learning and motivation as measured by the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively. Control

  12. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in cognitive deficits in age-increasing offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Hao, L Y; Hao, X Q; Li, S H; Li, X H

    2010-03-31

    Studies have suggested that maternal infection/inflammation maybe a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental brain damage. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of prenatal exposure to a low level of inflammatory stimulation lipopolysaccharide (LPS) repeatedly on spatial learning and memory performances in rat offspring's lifetime. Sixteen pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats in the LPS group were treated i.p. with LPS (0.79 mg/kg) at gestation day 8, 10 and 12; meanwhile the rats in the control group were treated with saline. After delivery, the rat offspring at 3- (young), 10- (adult) and 20-mon-old (aged) were allocated. Spatial learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze. The structure of hippocampal CA1 region was observed by light microscopy. The expression of synaptophysin (SYP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in hippocampal CA1 region were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the rat offspring of LPS group needed longer escape latency and path-length in the Morris water maze and presented a significant neuron loss, decreased expression of SYP, increased expression of GFAP in CA1 region in histological studies. All these changes were more significant with the age increasing. These findings support the hypothesis that maternal systemic inflammation may alter the state of astrocytes in rat offspring for a long time, the alteration may affect neurons and synapse development in neural system, increase the neurons' vulnerability to environment especially as the age increasing, at last result in distinct learning and memory impairment. PMID:20074621

  13. Young Male Offspring of Alcoholic Fathers: Early Developmental and Cognitive Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Robert B.; And Others

    The early cognitive development and motor development of male preschool children with an alcoholic father were compared with matched control subjects from non-alcoholic families who resided in the same neighborhoods. Families were participants in the Michigan State University Longitudinal Study, into which were recruited all drunk drivers…

  14. Maternal Photoperiodic History Affects Offspring Development in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Paul, Matthew J.; Routman, David M.; Zucker, Irving

    2009-01-01

    During the first 7 weeks of postnatal life, short day lengths inhibit the onset of puberty in many photoperiodic rodents, but not in Syrian hamsters. In this species, timing of puberty and fecundity are independent of the early postnatal photoperiod. Gestational day length affects postnatal reproductive development in several rodents; its role in Syrian hamsters has not been assessed. We tested the hypothesis that cumulative effects of pre- and postnatal short day lengths would restrain gonadal development in male Syrian hamsters. Males with prenatal short day exposure were generated by dams transferred to short day lengths 6 weeks, 3 weeks, and 0 weeks prior to mating. Additional groups were gestated in long day lengths and transferred to short days at birth, at 4 weeks of age, or not transferred (control hamsters). In pups of dams exposed to short day treatment throughout gestation, decreased testis growth was apparent by 3 weeks and persisted through 9 weeks of age, at which time maximum testis size was attained. A subset of males (14%), whose dams had been in short days for 3 to 6 weeks prior to mating displayed pronounced delays in testicular development, similar to those of other photoperiodic rodents. This treatment also increased the percentage of male offspring that underwent little or no gonadal regression postnatally (39%). By 19 weeks of age, males housed in short days completed spontaneous gonadal development. After prolonged long day treatment to break refractoriness, hamsters that initially were classified as nonregressors underwent testicular regression in response to a 2nd sequence of short day lengths. The combined action of prenatal and early postnatal short day lengths diminishes testicular growth of prepubertal Syrian hamsters no later than the 3rd week of postnatal life, albeit to a lesser extent than in other photoperiodic rodents. PMID:18838610

  15. Effects of paternal age and offspring cognitive ability in early adulthood on the risk of schizophrenia and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Holger J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B; Ehrenstein, Vera; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-12-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) are both associated with the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in young adult offspring. We hypothesized that the offspring SSD risk gradient associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ. We investigated joint and separate associations of paternal age and offspring IQ with the risk of SSD. We used IQ routinely measured at conscription in Danish males (n=138,966) from cohorts born in 1955-84 and in 1976-1993 and followed them from a year after the conscription through 2010. We used Cox regression to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of SSD. During the follow-up, 528 men developed SSD (incidence rate [IR] 5.2 and 8.6 per 10,000 person-years in the first and second cohorts, respectively). APA was associated with higher risk of SSD (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.10-1.60 per a ten-year increase in paternal age). A higher IQ was associated with lower SSD risk (IRR, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.74 per one SD increase). The IR of SSD was higher among persons who were draft-exempt for health reasons (<20% of the men). Overall, there was little evidence of lower premorbid IQ in APA-related SSD (individuals who developed SSD and were also offspring of older fathers). Our results do not support the notion that risk gradient for offspring SSD associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ. PMID:25445626

  16. Piagetian Approach to Cognitive Development

    E-print Network

    Coulson, Seana

    1 Piagetian Approach to Cognitive Development Piaget's Stages · Sensorimotor ­ (birth ­ 2 yrs (and to figure out which ones!) · Very culture-specific task Cognitive Development · Piaget: 0 Logic in developing? · Stages versus gradually development ­ Objections to discrete series of stages versus idea

  17. The nature of cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Scott P.

    2003-03-01

    Theories of cognitive development have led to enduring and fierce arguments that have been long on rhetoric but short on evidence. Constructivist theory has roots in Piagetian notions of cognitive development as proceeding from self-directed action during infancy. Nativist theories subsequently became popular by producing claims of cognitive precocity, but left open many central questions concerning mechanisms of development. Now, a new view of constructivism is experiencing a renaissance, having achieved greater psychophysical, computational and neural plausibility. PMID:12639685

  18. The role of maternal behavior and offspring development in the survival of mountain goat kids.

    PubMed

    Théoret-Gosselin, Rachel; Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D

    2015-05-01

    Studies on juvenile survival have mainly focused on the effects of environmental conditions and maternal traits. However, growing evidence indicates that the ability of parents to care for their young and the offspring developmental behaviors could be key determinants of their survival. We examined the relative influence of (1) environmental conditions, (2) offspring traits, (3) maternal traits, (4) maternal care behaviors, and (5) offspring developmental behaviors on kid survival to weaning and to 1 year old in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). Offspring development and maternal care directly affected offspring survival, and this more importantly than did environmental conditions and maternal traits. Frequency of play strongly increased survival before weaning. Greater maternal care increased offspring survival during winter, directly and indirectly through kid mass. Kid mass was also a major determinant of both summer and winter survival. Environmental conditions mainly influenced summer survival while maternal characteristics indirectly affected winter survival through an effect on kid mass. Behavioral adaptations of maternal care and offspring development to local selective pressures can lead to local adaptations and have greater implications in population dynamic studies than previously believed. PMID:25556294

  19. Maternal obesity programmes offspring development of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease

    PubMed Central

    Oben, Jude A.; Patel, Trusha; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Samuelsson, Ann Maj; Matthews, Phillippa; Pombo, Joaquim; Morgan, Maelle; Mckee, Chad; Soeda, Junpei; Novelli, Marco; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims The prevalence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) parallels rising rates of obesity and dysmetabolism, a possible link being non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD). We have recently shown that maternal obesity programmes the development of a dysmetabolic and fatty liver (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD) phenotype in adult offspring. Since the pancreas and liver originate from the same embryonic bud, it is plausible that maternal obesity may similarly programme the development of NAFPD. Our objective was to determine the effect of maternal obesity on development of NAFPD in offspring and ascertain contributions of the intra/extra-uterine periods. Methods Female C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard chow (3% fat, 7% sugar) or a hypercalorific diet (16% fat, 33% sugar) for six weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Female offspring were cross-fostered for suckling to dams on the same or opposite diet to yield four groups: offspring of lean suckled by lean dams (n = 6), offspring of obese suckled by obese dams (n = 6), offspring of lean suckled by obese dams (n = 5) and offspring of obese suckled by lean dams (n = 6). All offspring were weaned onto a standard chow diet at 21 days and sacrificed at 3 months post-partum for tissue collection. Results Offspring subjected to an adverse suckling environment showed significant increases in body weight, pancreatic triglyceride content, TGF-?, collagen gene expression and SBP at rest along with an enhanced restraint stress response, indicating a dysmetabolic and NAFPD phenotype. Conclusions Developmental programming is involved in the pathogenesis of NAFPD and appears to be largely dependent on an adverse extra-uterine environment. PMID:20170634

  20. Methodological challenges for understanding cognitive development

    E-print Network

    Aslin, Richard N.

    Methodological challenges for understanding cognitive development in infants Richard N. Aslin 14627, USA Studies of cognitive development in human infants have relied almost entirely on descriptive mechanisms of cognitive development remain largely unknown, despite attempts to correlate behavioral states

  1. Childhood, death, and cognitive development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald P. Koocher

    1973-01-01

    Employed Piaget's framework for conceptualizing cognitive development to explore and analyze children's attitudes toward death. Ss were 75 6-15 yr olds with at least average intellectual ability, as measured by the WISC Similarities subtest. Conservation tests were used to determine S's primary level of cognitive functioning. Each S was asked the following questions: What makes things die? How can you

  2. Poor maternal nutrition inhibits muscle development in ovine offspring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal over and restricted nutrition has negative consequences on the muscle of offspring by reducing muscle fiber number and altering regulators of muscle growth. To determine if over and restricted maternal nutrition affected muscle growth and gene and protein expression in offspring, 36 pregnant ewes were fed 60%, 100% or 140% of National Research Council requirements from d 31?±?1.3 of gestation until parturition. Lambs from control-fed (CON), restricted-fed (RES) or over-fed (OVER) ewes were necropsied within 1 d of birth (n?=?18) or maintained on a control diet for 3 mo (n?=?15). Semitendinosus muscle was collected for immunohistochemistry, and protein and gene expression analysis. Results Compared with CON, muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) increased in RES (58%) and OVER (47%) lambs at 1 d of age (P??0.3). Phosphorylated Akt (ser473) was increased in RES at 3 mo compared with CON (P?=?0.006). Conclusions In conclusion, maternal over and restricted nutrient intake alters muscle lipid content and growth of offspring, possibly through altered gene and protein expression. PMID:25247074

  3. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in cognitive deficits in age-increasing offspring rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Y. Hao; X. Q. Hao; S. H. Li; X. H. Li

    2010-01-01

    Studies have suggested that maternal infection\\/inflammation maybe a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental brain damage. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of prenatal exposure to a low level of inflammatory stimulation lipopolysaccharide (LPS) repeatedly on spatial learning and memory performances in rat offspring's lifetime. Sixteen pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats in the

  4. The effect of periconceptional undernutrition of sheep on the cognitive/emotional response and oocyte quality of offspring at 30 days of age.

    PubMed

    Abecia, J A; Casao, A; Pascual-Alonso, M; Lobón, S; Aguayo-Ulloa, L A; Meikle, A; Forcada, F; Sosa, C; Marín, R H; Silva, M A; Maria, G A

    2014-04-01

    Maternal periconceptional undernutrition is associated with altered development and increased risks of adverse outcomes in the offspring. This circumstance is normal in flocks under extensive farming systems, which depend on natural forage resources. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of periconceptional undernutrition in sheep on behavioral and reproductive aspects of the offspring. Eighty ewes were synchronized in estrus and allocated to two groups (n=40) to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (C) or 0.5 (L) times the requirements for maintenance. Ewes were mated and 7 days later fed the control diet until lambing. One month after lambing, 32 lambs were exposed to tests to determine their cognitive and emotional responses. Six ewe lambs were euthanized and in vitro maturation and fertilization procedures were performed. L ewes presented a significant reduction in prolificacy and fecundity (P<0.05) in comparison with C ewes. Mean LW at lambing of L lambs was significantly higher than C lambs (C: 3.80 ± 0.11; L: 4.24 ± 0.15 kg, P<0.05). Lambs born from C ewes spent more time walking than L lambs (P<0.05) in the isolation test, revealing a decrease in the locomotor activity of lambs born from undernourished ewes around conception. Ewe lambs from the undernourished ewes presented a total population of oocytes 2.3 times higher than ovaries from control ewe lambs (60.0 ± 7.8 v. 140.0 ± 18.5 oocytes; P<0.05). In conclusion, periconceptional undernutrition is able to produce an increment in the body weight and the oocyte population, and an alteration of the locomotor activity of the offspring. PMID:24847694

  5. Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that offspring of mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and are hyperleptinaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and obese as adults. Poor maternal care and bonding can also impact offspring development and disease risk. We therefore hypothesized that prenatal nutrition would affect maternal care and that an interaction may exist between a maternal HF diet and maternal care, subsequently impacting on offspring phenotype. Wistar rats were mated and randomized to control dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Maternal care was assessed by observing maternal licking and grooming of pups between postnatal day (P)3 and P8. Postweaning (P22), offspring were fed a control (–con) or HF (–hf) diet. From P27, pubertal onset was assessed. At ?P105 oestrous cyclicity was investigated. Maternal HF diet reduced maternal care; HF-fed mothers licked and groomed pups less than CON dams. Maternal fat:lean ratio was higher in HF dams at weaning and was associated with higher maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, but there was no effect of maternal care on fat:lean ratio or maternal hormone levels. Both female and male offspring of HF dams were lighter from birth to P11 than offspring of CON dams, but by P19, HF offspring were heavier than controls. Prepubertal retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in pups from HF-fed dams compared to CON and was associated with elevated circulating leptin concentrations in females only, but there was neither an effect of maternal care, nor an interaction between maternal diet and care on prepubertal fat mass. Pups from HF-fed dams went into puberty early and this effect was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet. Maternal and postweaning HF diets independently altered oestrous cyclicity in females: female offspring of HF-fed mothers were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus, whilst female offspring fed a HF diet postweaning were more likely to have irregular oestrous cycles and were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus. These data indicate that maternal HF nutrition during pregnancy and lactation results in a maternal obese phenotype and has significant impact on maternal care during lactation. Maternal and postweaning nutritional signals, independent of maternal care, alter offspring body fat pre-puberty and female reproductive function in adulthood, which may be associated with advanced ovarian ageing and altered fertility. PMID:22411006

  6. Sperm variation within a single ejaculate affects offspring development in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Immler, Simone; Hotzy, Cosima; Alavioon, Ghazal; Petersson, Erik; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that variation in sperm phenotype within a single ejaculate has no consequences for offspring performance, because sperm phenotypes are thought not to reflect sperm genotypes. We show that variation in individual sperm function within an ejaculate affects the performance of the resulting offspring in the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. We experimentally manipulated the time between sperm activation and fertilization in order to select for sperm cohorts differing in longevity within single ejaculates of wild caught male salmon. We found that within-ejaculate variation in sperm longevity significantly affected offspring development and hence time until hatching. Whether these effects have a genetic or epigenetic basis needs to be further evaluated. However, our results provide experimental evidence for transgenerational effects of individual sperm function. PMID:24522632

  7. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PSY 475 CRN: 35871

    E-print Network

    Lockery, Shawn

    COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PSY 475 CRN: 35871 Spring 2013 Tues, Thurs with development. In the brief two years from birth, they alter from helpless bundles into walking, talking dynamos. The course of cognitive development is also in some

  8. Talents Unfolding: Cognition and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Reva C., Ed.; Shore, Bruce M., Ed.

    In this book, developmental, educational, cognitive, and professional psychologists explore early identification of giftedness, what happens when child prodigies grow up, and environmental characteristics that are needed for talent to develop into genius. The nature of creativity and domain-specific expertise is examined, along with how psychology…

  9. Cognitive Development: An Advanced Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Lamb, Michael E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This new text consists of parts of Bornstein and Lamb's Developmental Science, 6th edition along with new introductory material that as a whole provides a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of cognitive development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…

  10. HOMOCYSTEINE & COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE FRAMINGHAM OFFSPRING STUDY: AGE IS IMPORTANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are associated with deficits in cognitive performance in persons free from dementia. The extent to which age modifies these associations is in need of further investigation in large, community-based, prospective studies combining the following elements...

  11. The Impact of Maternal High-Fat Diet Consumption on Neural Development and Behavior of Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Elinor L.; Nousen, Elizabeth K.; Chamlou, Katherine A.; Grove, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal diet and metabolic state are important factors in determining the environment experienced during perinatal development. Epidemiological studies and evidence from animal models provide evidence that a mother’s diet and metabolic condition are important in programming the neural circuitry that regulates behavior, resulting in a persistent impact on the offspring’s behavior. Potential mechanisms by which maternal diet and metabolic profile influence the perinatal environment include placental dysfunction and increases in circulating factors such as inflammatory cytokines, nutrients (glucose and fatty acids) and hormones (insulin and leptin). Maternal obesity and high-fat diet (HFD) consumption exposure during development have been observed to increase the risk of developing serious mental health and behavioral disorders including anxiety, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. The increased risk of developing these behavioral disorders is postulated to be due to perturbations in the development of neural pathways that regulate behavior, including the serotonergic, dopaminergic and melanocortinergic systems. It is critical to examine the influence that a mother’s nutrition and metabolic profile have on the developing offspring considering the current and alarmingly high prevalence of obesity and HFD consumption in pregnant women.

  12. On the Cognition in Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickhard, Mark H.

    1999-01-01

    States that Demetriou and Raftopoulos's theory of cognitive developmental change based on the nature of representation is flawed. Argues against theme of representation as encoding as well as an alternative model of representation as interactivism. Concludes that other issues such as architectural support, variation and selective retention,…

  13. Missing sights: consequences for visual cognitive development

    E-print Network

    Dukas, Reuven

    Missing sights: consequences for visual cognitive development Daphne Maurer1,2 , Terri L. Lewis1 visual cognitive development. Introduction Human visual acuity improves fivefold in the first 6 months cognitive development. Cataract-reversal patients Children born with bilateral or unilateral cataracts

  14. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Axelstad, Marta, E-mail: maap@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Boberg, Julie [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Hougaard, Karin Sorig [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lerso Parkalle 105, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Lund, Soren Peter [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lerso Parkalle 105, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Hass, Ulla [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark)

    2011-02-01

    Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the reproductive and neurological development of rat offspring, which may be a cause of concern, as humans are systematically exposed to the compound through usage of sunscreens and other cosmetics.

  15. Effects of maternal prenatal stress on offspring development: a commentary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marysia J. Lazinski; Alison K. Shea; Meir Steiner

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with major physiological changes and adaptation to these changes is crucial for normal fetal development.\\u000a Heightened emotional stress during pregnancy may interfere with the necessary adaptation and lead to dysregulation of the\\u000a two major stress response systems: the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal (HPA) Axis and the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS). Negative\\u000a effects on the fetus of such maladaptation have been

  16. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive

  17. Alarm substance from adult zebrafish alters early embryonic development in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Mourabit, S.; Rundle, S. D.; Spicer, J. I.; Sloman, K. A.

    2010-01-01

    Alarm substances elicit behavioural responses in a wide range of animals but effects on early embryonic development are virtually unknown. Here we investigated whether skin injury-induced alarm substances caused physiological responses in embryos produced by two Danio species (Danio rerio and Danio albolineatus). Both species showed more rapid physiological development in the presence of alarm substance, although there were subtle differences between them: D. rerio had advanced muscle contraction and heart function, whereas D. albolineatus had advanced heart function only. Hence, alarm cues from injured or dying fish may be of benefit to their offspring, inducing physiological responses and potentially increasing their inclusive fitness. PMID:20071391

  18. Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia II: Developing

    E-print Network

    in treatment development for impaired cognition in schizophre- nia by developing tools from cognitive of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia, which seeks to developREVIEWS Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia II

  19. Effect of the age of pregnant females on brain development in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Ryzhavskii, B Ya; Sapozhnikov, Yu A; Uchakina, R V; Vladimirova, T I; Eremenko, I R; Vasil'eva, E V

    2004-08-01

    We examined offspring of 9-10 and 3.5-4 month-old female rats. Female offspring (14, 21, 28, 35, and 40 days) of old rats had higher body weight than offspring of young animals. No intergroup differences were revealed in the body weight of male offspring. At the age of 40 days the offspring of old females differed from the offspring of young rats by higher absolute weight of the brain (females), lower size of ganglionic neurons in the parietal lobe (males and females), and lower blood testosterone concentration (males). Thirty-day-old offspring of old rats exhibited higher locomotor activity and lower degree of anxiety compared to the offspring of young animals. PMID:15662469

  20. Cognitive development in a secondary science setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endler, Lorna C.; Bond, Trevor

    2000-12-01

    Observations were made of the progressive change in the cognitive development of 141 students over the course of their secondary education in an Australian private school. Cognitive development was measured in years 8, 10 and 12 using Bond's Logical Orerations Test. Rasch analysis of each of the data sets provided ability estimates for students in the year groups of 1993 (year 8), 1995 (year 10) and 1997 (year 12). Twenty-nine students from the year group of 1993 were tested on all three occasions. We analysed data from these 29 students in order to investigate the children's cognitive development across years 8, 10 and 12. We also examined the influence of the Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE) Thinking Science program on the cognitive development and scholastic achievement of these students. We found increased mental growth between years 8 and 10 for most students in the Thinking Science cohort, which could not be predicted from their starting levels. There was a significant correlation between cognitive development and the scholastic achievement of these students. Although boys as a group were more advanced in cognitive development than girls in years 8 and 10, no difference was found in the rate of cognitive change based on sex up to year 10. However girls showed cognitive gains across years 10-12 which were not found in boys. The students who were new to the school also showed increased cognitive development in years 11 and 12. Students who had experienced the Thinking Science course were more cognitively developed than students who joined the school after the intervention had taken place. This study supports the claim of Adey and Shayer that there is a relationship between cognitive development and scholastic achievement, even though we used different measures of cognitive development and scholastic achievement.

  1. Art Integration and Cognitive Development

    E-print Network

    Baker, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    movement Activities _______________________________________________________________________ comic strips theme song slogan pose caricatures musical catch phrases musical learning about pop recording art Cognitive

  2. Father Absence and Children's Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinn, Marybeth

    1978-01-01

    Reviews literature indicating detrimental effects of father absence on children's cognitive development as assessed by standardized IQ tests, standardized achievement tests, and school performance. (BD)

  3. Prenatal bystander stress induces neuroanatomical changes in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of developing rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Mychasiuk, Richelle; Gibb, Robbin; Kolb, Bryan

    2011-09-15

    The rapid period of growth and development that occurs prenatally renders the brain vulnerable to experiences that may disrupt cortical plasticity. Although there is extensive literature examining anatomical changes in fully matured brain, there has been very little investigation of younger offspring. The current study used an indirect prenatal bystander stress and analyzed neuroanatomical changes in postnatal day 21 (P21) Long Evans rats. Dendritic architecture (dendritic length, branch order, and spine density) along with cell quantification (neuron and glia) was generated for layer 3 pyramidal cells of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC/Cg3), orbital prefrontal cortex (OFC/AID), and CA1 of the hippocampus. We found that prenatal bystander stress significantly altered the complexity and length of dendritic arbor, the density of excitatory spines and the actual volume of neuronal and glial cell numbers in the mPFC, OFC, and CA1 of developing rat offspring. Neuroanatomical changes of this extent occurring at such a critical time period will likely impact healthy maturation of the brain and long-term development. PMID:21816391

  4. Maternal LPS Exposure during Pregnancy Impairs Testicular Development, Steroidogenesis and Spermatogenesis in Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yong-Fang; Wang, Bi-Wei; Huang, Yin-Yin; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, fetal death, congenital teratogenesis and fetal growth retardation. Here, we explored the effects of maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy on testicular development, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male offspring. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 µg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 13 to GD 17. At fetal period, a significant decrease in body weight and abnormal Leydig cell aggregations were observed in males whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. At postnatal day (PND) 26, anogenital distance (AGD), a sensitive index of altered androgen action, was markedly reduced in male pups whose mothers were exposed to LPS daily from GD13 to GD 17. At PND35, the weight of testes, prostates and seminal vesicles, and serum testosterone (T) level were significantly decreased in LPS-treated male pups. At adulthood, the number of sperm was significantly decreased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to LPS on GD 13–17. Maternal LPS exposure during gestation obviously diminished the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages I–VI, increased the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages IX–XII, and caused massive sloughing of germ cells in seminiferous tubules in mouse testes. Moreover, maternal LPS exposure significantly reduced serum T level in male mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS challenge during pregnancy. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy disrupts T production. The decreased T synthesis might be associated with LPS-induced impairments for spermatogenesis in male offspring. PMID:25255222

  5. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

  6. Generative Connectionist Networks and Constructivist Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Denis; Shultz, Thomas R.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a computational framework for modeling cognitive development that provides a language paradigm with which to compare and contrast different facets of children's knowledge. Describes the generative connectionist algorithm "cascade-correlation," the successful use of the algorithm to model cognitive development in various circumstances, and…

  7. Relational processing in higher cognition: Implications for analogy, capacity and cognitive development.

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Bill

    and cognitive development. Paper presented to workshop on analogy, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria cognition: Implications for analogy, capacity and cognitive development. In this paper we will present levels of cognitive development, and accounts for processing loads in cognitive tasks, within a common

  8. Impact of Life Experiences on Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorndike, Robert M.; And Others

    The kinds of life events that may affect cognitive development were explored for 777 students, mostly freshmen, enrolled in introductory social science courses at Western Washington University Bellingham (Washington). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection (MER) of M. B. Taylor (1983). Students also…

  9. ANIMAL MODELS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thesis of this chapter has been that spatial delayed alternation versus position discrimination learning can serve as a valuable rodent model of cognitive development in neurotoxicology. his model captures dual process conceptualizations of memory in human neuropsychology and...

  10. Cognitive Development: One-Year-Old

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Cognitive Development: One-Year-Old Article Body As you watch your toddler ... range of activities, and she’ll select the ones that are challenging but not completely beyond her ...

  11. Mouse round spermatids developed in vitro from preexisting spermatocytes can produce normal offspring by nuclear injection into in vivo-developed mature oocytes.

    PubMed

    Marh, Joel; Tres, Laura L; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Kierszenbaum, Abraham L

    2003-07-01

    It has been shown that mature oocytes injected with nuclei from round spermatids collected from mouse testis can generate normal offspring and that round spermatids can develop in vitro. An undetermined issue is whether spermatids developed in vitro are capable of generating fertile offspring by nuclear injection into oocytes. Herein, we report the production of normal and fertile offspring by nuclear injection using haploid spermatid donors derived from mouse primary spermatocyte precursors cocultured with Sertoli cells. Cocultured spermatogonia and spermatocytes were characterized by their nuclear immunoreactive patterns determined by an antibody to phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), a marker for DNA double-strand breaks. Cocultured round spermatid progenies display more than one motile flagellum, whose axonemes were recognized by antitubulin immunostaining. Flagellar wavelike movement and flagellar-driven propulsion of round spermatids developed in vitro were documented by videomicroscopy (http://www.sci.ccny.cuny.edu/ approximately kier). We also show that breeding of male and female mouse offspring generated by spermatid nuclear injection produced fertile offspring. In addition to their capacity to produce fertile offspring, cocultured, flagellated round spermatids can facilitate the analysis of the mechanisms of centriolar polarity, duplication, assembly, and flagellar growth, including the intraflagellar transport of cargo proteins. PMID:12620938

  12. Optimizing Cognitive Development over the Life Course and Preventing Cognitive Decline: Introducing the Cognitive Health Environment Life Course Model (CHELM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal cognitive development is defined in this article as the highest level of cognitive function reached in each cognitive domain given a person's biological and genetic disposition, and the highest possible maintenance of cognitive function over the adult life course. Theoretical perspectives underpinning the development of a framework…

  13. Effects of Afobazole on Cognitive Behavior of the Offspring of Rats Exposed to Tobacco Smoke during Gestation Period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V. Shreder; A. S. Solomina; I. B. Tsorin; S. S. Trofimov; A. D. Durnev; S. B. Seredenin

    2011-01-01

    Experiments on the model of foraging behavior formation under conditions of free choice (T-maze) revealed learning failure\\u000a against the background of reduced motor activity in the offspring of rats exposed to tobacco smoke on gestation days 1–20.\\u000a Afobazole administered to pregnant rats orally in doses of 1 or 10 mg\\/kg daily during the whole gestation and\\/or entering\\u000a rat pup body

  14. Carbon black nanoparticle exposure during middle and late fetal development induces immune activation in male offspring mice.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Yasser S; Shimizu, Ryuhei; Onoda, Atsuto; Takeda, Ken; Umezawa, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) has raised concerns regarding their health and safety profiles in humans and animals, especially in developing organisms, which may display increased sensitivity to NP toxicity. The present study examined the effects of gestational exposure to carbon black NP (CB-NP) on the development of the offspring immune system. Pregnant mice were exposed to CB-NP (95?g/kg body weight) by intranasal instillation on gestational days 9 and 15. The thymus and spleen were collected from their offspring mice on postnatal day (PND) 1, 3 and 5. Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were examined by determining the expression of cell-surface molecules using flow cytometry. Gene expression in the thymus and spleen was examined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Prenatal exposure to CB-NP increased total thymocytes and their immunophenotypes (CD4(-)CD8(-) and CD4(+)CD8(+) cells). It also induced an increase in total lymphocytes, and CD4(-)CD8(-), particularly CD3(-)B220(-)cells, at PND 5 in the spleen of newborn male offspring, reflecting the stimulation of immature splenocytes. Furthermore, mRNA expression of genes related to the induction of peripheral tolerance (i.e. thymic Traf6) was upregulated. These data suggest that respiratory exposure to CB-NP during middle and late gestation may have allergic or inflammatory effects in male offspring, and may provide initial information on the potential developmental immunotoxicity of nanoparticles. PMID:25451823

  15. Moderate maternal food restriction in mice impairs physical growth, behavior, and neurodevelopment of offspring.

    PubMed

    Akitake, Yoshiharu; Katsuragi, Shinji; Hosokawa, Masato; Mishima, Kenichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) occurs in 3% to 7% of all pregnancies. Recent human studies have indicated that neurodevelopmental disabilities, learning disorders, memory impairment, and mood disturbance are common in IUGR offspring. However, the interactions between IUGR and neurodevelopmental disorders are unclear because of the wide range of causes of IUGR, such as maternal malnutrition, placental insufficiency, pregnancy toxemia, and fetal malformations. Meanwhile, many studies have shown that moderate food restriction enhances spatial learning and improves mood disturbance in adult humans and animals. To date, the effects of maternal moderate food restriction on fetal brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that IUGR would be caused by even moderate food restriction in pregnant females and that the offspring would have neurodevelopmental disabilities. Mid-pregnant mice received moderate food restriction through the early lactation period. The offspring were tested for aspects of physical development, behavior, and neurodevelopment. The results showed that moderate maternal food restriction induced IUGR. Offspring had low birth weight and delayed development of physical and coordinated movement. Moreover, IUGR offspring exhibited mental disabilities such as anxiety and poor cognitive function. In particular, male offspring exhibited significantly impaired cognitive function at 3 weeks of age. These results suggested that a restricted maternal diet could be a risk factor for developmental disability in IUGR offspring and that male offspring might be especially susceptible. PMID:25433908

  16. Managing and analysing data from a large-scale study on Framingham Offspring relating brain structure to cognitive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Massaro; Ralph B. D'Agostino Srem; Lisa M. Sullivan; Alexa Beiser; Charles DeCarli; Rhoda Au; Merrill F. Elias; Philip A Wolf

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY At the Framingham Heart Study under separate research grant funding from the National Institute of Aging, NIH, we are gathering brain structure and cognitive information on the Framingham Ospring, creating one of the largest known data sets to assess changes in brain structure associated with norma- tive ageing and cognitive decline. Subject recruitment, data collection, data management and statistical

  17. A trade-off between embryonic development rate and immune function of avian offspring is concealed by embryonic temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Arriero, Elena; Majewska, Ania

    2011-01-01

    Long embryonic periods are assumed to reflect slower intrinsic development that are thought to trade off to allow enhanced physiological systems, such as immune function. Yet, the relatively rare studies of this trade-off in avian offspring have not found the expected trade-off. Theory and tests have not taken into account the strong extrinsic effects of temperature on embryonic periods of birds. Here, we show that length of the embryonic period did not explain variation in two measures of immune function when temperature was ignored, based on studies of 34 Passerine species in tropical Venezuela (23 species) and north temperate Arizona (11 species). Variation in immune function was explained when embryonic periods were corrected for average embryonic temperature, in order to better estimate intrinsic rates of development. Immune function of offspring trades off with intrinsic rates of embryonic development once the extrinsic effects of embryonic temperatures are taken into account.

  18. A trade-off between embryonic development rate and immune function of avian offspring is revealed by considering embryonic temperature

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Thomas E.; Arriero, Elena; Majewska, Ania

    2011-01-01

    Long embryonic periods are assumed to reflect slower intrinsic development that are thought to trade off to allow enhanced physiological systems, such as immune function. Yet, the relatively rare studies of this trade-off in avian offspring have not found the expected trade-off. Theory and tests have not taken into account the strong extrinsic effects of temperature on embryonic periods of birds. Here, we show that length of the embryonic period did not explain variation in two measures of immune function when temperature was ignored, based on studies of 34 Passerine species in tropical Venezuela (23 species) and north temperate Arizona (11 species). Variation in immune function was explained when embryonic periods were corrected for average embryonic temperature, in order to better estimate intrinsic rates of development. Immune function of offspring trades off with intrinsic rates of embryonic development once the extrinsic effects of embryonic temperatures are taken into account. PMID:21227978

  19. Maternal effects due to male attractiveness affect offspring development in the zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, L; Williamson, K A; Hazon, N; Graves, J A

    2006-07-22

    Maternal effects occur when offspring phenotype is influenced by environmental factors experienced by the mother. Mothers are predicted to invest differentially in offspring in ways that will maximize offspring fitness depending on the environment she expects them to encounter. Here, we test for maternal effects in response to mate attractiveness on offspring developmental traits in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. We controlled for parental genetic quality by manipulating male attractiveness using coloured leg rings and by randomly assigning mating pairs. The potential confounding effect of differential nestling care was controlled for by cross-fostering clutches and by allowing for variance due to foster father attractiveness in general linear models. We found a difference in egg mass investment between attractiveness groups and, importantly, we found that all of the offspring traits we measured varied with the attractiveness of the father. This provides strong evidence for maternal effects in response to mate attractiveness. Furthermore, due to the experiment design, we can conclude that these effects were mediated by differential investment of egg resources and not due to genetic differences or differences in nestling care. PMID:16790409

  20. Cognitive Development in Learning Disabled Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver, Sara; Maggiore, Ronald

    1979-01-01

    The findings provide evidence that the learning disabled develop most cognitive abilities in a manner similar to that of their normal counterparts, though perhaps slightly delayed, and that by adolescence, development in the learning disabled approaches that of normals. (Author/DLS)

  1. Cognitive Process of Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddington, Eulalee N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

  2. Metyrapone blocks maternal food restriction-induced changes in female rat offspring lung development.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Virender K; Li, Yishi; Corral, Julia; Saraswat, Aditi; Husain, Sumair; Dhar, Ankita; Sakurai, Reiko; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S

    2014-04-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) during pregnancy affects pulmonary surfactant production in the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) offspring through unknown mechanisms. Since pulmonary surfactant production is regulated by maternal and fetal corticosteroid levels, both known to be increased in IUGR pregnancies, we hypothesized that metyrapone (MTP), a glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor, would block the effects of MFR on surfactant production in the offspring. Three groups of pregnant rat dams were used (1) control dams fed ad libitum; (2) MFR (50% reduction in calories) from days 10 to 22 of gestation; and (3) MFR + MTP in drinking water (0.5 mg/mL), days 11 to 22 of gestation. At 5 months, the MFR offspring weighed significantly more, had reduced alveolar number, increased septal thickness, and decreased surfactant protein and phospholipid synthesis. These MFR-induced effects were normalized by the antiglucocorticoid MTP, suggesting that the stress of MFR causes hypercorticoidism, altering lung structure and function in adulthood. PMID:24023031

  3. Cognitive neuroscience: Development and prospects MICHAEL I POSNER1,

    E-print Network

    Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

    Cognitive neuroscience: Development and prospects MICHAEL I POSNER1, and SHOBINI RAO2 1 Department to the Indian scientific community. 1. Cognitive neuroscience Cognitive psychology was developed in the 1960s 560 029, India e-mail: mposner@uoregon.edu The field of cognitive neuroscience has enjoyed

  4. Maternal nutrient restriction during early fetal kidney development attenuates the renal innate inflammatory response in obese young adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Don; Gardner, David S; Symonds, Michael E; Budge, Helen

    2009-11-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for developing chronic kidney disease. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-18, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) are important components of the innate immune system mediating inflammatory renal damage. Early to midgestation maternal nutrient restriction appears to protect the kidney from the deleterious effects of early onset obesity, although the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the combined effects of gestational maternal nutrient restriction during early fetal kidney development and early onset obesity on the renal innate immune response in offspring. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to a normal (control, 100%) or nutrient-restricted (NR, 50%) diet from days 30 to 80 gestation and 100% thereafter. Offspring were killed humanely at 7 days or, following rearing in an obesogenic environment, at 1 yr of age, and renal tissues were collected. IL-18 and TLR4 expression were strongly correlated irrespective of intervention. Seven-day NR offspring had significantly lower relative renal mass and IL-18 mRNA expression. At 1 yr of age, obesity resulted in increased mRNA abundance of TLR4, IL-18, and UCP2, coupled with tubular atrophy and greater immunohistological staining of glomerular IL-6 and medullary tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. NR obese offspring had a marked reduction of TLR4 abundance and renal IL-6 staining. In conclusion, maternal nutrient restriction during early fetal kidney development attenuates the effects of early onset obesity-related nephropathy, in part, through the downregulation of the innate inflammatory response. A better understanding of maternal nutrition and the in utero nutritional environment may offer therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing the burden of later kidney disease. PMID:19759269

  5. Exposure to low doses of formaldehyde during pregnancy suppresses the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring.

