Note: This page contains sample records for the topic offspring cognitive development from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

The effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats  

PubMed Central

Background Recent findings suggest that the intake of specific nutrients during the critical period in early life influence cognitive and behavioural development profoundly. Antioxidants such as vitamin E have been postulated to be pivotal in this process, as vitamin E is able to protect the growing brain from oxidative stress. Currently tocotrienols are gaining much attention due to their potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. It is thus compelling to look at the effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienols supplementation, on cognition and behavioural development among offsprings of individual supplemented with tocotrienols. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate potential prenatal and early postnatal influence of Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF) supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats. Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base diet plus vehicle (VHCL), base diet plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA), base diet plus Tocotrienol-Rich fraction (TRF), and base diet plus both docosahexaenoic acid, and tocotrienol rich fraction (DTRF) diets for 2 weeks prior to mating. The females (F0 generation) were maintained on their respective treatment diets throughout the gestation and lactation periods. Pups (F1 generation) derived from these dams were raised with their dams from birth till four weeks post natal. The male pups were weaned at 8 weeks postnatal, after which they were grouped into five groups of 10 animals each, and fed with the same diets as their dams for another eight weeks. Learning and behavioural experiments were conducted only in male off-spring rats using the Morris water maze.Eight-week-old adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into five groups of two animals each. The animals were fed either with the base diet as control (CTRL), base diet plus vehicle (VHCL), base diet plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA), base diet plus Tocotrienol-Rich fraction (TRF), and base diet plus both docosahexaenoic acid, and tocotrienol rich fraction (DTRF) diets for 2 weeks prior to mating. The females (F0 generation) were maintained on their respective treatment diets throughout the gestation and lactation periods. Pups (F1 generation) derived from these dams were raised with their dams from birth till four weeks post natal. The male pups were weaned at 8 weeks postnatal, after which they were grouped into five groups of 10 animals each, and fed with the same diets as their dams for another eight weeks. Learning and behavioural experiments were conducted only in male off-spring rats using the Morris water maze. Results Results showed that prenatal and postnatal TRF supplementation increased the brain (4–6 fold increase) and plasma ?-tocotrienol (0.8 fold increase) levels in male off-springs. There is also notably better cognitive performance based on the Morris water maze test among these male off-springs. Conclusion Based on these results, it is concluded that prenatal and postnatal TRF supplementation improved cognitive function development in male progeny rats.

2013-01-01

2

The offspring-development-time/offspring-number trade-off.  

PubMed

The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) states that metabolic rate, ruled mainly by individual mass and temperature, determines many other biological rates. This view of ecology as ruled by the laws of physics and thermodynamics contrasts with life-history-optimization (LHO) theories, where traits are shaped by evolutionary processes. Integrating the MTE and LHO can lead, however, to a synthetic theory of ecology. In this work, we link the two theories to show that offspring development time is the result of both maternal investment in offspring and the metabolic constraints on offspring growth. We formulate a model that captures how offspring development time is the consequence of both offspring growth rate, determined by temperature and allometric scaling in accordance with the MTE, and the size reached by offspring at the end of the developmental period, determined mainly by LHO and reproductive strategies. We first extend the trade-off between offspring size and offspring number to ectotherms, showing that increased body temperatures result in increased resources available for reproduction. We then combine this trade-off with the general ontogenetic growth model to show that there is a trade-off between the number of offspring produced and offspring development time. The model predicts a shorter developmental time in organisms producing larger numbers of offspring. PMID:22617271

Bueno, Juan; López-Urrutia, Ángel

2012-06-01

3

Bilingualism and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the effects of bilingualism on cognitive development is reviewed, and two complementary models of bilingualism are developed to account for research results. It is suggested that research since 1960 shows a positive relationship between bilingualism and cognitive development, at least for some types of bilingualism. The advantage or…

Caraballo, Jose N.

4

Comparative Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to compare cognitive development in humans and chimpanzees to illuminate the evolutionary origins of human cognition. Comparison of morphological data and life history strongly highlights the common features of all primate species, including humans. The human mother-infant relationship is characterized by the physical separation of…

Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2007-01-01

5

Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and cognitive decline in the offspring up to old age  

PubMed Central

Objective: We tested whether maternal hypertensive disorders in pregnancy predict age-related change in cognitive ability in the offspring up to old age. Methods: Using mothers' blood pressure and urinary protein measurements from the maternity clinics and birth hospitals, we defined normotensive or hypertensive pregnancies in mothers of 398 men, who participated in the Helsinki Birth Cohort 1934–1944 Study. The men underwent the Finnish Defence Forces basic ability test twice: first during compulsory military service at age 20.1 (SD = 1.4) years and then in a retest at age 68.5 (SD = 2.9) years. The test yields a total score and subscores for tests measuring verbal, arithmetic, and visuospatial reasoning. Results: Men born after pregnancies complicated by a hypertensive disorder, compared with men born after normotensive pregnancies, scored 4.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.17–7.55) points lower on total cognitive ability at 68.5 years and displayed a greater decline in total cognitive ability (2.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.07–5.06) after 20.1 years. Of the subscores, associations were strongest for arithmetic reasoning. Conclusion: Maternal hypertensive disorders in pregnancy predict lower cognitive ability and greater cognitive decline up to old age. A propensity to lower cognitive ability and decline up to old age may have prenatal origins.

Tuovinen, Soile; Kajantie, Eero; Henriksson, Markus; Leskinen, Jukka T.; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Pyhala, Riikka; Alastalo, Hanna; Lahti, Marius; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J.P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

2012-01-01

6

The connection between maternal thiamine shortcoming and offspring cognitive damage and poverty perpetuation in underprivileged communities across the world.  

PubMed

The acquisition of cognitive, sensory-motor and social emotional functions depend on a proper development of the Central Nervous System (CNS). This set of functions, known as intelligence, allows a better adaptation to the environment. In the last decades, an increase in the average of intelligence has been reported. However, such an increase cannot be observed in an equivalent way in economically and social underprivileged regions. Children from those regions are in great risk of being affected by mental retardation or impaired cognitive development. In later life they will, probably, be unable to transform and improve themselves and their communities, perpetuating the poverty of the region. Therefore, knowledge of factors involved in CNS development is a matter of health closely related to social improvement. Malnutrition throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding is clearly identifiable as a cause of damage in CNS development. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) is a micronutrient important to the growth and maturity of the CNS. Thiamine shortcoming may affect 50% of pregnant women. Thiamine function in cerebral development is still not well known. There is a gap in the literature regarding systematical research about the blood thiamine concentration throughout the periods of gestation and breastfeeding. These studies are relevant in populations with a high level of nutritional vulnerability, because in a follow up offspring cognitive exam they could reveal if the maternal thiamine deficiency is related to child CNS impairment. This paper introduce the hypothesis that thiamine shortcoming during pregnancy and breastfeeding is directly related to cognitive impairment of child. Data about the neurophysiological role of thiamine, consequences of its shortcoming in experimental models, populations under the risk of thiamine shortcoming are presented. The hypothesis that maternal thiamine shortcoming causes damage related to child cognitive development needs to be considered. Thus, thiamine shortcoming during gestation and breastfeeding and its effects on children must be studied in many populations in order to know the magnitude of the problem and to indicate actions to overcome it. PMID:23098375

Dias, Fernando M V; Silva, Danielle Marra de Freitas; Doyle, Flavia Costa de Proença; Ribeiro, Angela Maria

2013-01-01

7

New Views on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent empirical findings toward three cognitive developmental perspectives: the fears of infancy, the discontinuous quality of stages in cognitive functioning, and the capacity for resilience in cognitive development. (DEP)

Kagan, Jerome

1976-01-01

8

Cognitive Development in Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To discover the relationship between cognitive development and writing, a means of assessing writing is needed that reflects accurately changes in the way children write as they grow older. This may be accomplished by using Piaget's characteristics of concrete and formal operations. His framework permits general descriptions of thinking, organized…

Santmire, Toni E.

9

Spatial-anatomical mapping of NoGo-P3 in the offspring of alcoholics: Evidence of cognitive and neural disinhibition as a risk for alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Objective The concept of disinhibition as a behavioral and biological trait has been considered to be involved in the etiology of alcoholism and its co-existing disorders. The magnitude and functional mapping of event-related potential P3(00) components were analyzed, in order to examine the possible response inhibition deficits in the offspring of alcoholics. Method The P3 components were compared between 50 offspring of alcoholics (OA) and a matched normal control group (NC) using a visual Go/NoGo task. The low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to analyze the functional brain mapping between groups. Results The results indicated that the OA group manifested decreased P3 amplitude during the NoGo but not the Go condition compared to the NC group. The voxel-by-voxel analysis in LORETA showed group differences at several brain regions including prefrontal areas during the processing of NoGo but not Go signals. Conclusions The decreased NoGo-P3 suggests that cognitive and neural disinhibition in offspring of alcoholics may serve as a neurocognitive index for a phenotypic marker in the development of alcoholism and related disorders. Significance Dysfunctional neural and response inhibition in the offspring of alcoholics perhaps provides an endophenotypic marker of risk for the development of alcoholism and related disorders.

Kamarajan, Chella; Porjesz, Bernice; Jones, Kevin A.; Chorlian, David B.; Padmanabhapillai, Ajayan; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Stimus, Arthur T.; Begleiter, Henri

2013-01-01

10

Immune stress in late pregnant rats decreases length of gestation and fecundity, and alters later cognitive and affective behaviour of surviving pre-adolescent offspring  

PubMed Central

Immune challenge during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth and poor perinatal development. The mechanisms of these effects are not known. 5?-Pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (3?,5?-THP), the neuroactive metabolite of progesterone, is critical for neurodevelopment and stress responses, and can influence cognition and affective behaviours. To develop an immune challenge model of preterm birth, pregnant Long–Evans rat dams were administered lipopolysaccharide [LPS; 30 ?g/kg/ml, intraperitoneal (IP)], interleukin-1? (IL-1?; 1 ?g/rat, IP) or vehicle (0.9% saline, IP) daily on gestational days 17–21. Compared to control treatment, prenatal LPS or IL-1? reduced gestational length and the number of viable pups born. At 28–30 days of age, male and female offspring of mothers exposed to prenatal IL-1? had reduced cognitive performance in the object recognition task compared to controls. In females, but not males, prenatal IL-1? reduced anxiety-like behaviour, indicated by entries to the centre of an open field. In the hippocampus, progesterone turnover to its 5?-reduced metabolites was lower in prenatally exposed IL-1? female, but not in male offspring. IL-1?-exposed males and females had reduced oestradiol content in hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and diencephalon compared to controls. Thus, immune stress during late pregnancy reduced gestational length and negatively impacted birth outcomes, hippocampal function and central neurosteroid formation in the offspring.

PARIS, JASON J.; BRUNTON, PAULA J.; RUSSELL, JOHN A.; FRYE, CHERYL A.

2012-01-01

11

Transgenerational effects of parent and grandparent gender on offspring development in a biparental beetle species.  

PubMed

Parental effects on offspring life-history traits are common and increasingly well-studied. However, the extent to which these effects persist into offspring in subsequent generations has received less attention. In this experiment, maternal and paternal effects on offspring and grand-offspring were investigated in the biparental burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, using a split-family design. This allowed the separation of prenatal and postnatal transgenerational effects. Grandparent and parent gender were found to have a cumulative effect on offspring development and may provide a selection pressure on the division of parental investment in biparental species. PMID:22090206

Lock, Judith E

2012-06-23

12

Transgenerational effects of parent and grandparent gender on offspring development in a biparental beetle species  

PubMed Central

Parental effects on offspring life-history traits are common and increasingly well-studied. However, the extent to which these effects persist into offspring in subsequent generations has received less attention. In this experiment, maternal and paternal effects on offspring and grand-offspring were investigated in the biparental burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, using a split-family design. This allowed the separation of prenatal and postnatal transgenerational effects. Grandparent and parent gender were found to have a cumulative effect on offspring development and may provide a selection pressure on the division of parental investment in biparental species.

Lock, Judith E.

2012-01-01

13

Hypercholesterolemic diet applied to rat dams protects their offspring against cognitive deficits. Simulated neonatal anoxia model.  