    PubMed

    Maiellaro, Marília; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Gimenes Júnior, João Antônio; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2014-08-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational pollutant, and its toxic effects on the immune system have been shown. Nevertheless, no data are available regarding the programming mechanisms after FA exposure and its repercussions for the immune systems of offspring. In this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of low-dose exposure of FA on pregnant rats and its repercussion for the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned in 3 groups: P (rats exposed to FA (0.75 ppm, 1 h/day, 5 days/week, for 21 days)), C (rats exposed to vehicle of FA (distillated water)) and B (rats non-manipulated). After 30 days of age, the offspring was sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and challenged with aerosolized OVA (1%, 15 min, 3 days). After 24 h the OVA challenge the parameters were evaluated. Our data showed that low-dose exposure to FA during pregnancy induced low birth weight and suppressed the development of allergic lung inflammation and tracheal hyperresponsiveness in offspring by mechanisms mediated by reduced anaphylactic antibodies synthesis, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion. Elevated levels of IL-10 were found. Any systemic alteration was detected in the exposed pregnant rats, although oxidative stress in the uterine environment was evident at the moment of the delivery based on elevated COX-1 expression and reduced cNOS and SOD-2 in the uterus. Therefore, we show the putative programming mechanisms induced by FA on the immune system for the first time and the mechanisms involved may be related to oxidative stress in the foetal microenvironment. PMID:24844129

  6. Metyrapone alleviates deleterious effects of maternal food restriction on lung development and growth of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Paek, David S; Sakurai, Reiko; Saraswat, Aditi; Li, Yishi; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K

    2015-02-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) causes intrauterine growth restriction, a known risk factor for developing chronic lung disease. However, it is unknown whether this negative outcome is gender specific or preventable by blocking the MFR-induced hyperglucocorticoidism. Using a well-established rat model, we used metyrapone (MTP), an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, to study the MFR-induced lung changes on postnatal day (p) 21 in a gender-specific manner. From embryonic day 10 until delivery, pregnant dams were fed either an ad libitum diet or a 50% caloric restricted diet with or without MTP supplementation. Postnatally, the offspring were fed ad libitum from healthy dams until p21. Morphometric, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs demonstrated that MTP mitigated the MFR-mediated decrease in alveolar count, decrease in adipogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, increase in myogenic proteins (fibronectin, ?-smooth muscle actin, and calponin), increase in Wnt signaling intermediates (lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and ?-catenin), and increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels. The MFR-induced lung phenotype and the effects of MTP were similar in both genders. To elucidate the mechanism of MFR-induced shift of the adipogenic-to-myogenic phenotype, lung fibroblasts were used to independently study the effects of (1) nutrient restriction and (2) excess steroid exposure. Nutrient deprivation increased myogenic proteins, Wnt signaling intermediates, and GR, all changes blocked by protein supplementation. MTP also blocked, likely by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, the corticosterone-induced increase in myogenic proteins, but had no effect on GR levels. In summary, protein restriction and increased glucocorticoid levels appear to be the key players in MFR-induced lung disease, affecting both genders. PMID:24916330

  7. Prenatal Bystander Stress Alters Brain, Behavior, and the Epigenome of Developing Rat Offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richelle Mychasiuk; Nichole Schmold; Slava Ilnytskyy; Olga Kovalchuk; Bryan Kolb; Robbin Gibb

    2011-01-01

    The prenatal environment, including prenatal stress, has been extensively studied in laboratory animals and humans. However, studies of the prenatal environment usually directly stress pregnant females, but stress may come ‘indirectly’, through stress to a cage-mate. The current study used indirect prenatal bystander stress and investigated the effects on the gross morphology, pre-weaning behavior, and epigenome of rat offspring. Pregnant

  8. Stimulation of development of rabbit offspring by probiotic bacteria of the mother’s soft faeces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Ushakova; E. V. Fedosov; A. A. Kozlova; E. V. Kotenkova

    2008-01-01

    The study of mother?offspring interactions at various stages of ontogeny is important for understanding physiological characteristics, both species- and individual-specific, and the formation of adult behavior [1]. These processes during the lactation period have been studied well in rodents and lagomorphs. The prepubertal period is less investigated. In lactating female Rattus norvegicus and Acomys cahirinus (rats and spiny mice, respectively),

  9. Paternal behavior influences development of aggression and vasopressin expression in male California mouse offspring

    E-print Network

    Trainor, Brian

    and grooming affect the behavioral and neurological stress responses of offspring (e.g. Meaney, 2001; Gonzalez regulation of glucocorticoid negative feedback in response to acute stress as adults (Liu et al., 1997 regions of the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST): the dorsal fiber tracts (d

  10. Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Timothy E., Ed.

    This volume deals with various aspects of the relationship between linguistic ability and general cognitive development. It presents original, up-to-date research for child psychologists, linguists, psycholinguists, scholars, teachers, and students interested in this field and interprets the findings in the context of contemporary linguistic…

  11. Relations between Brain and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Kurt W.

    1987-01-01

    The developmental pattern of concurrent synaptogenesis in rhesus monkeys is consistent with a straightforward model of relations between brain and cognitive development. Concurrent synaptogenesis is hypothesized to lay the primary cortical foundation for a series of developmental levels in middle infancy that have been empirically documented in…

  12. Cognitive development and aspects of adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Pestrak, V A; Martin, D

    1985-01-01

    Difficulty with adjustment to sexuality by adolescents has been of increasing concern to both educators and human service professionals in recent years. The cognitive development and behavior of adolescents as it pertains to sexuality and the implications for helping them overcome maladaptive sexual behavior is discussed. PMID:4083149

  13. Cognitive Development Neo-Piagetian Accounts

    E-print Network

    Coulson, Seana

    1 Cognitive Development · Neo-Piagetian Accounts ­ Object Permanence ­ Baby Physics · Neonate and Infant Memory · Infantile Amnesia ­ Potential Explanations Neo-Piagetians · Agree w/Basic Stages ­ Faster · Believe Piaget Underestimated Child's Capacities ­ Inter-sensory Relations ­ Object Permanence A not

  14. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  15. Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine D Blau; Adam J Grossberg

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between maternal labor supply and children's cognitive development using a sample of three- and four-year-old children of female respondents from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort. Maternal employment is found to have a negative impact when it occurs during the first year of the child's life and a potentially offsetting positive effect when it

  16. Father absence and children's cognitive development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marybeth Shinn

    1978-01-01

    Reviews literature showing detrimental effects of father absence on children's cognitive development as assessed by standardized IQ and achievement tests and school performance. Differential effects associated with characteristics of the absence (cause, duration, onset), the child (age, sex, race, socioeconomic status), and the skill tested (quantitative, verbal) are examined. The evidence suggests that financial hardship, high levels of anxiety, and,

  17. A tutorial introduction to Bayesian models of cognitive development

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    in the cognitive science applications, mathematical foundations, or machine learning details in more depth of Psychology, University of Adelaide Joshua B. Tenenbaum Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute in cognitive science. Keywords: Bayesian models; cognitive development 2 #12;1 Introduction One of the central

  18. Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

  19. 72 SemanticCognition: ItsNature,ItsDevelopment,

    E-print Network

    McClelland, James L. "Jay"

    , child development, and cognitive neuroscience have pursued related questions in relative ignorance stimulation studies in normals that test predictions arising from the theoryY 72 SemanticCognition: ItsNature,ItsDevelopment, andItsNeuralBasis jamesl

  20. Close Interrelation of Motor Development and Cognitive Development and of the Cerebellum and Prefrontal Cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adele Diamond

    2000-01-01

    Motor development and cognitive development may be fundamentally interrelated. Contrary to popular notions that motor development begins and ends early, whereas cognitive development begins and ends later, both motor and cognitive development display equally protracted developmental timetables. When cognitive development is perturbed, as in a neurodevelopmental disorder, motor development is often adversely af- fected. While it has long been known

  1. Gender Differences in Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    Sex differences on Perry's stages of epistemological development were investigated in a study of 100 freshmen (50 men and 50 women) at a large midwestern university. A semi-structured interview probed six domains related to Perry's theory, including the role of the learner, instructor, and peers in the learning situation, the question of…

  2. The Integrated Laboratory Program for Cognitive Development Jerome Epstein,

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    The Integrated Laboratory Program for Cognitive Development Jerome Epstein, Mathematics Department to develop a program for cognitive development in math and science. The application cited then new research lectures are inefficient at producing meaningful cognitive change, and that hands-on, so-called "guided

  3. Developing Collaboration Awareness Support from a Cognitive Perspective Pedro Antunes

    E-print Network

    Antunes, Pedro

    Developing Collaboration Awareness Support from a Cognitive Perspective Pedro Antunes University to preserve cognitive load. The selected case study involved brainstorming. We developed a brainstorming tool with the purpose to develop a comprehensive outlook of the cognitive issues behind awareness. This is accomplished

  4. Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions

    PubMed Central

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2011-01-01

    Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments. PMID:22356180

  5. Cognitive science questions for cognitive development: the concepts of learning, analogy, and capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme S Halford; J. E McCredden

    1998-01-01

    New concepts from cognitive science have fundamentally changed our view of cognitive development. In this paper we explore the implications of three concepts from cognitive science. These are learning (and induction), analogy, and capacity. New conceptions of learning have enabled us to understand how representations of the world are acquired. New models of analogical reasoning have suggested that \\

  6. "Levels of Cognitive Development," by Tracy S. Kendler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews "Levels of Cognitive Development," which presents a theory of cognitive development integrating discrimination- learning research with understanding of higher cognitive processes. Argues that strengths include its presentation of systematic research and providing continuity between past and present models. Weaknesses include ignoring…

  7. Television, Imaginative Play and Cognitive Development: Some Problems and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jerome L.

    This paper compares the effects of television viewing to the effects of imaginative play on children's cognitive development. The major developmental tasks which confront the growing child are presented and the significance of imaginative play as a critical feature of the child's cognitive and affective development is discussed. The cognitive

  8. Methods of Assessing Cognitive Aspects of Early Reading Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Sebastian

    To help teachers understand the cognitive development that occurs as children learn to read, the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) has created The Cognitive Foundations of Learning to Read: A Framework. It describes the various cognitive domains that research has shown to be necessary for reading acquisition, and also illustrates…

  9. --Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Evan Glazer

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    72 InterMath 1 --Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Technology). The development of mathematical understanding occurs when technology is used as a cognitive tool that supports to deliver the curriculum through web-based materials and to explore the mathematics using cognitive tools

  10. Development of The Purdue Cognitive Job Analysis Methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    June Wei; Gavriel Salvendy

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this article is to develop a cognitive job and task analysis methodology that not only analyzes jobs and tasks, but also provides a mechanism for improving cognitive job and task perfor- mance. Two phases were used to achieve this objective. The 1st phase developed a human-centered cognitive performance (HCCP) model based on human information processing. To quantitatively

  11. Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it. This information is available to them when they are particularly receptive to it, and because it comes as the result of their own disequilibrium, it may have depth of processing benefits. In that questions allow children to get information they need to move their knowledge structures closer to adult-like states, the ability to ask questions to gather needed information constitutes an efficient mechanism for cognitive development (referred to in this paper as the Information Requesting Mechanism [IRM]; this term is used because it includes question-asking and other information recruiting behaviors such as gestures, expressions, and vocalizations). However, the role of children's questions in their cognitive development has been largely overlooked. If questions are a force in cognitive development, the following must be true: (1) children must actually ask questions that gather information; (2) children must receive informative answers to their questions if they are able to be of use to cognitive development; (3) children must be motivated to get the information they request, rather than asking questions for other purposes such as attention; (4) the questions children ask must be relevant and of potential use to their cognitive development; (5) we must see evidence that children's questions help them in some way-that is, that they can ask questions for a purpose, and use the information they receive purposefully to successfully achieve some change of knowledge state. This monograph reports data on these points. Study 1 analyzed questions taken from four children's transcripts in the CHILDES database (age 1;2-5;1). This methodology allowed detailed, veridical analysis of every question asked by the children during their recording sessions. Results indicate that children ask many information-seeking questions and get informative answers. When they do not get an informative response, they keep asking; attention is not enough. Results also indicate that the content of children's questions parallel their conceptual advances, and shift within an exchange and over the course of development to reflect the learning process. So, these data suggest that the components of the IRM are in place and are used by children from very early in development, and the information they seek changes with time. Study 2 asked whether preverbal children who are not yet asking linguistic questions can recruit information via gestures, expressions, and vocalizations, in addition to further investigating the linguistic questions of older children. This study analyzed questions from a cross-sectional diary study, kept by 68 parents of their children's questions (aged 1;0-5;0). Also, this methodology allowed for data collection over a large number of children, a large range of situational contexts, and allows for the collection of low frequency, high-salience events. Results from Study 2 suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place, and extends these findings down to younger, preverbal children who recruit information using gesture and vocalizations. Study 3 investigated the questions asked in one specific domain, biological knowledge, and examined the impact that different stimulus types have on children's questions. This study gathered data from 112 parent/child dyads (children aged 2, 3, and 4 years) walking through one of three zoos (one with real animals, one with drawings of animals, and one with three-dimensional replicas of animals), looking at the animals together. Results from this study also suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place from the earliest age, further supporting the findings from Studies 1 and 2. In addition, while children still ask many nonbiological questions a

  12. Identifying Cognitive Mechanisms Targeted for Treatment Development in Schizophrenia: An

    E-print Network

    functional outcome. Through this MATRICS process, a battery of tasks reflecting seven domains of cognitive.g., high test-retest reliability, limited practice effects, etc.). The existing literature cognitive neuroscience, should be used in developing the sug- gested battery. The cognitive neuroscience

  13. Maternal sleep deprivation inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis associated with inflammatory response in young offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiuying; Peng, Cheng; Wu, Xiaohui; Chen, Yubo; Wang, Cheng; You, Zili

    2014-08-01

    Although sleep complaints are very common among pregnant women, the potential adverse effects of sleep disturbance on the offspring are not well studied. Growing evidence suggests that maternal stress can induce an inflammatory environment on the fetal development. But people are not sure about the consequences of prenatal stress such as the inflammatory responses induced by maternal sleep deprivation (MSD). In the present study, we investigated the effects of MSD on long-term behavioral and cognitive consequences in offspring and its underlying inflammatory response pathway. The pregnant Wistar rats received prolonged sleep deprivation (72h) on gestational day (GD) 4, 9, and 18, respectively. The post-natal day (PND) 21 offspring showed impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory in the Morris Water Maze task and anhedonia in sucrose preference experiment. Quantification of BrdU(+) and DCX(+) cells revealed a significant decrease in hippocampus neurogenesis in prepuberty offspring, especially for the late MSD (GD 18) group. Real-time RT-PCR showed that after MSD, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF?) increased in the hippocampus of offspring on PND 1, 7, 14 and 21, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 reduced at the same time. Immunofluorescence found that the cells of activated microglia were higher in the brains of MSD offspring. Taken together, these results suggested that the MSD-induced inflammatory response is an important factor for neurogenesis impairment and neurobehavioral outcomes in prepuberty offspring. PMID:24769004

  14. Gestational exposure to loud noise alters the development and postnatal responsiveness of humoral and cellular components of the immune system in offspring.

    PubMed

    Sobrian, S K; Vaughn, V T; Ashe, W K; Markovic, B; Djuric, V; Jankovic, B D

    1997-01-01

    Gestational exposure of the female to environmental toxins can alter immune function in the offspring. We have recently shown that prenatal maternal stress, that is, stress applied to or induced in the female during pregnancy, can also alter the development of humoral immunocompetence in the offspring and their hormonal and immunologic responses to postnatal stress. This report presents data from two experiments on the effects of prenatal exposure to loud noise-prenatal sound stress (PSS)-on the development and responsiveness of in vitro and in vivo humoral and cellular immune function in the offspring. Pregnant rats were exposed daily from Day 15 to Day 21 of gestation to an inescapable loud noise (an 85- to 90-decibel fire alarm bell) delivered randomly for 1 hr. In developing offspring, PSS produced age-dependent and mitogen-specific alterations in lymphoproliferative activity and reduced immunoglobulin G levels at Postnatal Day 21. Antibody titers to herpes simplex virus type 1 were also reduced. Exposure to loud noise before or after infection produced an additional reduction in titers in these offspring. Arthus skin reaction (AR) to old tuberculin was reduced by PSS. Combined prenatal/postnatal sound stress further reduced this response and the AR to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Delayed hypersensitivity reaction to BSA was reduced in PSS offspring; postnatal sound stress enhanced the reaction to both antigens, but only in males. Antibody titers to BSA were increased by PSS; adjuvant-induced inflammation was attenuated by postnatal sound stress. These data suggest that in utero exposure to loud noise, which can occur in the workplace, is toxic to the developing immune system. PMID:9311552

  15. The Development of Embodied Cognition: Six Lessons from Babies

    E-print Network

    Gasser, Michael

    and inventive intelligence that characterizes humankind. Keywords: development, cognition, language, embodiment intelligence that characterizes humankind. In preview, the six lessons are these: 1. Babies experience

  16. Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    PubMed

    Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Herrmann, Susan Strange; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Clemmensen, Line Harder; Axelstad, Marta

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase in gestation length was seen, while in male offspring increased nipple retention and increased incidence and severity of genital malformations were observed. Severe mixture effects on gestation length, nipple retention and genital malformations were seen at dose levels where the individual pesticides caused no or smaller effects when given alone. Generally, the mixture effect predictions based on dose-additivity were in good agreement with the observed effects. The results indicate that there is a need for modification of risk assessment procedures for pesticides, in order to take account of the mixture effects and cumulative intake, because of the potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on development and reproduction in humans. PMID:22659286

  17. Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders in the Offspring of Mothers Exposed to Mild-Moderate Iodine Deficiency: A Possible Novel Iodine Deficiency Disorder in Developed Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Vermiglio; V. P. LO PRESTI; M. MOLETI; M. SIDOTI; G. TORTORELLA; G. SCAFFIDI; M. G. CASTAGNA; F. MATTINA; M. A. VIOLI; A. CRISA; A. ARTEMISIA; F. TRIMARCHI

    2004-01-01

    Over a period of almost 10 yr, we carried out a prospective study of the neuropsychological development of the offspring of 16 women from a moderately iodine-deficient area (area A) and of 11 control women from a marginally iodine-sufficient area (area B) whose thyroid function had been monitored during early gestation. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was diagnosed in

  18. Maternal care, hippocampal synaptogenesis and cognitive development in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Liu; Josie Diorio; Jamie C. Day; Darlene D. Francis; Michael J. Meaney

    2000-01-01

    We report that variations in maternal care in the rat promote hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial learning and memory through systems known to mediate experience-dependent neural development. Thus, the offspring of mothers that show high levels of pup licking and grooming and arched-back nursing showed increased expression of NMDA receptor subunit and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, increased cholinergic innervation of

  19. Cognitive Development Includes Global and Domain-Specific Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Robert V.

    2004-01-01

    Global accounts of cognitive development, best illustrated by Piaget's theory, dominated the field until the 1970s and 1980s, when they were gradually superseded by domain-specific accounts. In this article I present evidence suggesting that both global and domain-specific processes make important contributions to cognitive development, and I…

  20. A useful prediction variable for student models: cognitive development level

    E-print Network

    Arroyo, Ivon M.

    In this paper we describe the use of Piaget's notion of cognitive development to improve a tutor's reasoning intended to determine if the students were at one of the last two stages of cognitive development proposed by Piaget ­concrete operational stage and formal operational stage­. sixth grade elementary school students

  1. The Relation between Cognitive Development and Anxiety Phenomena in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relation between cognitive development and fear, anxiety, and behavioral inhibition in a non-clinical sample of 226 Dutch children aged 4-9 years. To assess cognitive development, children were tested with Piagetian conservation tasks and a Theory-of-Mind (TOM) test. Fears were measured by means of a self-report scale completed by…

  2. From behaviourism to cognitive behaviourism to cognitive development: Steps in the evolution of instructional design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robbie Case; Carl Bereiter

    1984-01-01

    The recent history of instructional technology is traced, starting with the work of Skinner, moving on to the task analytic approach of Gagné, and following through to contemporary efforts associated with the “cognitive revolution.” It is suggested that an understanding of the process of cognitive development may enable us to build on and improve earlier approaches, by adapting them more

  3. Epigenetic robotics: modelling cognitive development in robotic systems

    E-print Network

    Sandini, Giulio

    Editorial Epigenetic robotics: modelling cognitive development in robotic systems Action editor), the goal of Epigenetic robotics is to understand, and model, the role of development in the emergence of increasingly complex cognitive structures from physical and social interaction. As such, Epigenetic Robotics

  4. Cognitive Radio Platform Development for Interoperability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Scaperoth; B. Le; T. Rondeau; D. Maldonado; C. W. Bostian; S. Harrison

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general method to reconfigure a software defined radio (SDR) using a set of intelligent algorithms called a cognitive engine (CE) to create a cognitive radio (CR) that provides a user with a required quality of service (QoS). The proposed architecture relies on the CE to generate an XML document that describes the SDR behavior.

  5. Buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine treatment during pregnancy: behavioral effects on the offspring in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Yuan, Zung Fan; Kuo, Chung-Chih; Lai, Mei-Dan; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Ho, Ing-Kang; Chen, Shao-Tsu

    2015-01-01

    Methadone and buprenorphine are widely used for treating people with opioid dependence, including pregnant women. Prenatal exposure to opioids has devastating effects on the development of human fetuses and may induce long-term physical and neurobehavioral changes during postnatal maturation. This study aimed at comparing the behavioral outcomes of young rats prenatally exposed to buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered saline, morphine, methadone, and buprenorphine during embryonic days 3-20. The cognitive function, social interaction, anxiety-like behaviors, and locomotor activity of offsprings were examined by novel object recognition test, social interaction test, light-dark transition test, elevated plus-maze, and open-field test between 6 weeks and 10 weeks of age. Prenatal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine did not affect locomotor activity, but significantly impaired novel object recognition and social interaction in both male and female offsprings in the same manner as morphine. Although prenatal exposure to methadone or buprenorphine increased anxiety-like behaviors in the light-dark transition in both male and female offsprings, the effects were less pronounced as compared to that of morphine. Methadone affected elevated plus-maze in both sex, but buprenorphine only affected the female offsprings. These findings suggest that buprenorphine and methadone maintenance therapy for pregnant women, like morphine, produced detrimental effects on cognitive function and social behaviors, whereas the offsprings of such women might have a lower risk of developing anxiety disorders. PMID:25834439

  6. Regulation of Baboon Fetal Ovarian Development by Placental Estrogen: Onset of Puberty Is Delayed in Offspring Deprived of Estrogen In Utero1

    PubMed Central

    Pepe, Gerald J.; Lynch, Terrie J.; Albrecht, Eugene D.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Using the baboon as a model for studies of human reproductive biology, we previously showed that placental estrogen regulates fetal ovarian follicle development. In this study, offspring of baboons untreated or treated in utero with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (estradiol reduced >95%) or letrozole and estradiol were reared to adulthood to determine whether estrogen programming of the fetal ovary impacted puberty and reproduction in adulthood. All offspring exhibited normal growth and blood pressure/chemistries. Puberty onset in untreated baboons (43.2 ± 1.4 mo) was delayed (P < 0.01) in animals of letrozole-treated mothers (49.0 ± 1.2 mo) and normal in offspring of mothers treated with letrozole and estradiol (42.7 ± 0.8 mo). During the first 2 yr postmenarche, menstrual cycles in estrogen-suppressed animals (43.2 ± 1.3 days) were longer (P < 0.05) than in untreated baboons (38.3 ± 0.5 days) or those treated with letrozole and estrogen (39.6 ± 0.8 days). Moreover, in estrogen-suppressed offspring, serum levels of estradiol were lower and follicle-stimulating hormone greater (P < 0.05) in the follicular and luteal phases, and the elevation in luteal-phase progesterone extended (P < 0.02). Thus, puberty onset was delayed and menstrual cycles prolonged and associated with altered serum hormone levels in baboon offspring that developed in an intrauterine environment in which estradiol levels were suppressed. Because puberty and follicle development, as shown previously, were normal in baboons treated in utero with letrozole and estradiol, we propose that fetal ovarian development and timely onset of puberty in the primate is programmed by fetal exposure to placental estrogen. PMID:24132960

  7. Continuities and discontinuities in affective and cognitive-motivational development.

    PubMed

    Harmon, R J; Morgan, G A; Glicken, A D

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the issue of continuities and discontinuities in development, focusing on affective and cognitive-motivational aspects. The theoretical view of Rene Spitz and supporting research is reviewed related to transformations in affective development. Methods of assessment of cognitive-motivational development ("mastery motivation") are described as utilized in a number of studies. These studies illustrate developmental transformations at approximately 10 and 18 months of age in normal infants. In addition, findings comparing abused/neglected and perinatal risk infant populations with normal infants illustrate differences in both affective and cognitive-motivational development. PMID:6539639

  8. A Dynamic Model for the Cognitive Development of Kenyan Schoolchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhargava, Alok

    1998-01-01

    The scores on cognitive tests and school examinations of approximately 110 Kenyan children aged 6-9 years were analyzed, and a model was formulated. Certain measures of biological development and grade level are important predictors of scores on higher order cognitive tests. Household socioeconomic status is also positively associated with…

  9. A Cognitive Approach to the Development of Early Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2009-01-01

    A controversial issue in the field of language development is whether language emergence and growth is dependent solely on processes specifically tied to language or could also depend on basic cognitive processes that affect all aspects of cognitive competence (domain-general processes). The present article examines this issue using a large…

  10. Steps to Abstract Reasoning: An Interdisciplinary Program for Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, C. Rodney; Warrick, Catherine M.

    1980-01-01

    A learning cycle approach to undergraduate instruction implemented in a variety of subjects at Metropolitan State College in Denver is described. An experimental group demonstrated significant gains in critical thinking and cognitive skill development as well as improved retention using a framework based on Piaget's stages of cognitive

  11. Turkish Middle School Students' Cognitive Development Levels in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepni, Salih; Ozsevgec, Tuncay; Cerrah, Lale

    2004-01-01

    Students' abstract reasoning abilities can differ from one society to another. Students' profiles play significant roles in these differences. The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between middle school students' cognitive development levels and their profiles (age, gender, and science achievement) using the Science Cognitive

  12. Effect of maternal obesity with and without gestational diabetes on offspring subcutaneous and preperitoneal adipose tissue development from birth up to year-1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may independently influence offspring fat mass and metabolic disease susceptibility. In this pilot study, body composition and fat distribution in offspring from obese women with and without GDM and lean women were assessed within the 1st year of life, and maternal and newborn plasma factors were related to offspring adipose tissue distribution. Methods Serum and plasma samples from pregnant obese women with (n?=?16) or without (n?=?13) GDM and normoglycemic lean women (n?=?15) at 3rd trimester and offspring cord plasma were used for analyzing lipid profiles, insulin and adipokine levels. At week-1 and 6, month-4 and year-1, offspring anthropometrics and skinfold thickness (SFT) were measured and abdominal subcutaneous (SCA) and preperitoneal adipose tissue (PPA) were determined by ultrasonography. Results Cord insulin was significantly increased in the GDM group, whereas levels of cord leptin, total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were similar between the groups. Neonates of the GDM group showed significantly higher SFT and fat mass until week-6 and significantly increased SCA at week-1 compared to the lean group that persisted as strong trend at week-6. Interestingly, PPA in neonates of the GDM group was significantly elevated at week-1 compared to both the lean and obese group. At month-4 and year-1, significant differences in adipose tissue growth between the groups were not observed. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that cord insulin levels are independently related to neonatal PPA that showed significant relation to PPA development at year-1. Maternal fasted C-peptide and HMW adiponectin levels at 3rd trimester emerged to be determinants for PPA at week-1. Conclusion Maternal pregravid obesity combined with GDM leads to newborn hyperinsulinemia and increased offspring fat mass until week-6, whereas pregravid obesity without GDM does not. This strongly suggests the pivotal role of GDM in the adverse offspring outcome. Maternal C-peptide and HMW adiponectin levels in pregnancy emerge to be predictive for elevated PPA in newborns and might be indicative for the obesity risk at later life. Altogether, the findings from our pilot study warrant evaluation in long-term studies. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004370 PMID:24720885

  13. The effects of a remediated fly ash spill and weather conditions on reproductive success and offspring development in tree swallows.

    PubMed

    Beck, Michelle L; Hopkins, William A; Jackson, Brian P; Hawley, Dana M

    2015-03-01

    Animals are exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors during reproduction that may individually or interactively influence reproductive success and offspring development. We examined the effects of weather conditions, exposure to element contamination from a recently remediated fly ash spill, and the interaction between these factors on reproductive success and growth of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) across nine colonies. Females breeding in colonies impacted by the spill transferred greater concentrations of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), strontium, and thallium to their eggs than females in reference colonies. Parental provisioning of emerging aquatic insects resulted in greater blood Se concentrations in nestlings in impacted colonies compared to reference colonies, and these concentrations remained stable across 2 years. Egg and blood element concentrations were unrelated to reproductive success or nestling condition. Greater rainfall and higher ambient temperatures during incubation were later associated with longer wing lengths in nestlings, particularly in 2011. Higher ambient temperatures and greater Se exposure posthatch were associated with longer wing lengths in 2011 while in 2012, blood Se concentrations were positively related to wing length irrespective of temperature. We found that unseasonably cold weather was associated with reduced hatching and fledging success among all colonies, but there was no interactive effect between element exposure and inclement weather. Given that blood Se concentrations in some nestlings exceeded the lower threshold of concern, and concentrations of Se in blood and Hg in eggs are not yet declining, future studies should continue to monitor exposure and effects on insectivorous wildlife in the area. PMID:25690609

  14. Offspring from Mouse Embryos Developed Using a Simple Incubator-Free Culture System with a Deoxidizing Agent

    PubMed Central

    Itoi, Fumiaki; Tokoro, Mikiko; Terashita, Yukari; Yamagata, Kazuo; Fukunaga, Noritaka; Asada, Yoshimasa; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2012-01-01

    To culture preimplantation embryos in vitro, water-jacketed CO2 incubators are used widely for maintaining an optimal culture environment in terms of gas phase, temperature and humidity. We investigated the possibility of mouse embryo culture in a plastic bag kept at 37°C. Zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization or collected from naturally mated B6D2F1 female mice were put in a drop of medium on a plastic culture dish and then placed in a commercially available plastic bag. When these were placed in an oven under air at 37°C for 96 h, the rate of blastocyst development and the cell numbers of embryos decreased. However, when the concentration of O2 was reduced to 5% using a deoxidizing agent and a small oxygen meter, most zygotes developed into blastocysts. These blastocysts were judged normal according to their cell number, Oct3/4 and Cdx2 gene expression levels, the apoptosis rate and the potential for full-term development after embryo transfer to pseudopregnant recipients. Furthermore, using this system, normal offspring were obtained simply by keeping the bag on a warming plate. This culture method was applied successfully to both hybrid and inbred strains. In addition, because the developing embryos could be observed through the transparent wall of the bag, it was possible to capture time-lapse images of live embryos until the blastocyst stage without needing an expensive microscope-based incubation chamber. These results suggest that mouse zygotes are more resilient to their environment than generally believed. This method might prove useful in economical culture systems or for the international shipment of embryos. PMID:23056643

  15. Maternal Exposure to Triclosan Impairs Thyroid Homeostasis and Female Pubertal Development in Wistar Rat Offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo E. A. Rodríguez; Mónica S. Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    Although the effects of triclosan have been examined in male reproductive functions, it is unknown whether this potent antibacterial agent affects pregnancy and female pubertal development. Effects of maternal exposure to triclosan on thyroid homeostasis (TH) and reproductive-tract development in female Wistar rats were thus studied. Dams were exposed daily to triclosan (0, 1, 10, or 50 mg\\/kg\\/d) from 8

  16. Developments in cognitive neuroscience: I. Conflict, compromise, and connectionism.

    PubMed

    Westen, Drew; Gabbard, Glen O

    2002-01-01

    The strength of psychoanalysis has always been its understanding of affect and motivation. Contemporary developments in cognitive neuroscience offer possibilities of integrating sophisticated, experimentally informed models of thought and memory with an understanding of dynamically and clinically meaningful processes. Aspects of contemporary theory and research in cognitive neuroscience are integrated with psychoanalytic theory and technique, particularly theories of conflict and compromise. After a description of evolving models of the mind in cognitive neuroscience, several issues relevant to psychoanalytic theory and practice are addressed. These include the nature of representations, the interaction of cognition and affect, and the mechanisms by which the mind unconsciously forges compromise solutions that best fit multiple cognitive and affective-motivational constraints. PMID:12018875

  17. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Cognition Across Development and Context

    PubMed Central

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Briley, Daniel A.; Harden, K. Paige

    2014-01-01

    Genes account for between approximately 50% and 70% of the variation in cognition at the population level. However, population-level estimates of heritability potentially mask marked subgroup differences. We review the body of empirical evidence indicating that (a) genetic influences on cognition increase from infancy to adulthood, and (b) genetic influences on cognition are maximized in more advantaged socioeconomic contexts (i.e., a Gene × Socioeconomic Status interaction). We discuss potential mechanisms underlying these effects, particularly transactional models of cognitive development. Transactional models predict that people in high-opportunity contexts actively evoke and select positive learning experiences on the basis of their genetic predispositions; these learning experiences, in turn, reciprocally influence cognition. The net result of this transactional process is increasing genetic influence with increasing age and increasing environmental opportunity. PMID:24799770

  18. The relationship of moral development to intelligence and cognitive complexity 

    E-print Network

    Wood, Joe Dunham

    1980-01-01

    OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Psychology THE RELATIONSHIP OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT TO INTELLIGENCE AND COGNITIVE COMPLEXITY A Thesis by JOE DUNHAM WOOD, Jr. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ember) (Member) (Member...) (Head of Department) August 1980 11938~0 ABSTRACT The Relationship of Moral Development to Intelligence and Cognitive Complexity. (August 1980) Joe D. Wood, Jr. , B. A. , Asbury College; M. Div. , Asbury Theological Seminary Chairman of Advisory...

  19. Critical period for adverse effects on development of reproductive system in male offspring of rats given di- n-butyl phthalate during late pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Ema; Emiko Miyawaki; Kunio Kawashima

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptible days for the adverse effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on development of reproductive system in male offspring following maternal administration on successive 3-day period during late pregnancy. Pregnant rats were given DBP by gastric intubation at 1000 or 1500 mg\\/kg on days 12–14 or 18–20 of pregnancy or at 500,

  20. Adverse effects on development of the reproductive system in male offspring of rats given monobutyl phthalate, a metabolite of dibutyl phthalate, during late pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Ema; Emiko Miyawaki

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the adverse effects of monobutyl phthalate (MBuP), a major metabolite of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), on development of the reproductive system in offspring following maternal administration during late pregnancy, and to assess the role of MBuP in the antiandrogenic effects of DBP. Pregnant rats were given MBuP by gastric intubation at 250, 500,

  1. Developing Cognitive Learnings with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupt, Dorothy

    This preliminary study explores (1) the relationship between children's behavioral responses to cognitive tasks in a testing situation and in a nursery school environment, and (2) the relationship of the above responses to sex, race, and class differences. Studies by Sigel investigating the classification behavior of preschool children, and by…

  2. The Social Cognitive Development of Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barahal, Robert M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared the social cognitive styles of abused children with a control sample and found differences in perceived locus of control of social events and social role comprehensions. Similar trends emerged in perspective-taking skills and social sensitivity. Suggests these differences could not be attributed to IQ or class disparities. (Author)

  3. Low-Dose, Gestational Exposure to Atrazine Does Not Alter Postnatal Reproductive Development of Male Offspring

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that xenobiotic exposure during the perinatal period may result in a variety of adverse outcomes when the developing organism attains adulthood. Maternal stress and subsequent exposure of the fetus to excess glucocorticoids may underlie these effects. Pr...

  4. Stress During Gestation Alters Postpartum Maternal Care and the Development of the Offspring in a

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    increase parental anxiety and irritability and thus directly influence par- ent-child interactions (Mc that environmental adversity can alter parental care and thus influence child development. We addressed the question on behavioral measures of anxiety and maternal behavior, as well as OTR levels. The results of the third mating

  5. Age Affects the Expression of Maternal Care and Subsequent Behavioural Development of Offspring in a Precocial Bird

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, Florent; Coignard, Maud; Houdelier, Cécilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks’ growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian maternal behaviour and that the way we sample maternal behaviour is highly productive. PMID:22701515

  6. Close Interrelation of Motor Development and Cognitive Development and of the Cerebellum and Prefrontal Cortex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Adele

    2000-01-01

    Argues that motor and cognitive development may be fundamentally interrelated. Summarizes evidence of close co-activation of the neocerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in functional neuroimaging, similarities in the cognitive sequelae of damage to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the neocerebellum, motor deficits in "cognitive"…

  7. Delayed physical and neurobehavioral development and increased aggressive and depression-like behaviors in the rat offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Giriko, Catherine Ássuka; Andreoli, Carla Albuquerque; Mennitti, Laís Vales; Hosoume, Lilian Fazion; Souto, Tayane Dos Santos; Silva, Alexandre Valotta da; Mendes-da-Silva, Cristiano

    2013-12-01

    Early maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) may influence the brain development of rat offspring and consequently affect physiology and behavior. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the somatic, physical, sensory-motor and neurobehavioral development of the offspring of dams fed an HFD (52% calories from fat, mainly saturated) and the offspring of dams fed a control diet (CD - 14.7% fat) during lactation from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day (P). Maternal body weights were evaluated during lactation. In the progeny, somatic (body weight, head and lengths axes) and physical (ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, eruption of the incisors and eye opening) development and the consolidation of reflex responses (palm grasp, righting, vibrissa placing, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, auditory startle response and free-fall righting) were determined during suckling. Depressive and aggressive behaviors were tested with the forced swimming test (FST) and the "foot-shock" test on days 60 and 110, respectively. The open field test was used to assess motor function. Compared to controls, the HFD-pups exhibited decreases in body weight (P7-P21) and body length (P4-P18), but by days P71 and P95, these pups were overweight. All indicators of physical maturation and the consolidation of the following reflexes, vibrissa placing, auditory startle responses, free-fall righting and negative geotaxis, were delayed in HFD-progeny. In addition, the pups from HFD dam rats also exhibited reduced swimming and climbing times in the FST and increased aggressive behavior. No changes in locomotion were observed. These findings show developmental and neurobehavioral changes in the rat offspring of dams fed the HFD during lactation and suggest possible disruption of physical and sensory-motor maturation and increased susceptibility to depressive and aggressive-like behavior. PMID:24071008

  8. The value of assessing cognitive function in drug development

    PubMed Central

    Wesnes, Keith A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the value and utility of measuring cognitive function in the development of new medicines by reference to the most widely used automated system in clinical research. Evidence is presented from phase 1 to 3 of the nature and quality of the information that can be obtained by applying the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system to ongoing clinical trials. Valuable evidence can be obtained even in the first trial in which a novel compound is administered to man. One application of such testing is to ensure that novel compounds are relatively free from cognition-impairing properties, particularly in relation to competitor products. Another is to ensure that unwanted interactions with alcohol and other medications do not occur, or, if they do, to put them in context. In many patient populations, cognitive dysfunction occurs as a result of the disease process, and newer medicines which can treat the symptoms of the disease without further impairing function can often reveal benefits as the disease-induced cognitive dysfunction is reduced. Another major application is to identify benefits for compounds designed to enhance cognitive function. Such effects can be sought in typical phase 1 trials, or a scopolamine model of the core deficits of Alzheimer's disease can be used to screen potential antidernentia drugs. Ultimately, of course, such effects can be demonstrated using properly validated and highly sensitive automated procedures in the target populations. The data presented demonstrate that the concept of independently assessing a variety of cognitive functions is crucial in helping differentiate drugs, types of dementia, and different illnesses. Such information offers a unique insight into how the alterations to various cognitive functions will manifest themselves in everyday behavior. This reveals a major limitation of scales that yield a single score, because such limited information does not permit anything but a quantitative interpretation; and the concept of “more” cognitive function or “less” is manifestly inappropriate for something as complex and diverse as the interplay between cognitive function and human behavior. Finally, the next generations of cognitive testing are described. Testing via the telephone has just been introduced and will have dramatic effects on the logistics of conducting cognitive testing in large patient trials. Testing via the Internet is not far off either, and will come fully into play as the proportion of homes connected to the Internet increases in Europe and North America. There are no sound reasons for not wishing to include cognitive function testing in the development protocol of any novel medicine. PMID:22033754

  9. Development of an animal model for gestational hypermethioninemia in rat and its effect on brain Na?,K?-ATPase/Mg²?-ATPase activity and oxidative status of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Bruna M; Schwieder, Lígia; Scherer, Emilene; Sitta, Angela; Vargas, Carmem R; Wyse, Angela T S

    2014-03-01

    In the present study we developed a chemically induced experimental model for gestational hypermethioninemia in rats and evaluated in the offspring the activities of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase, as well as oxidative stress parameters, namely sulfhydryl content, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in encephalon. Serum and encephalon levels of methionine and total homocysteine were also evaluated in mother rats and in the offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats received two daily subcutaneous injections of methionine throughout the gestational period (21 days). During the treatment, a group of pregnant rats received dose 1 (1.34 ?mol methionine/g body weight) and the other one received dose 2 (2.68 ?mol methionine/g body weight). Control group received saline. After the rats give birth, a first group of pups was killed at the 7th day of life and the second group at the 21th day of life for removal of serum and encephalon. Mother rats were killed at the 21th day postpartum for removal of serum and encephalon. Both doses 1 and 2 increased methionine levels in encephalon of the mother rats and dose 2 increased methionine levels in encephalon of the offspring. Maternal hypermethioninemia also decreased the activities of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and catalase, as well as reduced total sulfhydryl content in the encephalon of the pups. This chemical model seems to be appropriate for studies aiming to investigate the effect of maternal hypermethioninemia on the developing brain during gestation in order to clarify possible neurochemical changes in the offspring. PMID:24248636

  10. Cognition and affect in the development of sense of place

    E-print Network

    Engman, Dianne Lynn

    1978-01-01

    of the meanings they assoriate with these places. while early work on place emphasized orientation, imageabi lity, and preference, the major emphasis of present research is in the area of cognitive development based largely on the work of Jean Piaget. Piaget..., 1974a), both selfconscious and unselfconscious (Relph, 1976), and both cognitive and affective (Firey, 1945; Piaget and Weil, 1951). These definitions and charac- terizations are the beginning attempts at describing the processes by which sense...

  11. Relation between Science Teachers' Assessment Tools and Students' Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsevgec, Tuncay; Cepni, Salih

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine students' achievement, science teachers have to develop their own assessment tools. This study attempts to find out the relationship between the teachers' assessment tools and students' cognitive development according to the teachers' teaching experiences. Six open-ended survey questions were developed and delivered to 59…

  12. Relation between Science Teachers' Assessment Tools and Students Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsevgec, Tuncay; Cepni, Salih

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine students' achievement, science teachers have to develop their own assessment tools. This study attempts to find out the relationship between the teachers' assessment tools and students' cognitive development according to the teachers' teaching experiences. Six open-ended survey questions were developed and delivered to 59…

  13. Costs and benefits linked to developments in cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Katharine A.; Munakata, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Developing cognitive control over one’s thoughts, emotions, and actions is a fundamental process that predicts important life outcomes. Such control begins in infancy, and shifts during development from a predominantly reactive form (e.g. retrieving task-relevant information when needed) to an increasingly proactive form (e.g. maintaining task-relevant information in anticipation of needing it). While such developments are generally viewed as adaptive, cognitive abilities can also involve tradeoffs, such that the benefits of developing increasingly proactive control may come with associated costs. In two experiments, we test for such cognitive trade-offs in children who are transitioning to proactive control. We find that proactive control predicts expected benefits in children’s working memory, but is also associated with predicted costs in disproportionately slowing children under conditions of distraction. These findings highlight unique advantages and disadvantages of proactive and reactive control, and suggest caution in attempting to alter their balance during development. PMID:24329774

  14. Costs and benefits linked to developments in cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Katharine A; Munakata, Yuko

    2014-03-01

    Developing cognitive control over one's thoughts, emotions, and actions is a fundamental process that predicts important life outcomes. Such control begins in infancy, and shifts during development from a predominantly reactive form (e.g. retrieving task-relevant information when needed) to an increasingly proactive form (e.g. maintaining task-relevant information in anticipation of needing it). While such developments are generally viewed as adaptive, cognitive abilities can also involve trade-offs, such that the benefits of developing increasingly proactive control may come with associated costs. In two experiments, we test for such cognitive trade-offs in children who are transitioning to proactive control. We find that proactive control predicts expected benefits in children's working memory, but is also associated with predicted costs in disproportionately slowing children under conditions of distraction. These findings highlight unique advantages and disadvantages of proactive and reactive control, and suggest caution in attempting to alter their balance during development. PMID:24329774

  15. Green spaces and cognitive development in primary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Esnaola, Mikel; Forns, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mónica; De Castro Pascual, Montserrat; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Querol, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-06-30

    Exposure to green space has been associated with better physical and mental health. Although this exposure could also influence cognitive development in children, available epidemiological evidence on such an impact is scarce. This study aimed to assess the association between exposure to green space and measures of cognitive development in primary schoolchildren. This study was based on 2,593 schoolchildren in the second to fourth grades (7-10 y) of 36 primary schools in Barcelona, Spain (2012-2013). Cognitive development was assessed as 12-mo change in developmental trajectory of working memory, superior working memory, and inattentiveness by using four repeated (every 3 mo) computerized cognitive tests for each outcome. We assessed exposure to green space by characterizing outdoor surrounding greenness at home and school and during commuting by using high-resolution (5 m × 5 m) satellite data on greenness (normalized difference vegetation index). Multilevel modeling was used to estimate the associations between green spaces and cognitive development. We observed an enhanced 12-mo progress in working memory and superior working memory and a greater 12-mo reduction in inattentiveness associated with greenness within and surrounding school boundaries and with total surrounding greenness index (including greenness surrounding home, commuting route, and school). Adding a traffic-related air pollutant (elemental carbon) to models explained 20-65% of our estimated associations between school greenness and 12-mo cognitive development. Our study showed a beneficial association between exposure to green space and cognitive development among schoolchildren that was partly mediated by reduction in exposure to air pollution. PMID:26080420

  16. In-utero exposure to DDT and cognitive development among infants and school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Jusko, Todd A.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for control of infectious diseases in several countries. In-utero exposure to DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been associated with developmental and cognitive impairment among children. We examined this association in an historical cohort in which the level of exposure was greater than in previous studies. Methods The association of in-utero DDT and DDE exposure with infant and child neurodevelopment was examined in approximately 1100 subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective birth cohort enrolling pregnant women from 12 study centers in the U.S. from 1959 to 1965. Maternal DDT and DDE concentrations were measured in archived serum specimens. Infant mental and motor development was assessed at age 8 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and child cognitive development was assessed at age 7 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Results Although levels of both DDT and DDE were relatively high in this population (median DDT concentration, 8.9 µg/L; DDE, 24.5 µg/L), neither was related to Mental or Psychomotor Development scores on the Bayley Scales or to Full-Scale IQ at 7 years of age. Categorical analyses showed no evidence of dose-response for either maternal DDT or DDE, and estimates of the association between continuous measures of exposure and neurodevelopment were indistinguishable from 0. Conclusions Adverse associations were not observed between maternal serum DDT and DDE concentrations and offspring neurodevelopment at 8 months or 7 years of age in this cohort. PMID:22766752

  17. Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Casey; Jay N. Giedd; Kathleen M. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based

  18. Postnatal environment can counteract prenatal effects on cognitive ability, cell proliferation, and synaptic protein expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ja Wook Koo; Cheol Hyoung Park; Se Hoon Choi; Na Jung Kim; Hye-Sun Kim; Jae Chun Choe; Yoo-Hun Suh

    2003-01-01

    Many environmental factors during the pre- or postnatal period can affect an individual's cognitive function and neural development throughout life. Little is known, however, about the combined effects of the pre- and postnatal environments on cognitive function of adult offspring and structural alterations in the adult brain. In this study, we confirmed that pre- or postnatal stress impaired learning and

  19. Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

  20. Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Ann Shore

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the “Mozart Effect” studies to participation in piano lessons or other music training over time. This literature review suggest that, just as a

  1. Psychology 475/575 Cognitive Development: Spring 2012

    E-print Network

    Lockery, Shawn

    Psychology 475/575 Cognitive Development: Spring 2012 Tuesdays & Thursdays 12:00-1:20p.m. Professor Description: Children's grasp of the world changes dramatically with development. In a short two years from birth, they alter from helpless bundles into walking, talking dynamos. As toddlers, children are prone

  2. Psychology 475/575 Cognitive Development: Fall 2008

    E-print Network

    Lockery, Shawn

    Psychology 475/575 Cognitive Development: Fall 2008 Tuesdays & Thursdays 12:00-1:20 110 Willamette with development. In a short two years from birth, we humans change from helpless bundles into walking, talking dynamos. As toddlers, however, we are prone to swallow strange substances and dash in front of cars unless

  3. Psychology 475/575 Cognitive Development: Winter 2011

    E-print Network

    Lockery, Shawn

    Psychology 475/575 Cognitive Development: Winter 2011 Mondays & Wednesdays 12:00-1:20p.m. Professor Description: Children's grasp of the world changes dramatically with development. In a short two years from birth, we humans change from helpless bundles into walking, talking dynamos. As toddlers, however, we

  4. Breastfeeding and Trajectories of Children's Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jin; Peters, Kristen E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Witko, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of breastfeeding practices with the growth trajectories of children's cognitive development. We used data from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) with variables on presence and duration of breastfeeding and standardized test scores obtained…

  5. Cognitive development, epistemic doubt, and identity formation in adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Boyes; Michael Chandler

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the part that nascent skeptical doubt plays in shaping the course of adolescent social-cognitive development. It is argued that the intellectual changes that accompany the acquisition of formal operational competence set in motion a series of developments that seriously undermine the typical adolescent's previous sense of epistemic certainty. An epistemic model is proposed, leading

  6. Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the "Mozart Effect" studies to participation in piano lessons…

  7. Contributions of Dynamic Systems Theory to Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John P.; Austin, Andrew; Schutte, Anne R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the contributions of dynamic systems theory to the field of cognitive development, focusing on modeling using dynamic neural fields. A brief overview highlights the contributions of dynamic systems theory and the central concepts of dynamic field theory (DFT). We then probe empirical predictions and findings generated by DFT around two examples—the DFT of infant perseverative reaching that explains the Piagetian A-not-B error, and the DFT of spatial memory that explain changes in spatial cognition in early development. A systematic review of the literature around these examples reveals that computational modeling is having an impact on empirical research in cognitive development; however, this impact does not extend to neural and clinical research. Moreover, there is a tendency for researchers to interpret models narrowly, anchoring them to specific tasks. We conclude on an optimistic note, encouraging both theoreticians and experimentalists to work toward a more theory-driven future.

  8. Prenatal and early postnatal stress exposure influences long bone length in adult rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Cao, Xiu Jing; Veru, Franz; Xu, Susan; Long, Hong; Yu, Chunbo; Laplante, David P.; Walker, Claire Dominique; King, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Stress during the prenatal and early postnatal periods (perinatal stress, PS) is known to impact offspring cognitive, behavioral, and physical development, but effects on skeletal growth are not clear. Our objective was to analyze effects of variable, mild, daily PS exposure on adult offspring long bone length. Twelve pregnant rat dams were randomly assigned to receive variable stress from gestational days 14-21 (Prenatal group), postpartum days 2-9 (Postnatal), both periods (Pre-Post), or no stress (Control). Differences in adult offspring tibia and femur length were analyzed among treatment groups. Mean tibia length differed among groups for males (p=0.016) and females (p=0.009), and differences for femur length approached significance for males (p=0.051). Long bone length was shorter among PS-exposed offspring, especially those exposed to postnatal stress (Postnatal and Pre-Post groups). Results persisted when controlling for nose-tail length. These differences might reflect early stunting that is maintained in adulthood, or delayed growth among PS-exposed offspring. This study suggests that PS results in shorter long bones in adulthood, independently of effects on overall body size. Stunting and growth retardation are major global health burdens. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that PS is a risk factor for poor linear growth. PMID:22826037

  9. Please cite this article in press as: Moore, H., et al., Harnessing cognitive neuroscience to develop new treatments for improv-ing cognition in schizophrenia: CNTRICS selected cognitive paradigms for animal models. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (2013),

    E-print Network

    2013-01-01

    to develop new treatments for improv- ing cognition in schizophrenia: CNTRICS selected cognitive paradigms.elsevier.com/locate/neubiorev Editorial Harnessing cognitive neuroscience to develop new treatments for improving cognition Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative was developed. The goal of CNTRICS

  10. MTHFR deficiency or reduced intake of folate or choline in pregnant mice results in impaired short-term memory and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of wild-type offspring.

    PubMed

    Jadavji, N M; Deng, L; Malysheva, O; Caudill, M A; Rozen, R

    2015-08-01

    Genetic or nutritional disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, with associated hyperhomocysteinemia, can result in complex disorders including pregnancy complications and neuropsychiatric diseases. In earlier work, we showed that mice with a complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, had cognitive impairment with disturbances in choline metabolism. Maternal demands for folate and choline are increased during pregnancy and deficiencies of these nutrients result in several negative outcomes including increased resorption and delayed development. The goal of this study was to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological impact of a maternal genetic deficiency in MTHFR or maternal nutritional deficiency of folate or choline during pregnancy on 3-week-old Mthfr(+/+) offspring. Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) females were placed on control diets (CD); and Mthfr(+/+) females were placed on folate-deficient diets (FD) or choline-deficient diets (ChDD) throughout pregnancy and lactation until their offspring were 3weeks of age. Short-term memory was assessed in offspring, and hippocampal tissue was evaluated for morphological changes, apoptosis, proliferation and choline metabolism. Maternal MTHFR deficiency resulted in short-term memory impairment in offspring. These dams had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine when compared with wild-type dams. There were no differences in plasma homocysteine in offspring. Increased apoptosis and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus of offspring from Mthfr(+/-) mothers. In the maternal FD and ChDD study, offspring also showed short-term memory impairment with increased apoptosis in the hippocampus; increased neurogenesis was observed in ChDD offspring. Choline acetyltransferase protein was increased in the offspring hippocampus of both dietary groups and betaine was decreased in the hippocampus of FD offspring. Our results reveal short-term memory deficits in the offspring of dams with MTHFR deficiency or dietary deficiencies of critical methyl donors. We suggest that deficiencies in maternal one-carbon metabolism during pregnancy can contribute to hippocampal dysfunction in offspring through apoptosis or altered choline metabolism. PMID:25956258

  11. Assessing Christian-Faith and Cognitive Development in College Students: CFCDS Instrument Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Laura S.

    2013-01-01

    What happens when students go to college? An important outcome of college attendance is student cognitive development. Part of that developmental process is learning how to address contrasting values, beliefs, knowledge structures, and worldviews critically. This study addressed the relationship between cognitive and Christian-faith development in…

  12. A Cognitive Approach to the Development of Early Language

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2009-01-01

    A controversial issue in the field of language development is whether language emergence and growth is dependent solely on processes specifically tied to language or could also depend on basic cognitive processes that affect all aspects of cognitive competence (domain-general processes). The present article examines this issue using a large battery of infant information-processing measures of memory, representational competence, processing speed, and attention, many of which have been shown to predict general cognition in a cohort of full-terms and preterms. Results showed that various aspects of infant memory and representational competence (a) related to language at both 12 and 36 months, (b) predicted similarly for the two groups, and (c) predicted 36- month language, independently of birth status, 12-month language, and the 12-month Bayley Mental Development Index. Additionally, the results established predictive validity for the MacArthur 12-month language measure. These findings support a domain-general view of language. PMID:19236397

  13. Imaging Patterns of Brain Development and their Relationship to Cognition.

    PubMed

    Erus, Guray; Battapady, Harsha; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E; Davatzikos, Christos; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-06-01

    We present a brain development index (BDI) that concisely summarizes complex imaging patterns of structural brain maturation along a single dimension using a machine learning methodology. The brain was found to follow a remarkably consistent developmental trajectory in a sample of 621 subjects of ages 8-22 participating in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, reflected by a cross-validated correlation coefficient between chronologic age and the BDI of r = 0.89. Critically, deviations from this trajectory related to cognitive performance. Specifically, subjects whose BDI was higher than their chronological age displayed significantly superior cognitive processing speed compared with subjects whose BDI was lower than their actual age. These results indicate that the multiparametric imaging patterns summarized by the BDI can accurately delineate trajectories of brain development and identify individuals with cognitive precocity or delay. PMID:24421175

  14. Parallel distributed processing: Implications for cognition and development. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, J.L.

    1988-07-11

    This paper provides a brief overview of the connectionist or parallel distributed processing framework for modeling cognitive processes, and considers the application of the connectionist framework to problems of cognitive development. Several aspects of cognitive development might result from the process of learning as it occurs in multi-layer networks. This learning process has the characteristic that it reduces the discrepancy between expected and observed events. As it does this, representations develop on hidden units which dramatically change both the way in which the network represents the environment from which it learns and the expectations that the network generates about environmental events. The learning process exhibits relatively abrupt transitions corresponding to stage shifts in cognitive development. These points are illustrated using a network that learns to anticipate which side of a balance beam will go down, based on the number of weights on each side of the fulcrum and their distance from the fulcrum on each side of the beam. The network is trained in an environment in which weight more frequently governs which side will go down. It recapitulates the states of development seen in children, as well as the stage transitions, as it learns to represent weight and distance information.

  15. Comparing gay identity development theory to cognitive development: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Marszalek, John F; Cashwell, Craig S; Dunn, Merrily S; Jones, Katherine Heard

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between gay identity development and cognitive development, as outlined by Ivey's Developmental Counseling Therapy Model, was explored. The Gay Identity Questionnaire and the Standard Developmental Counseling Interview were administered to 78 gay men. Results suggested that there is a relationship between gay identity development and cognitive development. In addition, the findings provide evidence that gay identity development can be categorized by concrete and abstract frames of reference. PMID:15774419

  16. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  17. Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Moral Development in Undergraduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and cognitive moral development (CMD) in undergraduate business students. The ability model of emotional intelligence was used in this study, which evaluated possible relationships between EI and CMD in a sample of 82 undergraduate business students. The sample population was…

  18. Parental Involvement in Young Children's Computer Use and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarrick, Katy; Li, Xiaoming; Fish, Angela; Holtrop, Teresa; Bhavnagri, Navaz P.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Butler, Sheretta; Partridge, Ty

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, young children are using computers; however, the role of the parent in facilitating this type of learning is not yet clear. This study investigates the relationship between parental involvement in computer use and cognitive development in their children. Parents of Head Start children who owned a computer (n = 136) reported on the…

  19. Development of a Cognitive Representation Through Observational Motor Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J. PoIlock

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that examined whether KR was necessary to develop a representation through observational motor learning. Subjects observed a learning model perform three variations of a three segment timing task and then performed two transfer tasks. The first experiment found that a cognitive representation could be formed through observational learning, even when KR was not provided during acquisition.

  20. Conservation and Conversation Types: Forms of Recognition and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psaltis, Charis; Duveen, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    While the productive role of social interaction between peers in promoting cognitive development has been clearly established, the communicative processes through which this is achieved is less clearly understood. Earlier work has established that different types of conversation become established between children as they work together on a…

  1. Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Bussey; Albert Bandura

    1999-01-01

    Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender role development and functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experi- ences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide

  2. Patterns of Low-Birth-Weight Children's Cognitive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fong-Ruey Liaw; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates the developmental patterns of cognitive performance over the first 3 years in a large sample of Black and White low-birth-weight (LBW), premature children (N = 762), selected from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP). The IHDP is a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of education and family support services in reducing the incidence of

  3. Social Cognitive Theory of Gender Development and Differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Bussey; Albert Bandura

    1999-01-01

    Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender role development and functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked

  4. Parental Involvement in Young Children's Computer Use and Cognitive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katy McCarrick; Xiaoming Li; Angela Fish; Teresa Holtrop; Navaz P. Bhavnagri; Bonita Stanton; Gail A. Brumitt; Sheretta Butler; Ty Partridge

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, young children are using computers; however, the role of the parent in facilitating this type of learning is not yet clear. This study investigates the relationship between parental involvement in computer use and cognitive development in their children. Parents of Head Start children who owned a computer (n = 136) reported on the frequency and type of involvement with

  5. Contributions of Dynamic Systems Theory to Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, John P.; Austin, Andrew; Schutte, Anne R.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the contributions of dynamic systems theory to the field of cognitive development, focusing on modeling using dynamic neural fields. After introducing central concepts of dynamic field theory (DFT), we probe empirical predictions and findings around two examples--the DFT of infant perseverative reaching that explains Piaget's A-not-B…

  6. Using EEG to Study Cognitive Development: Issues and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martha Ann; Cuevas, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Developmental research is enhanced by use of multiple methodologies for examining psychological processes. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for the study of developmental changes in brain-behavior relations. In this review, we highlight some of the challenges for using EEG in cognitive development

  7. The Function of Cognitive Imaging in a Developing Research University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.

    Cognitive imaging was investigated as one factor associated with the development of the University of New Mexico from an undergraduate teaching institution toward becoming a nationally-ranked graduate research university. A longitudinal, ethnohistorical study was undertaken for the 1967-1978 period. The qualitative research methodology involved an…

  8. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  9. The Link between Nutrition and Cognitive Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    New findings about child nutrition and cognitive development indicate that undernourished children are typically fatigued and uninterested in their social environments. Such children are less likely to establish relationships or to explore and learn from their surroundings. Undernourished children are also more susceptible to illness and, thus,…

  10. Computational Models of Relational Processes in Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.; Andrews, Glenda; Wilson, William H.; Phillips, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of relational knowledge is a core process in cognitive development. Relational knowledge is dynamic and flexible, entails structure-consistent mappings between representations, has properties of compositionality and systematicity, and depends on binding in working memory. We review three types of computational models relevant to…

  11. Mapping brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomas ÿ Paus

    2005-01-01

    Non-invasive mapping of brain structure and function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has opened up unprecedented opportunities for studying the neural substrates underlying cognitive development. There is an emerging consensus of a continuous increase through- out adolescence in the volume of white matter, both global and local. There is less agreement on the meaning of asynchronous age-related decreases in the

  12. Artificial Curiosity with Planning for Autonomous Perceptual and Cognitive Development

    E-print Network

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    Artificial Curiosity with Planning for Autonomous Perceptual and Cognitive Development Matthew signal presents a major obstacle to successfully realizing an efficient curiosity-drive. TD the curiosity signal. In this paper, a novel artificial curiosity system with planning is implemented, based

  13. Topics in Cognitive Development: Language and Operational Thought. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presseisen, Barbara Z.; And Others

    This is the second volume in a series that records the official Symposium Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Society and examines the theoretical, empirical, and applied aspects of Jean Piaget's seminal epistemology. The 12 papers are divided into four areas: language development, formal reasoning, social cognition, and applied research. The topics of…

  14. Quantum Structure in Cognition, Origins, Developments, Successes and Expectations

    E-print Network

    Diederik Aerts; Sandro Sozzo

    2015-03-10

    We provide an overview of the results we have attained in the last decade on the identification of quantum structures in cognition and, more specifically, in the formalization and representation of natural concepts. We firstly discuss the quantum foundational reasons that led us to investigate the mechanisms of formation and combination of concepts in human reasoning, starting from the empirically observed deviations from classical logical and probabilistic structures. We then develop our quantum-theoretic perspective in Fock space which allows successful modeling of various sets of cognitive experiments collected by different scientists, including ourselves. In addition, we formulate a unified explanatory hypothesis for the presence of quantum structures in cognitive processes, and discuss our recent discovery of further quantum aspects in concept combinations, namely, 'entanglement' and 'indistinguishability'. We finally illustrate perspectives for future research.

  15. The Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale: development and psychometric characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hamamci, Zeynep; Büyüköztürk, Sener

    2004-08-01

    In this study, an Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale was developed to assess cognitive distortions in individuals' interpersonal relationships. The sample comprised 425 university students. A factor analysis yielded three factors: Interpersonal Rejection, Unrealistic Relationship Expectation and Interpersonal Misperception. To examine construct validity the correlations between the scores on the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Scale (.54), the Irrational Belief Scale (.54), and the Conflict Tendency Scale (.53) were estimated. The first factor, the second factor, and the total scale discriminated married individuals who had low and high conflict intensity and conflict frequency. The reliability of the scale was estimated by performing a test-retest correlation (.74). Cronbach internal consistency coefficient alpha was .67. PMID:15460384

  16. Cognitive development: children's knowledge about the mind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Flavell

    1999-01-01

    This chapter reviews theory and research on the development of children's knowledge about the mental world, focusing especially on work done during the past 15 years under the rubric of theory-of-mind development. The three principal approaches to explaining this development--theory theory, modular theory, and simulation theory--are described first. Next comes a description of infant precursors or protoforms of theory-of-mind knowledge

  17. Stability and Change of Cognitive Attributes in Children with Uneven/Delayed Cognitive Development from Preschool through Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Pinchen; Lung, For-Wey; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2010-01-01

    As part of an ongoing clinical service program for children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analyzed the cognitive attributes of 362 Taiwanese children (average age 48.5 plus or minus 12.9 month-old) with uneven/delayed cognitive development as they were assessed repeatedly with average duration of 39.7 plus or…

  18. Imaging the developing brain: what have we learned about cognitive development?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Casey; Nim Tottenham; Conor Liston; Sarah Durston

    2005-01-01

    The human brain undergoes significant changes in both its structural architecture and functional organization across the life span. Advances in neuroimaging tech- niques over the past decade have allowed us to track these changes safely in the human in vivo. We review the imaging literature on the neurobiology of cognitive development, focusing specifically on cognitive task- dependent changes observed in

  19. Dialectic Operations: The Final Period of Cognitive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus F. Riegel

    1973-01-01

    Arguments for an extension of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development have been derived from philosophical and historical consideration of modern natural sciences. Implicit contradictions, which characterize these sciences as well as common thought, can be systematically apprehended only through a dialectic reinterpretation. The dialectic basis of Piaget’s theory is expressed in his assimilation-accommodation paradigm. But development is interpreted as a

  20. Pathways to Suicide-Related Behavior in Offspring of Mothers With Depression: The Role of Offspring Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Method Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers’ first 11 years of their child’s life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Conclusion Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. PMID:25901775

  1. The social cognitive development of abused children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Barahal; Jill Waterman; Harold P. Martin

    1981-01-01

    Previous research on the impact of parental abuse on child development has typically been skewed to the more seriously injured or most socially disadvantaged families. The few studies attending to psychological consequences of abuse have further been limited by a failure to control for potentially confounding intellectual or demographic factors and have been too general in approach to provide effective

  2. Metacognitive Development: A View beyond Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Jennifer; Gunstone, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to investigate students' metacognitive development in a second year chemical engineering course. The first of these was an exploratory study involving observation together with some limited interviewing. This was followed by a major study with two phases, the first of which involved a series of individual…

  3. Identifying Cognitive Mechanisms Targeted for Treatment Development in Schizophrenia: An Overview of the First Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Cameron S.; Barch, Deanna M.; Buchanan, Robert W.; Bullmore, Ed; Krystal, John H.; Cohen, Jonathan; Geyer, Mark; Green, Michael; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Robbins, Trevor; Silverstein, Steven; Smith, Edward E.; Strauss, Milton; Wykes, Til; Heinssen, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This overview describes the generation and development of the ideas that led to the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative. It also describes the organization, process and products of the first meeting. The CNTRICS initiative involves a series of three conferences that will systematically address barriers to translating paradigms developed in the basic animal and human cognitive neuroscience fields for use in translational research aimed at developing novel treatments for cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The articles in this special section report on the results of the first conference, which used a criterion based consensus-building process to develop a set of cognitive constructs to be targeted for translation efforts. PMID:18466880

  4. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

  5. Neonatal Overfeeding in Female Mice Predisposes the Development of Obesity in their Male Offspring via Altered Central Leptin Signalling.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Ji, J; Yu, Y; Wei, X; Chai, S; Liu, D; Huang, D; Li, Q; Dong, Z; Xiao, X

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity among child-bearing women has increased significantly. The adverse consequences of maternal obesity on the descendants have been well accepted, although few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms. We investigated whether neonatal overfeeding in female mice alters metabolic phenotypes in the offspring and whether hypothalamic leptin signalling is involved. Neonatal overfeeding was induced by reducing the litter size to three pups per litter, in contrast to normal litter size of 10 pups per litter. Normal and neonatally overfed female mice were bred with normal male mice, and offspring of overfeeding mothers (OOM) and control mothers (OCM) were generated. We examined body weight, daily food intake, leptin responsiveness and the number of positive neurones for phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) along with neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) and NPY in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the brain stem. The body weight and daily food intake of OOM were significantly higher than those of OCM. Leptin significantly reduced food intake and increased the number of pSTAT3 positive neurones in the ARH of OCM mice, whereas no significant changes in food intake and pSTAT3 neurones were found in leptin-treated OOM mice. The number of NPY neurones in the ARH and NTS of the OOM mice was significantly higher than that of OCM mice. The results of the present study indicate that the obese phenotype from mothers can be passed onto the subsequent generation, which is possibly associated with hypothalamic leptin resistance. PMID:25855235

  6. Do Cognitive Attributions for Smoking Predict Subsequent Smoking Development?

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qian; Unger, Jennifer B.; Azen, Stanley P.; MacKinnon, David P.; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    To develop more effective anti-smoking programs, it is important to understand the factors that influence people to smoke. Guided by attribution theory, a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate how individuals’ cognitive attributions for smoking were associated with subsequent smoking development and through which pathways. Middle and high school students in seven large cities in China (N=12,382; 48.5% boys and 51.5% girls) completed two annual surveys. Associations between cognitive attributions for smoking and subsequent smoking initiation and progression were tested with multilevel analysis, taking into account plausible moderation effects of gender and baseline smoking status. Mediation effects of susceptibility to smoking were investigated using statistical mediation analysis (MacKinnon, 2008). Six out of eight tested themes of cognitive attributions were associated with subsequent smoking development. Curiosity (?=0.11, p<0.001) and autonomy (?=0.08, p=0.019) were associated with smoking initiation among baseline non-smokers. Coping (?=0.07, p<0.001) and social image (?=0.10, p=<.0001) were associated with smoking progression among baseline lifetime smokers. Social image (?=0.05, p=0.043), engagement (?=0.07, p=0.003), and mental enhancement (?=0.15, p<0.001) were associated with smoking progression among baseline past 30-day smokers. More attributions were associated with smoking development among males than among females. Susceptibility to smoking partially mediated most of the associations, with the proportion of mediated effects ranging from 4.3% to 30.8%. This study identifies the roles that cognitive attributions for smoking play in subsequent smoking development. These attributions could be addressed in smoking prevention programs. PMID:22112425

  7. Effects of maternal hyperhomocysteinemia induced by high methionine diet on the learning and memory performance in offspring.

    PubMed

    Baydas, Giyasettin; Koz, Sema T; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Nedzvetsky, Victor S; Etem, Ebru

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we suggest that chronic maternal hyperhomocysteinemia results in learning deficits in the offspring due to delayed brain maturation and altered expression pattern of neural cell adhesion molecule. Although the deleterious effects of hyperhomocysteinemia were extensively investigated in the adults, there is no clear evidence suggesting its action on the developing fetal rat brain and cognitive functions of the offspring. Therefore, in the present work we aimed to investigate effects of maternal hyperhomocysteinemia on the fetal brain development and on the behavior of the offspring. A group of pregnant rats received daily methionine (1 g/kg body weight) dissolved in drinking water to induce maternal hyperhomocysteinemia, starting in the beginning of gestational day 0. The levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100B protein, and neural cell adhesion molecule were determined in the tissue samples from the pups. Learning and memory performances of the young-adult offsprings were tested using Morris water maze test. There were significant reductions in the expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100B protein in the brains of maternally hyperhomocysteinemic pups on postnatal day 1, suggesting that hyperhomocysteinemia delays brain maturation. In conclusion, maternal hyperhomocysteinemia changes the expression pattern of neural cell adhesion molecule and therefore leads to an impairment in the learning performance of the offspring. PMID:17416478

  8. The Influence of Parenting Styles on Children's Cognitive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy E. Tiller; M. E. Betsy Garrison; Kathryn Cramer; Vicky Tiller

    Abstract Based on a larger longitudinal project of family stress and children’s development, the primary objective of the current study was to investigate the relationships between parenting styles and children’s cognitive ability in families with young elementary school-aged children. Parents completed a self-administered survey on family experiences, including parenting styles. Children were interviewed at their schools where the Brief Intellectual

  9. Prevention of Intellectual Disabilities: Early Interventions to Improve Cognitive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig T. Ramey; Sharon Landesman Ramey

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework that has guided three randomized, controlled early intervention trials designed to improve cognitive development and social competence in high-risk young children from birth to 3 years of age. Two of the projects (Abecedarian and CARE) enrolled infants from economically and socially low-resource families and the other project (IHDP) was an eight-site randomized controlled trial

  10. The evolutionary ecology of offspring size in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Dustin J; Keough, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in offspring size is of fundamental ecological and evolutionary importance. The level of provisioning an organism receives from its mother can have far reaching consequences for subsequent survival and performance. In marine systems, the traditional focus was on the remarkable variation in offspring size among species but there is increasing focus on variation in offspring size within species. Here we review the incidence and consequences of intraspecific offspring-size variation for marine invertebrates. Offspring size is remarkably variable within and among marine invertebrate populations. We examined patterns of variation in offspring size within populations using a meta-analysis of the available data for 102 species across 7 phyla. The average coefficient of variation in offspring size within populations is 9%, while some groups (e.g., direct developers) showed much more variation (15%), reflecting a fourfold difference between the largest and smallest offspring in any population. Offspring-size variation can have for reaching consequences. Offspring size affects every stage of a marine invertebrate's life history, even in species in which maternal provisioning accounts for only a small proportion of larval nutrition (i.e., planktotrophs). In species with external fertilization, larger eggs are larger targets for sperm and as such, the sperm environment may select for different egg sizes although debate continues over the evolutionary importance of such effects. Offspring size affects the planktonic period in many species with planktotrophic and lecithotrophic development, but we found that this effect is not universal. Indeed, much of the evidence for the effects of offspring size on the planktonic period is limited to the echinoids and in this group and other taxa there is variable evidence, suggesting further work is necessary. Post-metamorphic effects of offspring size were strong in species with non-feeding larvae and direct development: bigger offspring generally have higher post-metamorphic survival, higher growth rates and sometimes greater fecundity. Although there is limited evidence for the mechanisms underlying these effects, the size of post-metamorphic feeding structures and resistance to low-food availability appear to be good candidates. There was limited evidence to assess the effects of offspring size on post-metamorphic performance in planktotrophs but surprisingly, initial indications suggest that such effects do exist and in the same direction as for species with other developmental modes. Overall, we suggest that for direct developers and species with non-feeding larvae, the post-metamorphic effects of offspring size will be greatest source of selection. Offspring-size variation can arise through a variety of sources, both within and among populations. Stress, maternal size and nutrition, and habitat quality all appear to be major factors affecting the size of offspring, but more work on sources of variation is necessary. While theoretical considerations of offspring size can now account for variation in offspring size among mothers, they struggle to account for within-brood variation. We suggest alternative approaches such as game theoretic models that may be useful for reconciling within-clutch variation. While some of the first theoretical considerations of offspring size were based on marine invertebrates, many of the assumptions of these models have not been tested, and we highlight some of the important gaps in understanding offspring-size effects. We also discuss the advantages of using offspring size as a proxy for maternal investment and review the evidence used to justify this step. Overall, offspring size is likely to be an important source of variation in the recruitment of marine invertebrates. The quality of offspring entering a population could be as important as the quantity and further work on the ecological role of offspring size is necessary. From an evolutionary standpoint, theoretical models that consider every life-history stage, together with the co

  11. Sleep deprivation during late pregnancy produces hyperactivity and increased risk-taking behavior in offspring.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Arathi; Aswathy, B S; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan; Gulia, Kamalesh K

    2015-01-30

    Sleep deprivation in women resulting from their modern lifestyle, especially during pregnancy, is a serious concern as it can affect the health of the newborn. Anxiety disorders and cognitive deficits in the offspring are also on the rise. However, experimental studies on the effects of sleep loss during pregnancy, on emotional development and cognitive function of the newborn, are scanty in literature. In the current study, female rats were sleep-deprived for 5h by gentle handling, during the 6 days of the third trimester (days 14-19 of pregnancy). The effects of this sleep deprivation on anxiety-related behaviors of pups during their peri-adolescence age were studied using elevated plus maze (EPM). In addition to body weights of dams and offspring, the maternal behavior was also monitored. The weanlings of sleep-deprived dams showed heightened risk-taking behavior as they made increased explorations into the open arms of EPM. They also showed higher mobility in comparison to the control group. Though the body weights of sleep-deprived dams were comparable to those of the control group, their newborns had lower birth weight. Nevertheless, these pups gained weight and reached the control group values during the initial post-natal week. But after weaning, their rate of growth was lower than that of the control group. This is the first report providing evidences for the role of sleep during late pregnancy in shaping the neuropsychological development in offspring. PMID:25446439

  12. Part I: Cognitive Development in Children--Piaget Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piaget, Jean

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author gives a general introduction of a few ideas on cognitive development in children. In the first part, he deals with the topic of development, a process which concerns the totality of the structures of knowledge. He reviews the stages of development of operational structures, distinguishes four main stages of development,…

  13. Development and initial validation of a scale to measure cognitive fusion 

    E-print Network

    Dempster, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: This thesis describes the development and initial validation of a questionnaire to measure Hayes, Strosahl and Wilson’s (1999) constructs of cognitive fusion and cognitive defusion. Within the literature there is ...

  14. Finding Shortest Path for Developed Cognitive Map Using Medial Axis

    E-print Network

    Farhan, Hazim A; Al-Ghazi, Suhaib I

    2011-01-01

    this paper presents an enhancement of the medial axis algorithm to be used for finding the optimal shortest path for developed cognitive map. The cognitive map has been developed, based on the architectural blueprint maps. The idea for using the medial-axis is to find main path central pixels; each center pixel represents the center distance between two side boarder pixels. The need for these pixels in the algorithm comes from the need of building a network of nodes for the path, where each node represents a turning in the real world (left, right, critical left, critical right...). The algorithm also ignores from finding the center pixels paths that are too small for intelligent robot navigation. The Idea of this algorithm is to find the possible shortest path between start and end points. The goal of this research is to extract a simple, robust representation of the shape of the cognitive map together with the optimal shortest path between start and end points. The intelligent robot will use this algorithm i...