PubMed

There is accumulating data suggesting a neuroprotective activity of cholesterol, especially in stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, a protective activity of this lipid in simulated neonatal anoxia was investigated. Rats were subjected to high cholesterol by feeding their dams with a diet enriched with cholesterol. Half of these rats were subjected to anoxia. One and a half months later, the rats were tested for their ability to acquire a spatial memory, one group on the linear maze and the other on the Morris water maze. After these assessments, the level of total plasma cholesterol was measured. Rats from dams subjected to neonatal anoxia on standard diet performed worse than control rats in both types of behavioral experiments, whereas anoxic rats from dams were housed on hypercholesterolemic diet performed as control animals. It suggests that dietetic cholesterol applied by their dams protected rats against cognitive deficits elicited by neonatal anoxia. Furthermore, offspring of anoxic rats housed on standard diet had elevated levels of blood cholesterol in relation to control animals. Generally, anoxia affected the concentration of this lipid much stronger than hypercholesterolemic diet of their dams. It might mean that the anoxia-related rise of cholesterol could be involved in physiological phenomenon being an adaptive response to neurotoxic processes. This concept is discussed in relation to pathological mechanisms in AD. PMID:15327920

Bohr, Iwo

2004-09-30

14

Cognitive Outcome of Offspring from Dexamethasone-Treated Pregnancies at Risk for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test whether dexamethasone (DEX) treatment of pregnancies at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) impairs cognitive functioning in the offspring. Design Observational follow-up of prenatally DEX-exposed offspring and controls. Methods Study 1 included 140 children age 5-12 years: 67 DEX-exposed (long-term: 8 CAH girls) and 73 unexposed (with 15 CAH girls). Study 2 included 20 participants age 11-24 years: 7 DEX-exposed (long-term: 1 CAH woman) and 13 unexposed (with 4 CAH women). Neuropsychological testing was done in hospital settings or patients' homes. Data analysis aimed at maximizing detection of effects of DEX exposure. Results The vast majority of group comparisons were not marginally or conventionally significant. The few significant findings on short-term prenatal DEX exposure suggested more positive than adverse outcomes. By contrast, the few significant findings in females with CAH and long-term DEX exposure indicated slower mental processing than in controls on several neuropsychological variables, although partial correlations of DEX-exposure duration with cognitive outcome did not corroborate this association. Conclusions Our studies do not replicate a previously reported adverse effect of short-term prenatal DEX exposure on working memory, while our findings on cognitive function in CAH girls with long-term DEX exposure contribute to concerns about potentially adverse cognitive aftereffects of such exposure. Yet, our studies are not definitive, and replications in larger samples are required.

Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; Dolezal, Curtis; Haggerty, Rita; Silverman, Michael; New, Maria I.

2012-01-01

15

Cognitive Structures in Vocational Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the concept of vocational development in relation to structural changes which occur in the cognitive schemata individuals use to process vocational information. Results from 101 college undergraduates indicated that vocational decision-making skills, career exploration, and career planning varied as a function of cognitive structure.…

Neimeyer, Greg J.; And Others

1985-01-01

16

Effects of Maternal Hypoxia during Pregnancy on Bone Development in Offspring: A Guinea Pig Model  

PubMed Central

Low birth weight is associated with reduced bone mass and density in adult life. However, effects of maternal hypoxia (MH) on offspring bone development are not known. Objective. The current study investigated the effects of fetal growth restriction induced by MH during the last half of gestation on bone structure and volume in the offspring of the fetus near term and the pup in adolescence. Methods. During 35–62-day gestation (term, 69d), guinea pigs were housed in room air (21% O2; control) or 12% O2 (MH). Offspring femur and tibia were collected at 62d gestation and 120d after birth. Results. MH decreased fetal birth weight but did not affect osteogenic potential pools in the fetal bone marrow. Histological analysis showed no effects of MH on tibial growth plate thickness in either fetal or postnatal offspring, although there was increased VEGF mRNA expression in the growth plate of postnatal offspring. MH did not change primary spongiosa height but lowered collagen-1 mRNA expression in postnatal offspring. There was increased mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related gene (FABP4) in bone from the MH postnatal offspring. Conclusion. MH during late gestation did not change the pool of osteogenic cells before birth or growth plate heights before and after birth. However, MH reduced expression of bone formation marker (collagen-1) and increased expression of fat formation marker (FABP4) in postnatal offspring bone.

Lee, Alice M. C.; Morrison, Janna L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; Shandala, Tetyana; Xian, Cory J.

2014-01-01

17

Maternal Photoperiodic History Affects Offspring Development in Syrian Hamsters  

PubMed Central

During the first 7 weeks of postnatal life, short day lengths inhibit the onset of puberty in many photoperiodic rodents, but not in Syrian hamsters. In this species, timing of puberty and fecundity are independent of the early postnatal photoperiod. Gestational day length affects postnatal reproductive development in several rodents; its role in Syrian hamsters has not been assessed. We tested the hypothesis that cumulative effects of pre- and postnatal short day lengths would restrain gonadal development in male Syrian hamsters. Males with prenatal short day exposure were generated by dams transferred to short day lengths 6 weeks, 3 weeks, and 0 weeks prior to mating. Additional groups were gestated in long day lengths and transferred to short days at birth, at 4 weeks of age, or not transferred (control hamsters). In pups of dams exposed to short day treatment throughout gestation, decreased testis growth was apparent by 3 weeks and persisted through 9 weeks of age, at which time maximum testis size was attained. A subset of males (14%), whose dams had been in short days for 3 to 6 weeks prior to mating displayed pronounced delays in testicular development, similar to those of other photoperiodic rodents. This treatment also increased the percentage of male offspring that underwent little or no gonadal regression postnatally (39%). By 19 weeks of age, males housed in short days completed spontaneous gonadal development. After prolonged long day treatment to break refractoriness, hamsters that initially were classified as nonregressors underwent testicular regression in response to a 2nd sequence of short day lengths. The combined action of prenatal and early postnatal short day lengths diminishes testicular growth of prepubertal Syrian hamsters no later than the 3rd week of postnatal life, albeit to a lesser extent than in other photoperiodic rodents.

Beery, Annaliese K.; Paul, Matthew J.; Routman, David M.; Zucker, Irving

2009-01-01

18

Cognitive Developmental Theory and Spiritual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional conceptions of cognitive development have failed to account for changes in adult cognition as well as more subjective and intuitive features of human experience. This paper reviews recent theories and research in cognitive development and spirituality with the aim of providing connections between the two domains. Neo-Piagetian and postformal theories of cognitive development suggest that advances in cognition are

Kelly B. Cartwright

2001-01-01

19

Teasing Out Cognitive Development from Cognitive Style: A Training Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested whether or not cognitive development (as measured by mental capacity) and cognitive style (as measured by field-dependence/independence) are different dimensions. Results are discussed with regard to Pascual-Leone's model of cognitive development, relevance to stylistic dimension of reflection/impulsivity, and educational implications.…

Globerson, Tamar; And Others

1985-01-01

20

The effect of periconceptional undernutrition of sheep on the cognitive/emotional response and oocyte quality of offspring at 30 days of age.  

PubMed

Maternal periconceptional undernutrition is associated with altered development and increased risks of adverse outcomes in the offspring. This circumstance is normal in flocks under extensive farming systems, which depend on natural forage resources. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of periconceptional undernutrition in sheep on behavioral and reproductive aspects of the offspring. Eighty ewes were synchronized in estrus and allocated to two groups (n=40) to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (C) or 0.5 (L) times the requirements for maintenance. Ewes were mated and 7 days later fed the control diet until lambing. One month after lambing, 32 lambs were exposed to tests to determine their cognitive and emotional responses. Six ewe lambs were euthanized and in vitro maturation and fertilization procedures were performed. L ewes presented a significant reduction in prolificacy and fecundity (P<0.05) in comparison with C ewes. Mean LW at lambing of L lambs was significantly higher than C lambs (C: 3.80 ± 0.11; L: 4.24 ± 0.15 kg, P<0.05). Lambs born from C ewes spent more time walking than L lambs (P<0.05) in the isolation test, revealing a decrease in the locomotor activity of lambs born from undernourished ewes around conception. Ewe lambs from the undernourished ewes presented a total population of oocytes 2.3 times higher than ovaries from control ewe lambs (60.0 ± 7.8 v. 140.0 ± 18.5 oocytes; P<0.05). In conclusion, periconceptional undernutrition is able to produce an increment in the body weight and the oocyte population, and an alteration of the locomotor activity of the offspring. PMID:24847694

Abecia, J A; Casao, A; Pascual-Alonso, M; Lobón, S; Aguayo-Ulloa, L A; Meikle, A; Forcada, F; Sosa, C; Marín, R H; Silva, M A; Maria, G A

2014-04-01

21

Prenatal and perinatal influences on long-term psychomotor development in offspring of diabetic mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess to what extent disturbances in antepartum maternal metabolism and perinatal complications and morbidities contribute to poorer psychomotor development in offspring of diabetic mothers.STUDY DESIGN: One hundred ninety-six pregnant women and their singleton offspring participated in this prospective cohort-analytic study. Ninety-five women had pregestational diabetes mellitus, and 101 women had gestational diabetes mellitus. Serial estimates

Thomas A Rizzo; Sharon L Dooley; Boyd E Metzger; Nam H Cho; Edward S Ogata; Bernard L Silverman

1995-01-01

22

Development of celiac disease-associated antibodies in offspring of parents with Type I diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and temporal development of antibodies related to celiac disease in\\u000a offspring of parents with Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Methods. Sera from 913 offspring of parents with Type I diabetes prospectively followed from birth to the age of 8 years were tested\\u000a for IgG-transglutaminase antibodies (IgG-tTGCAs), endomysial IgA antibodies

M. Hummel; E. Bonifacio; M. Stern; J. Dittler; A. Schimmel; A. G. Ziegler

2000-01-01

23

Children's Logical and Mathematical Cognition: Progress in Cognitive Development Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of books in this series is to present work that is on the growing tip of research in cognitive development. The theme of this volume is children's logical and mathematical cognition, a field in which Piaget's influence has been extensive. In the first of the six chapters, Acredolo presents a new theory of the cognitive bases for…

Brainerd, Charles J., Ed.

24

Implicit Cognition and Spelling Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses how existing theories of implicit cognition may contribute to the understanding of spelling development. Reviews adult literature on implicit memory and implicit learning that may be applied to spelling development. Presents a multilevel model of representational redescription from which to investigate the interrelation of implicit and…

Steffler, Dorothy J.

2001-01-01

25

Gender Differences in Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

2011-01-01

26

Comparing Spiritual Development and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three spiritual development theories and theorists (i.e., Parks, Fowler, and Helminiak) were compared with traditional cognitive development theory and theorists. The analysis reveals both commonalities between the two sets of theories and unique contributions to an understanding of student development on the part of spiritual development theory.…

Love, Patrick G.

2002-01-01

27

Development of sensitization to methamphetamine in offspring prenatally exposed to morphine, methadone and buprenorphine.  

PubMed

Heroin use among young women of reproductive age has drawn much attention around the world. However, there is lack of information on the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on their offspring. Our previous study demonstrated that prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring showed a marked change in the cross-tolerance to morphine compared with other groups. In the current study, this animal model was used to study effects of methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral sensitization in the offspring at their adulthood. The results showed no differences in either basal or acute METH-induced locomotor activity in any of the groups of animals tested. When male offspring received METH injections of 2?mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 5?days, behavioral sensitization was induced, as determined by motor activity. Furthermore, the distance and rate of development (slope) of locomotor activity and conditioned place preference induced by METH were significantly increased in the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed animals compared with those in other groups. The dopamine D1 R in the nucleus accumbens of the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring had lower mRNA expression; but no significant changes in the ?-, ?-opioid, nociceptin, D2 R and D3 R receptors were noted. Furthermore, significant alterations were observed in the basal level of cAMP and the D1 R agonist enhanced adenylyl cyclase activity in the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed group. Overall, the study demonstrates that D1 R and its downregulated cAMP signals are involved in enhancing METH-induced behavioral sensitization in prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring. The study reveals that prenatal exposure to buprenorphine caused long-term effects on offspring and affected the dopaminergic system-related reward mechanism. PMID:23551991

Chiang, Yao-Chang; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Ho, Ing-Kang

2014-07-01

28

Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

1996-01-01

29

Leptin Replacement Improves Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

Background Leptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown. Objective To evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development. Methodology A 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative missense leptin gene mutation (Cys-to-Thr in codon 105) was treated with recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) at physiologic replacement doses of 0.03 mg/kg/day. Cognitive development was assessed using the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a measure of general verbal and nonverbal functioning; and selected subtests from the NEPSY, a measure of neuropsychological functioning in children. Principal Findings Prior to treatment, the patient was morbidly obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic. Baseline neurocognitive tests revealed slower than expected rates of development (developmental age lower than chronological age) in a majority of the areas assessed. After two years, substantial increases in the rates of development in most neurocognitive domains were apparent, with some skills at or exceeding expectations based on chronological age. We also observed marked weight loss and resolution of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. Conclusions We concluded that replacement with r-metHuLeptin is associated with weight loss and changes in rates of development in many neurocognitive domains, which lends support to the hypothesis that, in addition to its role in metabolism, leptin may have a cognitive enhancing role in the developing central nervous system. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00659828

Paz-Filho, Gilberto J.; Babikian, Talin; Asarnow, Robert; Esposito, Karin; Erol, Halil K.; Wong, Ma-Li; Licinio, Julio

2008-01-01

30

Acute paternal alcohol use affects offspring development and adult behavior.  