  15. Effect of maternal intake of organically or conventionally produced feed on oral tolerance development in offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Maja Melballe; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher R; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2013-05-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings' response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother's milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups' anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L). PMID:23581797

  16. Maternal influences over offspring allergic responses.

    PubMed

    Cook-Mills, Joan M

    2015-02-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  17. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  18. An information theory analysis of spatial decisions in cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Nicole M.; Sera, Maria D.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2015-01-01

    Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain) as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages 5 to 10 years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of “cognitive entropy” were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1) the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2) the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured “chunking” of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework. PMID:25698915

  19. Maternal OGTT Glucose Levels at 26–30 Gestational Weeks with Offspring Growth and Development in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gongshu; Li, Nan; Sun, Shurong; Wen, Jing; Lyu, Fengjun; Gao, Wen; Li, Lili; Chen, Fang; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hou, Lifang

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We aim to evaluate the association of maternal gestational oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose concentrations with anthropometry in the offspring from birth to 12 months in Tianjin, China. Methods. A total of 27,157 pregnant women underwent OGTT during 26–30 weeks gestation, and their children had body weight/length measured from birth to 12 months old. Results. Maternal OGTT glucose concentrations at 26–30 gestational weeks were positively associated with Z-scores for birth length-for-gestational age and birth weight-for-length. Compared with infants born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance, infants born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (impaired glucose tolerance/new diabetes) had higher mean values of Z-scores for birth length-for-gestational age (0.07/0.23; normal group ?0.08) and birth weight-for-length (0.27/0.57; normal group ?0.001), smaller changes in mean values of Z-scores for length-for-age (0.75/0.62; normal group 0.94) and weight-for-length (0.18/?0.17; normal group 0.37) from birth to month 3, and bigger changes in mean values in Z-scores for weight-for-length (0.07/0.12; normal group 0.02) from month 9 to 12. Conclusions. Abnormal maternal glucose tolerance during pregnancy was associated with higher birth weight and birth length, less weight and length gain in the first 3 months of life, and more weight gain in the months 9–12 of life. PMID:24689042

  20. Supplemental feeding during pregnancy compared with maternal supplementation during lactation does not affect schooling and cognitive development through late adolescence123

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, Harold; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Lundberg, Mattias; Tasneem, Afia; Mark, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Background: The long-term impact of early malnutrition on human capital outcomes remains unclear, and existing evidence has come largely from observational studies. Objective: We compared the impact of a nutritional supplement given during pregnancy or lactation in rural Gambia on educational performance and cognitive ability in offspring at their maturity. Design: This study was a follow-up of a randomized trial of prenatal high protein and energy supplementation conducted between 1989 and 1994. Subjects were 16–22 y of age at follow-up, and information was collected on schooling achievement and cognitive ability by using the Raven's progressive matrices test, Mill Hill vocabulary test, and forward and backward digit-span tests. Results: A total of 1459 individuals were traced and interviewed and represented 71% of the original cohort and 81% of the surviving cohort. There was no difference in cognitive ability or educational attainment between treatment groups by using any of the methods of assessment. Conclusion: We have shown little evidence to support a long-term effect of prenatal protein-energy supplementation compared with supplementation during lactation on cognitive development in rural Gambians. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN72582014. PMID:24132979

  1. Developments in Cognitive Theory Research with the Deaf and Implications for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins-Shepard, Charlotte

    Presented is a brief review of major writings on cognition in the field of deaf education, in which the main cognitive-developmental theories are identifed. Within this framework is discussed deaf children's mental development in terms of apparent characteristics and empirical evidences of cognitive behaviors compared with those of children with…

  2. Age and family burden among parents of offspring with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Cook, J A; Lefley, H P; Pickett, S A; Cohler, B J

    1994-07-01

    Family burden reported by parents of offspring with severe mental illness was examined to determine whether burden increases with age. Older parents were troubled by cognitive dimensions of burden, while younger parents were distressed by their offspring's behavior, suggesting that interventions should vary according to parents' age as well as developmental stage of their child's illness. PMID:7977666

  3. In utero ethanol exposure decreases rapid eye movement sleep in female Sprague–Dawley rat offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lara Sylvester; Carolyn M. Kapron; Carlyle Smith

    2000-01-01

    There is substantial evidence to suggest that ethanol exposure during vulnerable periods of prenatal somatic growth results in a number of morphological abnormalities and cognitive deficits in offspring. Amongst the characteristics exhibited by affected individuals are abnormal sleeping patterns, particularly abnormal rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. To better understand how prenatal ethanol exposure specifically affects sleeping patterns in offspring, an

  4. Genetic and Environmental Covariation between Verbal and Nonverbal Cognitive Development in Infancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas S. Price; Thalia C. Eley; Philip S. Dale; Jim Stevenson; Kim Sandino; Robert Plomin

    2000-01-01

    Despite cognitive neuroscience's emphasis on the modularity of cognitive processes, multivariate genetic re- search indicates that the same genetic factors largely affect diverse cognitive abilities, at least from middle childhood onward. We explored this issue for verbal and nonverbal cognitive development in infancy in a study of 1,937 pairs of same-sex 2-year-old twins born in England and Wales in 1994.

  5. Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: II-the developmental pattern of neurons in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, O M; Ahmed, R G; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M

    2012-10-01

    Excessive concentrations of free radicals in the developing brain may lead to neurons maldevelopment and neurons damage and death. Thyroid hormones (THs) states play an important role in affecting the modulation of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. Thus, the objective of this study was to clarify the effect of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rat dams on the neurons development of different brain regions of their offspring at several postnatal weeks in relation to changes in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. The adult female rats were administered methimazole (MMI) in drinking water (0.02% w/v) from gestation day 1 to lactation day 21 to induce hypothyroidism and exogenous thyroxine (T4) in drinking water (0.002% w/v) beside intragastric incubation of 50--200 T4 ?g/kg body weight (b. wt.) to induce hyperthyroidism. In normal female rats, the sera total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) levels were detectably increased at day 10 post-partum than those at day 10 of pregnancy. Free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations in normal offspring were elevated at first, second and third postnatal weeks in an age-dependent manner. In hypothyroid group, a marked depression was observed in sera of dam TT3 and TT4 as well as offspring FT3, FT4 and GH, while there was a significant increase in TSH level with the age progress. The reverse pattern to latter state was recorded in hyperthyroid group. Concomitantly, in control offspring, the rate of neuron development in both cerebellar and cerebral cortex was increased in its density and complexity with age progress. This development may depend, largely, on THs state. Both maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism caused severe growth retardation in neurons of these regions of their offspring from the first to third weeks. Additionally, in normal offspring, seven antioxidant enzymes, four non-enzymatic antioxidants and one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation, LPO) followed a synchronized course of alterations in cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. In both thyroid states, the oxidative damage has been demonstrated by the increased LPO and inhibition of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in most examined ages and brain regions. These disturbances in the antioxidant defense system led to deterioration in the neuronal maturation and development. In conclusion, it can be suggested that the maldevelopment of neurons and dendrites in different brain regions of offspring of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid mother rat dams may be attributed, at least in part, to the excess oxidative stress and deteriorated antioxidant defense system in such conditions. PMID:22664656

  6. X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

  7. Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development – the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem solving strategies – are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal fMRI in children, ages 7 to 9, revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Critically, longitudinal improvements in retrieval strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood, and was associated with decreased activation but more stable inter-problem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide novel insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving, and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development. PMID:25129076

  8. The Development of Reflection-Impulsivity and Cognitive Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salkind, Neil J.; Wright, John C.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an alternative conceptual model of Reflection-Impulsivity. The alternative dimension delineates both a cognitive style and a cognitive efficiency dimension. A methodological alternative for use with the model is also presented. (BD)

  9. Measurement Issues in the Use of Cognitive Neuroscience Tasks in Drug Development for Impaired Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Report of the

    E-print Network

    Measurement Issues in the Use of Cognitive Neuroscience Tasks in Drug Development for Impaired initial benchmark goals for psychometric develop- ment for cognitive neuroscience tasks. Key words Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Report of the Second Consensus Building Conference of the CNTRICS Initiative

  10. Working Memory Underpins Cognitive Development, Learning, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is the retention of a small amount of information in a readily accessible form. It facilitates planning, comprehension, reasoning, and problem-solving. I examine the historical roots and conceptual development of the concept and the theoretical and practical implications of current debates about working memory mechanisms. Then I explore the nature of cognitive developmental improvements in working memory, the role of working memory in learning, and some potential implications of working memory and its development for the education of children and adults. The use of working memory is quite ubiquitous in human thought, but the best way to improve education using what we know about working memory is still controversial. I hope to provide some directions for research and educational practice. PMID:25346585

  11. Cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terri Gullickson; Mary M. Hayhoe; Polly K. Pook; Rajesh P. N. Rao

    1995-01-01

    To describe phenomena that occur at different time scales, computational models of the brain must incorporate different levels of abstraction. At time scales of approximately 1 ?3 of a second, orienting movements of the body play a crucial role in cognition and form a useful computational level - more abstract than that used to capture natural phenomena but less abstract

  12. Cognitive Sex Differences and Their Practical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Mark G.

    There is a growing awareness among researchers that the magnitude of cognitive sex differences is affected by a number of subject variables. To examine spatial and verbal cognitive sex differences as a function of personal and family handedness, the 478 offspring who participated in the Minnesota family study and 454 offspring who participated in…

  13. The Relationship of Spirituality to Cognitive and Moral Development and Purpose in Life: An Exploratory Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, J. Scott; Cashwell, Craig S.; Woolington, V. Jeanne

    1998-01-01

    This exploratory study of 152 undergraduate students examined the relationships among spirituality, cognitive and moral development, and existential sense of meaning. Results suggest that no relationship exists between spirituality and cognitive development, but that spirituality is positively related to both moral development and purpose in life.…

  14. Confronting Social Injustice: Cognitive Dissonance and Civic Development in Higher Education Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Leslie Cohen

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, insider account of student civic development in a university service-learning course has two primary goals. One is to propose frameworks for describing the process of civic development of service-learning students that are situated in theories of civic identity, cognitive development, and cognitive dissonance. The other is to…

  15. Cognitive Competence as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on discussing critical thinking and creative thinking as the core cognitive competence. It reviews and compares several theories of thinking, highlights the features of critical thinking and creative thinking, and delineates their interrelationships. It discusses cognitive competence as a positive youth development construct by linking its relationships with adolescent development and its contributions to adolescents' learning and wellbeing. Critical thinking and creative thinking are translated into self-regulated cognitive skills for adolescents to master and capitalize on, so as to facilitate knowledge construction, task completion, problem solving, and decision making. Ways of fostering these thinking skills, cognitive competence, and ultimately positive youth development are discussed. PMID:22654575

  16. Student Cognitive and Affective Development in the Context of Classroom-Level Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy; Gilmore, Deanna; Banks-Joseph, Susan Rae

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the impact of teacher curriculum approaches (curriculum-transmitter/curriculum-developer/curriculum-maker) on student cognitive change (reading, writing, speaking, and listening abilities) and their affective change (motivation and interests). This study's conceptual framework was grounded in teacher curriculum…

  17. MATERNAL AND PATERNAL EFFECTS ON OFFSPRING PHENOTYPE IN THE DUNG BEETLE ONTHOPHAGUS TAURUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hunt; L. W. Simmons

    2000-01-01

    Parents often have important influences on the development of traits in their offspring. One mechanism by which parents are able to influence offspring phenotype is through the level of care they provide. In onthophagine dung beetles, parents typically provision their offspring by packing dung fragments into a brood mass. Onthophagus taurus males can be separated into two discrete morphs: Large,

  18. The Developing Utility of Zebrafish Models for Cognitive Enhancers Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-01-01

    Whereas cognitive impairment is a common symptom in multiple brain disorders, predictive and high-throughput animal models of cognition and behavior are becoming increasingly important in the field of translational neuroscience research. In particular, reliable models of the cognitive deficits characteristic of numerous neurobehavioral disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia have become a significant focus of investigation. While rodents have traditionally been used to study cognitive phenotypes, zebrafish (Danio rerio) are gaining popularity as an excellent model to complement current translational neuroscience research. Here we discuss recent advances in pharmacological and genetic approaches using zebrafish models to study cognitive impairments and to discover novel cognitive enhancers and neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:23449968

  19. Experimental comparison of the reproductive outcomes and early development of the offspring of rats given five common types of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hui; Shu, Wei-qun; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Lin; Wang, Da-hua; Fu, Wen-juan; Wang, Ling-qiao; Luo, Jiao-hua; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Yao; Qiu, Zhi-qun; Huang, Yu-jing

    2014-01-01

    Tap water (unfiltered), filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water) are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients) of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague-Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI) and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA); the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy. PMID:25279561

  20. The Relationship Between Affective and Cognitive Development in Down's Syndrome Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante; Sroufe, L. Alan

    Examined was the association between affective and cognitive development in 14 Down's Syndrome infants (4- to 8-months-old). Mothers administered a series of 30 laughter items each month, and experimenters gave the Uzgiris-Hunt scales of cognitive development at 13 and 16 months, and the Bayley scales and Infant Behavior Record at 16 months.…

  1. The Journey from Child to Scientist: Integrating Cognitive Development and the Education Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Sharon M., Ed.; Shrager, Jeff, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The impulse to investigate the natural world is deeply rooted in our earliest childhood experiences. This notion has long guided researchers to uncover the cognitive mechanisms underlying the development of scientific reasoning in children. Until recently, however, research in cognitive development and education followed largely independent…

  2. The Effect of Cognitive Moral Development Upon the Selection of Premarital Sexual Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurich, Anthony P.; Jurich, Julie A.

    1974-01-01

    Subjects with low levels of cognitive moral development chose either traditional morality, the double standard, or permissiveness without affection standard. Those with a moderate degree of cognitive moral development chose permissiveness with affection. The formulation of premarital sexual standards was discussed and theoretical implications were…

  3. ASSESSING AND FACILITATING CHILDRENS' COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENT Developmental Therapy and Counseling Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Bradford Ivey; Allen E. Ivey

    This article presents practical implications for assessing child cognitive-development and then facilitating developmental growth. The concepts of developmental therapy are presented as a systematic framework to integrate neo-Piagetian developmental theory into the interview. Specific ideas are presented for assessment, designing systematic questioning sequences to facilitate children's cognitive development, and overall treatment planning. A case example of treatment of a case

  4. Mother's Age at Arrival in the United States and Early Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Jennifer E.; Bates, Littisha; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the cognitive development of young children from diverse backgrounds with a particular focus on ethnic and nativity differences in home environments. Hypotheses are developed addressing the extent to which home environment and parenting practices mediate the relationship between mother's age at arrival and cognitive

  5. Humour among Chinese and Greek Preschool Children in Relation to Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Juan; Zhang, XiangKui; Wang, Yong; Xeromeritou, Aphrodite

    2011-01-01

    The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children's humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development,…

  6. A Description of Tenth Grade Algebra Students' Attitudes and Cognitive Development When Learning Algebra Using CAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguera, Norma

    2001-01-01

    Provides a qualitative description of what happened to 10th grade students' attitudes and cognitive development when learning algebra using Computer Algebra Systems (CAS). Chronicles the frustrations, changes in attitude, motivation, determination, and improvements in cognitive development of algebraic concepts over the course of the six-week…

  7. Quality of Family Context or Sibling Status? Influences on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freijo, Enrique B. Arranz; Oliva, Alfredo; Olabarrieta, Fernando; Martin, Juan Luis; Manzano, Ainhoa; Richards, Martin P. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence of socioeconomic status, quality of family context and sibling status on cognitive development in a sample of 551 five-year-old children. The regression analyses confirmed the predictive value of socioeconomic status and quality of family context on cognitive development. The quality of family context mediates the…

  8. The Effect of Maternal Nutrition on the Development of the Offspring: An International Symposium. Nutrition Reports International, Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, Lois M., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Contents of this symposium include the following papers: "Effect of Maternal Protein Malnutrition on Neonatal Lung Development and Mitochondrial Function," E. J. Hawrylewicz, J. Q. Kissane, W. H. Blair and C. A. Heppner; "Effect of the Level of Nutrition on Rates of Cell Proliferation and of RNA and Protein Syntheses in the Rat," L. M. Roeder;…

  9. Operationalizing Cognitive Science and Technologies' Research and Development; the "Brain and Cognition Study Group (BCSG)" Initiative from Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ashjazadeh, Nahid; Boostani, Reza; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Farrokhi, Majidreza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Hatam, Gholamreza; Hadianfard, Habib; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Mousavi, Maryam; Montakhab, Afshin; Nili, Majid; Razmkon, Ali; Salehi, Sina; Sodagar, Amir Mohammad; Setoodeh, Peiman; Taghipour, Mousa; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Vesal, Abdolkarim

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in brain and cognitive science studies have revolutionized concepts in neural dynamics, regulating mechanisms, coding systems and information processing networks which govern our function and behavior. Hidden aspects of neurological and psychiatric diseases are being understood and hopes for their treatment are emerging. Although the two comprehensive mega-projects on brain mapping are in place in the United States and Europe; the proportion of science contributed by the developing countries should not be downsized. With the granted supports from the Cognitive Sciences and Technologies Council (CSTC), Iran can take its role in research on brain and cognition further. The idea of research and development in Cognitive Sciences and Technologies (CST) is being disseminated across the country by CSTC. Towards this goal, the first Shiraz interdisciplinary meeting on CST was held on 9 January 2014 in Namazi hospital, Shiraz. CST research priorities, infrastructure development, education and promotion were among the main topics discussed during this interactive meeting. The steering committee of the first CST meeting in Shiraz decided to frame future research works within the "Brain and Cognition Study Group-Shiraz" (BCSG-Shiraz). The study group comprises scientific leaders from various allied disciplines including neuroscience, neurosurgery, neurology, psychiatry, psychology, radiology, physiology, bioengineering, biophysics, applied physics and telecommunication. As the headquarter for CST in the southern Iran, BCSG-Shiraz is determined to advocate "brain and cognition" awareness, education and research in close collaboration with CSTC. Together with CSTC, Shiraz Neuroscience Research center (SNRC) will take the initiative to cross boundaries in interdisciplinary works and multi-centric research projects within the study group. PMID:25337368

  10. Promoting Conceptual Development in Physics Teacher Education: Cognitive-Historical Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Induction Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntylä, Terhi

    2013-06-01

    In teaching physics, the history of physics offers fruitful starting points for designing instruction. I introduce here an approach that uses historical cognitive processes to enhance the conceptual development of pre-service physics teachers' knowledge. It applies a method called cognitive-historical approach, introduced to the cognitive sciences by Nersessian (Cognitive Models of Science. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 3-45, 1992). The approach combines the analyses of actual scientific practices in the history of science with the analytical tools and theories of contemporary cognitive sciences in order to produce knowledge of how conceptual structures are constructed and changed in science. Hence, the cognitive-historical analysis indirectly produces knowledge about the human cognition. Here, a way to use the cognitive-historical approach for didactical purposes is introduced. In this application, the cognitive processes in the history of physics are combined with current physics knowledge in order to create a cognitive-historical reconstruction of a certain quantity or law for the needs of physics teacher education. A principal aim of developing the approach has been that pre-service physics teachers must know how the physical concepts and laws are or can be formed and justified. As a practical example of the developed approach, a cognitive-historical reconstruction of the electromagnetic induction law was produced. For evaluating the uses of the cognitive-historical reconstruction, a teaching sequence for pre-service physics teachers was conducted. The initial and final reports of twenty-four students were analyzed through a qualitative categorization of students' justifications of knowledge. The results show a conceptual development in the students' explanations and justifications of how the electromagnetic induction law can be formed.

  11. Effect of parental hypoxic exposure on embryonic development of the offspring of two serpulid polychaetes: Implication for transgenerational epigenetic effect.

    PubMed

    Leung, J Y S; Cheung, S G; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Chiu, J M Y; Thiyagarajan, V; Shin, P K S

    2013-09-15

    Sperm production and motility, fecundity, and egg size, complexity and viability of serpulid polychaetes Hydroides elegans and Hydroides diramphus after 2-week treatment to hypoxia (2 mg O2 l(-1)) was compared with those under normoxia (6 mg O2 l(-1)). Despite reduced fecundity, the effect of parental hypoxic exposure on gamete quality was not discernible for both species. However, regardless of their subsequent dissolved oxygen environment, eggs spawned by H. elegans after hypoxic exposure were found to have lower fertilization success, slower embryonic development and a significantly higher yield of malformed embryos than those with a parental normoxic treatment. In contrast, neither fertilization success nor rate of embryonic development was affected for H. diramphus. The results implied that hypoxia was a potential stress reducing the recruitment of H. elegans through non-adaptive epigenetic effect, whereas H. diramphus was a more tolerant species to survive hypoxic events. PMID:23906470

  12. [Cognitive interviewing - a tool to develop and validate questionnaires].

    PubMed

    Pohontsch, N; Meyer, T

    2015-02-01

    Questionnaires concerning subjective health status are an important element of rehabilitation research. The appraisal of the quality of these instruments mostly relies on quantitative psychometric analyses. However, these analyses do not explicitly reveal whether or how respondents understand questionnaire content. Over the past few years cognitive interviewing has been increasingly used in questionnaire design and validation. It serves to identify potentially problematic questions, ambiguities and difficulties which could lead to unintended answers. It analyses whether the answers given by respondents represent the intended meaning of the question. Findings derived from cognitive interviewing serve to improve new and further validate well-established questionnaires.The 4-stage model of the survey response process by Tourangeau provides a conceptual basis for cognitive interviewing. The 2 most prominent methods of cognitive interviewing are think aloud and verbal probing. Various authors give recommendations on executing cognitive interviews but almost no recommendations exist on the -indications of the different methods.Potential applications of cognitive interviewing go beyond questionnaire design and improvement. Due to its origin in cognitive science it can also be used to resolve substantive questions, e.?g. concerning reasons for discrepancies between the results of 2 different methods of measuring change. PMID:25675322

  13. The development of the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern score and its application to the American diet in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.

    PubMed

    Rumawas, Marcella E; Dwyer, Johanna T; McKeown, Nicola M; Meigs, James B; Rogers, Gail; Jacques, Paul F

    2009-06-01

    Previous Mediterranean diet scores were simple to apply but may not be appropriate for non-Mediterranean populations. We developed a Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score (MSDPS) to assess the conformity of an individual's diet to a traditional Mediterranean-style diet. The MSDPS is based on the recommended intakes of 13 food groups in the Mediterranean diet pyramid. Each food group is scored from 0 to 10 depending on the degree of correspondence with recommendations. Exceeding the recommendations results in a lower score proportional to the degree of overconsumption. The sum of the component scores is standardized to a 0-100 scale and weighted by the proportion of energy consumed from Mediterranean diet foods. We applied the MSDPS to dietary data collected at the 7th examination of the Framingham Offspring Cohort and tested the content validity of the score against selected nutrients known to be associated with the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern. The mean MSDPS was 24.8 (range, 3.1-60.7). Participants with a higher MSDPS were more likely to be women, older, multivitamin users, to have lower BMI and waist circumferences, and less likely to be current smokers. The MSDPS demonstrated content validity through expected positive associations with intakes of dietary fiber, (n-3) fatty acids, antioxidant vitamins, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, and inverse associations with those of added sugar, glycemic index, saturated fat, and trans-fat, and the (n-6):(n-3) fatty acid ratio. The MSDPS is a useful instrument to measure overall diet quality according to the principles of a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern. PMID:19357215

  14. Maternal transfer of BDE-47 to offspring and neurobehavioral development in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Claire M; Lango, Jozsef; Pessah, Isaac N; Berman, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used worldwide in a variety of commercial goods, and are now widely found in both environmental and biological samples. BDE-47 is one of the most pervasive of these PBDE congeners and therefore is of particular concern. In this study C57BL/6J mice were exposed perinatally to 0.03, 0.1 or 1mg/kg/day of BDE-47, a dose range chosen to encompass human exposure levels. Tissue levels of BDE-47 were measured in the blood, brain, fat and milk of dams and in whole fetal homogenate and blood and brain of pups on gestational day (GD) 15, and postnatal days (PNDs) 1, 10 and 21. From GD 15 to PND 1 levels of BDE-47 increased within dam tissues and then decreased from PNDs 1 to 21. Over the period of lactation levels in dam milk were comparatively high when compared to both brain and blood for all dose groups. Measurable levels of BDE-47 were found in the fetus on GD 15 confirming gestational exposure. From PNDs 1 to 21, levels of BDE-47 in pup tissue increased over the period of lactation due to the transfer of BDE-47 through milk. Behavioral tests of fine motor function and learning and memory were carried out between postnatal weeks 5-17 in order to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of BDE-47. Behavioral deficits were only seen in the Barnes spatial maze where mice in the three exposure groups had longer latencies and traveled longer distances to find the escape hole when compared to vehicle control mice. These results support the conclusions that perinatal exposure to BDE-47 can have neurodevelopmental consequences, and that lactational exposure represents a significant exposure risk during development. PMID:23022914

  15. The Role of Falsification in the Development of Cognitive Architectures: Insights from a Lakatosian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive architectures should be understood as theories…

  16. Parent-Child Co-Viewing of Television and Cognitive Development of the Chinese Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinqiu, Zhao; Xiaoming, Hao

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child co-viewing of television and the cognitive development of the child. Both survey and experiment methods were employed to determine the participants' television viewing habits and their cognitive achievements after watching a pre-recorded programme under different conditions. The…

  17. Developing Cognitive and Creative Skills Through Art: Programs for Children with Communication Disorders or Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rawley A.

    Intended as a basic text for graduate courses in art therapy with handicapped children, the book contains discussions of the role of art in the handicapped child's education and the development of cognitive and creative skills through the use of art. In the first of two parts, the range of opportunities in art for cognition, adjustment, and…

  18. Culture and Cognitive Development: Giyoo Hatano's Insights and the Questions They Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnow, Jacqueline J.; Peterson, Candi; Lawrence, Jeanette A.

    2007-01-01

    To bring out Giyoo Hatano's contributions to the understanding of culture and cognitive development, we note first his special style--thoughtful, inventive, and always focused on central issues and on combining theory with data--and then, for three areas, some of the conceptual advances he proposed. The areas have to do with ties between cognitive

  19. Cognitive therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: development and evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anke Ehlers; David M. Clark; Ann Hackmann; Freda McManus; Melanie Fennell

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a cognitive therapy (CT) program for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that is based on a recent cognitive model (Behav. Res. Therapy 38 (2000) 319). In a consecutive case series, 20 PTSD patients treated with CT showed highly significant improvement in symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety. A subsequent randomized controlled trial compared CT (N=14)

  20. Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

  1. The Effects of Parent-Child Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) Interaction on Young Children's Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Christina; Amod, Zaytoon; Rosenthal, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    This study addressed the effect of parent-child Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) interaction on cognitive development in early childhood. It measured the MLE interactions of 14 parents with their preschool children in the contexts of free-play and structured tasks. The children were assessed for their manifest cognitive performance and learning…

  2. Cognitive Development of Fluent Word Reading Does Not Qualitatively Differ between Transparent and Opaque Orthographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaessen, Anniek; Bertrand, Daisy; Toth, Denes; Csepe, Valeria; Faisca, Luis; Reis, Alexandra; Blomert, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Although the transparency of a writing system is hypothesized to systematically influence the cognitive skills associated with reading development, results of cross-language investigations are inconsistent and usually do not address this issue in a developmental context. We therefore investigated the cognitive dynamics of reading fluency of…

  3. Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Kelly B.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

  4. A Data-Acquisition Model for Learning and Cognitive Development and Its Implications for Autism

    E-print Network

    Halpern, Joseph Y.

    A Data-Acquisition Model for Learning and Cognitive Development and Its Implications for Autism that represents what has been heard and observed. Autism is viewed as the consequence of a dis- order in the data cognitive deficits associated with autism, including weak central coherence, impaired theory of mind

  5. Individual and Distributed Cognitions in Interdisciplinary Teamwork: A Developing Case Study and Emerging Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon J. Derry; Lori Adams DuRussel; Angela M. O'Donnell

    1998-01-01

    We present a developing distributed cognition theory of interdisciplinary collaboration that incorporates concepts from both situated cognition and information-processing theory. This theoretical framework is being refined as it is used for analyzing interdisciplinary collaboration within the National Institute for Science Education (NISE). Our analyses are intended to improve scientific understanding of collaborative processes that influence productivity and quality of interdisciplinary

  6. Development and Validation of the Short Use of Creative Cognition Scale in Studying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogaten, Jekaterina; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development and validation of a short Use of Creative Cognition Scale in Studying (UCCS) that was inspired by the Cognitive Processes Associated with Creativity (CPAC) scale. In Study 1, items from two of the six subscales of the CPAC were excluded due to conceptual and psychometric issues to create a 21-item CPAC scale,…

  7. Developing optimism : a cognitive-behavioural intervention to reduce stress 

    E-print Network

    Bryant, Danielle Louise

    2011-11-24

    Optimistic explanatory style refers to the way in which individual’s routinely attribute cause to the events in their lives (Ambramson et al., 1978) and can be successfully enhanced through the use of cognitive behavioural ...

  8. Connectionism, cognitive maps and the development of objectivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Chrisley

    1993-01-01

    It is claimed that there are pre-objective phenomena, which cognitive science should explain by employing the notion of non-conceptual repre- sentational content. It is argued that a match between parallel distributed processing (PDP) and non-conceptual content (NCC) not only provides a means of refuting recent criticisms of PDP as a cognitive architecture; it also provides a vehicle for NCC that

  9. Imaging Biomarkers for Treatment Development for Impaired Cognition: Report of the Sixth CNTRICS Meeting: Biomarkers Recommended for Further Development

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Cameron S.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2012-01-01

    The Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia initiative, funded by an R13 conference grant from the National Institute of Mental Health, has sought to facilitate the translation of measures from the basic science of cognition into practical brain-based tools to measure treatment effects on cognition in schizophrenia. In this overview article, we summarize the process and products of the sixth meeting in this series, which focused on the identification of promising imaging paradigms, based on the measurement of cognitive evoked potentials (event-related potential) of cognition-related time-frequency analyses of the electroencephalography as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 23 well-specified paradigms from cognitive neuroscience that measure cognitive functions previously identified as targets for treatment development were identified at the meeting as being recommended for the further developmental work needed in order to validate and optimize them as biomarker measures. Individual paradigms are discussed in detail in 6 domain-based articles in this volume. Ongoing issues related to the development of these and other measures as valid, sensitive and reliable measurement, and assessment tools, as well as the steps necessary for the development of specific measures for use as biomarkers for treatment development and personalized medicine, are discussed. PMID:21914642

  10. Reducing depressive intrusions via a computerized cognitive bias modification of appraisals task: Developing a cognitive vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara J. Lang; Michelle L. Moulds; Emily A. Holmes

    2009-01-01

    A feature of depression is the distressing experience of intrusive, negative memories. The maladaptive appraisals of such intrusions have been associated with symptom persistence. This study aimed to experimentally manipulate appraisals about depressive intrusions via a novel computerized cognitive bias modification (CBM) of appraisals paradigm, and to test the impact on depressive intrusion frequency for a standardized event (a depressive

  11. Early Experience and the Development of Cognitive Competence: Some Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stein Erik Ulvund

    1982-01-01

    Ulvund, S.E. 1982. Early Experience and the Development of Cognitive Competence: Some Theoretical and Methodological Issues. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 26, 45?75. A theoretical analysis focussing on the relationship between early experience and the development of cognitive competence is given. It is argued that the interactionistic position known as a transactional model of development (Sameroff 1975a) is especially applicable

  12. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24?h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology. PMID:25071719

  13. Biochemical Hypothyroidism Secondary to Iodine Deficiency Is Associated with Poor School Achievement and Cognition in Bangladeshi Children1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed N. Huda; Sally M. Grantham-McGregor; Khan M. Rahman; Andrew Tomkins

    Iodine deficiency in pregnancy leads to poor cognitive function in the offspring; however, the effect of concurrent iodine deficiency on school-aged children is not clear. Several studies have shown that school children in iodine-deficient villages have poorer cognitive function than children in iodine-sufficient villages. However, villages differ in many factors that may also detrimentally affect children's development. In addition, the

  14. The Integration of Cognition and Emotion during Infancy and Early Childhood: Regulatory Processes Associated with the Development of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2007-01-01

    This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 4 1/2-years of…

  15. Cognitive development, egocentrism, self-esteem, and adolescent contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grayson N. Holmbeck; Raymond E. Crossman; Mary L. Wandrei; Elizabeth Gasiewski

    1994-01-01

    Cognitive development, egocentrism, and self-esteem were examined in relation to contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Subjects were 300 high school students and college freshmen (age range=14–19 years) who completed a battery of self-report instruments. Based on multiple regression, analysis of covariance, and discriminant function analyses, findings revealed that adolescents who had higher scores on the cognitive development and self-esteem scales

  16. Development of a qualitative exploratory case study research method to explore sustained delivery of cognitive services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Kaae; Birthe Søndergaard; Lotte Stig Haugbølle; Janine Morgall Traulsen

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop, apply and evaluate a new research method to establish relationships between structural and process elements of\\u000a the provision of cognitive services. In-depth knowledge about how local organisational structural elements of community pharmacies\\u000a shape the implementation process of cognitive services is needed to develop targeted quality assurance systems to ensure that\\u000a the services are continuously provided to the

  17. Parent–offspring recognition in tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTY L LEONARD; ANDREW G HORN; CORY R BROWN; NICOLE J FERNANDEZ

    1997-01-01

    Parent–offspring recognition appears to be highly developed in species in which the risk of misdirecting care is high (e.g. colonial species). Some of the best evidence for this relationship comes from comparative work on swallows of the family Hirundinidae. Using methods followed in earlier studies, we determined whether parent–offspring recognition occurs in the tree swallow,Tachycineta bicolora non-colonial species closely related

  18. Schooling, Environment and Cognitive Development: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Harold W.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the influence of schooling and environment on young children's memory and cognitive skills. Subjects were five- and six-year-old Mestizo and Quechua Indian children living in jungle villages or city slums in Peru. Samples of upper-middle-class children in Lima and poor children in Detroit were also tested. (JMB)

  19. Cognitive Awareness Prototype Development on User Interface Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosli, D'oria Islamiah

    2015-01-01

    Human error is a crucial problem in manufacturing industries. Due to the misinterpretation of information on interface system design, accidents or death may occur at workplace. Lack of human cognition criteria in interface system design is also one of the contributions to the failure in using the system effectively. Therefore, this paper describes…

  20. Schooling and Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Kiki V.; Roe, Arnold

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four Greek mountain village children were studied to examine the expectation that early, environmentally induced, cognitive retardation may be partially reversible. Children were tested at six and one-half years and again after four and one-half years of schooling. The results do not support such an expectation. (Author/PN)

  1. Educating the Developing Mind: The View from Cognitive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Earl

    2012-01-01

    Demetriou, Spanoudis, and Mouyi have provided a comprehensive view of the relation between a model of the mind and the process of education. The model they propose is based on cognitive theories of mental action, rather than neuroscientific evidence. I argue here that that is the correct approach, for a model of the information processing…

  2. Learning Style Profile Handbook: I. Developing Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, John M.; And Others

    The National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) published a new learning style instrument in 1986--the NASSP Learning Style Profile (LSP). The LSP yields independent scores on 24 discrete elements of learning style. Its purpose is to provide educators with a well-validated and easy to use instrument for diagnosing cognitive styles,…

  3. Avram Noam Chomsky and His Cognitive Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.; Nelson, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, cognitive scientist, logician, historian, political critic and activist. Chomsky is an Institute Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy at MIT where he has worked for over fifty years. Chomsky has been described as the father of modern linguistics and a major…

  4. Marital Conflict, Allostatic Load, and the Development of Children's Fluid Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between marital conflict, children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and fluid cognitive performance were examined over three years to assess allostatic processes. Participants were 251 children reporting on marital conflict, baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to a lab challenge were recorded, and fluid cognitive performance was measured using the Woodcock-Johnson III. A cross-lagged model showed that higher levels of marital conflict at age 8 predicted weaker RSA-R at age 9 for children with lower baseline RSA. A growth model showed that lower baseline RSA in conjunction with weaker RSA-R predicted the slowest development of fluid cognitive performance. Findings suggest that stress may affect development of physiological systems regulating attention, which are tied to the development of fluid cognitive performance. PMID:23534537

  5. Cognitive outcomes of prenatal antiepileptic drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Inoyama, Katherine; Meador, Kimford J

    2015-08-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been known to have teratogenic effects for a little over 50 years. While early reports focused on fetal malformations, there has been an increasing amount of data over the last few decades exploring the cognitive outcomes of offspring exposed to AEDs in utero. Although the challenges of confounding factors and varied methodologies have led to inconsistent results, the negative impact of some of the agents, such as valproate, have become clear. Further studies are needed to evaluate the cognitive effects of prenatal exposure to many AEDs which have not been tested, to clarify the effects of existing AEDs which have yielded mixed results, and to better understand the effects of polytherapy. Research in animal models is warranted to screen AEDs for their effects on cognition in exposed offspring and to further our understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which AEDs exert their harmful effects on the developing brain. And finally, new AEDs without these harmful effects and agents which can prevent or reverse the negative consequences imparted by AED therapy on cognition should be sought. PMID:26088891

  6. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development. PMID:8669783

  7. The effects of maternal corticosterone levels on offspring behavior in fast- and slow-growth garter snakes ( Thamnophis elegans)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kylie A. Robert; Carol Vleck; Anne M. Bronikowski

    2009-01-01

    During embryonic development, viviparous offspring are exposed to maternally circulating hormones. Maternal stress increases offspring exposure to corticosterone and this hormonal exposure has the potential to influence developmental, morphological and behavioral traits of the resulting offspring. We treated pregnant female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) with low levels of corticosterone after determining both natural corticosterone levels in the field and pre-treatment

  8. Altered cognitive development in the siblings of individuals with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Barch, Deanna M.; Cohen, Rachel; Csernansky, John

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to further investigate the late neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia by examining cross-sectional, age-related changes in cognitive function among young adult: 1) siblings of individuals with schizophrenia (N = 66); (2) healthy control participants (N = 77); and (3) the siblings of healthy controls (N = 77). All subjects participated in a battery of tasks in four domains: 1) IQ; 2) working memory; 3) episodic memory; and 4) executive function. We found significant group differences in the relationships between age and performance in working memory and episodic memory, with similar patterns for executive function and verbal IQ. The siblings of individuals with schizophrenia showed impaired performance in working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. In addition, healthy controls and/or their siblings showed age-related improvements in all four cognitive domains, while the siblings of individuals with schizophrenia only showed this for verbal IQ. PMID:25485180

  9. A subjective cognitive impairment scale for migraine attacks. The MIG-SCOG: Development and validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raquel Gil-Gouveia; António G Oliveira; Isabel Pavão Martins

    2011-01-01

    Background: The burden of migraine is determined by impairment during attacks due to pain or non-painful symptoms such as cognitive symptoms.Objective: Development of a questionnaire to measure self-reported subjective cognitive symptoms during migraine attacks.Methods: Item generation was accomplished through structured patient interviews analysed by a panel of experts. A set of 43 candidate items was applied to consecutive migraine patients.

  10. A cognitive perspective on object relations, drive development and ego structure in the second and third years of life.

    PubMed

    Posener, J A

    1989-01-01

    This paper extends a recent line of research by correlating Piaget's theory of cognitive development with several psychoanalytic perspectives on development during the second and third years of life. The concrete, imagistic, unintegrated nature of mental representations associated by Mahler and Kernberg with this period, along with the mental operation of splitting, are related to preconceptual representation, a cognitive mode described by Piaget. Psychoanalytic perspectives on the body ego and object world associated with the anal period are also seen to involve concrete, unintegrated representations which show correspondence with preconceptual cognition. Parallels are explored between cognitive stages and the psychoanalytic understanding of ego and superego development. While psychoanalysis is not a cognitive psychology, aspects of its theory are concerned with cognitive structure and are enriched by a consideration of cognitive development. PMID:2606598

  11. Simulation for doctrine development and training: Modelling the cognitive domain of the OODA loop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan H S Roodt; Herman le Roux; René Oosthuizen

    Development of the system-of-systems simulation complex for doctrine development at the joint command and control level necessitates as foundatio n a thorough understanding of the elements contributing to situation awareness. Processes lik e Threat Evaluation and Weapon Assignment (TEWA) at this level contain multiple threats and d efensive force elements, taxing the cognitive abilities of the commander. Development of new

  12. Impact on Infants’ Cognitive Development of Antenatal Exposure to Iron Deficiency Disorder and Common Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and common mental disorders (CMD) on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. Methods A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12–20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb <11 g/dL and serum ferritin <15 ng/mL. CMD symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam validation. Infant cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Ed. Path analyses were performed to determine the direct and indirect, partly or fully mediated, causal effects of the antenatal exposures. Results A total of 497 pregnant women were recruited, of those 378 women provided complete data which were included in the analyses. Statistically significant direct adverse effects of persistent antenatal IDA (estimated difference of ?11.62 points; 95% CI ?23.01 to ?0.22) and antenatal CMD (?4.80 points; 95% CI: ?9.40 to ?0.20) on infant Bayley cognitive scores at six months were found. Higher birthweight, household wealth, and self-rated sufficient supply of breastmilk were associated with higher cognitive scores. Maternal age >30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants’ Bayley cognitive scores. Conclusions These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries. PMID:24086390

  13. The development of cognitive control in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Heather M.; Tassone, Flora; Choudhary, Nimrah S.; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is caused by the most common human microdeletion, and it is associated with cognitive impairments across many domains. While impairments in cognitive control have been described in children with 22q11.2DS, the nature and development of these impairments are not clear. Children with 22q11.2DS and typically developing children (TD) were tested on four well-validated tasks aimed at measuring specific foundational components of cognitive control: response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. Molecular assays were also conducted in order to examine genotype of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a gene located within the deleted region in 22q11.2DS and hypothesized to play a role in cognitive control. Mixed model regression analyses were used to examine group differences, as well as age-related effects on cognitive control component processes in a cross-sectional analysis. Regression models with COMT genotype were also conducted in order to examine potential effects of the different variants of the gene. Response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were impaired in children with 22q11.2DS relative to TD children, even after accounting for global intellectual functioning (as measured by full-scale IQ). When compared with TD individuals, children with 22q11.2DS demonstrated atypical age-related patterns of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Both groups demonstrated typical age-related associations with working memory. The results of this cross-sectional analysis suggest a specific aberration in the development of systems mediating response inhibition in a sub-set of children with 22q11.2DS. It will be important to follow up with longitudinal analyses to directly examine these developmental trajectories, and correlate neurocognitive variables with clinical and adaptive outcome measures. PMID:24959159

  14. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development.