PubMed

Swiss Webster pups were fathered by sires given either an acute dose of alcohol (alcohol-sired) or saline (saline-sired) 12-24 h before mating. The same sires were used to father both groups of pups. Alcohol-sired pups were significantly lighter at birth and for the following three weeks than were saline-sired pups. Significantly more pups were fathered by saline-exposed sires, and dams carrying those pups had significantly longer gestations than those carrying pups of alcohol-using sires. More runts were born to the alcohol-sired group, and more pups in that group died over the next three weeks than in the saline-sired group. Significantly more pups in the saline-sired group achieved such developmental milestones as surface righting, clinging, the tail-pull reflex, rotation, linear movement and climbing an inclined surface earlier than did alcohol-sired pups. As adults, animals from the alcohol-sired group showed significantly less risk assessment behavior and longer latencies to such behaviors as stretched attention, flatback, freezing and defensive burying than did the saline-sired animals. Alcohol-sired animals contacted the stimulus object in the risk assessment test significantly sooner and more often than did the saline-sired group. In tests of aggression, alcohol-sired male offspring showed more frequent aggressive behaviors such as on-top, lateral attacks and jump-attacks, and significantly fewer defensive/fearful behaviors such as piloerection, tail rattling and jump-escape. This pattern of results suggests that exposure of the sire to one acute dose of alcohol before insemination caused some early developmental delays and that alcohol-sired animals are less fearful and more aggressive as adults than saline-sired animals. PMID:17433387

Meek, Leslie R; Myren, Kirsten; Sturm, Juliane; Burau, Dawn

2007-05-16

31

Longitudinal Changes in Marital Relationships: The Role of Offspring's Pubertal Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study charted the longitudinal trajectories of wives' and husbands' reports of marital love, satisfaction, and conflict and explored whether and how first- and second-born offspring's pubertal development was related to marital changes. Data were drawn from the first 7 years of a longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants…

Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

2007-01-01

32

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MICE OFFSPRING AFTER IRRADIATION IN UTERO WITH 2,450-MHZ MICROWAVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Mice offspring irradiated in utero with 2,450-MHz radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 0 or 28 mW/cm. sq. (whole-body averaged specific absorption rate = 0 or 16.5 W/kg) for 100 minutes daily on days 6 through 17 of gestation were evaluated for maturation and development on days 1, ...

33

Long-term effects of delayed fatherhood in mice on postnatal development and behavioral traits of offspring.  

PubMed

This study aims to analyze, in mice, the long-term effects of delayed fatherhood on postnatal development, spontaneous motor activity, and learning capacity of offspring. Hybrid parental-generation (F(0)) males, at the age of 12, 70, 100, and 120 wk, were individually housed with a randomly selected 12-wk-old hybrid female. The resulting first-generation (F(1)) offspring were tested for several developmental and behavioral variables. Cumulative percentage of F(1) pups that attained immediate righting in the 120-wk group was lower than that found in the 12-, 70-, and 100-wk groups. Furthermore, the postnatal day of attaining immediate righting was higher in pups from the 120-wk group when compared to pups from the other age-groups. At the age of 20 wk, F(1) offspring from the 120-wk group displayed lower counts of motor activity than offspring from the 12-, 70-, and 100-wk groups. One week later, a higher percentage of offspring from the 100- and 120-wk groups entered the dark compartment during the retention trial of the passive-avoidance test when compared to offspring from the 12-wk group. Offspring from the 120-wk group exhibited also lower step-through latency in the retention trial than offspring from the 12-, 70-, and 100-wk groups. These results show that advanced paternal age at conception has long-term effects on preweaning development, spontaneous motor activity, and reduced passive-avoidance learning capacity of mouse offspring. PMID:18923158

García-Palomares, Silvia; Pertusa, José F; Miñarro, José; García-Pérez, Miguel A; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Rausell, Francisco; Cano, Antonio; Tarín, Juan J

2009-02-01

34

Oxidative stress in mouse sperm impairs embryo development, fetal growth and alters adiposity and glucose regulation in female offspring.  

PubMed

Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM) in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity. PMID:25006800

Lane, Michelle; McPherson, Nicole O; Fullston, Tod; Spillane, Marni; Sandeman, Lauren; Kang, Wan Xian; Zander-Fox, Deirdre L

2014-01-01

35

Oxidative Stress in Mouse Sperm Impairs Embryo Development, Fetal Growth and Alters Adiposity and Glucose Regulation in Female Offspring  

PubMed Central

Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM) in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity.

Lane, Michelle; McPherson, Nicole O.; Fullston, Tod; Spillane, Marni; Sandeman, Lauren; Kang, Wan Xian; Zander-Fox, Deirdre L.

2014-01-01

36

Prenatal Exposure to Lamotrigine: Effects on Postnatal Development and Behaviour in Rat Offspring  

PubMed Central

Use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy warrants various side effects and also deleterious effects on fetal development. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to lamotrigine (LTG) on postnatal development and behavioural alterations of offspring. Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150–180?g?b.?wt. were allowed to copulate and pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal cytology. Pregnant rats were treated with LTG (11.5, 23, and 46?mg/kg, p.o) from gestational day 3 (GND 3) and this treatment continued till postnatal day 11 (PND 11). Offspring were separated from their dam on day 21 following parturition. LTG, at 46?mg/kg, p.o, produced severe clinical signs of toxicity leading to death of dam between GND 15 and 17. LTG, at 11.5 and 23?mg/kg, p.o, showed significant alterations in offspring's incisors eruption and vaginal opening when compared to age matched controls. LTG (23?mg/kg, p.o) exposed female offspring expressed hyperactive behaviour and decreased GABA-A receptor expression when compared to control rats. These results reveal that prenatal exposure to LTG may impart differential postnatal behavioural alterations between male and female rats which paves way for further investigations.

Sathiya, Sekar; Ganesh, Murugan; Kalaivani, Periyathambi; Ranju, Vijayan; Janani, Srinivasan; Pramila, Bakthavachalam; Saravana Babu, Chidambaram

2014-01-01

37

Prenatal exposure to lamotrigine: effects on postnatal development and behaviour in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy warrants various side effects and also deleterious effects on fetal development. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to lamotrigine (LTG) on postnatal development and behavioural alterations of offspring. Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150-180?g?b.?wt. were allowed to copulate and pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal cytology. Pregnant rats were treated with LTG (11.5, 23, and 46?mg/kg, p.o) from gestational day 3 (GND 3) and this treatment continued till postnatal day 11 (PND 11). Offspring were separated from their dam on day 21 following parturition. LTG, at 46?mg/kg, p.o, produced severe clinical signs of toxicity leading to death of dam between GND 15 and 17. LTG, at 11.5 and 23?mg/kg, p.o, showed significant alterations in offspring's incisors eruption and vaginal opening when compared to age matched controls. LTG (23?mg/kg, p.o) exposed female offspring expressed hyperactive behaviour and decreased GABA-A receptor expression when compared to control rats. These results reveal that prenatal exposure to LTG may impart differential postnatal behavioural alterations between male and female rats which paves way for further investigations. PMID:24967313

Sathiya, Sekar; Ganesh, Murugan; Kalaivani, Periyathambi; Ranju, Vijayan; Janani, Srinivasan; Pramila, Bakthavachalam; Saravana Babu, Chidambaram

2014-01-01

38

Cognitive development of learners in pharmacy education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human development involves growth and maturation, including development in the cognitive abilities of learners. Just as Jean Piaget's childhood stages of cognitive development have provided a basis for kindergarten through 12th-grade education, cognitive development theories for adults in higher education have been described. Kohlberg's theory in developmental psychology, Grow's model of self-directed learning, Säljö's conceptions of learning, and Vygotsky's theory

Michael J. Peeters

2011-01-01

39

Cognitive development in a secondary science setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations were made of the progressive change in the cognitive development of 141 students over the course of their secondary education in an Australian private school. Cognitive development was measured in years 8, 10 and 12 using Bond's Logical Orerations Test. Rasch analysis of each of the data sets provided ability estimates for students in the year groups of 1993 (year 8), 1995 (year 10) and 1997 (year 12). Twenty-nine students from the year group of 1993 were tested on all three occasions. We analysed data from these 29 students in order to investigate the children's cognitive development across years 8, 10 and 12. We also examined the influence of the Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE) Thinking Science program on the cognitive development and scholastic achievement of these students. We found increased mental growth between years 8 and 10 for most students in the Thinking Science cohort, which could not be predicted from their starting levels. There was a significant correlation between cognitive development and the scholastic achievement of these students. Although boys as a group were more advanced in cognitive development than girls in years 8 and 10, no difference was found in the rate of cognitive change based on sex up to year 10. However girls showed cognitive gains across years 10-12 which were not found in boys. The students who were new to the school also showed increased cognitive development in years 11 and 12. Students who had experienced the Thinking Science course were more cognitively developed than students who joined the school after the intervention had taken place. This study supports the claim of Adey and Shayer that there is a relationship between cognitive development and scholastic achievement, even though we used different measures of cognitive development and scholastic achievement.

Endler, Lorna C.; Bond, Trevor

2000-12-01

40

Effects of maternal exposure to diethylstilbestrol on epididymal development in rat offspring.  

PubMed

In our previous study, prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure (days 7-21 of gestation) suppressed plasma testosterone levels and histological development in the epididymis of rat offspring. In this study, we measured cell proliferation in epididymal ductules and the expression of steroid hormone receptors and 5alpha-reductase 1 in the epididymis to assess the effect of DES on epididymal development in the offspring. Prenatal DES exposure did not alter the cell division index, but suppressed the expression of androgen receptor mRNA at 15 weeks after birth, and stimulated estrogen receptor alpha mRNA at 6 weeks. These results suggest that prenatal DES exposure results in the retardation of epididymal tissue maturation by disruption of the postnatal expression of steroid hormone receptors. PMID:19346712

Yamamoto, Masako; Kohara, Shinya; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Nisikawa, Osamu; Arishima, Kazuyoshi

2009-03-01

41

Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring.  

PubMed

Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T(4)), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T(4)) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T(4) deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the reproductive and neurological development of rat offspring, which may be a cause of concern, as humans are systematically exposed to the compound through usage of sunscreens and other cosmetics. PMID:21059369

Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Søren Peter; Hass, Ulla

2011-02-01

42

Maternal overweight and smoking: prenatal risk factors for caries development in offspring during the teenage period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate pre- and perinatal determinants as risk factors for caries development in offspring. In this\\u000a longitudinal register-based cohort study, we included all children (n = 18,142), of 13 years of age who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000. The cohort was followed until individuals\\u000a were 19 years of age. In total, 15,538 subjects were examined. Dental caries

Annika Julihn; Anders Ekbom; Thomas Modéer

2009-01-01

43

Applying the Cultural Approach to Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive development is a cultural process. More experienced cultural members and the practices, institutions, and artifacts of the culture provide support and guidance for children as they develop knowledge and thinking skills. In this article, the authors describe the value that is added to our understanding of cognitive development when…

Gauvain, Mary; Beebe, Heidi; Zhao, Shuheng

2011-01-01

44

Effect of nitric oxide on physical development and erythropoiesis in the offspring of rats with impaired uteroplacental circulation.  

PubMed

We evaluated physical development and activity of erythropoiesis in the offspring of rats with experimentally impaired uteroplacental circulation as well as the effect of exogenous nitric oxide donator used during pregnancy, on offspring development. Exogenous NO producing an anti-hypoxic effects contributes to the increase in somatometric parameters of the offspring on postnatal days 15 and 30. The rates of erythropoiesis in the liver and bone marrow did not differ from the normal; hemopoietic organs were not overstrained, which prevented exhaustion and failure of functional reserves of the erythrocyte system. PMID:23658911

Nazarov, S B; Ivanova, A S; Novikov, A A

2013-04-01

45

Persistent hexavalent chromium exposure impaired the pubertal development and ovarian histoarchitecture in wistar rat offspring.  