    PubMed

    Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition. PMID:24592214

  15. Therapeutic Development Paths for Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease: Report of a Regulatory Roundtable

    PubMed Central

    Eberling, Jamie; Vincent, Lona; Goldman, Jennifer G.; Weintraub, Daniel; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Marras, Connie; Stebbins, Glenn; Kieburtz, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common occurrence in Parkinson's disease (PD), although the severity and specific presentation varies across patients. Initial deficits, including mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), may remain stable or in many cases, may progress over variable lengths of time to Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). As there are currently no marketed treatments for milder forms of cognitive impairment, an opportunity exists to define the path for therapeutic development in this area. In the absence of a well-defined path for the approval of therapies that target PD-MCI, pharmaceutical companies are unlikely to pursue this indication. In order to move forward and improve the quality of life for PD patients, it is imperative for the field to have consensus on the definition of PD-MCI, the best instruments to measure cognitive decline, and a strategy for future clinical trials. PMID:24989876

  16. The Influence of Emotion on Cognitive Control: Relevance for Development and Adolescent Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sven C.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the neural mechanisms underlying emotion processing on the one hand, and cognitive control and executive function on the other hand. More recently, studies have begun to directly examine how concurrent emotion processing influences cognitive control performance but many questions remain currently unresolved. Interestingly, parallel to investigations in healthy adults, research in developmental cognitive neuroscience and developmental affective disorders has provided some intriguing findings that complement the adult literature. This review provides an overview of current research on cognitive control and emotion interactions. It integrates parallel lines of research in adulthood and development and will draw on several lines of evidence ranging from behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging work in healthy adults and extend these to work in pediatric development and patients with affective disorders. Particular emphasis is given to studies that provide information on the neurobiological underpinnings of emotional and cognitive control processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The findings are then summarized and discussed in relation to neurochemical processes and the dopamine hypothesis of prefrontal cortical function. Finally, open areas of research for future study are identified and discussed within the context of cognitive control emotion interactions. PMID:22275904

  17. Using the MATRICS to guide development of a preclinical cognitive test battery for research in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    YOUNG, Jared W; POWELL, Susan; RISBROUGH, Victoria; MARSTON, Hugh M; GEYER, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are among the core symptoms of the disease, correlate with functional outcome, and are not well treated with current antipsychotic therapies. In order to bring together academic, industrial, and governmental bodies to address this great ‘unmet therapeutic need’, the NIMH sponsored the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative. Through careful factor analysis and consensus of expert opinion, MATRICS identified seven domains of cognition that are deficient in schizophrenia (attention/vigilance, working memory, reasoning and problem solving, processing speed, visual learning and memory, verbal learning and memory, and social cognition) and recommended a specific neuropsychological test battery to probe these domains. In order to move the field forward and outline an approach for translational research, there is a need for a “preclinical MATRICS” to develop a rodent test battery that is appropriate for drug development. In this review, we outline such an approach and review current rodent tasks that target these seven domains of cognition. The rodent tasks are discussed in terms of their validity for probing each cognitive domain as well as a brief overview of the pharmacology and manipulations relevant to schizophrenia for each task. PMID:19269307

  18. The Cognitive Development of Young Dual Language Learners: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Barac, Raluca; Bialystok, Ellen; Castro, Dina C.; Sanchez, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Dual language exposure and bilingualism are relatively common experiences for children. The present review set out to synthesize the existing research on cognitive development in bilingual children and to identify the gaps and the methodological concerns present in the existing research. A search of major data bases for research conducted with typically-developing, preschool-age dual language learners between 2000-2013 yielded 102 peer-reviewed articles. The existing evidence points to areas of cognitive development in bilingual children where findings are robust or inconclusive, and reveals variables that influence performance. The present review also identifies areas for future research and methodological limitations. PMID:25284958

  19. Developing treatments for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: the challenge of translation.

    PubMed

    Young, J W; Geyer, M A

    2015-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a life-long debilitating mental disorder affecting tens of millions of people worldwide. The serendipitous discovery of antipsychotics focused pharmaceutical research on developing a better antipsychotic. Our understanding of the disorder has advanced however, with the knowledge that cognitive enhancers are required for patients in order to improve their everyday lives. While antipsychotics treat psychosis, they do not enhance cognition and hence are not antischizophrenics. Developing pro-cognitive therapeutics has been extremely difficult, however, especially when no approved treatment exists. In lieu of stumbling on an efficacious treatment, developing targeted compounds can be facilitated by understanding the neural mechanisms underlying altered cognitive functioning in patients. Equally importantly, these cognitive domains will need to be measured similarly in animals and humans so that novel targets can be tested prior to conducting expensive clinical trials. To date, the limited similarity of testing across species has resulted in a translational bottleneck. In this review, we emphasize that schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by abnormal cognitive behavior. Quantifying these abnormalities using tasks having cross-species validity would enable the quantification of comparable processes in rodents. This approach would increase the likelihood that the neural substrates underlying relevant behaviors will be conserved across species. Hence, we detail cross-species tasks which can be used to test the effects of manipulations relevant to schizophrenia and putative therapeutics. Such tasks offer the hope of providing a bridge between non-clinical and clinical testing that will eventually lead to treatments developed specifically for patients with deficient cognition. PMID:25516372

  20. Patterns of Spontaneous Local Network Activity in Developing Cerebral Cortex: Relationship to Adult Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Peinado, Alejandro; Abrams, Charles K.

    2015-01-01

    Detecting neurodevelop?ental disorders of cognition at the earliest possible stages could assist in understanding them mechanistically and ultimately in treating them. Finding early physiological predictors that could be visualized with functional neuroimaging would represent an important advance in this regard. We hypothesized that one potential source of physiological predictors is the spontaneous local network activity prominent during specific periods in development. To test this we used calcium imaging in brain slices and analyzed variations in the frequency and intensity of this early activity in one area, the entorhinal cortex (EC), in order to correlate early activity with level of cognitive function later in life. We focused on EC because of its known role in different types of cognitive processes and because it is an area where spontaneous activity is prominent during early postnatal development in rodent models of cortical development. Using rat strains (Long-Evans, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro) known to differ in cognitive performance in adulthood we asked whether neonatal animals exhibit corresponding strain-related differences in EC spontaneous activity. Our results show significant differences in this activity between strains: compared to a high cognitive-performing strain, we consistently found an increase in frequency and decrease in intensity in neonates from three lower performing strains. Activity was most different in one strain considered a model of schizophrenia-like psychopathology. While we cannot necessarily infer a causal relationship between early activity and adult cognition our findings suggest that the pattern of spontaneous activity in development could be an early predictor of a developmental trajectory advancing toward sub-optimal cognitive performance in adulthood. Our results further suggest that the strength of dopaminergic signaling, by setting the balance between excitation and inhibition, is a potential underlying mechanism that could explain the observed differences in early spontaneous activity patterns. PMID:26098958

  1. Exposure to the widely used fungicide mancozeb causes thyroid hormone disruption in rat dams but no behavioral effects in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Nellemann, Christine; Kiersgaard, Maria; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hass, Ulla

    2011-04-01

    The widely used fungicide mancozeb has been shown to cause hypothyroxinemia and other adverse effects on the thyroid hormone system in adult experimental animals. In humans, hypothyroxinemia early in pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on the developing nervous system and can lead to impaired cognitive function and motor development in children. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether perinatal mancozeb exposure would cause developmental neurotoxicity in rats. Groups of 9-21 time-mated Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg mancozeb/kg body weight (bw)/day by gavage from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 16, and total thyroxine (T(4)) levels were measured in dams during gestation. On PND 16, hormone levels and several organ weights were measured in the offspring, whereas motor activity, startle response, and cognitive function were assessed in the adult offspring. The dose of 150 mg/kg/day caused neurotoxicity in the pregnant dams and was therefore reduced to 100 mg/kg bw/day in mid study. T(4) levels showed a dose-dependent and significant decrease in dams from all three dose groups on GD 15, whereas offspring T(4) levels, thyroid weights, and histology were unaffected on PND 16. No effects on reproductive organ weights were seen, and no behavioral changes were observed. Taken together, these results indicate that in rats, moderate maternal hypothyroxinemia during gestation does not necessarily lead to hyperactivity or reduced special learning abilities in the offspring. Mancozeb exposure did, however, reduce T(4) levels in dams and may therefore still be a potential contributor to thyroid disruption in humans and in result adversely affects the developing brain. PMID:21266532

  2. Where Cognitive Development and Aging Meet: Face Learning Ability Peaks after Age 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germine, Laura T.; Duchaine, Bradley; Nakayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Research on age-related cognitive change traditionally focuses on either development or aging, where development ends with adulthood and aging begins around 55 years. This approach ignores age-related changes during the 35 years in-between, implying that this period is uninformative. Here we investigated face recognition as an ability that may…

  3. Development of Perception and Cognitive Abilities among Nonhandicapped Children and Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, John Alban; Stratford, Brian

    1986-01-01

    Development of cognitive processes and visual perception in 128 Down Syndrome (DS) children (ages 5 to 18) was compared to that of 162 nonhandicapped children (ages 3 to 8). Linear, rather than stepwise, relationships between performance and chronological age in the DS subjects and similar to normal visual perceptual development were found.…

  4. The Development of an Emotional Response to Writing Measure: The Affective Cognition Writing Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.; Jain, Sachin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and initiate the validation of the Affective Cognition Writing Survey (ACWS), a psychological instrument used to measure emotional expression through writing. Procedures for development and validation of the instrument are reported. Subsequently, factor analysis extracted six factors: Positive Processing,…

  5. Cognitive Development among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relationship between early cognitive development, socioeconomic status (SES), child health, and parenting quality in a developing country. We use a sample of more than 3,000 predominantly poor preschool-aged children from Ecuador, and analyze determinants of their scores on a widely used test of language ability. We find that…

  6. Language and cognitive development in 47, XXX females followed since birth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Pennington; M. Puck; A. Robinson

    1980-01-01

    In this report, data are presented on language and cognitive development in an unselected group of eleven 47, XXX females, followed since birth, who are now 6–14 years old. The results of the Yale Developmental Exam (at 2 years) and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) (at 4–6 years) show an early delay in language development. Those girls who

  7. The Development of Cognitive Moral Reasoning in an Adult Degree Completion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washatka, John W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the development of cognitive moral reasoning of nontraditional seniors enrolled in an adult, degree completion program with traditional seniors enrolled at the same university. A second comparison group consisted of a national group of traditional seniors. The moral development of all three groups was…

  8. The Past, Present, and Future of Computational Models of Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Matthew; McMurray, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Does modeling matter? We address this question by providing a broad survey of the computational models of cognitive development that have been proposed and studied over the last three decades. We begin by noting the advantages and limitations of computational models. We then describe four key dimensions across which models of development can be…

  9. New Trends in Integrative Cognitive Science: Approaches to Development and Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gedeon O. Deák; Marni Stewart Bartlett; Tony Jebara

    A new trend in Cognitive Science is the use of artificial agents and systems to investigate learning and development of complex organisms in natural environments. This work, in contrast with traditional AI work, takes into account principles of neural development, problems of embodiment, and complexities of the environment. Current and future promises and challenges for this approach are defined and

  10. New trends in Cognitive Science: Integrative approaches to learning and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gedeon O. Deák; Marni Stewart Bartlett; Tony Jebara

    2007-01-01

    A new trend in Cognitive Science is the use of artificial agents and systems to investigate learning and development of complex organisms in natural environments. This work, in contrast with traditional AI work, takes into account principles of neural development, problems of embodiment, and complexities of the environment. Current and future promises and challenges for this approach are defined and

  11. Design early considered harmful: graduated exposure to complexity and structure based on levels of cognitive development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duane Buck; David J. Stucki

    2000-01-01

    We have recognized that the natural tendency to teach according to the structure of one's own understanding runs contrary to established models of cognitive development. Bloom's Taxonomy has provided a basis for establishing a more efficacious pedagogy. Emphasizing a hierarchical progression of skill sets and gradual learning through example, our approach advocates teaching software development from the inside\\/out rather than

  12. Cognitive Development of Children in an Additive-Bilingual Program: The Third Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, Kathryn W.; Mizokawa, Donald T.

    The enhanced metalinguistic abilities demonstrated by additive-bilingual children, including superior control of cognitive processing, may promote the development of symbolic reasoning. Children educated in additive-bilingual (immersion) settings may maintain normal native-language development, while acquiring a second language. This study…

  13. Development of a human information processing model for cognitive task analysis and design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    June Wei; Gavriel Salvendy

    2006-01-01

    High costs and long cycle times of software development are factors hindering the analysis and design of the complete cognitive aspects related to task performances. Reusable software has been proposed as a solution to the problem of high software development and maintenance costs. One of the paradigms for reusable software, object-oriented modelling, has emerged as an important method for specifying,

  14. Impaired prenatal development and glycemic status in the offspring of rats with experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes and their correction with afobazole.

    PubMed

    Zabrodina, V V; Shreder, E D; Shreder, O V; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus was simulated in rats on gestation day 1 by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in doses of 40 and 50 mg/kg. Pregnant females showed increased glucose concentrations n the blood and urine, embryonic developmental disorders, such as tongue protrusion, edema, and skin hyperemia with concomitant vascular damage (hemorrhage, hematoma) as well as pre- and post-implantation embryo loss. Afobazole administered orally in doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg to pregnant rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes significantly decreased prenatal developmental disorders and pre- and post-implantation embryo loss rate. Afobazole in a dose of 50 mg/kg produced maximum protective effect: in rats receiving 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, post-implantation embryo loss decreased by 14.7 times. Afobazole in doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced blood glucose concentration in pregnant rats and normalized glycemia in 90-day-old male offspring. PMID:25403388

  15. Postinstitutionalized Children's Development: Growth, Cognitive, and Language Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Loman, Michelle M.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Frenn, Kristin A.; Pollak, Seth D.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Children adopted internationally from institutions are a growing population presenting to professional care providers. Although postinstitutionalized (PI) children are adopted from multiple world regions, current knowledge is predominantly based on those adopted from Romania and Eastern European countries. This study examines and compares developmental outcomes of PI children adopted from multiple world regions. Method Five to 11 years after adoption, 8- through 11-year-old PI children (N = 91), children internationally adopted early from foster care (N = 109), and nonadopted children (N = 69) completed screening measures assessing vision, hearing, growth, and cognitive and language abilities. Parents completed questionnaires on service utilization, school performance, preadoptive history, and postadoption environment. Results Forty-four percent of PI children's growth was stunted (height <10th percentile) at adoption. At assessment, although physically smaller, nearly all PI children had average growth parameters. Relative to nonadopted children and children adopted early from foster care, PI children performed more poorly on cognitive and language screens with increased time in institution related to lower performance. Notably, group means on these measures were within the average range. PI children were more likely to be falling behind academically and to use intervention services. Family environment did not differ between PI and nonadopted children. There were few differences for PI children by world region of adoption once accounting for duration of institutionalization. Conclusions Despite currently living in similar environments, PI children have specific needs that differ from early-adopted and nonadopted children. Consideration of multiple factors, including length of institutionalization, is essential when providing care for these children. PMID:19692931

  16. Self-Regulated Strategy Development: Relationship to the Social-Cognitive Perspective and the Development of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zito, Jennifer R.; Adkins, Mary; Gavins, Marva; Harris, Karen R.; Graham, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Research investigating how students who struggle with learning, as well as typically achieving students, can develop powerful self-regulation and academic strategies has become a major endeavor in both general and special education. In this article, we examine how one model of cognitive strategies instruction, Self-Regulated Strategy Development

  17. Developing a fluid intelligence scale through a combination of Rasch modeling and cognitive psychology.

    PubMed

    Primi, Ricardo

    2014-09-01

    Ability testing has been criticized because understanding of the construct being assessed is incomplete and because the testing has not yet been satisfactorily improved in accordance with new knowledge from cognitive psychology. This article contributes to the solution of this problem through the application of item response theory and Susan Embretson's cognitive design system for test development in the development of a fluid intelligence scale. This study is based on findings from cognitive psychology; instead of focusing on the development of a test, it focuses on the definition of a variable for the creation of a criterion-referenced measure for fluid intelligence. A geometric matrix item bank with 26 items was analyzed with data from 2,797 undergraduate students. The main result was a criterion-referenced scale that was based on information from item features that were linked to cognitive components, such as storage capacity, goal management, and abstraction; this information was used to create the descriptions of selected levels of a fluid intelligence scale. The scale proposed that the levels of fluid intelligence range from the ability to solve problems containing a limited number of bits of information with obvious relationships through the ability to solve problems that involve abstract relationships under conditions that are confounded with an information overload and distraction by mixed noise. This scale can be employed in future research to provide interpretations for the measurements of the cognitive processes mastered and the types of difficulty experienced by examinees. PMID:24773034

  18. Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children’s Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035

  19. Introduction: digital games as a context for cognitive development, learning, and developmental research.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Fran C; Fisch, Shalom M

    2013-01-01

    The authors present reasons why developmental psychologists should care about children's and adolescents' digital game play. These reasons may be identified as: a) digital game play is an integral aspect of children's and adolescents' lives; b) digital game play contributes to learning and cognitive development; and c) developmental research has the potential to contribute to effective educational game design. The authors expand on these reasons with the goal of introducing or reintroducing to developmental psychologists a rich and very relevant context in which to examine children's and adolescents' applied cognitive development. PMID:23483688

  20. [Cognitive behavior therapy for depression in children and adolescents - procedure, effects, and developments].

    PubMed

    Groen, Gunter; Petermann, Franz

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy offers a theoretically and empirically valid therapeutic approach for children and adolescents suffering from depression. It can be recommended according to present guidelines and efficacy studies. Further research and conceptual development, however, is necessary especially regarding the small to moderate effect sizes as well as the lack of long-term efficacy and effect factors. This article gives a short overview of the basics and contents of cognitive behavior therapy for depressive children and adolescents. It furthermore presents the latest findings and an assessment of its efficacy and relevant developments and perspectives. PMID:23109126

  1. Maternal allergic contact dermatitis causes increased asthma risk in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Robert H; Arredouani, Mohamed S; Fedulov, Alexey; Kobzik, Lester; Hubeau, Cedric

    2007-01-01

    Background Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. Methods BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, dinitrochlorobenzene, or toluene diisocyanate before mating with untreated males. Dinitrochlorobenzene is a skin-sensitizer only and known to induce a Th1 response, while toluene diisocyanate is both a skin and respiratory sensitizer that causes a Th2 response. Both cause allergic contact dermatitis. Offspring underwent an intentionally suboptimal protocol of allergen sensitization and aerosol challenge, followed by evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway inflammation, and cytokine production. Mothers were tested for allergic airway disease, evidence of dermatitis, cellularity of the draining lymph nodes, and systemic cytokine levels. The role of interleukin-4 was also explored using interleukin-4 deficient mice. Results Offspring of toluene diisocyanate but not dinitrochlorobenzene-treated mothers developed an asthmatic phenotype following allergen sensitization and challenge, seen as increased Penh values, airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell counts and eosinophilia, and Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung. Toluene diisocyanate treated interleukin-4 deficient mothers were able to transfer asthma risk to offspring. Mothers in both experimental groups developed allergic contact dermatitis, but not allergic airway disease. Conclusion Maternal non-respiratory allergy (Th2-skewed dermatitis caused by toluene diisocyanate) can result in the maternal transmission of asthma risk in mice. PMID:17662138

  2. The Coemergence of Cognition, Language, and Speech Motor Control in Early Development: A Longitudinal Correlation Study

    PubMed Central

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Although the development of spoken language is dependent on the emergence of cognitive, language, and speech motor skills, knowledge about how these domains interact during the early stages of communication development is currently limited. This exploratory investigation examines the strength of associations between longitudinal changes in articulatory kinematics and development of skills in multiple domains thought to support early communication development. Twenty-four infants were investigated every three months between the ages of 9 and 21 months. Movements of the upper lip, lower lip, and jaw were transduced using a three-dimensional motion capture system to obtain age-related changes in movement speed and range of movement. Standardized measures of cognition and language from the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd edition and the MacArthur-Bates Child Development Inventory were also collected. Significant associations were identified between orofacial kinematic and the standardized measures of language and cognitive skills, even when age served as covariate. These findings provide preliminary evidence of interactions between cognition, language, and speech motor skills during early communication development. Further work is needed to identify and quantify causal relations among these co-emerging skills. PMID:21035125

  3. Self-locomotion and spatial language and spatial cognition: insights from typical and atypical development

    PubMed Central

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Rivière, James

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have shown that occurrence of locomotion in infancy is correlated with the development of spatial cognitive competencies. Recent evidence suggests that locomotor experience might also be important for the development of spatial language. Together these findings suggest that locomotor experience might play a crucial role in the development of linguistic-cognitive spatial skills. However, some studies indicate that, despite their total deprivation of locomotor experience, young children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have the capacity to acquire and use rich spatial representations including good spatial language. Nonetheless, we have to be cautious about what the striking performances displayed by SMA children can reveal on the link between motor and spatial development, as the dynamics of brain development in atypically developing children are different from typically developing children. PMID:24917836

  4. Interdisciplinary perspectives on the development, integration, and application of cognitive ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Janna; Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Smith, Barry; Jensen, Mark; Poldrack, Russell A.; Lomax, Jane; Bandrowski, Anita; Imam, Fahim; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss recent progress in the development of cognitive ontologies and summarize three challenges in the coordinated development and application of these resources. Challenge 1 is to adopt a standardized definition for cognitive processes. We describe three possibilities and recommend one that is consistent with the standard view in cognitive and biomedical sciences. Challenge 2 is harmonization. Gaps and conflicts in representation must be resolved so that these resources can be combined for mark-up and interpretation of multi-modal data. Finally, Challenge 3 is to test the utility of these resources for large-scale annotation of data, search and query, and knowledge discovery and integration. As term definitions are tested and revised, harmonization should enable coordinated updates across ontologies. However, the true test of these definitions will be in their community-wide adoption which will test whether they support valid inferences about psychological and neuroscientific data. PMID:24999329

  5. Improving Adult Literacy Outcomes: Lessons from Cognitive Research for Developing Countries. Directions in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abadzi, Helen

    Adult literacy program outcomes have been disappointing. A number of principals and methods from cognitive and neuropsychological research can be used to make literacy instruction more effective, including the following: improving cognitive function; fast reading; reading practice; literacy as a motivator; and improving use of class time.…

  6. Selective organ specific inflammation in offspring harbouring microchimerism from strongly alloreactive mothers.

    PubMed

    Leveque, Lucie; Hodgson, Samantha; Peyton, Stephen; Koyama, Motoko; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2014-05-01

    The origins of autoimmunity are not yet understood despite significant advances in immunology. The trafficking of maternal cells to the offspring represents the very first immunological event in foetal life and is reinforced during lactation. The persistence of maternal cells in offspring's tissues and circulation has been associated with several autoimmune disorders. However a direct causal effect has never been demonstrated. Maternal T cells specifically targeting foetal insulin producing cells have been shown to generate islet inflammation without directly participating in this process. Our objective was to evaluate if alloreactive maternal cells could directly trigger a graft-versus host like reaction or indirectly influence the development of the offspring's regulatory T cells favouring autoimmunity. We adopted a breeding strategy comparing genetically identical offspring from either strongly alloreactive transgenic mothers compared to immunodeficient mothers. We detected maternal alloreactive T cells in the offspring and early signs of inflammation in small intestine of 6 weeks old offspring. Interestingly, CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell frequency was diminished in mesenteric lymph nodes from eight months old offspring born of alloreactive mothers compared to offspring of immunodeficient mothers. Our study favours a hypothesis where highly alloreactive maternal cell microchimerism indirectly predisposes offspring to autoimmunity. PMID:24268809

  7. Increased de novo copy number variants in the offspring of older males.

    PubMed

    Flatscher-Bader, T; Foldi, C J; Chong, S; Whitelaw, E; Moser, R J; Burne, T H J; Eyles, D W; McGrath, J J

    2011-01-01

    The offspring of older fathers have an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. In light of the evidence implicating copy number variants (CNVs) with schizophrenia and autism, we used a mouse model to explore the hypothesis that the offspring of older males have an increased risk of de novo CNVs. C57BL/6J sires that were 3- and 12-16-months old were mated with 3-month-old dams to create control offspring and offspring of old sires, respectively. Applying genome-wide microarray screening technology, 7 distinct CNVs were identified in a set of 12 offspring and their parents. Competitive quantitative PCR confirmed these CNVs in the original set and also established their frequency in an independent set of 77 offspring and their parents. On the basis of the combined samples, six de novo CNVs were detected in the offspring of older sires, whereas none were detected in the control group. Two of the CNVs were associated with behavioral and/or neuroanatomical phenotypic features. One of the de novo CNVs involved Auts2 (autism susceptibility candidate 2), and other CNVs included genes linked to schizophrenia, autism and brain development. This is the first experimental demonstration that the offspring of older males have an increased risk of de novo CNVs. Our results support the hypothesis that the offspring of older fathers have an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism by generation of de novo CNVs in the male germline. PMID:22832608

  8. The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

  9. The Effect of Breastfeeding and Stimulation in the Home on Cognitive Development in One-Year-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Seaneen; Stewart, Moira; Dunne, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Research on the effects of breastfeeding on child cognitive development has produced conflicting results, and many studies do not account for infant stimulation in the home. The aim of this study is to determine whether breastfeeding predicts enhanced cognitive development in one-year-old infants after controlling for the main socio-economic and…

  10. Cognitive Coping Tool Kit for Psychosis: Development of a Group-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT…

  11. The development of a content analysis model for assessing students' cognitive learning in asynchronous online discussions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dazhi Yang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, validate, and test a content analysis model (framework) for assessing students' cognitive learning in asynchronous online discussions (AODs). The study adopted a fully mixed methods design, in which qualitative and quantitative methods were employed sequentially (a two-part process) at stages of data analysis and data interpretation (Hanson, Creswell, Plano-Clark, Petska & Creswell,

  12. Developing Motivation and Cognitive Learning Strategies Through an Undergraduate Learning Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candice R. Stefanou; Jill D. Salisbury-Glennon

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the effects on student motivation and cognitive learning strategies of an approach involving an undergraduate learner-centered community of learners approach to instruction. Six learning communities were created using the following objectives: integrated courses, active and collaborative learning, and opportunities for learning through information technology and library resources. Instructors attended ten workshops designed to assist them in developing

  13. Cognitive development of term small for gestational age children at five years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Sommerfelt; H W Andersson; K Sonnander; G Ahlsten; B Ellertsen; T Markestad; G Jacobsen; H J Hoffman; L Bakketeig

    2000-01-01

    AIMTo assess the relative significance for cognitive development of small for gestational age, parental demographic factors, and factors related to the child rearing environment.METHODSIQ of a population based cohort of 338 term infants who were small for gestational age (SGA) and without major handicap, and a random control sample of 335 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants were compared at

  14. Evaluating FOCUS-2's Effectiveness in Enhancing First-Year College Students' Social Cognitive Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirpak, David M.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the computer-assisted career guidance system, FOCUS-2, on 1st-year college students' social cognitive career development. Specifically, the authors assessed career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and assessment of attributions for career decision making (AACDM) using repeated measures analyses of variance…

  15. Cognitive aging as an extension of brain development: A model linking learning, brain plasticity, and neurodegeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    João Pedro de Magalhães; Anders Sandberg

    2005-01-01

    Differences in cognitive aging rates among mammals suggest that the pace of brain aging is genetically determined. In this work, we investigate the possibility that brain aging is an extension of brain development. It is possible that a subset of developmental mechanisms are extreme cases of antagonistic pleiotropy in that they are necessary for reaching adulthood and yet later cause

  16. The Relations between Frontal Brain Electrical Activity and Cognitive Development during Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martha Ann; Fox, Nathan A.

    1992-01-01

    Examined the relationship between changes in electroencephalograms and the development of the ability to perform cognitive tasks involving frontal lobe functioning in infants of 7 to 12 months of age. Infants who successfully found a hidden object showed changes in the power of brain electrical activity in the frontal lobe. (BC)

  17. Orthographic and Cognitive Factors in the Concurrent Development of Basic Reading Skills in English and Persian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholamain, Mitra; Geva, Esther

    1999-01-01

    Examined two hypotheses regarding reading skill development--the script-dependent hypothesis and the central processing hypothesis--by studying the linguistic, cognitive, and basic reading skills of 70 children in grades 1 through 5 learning to read in English (first language) and Persian (second language) concurrently. Findings supported both…

  18. Field Experience as a Method of Enhancing Student Learning and Cognitive Development in the Liberal Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosser, John W.

    The paper examines the role of experiential learning programs such as cooperative education and internship programs as a method of enhancing student learning and cognitive development in the liberal arts. The literature review begins by examining the goals of a liberal education as they relate to field experience. The outcomes of field experience…

  19. Effect of Pediatric Well Child Care on the Mother-Infant Relationship and Infant Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patrick H.; Whitt, J. Kenneth

    The purpose of this paper was to examine whether a pediatrician in well child care could promote mother-child interaction in the infant's first 6 months of life, and whether this intervention could affect the infant's cognitive development. Thirty-two mothers and their healthy, first born infants were followed by one pediatrician at 2, 4, 8, 15…

  20. Understanding Writing Problems in Young Children: Contributions of Cognitive Skills to the Development of Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Amy

    2011-01-01

    While several models of adult writing have been proposed and studied, the development of writing skills in young children has only recently garnered attention. Using measures of fine-motor, language, working memory, and attention/executive functions, the current study explored motor and cognitive skills that may contribute to writing skill in…

  1. The Development of a Substance Abuse Treatment Program for Forensic Patients with Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassmire, David M.; Welsh, Robert K.; Clevenger, Jeanne K.

    2007-01-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Illness (SAMI) program combines cognitive rehabilitation and dual-diagnosis substance abuse treatment within a stages of change context. This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary outcome analysis of the SAMI program in a forensic hospital.

  2. Parental Involvement, Parenting Behaviors, and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income and Minority Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mido Chang; Boyoung Park; Kusum Singh; Youngji Y. Sung

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the longitudinal association of parental involvement in Head Start parent-focused programs, parenting behaviors, and the cognitive development of children by specifying two longitudinal growth models. Model 1 examined the longitudinal effects of the parental involvement in three Head Start parenting programs (parenting classes, group socialization, and support groups) on parenting behaviors (home observation of parental linguistic and

  3. Parental Involvement, Parenting Behaviors, and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income and Minority Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Singh, Kusum; Sung, Youngji Y.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the longitudinal association of parental involvement in Head Start parent-focused programs, parenting behaviors, and the cognitive development of children by specifying two longitudinal growth models. Model 1 examined the longitudinal effects of the parental involvement in three Head Start parenting programs (parenting classes,…

  4. With Eyes to the Future: A Brief History of Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Research patterns from the past three decades and several current directions of research are used to describe emerging trends in the study of cognitive development. These trends are discussed as moving the field into new areas, particularly biology, learning, and social context, and contributing to a more integrated understanding of psychological…

  5. Contributions of Societal Modernity to Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Four Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of…

  6. Methods of Investigating Cognitive Development of Children in Rural Kenya: Some Kamba Results. Staff Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjellman, Janet S.

    Very little cognitive development research has been done among African children, and most of the completed studies have relied on "translated" versions of Western test materials that are inappropriate to the African milieu. This paucity of research has had two affects: (1) rural African children have been represented as somewhat less advanced…

  7. The Interaction of Selective Attention and Cognitive Development on Achievement in Nigerian Secondary School Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Namdi N. S.

    2009-01-01

    The study tried to examine the interaction between two independent variables of selective attention and cognitive development on Achievement in Genetics at the Secondary School level. In looking at the problem of this study three null hypotheses were generated for testing at 0.05 level of significance. Factorial Analysis of Variance design with…

  8. Cognitive State Verbs and Complement Clauses in Children with SLI and Their Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Lin, Shanju

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of cognitive state verbs (CSVs) and complement clauses in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. In Study 1, conversational samples from 23 children with SLI (M = 6;2), 24 age-matched TD children (M = 6;2) and 21 vocabulary-matched TD children (M = 4;9) were…

  9. Cultivating Visual Cognition in Young Children. A Research and Development Report of the Agam Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eylon, B.; And Others

    The goal of the Agam Program is to teach visual literacy to preschoolers. The Agam Project implemented the program in Israel in 1983. This report summarizes the second cycle of research on the program, which was conducted in 1985-87. The Agam Program integrates visual concepts with specific skills and develops specific cognitive processes. The…

  10. Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Mother-Infant Interaction and the Infant's Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallas, Howard B.; Lewis, Michael

    This study examines the relationship between mother-infant behavior and the infant's performance on perceptual-cognitive tasks as a function of the infant's sex. A total of 189 12-week-old infants and their mothers were observed in their homes during 2 hours of infant awake time. In addition, the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales…

  11. Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Internet-Facilitated Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeber, Lisa B.; Seeley, John R.; Feil, Edward G.; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Kosty, Derek B.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Develop and pilot an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Method: Mothers (N = 70) of children enrolled in Head Start, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session,…

  12. Fathers' Influence on Their Children's Cognitive and Emotional Development: From Toddlers to Pre-K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natasha J. Cabrera; Jacqueline D. Shannon; Catherine Tamis-LeMonda

    2007-01-01

    We present findings based on several of our recent studies that have shown that father engagement has significant effects on children's cognition and language at 24 and 36 months and their social and emotional development at 24, 36 months, and pre-Kindergarten. These studies are guided by the Dynamics of Paternal Influences on Children over the Life Course Model that stipulates

  13. The Effects of Child Abuse on the Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Development of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Susan

    This document provides an annotated bibliography of 24 empirical studies of child abuse and a summary of the findings. Annotations are organized in three sections covering effects of child abuse on children's cognitive, emotional, and social development. A 5-page summary of research findings generally indicated that abused children possessed…

  14. Iron Deficiency and the Cognitive and Psychomotor Development of Children: A Pilot Study with Institutionalized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driva, A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a pilot study, involving 48 institutionalized infants and toddlers, which aimed to treat iron deficiency anemia and to discover other factors contributing to the problem. Results indicate improvement in cognitive development after the administration of iron among three groups, while no significant differences were observed in psychomotor…

  15. Frontiers in Cognitive Science 8January 2014 Self-Organization of Early Vocal Development

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    developmental stages during early vocal learning. We introduce a computational model of intrinsically motivatedFrontiers in Cognitive Science 8January 2014 Self-Organization of Early Vocal Development in Infants and Machines: The Role of Intrinsic Motivation Cl´ement Moulin-Frier 1, , Sao Mai Nguyen 1

  16. Commentary/Quartz & Sejnowski: Cognitive development BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES (1997) 20:4 575

    E-print Network

    Scholl, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Commentary/Quartz & Sejnowski: Cognitive development BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES (1997) 20:4 575 Arnold B. Scheibel Departments of Neurobiology and Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences and Brain-based changes in the brain. On the basis of quantitative structural studies of human brain tissue it has been

  17. Some Considerations of Piaget's Cognitive-Structuralist Theory and Children's Artistic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardiman, George W.; Zernich, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews the major principles of Piaget's stage theory of cognitive development (equilibrium, structure, and scheme); outlines his two stages that best characterize elementary children (preoperational thought and concrete operations); and describes features of the child's artistic growth during these two stages. Questions needing…

  18. Cognitive Development and Science Instruction: A Review of Some Recent Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Michael

    Reviewed are several pertinent research articles dealing with cognitive development, Piaget's theories, and science instruction, especially those that relate to procedures that can be implemented by classroom teachers. The research findings on developmental levels of Piaget discuss: (1) tasks that indicate a change from preoperational to concrete…

  19. The Relation of Visual Imagery to Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kathleen

    The relation of visual process to Piaget's stages of cognitive development was examined. The study utilized four age groups to correspond roughly to acquisition and consolidation periods of concrete and formal operations: 6 years - acquisition of concrete operations; 9 years - consolidation of concrete operations; 11 years - acquisition of formal…

  20. A Cognitive Analysis of Credit Card Acquisition and College Student Financial Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Blair; Turrisi, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Examines cognitions relevant to credit card decision making in college-aged participants (N=304). Assesses measures of beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral alternatives toward acquiring a credit card. Identifies a multivariate model predicting college student financial development of the attitudes and behavioral tendencies of acquiring a new card.…

  1. BRIEF REPORTS Development of the Cognitive Appraisal and Understanding of Social Events (CAUSE) Videos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith Chen; Karen A. Matthews

    This study describes the development and validation of 4 videos designed to assess adolescent cognitive appraisals and understanding of social events (the CAUSE Videos). Story lines varied in outcome (2 negative and 2 ambiguous). Convergent and divergent validity were tested in samples of college freshmen and sophomores. As hypothesized, threatening interpretations during ambiguous situations were positively associated with trait hostility

  2. Item Equivalence in English and Chinese Translation of a Cognitive Development Test for Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study of potential sources of item nonequivalence between English and Chinese language versions of a cognitive development test for preschool-aged children. Items were flagged for potential nonequivalence through statistical and judgment-based procedures, and the relationship between flag status and item…

  3. Biomedical Engineering and Cognitive Science Secondary Science Curriculum Development: A Three Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stacy S.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on a multi-year effort to create and evaluate cognitive-based curricular materials for secondary school science classrooms. A team of secondary teachers, educational researchers, and academic biomedical engineers developed a series of curriculum units that are based in biomedical engineering for secondary level students in…

  4. Predicting Preschool Cognitive Development from Infant Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Psychosocial Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation…

  5. The Influence of Developmentally Appropriate Practice on Children's Cognitive Development: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Lan, Yi-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Background: As policymakers and advocates across the United States look to early childhood educators to improve children's cognitive development so they enter elementary school ready to learn, debates have emerged over what types of practices these educators should be engaged in to achieve this goal. Historically, the field of early childhood…

  6. Social-Cognitive Development, Ethical and Legal Knowledge, and Ethical Decision Making of Counselor Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Glenn W.; Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Ieva, Kara P.

    2010-01-01

    Counselors are required to have high levels of social-cognitive development, significant knowledge regarding ethical and legal practice, and sound ethical decision-making processes to provide effective and ethical services to their clients. This study investigated the effect of two counseling ethics courses on 64 master's-level counselor education…

  7. Longitudinal analyses of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bellinger; A. Leviton; C. Waternaux; H. Needleman; M. Rabinowitz

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study of 249 children from birth to two years of age, we assessed the relation between prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development. On the basis of lead levels in umbilical-cord blood, children were assigned to one of three prenatal-exposure groups: low (less than 3 micrograms per deciliter), medium (6 to 7 micrograms per

  8. Early Childhood Computer Experience and Cognitive Development among Urban Low-Income Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Angela M.; Li, Xiaoming; McCarrick, Katy; Butler, Sheretta T.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan; Holtrop, Teresa; Partridge, Ty

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the association between home computer experience and cognitive development among preschool children in inner-city Head Start programs. Approximately 200 children enrolled in four Head Start centers in Detroit, Michigan were recruited to participate in this study. Data was collected from parents regarding the children's…

  9. Impact of Service-Learning and Social Justice Education on College Students' Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yan; Rodgers, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This study used the Measure of Epistemology Reflection to explore the impact of service-learning and social justice education on college students' cognitive development. Six service-learning courses taught with or without a social justice emphasis were studied. Results showed that service-learning courses in general had a positive impact on…

  10. Crowding and Cognitive Development: The Mediating Role of Maternal Responsiveness among 36-Month-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gary W.; Ricciuti, Henry N.; Hope, Steven; Schoon, Ingrid; Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Hazan, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Residential crowding in both U.S. and U.K. samples of 36-month-old children is related concurrently to the Bracken scale, a standard index of early cognitive development skills including letter and color identification, shape recognition, and elementary numeric comprehension. In the U.S. sample, these effects also replicate prospectively.…

  11. The Effect of Differentiation Approach Developed on Creativity of Gifted Students: Cognitive and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a differentiation approach for the mathematics education of gifted middle school students and to determine the effect of the differentiation approach on creative thinking skills of gifted students based on both cognitive and affective factors. In this context, the answer to the following question was searched:…

  12. Methodological and Epistemological Issues in the Interpretation of Infant Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ulrich; Giesbrecht, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This commentary on J. Kagan (2008) addresses 2 issues. The first concerns the importance of studying developmental sequences and processes of change. The second concerns epistemological differences between contemporary neonativist approaches and classical theories of development. The commentary argues that classical theories of infant cognition

  13. Developing and evaluating innovative items for the NCLEX: Part 2, item characteristics and cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Anne; Harmes, J Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article is a continuation of the research on the development and evaluation of innovative item formats for the NCLEX examinations that was published in the March/April 2009 edition of Nurse Educator. The authors discuss the innovative item templates and evaluate the statistical characteristics and level of cognitive processing required to answer the examination items. PMID:19412048

  14. Cognitive Development of Fourth Graders in a High-Stakes State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagaard, Lola; Boram, Robert

    Jean Piaget's classic theory of cognitive development would imply that the higher-order items on the Kentucky state assessment would only be possible for students well into concrete operations or beginning formal operations. The implication would be that Kentucky fourth graders who are not fully concrete yet may be hitting a developmental ceiling…

  15. Gender Stereotypes in Children's Books: Their Prevalence and Influence on Cognitive and Affective Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharyl Bender; Lach, Mary Alyce

    1990-01-01

    Examines gender stereotyping in children's picture books. A survey of current material indicates only a small increase in the number and prominence of female characters. Discusses the history of gender stereotypes in children's literature and their effect on cognitive development. (DM)

  16. The Effect of Learning Background and Imagery Cognitive Development on Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Shyh-Bao; Sun, Chun-Wang

    2013-01-01

    This research looked into the effect of how cognitive development toward imagery is formed through visual perception by means of a quantitative questionnaire. The main variable was the difference between the learning backgrounds of the interviewees. A two-way ANOVA mixed design was the statistical method used for the analysis of the 2 × 4 (2 by 4)…

  17. Gestational Chronodisruption Impairs Hippocampal Expression of NMDA Receptor Subunits Grin1b/Grin3a and Spatial Memory in the Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Vilches, Nelson; Spichiger, Carlos; Mendez, Natalia; Abarzua-Catalan, Lorena; Galdames, Hugo A.; Hazlerigg, David G.; Richter, Hans G.; Torres-Farfan, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence correlates adverse intrauterine conditions with the onset of disease later in life. For a fetus to achieve a successful transition to extrauterine life, a myriad of temporally integrated humoral/biophysical signals must be accurately provided by the mother. We and others have shown the existence of daily rhythms in the fetus, with peripheral clocks being entrained by maternal cues, such as transplacental melatonin signaling. Among developing tissues, the fetal hippocampus is a key structure for learning and memory processing that may be anticipated as a sensitive target of gestational chronodisruption. Here, we used pregnant rats exposed to constant light treated with or without melatonin as a model of gestational chronodisruption, to investigate effects on the putative fetal hippocampus clock, as well as on adult offspring’s rhythms, endocrine and spatial memory outcomes. The hippocampus of fetuses gestated under light:dark photoperiod (12:12 LD) displayed daily oscillatory expression of the clock genes Bmal1 and Per2, clock-controlled genes Mtnr1b, Slc2a4, Nr3c1 and NMDA receptor subunits 1B-3A-3B. In contrast, in the hippocampus of fetuses gestated under constant light (LL), these oscillations were suppressed. In the adult LL offspring (reared in LD during postpartum), we observed complete lack of day/night differences in plasma melatonin and decreased day/night differences in plasma corticosterone. In the adult LL offspring, overall hippocampal day/night difference of gene expression was decreased, which was accompanied by a significant deficit of spatial memory. Notably, maternal melatonin replacement to dams subjected to gestational chronodisruption prevented the effects observed in both, LL fetuses and adult LL offspring. Collectively, the present data point to adverse effects of gestational chronodisruption on long-term cognitive function; raising challenging questions about the consequences of shift work during pregnancy. The present study also supports that developmental plasticity in response to photoperiodic cues may be modulated by maternal melatonin. PMID:24663672

  18. The effect of PTZ-induced epileptic seizures on hippocampal expression of PSA-NCAM in offspring born to kindled rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal epileptic seizures during pregnancy can affect the hippocampal neurons in the offspring. The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), which is expressed in the developing central nervous system, may play important roles in neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and axonal outgrowth. This study was designed to assess the effects of kindling either with or without maternal seizures on hippocampal PSA-NCAM expression in rat offspring. Methods Forty timed-pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four groups: A) Kind+/Seiz+, pregnant kindled (induced two weeks prior to pregnancy) rats that received repeated intraperitoneal (i.p.) pentylenetetrazol, PTZ injections on gestational days (GD) 14-19; B) Kind-/Seiz+, pregnant non-kindled rats that received PTZ injections on GD14-GD19; C) Kind+/Seiz-, pregnant kindled rats that did not receive any PTZ injections; and D) Kind-/Seiz-, the sham controls. Following birth, the pups were sacrificed on PD1 and PD14, and PSA-NCAM expression and localization in neonates’ hippocampi were analyzed by Western blots and immunohistochemistry. Results Our data show a significant down regulation of hippocampal PSA-NCAM expression in the offspring of Kind+/Seiz+ (p?=?0.001) and Kind-/Seiz+ (p?=?0.001) groups compared to the sham control group. The PSA-NCAM immunoreactivity was markedly decreased in all parts of the hippocampus, especially in the CA3 region, in Kind+/Seiz+ (p?=?0.007) and Kind-/Seiz+ (p?=?0.007) group’s newborns on both PD1 and 14. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that maternal seizures but not kindling influence the expression of PSA-NCAM in the offspring’s hippocampi, which may be considered as a factor for learning/memory and cognitive impairments reported in children born to epileptic mothers. PMID:22651102

  19. Verbal and Visual Memory Impairments Among Young Offspring and Healthy Adult Relatives of Patients With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Selective Generational Patterns Indicate Different Developmental Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Maziade, Michel; Rouleau, Nancie; Mérette, Chantal; Cellard, Caroline; Battaglia, Marco; Marino, Cecilia; Jomphe, Valérie; Gilbert, Elsa; Achim, Amélie; Bouchard, Roch-Hugo; Paccalet, Thomas; Paradis, Marie-Eve; Roy, Marc-André

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Memory deficits have been shown in patients affected by schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP)/mood disorder. We recently reported that young high-risk offspring of an affected parent were impaired in both verbal episodic memory (VEM) and visual episodic memory (VisEM). Understanding better the trajectory of memory impairments from childhood to adult clinical status in risk populations is crucial for early detection and prevention. In multigenerational families densely affected by SZ or BP, our aim was to compare the memory impairments observed in young nonaffected offspring with memory functioning in nonaffected adult relatives and patients. Methods: For 20 years, we followed up numerous kindreds in the Eastern Québec population. After having characterized the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders phenotypes, we assessed cognition (N = 381) in 3 subsamples in these kindreds and in controls: 60 young offspring of a parent affected by SZ or BP, and in the adult generations, 92 nonaffected adult relatives and 40 patients affected by SZ or BP. VEM was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test and VisEM with the Rey figures. Results: The VEM deficits observed in the offspring were also found in adult relatives and patients. In contrast, the VisEM impairments observed in the young offspring were present only in patients, not in the adult relatives. Conclusion: Implications for prevention and genetic mechanisms can be drawn from the observation that VEM and VisEM would show distinct generational trajectories and that the trajectory associated with VisEM may offer a better potential than VEM to predict future risk of developing the disease. PMID:20410238

  20. The Measurement of Everyday Cognition (ECog): Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R.; Cahn-Weiner, Deborah; Jagust, William; Baynes, Kathleen; DeCarli, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument to assess cognitively mediated functional abilities in older adults, Everyday Cognition (ECog). The ECog is an informant-rated questionnaire comprised of multiple subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine its factor structure. Convergent validity was evaluated by comparing it to established measures of everyday function. External validity was evaluated by comparing ECog results across different clinical groups [cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia]. CFA supported a seven-factor model including one global factor and six domain-specific factors (Everyday Memory, Language, Visuospatial Abilities, Planning, Organization, and Divided attention). The ECog correlated with established measures of functional status and global cognition, but only weakly with age and education. The clinical groups performed differently in each domain. In addition to the global factor, the Everyday Memory factor independently differentiated MCI from Normal, while the Everyday Language domain differentiated Dementia from MCI. Different subtypes of MCI also showed different patterns. Results suggest the ECog shows promise as a useful tool for the measurement of general and domain-specific everyday functions in the elderly. PMID:18590364

  1. Parental care in Sphaerium striatinum Lamarck: evidence for retention of competent offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Beekey; Ronald H. Karlson; Alyse R. Greenberg

    2000-01-01

    The timing of offspring release is a fundamental turning point in the life history of any organism. It repre - sents the end to many of the most costly forms of parental care (e.g., provisioning of nutrients for developing eggs and zygotes) and the beginning of an independent life for the offspring. Generally temporal variation in this event is attrib

  2. Unpredictable mild stressors on laying females influence the composition of Japanese quail eggs and offspring's phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floriane Guibert; Marie-Annick Richard-Yris; Sophie Lumineau; Kurt Kotrschal; Aline Bertin; Christophe Petton; Erich Möstl; Cécilia Houdelier

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress effects on offspring development have been studied largely in rodents and primates, and to a lesser extent in farm animals. Potential lack of knowledge concerning prenatal stress on farm animals is regrettable because they are frequently subjected to a variety of husbandry stressors. Above all, effects of maternal stress on poultry offspring have been neglected. Prenatal effects in

  3. Low Cortisol and Risk for PTSD in Adult Offspring of Holocaust Survivors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Yehuda; Linda M. Bierer; James Schmeidler; Daniel H. Aferiat; M. S. W. Ilana Breslau; Susan Dolan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the asso- ciation between cortisol and putative risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of subjects at in- creased risk for the development of PTSD. Method: Twenty-four-hour urinary corti- sol excretion was measured in 35 adult offspring of Holocaust survivors and 15 healthy comparison subjects who were not offspring of Holocaust survivors. Sub-

  4. Parental dietary fat intake alters offspring microbiome and immunity1

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Ian A.; Vithayathil, Paul J.; Segre, Julia A.; Datta, Sandip K.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying modern increases in prevalence of human inflammatory diseases remain unclear. The hygiene hypothesis postulates that decreased microbial exposure has, in part, driven this immune dysregulation. However, dietary fatty acids also influence immunity, partially through modulation of responses to microbes. Prior reports have described the direct effects of high fat diets on the gut microbiome and inflammation, and some have additionally shown metabolic consequences for offspring. Our study sought to expand on these previous observations to identify the effects of parental diet on offspring immunity using mouse models to provide insights into challenging aspects of human health. To test the hypothesis that parental dietary fat consumption during gestation and lactation influences offspring immunity, we compared pups of mice fed either a Western diet fatty acid profile or a standard low fat diet. All pups were weaned onto the control diet to specifically test the effects of early developmental fat exposure on immune development. Pups from Western diet breeders were not obese or diabetic, but still had worse outcomes in models of infection, autoimmunity, and allergic sensitization. They had heightened colonic inflammatory responses, with increased circulating bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and muted systemic LPS responsiveness. These deleterious impacts of the Western diet were associated with alterations of the offspring gut microbiome. These results indicate that parental fat consumption can leave a “lard legacy” impacting offspring immunity and suggest inheritable microbiota may contribute to the modern patterns of human health and disease. PMID:23935191

  5. The relationship between affective and cognitive development in Down's Syndrome infants.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, D; Sroufe, L A

    1976-12-01

    A close association between affective expression and cognitive development was demonstrated in a longitudinal study of 14 Down's syndrome infants. It was found that the Down's syndrome infants laughed to groups of stimulus items in the same order as did previous samples of normal infants. Although the process was delayed by several months, the retarded babies too laughed first at physically intrusive items and only later to items calling for greater cognitive sophistication. In addition, cognitive developmental status, assessed by the Bayley and Uzgiris-Hunt scales, paralleled and was predicted by the level of affective development. Predictive and concurrent correlations between Bayley mental scores and various indices of affectivity ranged from .68 to .92. There was striking individual consistency across affective, mental, and motor measures, suggesting the organized nature of retarded development. Finally, since Down's syndrome infants frequently smiled under conditions when normal babies would laugh, a role for tension production, in addition to cognitive factors, was suggested in accounting for the behavior of these infants. PMID:137105

  6. Enhancing Cognitive Development through Physics Problem Solving: A Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Raluca; Bennhold, Cornelius; Feldman, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    As part of an ongoing project to reform the introductory algebra-based physics courses at George Washington University, we are developing a taxonomy of introductory physics problems (TIPP) that establishes a connection between the physics problems, the type of physics knowledge they involve and the cognitive processes they develop in students. This taxonomy will provide, besides an algorithm for classifying physics problems, an organized and relatively easy-to-use database of physics problems that contains the majority of already created text-based and research-based types of problems. In addition, this taxonomy will reveal the kinds of physics problems that are still lacking and that are found to be necessary to enhance students' cognitive development. For this reason, we expect it to be a valuable teaching resource for physics instructors which will enable them to select the problems used in their curricular materials based on the specifics of their students' cognition and the learning objectives they want to achieve in their class. This organization scheme will also provide a framework for creating physics-related assessments with a cognitive component.

  7. Infants' persistence and mothers' teaching as predictors of toddlers' cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Poonam Nina; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S

    2007-08-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of infants' persistence and mothers' teaching at 6 and 14 months to infants' cognitive development at 14 months in a sample of 65 low-income mother-infant dyads. Infants' persistence was assessed from a videotaped persistence task at 6 months and from the Behavior Record Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd ed. (BSID II) at 14 months. Mothers' teaching was assessed from a videotaped teaching interaction at 6 and 14 months using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training (NCAST) teaching scale. Cognitive development at 14 months was based on the Mental Scale, BSID II. Infants' persistence at both ages and mothers' teaching at 6 months each explained unique variance in infants' cognitive status at 14 months. Persistence appears to be a stable quality that can be measured early on, and both infants' early persistence and mothers' teaching are direct pathways to cognitive status at the start of the second year. PMID:17683756

  8. The Development of Graphophonological-Semantic Cognitive Flexibility and Its Contribution to Reading Comprehension in Beginning Readers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly B. Cartwright; Timothy R. Marshall; Kristina L. Dandy; Marisa C. Isaac

    2010-01-01

    Reading-specific and general color-shape cognitive flexibility were assessed in 68 first and second graders to examine: 1) the development of graphophonological-semantic cognitive flexibility (the ability to process concurrently phonological and semantic aspects of print) in comparison to color-shape cognitive flexibility, 2) the contribution of reading experience to graphophonological-semantic flexibility, and 3) the unique contribution of graphophonological-semantic flexibility to reading comprehension.

  9. Experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism alters crucial enzyme activities in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the offspring rat.

    PubMed

    Koromilas, Christos; Tsakiris, Stylianos; Kalafatakis, Konstantinos; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Kimpizi, Despoina; Bimpis, Alexios; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Liapi, Charis

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid hormone insufficiency during neurodevelopment can result into significant structural and functional changes within the developing central nervous system (CNS), and is associated with the establishment of serious cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptomatology. The aim of the present study was to shed more light on the effects of gestational and/or lactational maternal exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism as a multilevel experimental approach to the study of hypothyroidism-induced changes on crucial brain enzyme activities of 21-day-old Wistar rat offspring in a brain region-specific manner. This experimental approach has been recently developed and characterized by the authors based on neurochemical analyses performed on newborn and 21-day-old rat offspring whole brain homogenates; as a continuum to this effort, the current study focused on two CNS regions of major significance for cognitive development: the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. Maternal exposure to PTU in the drinking water during gestation and/or lactation resulted into changes in the activities of acetylcholinesterase and two important adenosinetriphosphatases (Na(+),K(+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPase), that seemed to take place in a CNS-region-specific manner and that were dependent upon the PTU-exposure timeframe followed. As these findings are analyzed and compared to the available literature, they: (i) highlight the variability involved in the changes of the aforementioned enzymatic parameters in the studied CNS regions (attributed to both the different neuroanatomical composition and the thyroid-hormone-dependent neurodevelopmental growth/differentiation patterns of the latter), (ii) reveal important information with regards to the neurochemical mechanisms that could be involved in the way clinical hypothyroidism could affect optimal neurodevelopment and, ultimately, cognitive function, as well as (iii) underline the need for the adoption of more consistent approaches towards the experimental simulation of congenital and early-age-occurring hypothyroidism. PMID:24972880

  10. Neuroimaging, a new tool for investigating the effects of early diet on cognitive and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Elizabeth B.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition is crucial to the initial development of the central nervous system (CNS), and then to its maintenance, because both depend on dietary intake to supply the elements required to develop and fuel the system. Diet in early life is often seen in the context of “programming” where a stimulus occurring during a vulnerable period can have long-lasting or even lifetime effects on some aspect of the organism's structure or function. Nutrition was first shown to be a programming stimulus for growth, and then for cognitive behavior, in animal studies that were able to employ methods that allowed the demonstration of neural effects of early nutrition. Such research raised the question of whether nutrition could also programme cognition/brain structure in humans. Initial studies of cognitive effects were observational, usually conducted in developing countries where the presence of confounding factors made it difficult to interpret the role of nutrition in the cognitive deficits that were seen. Attributing causality to nutrition required randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and these, often in developed countries, started to appear around 30 years ago. Most demonstrated convincingly that early nutrition could affect subsequent cognition. Until the advent of neuroimaging techniques that allowed in vivo examination of the brain, however, we could determine very little about the neural effects of early diet in humans. The combination of well-designed trials with neuroimaging tools means that we are now able to pose and answer questions that would have seemed impossible only recently. This review discusses various neuroimaging methods that are suitable for use in nutrition studies, while pointing out some of the limitations that they may have. The existing literature is small, but examples of studies that have used these methods are presented. Finally, some considerations that have arisen from previous studies, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed. PMID:23964224

  11. The Mystery of Cognitive Structure and How We Can Detect It: Tracking the Development of Cognitive Structures over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Masduki, Iskandaria; Seel, Norbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Many research studies have clearly demonstrated the importance of cognitive structures as the building blocks of meaningful learning and retention of instructional materials. Identifying the learners' cognitive structures will help instructors to organize materials, identify knowledge gaps, and relate new materials to existing slots or anchors…

  12. Motor functioning, exploration, visuospatial cognition and language development in preschool children with autism.

    PubMed

    Hellendoorn, Annika; Wijnroks, Lex; van Daalen, Emma; Dietz, Claudine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Leseman, Paul

    2015-04-01

    In order to understand typical and atypical developmental trajectories it is important to assess how strengths or weaknesses in one domain may be affecting performance in other domains. This study examined longitudinal relations between early fine motor functioning, visuospatial cognition, exploration, and language development in preschool children with ASD and children with other developmental delays/disorders. The ASD group included 63 children at T1 (Mage = 27.10 months, SD = 8.71) and 46 children at T2 (Mage = 45.85 months, SD = 7.16). The DD group consisted of 269 children at T1 (Mage = 17.99 months, SD = 5.59), and 121 children at T2 (Mag e= 43.51 months, SD = 3.81). A subgroup nested within the total sample was randomly selected and studied in-depth on exploratory behavior. This group consisted of 50 children, 21 children with ASD (Mage = 27.57, SD = 7.09) and 29 children with DD (Mage = 24.03 months, SD = 6.42). Fine motor functioning predicted language in both groups. Fine motor functioning was related to visuospatial cognition in both groups and related to object exploration, spatial exploration, and social orientation during exploration only in the ASD group. Visuospatial cognition and all exploration measures were related to both receptive and expressive language in both groups. The findings are in line with the embodied cognition theory, which suggests that cognition emerges from and is grounded in the bodily interactions of an agent with the environment. This study emphasizes the need for researchers and clinicians to consider cognition as emergent from multiple interacting systems. PMID:25635383

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Subjects at Ultrahigh Risk for Developing Psychosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Gaag, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background : Evidence for the effectiveness of treatments for subjects at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for developing psychosis remains inconclusive. Objective : A new cognitive behavioral intervention specifically targeted at cognitive biases (ie, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [CBT] for UHR patients plus treatment as usual [TAU] called CBTuhr) is compared with TAU in a group of young help-seeking UHR subjects. Methods : A total of 201 patients were recruited at 4 sites and randomized. In most cases, CBTuhr was an add-on therapy because most people were seeking help for a comorbid disorder. The CBT was provided for 6 months, and the follow-up period was 18 months. Results : In the CBTuhr condition, 10 patients transitioned to psychosis compared with 22 in the TAU condition (? 2 (1) = 5.575, P = .03). The number needed to treat (NNT) was 9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.7–89.9). At 18-month follow-up the CBTuhr group was significantly more often remitted from an at-risk mental state, with a NNT of 7 (95% CI: 3.7–71.2). Intention-to-treat analysis, including 5 violations against exclusion criteria, showed a statistical tendency (? 2 (1) = 3.338, P = .06). Conclusions : Compared with TAU, this new CBT (focusing on normalization and awareness of cognitive biases) showed a favorable effect on the transition to psychosis and reduction of subclinical psychotic symptoms in subjects at UHR to develop psychosis. PMID:22941746

  14. Cognitive Development in Context: Learning to Pay Attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Bjorne; Christian Balkenius

    A developing system must be able to learn new things without forgetting what it has learned before. It should be capable of reacting in different way to the same stimuli in different contexts. Context sensitive reinforcement lear ning, which parallels some of the functions of the basal ganglia, is a learning algorithm that fulfills this requirement when the context is

  15. Working Memory Underpins Cognitive Development, Learning, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is the retention of a small amount of information in a readily accessible form. It facilitates planning, comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving. I examine the historical roots and conceptual development of the concept and the theoretical and practical implications of current debates about working memory mechanisms. Then, I…

  16. Quality Rating and Improvement Systems and Children's Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing enriched learning environments is important to stimulating children's development in early childhood. Early child-care policymakers in many states in the US have adopted Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) as a way to verify quality of child care and to support children's school readiness. Objective: The purpose of…

  17. Professional Development through "Kizuki"--Cognitive, Emotional, and Collegial Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Nami

    2011-01-01

    The author traced an English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher's professional development by examining her narrative and identifying the transformation of her awareness or "kizuki". "Kizuki," which is unique to Japanese culture, implies a sudden feeling of inner understanding of a phenomenon and can be roughly translated as "becoming aware of",…

  18. Cognitive development and the complexities of the undergraduate learner in the science classroom*.

    PubMed

    Markwell, John; Courtney, Sean

    2006-07-01

    Students' reactions to classroom learning and the mastery of science vary along a wide spectrum of attitudes and emotions. In particular, we argue here that how learners encounter and learn subject matter is a function of their level of cognitive development. We describe the stages of cognitive development based on the work of William Perry and demonstrate their relevance to the undergraduate science classroom. With examples drawn from biochemistry, we attempt to show that, depending on the student's developmental level, there will be different abilities to handle the range of assignments and activities s/he can expect to experience in the average classroom. The college science instructor can benefit from knowledge of these stages and can work through their implications to develop strategies and techniques to regulate collective student learning. PMID:21638689

  19. Twenty years and going strong: A dynamic systems revolution in motor and cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John P.; Perone, Sammy; Buss, Aaron T.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the major contributions of dynamic systems theory in advancing thinking about development, the empirical insights the theory has generated, and the key challenges for the theory on the horizon. The first section discusses the emergence of dynamic systems theory in developmental science, the core concepts of the theory, and the resonance it has with other approaches that adopt a systems metatheory. The second section reviews the work of Esther Thelen and colleagues, who revolutionized how researchers think about the field of motor development. It also reviews recent extensions of this work to the domain of cognitive development. Here, the focus is on dynamic field theory, a formal, neurally grounded approach that has yielded novel insights into the embodied nature of cognition. The final section proposes that the key challenge on the horizon is to formally specify how interactions among multiple levels of analysis interact across multiple time scales to create developmental change. PMID:22125575

  20. Maternal high fat diet consumption during the perinatal period programs offspring behavior.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Elinor L; Nousen, Elizabeth K; Chamlou, Katherine A

    2014-01-17

    The environment that a developing offspring experiences during the perinatal period is markedly influenced by maternal health and diet composition. Evidence from both epidemiological studies and animal models indicates that maternal diet and metabolic status play a critical role in programming the neural circuitry that regulates behavior, resulting in long-term consequences for offspring behavior. Maternal diet and metabolic state influence the behavior of offspring directly by impacting the intrauterine environment and indirectly by modulating maternal behavior. The mechanisms by which maternal diet and metabolic profile shape the perinatal environment remain largely unknown, but recent research has found that increases in inflammatory cytokines, nutrients (glucose and fatty acids), and hormones (insulin and leptin) affect the environment of the developing offspring. Offspring exposed to maternal obesity and high fat diet consumption during development are more susceptible to developing mental health and behavioral disorders such as anxiety, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. Recent evidence suggests that this increased risk for behavioral disorders is driven by modifications in the development of neural pathways involved in behavioral regulation. In particular, research indicates that the development of the serotonergic system is impacted by exposure to maternal obesity and high fat diet consumption, and this disruption may underlie many of the behavioral disturbances observed in these offspring. Given the high rates of obesity and high fat diet consumption in pregnant women, it is vital to examine the influence that maternal nutrition and metabolic profile have on the developing offspring. PMID:23085399

  1. Cognitive development in introductory physics: A research-based approach to curriculum reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Raluca Elena

    This project describes the research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created for designing and clarifying educational objectives, for developing assessments that can evaluate individual component processes of the problem-solving process, and for guiding curriculum design in introductory physics courses, specifically within the context of a "thinking-skills" curriculum. TIPP relies on the following resources: (1) cognitive research findings adopted by physics education research, (2) expert-novice research discoveries acknowledged by physics education research, (3) an educational psychology taxonomy for educational objectives, and (4) various collections of physics problems created by physics education researchers or developed by textbook authors. TIPP was used in the years 2006--2008 to reform the first semester of the introductory algebra-based physics course (called Phys 11) at The George Washington University. The reform sought to transform our curriculum into a "thinking-skills" curriculum that trades "breadth for depth" by focusing on fewer topics while targeting the students' cognitive development. We employed existing research on the physics problem-solving expert-novice behavior, cognitive science and behavioral science findings, and educational psychology recommendations. Our pedagogy relies on didactic constructs such as the GW-ACCESS problem-solving protocol, learning progressions and concept maps that we have developed and implemented in our introductory physics course. These tools were designed based on TIPP. Their purpose is: (1) to help students build local and global coherent knowledge structures, (2) to develop more context-independent problem-solving abilities, (3) to gain confidence in problem solving, and (4) to establish connections between everyday phenomena and underlying physics concepts. We organize traditional and research-based physics problems such that students experience a gradual increase in complexity related to problem context, problem features and cognitive processes needed to solve the problem. The instructional environment that we designed allows for explicit monitoring, control and measurement of the cognitive processes exercised during the instruction period. It is easily adaptable to any kind of curriculum and can be readily adjusted throughout the semester. To assess the development of students' problem-solving abilities, we created rubrics that measure specific aspects of the thinking involved in physics problem solving. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' shift in dispositions towards learning physics. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' level of conceptual understanding. The results feature improvements in students' problem-solving abilities and in their attitudes towards learning physics.

  2. Gender-specific impairments on cognitive and behavioral development in mice exposed to fenvalerate during puberty.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiu-Hong; Liu, Ping; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Xu, Zhong-Mei; Chen, Gui-Hai; Xu, De-Xiang

    2011-06-24

    In human and rodent models, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the development of cognition and behaviors. Fenvalerate is a potential EDC. The purpose of this study was to examine whether pubertal fenvalerate exposure altered behavioral development. Mice were orally administered with either vehicle or fenvalerate (7.5 or 30 mg/kg/day) from postnatal day (PND) 28 to PND56. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris Water Maze. Aggressive performance was evaluated by aggressive behavior test. Anxiety-related activities were detected by three tests: open-field, plus-maze and black-white alley. Sensorimotor function was analyzed using beam walking and tightrope. Results found that the impairment for spatial learning and memory was more severe in fenvalerate-exposed female mice than in male mice. In addition, pubertal fenvalerate exposure inhibited aggressive behavior in males. Moreover, pubertal fenvalerate exposure increased anxiety activities in females. Altogether, these results suggest that pubertal fenvalerate exposure impairs spatial cognition and behavioral development in a gender-dependent manner. These findings identify fenvalerate as candidate environmental risk factors for cognitive and behavioral development, especially in the critical period of development. PMID:21458547

  3. Integrating cognitive task analysis into instructional systems development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M. Ryder; Richard E. Redding

    1993-01-01

    Traditional methods for task analysis and training design, such as those embodied in Instructional Systems Development (ISD),\\u000a decompose jobs into discrete tasks composed of specific action sequences and identify prerequisite knowledge and skills for\\u000a each task. Although these methods have been effective for designing training for simple procedural skills, they offer little\\u000a insight for analysis or training of jobs involving

  4. Developing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Depressive Relapse in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, Beth D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2010-01-01

    Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed youth, children and adolescents frequently report ongoing residual symptoms and often relapse following acute treatment. Recent adult trials have begun examining augmentation with psychosocial treatment after successful medication treatment to enhance medication response and prevent future relapse. This strategy has not yet been examined in youth with depression. Here we present initial efforts to develop a sequential, combination treatment strategy to promoting rapid remission and to prevent relapse in depressed youth. We describe efforts to adapt CBT to prevent relapse (RP-CBT) in youth who respond to pharmacotherapy. The goals of RP-CBT include: preventing relapse, increasing wellness, and developing skills to promote and sustain a healthy emotional lifestyle. We describe the rationale for, components of, and methods used to develop RP-CBT. The results from a small open series sample demonstrate feasibility and indicate that youth appear to tolerate RP-CBT well. A future test of the treatment in a randomized controlled trial is described. PMID:20535241

  5. Corporal Punishment by Mothers and Development of Children's Cognitive Ability: A Longitudinal Study of Two Nationally Representative Age Cohorts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray A. Straus; Mallie J. Paschall

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the use of corporal punishment (CP), such as slapping a child's hand or “spanking,” is associated with restricted development of cognitive ability. Cognitive ability was measured at the start of the study and 4 years later for 806 children age 2–4 and 704 children age 5–9 in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. The

  6. Effects of Maternal Intelligence, Marital Status, Income, and Home Environment on Cognitive Development of Low Birthweight Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verne R. Bacharach; Alfred A. Baumeister

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine direct and mediated effects of maternal IQ, marital status, family income, and quality of the home environment on the cognitive development of low birthweight infants. Methods: Secondary analyses on a large dataset using hierarchical regression identified factors correlated with cognitive outcomes in children at 3 years of age who were bom at low birthweight. Results: Maternal IQ

  7. Incentive-Related Modulation of Cognitive Control in Healthy, Anxious, and Depressed Adolescents: Development and Psychopathology Related Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Michael G.; Schroth, Elizabeth; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2007-01-01

    Background: Developmental changes in cognitive and affective processes contribute to adolescent risk-taking behavior, emotional intensification, and psychopathology. The current study examined adolescent development of cognitive control processes and their modulation by incentive, in health and psychopathology. Predictions include 1) better…

  8. Ladybird mothers mitigate offspring starvation risk by laying trophic eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer C. Perry; Bernard D. Roitberg

    2005-01-01

    A large proportion of ladybird beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) eggs are apparently infertile—they do not develop an embryo and are consumed by larvae hatching within the egg batch. The predicted benefits of egg consumption for larvae are empirically well supported. An important question, however, remains: are these eggs a maternal strategy to feed offspring (i.e., trophic eggs) or did egg eating

  9. Maternal overweight programs insulin and adiponectin signaling in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight, fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high fat diets (45 percent fat). In this report we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced p...

  10. Linking the Developmental and Degenerative Theories of Schizophrenia: Association Between Infant Development and Adult Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Isohanni, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Haapea, Marianne; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jones, Peter B.; Murray, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative theories may be viewed as incompatible accounts that compete to explain the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, it is possible that neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes could both reflect common underlying causal mechanisms. We hypothesized that cognitive dysfunction would gradually deteriorate over time in schizophrenia and the degree of this deterioration in adulthood would be predicted by an infant measure of neurodevelopment. We aimed to examine the association between age of learning to stand in infancy and deterioration of cognitive function in adulthood. Participants were nonpsychotic control subjects (n = 76) and participants with schizophrenia (n = 36) drawn from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study. The schizophrenia group showed greater deterioration in abstraction with memory than controls, but there were no differences between schizophrenia and controls in rate of change of other cognitive measures. Age of learning to stand in infancy significantly inversely predicted later deterioration of abstraction with memory in adult schizophrenia (later infant development linked to greater subsequent cognitive deterioration during adulthood), possibly suggesting a link between abnormal neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes in schizophrenia. PMID:24583905

  11. Linking the developmental and degenerative theories of schizophrenia: association between infant development and adult cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Isohanni, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Haapea, Marianne; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Graham K

    2014-11-01

    Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative theories may be viewed as incompatible accounts that compete to explain the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, it is possible that neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes could both reflect common underlying causal mechanisms. We hypothesized that cognitive dysfunction would gradually deteriorate over time in schizophrenia and the degree of this deterioration in adulthood would be predicted by an infant measure of neurodevelopment. We aimed to examine the association between age of learning to stand in infancy and deterioration of cognitive function in adulthood. Participants were nonpsychotic control subjects (n = 76) and participants with schizophrenia (n = 36) drawn from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study. The schizophrenia group showed greater deterioration in abstraction with memory than controls, but there were no differences between schizophrenia and controls in rate of change of other cognitive measures. Age of learning to stand in infancy significantly inversely predicted later deterioration of abstraction with memory in adult schizophrenia (later infant development linked to greater subsequent cognitive deterioration during adulthood), possibly suggesting a link between abnormal neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes in schizophrenia. PMID:24583905

  12. Cognitive development and children's perceptions of fruit and vegetables; a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Zeinstra, Gertrude G; Koelen, Maria A; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

    2007-01-01

    Background Most children do not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake. Since preference is an important predictor of intake, more knowledge is needed about children's preferences and about how these preferences develop. As most research about preferences has ignored cognitive development, this study was designed to explore the relation between children's perceptions and preferences for fruit and vegetables and their cognitive development. Methods The study population consisted of eight 4–5-year-old children, eight 7–8-year-old children and twelve 11–12-year-old children, recruited via a primary school in Wageningen, The Netherlands. Qualitative in-depth information was obtained by duo-interviews and focus group discussions. A structured guide with questions and game tasks was applied to address different domains in a consistent way. Results The developmental progress at the abstraction level was seen in children's reasoning across all domains. Children's preferences expanded and increased in complexity as they moved to a higher age bracket. The most important determinants for liking and disliking shifted from appearance and texture attributes in 4–5-year-olds towards taste attributes in 11–12-year-olds. Children's knowledge of basic tastes increased. Their understanding of health improved as they grew older. The emergence of social norms and perspectives of others as the children grew older was also seen in relation to fruit and vegetables. Child-reported parental strategies to stimulate healthy eating appeared to vary with age in line with cognitive development. Conclusion Cognitive development is paralleled by changes in the importance given to the attributes that determine whether a child likes or dislikes fruits and vegetables; children's understanding of and reasoning about health; and parental use of strategies. These developmental differences should be incorporated in programs designed to increase long-term fruit and vegetable intake in children. PMID:17620131

  13. Development of a simultaneous vibration and pressure stimulation system for cognitive studies.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soon-Cheol; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Park, Sung-Jun; Lee, Jung-Chul; Jeong, Ul-Ho; Baek, Ji-Hye; You, Ji-Hye; Choi, Young Chil; Lim, Dae-Woon; Yi, Jeong-Han; Kim, Hyung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a tactile stimulator that could separately or simultaneously display the vibrotactile and pressure sense was developed. The developed system consisted of a control unit, a drive unit, and an actuator, and can be operated with PC or manually. This system quantitatively controls the stimulation parameters such as the stimulation intensity, duration, frequency, and stimulation type. A preliminary electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment for three types of stimulation (vibrotactile, pressure sense, vibrotactile + pressure sense) highlights that the system could be used in complex tactile cognitive studies. An event-related desynchronization (ERD) and synchronization (ERS) were measured at the area of C3 and C4 for all three types of stimulation, and a clear response was identified in the contralateral somatosensory area from the brain topology. Therefore, it is expected that this system could be widely used in single and complex human tactile cognition and perception studies for vibrotactile and pressure sensation. PMID:25227076

  14. School Quality and the Development of Cognitive Skills between Age Four and Six

    PubMed Central

    Borghans, Lex; Golsteyn, Bart H. H.; Zölitz, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the extent to which young children develop their cognitive ability in high and low quality schools. We use a representative panel data set containing cognitive test scores of 4-6 year olds in Dutch schools. School quality is measured by the school’s average achievement test score at age 12. Our results indicate that children in high-quality schools develop their skills substantially faster than those in low-quality schools. The results remain robust to the inclusion of initial ability, parental background, and neighborhood controls. Moreover, using proximity to higher-achieving schools as an instrument for school choice corroborates the results. The robustness of the results points toward a causal interpretation, although it is not possible to erase all doubt about unobserved confounding factors. PMID:26182123

  15. Language and cognitive development in 47,XXX females followed since birth.

    PubMed

    Pennington, B; Puck, M; Robinson, A

    1980-01-01

    In this report, data are presented on language and cognitive development in an unselected group of eleven 47,XXX females, followed since birth, who are now 6--14 years old. The results of the Yale Developmental Exam (at 2 years) and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) (at 4--6 years) show an early delay in language development. Those girls who presently have serious language and learning problems were significantly delayed in first walking or talking, whereas the relatively unaffected girls were not. Results of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) at 4 years of age and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC or WISC-R) at 8 years of age are similar and show a generalized depression of both verbal and nonverbal abilities. Thus, unlike 45,X females or 47,XXX males, triple-X females do not have a specifically nonverbal or verbal cognitive deficit. PMID:7425996

  16. Training the Developing Brain Part II: Cognitive Considerations for Youth Instruction and Feedback.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Adam M; Kiefer, Adam W; Lesnick, Samantha; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Growing numbers of youth participating in competitive, organized physical activity have led to a concern for the risk of sports-related injuries during important periods of human development. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) to enhance athletic performance and reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in youth. Successful implementation of INT necessitates instruction from knowledgeable and qualified instructors who understand the unique physical, cognitive, and psychosocial characteristics of the youth to provide appropriate training instruction and feedback. Principles of a classical theory of cognitive development provide a useful context for discussion of developmentally appropriate methods and strategies for INT instruction of youth. INT programs that consider these developmentally appropriate approaches will provide a controlled efficacious environment for youth to improve athletic performance and reduce risk of sports-related injury, thus promoting a healthy active lifestyle beyond an individual's formative years. PMID:25968858

  17. Applying a Cognitive-Affective Model of Conceptual Change to Professional Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen K. EbertKent; Kent J. Crippen

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated Gregoire’s (2003) Cognitive–Affective Conceptual Change model (CAMCC) for predicting and assessing conceptual change in science teachers engaged\\u000a in a long-term professional development project set in a large school district in the southwestern United States. A multiple\\u000a case study method with data from three teacher participants was used to understand the process of integrating and applying\\u000a a reform

  18. Relation of moral and cognitive development to dimensions of juvenile delinquency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Jurkovic; Norman M. Prentice

    1977-01-01

    Using H. C. Quay's (1972) typology, 3 groups of 12 Ss each––adolescent psychopathic, neurotic, and subcultural delinquent males (mean age 15.68 yrs)––and a matched nondelinquent control group were individually administered L. Kohlberg's (1964, 1969) structured moral dilemmas, 2 Piagetian tasks of cognitive development (pendulum and balance), and an adaptation of J. Flavell's (1968) role-taking task. Psychopathic Ss were more immature

  19. Viewing Clinical Research Career Development Through the Lens of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori L. Bakken; Angela Byars-Winston; Min-fen Wang

    2006-01-01

    Issues such as, over commitment, insufficient time, and lack of funding, threaten physicians’ entry and sustainability in\\u000a a research career pathway. Social cognitive career theory is presented as a conceptual framework to critically examine the\\u000a limitations of the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) efforts to promote the career development of physician–scientists.\\u000a Special attention is given to the unique challenges of

  20. Recessive Mutations in SPTBN2 Implicate ?-III Spectrin in Both Cognitive and Motor Development

    PubMed Central

    Kwasniewska, Alexandra; Sadighi Akha, Elham; Parolin Schnekenberg, Ricardo; Suminaite, Daumante; Hope, Jilly; Baker, Ian; Gregory, Lorna; Green, Angie; Allan, Chris; Lamble, Sarah; Jayawant, Sandeep; Quaghebeur, Gerardine; Cader, M. Zameel; Hughes, Sarah; Armstrong, Richard J. E.; Kanapin, Alexander; Rimmer, Andrew; Lunter, Gerton; Mathieson, Iain; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Buck, David; Taylor, Jenny C.; Bentley, David; McVean, Gilean; Donnelly, Peter; Knight, Samantha J. L.; Jackson, Mandy; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Németh, Andrea H.