PubMed

Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a highly toxic metal and a major environmental pollutant. Several studies indicate that CrVI exposure adversely affects reproductive function. We reported that maternal Cr exposure resulted in Cr accumulation in the reproductive organs of female offsprings. CrVI can cross the placental barrier and also can be passed through breastfeeding. The present investigation aimed to determine the persistent (in utero through puberal period) CrVI exposure-induced toxic effects on the reproductive functions of mother and the offspring. Induction of oxidative stress is one of the plausible mechanisms behind Cr-induced cellular deteriorations. Mother rats exposed to CrVI showed reduced reproductive outcome, while the offsprings showed higher accumulation of Cr in ovary, altered steroid, and peptide hormones. Specific activities of antioxidant enzymes were decreased and associated with increased levels of H2 O2 , and lipid peroxidation. CrVI exposure also damaged the ovarian histoarchitecture in various age groups studied. CrVI exposure also delayed the sexual maturation. Results from the present investigation suggest that CrVI exposure from in utero through puberal period significantly damaged the pubertal development through altered antioxidants, anemia, and altered hormone levels. These changes were associated with damaged ovarian histoarchitecture and extended estrous cycle in developing Wistar rats. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 814-828, 2014. PMID:22936640

Samuel, Jawahar B; Stanley, Jone A; Sekar, Pasupathi; Princess, Rajendran A; Sebastian, Maria S; Aruldhas, Michael M

2014-05-01

46

Transgenerational Effects of Parental Larval Diet on Offspring Development Time, Adult Body Size and Pathogen Resistance in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to affect offspring performance. We set out to investigate the effect of parental larval diet on offspring development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies for the parental generation were raised on either poor or standard diet and then mated in the four possible sex-by-parental diet crosses. Females that were raised on poor food produced larger offspring than females that were raised on standard food. Furthermore, male progeny sired by fathers that were raised on poor food were larger than male progeny sired by males raised on standard food. Development times were shortest for offspring whose one parent (mother or the father) was raised on standard and the other parent on poor food and longest for offspring whose parents both were raised on poor food. No evidence for transgenerational effects of parental diet on offspring disease resistance was found. Although paternal effects have been previously demonstrated in D. melanogaster, no earlier studies have investigated male-mediated transgenerational effects of diet in this species. The results highlight the importance of not only considering the relative contribution each parental sex has on progeny performance but also the combined effects that the two sexes may have on offspring performance.

Valtonen, Terhi M.; Kangassalo, Katariina; Polkki, Mari; Rantala, Markus J.

2012-01-01

47

Family and school influences on cognitive development.  

PubMed

Family and school influences on cognitive development are reviewed in terms of the empirical research findings on (i) variations within the ordinary environment; (ii) family intervention studies; (iii) the effects of abnormal environments; (iv) extreme environmental conditions; (v) variations within the ordinary school environment; and (vi) preschool and school intervention studies. It is concluded that environmental effects on IQ are relatively modest within the normal range of environments, but that the effects of markedly disadvantageous circumstances are very substantial. Cognitive development is influenced both by direct effects on cognition and by indirect effects through alterations in self-concept, aspirations, attitudes to learning and styles of interaction with other people. PMID:3900115

Rutter, M

1985-09-01

48

Optimizing Cognitive Development over the Life Course and Preventing Cognitive Decline: Introducing the Cognitive Health Environment Life Course Model (CHELM)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Optimal cognitive development is defined in this article as the highest level of cognitive function reached in each cognitive domain given a person's biological and genetic disposition, and the highest possible maintenance of cognitive function over the adult life course. Theoretical perspectives underpinning the development of a framework…

Anstey, Kaarin J.

2014-01-01

49

ANIMAL MODELS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN NEUROTOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The thesis of this chapter has been that spatial delayed alternation versus position discrimination learning can serve as a valuable rodent model of cognitive development in neurotoxicology. his model captures dual process conceptualizations of memory in human neuropsychology and...

50

Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A more pessimistic assessment to study the effects of maternal employment on children's learning abilities is presented. Parental investments during infancy and childhood not only result in improved cognitive development but also in overall improvement in learning abilities.

Ruhm, Christopher J.

2004-01-01

51

Animal Models of Cognitive Development in Neurotoxicology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis of the chapter has been that spatial delayed alternation versus position discrimination learning can serve as a valuable rodent model of cognitive development in neurotoxicology. The model captures dual-process conceptualizations of memory in h...

M. E. Stanton

1991-01-01

52

IDENTIFYING THE COGNITIVE AND VASCULAR EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION SOURCES AND MIXTURES IN THE FRAMINGHARN OFFSPRING AND THIRD GENERATION COHORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

We will estimate health risks associated with short- and long-term exposure to individual air pollutants, sources and air pollution mixtures within the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation populations. We will address which individual and area-level factors, measuring vul...

53

COGNITIVE MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND LOEVINGER'S CONCEPT OF EGO DEVELOPMENT (KOHLBERG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the nature of the relationship between cognitive moral development as defined by Lawrence Kohlberg and ego development as defined by Jane Loevinger. The effects of general cognitive development were controlled by the selection of subjects who were capable of formal operational thinking. Subjects were 120 Jewish volunteers comprised of equal numbers of junior high-school, senior high-school, and

HANNAH LEVERTOV

1984-01-01

54

COGNITIVELY NORMAL INDIVIDUALS WITH AD PARENTS MAY BE AT RISK FOR DEVELOPING AGING-RELATED CORTICAL THINNING PATTERNS CHARACTERISTIC OF AD  

PubMed Central

Children of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients are at heightened risk of developing AD due to genetic influences, including the apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) allele. In this study, we assessed the earliest cortical changes associated with AD in 71 cognitively healthy, adult children of AD patients (AD offspring) as compared with 69 with no family history of AD (non-AD offspring). Cortical thickness measures were obtained using FreeSurfer from 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) scans. ApoE genotyping was obtained. Primary analyses examined family history and ApoeE4 effects on cortical thickness. Secondary analyses examined age effects within groups. All comparisons were adjusted using False Discovery Rate at a significance threshold of p < 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences between family history and ApoE4 groups. Within AD offspring, increasing age was related to reduced cortical thickness (atrophy) over large areas of the precuneus, superior frontal and superior temporal gyri, starting at around age 60. Further, these patterns existed within female and maternal AD offspring, but were absent in male and paternal AD offspring. Within non-AD offspring, negative correlations existed over small regions of the superior temporal, insula and lingual cortices. These results suggest that as AD offspring age, cortical atrophy is more prominent, particularly if the parent with AD is mother or if the AD offspring is female.

Reiter, Katherine; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Cobia, Derin J.; Kwasny, Mary J.; Morris, John C.; Csernansky, John C.; Wang, Lei

2012-01-01

55

Cognitively normal individuals with AD parents may be at risk for developing aging-related cortical thinning patterns characteristic of AD.  

PubMed

Children of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are at heightened risk of developing AD due to genetic influences, including the apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) allele. In this study, we assessed the earliest cortical changes associated with AD in 71 cognitively healthy, adult children of AD patients (AD offspring) as compared with 69 with no family history of AD (non-AD offspring). Cortical thickness measures were obtained using FreeSurfer from 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) scans. ApoE genotyping was obtained. Primary analyses examined family history and ApoeE4 effects on cortical thickness. Secondary analyses examined age effects within groups. All comparisons were adjusted using False Discovery Rate at a significance threshold of p<0.05. There were no statistically significant differences between family history and ApoE4 groups. Within AD offspring, increasing age was related to reduced cortical thickness (atrophy) over large areas of the precuneus, superior frontal and superior temporal gyri, starting at around age 60. Further, these patterns existed within female and maternal AD offspring, but were absent in male and paternal AD offspring. Within non-AD offspring, negative correlations existed over small regions of the superior temporal, insula and lingual cortices. These results suggest that as AD offspring age, cortical atrophy is more prominent, particularly if the parent with AD is mother or if the AD offspring is female. PMID:22503937

Reiter, Katherine; Alpert, Kathryn I; Cobia, Derin J; Kwasny, Mary J; Morris, John C; Csernansky, John C; Wang, Lei

2012-07-01

56

Perinatal exposure to fluoxetine via placenta and lactation inhibits the testicular development in male rat offspring.  

PubMed

Due to the widespread use of fluoxetine to treat depression, including pregnant and nursing women, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of in utero and lactational exposure to fluoxetine in rat offspring at post natal day 22. Wistar rat dams were orally treated with fluoxetine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) from day 13 gestation to day 21 lactation. Exposure to 10 and 20 mg/kg fluoxetine reduced the body and testis weights. The volume of the seminiferous tubules and epithelium were also reduced following 20 mg/kg fluoxetine exposure. The length of the seminiferous tubules and the population of Sertoli cells changed in offspring exposed to fluoxetine. The amount of seminiferous tubules lacking tubular lumen was higher in rats exposed to 20 mg/kg fluoxetine. Plasma testosterone showed no significant change. In conclusion, fluoxetine exposure via the placenta and lactation may inhibit and delay testicular development, adversely affecting several testicular parameters important for the establishment of sperm production in adulthood. PMID:23651434

de Oliveira, Waldo Monteiro; de Sá, Iana Raphaela; de Torres, Sandra Maria; de Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Andrade, Anderson Martino; Maia, Frederico Celso Lyra; Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro Amaro

2013-10-01

57

Pelage insulation, litter size, and ambient temperature impact maternal energy intake and offspring development during lactation  

PubMed Central

Energy balance during lactation critically influences survival and growth of a mother’s offspring, and hence, her reproductive success. Most experiments have investigated the influence of a single factor (e.g., ambient temperature [Ta] or litter size) on the energetics of lactation. Here, we determined the impact of multiple interventions, including increased conductive heat loss consequent to dorsal fur removal, cold exposure (Ta of 5°C versus 23°C), and differential lactational load from litters of different sizes (2 or 4 pups), on maternal energy balance and offspring development of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Lower Ta, fur removal, and larger litters were associated with increased maternal food consumption. Females exposed to multiple challenges (e.g., both fur loss and lower Ta) ate substantially more food than those exposed to a single challenge, with no apparent ceiling to elevated food intake (increases up to 538%). Thus, energy intake of dams under these conditions does not appear to be limited by feeding behavior or the size of the digestive tract. Housing at 5°C attenuated pup weight gain and increased pup mortality to more than 5 times that of litters housed at 23°C. Increases in the dam’s conductive heat loss induced by fur removal did not affect pup weight gain or survival, suggesting that effects of low Ta on pup weight gain and survival reflect limitations in the pups’ ability to ingest or incorporate energy.

Paul, Matthew J.; Tuthill, Christiana; Kauffman, Alexander S.; Zucker, Irving

2010-01-01

58

Cultural Differences in Cognitive Style Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children in several cultures seem to develop a similar cognitive style on the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT). At first, they become more reflective (slow-accurate), then more fast-accurate. However, there are two impressions that qualify this account. First, the early MFFT development of Japanese children seems distinctive in that they become far more accurate on the MFFT, with small increases

J. David Smith; Janet Caplan

1988-01-01

59

Contextuality and Directionality of Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidirectional model of cognitive development is proposed according to which development can proceed in different directions in different socio-cultural contexts but can nevertheless be characterized as progressive within each context. Following an interpretation of Piagetian theory that stresses the equilibration theory more than the structural-stage theory, developmental ‘progress’ is defined retrospectively in terms of the increasing developmental distance away

Michael Chapman

1988-01-01

60

Cognitive Process of Development in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

Boddington, Eulalee N.

2009-01-01

61

Cognitive Development in Learning Disabled Boys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings provide evidence that the learning disabled develop most cognitive abilities in a manner similar to that of their normal counterparts, though perhaps slightly delayed, and that by adolescence, development in the learning disabled approaches that of normals. (Author/DLS)

Tarver, Sara; Maggiore, Ronald

1979-01-01

62

Maternal Cypermethrin Exposure during the Perinatal Period Impairs Testicular Development in C57BL Male Offspring  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have demonstrated that endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) are a possible cause of male reproductive organ malfunction and malformation. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid and a potential EDC. This study aimed to examine the effects of perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP on the development and function of the offspring testes. Pregnant mice were intragastrically administered 0.12 to 12 mg/kg/day CYP from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) to weaning (PD21.5, postnatal day 21.5). Maternal exposure to 0.12, 1.2, and 12 mg/kg/day CYP affected the body and organ weight of the offspring. Exposure of CYP led to a dose-dependent decrease in the male-to-female sex ratio. A histopathological analysis revealed a thinner seminiferous epithelium layer at PD21.5, interstitial hyperplasia at PD45.5, and germ cell vacuolization at PD90.5 in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The TUNEL assay results revealed increased germ cell apoptosis in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The serum testosterone (T) level decreased, whereas the estradiol level increased with age in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The RT-PCR analysis demonstrated decreased expression of T production-related, mitosis-related, and meiosis-related genes in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The in vitro experimental results demonstrated reduced expression of steroidogenesis genes and decreased T levels. It is concluded that perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP affects testes development and function in adults.