    2012-01-01

    ?-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding ?-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5), an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as “Lincoln ataxia,” because the largest known family is descended from relatives of the United States President Abraham Lincoln. Using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a homozygous stop codon in SPTBN2 in a consanguineous family in which childhood developmental ataxia co-segregates with cognitive impairment. The cognitive impairment could result from mutations in a second gene, but further analysis using whole-genome sequencing combined with SNP array analysis did not reveal any evidence of other mutations. We also examined a mouse knockout of ?-III spectrin in which ataxia and progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells has been previously reported and found morphological abnormalities in neurons from prefrontal cortex and deficits in object recognition tasks, consistent with the human cognitive phenotype. These data provide the first evidence that ?-III spectrin plays an important role in cortical brain development and cognition, in addition to its function in the cerebellum; and we conclude that cognitive impairment is an integral part of this novel recessive ataxic syndrome, Spectrin-associated Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia type 1 (SPARCA1). In addition, the identification of SPARCA1 and normal heterozygous carriers of the stop codon in SPTBN2 provides insights into the mechanism of molecular dominance in SCA5 and demonstrates that the cell-specific repertoire of spectrin subunits underlies a novel group of disorders, the neuronal spectrinopathies, which includes SCA5, SPARCA1, and a form of West syndrome. PMID:23236289

  1. Recessive mutations in SPTBN2 implicate ?-III spectrin in both cognitive and motor development.

    PubMed

    Lise, Stefano; Clarkson, Yvonne; Perkins, Emma; Kwasniewska, Alexandra; Sadighi Akha, Elham; Schnekenberg, Ricardo Parolin; Suminaite, Daumante; Hope, Jilly; Baker, Ian; Gregory, Lorna; Green, Angie; Allan, Chris; Lamble, Sarah; Jayawant, Sandeep; Quaghebeur, Gerardine; Cader, M Zameel; Hughes, Sarah; Armstrong, Richard J E; Kanapin, Alexander; Rimmer, Andrew; Lunter, Gerton; Mathieson, Iain; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Buck, David; Taylor, Jenny C; Bentley, David; McVean, Gilean; Donnelly, Peter; Knight, Samantha J L; Jackson, Mandy; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Németh, Andrea H

    2012-01-01

    ?-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding ?-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5), an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as "Lincoln ataxia," because the largest known family is descended from relatives of the United States President Abraham Lincoln. Using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a homozygous stop codon in SPTBN2 in a consanguineous family in which childhood developmental ataxia co-segregates with cognitive impairment. The cognitive impairment could result from mutations in a second gene, but further analysis using whole-genome sequencing combined with SNP array analysis did not reveal any evidence of other mutations. We also examined a mouse knockout of ?-III spectrin in which ataxia and progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells has been previously reported and found morphological abnormalities in neurons from prefrontal cortex and deficits in object recognition tasks, consistent with the human cognitive phenotype. These data provide the first evidence that ?-III spectrin plays an important role in cortical brain development and cognition, in addition to its function in the cerebellum; and we conclude that cognitive impairment is an integral part of this novel recessive ataxic syndrome, Spectrin-associated Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia type 1 (SPARCA1). In addition, the identification of SPARCA1 and normal heterozygous carriers of the stop codon in SPTBN2 provides insights into the mechanism of molecular dominance in SCA5 and demonstrates that the cell-specific repertoire of spectrin subunits underlies a novel group of disorders, the neuronal spectrinopathies, which includes SCA5, SPARCA1, and a form of West syndrome. PMID:23236289

  2. Development of reference assignment in children: a direct comparison to the performance of cognitive shift

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Taro; Hashiya, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    The referent of a deictic embedded in a particular utterance or sentence is often ambiguous. Reference assignment is a pragmatic process that enables the disambiguation of such a referent. Previous studies have demonstrated that receivers use social-pragmatic information during referent assignment; however, it is still unclear which aspects of cognitive development affect the development of referential processing in children. The present study directly assessed the relationship between performance on a reference assignment task (Murakami and Hashiya, in preparation) and the dimensional change card sort task (DCCS) in 3- and 5-years-old children. The results indicated that the 3-years-old children who passed DCCS showed performance above chance level in the event which required an explicit (cognitive) shift, while the performance of the children who failed DCCS remained in the range of chance level; however, such a tendency was not observed in the 5-years-old, possibly due to a ceiling effect. The results indicated that, though the development of skills that mediate cognitive shifting might adequately explain the explicit shift of attention in conversation, the pragmatic processes underlying the implicit shift, which requires reference assignment, might follow a different developmental course. PMID:24910629

  3. Development of reference assignment in children: a direct comparison to the performance of cognitive shift.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Taro; Hashiya, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    The referent of a deictic embedded in a particular utterance or sentence is often ambiguous. Reference assignment is a pragmatic process that enables the disambiguation of such a referent. Previous studies have demonstrated that receivers use social-pragmatic information during referent assignment; however, it is still unclear which aspects of cognitive development affect the development of referential processing in children. The present study directly assessed the relationship between performance on a reference assignment task (Murakami and Hashiya, in preparation) and the dimensional change card sort task (DCCS) in 3- and 5-years-old children. The results indicated that the 3-years-old children who passed DCCS showed performance above chance level in the event which required an explicit (cognitive) shift, while the performance of the children who failed DCCS remained in the range of chance level; however, such a tendency was not observed in the 5-years-old, possibly due to a ceiling effect. The results indicated that, though the development of skills that mediate cognitive shifting might adequately explain the explicit shift of attention in conversation, the pragmatic processes underlying the implicit shift, which requires reference assignment, might follow a different developmental course. PMID:24910629

  4. Cognitive and social-emotional development of children in different preschool environments.

    PubMed

    Brand, H J; Welch, K

    1989-10-01

    62 English-speaking preschool children were divided into three groups, a Montessori group (n = 21), a traditional preschool group (n = 21), and a homestaying group (n = 20) to compare their relative cognitive and social-emotional development. Significant differences in favour of the school groups were found for vocabulary, language comprehension, ability to judge the correctness of figural stimuli, visual memory, and perceptual organization. No differences were found for social-emotional development, and no relationship existed between type of preschool and level of development. PMID:2798666

  5. Increased anxiety-like behavior but no cognitive impairments in adult rats exposed to constant light conditions during perinatal development

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Background. Shift-work is suggested to affect fetal development negatively. In particular, maternal hormonal disturbance arising from sleep deprivation or circadian rhythm changes may disturb fetal growth or lead to complications during pregnancy. Exposure to constant light is an environmental stressor that can affect the circadian system and has been shown to induce neurochemical and behavioral changes when used during the prenatal and/or postnatal period in experimental animals. However, studies investigating long-term effects of constant light in the offspring are sparse. Methods. An accidental power outage resulted in pregnant females being housed under constant light (LL) conditions for seven days of the offspring perinatal development (embryonic day 20 to postnatal day 4). The long-term effects of constant light on the behavior in the adult offspring were assessed by means of open field, object recognition, and water maze tests. Results. In adulthood, LL-animals displayed an intact recognition memory and no deficits in spatial learning or memory. In the open field test, LL-animals exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior, observed as significantly more thigmotaxis and less ambulation. These results were confirmed in the other behavioral tests as the LL-animals spent less time exploring the objects in the object recognition test, and showed thigmotactic behavior also in the water maze test. Conclusion. The results confirm that early life experience can cause changes in brain development that shape brain function and add to the sparse literature on long-term effects of constant light conditions during perinatal development on specific behaviors in adulthood. PMID:23902426

  6. Prospective study of pandysmaturation and adult mental disorder in high-risk and normal-risk offspring.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Thomas F; Fish, Barbara; Schubert, Erland W

    2011-04-01

    More than 50 years ago, Fish postulated that a special form of early abnormal neurodevelopment, "pandysmaturation", defined a priori as constituting retarded cranial development in the first year of life, combined with delay in early motor milestone attainment, was related to genetic risk for schizophrenia, and was associated with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in young adulthood. Fish confirmed this in a very small sample. We retested Fish's postulation in a larger prospective study. Pandysmaturation was blindly investigated through medical records and prospective researcher and maternal observations, studying 75 "high-risk" offspring of women with a history of schizophrenia or affective psychosis and 91 "normal-risk" offspring. Subjects were studied prospectively from mother's pregnancy to 22 years of age, at which time the offspring were independently assessed for schizophrenia-spectrum and affective disorders. Pandysmaturation (n = 13, with 10 "definite" and 3 "probable" degrees) was significantly related to genetic risk for schizophrenia (Odds Ratio 4.9, p = 0.02) but not to genetic risk for affective disorders (OR 1.2, p = 0.81). Pandysmaturation was significantly associated with schizophrenia-spectrum (OR 6.2, p = 0.02), but not affective (OR 0.9, p = 0.90), disorders in young adulthood. Pandysmaturation was more strongly associated than was retarded cranial development, motor milestone delay, or social/cognitive milestone delay by itself. Pandysmaturation has efficacy as an early life risk-indicator of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in young adulthood at least in subjects at genetic risk, strengthening the evidence for a generally genetic-based neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia-spectrum (as contrasted with affective) disorders. Pandysmaturation is a risk-indicator for future schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, for potential use in scientific studies and clinical practice. PMID:20926100

  7. Parents’ Education, Mothers’ Vocabulary, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Evidence From Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. I estimated the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and early child cognitive development in a sample of poor children in rural Ecuador. Methods. I used regression analysis to estimate the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and the vocabulary, memory, and visual integration skills of children at early ages, controlling for possible confounders. The study is based on a longitudinal cohort of children in rural Ecuador (n = 2118). Results. The schooling and vocabulary levels of mothers were strong predictors of the cognitive development of young children. Household wealth and child's height, weight, and hemoglobin levels explained only a modest fraction of the observed associations. The vocabulary levels of mothers and children were more strongly correlated among older children in the sample, suggesting that the effects of a richer maternal vocabulary are cumulative. Conclusions. Differences in children's cognitive outcomes start very early, which has important implications for the intergenerational transmission of poverty and inequality. Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children, perhaps through parenting programs or high-quality center-based care, hold promise. PMID:22021308

  8. [Williams syndrome: a window to the development of cognitive and neural processes].

    PubMed

    Capirci, O; Queyras, A; Alleva, E; Volterra, V

    1997-01-01

    Williams syndrome (SW) is a rare (2-5/100,000) genetic human disorder characterised by a typical facies and mental retardation with a deficit in the visuo-spatial cognitive function and a relative preservation of linguistic abilities. This syndrome also includes morphological anomalies and metabolic-functional impairments, likely deficits in the pattern of brain ontogenesis. Neuropsychological and somatic features of the SW individuals are illustrated, and the correspondent genetic bases, recently identified, are presented. The possible role of NGF (nerve growth factor), a particular neurotrophin involved in the development of brain cholinergic system and the associated behavioural functions, in the aetiology of the typical mental retardation of SW patients, is critically discussed. Prospect of researches, including the identification of potential neurobiological markers and the definition of appropriate cognitive profiles of the SW, in order to precociously diagnose this syndrome, and a more thorough investigation of factors affecting phenotypic expression of this genetically determined pathological condition, are reviewed. PMID:9470250

  9. Development of gender differences in depression: an elaborated cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress theory.

    PubMed

    Hankin, B L; Abramson, L Y

    2001-11-01

    Descriptive epidemiological studies are reviewed, showing that the female preponderance in depression begins to emerge around age 13. A developmentally sensitive, elaborated cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress model of depression is proposed to explain the "big fact" of the emergence of the gender difference in depression. The elaborated causal chain posits that negative events contribute to initial elevations of general negative affect. Generic cognitive vulnerability factors then moderate the likelihood that the initial negative affect will progress to full-blown depression. Increases in depression can lead transactionally to more self-generated dependent negative life events and thus begin the causal chain again. Evidence is reviewed providing preliminary support for the model as an explanation for the development of the gender difference in depression during adolescence. PMID:11726071

  10. [The development of the cognition and treatment of apoplexy in traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Dou, Zhi-fang; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Jun-long; Zhang, Xin; Li, Ming-kui; Huang, Xiu-yun

    2007-10-01

    Surveying the developmental history of the cognition and treatment of apoplexy in traditional Chinese medicine, it could be divided into 3 phases, viz. the phase of "exogenous wind" before the Tang and Song dynasties, the phase of contention of "endogenous wind" during the Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties, and the phase of compromising of traditional Chinese and consulting of western medicine of "equal importance of exogenous and endogenous wind" after the Qing dynasty. Through the development of these three phases, the cognition of cause of disease and pathogenesis of apoplexy was deepened continuously, and the method of treatment, prescription and materia medica were enriched further. Especially, with the introduction and usage of modern scientific technology, the diagnosis and treatment of apoplexy were more standardized, and the effect was improved constantly, reflecting the characteristic and superiority of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:19127844

  11. Toward the Development of Cognitive Task Difficulty Metrics to Support Intelligence Analysis Research

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2005-08-08

    Intelligence analysis is a cognitively complex task that is the subject of considerable research aimed at developing methods and tools to aid the analysis process. To support such research, it is necessary to characterize the difficulty or complexity of intelligence analysis tasks in order to facilitate assessments of the impact or effectiveness of tools that are being considered for deployment. A number of informal accounts of ''What makes intelligence analysis hard'' are available, but there has been no attempt to establish a more rigorous characterization with well-defined difficulty factors or dimensions. This paper takes an initial step in this direction by describing a set of proposed difficulty metrics based on cognitive principles.

  12. Keeping Kids on Track: Impacts of a Parenting-Focused Early Head Start Program on Attachment Security and Cognitive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori A. Roggman; Lisa K. Boyce; Gina A. Cook

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The home-based Early Head Start program in this local study aimed to promote children's early attachment and cognitive development by establishing supportive relationships with parents and guiding responsive parenting and positive parent–child play interactions. To test the effectiveness of this approach, we studied the development of secure base behavior and cognitive skills in infants and toddlers from low-income

  13. Maternal cholestasis during pregnancy programs metabolic disease in offspring.

    PubMed

    Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi; Nikolopoulou, Evanthia; Briz, Oscar; Owen, Bryn M; Nikolova, Vanya; Ovadia, Caroline; Huang, Xiao; Vaarasmaki, Marja; Baumann, Marc; Jansen, Eugene; Albrecht, Christiane; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Marin, Jose J G; Knisely, A S; Williamson, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    The intrauterine environment is a major contributor to increased rates of metabolic disease in adults. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a liver disease of pregnancy that affects 0.5%-2% of pregnant women and is characterized by increased bile acid levels in the maternal serum. The influence of ICP on the metabolic health of offspring is unknown. We analyzed the Northern Finland birth cohort 1985-1986 database and found that 16-year-old children of mothers with ICP had altered lipid profiles. Males had increased BMI, and females exhibited increased waist and hip girth compared with the offspring of uncomplicated pregnancies. We further investigated the effect of maternal cholestasis on the metabolism of adult offspring in the mouse. Females from cholestatic mothers developed a severe obese, diabetic phenotype with hepatosteatosis following a Western diet, whereas matched mice not exposed to cholestasis in utero did not. Female littermates were susceptible to metabolic disease before dietary challenge. Human and mouse studies showed an accumulation of lipids in the fetoplacental unit and increased transplacental cholesterol transport in cholestatic pregnancy. We believe this is the first report showing that cholestatic pregnancy in the absence of altered maternal BMI or diabetes can program metabolic disease in the offspring. PMID:23934127

  14. The relationship between host selection behaviour and offspring tness in a koinobiont parasitoid

    E-print Network

    Rivero, Ana

    The relationship between host selection behaviour and offspring ®tness in a koinobiont parasitoid that increases their individual ®tness. In koinobiont parasitoids, where the hosts continue developing presented with hosts of uniform quality, the koinobiont parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii exhibits

  15. Effects of inbreeding on cognitive performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Bashi

    1977-01-01

    THE few studies1,2 in which the effects of inbreeding on cognitive performance have been examined revealed that offspring of first-cousin marriages had lower IQ scores than offspring of unrelated parents. These studies were, however, performed in societies where the population engaging in such marriages is a small (1%, 6%)2,3 and unrepresentative proportion of the total population. Possible confounding of the

  16. Maternal high-fat diet and offspring expression levels of vitamin k-dependent proteins.

    PubMed

    Lanham, S A; Cagampang, F R; Oreffo, R O C

    2014-12-01

    Studies suggest that bone growth and development and susceptibility to vascular disease in later life are influenced by maternal nutrition during intrauterine and early postnatal life. There is evidence for a role of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) including osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein, periostin, and growth-arrest specific- protein 6, in both bone and vascular development. We have examined whether there are alterations in these VKDPs in bone and vascular tissue from offspring of mothers subjected to a nutritional challenge: a high-fat diet during pregnancy and postnatally, using 6-week-old mouse offspring. Bone site-specific and sex-specific differences across femoral and vertebral bone in male and female offspring were observed. Overall a high-fat maternal diet and offspring diet exacerbated the bone changes observed. Sex-specific differences and tissue-specific differences were observed in VKDP levels in aorta tissue from high-fat diet-fed female offspring from high-fat diet-fed mothers displaying increased levels of Gas6 and Ggcx compared with those of female controls. In contrast, differences were seen in VKDP levels in femoral bone of female offspring with lower expression levels of Mgp in offspring of mothers fed a high-fat diet compared with those of controls. We observed a significant correlation in Mgp expression levels within the femur to measures of bone structure of the femur and vertebra, particularly in the male offspring cohort. In summary, the current study has highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition on offspring bone development and the correlation of VKDPs to bone structure. PMID:25279792

  17. The relationship between measures of cognitive attention and behavioral ratings of attention in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Shohreh M; Wilding, John; Cornish, Kim

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the relation between performance on cognitive measures of attention (selection, sustained, and control) and behavioral ratings of inattention and hyperactivity in a sample of typically developing children aged 3 to 7 years. We also examined the influence of chronological age and IQ on both task performance and behavior ratings. Four well-documented attention paradigms were employed, the Visearch (single-target search) task as a measure of selective attention, the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) as a measure of sustained attention, the Day-Night task as a measure of response inhibition, and the Visearch (dual-target search) task as a measure of inhibitory control. The Conners' Rating Scales (Cognitive/Inattention and Hyperactivity subscales) were used to allow for a finer tuned comparison of cognitive performance as related to inattentive behaviors versus hyperactive behaviors. Findings indicate that accuracy and speed in the Visearch dual search task were the most sensitive measures relating respectively to inattentive and hyperactive rated behaviors. PMID:21253933

  18. 17?-estradiol attenuates ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis and persistent cognitive deficits in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianli; Wang, Bei; Wu, Honghai; Yu, Yang; Xue, Gai; Hou, Yanning

    2014-12-17

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the commonly used anesthetic ketamine can induce widespread neuroapoptosis in the neonatal brain and can cause persistent cognitive impairments as the animal matures. Therefore, searching for adjunctive neuroprotective strategies that inhibit ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis and persistent cognitive impairments is highly warranted. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the protective effect of 17?-estradiol against ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis and persistent cognitive impairments in adult rats. Starting from postnatal day 7, Sprague-Dawley male rat pups were given a daily administration of ketamine (75mg/kg, i.p.) or 17?-estradiol (600?g/kg, s.c.) in combination with ketamine (75mg/kg, i.p.). The animals were treated for three consecutive days. 24h after the last injection, the rats were decapitated, and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was isolated to detect neuroapoptosis by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and by using the TUNEL assay. The neuroactive steroid 17?-estradiol was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The protein levels of BDNF and pAkt were measured by western blot analysis. At two months of age (60 days), the learning and memory abilities were tested using the Morris water maze. The results showed that ketamine triggered significant neuroapoptosis in the neonatal PFC accompanied by the downregulation of 17?-estradiol, BDNF and pAkt. The co-administration of 17?-estradiol with ketamine attenuated these changes. Moreover, 17?-estradiol significantly reversed the learning and memory deficits observed at 60 days of age. In brief, our present data demonstrate that 17?-estradiol attenuates ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis and reverses long-term cognitive deficits in developing rats and thus may be a potential therapeutic and neuroprotective method for the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory. PMID:25234726

  19. Invasive Procedures in Preterm Children: Brain and Cognitive Development at School Age

    PubMed Central

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P.; Bjornson, Bruce H.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin P.V.; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Brant, Rollin; Synnes, Anne R.; Cepeda, Ivan L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very preterm infants (born 24–32 weeks’ gestation) undergo numerous invasive procedures during neonatal care. Repeated skin-breaking procedures in rodents cause neuronal cell death, and in human preterm neonates higher numbers of invasive procedures from birth to term-equivalent age are associated with abnormal brain development, even after controlling for other clinical risk factors. It is unknown whether higher numbers of invasive procedures are associated with long-term alterations in brain microstructure and cognitive outcome at school age in children born very preterm. METHODS: Fifty children born very preterm underwent MRI and cognitive testing at median age 7.6 years (interquartile range, 7.5–7.7). T1- and T2-weighted images were assessed for the severity of brain injury. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor sequences were used to measure fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of white matter (WM) maturation, from 7 anatomically defined WM regions. Child cognition was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–IV. Multivariate modeling was used to examine relationships between invasive procedures, brain microstructure, and cognition, adjusting for clinical confounders (eg, infection, ventilation, brain injury). RESULTS: Greater numbers of invasive procedures were associated with lower FA values of the WM at age 7 years (P = .01). The interaction between the number of procedures and FA was associated with IQ (P = .02), such that greater numbers of invasive procedures and lower FA of the superior WM were related to lower IQ. CONCLUSIONS: Invasive procedures during neonatal care contribute to long-term abnormalities in WM microstructure and lower IQ. PMID:24534406

  20. Folate concentrations during pregnancy and autistic traits in the offspring. The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Roza, Sabine J

    2015-06-01

    In a population-based study, we examined the associations of maternal plasma folate concentrations at 13 weeks of gestation and prenatal folic acid supplement use with autistic traits in the offspring at the age of six years. Parent-reported autistic traits were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale short form. Maternal folate was not associated with autistic traits in the offspring. In contrast, prenatal folic acid use was associated with less child autistic traits. Future research should focus on the timing of the potential effect of prenatal folate on the development of autistic traits in combination with clinical diagnosis of autism in the offspring. PMID:25085472

  1. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-01

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral differences. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence that maternal immune activation can exert marked effects on offspring physiology and behavior. PMID:23816983

  2. Development process and cognitive testing of CARATkids - Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test for children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis and asthma (ARA) are chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways that often coexist in children. The only tool to assess the ARA control, the Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test (CARAT) is to be used by adults. We aimed to develop the Pediatric version of Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test (CARATkids) and to test its comprehensibility in children with 4 to 12 years of age. Methods The questionnaire development included a literature review of pediatric questionnaires on asthma and/or rhinitis control and two consensus meetings of a multidisciplinary group. Cognitive testing was carried out in a cross-sectional qualitative study using cognitive interviews. Results Four questionnaires to assess asthma and none to assess rhinitis control in children were identified. The multidisciplinary group produced a questionnaire version for children with 17 questions with illustrations and dichotomous (yes/no) response format. The version for caregivers had 4-points and dichotomous scales. Twenty-nine children, 4 to 12 years old, and their caregivers were interviewed. Only children over 6 years old could adequately answer the questionnaire. A few words/expressions were not fully understood by children of 6 to 8 years old. The drawings illustrating the questions were considered helpful by children and caregivers. Caregivers considered the questionnaire complete and clear and preferred dichotomous over the 4-points scales. The proportion of agreement between children and their caregivers was 61%. The words/expressions that were difficult to understand were amended. Conclusion CARATkids, the first questionnaire to assess a child’s asthma and rhinitis control was developed and its content validity was assured. Cognitive testing showed that CARATKids is well-understood by children 6 to 12 years old. The questionnaire’s measurement properties can now be assessed in a validation study. PMID:24502226

  3. Development of cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention for patients with Dhat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salam, K. P. Abdul; Sharma, Mahendra P.; Prakash, Om

    2012-01-01

    Dhat syndrome is a culture-bound syndrome prevalent in the natives of the Indian subcontinent characterized by excessive concern about harmful consequences of loss of semen (ICD-10). Treatment offered to the patients suffering from it continues to be esoteric, unstructured and without standardization. The present study aimed to develop and examine the feasibility of Cognitive – Behavior Therapy module for patients with Dhat syndrome. A draft module was developed based on existing theoretical knowledge and suggestions from five mental health professionals. This module was then applied on five patients with Dhat syndrome to assess and judge the suitability of the module. The pre and post-assessments were carried out using Sexual Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire - II, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, The Cognitive-Somatic Anxiety Scale, Screener for Somatoform Disorder, International Index for Erectile Function, Clinical Global Impressions, The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment - BREF. Experiences and insights gained from each patient were used to refine the module before applying on the next patient. The final module consisted of the following components was developed: Basic sex education, cognitive restructuring, relaxation training, imaginal desensitization, masturbatory training as homework and Kegel's exercises and ‘start-stop technique’ and ‘squeeze technique’ for sexual dysfunctions. Results of the study reveal that it is feasible to carry out the CBT module in clinical settings. Number of sessions ranged from 11 to 16 sessions. The duration of the session was 45 minutes on the average. Findings of the present study revealed improvement in sexual knowledge, anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms. Implications and limitations of the study are highlighted and suggestions for future research offered. PMID:23372242

  4. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  5. Perceptions of tissue storage in a dementia population among spouses and offspring.

    PubMed

    Martin, Megan M; Rothwell, Erin W; Venne, Vickie L; Foster, Norman L

    2015-06-01

    Cognitively impaired patients with dementia often rely on health advocates or guardians, such as spouses or adult offspring, to consent for medical procedures. These family members may also decide whether an autopsy is performed after death or whether their family member donates tissues. However, spouses are not genetically related to the patient and may have different perspectives than genetically related family members when making medical decisions with genetic implications, such as participation in a tissue repository (biobank). Interviews were conducted with spouses and adult offspring of individuals with a progressive dementing disease. Both spouses and offspring were supportive of the patient with dementia to participate in tissue storage. The top perceived benefits of tissue storage in both offspring and spouses were future value for family members and advancement of medical knowledge. Concerns included misuse of the tissue and insurance discrimination. Although the personal genetic implications differ between spouses and offspring, they share similar attitudes about the importance of tissue banking for the individual with a dementing disease. PMID:25641253

  6. Early cognitive development and its relation to maternal physiologic and behavioral responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Donovan, W L; Leavitt, L A

    1978-12-01

    Data are presented which support the hypothesis that infant cognitive development is a function of maternal responsiveness to infant cues. 22 mothers whose physiologic responses to infant signals had been recorded at an earlier date participated in the follow-up study reported here. Mother-infant dyads were videotaped during a feeding session when the infant was 9 months of age. Behavioral data collected were the mother's responses to her infant's facial orientation. The statistic developed to index maternal sensitivity was the rate of maternal responding during infant gaze/the rate of responding during infant looking away. Development of the object concept was assessed at 15 months using the Uzgiris and Hunt scale. The data indicated that the development of the concept of the object is positively related to maternal behavioral sensitivity and that mothers who were behaviorally sensitive to infant cues earlier had exhibited physiologic responses to infant signals. PMID:738158

  7. The influence of maternal prenatal and early childhood nutrition and maternal prenatal stress on offspring immune system development and neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Roth, Christine; Susser, Ezra; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of maternal prenatal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood) as well as maternal prenatal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early interventions. PMID:23914151

  8. Protein restriction during pregnancy induces hypertension and impairs endothelium-dependent vascular function in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Kunju; Elkins, Rebekah; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Intrauterine undernutrition plays a role in the development of adult hypertension. Most studies are done in male offspring to delineate the mechanisms whereby blood pressure may be raised; however, the vascular mechanisms involved in female offspring are unclear. Female offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a control (C; 18%) or a low-protein (LP; 6%) diet during pregnancy were used. Birth weight and later growth were markedly lower in LP than in C offspring. LP offspring exhibited impaired estrous cyclicity with increased mean arterial pressure. Hypotensive response to acetylcholine (ACh) and the hypertensive response to phenylephrine (PE) were greater in LP than in C rats. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced greater hypertensive responses in C than in LP rats. Endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries from LP offspring exhibited increased contractile responses to PE and reduced vasodilation in response to ACh. In endothelium-denuded arteries, relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside were similar in both groups. Basal and ACh-induced increase in vascular nitrite/nitrate production was lower in LP than in C offspring. L-NAME or 1H-1,2,4-oxadiazolo-4,3-quinoxalin-1-one inhibited ACh relaxations and enhanced PE contractions in C offspring, but had minimal effect in LP rats. The decreased NO-mediated vascular response might explain the increased vascular contraction and arterial pressure in female offspring with low birth weight. PMID:18957856

  9. Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan P.; Kelley, Jennifer L.; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits. PMID:15451693

  10. Effects of Embedded and Direct Language Strategies on Prekindergarten Students' Cognitive and Social Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominy, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of a standard of care embedded language strategies program utilized in combination with direct language strategy instruction on the measured expressive language, cognitive development, social emotional development, and language development of prekindergarten students attending three neighborhood…

  11. Lower Maternal Folate Status in Early Pregnancy Is Associated with Childhood Hyperactivity and Peer Problems in Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlotz, Wolff; Jones, Alexander; Phillips, David I. W.; Gale, Catharine R.; Robinson, Sian M.; Godfrey, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy has been linked with fetal brain development and psychopathology in the offspring. We examined for associations of maternal folate status and dietary intake during pregnancy with brain growth and childhood behavioural difficulties in the offspring. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, maternal red…

  12. Development, survival, and phenotypic plasticity in anthropogenic landscapes: trade-offs between offspring quantity and quality in the nettle-feeding peacock butterfly.

    PubMed

    Serruys, Mélanie; Van Dyck, Hans

    2014-10-01

    Habitats selected for development may have important fitness consequences. This is relevant within the framework of niche shifts in human-dominated landscapes. Currently, the peacock butterfly (Aglais io) occurs ubiquitously, covering many habitat types, whereas its distribution used to be much more restricted. Indeed, its host plant (stinging nettle Urtica dioica) was limited to natural forest gaps on relatively nitrogen-rich soil, but due to land use changes and eutrophication, host plants are now quasi-omnipresent in Western Europe. In order to assess the impact of specific anthropogenic habitat types on host plant quality and environmental conditions for phenotypic trait values, an experiment was conducted in woodlands, field margins, and urban gardens. Larval development was studied in field enclosures, and adult traits were analyzed to test predicted effects of warmer and more nitrogen-rich conditions in field margins compared to woodlands and urban gardens. Survival to the adult stage was highest in woodlands and lowest in field margins, and whilst development time did not differ amongst habitat types, butterflies that developed in field margins were larger and had higher lipid content and wing loadings than conspecifics from woodlands and urban gardens. Nettles in field margins provided warmer microclimates. However, and contrary to predictions, the nitrogen level within host plant leaves was highest in woodlands. Hence, anthropogenic landscapes may pose a conflict for choosing what is ultimately the best breeding habitat, as survival was highest in woodlands (followed by urban gardens), but adults with highest fitness predictions were produced in field margins (and secondarily urban gardens). PMID:25015122

  13. Consideration of species differences in developing novel molecules as cognition enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jared W.; Jentsch, J David; Bussey, Timothy J; Wallace, Tanya L; Hutchenson, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    The NIH-funded CNTRICS initiative has coordinated efforts to promote the vertical translation of novel procognitive molecules from testing in mice, rats and non-human primates, to clinical efficacy in patients with schizophrenia. CNTRICS highlighted improving construct validation of tasks across species to increase the likelihood that the translation of a candidate molecule to humans will be successful. Other aspects of cross-species behaviors remain important however. This review describes cognitive tasks utilized across species, providing examples of differences and similarities of innate behavior between species, as well as convergent construct and predictive validity. Tests of attention, olfactory discrimination, reversal learning, and paired associate learning are discussed. Moreover, information on the practical implication of species differences in drug development research is also provided. The issues covered here will aid in task development and utilization across species as well as reinforcing the positive role preclinical research can have in developing procognitive treatments for psychiatric disorders. PMID:23064177

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in offspring at risk for schizophrenia: Preliminary studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matcheri S. Keshavan; Debra M. Montrose; Joseph N. Pierri; Elizabeth L. Dick; David Rosenberg; Lalith Talagala; John A. Sweeney

    1997-01-01

    1.1. Studies of first-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia provide an opportunity to characterize risk factors for the development of this illness. In this report the authors will provide preliminary data from an ongoing study of neurobiological alterations in the offspring of schizophrenia patients.2.2. A series of offspring of schizophrenic patients (OS) were compared with age and sex matched healthy

  15. Sympathetic nerve hyperactivity in non-diabetic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Huggett; A. J. Hogarth; A. F. Mackintosh; D. A. S. G. Mary

    2006-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperinsulinaemia is a state of sympathetic nerve hyperactivity, which can develop subsequently in non-diabetic first-degree offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes. Although both type 2 diabetes and sympathetic activation are major cardiovascular risk factors, the level of sympathetic nerve activity is as yet unknown in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients who are ostensibly

  16. Family income and child cognitive and behavioural development in the United Kingdom: does money matter?

    PubMed

    Violato, Mara; Petrou, Stavros; Gray, Ron; Redshaw, Maggie

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the extent to which family income is associated with an extensive range of child cognitive and behavioural outcomes in a cohort of almost 19?000 British children born between 2000 and 2001. Merging the economists' and developmental psychologists' approaches, it also attempts to identify the main mechanisms through which family economic resources translate into better developmental outcomes for children. The relative and joint relevance of three groups of mediating factors (parental stress, parental investment and other family-related pathways), identified from the recent economic and psychological literature, are examined both in a cross-sectional ('mopping-up' approach) and in a panel data (fixed effects models) context. Results indicate a weak or absent direct effect of family economic resources on child development after controlling for potential mediating mechanisms. The study also identifies key mediating factors (e.g. maternal depression, a cognitively stimulating home environment, parenting practices and length of breastfeeding) that could be targeted by government initiatives in order to effectively improve children's intellectual development and behaviour beyond what income redistribution can achieve. PMID:20945340

  17. Becoming a scientist: The role of undergraduate research in students' cognitive, personal, and professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Anne-Barrie; Laursen, Sandra L.; Seymour, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    In this ethnographic study of summer undergraduate research (UR) experiences at four liberal arts colleges, where faculty and students work collaboratively on a project of mutual interest in an apprenticeship of authentic science research work, analysis of the accounts of faculty and student participants yields comparative insights into the structural elements of this form of UR program and its benefits for students. Comparison of the perspectives of faculty and their students revealed considerable agreement on the nature, range, and extent of students' UR gains. Specific student gains relating to the process of becoming a scientist were described and illustrated by both groups. Faculty framed these gains as part of professional socialization into the sciences. In contrast, students emphasized their personal and intellectual development, with little awareness of their socialization into professional practice. Viewing study findings through the lens of social constructivist learning theories demonstrates that the characteristics of these UR programs, how faculty practice UR in these colleges, and students' outcomes - including cognitive and personal growth and the development of a professional identity - strongly exemplify many facets of these theories, particularly, student-centered and situated learning as part of cognitive apprenticeship in a community of practice.

  18. Cognitive-Developmental Assessments 1 Designing Cognitive-Developmental Assessments

    E-print Network

    Junker, Brian

    for promoting further development. To this end, we integrate research on cognition and development with advancesCognitive-Developmental Assessments 1 Designing Cognitive-Developmental Assessments: A Case Study or quote without permission of the authors. #12;Cognitive-Developmental Assessments 2 Designing Cognitive

  19. Do Different Types of School Mathematics Development Depend on Different Constellations of Numerical versus General Cognitive Abilities?