Huang, Chaobin; Li, Xiangdong

2014-01-01

63

Maternal Cypermethrin Exposure during the Perinatal Period Impairs Testicular Development in C57BL Male Offspring.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have demonstrated that endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) are a possible cause of male reproductive organ malfunction and malformation. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid and a potential EDC. This study aimed to examine the effects of perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP on the development and function of the offspring testes. Pregnant mice were intragastrically administered 0.12 to 12 mg/kg/day CYP from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) to weaning (PD21.5, postnatal day 21.5). Maternal exposure to 0.12, 1.2, and 12 mg/kg/day CYP affected the body and organ weight of the offspring. Exposure of CYP led to a dose-dependent decrease in the male-to-female sex ratio. A histopathological analysis revealed a thinner seminiferous epithelium layer at PD21.5, interstitial hyperplasia at PD45.5, and germ cell vacuolization at PD90.5 in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The TUNEL assay results revealed increased germ cell apoptosis in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The serum testosterone (T) level decreased, whereas the estradiol level increased with age in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The RT-PCR analysis demonstrated decreased expression of T production-related, mitosis-related, and meiosis-related genes in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The in vitro experimental results demonstrated reduced expression of steroidogenesis genes and decreased T levels. It is concluded that perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP affects testes development and function in adults. PMID:24810582

Huang, Chaobin; Li, Xiangdong

2014-01-01

64

Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB ( r = 0.54 to 0.57, p < 0.001). Further, IQ emerged as a powerful predictor of SRB after controlling for the effects of all the known covariates like fertility, maternal age, polygyny prevalence, wealth, son preference, latitude, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations.

Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

2013-06-01

65

Pinealon protects the rat offspring from prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia  

PubMed Central

The offspring of rats with experimental hyperhomocysteinemia caused by alimentary loading with dietary methionine within pregnancy has been studied. Using pinealon (Glu-Asp-Arg) under these conditions was found to result in the offspring cognitive function being improved significantly and their cerebellum neurons becoming more resistant to oxidative stress. This may be proved by the fact that the administration of pinealon to pregnant rats loaded with methionine improved their offspring spatial orientation and learning ability and decreased both reactive oxygen species accumulation and the number of necrotic cells in the population of the neurons isolated from the cerebellum of the offspring developed under the prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia. Our experiments allowed confirming the neuroprotective properties of pinealon, which is in agreement with the previous data obtained by us in vitro.

Arutjunyan, Alexander; Kozina, Lyudmila; Stvolinskiy, Sergey; Bulygina, Yelena; Mashkina, Anna; Khavinson, Vladimir

2012-01-01

66

Effects on development of the reproductive system in male offspring of rats given butyl benzyl phthalate during late pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of maternal exposure to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) on the development of the reproductive system in male offspring. Pregnant rats were given BBP by gastric intubation at 250, 500, or 1000 mg\\/kg on days 15 to 17 of pregnancy. A significant decrease in maternal body weight gain and food consumption

Makoto Ema; Emiko Miyawaki

2002-01-01

67

The links between prenatal stress and offspring development and psychopathology: disentangling environmental and inherited influences  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with later adverse health and adjustment outcomes. This is generally presumed to arise through early environmentally mediated programming effects on the foetus. However, associations could arise through factors that influence mothers' characteristics and behaviour during pregnancy which are inherited by offspring. Method A ‘prenatal cross-fostering’ design where pregnant mothers are related or unrelated to their child as a result of in vitro fertilization (IVF) was used to disentangle maternally inherited and environmental influences. If links between prenatal stress and offspring outcome are environmental, association should be observed in unrelated as well as related mother–child pairs. Offspring birth weight and gestational age as well as mental health were the outcomes assessed. Results Associations between prenatal stress and offspring birth weight, gestational age and antisocial behaviour were seen in both related and unrelated mother–offspring pairs, consistent with there being environmental links. The association between prenatal stress and offspring anxiety in related and unrelated groups appeared to be due to current maternal anxiety/depression rather than prenatal stress. In contrast, the link between prenatal stress and offspring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was only present in related mother–offspring pairs and therefore was attributable to inherited factors. Conclusions Genetically informative designs can be helpful in testing whether inherited factors contribute to the association between environmental risk factors and health outcomes. These results suggest that associations between prenatal stress and offspring outcomes could arise from inherited factors and post-natal environmental factors in addition to causal prenatal risk effects.

Rice, F.; Harold, G. T.; Boivin, J.; van den Bree, M.; Hay, D. F.; Thapar, A.

2010-01-01

68

Senior Leader Cognitive Development through Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Senior executives who completed the two-year distance education program of the United States Army War College showed significant development of their strategic-level cognitive skills. The Modified Career Path Appreciation (MCPA) survey was administered to seventy participants at the beginning of their graduate program in strategic studies and at…

Myers, Susan R.

2008-01-01

69

Cognitive Development in Students Evidencing Dyscalculia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In every school there are bright, motivated students who experience success in every field of academic endeavor except mathematics. These students are defined as dyscalculics, or learning disabled in mathematics. Piaget's model for cognitive development was used in a study of students evidencing this condition. The purpose of the study was to…

Tishler, Anne G.

70

Symposium Overview: Dynamic Modeling of Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes advantages of using dynamic models to understand cognitive functioning: (1) they are specifically intended to represent changes that systems undergo as they evolve; (2) they can capture change in a continuous fashion; (3) they can account for development of behavior that appears orderly at times and disorderly at others, and (4) chaotic…

Howe, Mark L.

1994-01-01

71

Application of Technology to Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a summary of research being conducted at the University of Minnesota in which new technologies are being applied to development of cognition in hearing impaired learners. The study involved an application of concept analysis, information-processing theories, and group-based interactive technology in the teaching of…

Wilson, Louise

72

Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

Chouinard, Michelle M.

2007-01-01

73

Acceleration of Cognitive Development of Kindergartners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested integrated learning set training on unidimensional classification, unidimensional seriation, and number conservation for kindergarten children lagging in cognitive development. Subjects (N=22) receiving instruction had low scores on Educational Ability Series (EAS) of Science Research Associates' Survey of Basic Skills. Subjects made twice…

Pasnak, Robert

1987-01-01

74

Mouse round spermatids developed in vitro from preexisting spermatocytes can produce normal offspring by nuclear injection into in vivo-developed mature oocytes.  

PubMed

It has been shown that mature oocytes injected with nuclei from round spermatids collected from mouse testis can generate normal offspring and that round spermatids can develop in vitro. An undetermined issue is whether spermatids developed in vitro are capable of generating fertile offspring by nuclear injection into oocytes. Herein, we report the production of normal and fertile offspring by nuclear injection using haploid spermatid donors derived from mouse primary spermatocyte precursors cocultured with Sertoli cells. Cocultured spermatogonia and spermatocytes were characterized by their nuclear immunoreactive patterns determined by an antibody to phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), a marker for DNA double-strand breaks. Cocultured round spermatid progenies display more than one motile flagellum, whose axonemes were recognized by antitubulin immunostaining. Flagellar wavelike movement and flagellar-driven propulsion of round spermatids developed in vitro were documented by videomicroscopy (http://www.sci.ccny.cuny.edu/ approximately kier). We also show that breeding of male and female mouse offspring generated by spermatid nuclear injection produced fertile offspring. In addition to their capacity to produce fertile offspring, cocultured, flagellated round spermatids can facilitate the analysis of the mechanisms of centriolar polarity, duplication, assembly, and flagellar growth, including the intraflagellar transport of cargo proteins. PMID:12620938

Marh, Joel; Tres, Laura L; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Kierszenbaum, Abraham L

2003-07-01

75

A Bayesian population analysis of the development of type 2 diabetes in the offspring of diabetic parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has received considerable attention, but little is known about the disease development\\u000a of T2D. The purposes of this study were to identify disease development variables (DDV) for development of T2D and to compare\\u000a corresponding models for disease development. All subjects included in this study were the offspring of diabetic parents and\\u000a were followed

C. W. Lin; J. H. Warram; P. Veng-Pedersen

76

Suboptimal maternal nutrition, during early fetal liver development, promotes lipid accumulation in the liver of obese offspring  

PubMed Central

Maternal nutrition during the period of early organ development can modulate the offspring's ability to metabolise excess fat as young adults when exposed to an obesogenic environment. This study examined the hypothesis that exposing offspring to nutrient restriction coincident with early hepatogenesis would result in endocrine and metabolic adaptations that subsequently lead to increased ectopic lipid accumulation within the liver. Pregnant sheep were fed either 50 or 100% of total metabolisable energy requirements from 30 to 80 days gestation and 100% thereafter. At weaning, offspring were made obese, and at ?1 year of age livers were sampled. Lipid infiltration and molecular indices of gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function were measured. Although hepatic triglyceride accumulation was not affected by obesity per se, it was nearly doubled in obese offspring born to nutrient-restricted mothers. This adaptation was accompanied by elevated gene expression for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPARG) and its co-activator PGC1?, which may be indicative of changes in the rate of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. In contrast, maternal diet had no influence on the stimulatory effect of obesity on gene expression for a range of proteins involved in glucose metabolism and energy balance including glucokinase, glucocorticoid receptors and uncoupling protein 2. Similarly, although gene expressions for the insulin and IGF1 receptors were suppressed by obesity they were not influenced by the prenatal nutritional environment. In conclusion, excess hepatic lipid accumulation with juvenile obesity is promoted by suboptimal nutrition coincident with early development of the fetal liver.

Hyatt, M A; Gardner, D S; Sebert, S; Wilson, V; Davidson, N; Nigmatullina, Y; Chan, L L Y; Budge, H; Symonds, M E

2011-01-01

77

Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

2001-01-01

78

Cognitive Development of Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has always been a common-sense view that the number of languages that children learn, whether through natural exposure or educational intervention, has consequences for their development. The assumption was that these consequences were potentially damaging. Even now, after approximately 50 years of research on the topic, parents remain…

Barac, Raluca; Bialystok, Ellen

2011-01-01

79

Parenting practices and intergenerational associations in cognitive ability  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive ability is an important contributor to life chances, with implications for cycles of advantage or disadvantage across generations. Parenting practices are known to influence offspring cognitive development, but the extent to which these mediate intergenerational continuities and discontinuities in cognitive ability has not been adequately studied. Methods We used factor analysis to derive summary measures of parenting practices, and regression analyses and path modelling to test associations between these and cognitive function at age 8 years in 1690 first offspring of the British 1946 birth cohort. Analyses allowed for direct and indirect effects of parental original and achieved social circumstances, educational attainment and own childhood cognitive ability. Additional covariates were provided by indicators of parental physical and mental health. Results Regression analyses revealed that three aspects of parenting, intellectual home environment, parental aspiration and cognitive stimulation, were positively and independently associated with offspring childhood cognitive ability, whereas coercive discipline was negatively and independently associated. Path modelling was appropriate for intellectual environment, which also revealed direct and indirect effects of parental cognitive ability and educational and occupational attainment on offspring cognitive ability. Conclusion Parenting practices, particularly provision of an intellectual environment, were directly associated with offspring cognitive development. These data add to the relatively few studies that examine intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in cognitive ability.

Byford, M; Kuh, D; Richards, M

2012-01-01

80

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

PubMed Central

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments.

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2011-01-01

81

Maternal nutrition during pregnancy influences offspring wool production and wool follicle development.  

PubMed

The effects of maternal nutrition on offspring wool production (quality and quantity) were evaluated. Primiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 84) were randomly allocated to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial design. Selenium treatment [adequate Se (ASe, 9.5 ?g/kg of BW) vs. high Se (HSe, 81.8 ?g/kg of BW)] was initiated at breeding, and maternal nutritional intake [control (CON, 100% of requirements) vs. restricted (60% of CON) vs. overfed (140% of CON)] was initiated at d 50 of gestation. Lamb birth weight was recorded at delivery, and all lambs were placed on the same diet immediately after birth to determine the effects of prenatal nutrition on postnatal wool production and follicle development. At 180 ± 2.2 d of age, lambs were necropsied and pelt weights were recorded. Wool samples were collected from the side and britch areas, whereas skin samples were collected from the side of each lamb only. Although Se status did not influence side staple length in males, female lambs born from ewes on the ASe treatment had a shorter staple length (P < 0.05) when compared with females from ewes on the HSe treatment. Maternal nutritional intake and Se status did not influence (P ? 0.23) wool characteristics on the britch. However, at the britch, wool from female lambs had a reduced comfort factor (P = 0.01) and a greater (P = 0.02) fiber diameter compared with wool from male lambs. Maternal Se supplementation, maternal nutritional plane, sex of the offspring, or their interactions had no effect (P > 0.13) on primary (29.10 ± 1.40/100 µm(2)) and secondary (529.84 ± 21.57/100 µm(2)) wool follicle numbers. Lambs from ASe ewes had a greater (P = 0.03) secondary:primary wool follicle ratio compared with lambs from HSe ewes (20.93 vs. 18.01 ± 1.00). Despite similar postnatal diets, wool quality was affected by maternal Se status and the maternal nutritional plane. PMID:21622885

Magolski, J D; Luther, J S; Neville, T L; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A

2011-11-01

82

Maternal sympathetic stress impairs follicular development and puberty of the offspring.  

PubMed

Chronic cold stress applied to adult rats activates ovarian sympathetic innervation and develops polycystic ovary (PCO) phenotype. The PCO syndrome in humans originates during early development and is expressed before or during puberty, which suggests that the condition derived from in utero exposure to neural- or metabolic-derived insults. We studied the effects of maternal sympathetic stress on the ovarian follicular development and on the onset of puberty of female offspring. Timed pregnant rats were exposed to chronic cold stress (4?°C, 3?h/daily from 1000 to 1300?h) during the entire pregnancy. Neonatal rats exposed to sympathetic stress during gestation had a lower number of primary, primordial, and secondary follicles in the ovary and a lower recruitment of primary and secondary follicles derived from the primordial follicular pool. The expression of the FSH receptor and response of the neonatal ovary to FSH were reduced. A decrease in nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA was found without change in the low-affinity NGF receptor. The FSH-induced development of secondary follicles was decreased. At puberty, estradiol plasma levels decreased without changes in LH plasma levels. Puberty onset (as shown by the vaginal opening) was delayed. Ovarian norepinephrine (NE) was reduced; there was no change in its metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, in stressed rats and no change in NE turnover. The changes in ovarian NE in prepubertal rats stressed during gestation could represent a lower development of sympathetic nerves as a compensatory response to the chronically increased NE levels during gestation and hence participate in delaying reproductive performance in the rat. PMID:24811779

Barra, Rafael; Cruz, Gonzalo; Mayerhofer, Artur; Paredes, Alfonso; Lara, Hernán E

2014-08-01

83

A trade-off between embryonic development rate and immune function of avian offspring is revealed by considering embryonic temperature  

PubMed Central

Long embryonic periods are assumed to reflect slower intrinsic development that are thought to trade off to allow enhanced physiological systems, such as immune function. Yet, the relatively rare studies of this trade-off in avian offspring have not found the expected trade-off. Theory and tests have not taken into account the strong extrinsic effects of temperature on embryonic periods of birds. Here, we show that length of the embryonic period did not explain variation in two measures of immune function when temperature was ignored, based on studies of 34 Passerine species in tropical Venezuela (23 species) and north temperate Arizona (11 species). Variation in immune function was explained when embryonic periods were corrected for average embryonic temperature, in order to better estimate intrinsic rates of development. Immune function of offspring trades off with intrinsic rates of embryonic development once the extrinsic effects of embryonic temperatures are taken into account.

Martin, Thomas E.; Arriero, Elena; Majewska, Ania

2011-01-01

84

Maternal exposure to combustion generated PM inhibits pulmonary Th1 maturation and concomitantly enhances postnatal asthma development in offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies suggest that maternal exposure to environmental hazards, such as particulate matter, is associated with increased incidence of asthma in childhood. We hypothesized that maternal exposure to combustion derived ultrafine particles containing persistent free radicals (MCP230) disrupts the development of the infant immune system and results in aberrant immune responses to allergens and enhances asthma severity. Methods Pregnant C57/BL6 mice received MCP230 or saline by oropharyngeal aspiration on gestational days 10 and 17. Three days after the second administration, blood was collected from MCP230 or saline treated dams and 8-isoprostanes in the serum were measured to assess maternal oxidative stress. Pulmonary T cell populations were assayed in the infant mice at six days, three and six weeks of postnatal age. When the infant mice matured to adults (i.e. six weeks of age), an asthma model was established with ovalbumin (OVA). Airway inflammation, mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness were then examined. Results Maternal exposure to MCP230 induced systemic oxidative stress. The development of pulmonary T helper (Th1/Th2/Th17) and T regulatory (Treg) cells were inhibited in the infant offspring from MCP230-exposed dams. As the offspring matured, the development of Th2 and Treg cells recovered and eventually became equivalent to that of offspring from non-exposed dams. However, Th1 and Th17 cells remained attenuated through 6 weeks of age. Following OVA sensitization and challenge, mice from MCP230-exposed dams exhibited greater airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilia and pulmonary Th2 responses compared to offspring from non-exposed dams. Conclusions Our data suggest that maternal exposure to MCP230 enhances postnatal asthma development in mice, which might be related to the inhibition of pulmonary Th1 maturation and systemic oxidative stress in the dams.

2013-01-01

85

Multivitamin supplementation of Wistar rats during pregnancy accelerates the development of obesity in offspring fed an obesogenic diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The effect of gestational multivitamin supplementation on the development of obesity in rat offspring fed an obesogenic diet was investigated.Design:Pregnant Wistar rats (n=10 per group) were fed the AIN-93G diet with the recommended vitamin (RV) content or a 10-fold increase (high vitamin, HV). At weaning, 10 males and 10 females, from separate dams, and from each gestational diet group were

I M Y Szeto; P J Das; A Aziz; G H Anderson

2009-01-01

86

Methods of Assessing Cognitive Aspects of Early Reading Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help teachers understand the cognitive development that occurs as children learn to read, the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) has created The Cognitive Foundations of Learning to Read: A Framework. It describes the various cognitive domains that research has shown to be necessary for reading acquisition, and also illustrates…

Wren, Sebastian

87

Role of selenium and glutathione peroxidase on development, growth, and oxidative balance in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se), an essential trace metal, is important in both growth and reproduction and is the constituent of different selenoproteins. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) family is the most studied as it prevents oxidative stress. Liver oxidation is considered as another mechanism involved in low birth weight. Therefore, in order to ascertain whether GPx is related to the effects of Se on growth during gestation and lactation, three groups of rat pups were used: control, Se deficient (SD), and Se supplemented (SS). Morphological parameters and reproductive indices were evaluated. Hepatic Se levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption while spectrophotometry was used for activity of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in liver and western blotting for expression of hepatic GPx1 and GPx4. The SD diet increased mortality at birth; decreased viability and survival indices; and stunted growth, length, and liver development in offspring, thus decreasing hepatic Se levels, GPx, glutathione reductase, and catalase activities, while increasing superoxide dismutase activity and protein oxidation. The SS diet counteracted all the above results. GPx1 expression was heavily regulated by Se dietary intake; however, although Se dietary deficiency reduced GPx4 expression, this decrease was not as pronounced. Therefore, it can be concluded that Se dietary intake is intimately related to growth, length, and directly regulating GPx activity primarily via GPx1 and secondly to GPx4, thus affecting liver oxidation and development. These results suggest that if risk of uterine growth retardation is suspected, or if a neonate with low birth weight presents with signs of liver oxidation, it may be beneficial to know about Se status. PMID:24080144

Nogales, Fátima; Ojeda, M Luisa; Fenutría, María; Murillo, M Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia

2013-12-01

88

Maternal immune activation causes age- and region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring throughout development.  

PubMed

Maternal infection is a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Indeed, modeling this risk factor in mice through maternal immune activation (MIA) causes ASD- and SZ-like neuropathologies and behaviors in the offspring. Although MIA upregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines in the fetal brain, whether MIA leads to long-lasting changes in brain cytokines during postnatal development remains unknown. Here, we tested this possibility by measuring protein levels of 23 cytokines in the blood and three brain regions from offspring of poly(I:C)- and saline-injected mice at five postnatal ages using multiplex arrays. Most cytokines examined are present in sera and brains throughout development. MIA induces changes in the levels of many cytokines in the brains and sera of offspring in a region- and age-specific manner. These MIA-induced changes follow a few, unexpected and distinct patterns. In frontal and cingulate cortices, several, mostly pro-inflammatory, cytokines are elevated at birth, followed by decreases during periods of synaptogenesis and plasticity, and increases again in the adult. Cytokines are also altered in postnatal hippocampus, but in a pattern distinct from the other regions. The MIA-induced changes in brain cytokines do not correlate with changes in serum cytokines from the same animals. Finally, these MIA-induced cytokine changes are not accompanied by breaches in the blood-brain barrier, immune cell infiltration or increases in microglial density. Together, these data indicate that MIA leads to long-lasting, region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring-similar to those reported for ASD and SZ-that may alter CNS development and behavior. PMID:22841693

Garay, Paula A; Hsiao, Elaine Y; Patterson, Paul H; McAllister, A K

2013-07-01

89

Maternal nutrient restriction during early fetal kidney development attenuates the renal innate inflammatory response in obese young adult offspring  

PubMed Central

Obesity is an independent risk factor for developing chronic kidney disease. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-18, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) are important components of the innate immune system mediating inflammatory renal damage. Early to midgestation maternal nutrient restriction appears to protect the kidney from the deleterious effects of early onset obesity, although the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the combined effects of gestational maternal nutrient restriction during early fetal kidney development and early onset obesity on the renal innate immune response in offspring. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to a normal (control, 100%) or nutrient-restricted (NR, 50%) diet from days 30 to 80 gestation and 100% thereafter. Offspring were killed humanely at 7 days or, following rearing in an obesogenic environment, at 1 yr of age, and renal tissues were collected. IL-18 and TLR4 expression were strongly correlated irrespective of intervention. Seven-day NR offspring had significantly lower relative renal mass and IL-18 mRNA expression. At 1 yr of age, obesity resulted in increased mRNA abundance of TLR4, IL-18, and UCP2, coupled with tubular atrophy and greater immunohistological staining of glomerular IL-6 and medullary tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. NR obese offspring had a marked reduction of TLR4 abundance and renal IL-6 staining. In conclusion, maternal nutrient restriction during early fetal kidney development attenuates the effects of early onset obesity-related nephropathy, in part, through the downregulation of the innate inflammatory response. A better understanding of maternal nutrition and the in utero nutritional environment may offer therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing the burden of later kidney disease.

Sharkey, Don; Gardner, David S.; Budge, Helen

2009-01-01

90

Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development.  

PubMed

Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it. This information is available to them when they are particularly receptive to it, and because it comes as the result of their own disequilibrium, it may have depth of processing benefits. In that questions allow children to get information they need to move their knowledge structures closer to adult-like states, the ability to ask questions to gather needed information constitutes an efficient mechanism for cognitive development (referred to in this paper as the Information Requesting Mechanism [IRM]; this term is used because it includes question-asking and other information recruiting behaviors such as gestures, expressions, and vocalizations). However, the role of children's questions in their cognitive development has been largely overlooked. If questions are a force in cognitive development, the following must be true: (1) children must actually ask questions that gather information; (2) children must receive informative answers to their questions if they are able to be of use to cognitive development; (3) children must be motivated to get the information they request, rather than asking questions for other purposes such as attention; (4) the questions children ask must be relevant and of potential use to their cognitive development; (5) we must see evidence that children's questions help them in some way-that is, that they can ask questions for a purpose, and use the information they receive purposefully to successfully achieve some change of knowledge state. This monograph reports data on these points. Study 1 analyzed questions taken from four children's transcripts in the CHILDES database (age 1;2-5;1). This methodology allowed detailed, veridical analysis of every question asked by the children during their recording sessions. Results indicate that children ask many information-seeking questions and get informative answers. When they do not get an informative response, they keep asking; attention is not enough. Results also indicate that the content of children's questions parallel their conceptual advances, and shift within an exchange and over the course of development to reflect the learning process. So, these data suggest that the components of the IRM are in place and are used by children from very early in development, and the information they seek changes with time. Study 2 asked whether preverbal children who are not yet asking linguistic questions can recruit information via gestures, expressions, and vocalizations, in addition to further investigating the linguistic questions of older children. This study analyzed questions from a cross-sectional diary study, kept by 68 parents of their children's questions (aged 1;0-5;0). Also, this methodology allowed for data collection over a large number of children, a large range of situational contexts, and allows for the collection of low frequency, high-salience events. Results from Study 2 suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place, and extends these findings down to younger, preverbal children who recruit information using gesture and vocalizations. Study 3 investigated the questions asked in one specific domain, biological knowledge, and examined the impact that different stimulus types have on children's questions. This study gathered data from 112 parent/child dyads (children aged 2, 3, and 4 years) walking through one of three zoos (one with real animals, one with drawings of animals, and one with three-dimensional replicas of animals), looking at the animals together. Results from this study also suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place from the earliest age, further supporting the findings from Studies 1 and 2. In addition, while children still ask many nonbiological questions a

Chouinard, Michael M

2007-01-01

91

Prenatal Bystander Stress Alters Brain, Behavior, and the Epigenome of Developing Rat Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prenatal environment, including prenatal stress, has been extensively studied in laboratory animals and humans. However, studies of the prenatal environment usually directly stress pregnant females, but stress may come ‘indirectly’, through stress to a cage-mate. The current study used indirect prenatal bystander stress and investigated the effects on the gross morphology, pre-weaning behavior, and epigenome of rat offspring. Pregnant

Richelle Mychasiuk; Nichole Schmold; Slava Ilnytskyy; Olga Kovalchuk; Bryan Kolb; Robbin Gibb

2011-01-01

92

Multifaceted Defense against Antagonistic Microbes in Developing Offspring of the Parasitoid Wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae)  

PubMed Central

Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R)-(-)-mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R)-(-)-mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum). We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R)-(-)-mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several antimicrobials in solution and vapor form has apparently evolved to reliably protect the larvae themselves and their food against a broad range of antagonistic microbes.