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Bryant, Joan D.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between basic numerical cognition and domain-general abilities (such as working memory) in explaining school mathematics learning. First graders (n=280; 5.77 years) were assessed on 2 types of basic numerical cognition, 8 domain-general abilities, procedural calculations (PCs), and word problems (WPs) in fall and then reassessed on PCs and WPs in spring. Development was indexed via latent change scores, and the interplay between numerical and domain-general abilities was analyzed via multiple regression. Results suggest that the development of different types of formal school mathematics depends on different constellations of numerical versus general cognitive abilities. When controlling for 8 domain-general abilities, both aspects of basic numerical cognition were uniquely predictive of PC and WP development. Yet, for PC development, the additional amount of variance explained by the set of domain-general abilities was not significant, and only counting span was uniquely predictive. By contrast, for WP development, the set of domain- general abilities did provide additional explanatory value, accounting for about the same amount of variance as the basic numerical cognition variables. Language, attentive behavior, nonverbal problem solving, and listening span were uniquely predictive. PMID:20822213

  20. The maternal environment affects offspring viability via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size.

    PubMed

    Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Environmental conditions that reproductive females experience can influence patterns of offspring provisioning and fitness. In particular, prey availability can influence maternal reproduction and, in turn, affect the viability of their offspring. Although such maternal effects are widespread, the mechanisms by which these effects operate are poorly understood. We manipulated the amount of prey available to female brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) to evaluate how this factor affects patterns of reproductive investment (total egg output, egg size, yolk steroids) and offspring viability (morphology, growth, survival). Experimental reduction of yolk in a subset of eggs enabled us to evaluate a potential causal mechanism (yolk investment) that mediates the effect of maternal prey availability on offspring viability. We show that limited prey availability significantly reduced egg size, which negatively influenced offspring size, growth, and survival. Experimental yolk removal from eggs directly reduced offspring size, which, in turn, negatively affected offspring growth and survival. These findings show that maternal environments (i.e., low prey) can affect offspring fitness via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size and highlight the complex set of indirect effects by which maternal effects can operate. PMID:24642545

  1. Associations of Existing Diabetes, Gestational Diabetes, and Glycosuria with Offspring IQ and Educational Attainment: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M.; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Results from studies examining associations of maternal diabetes in pregnancy with offspring cognitive outcomes have been inconclusive. Methods. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK prospective pregnancy cohort. Outcomes were School Entry Assessment (SEA) scores (age 4, N = 6, 032) and WISC-III IQ (age 8, N = 5, 282–5,307) and General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) results (age 16, N = 7, 615). Results. Existing diabetes, gestational diabetes, and, to a lesser extent, glycosuria were associated with lower offspring SEA scores (age 4), IQ (age 8), and GCSE results (age 16) even when adjusting for offspring sex, maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, smoking in pregnancy, parity, caesarean section, maternal education, and occupational social class. Offspring of mothers with existing diabetes had a threefold risk of achieving no GCSEs graded A*-C, whilst offspring of women with gestational diabetes had, on average, a five point lower IQ compared to offspring of women with no diabetes or glycosuria. Conclusions. Maternal diabetes in pregnancy is consistently associated with lower offspring cognition and educational attainment though confidence intervals were wide. The weaker associations with glycosuria suggest a dose-dependent adverse association with IQ. PMID:22927834

  2. Re-Examining the Associations between Family Backgrounds and Children's Cognitive Developments in Early Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Yu-Kang; Law, Graham R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent English study found that children from poor families who did well in cognitive tests at age three are expected to be overtaken in the cognitive test by the age of seven by children from rich families who did poorly in cognitive tests at age three. The conclusion was that family background seems to have a dominant influence on a child's…

  3. Maternal preeclampsia and risk for cardiovascular disease in offspring.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Garcia, Guadalupe; Contag, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Hypertensive disease of pregnancy (HDP) has been associated with elevated lifetime cardiovascular risk, including stroke, myocardial disease, coronary artery disease, and peripheral arterial disease. These two entities share common risk factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. This article will evaluate the current literature on the maternal and fetal cardiovascular risks posed by HDP. The landmark study by Barker et al. demonstrated increased cardiovascular risk in growth-restricted infants, which may also be associated with HDP. Research has demonstrated the effects that HDP may have on the vascular and nephron development in offspring, particularly with respect to endothelial and inflammatory markers. In order to control for confounding variables and better understand the relationship between HDP and lifetime cardiovascular risk, future research will require following blood pressure and metabolic profiles of the parturients and their offspring. PMID:25097112

  4. Nutritional condition and physiology of paternal care in two congeneric species of black bass (Micropterus spp.) relative to stage of offspring development.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Kyle C; Cooke, Steven J

    2009-04-01

    Parental care requires a complex integration of physiology and behaviour, yet little is known about the physiological and energetic consequences or correlates of these behaviours. Using two species of male black bass (smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu; largemouth bass, M. salmoides) as a model, the focus of this study was to determine the biochemical and hematological indicators of change in nutritional status and potential for chronic stress. This was accomplished by randomly sampling individuals at four stages across parental care. Additionally, a subset of individuals was repeatedly sampled at three brood development stages to track changes in biochemical factors within the individual. Though there were changes in physiological factors across parental care in randomly sampled fish of both species (declines in plasma glucose in largemouth bass; decreases in hematocrit and plasma chloride in smallmouth bass), repeated sampling of individuals was determined to be a more appropriate sampling technique due to natural variability in biochemical factors among individual fish. Repeated sampling of smallmouth bass did not adversely influence physiological metrics or brood abandonment. However, there were higher incidences of nest abandonment in repeatedly sampled largemouth bass. Amongst the repeatedly sampled smallmouth bass, nutritional indicators such as plasma triglyceride levels decreased indicating individual fasting across the majority of parental care. Increases in plasma calcium and magnesium towards the end of care indicated that feeding most likely resumed when the brood was close to independence after approximately 3 weeks of care. Lastly, several indicators of chronic stress, such as plasma glucose and chloride levels, increased throughout the parental care period. These sublethal stressors are indicative of decreasing body condition associated with prolonged activity and fasting which may have marked impacts on the ability of an individual to continue parental care for the current brood and impact subsequent individual fitness. Further research into the mechanistic relationships between behaviour, physiology, and energetics during the parental care period will provide a better understanding of the decisions by individuals facing multiple trade-offs that ultimately lead to differences in individual fitness. PMID:18839181

  5. The Co-Emergence of Cognition, Language, and Speech Motor Control in Early Development: A Longitudinal Correlation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Although the development of spoken language is dependent on the emergence of cognitive, language, and speech motor skills, knowledge about how these domains interact during the early stages of communication development is currently limited. This exploratory investigation examines the strength of associations between longitudinal changes in…

  6. Language, Cognitive Flexibility, and Explicit False Belief Understanding: Longitudinal Analysis in Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrant, Brad M.; Maybery, Murray T.; Fletcher, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that language plays a role in theory-of-mind (ToM) development is supported by a number of lines of evidence (e.g., H. Lohmann & M. Tomasello, 2003). The current study sought to further investigate the relations between maternal language input, memory for false sentential complements, cognitive flexibility, and the development of…

  7. Qualitative differences among gender-stereotyped toys: Implications for cognitive and social development in girls and boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia L. Miller

    1987-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that the early play experiences of girls and boys may contribute to gender differences in cognitive and social development, empirical support for this hypothesis is limited. This paper reports the development of a system of toy classification and may permit a more programmatic investigation of this problem. One hundred adult subjects rated 50 children's toys

  8. Qualitative Differences Among Gender-Stereotyped Toys: Implications for Cognitive and Social Development in Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia L.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluates a system of toy classification developed to improve the assessment of gender differences in cognitive and social development. One hundred adults rated 50 children's toys on 122 "functional" dimensions. Results showed that these toys could be reliably described according to multidimensional similarities, and confirmed that toys considered…

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphates, Paraoxonase 1, and Cognitive Development in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Wetmur, James; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Chenbo; Barr, Dana Boyd; Canfield, Richard L.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides has been shown to negatively affect child neurobehavioral development. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. Objective: We examined the relationship between biomarkers of organophosphate exposure, PON1, and cognitive development at ages 12 and 24 months and 6–9 years. Methods: The Mount Sinai Children’s Environmental Health Study enrolled a multiethnic prenatal population in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404). Third-trimester maternal urine samples were collected and analyzed for organophosphate metabolites (n = 360). Prenatal maternal blood was analyzed for PON1 activity and genotype. Children returned for neurodevelopment assessments ages 12 months (n = 200), 24 months (n = 276), and 6–9 (n = 169) years of age. Results: Prenatal total dialkylphosphate metabolite level was associated with a decrement in mental development at 12 months among blacks and Hispanics. These associations appeared to be enhanced among children of mothers who carried the PON1 Q192R QR/RR genotype. In later childhood, increasing prenatal total dialkyl- and dimethylphosphate metabolites were associated with decrements in perceptual reasoning in the maternal PON1 Q192R QQ genotype, which imparts slow catalytic activity for chlorpyrifos oxon, with a monotonic trend consistent with greater decrements with increasing prenatal exposure. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to organophosphates is negatively associated with cognitive development, particularly perceptual reasoning, with evidence of effects beginning at 12 months and continuing through early childhood. PON1 may be an important susceptibility factor for these deleterious effects. PMID:21507778

  10. Combining mindfulness meditation with cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia: a treatment-development study.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jason C; Shapiro, Shauna L; Manber, Rachel

    2008-06-01

    This treatment-development study is a Stage I evaluation of an intervention that combines mindfulness meditation with cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Thirty adults who met research diagnostic criteria for Psychophysiological Insomnia (Edinger et al., 2004) participated in a 6-week, multi-component group intervention using mindfulness meditation, sleep restriction, stimulus control, sleep education, and sleep hygiene. Sleep diaries and self-reported pre-sleep arousal were assessed weekly while secondary measures of insomnia severity, arousal, mindfulness skills, and daytime functioning were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment. Data collected on recruitment, retention, compliance, and satisfaction indicate that the treatment protocol is feasible to deliver and is acceptable for individuals seeking treatment for insomnia. The overall patterns of change with treatment demonstrated statistically and clinically significant improvements in several nighttime symptoms of insomnia as well as statistically significant reductions in pre-sleep arousal, sleep effort, and dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions. In addition, a significant correlation was found between the number of meditation sessions and changes on a trait measure of arousal. Together, the findings indicate that mindfulness meditation can be combined with CBT-I and this integrated intervention is associated with reductions in both sleep and sleep-related arousal. Further testing of this intervention using randomized controlled trials is warranted to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention for this population and the specific effects of each component on sleep and both psychological and physiological arousal. PMID:18502250

  11. Maternal but Not Paternal Association of Ambulatory Blood Pressure With Albumin Excretion in Young Offspring With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Marcovecchio, M. Loredana; Tossavainen, Paivi H.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Barrett, Timothy G.; Edge, Julie; Neil, Andrew; Shield, Julian; Widmer, Barry; Dalton, R. Neil; Dunger, David B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Familial predisposition to hypertension has been associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy in adults, but there are limited data in adolescents. Our aim was to assess whether parental ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was associated with ABP and albumin excretion in young offspring with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-four-hour ABP monitoring was performed in 509 young offspring (mean ± SD age 15.8 ± 2.3 years) with type 1 diabetes, 311 fathers, and 444 mothers. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurements during 24 h, daytime, and nighttime were calculated. Three early morning urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (ACRs), A1C, and anthropometric parameters were available for the offspring. RESULTS All paternal ABP parameters, except for nighttime SBP, were independently related to the offspring's ABP (24-h SBP ? = 0.18, 24-h DBP ? = 0.22, daytime SBP ? = 0.25, daytime DBP ? = 0.23, and nighttime DBP ? = 0.18; all P < 0.01). Maternal 24-h DBP (? = 0.19, P = 0.004), daytime DBP (? = 0.09, P = 0.04), and nighttime SBP (? = 0.24 P = 0.001) were related to the corresponding ABP parameter in the offspring. Significant associations were found between the offspring's logACR and maternal ABP. The association with 24-h DBP (? = 0.16, P = 0.02), daytime DBP (? = 0.16 P = 0.02), and nighttime DBP (? = 0.15 P = 0.03) persisted even after adjustment for the offspring's ABP. Mothers of offspring with microalbuminuria had higher ABP than mothers of offspring without microalbuminuria (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS In this cohort, parental ABP significantly influenced offspring blood pressure, therefore confirming familial influences on this trait. In addition, maternal ABP, particularly DBP, was closely related to ACR in the offspring, suggesting a dominant effect of maternal genes or an effect of the intrauterine environment on microalbuminuria risk. PMID:19918004

  12. Principles of Development and Developmental Change Underlying Theories of Cognitive and Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    Development defined as increasingly complex and adaptive forms of seeing, knowing, and caring sheds light on how to identify aims of educational programs designed to foster development. Educators who aspire to promote development as well as content mastery help students understand the basis for their decisions, explore alternative bases and…

  13. Sampling the MOM history and its offspring Code and offspring Equations Basic algorithms Key applications

    E-print Network

    Sampling the MOM history and its offspring Code and offspring Equations Basic algorithms Key); equatorial dynamics; idealized global climate MOM1 (1990-1994): LANL-POP and European ORCA Same Pacanowski climate MOM2 (1995-1998): Kiel FLAME model of Atlantic; Bremerhaven Arctic regional model implicit

  14. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  15. Key Steps in Developing a Cognitive Vaccine against Traumatic Flashbacks: Visuospatial Tetris versus Verbal Pub Quiz

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Emily A.; James, Ella L.; Kilford, Emma J.; Deeprose, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Background Flashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event) are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a ‘cognitive vaccine’ [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be addressed for clinical translation: (1) Would all games have this effect via distraction/enjoyment, or might some games even be harmful? (2) Would effects be found if administered several hours post-trauma? Accordingly, we tested Tetris versus an alternative computer game – Pub Quiz – which we hypothesized not to be helpful (Experiments 1 and 2), and extended the intervention interval to 4 hours (Experiment 2). Methodology/Principal Findings The trauma film paradigm was used as an experimental analog for flashback development in healthy volunteers. In both experiments, participants viewed traumatic film footage of death and injury before completing one of the following: (1) no-task control condition (2) Tetris or (3) Pub Quiz. Flashbacks were monitored for 1 week. Experiment 1: 30 min after the traumatic film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz led to a significant increase in flashbacks. Experiment 2: 4 hours post-film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz did not. Conclusions/Significance First, computer games can have differential effects post-trauma, as predicted by a cognitive science formulation of trauma memory. In both Experiments, playing Tetris post-trauma film reduced flashbacks. Pub Quiz did not have this effect, even increasing flashbacks in Experiment 1. Thus not all computer games are beneficial or merely distracting post-trauma - some may be harmful. Second, the beneficial effects of Tetris are retained at 4 hours post-trauma. Clinically, this delivers a feasible time-window to administer a post-trauma “cognitive vaccine”. PMID:21085661

  16. Does atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (AVRT) or atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) in children affect their cognitive and emotional development?

    PubMed

    Maryniak, Agnieszka; Bielawska, Alicja; Bieganowska, Katarzyna; Miszczak-Knecht, Maria; Walczak, Franciszek; Szumowski, Lukasz

    2013-04-01

    The current study sought to assess cognitive and emotional functions among children and adolescents with atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (AVRT) and atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT). 113 patients (62 girls and 51 boys ages, 9-18 years) scheduled for radiofrequency ablation due to AVRT or AVNRT underwent neuropsychologic examination. The study excluded patients who had experienced cardiac arrest, congenital heart defects, neurologic disorders, or other diseases affecting cognitive or emotional development. Standardized tests for examining verbal and visual memory as well as visual-spatial functioning were performed. For patients exhibiting deficits in two or more tests, a diagnosis of "cognitive deficits" was determined. Levels of anxiety were tested using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Cognitive deficits were found in 47.8 % of the patients. The age at first arrhythmia attack was related to memory dysfunction. The mean age at which the first symptoms occurred was significantly lower for patients with deficits (8.3 years) than for patients who had no deficit (10.2 years) (t = 2.15; p = 0.03). Boys exhibited a significantly higher level of trait anxiety than girls (t = 3.42; p = 0.0009). A significant negative correlation was found between anxiety and the age at appearance of the first symptoms (r = -0.26; p = 0.005). These findings led us to conclude that cognitive and emotional developments can be negatively affected by AVNRT and AVRT, particularly if tachycardia appears early in life. PMID:23129107

  17. Triplet Birth and Infant Development: The Impact of Intrauterine Growth and Maternal-Infant Interaction on the Infant's Emotional and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidelman, Arthur I.; Feldman, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    The explosion in the rate of multiple births has led to new questions about how adequately prepared parents are for the demands of raising triplets and the implications for the healthy development of the infants. The authors examined the relationship between mothering, infant social behavior, and cognitive development in a longitudinal study of 23…

  18. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk of schizophrenia was associated with maternal schizophrenia (OR = 15.41 with 95% CI 5.96-39.81) and, independently, with paternal hospitalisation with neurosis (OR = 5.90 with 95% CI 2.23-15.62). The risk of schizophrenia associated with paternal neurosis remained significant after excluding offspring of parents with non-affective psychosis from the sample. These findings suggest that genetic and family studies should not only focus on parental history of schizophrenia since the simple distinction between positive and negative family history could not accurately describe offspring risk in this sample. PMID:17853283

  19. Moral and cognitive development of moderately retarded, mildly retarded, and nonretarded individuals.

    PubMed

    Kahn, J V

    1976-11-01

    The relationships of moral maturity, cognitive reasoning, MA, and CA were investigated with three IQ groups. The subjects were 20 moderately retarded, 20 mildly retarded, and 20 nonretarded individuals matched for MA. The findings indicated that moderately retarded individuals are at lower levels of cognitive reasoning and moral maturity than MA-matched mildly retarded and nonretarded individuals. The findings also indicated a stronger relationship between moral maturity and cognitive reasoning than between MA and moral maturity or MA and cognitive reasoning. The findings were discussed in terms of the positions of Kohlberg and Gilligan (1971) and Taylor and Achenback (1975). PMID:136897

  20. On Broadening the Cognitive, Motivational, and Sociostructural Scope of Theorizing About Gender Development and Functioning: Comment on Martin, Ruble, and Szkrybalo (2002)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Bandura; Kay Bussey

    2004-01-01

    In their article on gender development, C. L. Martin, D. N. Ruble, and J. Szkrybalo (2002) contrasted their conception of gender development with that of social cognitive theory. The authors of this commentary correct misrepresentations of social cognitive theory and analyze the conceptual and empirical status of Martin et al.'s (2002) theory that gender stereotype matching is the main motivating

  1. Extending Participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping with a Control Nodes Methodology: a case study of the development bio-based economy in the

    E-print Network

    Lloyd, David

    stakeholders collaboratively develop a cognitive map (a weighted, directed graph), representing the perceivedExtending Participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping with a Control Nodes Methodology: a case study of the development bio-based economy in the Humber region, UK Alexandra S. Penn1 , Christopher J.K. Knight, Georgios

  2. Reciprocal Influences between Maternal Language and Children's Language and Cognitive Development in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T.; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language.…

  3. Impacts of Good Practices on Cognitive Development, Learning Orientations, and Graduate Degree Plans during the First Year of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruce, Ty M.; Wolniak, Gregory C.; Seifert, Tricia A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2006-01-01

    This study estimated separately the unique effects of three dimensions of good practice and the global effects of a composite measure of good practices on the cognitive development, orientations to learning, and educational aspirations of students during their first year of college. Analyses of longitudinal data from a representative sample of…

  4. Cultivating an Ethic of Environmental Sustainability: Integrating Insights from Aristotelian Virtue Ethics and Pragmatist Cognitive Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Travis; Becker, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Despite increased attention for environmental sustainability programming, large-scale adoption of pro-environmental behaviors has been slow and largely short-term. This article analyzes the crucial role of ethics in this respect. The authors utilize an interdisciplinary approach drawing on virtue ethics and cognitive development theory to…

  5. Parenting in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder and a typically developing child: Mothers’ experiences and cognitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mieke Meirsschaut; Herbert Roeyers; Petra Warreyn

    2010-01-01

    The parenting experiences of mothers in a family with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a typically developing (TD) child were studied using a qualitative analysis of mothers’ perceptions of the impact of autism on family and personal life. An additional quantitative comparison was performed to evaluate the effect of ASD on mothers’ parenting cognitions about their other,

  6. Applying the Cognitive Information Processing Approach to Career Problem Solving and Decision Making to Women's Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, Natasha A.; Arthur, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Outlines an expanded framework of the Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) approach to career problem solving and decision making for career counseling with women. Addresses structural and individual barriers in women's career development and provides practical suggestions for applying and evaluating the CIP approach in career counseling.…

  7. Evaluation of Cognitive Development with Piaget-Type Tests: Study of Young Bright, Average, and Retarded Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Rheta

    A study was conducted to clarify a number of issues related to Piaget's theory of invariant sequantiality in child cognitive development. Ss were 143 middle-class white children of bright, average and retarded psychometric abilities (measured by performance on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test). Bright and average Ss were chronologically aged…

  8. Instructional Design, Cognitive Psychology and the Development of Computer?mediated Learning Materials for Communication Impaired Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Sewell

    1988-01-01

    This paper is concerned with two main themes: (a) an examination of the potential and actual influence of cognitive theory and instructional design, especially in the context of communication?impaired children; (b) a description of a research project, designed in this context, involving the development of ‘interactive’ learning materials for use with severely learning?disabled children.

  9. THE IMPACT OF COGNITIVE MATURITY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEX-ROLE ATTITUDES IN THE YEARS 4 TO 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOHLBERG, LAWRENCE; ZIGLER, EDWARD

    A SERIES OF STUDIES WAS CONDUCTED TO CLARIFY THE ROLE OF INTELLIGENCE IN PERSONALITY ORGANIZATION AND TO ASSESS A COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL INTERPRETATION OF IQ-PERSONALITY CORRELATIONS. THE SPECIFIC FOCUS OF THE STUDY WAS THE RELATIONSHIP OF INTELLECTUAL MATURITY TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEX-ROLE ATTITUDES. AGE-DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN SEX-ROLE…

  10. Adoption and Cognitive Development: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Adopted and Nonadopted Children's IQ and School Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marinus H. van IJzendoorn; Femmie Juffer; Caroline W. Klein Poelhuis

    2005-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 62 studies (N = 17,767 adopted children) examined whether the cognitive development of adopted children differed from that of (a) children who remained in institutional care or in the birth family and (b) their current (environmental) nonadopted siblings or peers. Adopted children scored higher on IQ tests than their nonadopted siblings or peers who stayed behind, and

  11. The Influence of Two Languages of Instruction on Students' Levels of Cognitive Development and Achievement in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehindero, Olusola J.

    1980-01-01

    Examines whether instructing Nigerian primary children in science in their mother tongue (Yoruba) is any more efficacious than instructing them in science in the English language. Also assesses and compares the levels of cognitive development of two groups of Yoruba-speaking children, one instructed in Yoruba and another in English. (CS)

  12. Using Generalized Additive Modeling to Empirically Identify Thresholds within the ITERS in Relation to Toddlers' Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setodji, Claude Messan; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Schaack, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Research linking high-quality child care programs and children's cognitive development has contributed to the growing popularity of child care quality benchmarking efforts such as quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS). Consequently, there has been an increased interest in and a need for approaches to identifying thresholds, or cutpoints,…

  13. Ethnic Group Differences in Early Head Start Parents Parenting Beliefs and Practices and Links to Children's Early Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keels, Micere

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…

  14. Effects of Perinatal HIV Infection and Early Institutional Rearing on Physical and Cognitive Development of Children in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…

  15. Elementary Teachers' Application of Jean Piaget's Theories of Cognitive Development during Social Studies Curriculum Debates in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Perry, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    In this article we explore educators' use of Jean Piaget's theories concerning cognitive development to refute proposed social studies standards in Arizona. We describe the work of Piaget as well as the National Association for the Education of Young Children's developmentally appropriate practices as they apply to primary-grade children's…

  16. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Diabetes on Blood Pressure and Renal Function in Rat Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jie; Li, Xin; Su, Rina; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Huixia

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing rapidly worldwide. Previous animal models were established to study consequences of offspring after exposure to severe intrauterine hyperglycemia. In this study we are aiming to characterize the blood pressure levels and renal function of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. Methods We established a rat model with moderate hyperglycemia after pregnancy by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The male offspring were studied and fed with either normal diet or high salt diet after weaning. Arterial pressure and renal function were measured. Results Arterial pressure of male offspring increased from 12 weeks by exposure to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia. At 20 weeks, high salt diet accelerated the blood pressure on diabetic offspring compared to diabetic offspring fed with normal diet. We found offspring exposed to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia had a trend to have a higher creatinine clearance rate and significant increase of urinary N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion indicating an early stage of nephropathy progression. Conclusions/Interpretation We observed the high blood pressure level and early renal dysfunction of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. Furthermore, we investigated high salt diet after weaning on offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia could exacerbate the blood pressure and renal function. Renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in hypertension pathogenesis and altered gene expression of RAS components in offspring with in utero hyperglycemia exposure may account for the programmed hypertension. Therefore, our study provides evidence “fetal programming” of maternal diabetes is critical for metabolic disease development. PMID:24505458

  17. Twins Early Development Study (TEDS): A Genetically Sensitive Investigation of Cognitive and Behavioral Development From Childhood to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) is a large longitudinal sample of twins born in England and Wales between 1994 and 1996. The focus of TEDS has been on cognitive and behavioral development, including difficulties in the context of normal development. TEDS began when multiple births were identified from birth records and the families were invited to take part in the study; 16,810 pairs of twins were originally enrolled in TEDS. More than 10,000 of these twin pairs remain enrolled in the study to date. DNA has been collected for more than 7,000 pairs, and genome-wide genotyping data for two million DNA markers are available for 3,500 individuals. The TEDS families have taken part in studies when the twins were aged 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years of age. Data collection is currently underway to assess the adult destinations of the twins as they move from school to university and the workplace. Between January 2012 and December 2014, all of the TEDS twins will turn 18, and the study will transition to an adult sample. TEDS represents an outstanding resource for investigating the developmental effects of genes and environments on complex quantitative traits from childhood to young adulthood and beyond. PMID:23110994

  18. Development and Validation of Two Cognitive Preference Scales. Technical Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behr, Merlyn J.; Eastman, Phillip M.

    Two scales designed to measure cognitive preferences were constructed; this study was designed to validate these scales, and to investigate the relationship between instruction and cognitive preference. Items for both scales had elementary mathematics content. One scale was intended to measure deductive-inductive preference, the other…

  19. Cognitive self-statements in depression: Development of an automatic thoughts questionnaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D. Hollon; Philip C. Kendall

    1980-01-01

    A 30-item questionnaire was devised to measure the frequency of occurrence of automatic negative thoughts (negative self-statements)associated with depression. Male and female undergraduates were asked to recall dysphoric experiences and to report associated cognitions. One hundred representative cognitions were selected and administered to a second sample, along with the MMPI D scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Thirty items discriminating

  20. Family Resources and Parenting Quality: Links to Children's Cognitive Development across the First 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.

    2008-01-01

    Reciprocal associations among measures of family resources, parenting quality, and child cognitive performance were investigated in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 2,089 children and families. Family resources and parenting quality uniquely contributed to children's cognitive performance at 14, 24, and 36 months, and parenting quality…

  1. Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

  2. What Has fMRI Told Us about the Development of Cognitive Control through Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Beatriz; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; O'Hearn, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive control, the ability to voluntarily guide our behavior, continues to improve throughout adolescence. Below we review the literature on age-related changes in brain function related to response inhibition and working memory, which support cognitive control. Findings from studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) indicate…

  3. Marital Conflict, Allostatic Load, and the Development of Children's Fluid Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between marital conflict, children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and fluid cognitive performance were examined over 3 years to assess allostatic processes. Participants were 251 children reporting on marital conflict, baseline RSA, and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to a lab challenge were recorded, and fluid cognitive performance…

  4. Birth weight, childhood socioeconomic environment, and cognitive development in the 1958 British birth cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J M H Jefferis; Chris Power; Clyde Hertzman

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To examine the combined effect of social class and weight at birth on cognitive trajectories during school age and the associations between birth weight and educational outcomes through to 33 years. Design Longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study. Participants 10 845 males and females born during 3›9 March 1958 with information on birth weight, social class, and cognitive tests.

  5. Parenting Classes, Parenting Behavior, and Child Cognitive Development in Early Head Start: A Longitudinal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Kim, Sunha

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed Early Head Start Research and Evaluation (EHSRE) study data, examining the effect of parenting classes on parenting behaviors and children's cognitive outcomes. The study analyzed three sets of dependent variables: parental language and cognitive stimulation, parent-child interactive activities, and the Bayley Mental…

  6. Identification and Evaluation of Cognitive Affect-Regulation Strategies: Development of a Self-Report Measure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Wolfsdorf Kamholz; Adele M. Hayes; Charles S. Carver; Suzy Bird Gulliver; Carol A. Perlman

    2006-01-01

    The ability to regulate emotions is important to mental health and well-being. However, relatively little is known about the cognitive strategies people use when faced with negative affect and the extent to which these strategies reduce such affect. This may be due, in part, to the lack of a comprehensive measure of cognitive affect-regulation strategies. Three studies were conducted to

  7. Chronic Heat Stress and Cognitive Development: An Example of Thermal Conditions Influencing Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riniolo, Todd C.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2006-01-01

    Although thermal conditions influence the development of living organisms in a wide variety of ways, this topic has been recently ignored in humans. This paper reintroduces thermal conditions as a topic of importance for developmentalists by presenting an example of how thermal conditions are hypothesized to influence a particular developmental…

  8. Maternal air pollution exposure induces fetal neuroinflammation and predisposes offspring to obesity in aduthood in a sex-specific manner

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging evidence suggests environmental chemical exposures during critical windows of development may contribute to the escalating prevalence of obesity. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal air pollution exposure would predispose the offspring to weight gain in adulthood. Pre...

  9. The Other Side of Cognitive Control: Can a Lack of Cognitive Control Benefit Language and Cognition?

    E-print Network

    Thompson-Schill, Sharon

    domains. Cragg and Nation (2010) propose that the development of cognitive control in children parallels of cognitive control may promote important aspects of cognitive development, like language acquisition & Cohen, 2001). The development of cognitive control in children parallels the maturation of PFC, which

  10. Development and validation of the Pictorial Cognitive Screening Inventory for illiterate people with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soowon; Park, Se-Eun; Kim, Min-Ji; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Choi, Jung-Seok; Park, Kee-Hwan; Kim, Inhye; Lee, Jun-Young

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a tool called the Pictorial Cognitive Screening Inventory (PCSI), which consists of pictorial memory and attention tests that are not influenced by literacy level. Patients and methods PCSI, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) questionnaires were administered to 80 elderly participants (20 illiterate normal, 20 illiterate with dementia, 20 literate normal, and 20 literate with dementia). Results PCSI scores were highly correlated with those of the MMSE (r 0.51) and the CDR (r ?0.71). In addition, the PCSI scores differed significantly between the normal group and the dementia group (mean difference 1.71, standard error [SE] 0.14, P<0.001), while no such difference was observed between the illiterate group and the literate group (mean difference 0.00, SE 0.24, P=0.997). Diagnostic validity of the PCSI is excellent, with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 98% for screening dementia, whereas the MMSE has a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 60%. Conclusion These results indicate that the PCSI is a sensitive and reliable test for screening dementia, regardless of an individual’s literacy skills. The PCSI meets the increasing needs for screening of dementia in illiterate elderly populations in developing countries. PMID:25285007

  11. Offspring performance of Daphnia magna after short-term maternal exposure to mixtures of microcystin and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Jiaxiuyu; Zhu, Chen; Yang, Zhou

    2015-02-01

    During degradation of cyanobacterial blooms, some derived pollutants are released to the waters and last for a while before returning to normal levels. To assess whether the offspring of exposed Daphnia was affected by their maternal experience, we exposed mother Daphnia magna to mixtures of unionized ammonia (0, 0.30, and 0.48 mg L(-1)) and microcystin-LR (0, 10, 30, and 100 ?g L(-1)) for 10 days and then immediately moved their offspring to a toxicant-free environment. The offspring were cultured for 21 days to record their survival, development, and reproduction. Results showed that the survival of the offspring of D. magna that experienced high doses of mixed toxicants decreased significantly, but there was no significant difference in development among the survivors of the offspring from different maternal treatments. However, reproductive performances significantly differed among the offspring from different maternal treatments, indicating that there existed a maternal effect in the offspring of D. magna that experienced high levels of mixed toxicants. PMID:25212812

  12. Why it is time to develop the use of cognitive event-related potentials in the treatment of psychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    The relapse rate for many psychiatric disorders is staggeringly high, indicating that treatment methods combining psychotherapy with neuropharmacological interventions are not entirely effective. Therefore, in psychiatry, there is a current push to develop alternatives to psychotherapy and medication-based approaches. Cognitive deficits have gained considerable importance in the field as critical features of mental illness, and it is now believed that they might represent valid therapeutic targets. Indeed, an increase in cognitive skills has been shown to have a long-lasting, positive impact on the patients’ quality of life and their clinical symptoms. We hereby present four principal arguments supporting the use of event-related potentials (ERP) that are derived from electroencephalography, which allow the identification of specific neurocognitive deficiencies in patients. These arguments could assist psychiatrists in the development of individualized, targeted therapy, as well as a follow-up and rehabilitation plan specific to each patient’s deficit. Furthermore, they can be used as a tool to assess the possible benefits of combination therapy, consisting of medication, psychotherapy, and “ERP-oriented cognitive rehabilitation”. Using this strategy, specific cognitive interventions could be planned based on each patient’s needs, for an “individualized” or “personalized” therapy, which may have the potential to reduce relapse rates for many psychiatric disorders. The implementation of such a combined approach would require intense collaboration between psychiatry departments, clinical neurophysiology laboratories, and neuropsychological rehabilitation centers. PMID:24348040

  13. Why it is time to develop the use of cognitive event-related potentials in the treatment of psychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    The relapse rate for many psychiatric disorders is staggeringly high, indicating that treatment methods combining psychotherapy with neuropharmacological interventions are not entirely effective. Therefore, in psychiatry, there is a current push to develop alternatives to psychotherapy and medication-based approaches. Cognitive deficits have gained considerable importance in the field as critical features of mental illness, and it is now believed that they might represent valid therapeutic targets. Indeed, an increase in cognitive skills has been shown to have a long-lasting, positive impact on the patients' quality of life and their clinical symptoms. We hereby present four principal arguments supporting the use of event-related potentials (ERP) that are derived from electroencephalography, which allow the identification of specific neurocognitive deficiencies in patients. These arguments could assist psychiatrists in the development of individualized, targeted therapy, as well as a follow-up and rehabilitation plan specific to each patient's deficit. Furthermore, they can be used as a tool to assess the possible benefits of combination therapy, consisting of medication, psychotherapy, and "ERP-oriented cognitive rehabilitation". Using this strategy, specific cognitive interventions could be planned based on each patient's needs, for an "individualized" or "personalized" therapy, which may have the potential to reduce relapse rates for many psychiatric disorders. The implementation of such a combined approach would require intense collaboration between psychiatry departments, clinical neurophysiology laboratories, and neuropsychological rehabilitation centers. PMID:24348040

  14. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. PMID:22727564

  15. The social life of cognition.

    PubMed

    Korman, Joanna; Voiklis, John; Malle, Bertram F

    2015-02-01

    We begin by illustrating that long before the cognitive revolution, social psychology focused on topics pertaining to what is now known as social cognition: people's subjective interpretations of social situations and the concepts and cognitive processes underlying these interpretations. We then examine two questions: whether social cognition entails characteristic concepts and cognitive processes, and how social processes might themselves shape and constrain cognition. We suggest that social cognition relies heavily on generic cognition but also on unique concepts (e.g., agent, intentionality) and unique processes (e.g., projection, imitation, joint attention). We further suggest that social processes play a prominent role in the development and unfolding of several generic cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. Finally, we comment on the prospects of a recently developing approach to the study of social cognition (social neuroscience) and two potential future directions (computational social cognition and social-cognitive robotics). PMID:25433794

  16. Visuo–spatial working memory is an important source of domain-general vulnerability in the development of arithmetic cognition

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Metcalfe, Arron W.S.; Swigart, Anna G.; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    The study of developmental disorders can provide a unique window into the role of domain-general cognitive abilities and neural systems in typical and atypical development. Mathematical disabilities (MD) are characterized by marked difficulty in mathematical cognition in the presence of preserved intelligence and verbal ability. Although studies of MD have most often focused on the role of core deficits in numerical processing, domain-general cognitive abilities, in particular working memory (WM), have also been implicated. Here we identify specific WM components that are impaired in children with MD and then examine their role in arithmetic problem solving. Compared to typically developing (TD) children, the MD group demonstrated lower arithmetic performance and lower visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) scores with preserved abilities on the phonological and central executive components of WM. Whole brain analysis revealed that, during arithmetic problem solving, left posterior parietal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus and precuneus, and fusiform gyrus responses were positively correlated with VSWM ability in TD children, but not in the MD group. Additional analyses using a priori posterior parietal cortex regions previously implicated in WM tasks, demonstrated a convergent pattern of results during arithmetic problem solving. These results suggest that MD is characterized by a common locus of arithmetic and VSWM deficits at both the cognitive and functional neuroanatomical levels. Unlike TD children, children with MD do not use VSWM resources appropriately during arithmetic problem solving. This work advances our understanding of VSWM as an important domain-general cognitive process in both typical and atypical mathematical skill development. PMID:23896444

  17. Optimizing offspring: the quantity–quality tradeoff in agropastoral Kipsigis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

    2000-01-01

    The tradeoff between offspring quantity and offspring quality is at the heart of most evolutionary approaches to the fertility transition, as it is for demographers oriented towards economic explanations for this transition. To date, however, there have been few empirical tests of the key idea that humans trade offspring quantity for quality, and no strictly comparative work designed to identify

  18. Paternal Behavior and Offspring Catherine Marler,1

    E-print Network

    Trainor, Brian

    aggression. For example, harsh parenting has been found to have a stronger effect on children's aggression with warmer parenting styles and positively associated with harsh or restrictive discipline. Recently, re considerable attention, such as links between parenting behavior and offspring aggression in humans. Although

  19. OFFSPRING PROTECTION BY MALE MANDRILLS, MANDRILLUS SPHINX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laidre ME; Yorzinski JL

    2008-01-01

    Most mammals are characterized by a lack of parental care by the male sex. This is particularly true in highly polygynous, sexually selected species and species in which fathers remain only weakly associated with their offspring. Here we report observations suggesting the existence of male parental care in the mandrill (Man- drillus sphinx, Primates: Cercopithecinae), one of the most sexually

  20. Adipose tissue inflammation: developmental ontogeny and consequences of gestational nutrient restriction in offspring.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Don; Symonds, Michael E; Budge, Helen

    2009-08-01

    Increasing adiposity predisposes to the development of the metabolic syndrome, in part, through adipose tissue dysregulation and inflammation. In addition, offspring nutrient-restricted (NR) in utero can exhibit an increased risk of early-onset insulin resistance and obesity, although the mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to: 1) define adipose tissue ontogeny of key proinflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum stress gene expression from late fetal to early adult life and 2) examine the impact on these genes in gestational nutrient restriction. Pregnant sheep were fed 100% (control) or 50% (NR) of their nutritional requirements between early to mid (28-80 d, term approximately 147 d) or late (110-147 d) gestation. In control offspring, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and the macrophage marker CD68, peaked at 30 d of life before declining. IL-18 peaked at 6 months of age, whereas the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 peaked at birth and subsequently declined through postnatal life. TLR4 and CD68 positively correlated with relative adipose tissue mass and with each other. Early to midgestational NR offspring had decreased abundance of IL-18 at 6 months of age. In late gestational NR offspring, CD68 was significantly lower at birth, a pattern that reversed in juvenile offspring, coupled with increased TLR4 abundance. In conclusion, the in utero nutritional environment can alter the adipose tissue inflammatory profile in offspring. This may contribute to the increased risk of insulin resistance or obesity, dependent on the timing of nutrient restriction. Establishing the optimal maternal diet during pregnancy could reduce the burden of later adult disease in the offspring. PMID:19423760