Weiss, Katharina; Parzefall, Christopher; Herzner, Gudrun

2014-01-01

93

Exposure to low doses of formaldehyde during pregnancy suppresses the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational pollutant, and its toxic effects on the immune system have been shown. Nevertheless, no data are available regarding the programming mechanisms after FA exposure and its repercussions for the immune systems of offspring. In this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of low-dose exposure of FA on pregnant rats and its repercussion for the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned in 3 groups: P (rats exposed to FA (0.75ppm, 1h/day, 5days/week, for 21days)), C (rats exposed to vehicle of FA (distillated water)) and B (rats non-manipulated). After 30days of age, the offspring was sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and challenged with aerosolized OVA (1%, 15min, 3days). After 24h the OVA challenge the parameters were evaluated. Our data showed that low-dose exposure to FA during pregnancy induced low birth weight and suppressed the development of allergic lung inflammation and tracheal hyperresponsiveness in offspring by mechanisms mediated by reduced anaphylactic antibodies synthesis, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion. Elevated levels of IL-10 were found. Any systemic alteration was detected in the exposed pregnant rats, although oxidative stress in the uterine environment was evident at the moment of the delivery based on elevated COX-1 expression and reduced cNOS and SOD-2 in the uterus. Therefore, we show the putative programming mechanisms induced by FA on the immune system for the first time and the mechanisms involved may be related to oxidative stress in the foetal microenvironment. PMID:24844129

Maiellaro, Marília; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Gimenes Júnior, João Antônio; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-Dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

2014-08-01

94

Oligofructose supplementation during pregnancy and lactation impairs offspring development and alters the intestinal properties of 21-d-old pups  

PubMed Central

Background Previously, we showed that the intake of trans fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation triggers a pro-inflammatory status in the offspring. On the other hand, prebiotics can alter the intestinal environment, reducing serum lipopolysaccharides (LPS) concentrations. This study evaluated the effect of the oligofructose 10% diet supplementation in the presence or absence of hydrogenated vegetable fat during pregnancy and lactation on the development, endotoxemia and bacterial composition of 21-d-old offspring. Methods On the first day of pregnancy rats were divided into four groups: control diet (C), control diet supplemented with 10% oligofructose (CF), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat, rich in TFA (T) or diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with 10% oligofructose (TF). Diets were maintained during pregnancy and lactation. At birth, 7th, 14th and 21th, pups were weighed and length was measured. Serum concentrations of LPS and free fatty acids (FFA) were performed by specific kits. Bacterial DNA present in faeces was determined by real-time PCR. Data were expressed as mean?±?standard error of the mean and the statistical analysis was realized by ANOVA two-way and ANOVA for repeated measures. p?offspring, accompanied by an increase in serum LPS and genomic DNA levels of lactobacillus spp. on faeces of the CF group in relation to C group. Conclusion In conclusion, dam’s diet supplementation with 10% of oligofructose during pregnancy and lactation, independent of addition with hydrogenated vegetable fat, harms the offspring development, alters the bacterial composition and increases the serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharides in 21d-old pups.

2014-01-01

95

Offspring, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two 1996 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers and pertinent to the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to parents, teachers, and others and aim to provide a forum for views…

Rosenthal, Marilynn, Ed.; And Others

1996-01-01

96

Offspring, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two 1995 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers including the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to practitioners and are frequently accompanied by classroom activities.…

Offspring, 1995

1995-01-01

97

Measuring higher cognitive development in anatomy and physiology students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the higher cognitive development of college science students, performance on lecture exams at different cognitive levels was measured in a two-semester sequence of anatomy and physiology at Idaho State University. Lecture exams consisted of multiple-choice test items, each classified at various cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. These included the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels. The investigation comprised

Christopher Dobson

2001-01-01

98

[The impact of male phytoestrogenization on the somato-sexual development and fertility of the offsprings in rats].  

PubMed

The effect of phytoestrogen-rich diet administered to male rats in a dose 20 mg/kg of body weight for 30 days with the mixture of phytoestrogens on reproductive function of male offspring and the effect of additional phytoestrogenization during milk feeding have been investigated. It was shown that male phytoestrogenization leads to feminization of the offsprings. Specifically, at birth, the ano-genital distance in males was less than that measured in control rats: (2.7 +/- 0.1) vs (3.1 +/- 0.0) mm (P < 0.05). This and additional phytoestrogenization of newborn rats during milk feeding inhibit their somatic and sexual development, weakening sexual activity in adults and reducing fertility at the expense of dectreased fertilizing capacity of sperm. A possible mechanism for the observed effects may be a reduction of relative androgenization due to increased of estradiol concentration by 3-4 times. Analysis of the data revealed a significant impact of phytoestrogens in father's diet on reproductive function of their offsprings under conditions of additional phytoestrogenization after birth. PMID:25007526

2014-01-01

99

Neurotoxicological effects of low-dose methylmercury and mercuric chloride in developing offspring mice.  

PubMed

Mercury is a well-known toxic metal and potently induces severe neurotoxicological effects, especially in infants and children. The purpose of this study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of neurotoxic effects of mercurial compounds on the different stages of developing mice. Low-doses (the probability of human exposure in mercury-contaminated areas) of methylmercury (MeHg) (M, 0.02mg/kg/day) and mercury chloride (HgCl(2)) (H, 0.5mg/kg/day) were administered to mice of the following groups: (1) treatment with distilled water for 7 consecutive weeks after weaning (control-vehicle (CV)); exposure to mercurial compounds at different stages; (2) for 7 consecutive weeks after weaning (control-MeHg (CM) and control-HgCl(2) (CH)); (3) only during perinatal and weaning stages (MeHg-vehicle (MV) and HgCl-vehicle (HV)); and (4) in all experimental stages (MeHg-MeHg (MM) and HgCl(2)-HgCl(2) (HH)). Results revealed the neurobehavioral defects (increased locomotor activities, motor equilibrium impairment, and auditory dysfunction) that correlated with increasing Hg accumulation in CM and CH groups. However, it revealed a decrease and an increase in locomotor activities in MV and HV groups, respectively; these became more severe in MM and HH groups than in MV and HV groups. Motor equilibrium performance in MV and HV groups remained normal, while that in MM and HH groups was decreased. The most severe auditory defects (altered auditory brainstem response, ABR test) found in MM and HH groups than those in the respective CM and CH, MV and HV, including absolute wave III delays and interwave I-III latencies, which suggested that the irreversible auditory dysfunction caused by mercurial compounds. Furthermore, the alteration of lipid peroxidation (LPO), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities, and nitric oxide (NO(x)) in the brain tissues contributed to the observed neurobehavioral dysfunction and hearing impairment. These findings provide evidence that fetuses were much more susceptible to the effects of mercurial compounds with regard to inducing severely neurotoxicological injuries as that found in human beings. The signaling of ROS/Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/NO(x) plays a crucial role in the underlying mechanism for mercurial compound-induced toxic effects in offspring. PMID:21195143

Huang, Chun-Fa; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn

2011-03-25

100

The Intergenerational Effects of Parental Schooling on the Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Development of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, using the National Child Development Study, estimates the causal relationship between parents' schooling and children's cognitive and non-cognitive development using the 1947 compulsory schooling legislation in Great Britain. The least squares estimates suggest strong correlations between parental education and these developmental…

Silles, Mary A.

2011-01-01

101

The Impact of Maternal Cigarette Smoke Exposure in a Rodent Model on Renal Development in the Offspring  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate whether maternal cigarette smoke exposure can disrupt fetal kidney development by changing the expression of growth and transcription factors essential for renal development, and thereafter predispose the offspring to chronic kidney disease later in life. Female Balb/c mice (6 weeks) were exposed either to cigarette smoke or air under identical conditions, 6 weeks prior to mating, during gestation and during lactation. Male offspring were sacrificed at three time points, postnatal day (P)1, P20 (weaning age), and 13 weeks (mature age). Blood, urine, and kidneys were collected for analysis. At P1, the developmental genes fibroblast growth factor 2, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and paired box 2 were upregulated at mRNA and protein levels; whilst fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 7 and FGF10 were downregulated. At P20, mRNA expression of FGF2, FGF10 and Wingless-type 4 was upregulated by maternal smoke exposure. These changes were normalised in adulthood. Nephron development was delayed, with fewer nephron numbers from P1 persisted to adulthood; while glomerular volume was increased at P20 but reduced in adulthood. Pro-inflammatory marker monocyte chemoatractant protein 1 (MCP1) was increased in the kidney by maternal smoke exposure. These changes were accompanied by an increased albumin/creatinine ratio in adulthood, suggesting reduced renal dysfunction. In conclusion maternal cigarette smoke exposure prior to and during pregnancy, as well as lactation leads to significant renal underdevelopment and functional abnormalities in adulthood. This study confirms the hypothesis that maternal smoking predisposes offspring to chronic kidney disorders.

Al-Odat, Ibrahim; Chen, Hui; Chan, Yik Lung; Amgad, Sawiris; Wong, Muh Geot; Gill, Anthony; Pollock, Carol; Saad, Sonia

2014-01-01

102

Age-dependent effects of prenatal stress on the corticolimbic dopaminergic system development in the rat male offspring.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that prenatal stress (PS) exerts an impairment of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) system metabolism especially after puberty, suggesting a particular sensitivity of DA development to variations in gonadal hormonal peaks. Furthermore we demonstrated that PS alters the long term androgens profile of the rat male offspring from prepubertal to adult stages. In this work we evaluated the sexual hormones activational effects on the DA system by analysing PS effects on the dopaminergic D2-like (D2R) and on the gonadal hormones receptor levels on cortical and hippocampal areas of prepubertal and adult male offspring. We further evaluated the dendritic arborization in the same areas by quantifying MAP2 immunoexpresion. Our results show that PS affected oestrogen receptor alpha (ER?) expression: mRNA er1s and ER? protein levels were decreased on prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of adult offspring. Moreover, PS reduced D2R protein levels in hippocampus of prepubertal rats. Morphological studies revealed that prepubertal PS rats presented decreased MAP2 immunoexpression in both areas suggesting that PS reduces the number of dendritic arborizations. Our findings suggest that PS exerts long-term effects on the DA system by altering the normal connectivity in the areas, and by modulating the expression of D2R and ER? in an age-related pattern. Since the developing forebrain DA system was shown to be influenced by androgen exposure, and PS was shown to disrupt perinatal testosterone surges, our results suggest that prenatal insults might be affecting the organizational role of androgens and differentially modulating their activational role on the DA development. PMID:24013886

Pallarés, María Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier; Adrover, Ezequiela; Monteleone, Melisa Carolina; Brocco, Marcela Adriana; Antonelli, Marta Cristina

2013-11-01

103

Development of a Brief Cognitive Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Neurocognitive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a brief cognitive screen for possible Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and other neurocognitive impairment in a sample of general medical patients. Two hundred community-dwelling general medical patients aged 65 or older participated in this study. Age and education corrected scores from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Mattis Dementia

John L. Woodard; Elinor S. W. Dorsett; James G. Cooper; Bruce P. Hermann; Mark A. Sager

2005-01-01

104

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

105

The Relation between Cognitive Development and Anxiety Phenomena in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the relation between cognitive development and fear, anxiety, and behavioral inhibition in a non-clinical sample of 226 Dutch children aged 4-9 years. To assess cognitive development, children were tested with Piagetian conservation tasks and a Theory-of-Mind (TOM) test. Fears were measured by means of a self-report scale completed by…

Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter

2009-01-01

106

Restructuring Heterogeneous Classes for Cognitive Development: Social Interactive Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of students in grades three, four, and five that tried an educational application derived from the social constructivism view based on theories of Vygotsky and Piaget to improve cognitive development in a heterogeneous class. Path analysis showed that complex learning techniques are related to cognitive development. (Author/LRW)

Ben-Ari, Rachel; Kedem-Friedrich, Peri

2000-01-01

107

Female effects on offspring energetic status and consequences on early development in yolk feeding brown trout (Salmo trutta).  

PubMed

Energetic status can be defined as the interaction between energy stores and metabolic rate. In salmonids, it is variable and influences the timing of emergence, and therefore may have strong effects on both juvenile and maternal fitness. The aim of this study is to (i) describe the ontogeny of energy use for different brown trout clutches to understand how such a variability of energetic status is developed at the end of incubation and (ii) to estimate maternal influences over offspring physiological processes. Using individual measures of total mass and metabolism throughout ontogeny combined with a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach, we successfully described clutch-specific (i) metabolic trajectories, (ii) use of yolk resources and the building of new tissues throughout ontogeny. Our results show that females laying large eggs have offspring with lower metabolic costs and higher yolk conversion efficiencies. Females also influence within clutch variance of metabolic and yolk consumption rates leading to potential developmental variations. These results are discussed with regard to their consequences on early life history through the critical period of emergence. PMID:22777730

Régnier, Thomas; Bolliet, Valérie; Gaudin, Philippe; Labonne, Jacques

2012-07-01

108

Effects of maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on fetal brain growth and motor and behavioral development in offspring rats.  

PubMed

The effects of maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during pregnancy on fetal brain growth and neurobehavioral development in early developmental stages were investigated using rat offspring. TCDD in corn-oil (0.1microg/kg) was orally administrated to the dams from the 9th to 19th gestational day. When TCDD effects on the fetal brain weight were analyzed on the 19th gestational day, weight ratio of the brain to the whole body, and that of the forebrain without the cerebral cortex to the whole brain were larger in the exposed group than those of the control group, suggesting premature fetal brain development. TCDD effects on motor functions were investigated using newborns in an inclined plane task. Motor development assessed by righting response on an inclination was delayed in the exposed offspring in the 8th-12th postnatal day, especially in male. Also, TCDD effects on active avoidance behavior in a shuttle box were investigated using the offspring after weaning. Latency in the active avoidance learning was longer, and locomotor activity was reduced in the exposed male offspring in the 41st-44th postnatal day. The results demonstrated that maternal TCDD exposure delayed fetal brain growth and neurodevelopment of the offspring in early stage, especially in male rats. PMID:17669605

Nishijo, Muneko; Kuriwaki, Jun-Ichi; Hori, Etsuro; Tawara, Kenji; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nishijo, Hisao

2007-08-30

109

Computer-based Cognitive Assessment and the Development of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a longitudinal study using the computer-based cognitive assessment system CoPS, and considers the applicability of this system in the early identification of cognitive strengths and limitations that affect the development of reading. Concludes that short-term memory is an important predictor variable for reading, in addition to the more…

Singleton, Chris; Thomas, Kevin; Horne, Joanna

2000-01-01

110

The Organization and Integration of Cognition and Emotion in Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes psychological approaches to study of cognition and emotion, identifies issues that may provide direction to understanding the organization and integration of cognition and emotion in development. Maintains that an integrative model for the study of "cogmotion" is needed, suggesting that cogmotion research will contribute to the exchange…

Barnett, Douglas; Ratner, Hilary Horn

1997-01-01

111

Language in Cognitive Development: The Emergence of the Mediated Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents an integrated theory of cognitive development in infancy and early childhood, emphasizing the role of language in memory, processing narratives, forming concepts, and understanding others' intentions. Chapter 1, "Language, Cognition, and Culture in Developmental Perspective," presents the experiential theoretical approach and…

Nelson, Katherine

112

Reciprocal and Inversion Reversibility in Language Acquisition and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kindergarten and first-grade children participated in a study of the role of reciprocal and inversion reversibility in language acquisition and cognitive development. Subjects completed cognitive tasks assessing conservation, seriation, and class inclusion, and language tasks assessing the active-passive transformation and the negative…

Flora, June Annette

113

Neuromodulation of Behavioral and Cognitive Development across the Life Span  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…

Li, Shu-Chen

2012-01-01

114

Ethical principles and guidelines for the development of cognitive systems.  

SciTech Connect

As cognitive systems technologies emerge, so too do the ethical issues surrounding their development and use. To develop cognitive systems technologies responsibly, Sandia National Laboratories is establishing a framework to proactively address both real and potential ethical issues. This report contains the principles and guidelines developers can use to guide them as they are confronted with ethical issues related to developing cognitive systems technologies as they apply to U.S. national security. A process to apply these principles offers a practical way to transfer these principles from paper to a working strategy. Case studies are presented to reflect upon potential scenarios and to consider resolution strategies.

Shaneyfelt, Wendy

2006-05-01

115

Maternal sleep deprivation inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis associated with inflammatory response in young offspring rats.  

PubMed

Although sleep complaints are very common among pregnant women, the potential adverse effects of sleep disturbance on the offspring are not well studied. Growing evidence suggests that maternal stress can induce an inflammatory environment on the fetal development. But people are not sure about the consequences of prenatal stress such as the inflammatory responses induced by maternal sleep deprivation (MSD). In the present study, we investigated the effects of MSD on long-term behavioral and cognitive consequences in offspring and its underlying inflammatory response pathway. The pregnant Wistar rats received prolonged sleep deprivation (72h) on gestational day (GD) 4, 9, and 18, respectively. The post-natal day (PND) 21 offspring showed impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory in the Morris Water Maze task and anhedonia in sucrose preference experiment. Quantification of BrdU(+) and DCX(+) cells revealed a significant decrease in hippocampus neurogenesis in prepuberty offspring, especially for the late MSD (GD 18) group. Real-time RT-PCR showed that after MSD, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF?) increased in the hippocampus of offspring on PND 1, 7, 14 and 21, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 reduced at the same time. Immunofluorescence found that the cells of activated microglia were higher in the brains of MSD offspring. Taken together, these results suggested that the MSD-induced inflammatory response is an important factor for neurogenesis impairment and neurobehavioral outcomes in prepuberty offspring. PMID:24769004

Zhao, Qiuying; Peng, Cheng; Wu, Xiaohui; Chen, Yubo; Wang, Cheng; You, Zili

2014-08-01

116

Prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide impaired the maternal care and the physical and behavioral development of offspring rats.  

PubMed

Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) have been reported as contaminants of pastures and food, as well as being used in herbal medicine. PAs are responsible for poisoning events in livestock and human beings. The aim of this present study was to evaluate effects of prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide, the main PA found in the butanolic residue (BR) of Senecio brasiliensis, on both physical and behavioral parameters of Wistar rat offspring. The toxicity and maternal behavior were also evaluated. For this, pregnant Wistar rats received integerrimine N-oxide from the BR of Senecio brasiliensis, by gavage, on gestational days 6-20 (during organogenesis and fetal development period) at doses of 3, 6 and 9mg/kg. During treatment, maternal body weight gain, and food and water intake were evaluated. After parturition, maternal behavior and aggressive maternal behavior were analyzed. In addition, physical development and behavioral assessments were observed in both male and female pups. Results showed that prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide of S. brasiliensis induced maternal toxicity, impairment in maternal behavior and aggressive maternal behavior, mainly in the highest dose group. Between sexes comparison of pups showed loss of body weight, delayed physical development such as pinna detachment, hair growth, eruption of incisor teeth, eye and vaginal openings. These pups also showed a delay of palmar grasp, surface righting reflex, negative geotaxis and auditory startle reflexes. Thus, prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide induces maternal toxicity, impairment of maternal care and delayed in physical and behavioral development of the offspring. PMID:24881561

Sandini, Thaísa M; Udo, Mariana S B; Reis-Silva, Thiago M; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Spinosa, Helenice de S

2014-08-01

117

Measuring cognitive vulnerability to depression: Development and validation of the cognitive style questionnaire  

PubMed Central

The Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ) measures the cognitive vulnerability factor featured in the hopelessness theory of depression. The CSQ has been used in over 30 published studies since its inception, yet detailed information about the psychometric and validity properties of this instrument has yet to be published. In this article, we describe the development of the CSQ and review reliability and validity evidence. Findings to date using college samples, indicate that the CSQ is a reliable measure of cognitive vulnerability with a high degree of construct validity.

Haeffel, Gerald J.; Gibb, Brandon E.; Metalsky, Gerald I.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Swendsen, Joel D.

2014-01-01

118

Paternal Age in Relation to Offspring Intelligence in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The adverse effects of advancing maternal age on offspring's health and development are well understood. Much less is known about the impact of paternal age. Methods We explored paternal age-offspring cognition associations in 772 participants from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Offspring cognitive ability was assessed using Part 1 of the Alice Heim 4 (AH4) test of General Intelligence and by reaction time (RT). Results There was no evidence of a parental age association with offspring RT. However, we observed an inverse U-shaped association between paternal age and offspring AH4 score with the lowest scores observed for the youngest and oldest fathers. Adjustment for parental education and socioeconomic status somewhat attenuated this association. Adjustment for number of, particularly older, siblings further reduced the scores of children of younger fathers and appeared to account for the lower offspring scores in the oldest paternal age group. Conclusion We observed a paternal age association with AH4 but not RT, a measure of cognition largely independent of social and educational experiences. Factors such as parental education, socioeconomic status and number of, particularly older, siblings may play an important role in accounting for paternal age-AH4 associations. Future studies should include parental intelligence.

Whitley, Elise; Deary, Ian J.; Der, Geoff; Batty, G. David; Benzeval, Michaela

2012-01-01

119

Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides.  

PubMed

The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase in gestation length was seen, while in male offspring increased nipple retention and increased incidence and severity of genital malformations were observed. Severe mixture effects on gestation length, nipple retention and genital malformations were seen at dose levels where the individual pesticides caused no or smaller effects when given alone. Generally, the mixture effect predictions based on dose-additivity were in good agreement with the observed effects. The results indicate that there is a need for modification of risk assessment procedures for pesticides, in order to take account of the mixture effects and cumulative intake, because of the potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on development and reproduction in humans. PMID:22659286

Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Herrmann, Susan Strange; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Clemmensen, Line Harder; Axelstad, Marta

2012-09-01

120

Brain Electrical Activity Changes and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship of cognitive developmental changes to physiological and anatomical changes by measuring both types of data within the same subjects. Cortical electrical activity was measured in 24 males between 10 and 12 years of age. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from midline scalp electrodes during a…

Hartley, Deborah; Thomas, David G.

121

Developing Cognitive Learnings with Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary study explores (1) the relationship between children's behavioral responses to cognitive tasks in a testing situation and in a nursery school environment, and (2) the relationship of the above responses to sex, race, and class differences. Studies by Sigel investigating the classification behavior of preschool children, and by…

Haupt, Dorothy

122

Critical periods of susceptibility to short-term energy challenge during pregnancy: impact on fertility and offspring development  

PubMed Central

In female mammals, reproduction is tightly regulated by energy status and food availability. Although acute energetic challenges inhibit female reproductive behavior and gonadotropin secretion, less attention has been given to the effects of short-term energetic challenge on pregnancy and gestation. Furthermore, species differences in pregnancy physiology necessitate more detailed analyses of specific pregnancy models. Here, we studied musk shrews, which display induced ovulation and obligate delayed implantation, and whose reproductive physiology is tightly linked to metabolic status. We tested whether acute energetic challenges of vary degrees given at specific pregnancy stages (including before and after delayed implantation) have different effects on gestational outcome and offspring postnatal development. We found that 48 h of either 40% or 50% food restriction, which reduced body weight and strongly inhibited sexual behavior, had minimal effects on pregnancy success and litter dynamics when administered early in gestation (pre-implantation). However, <30% of females experiencing short-term food restriction later in gestation successfully gave birth (versus ?70% of ad-libitum fed controls), and the pups of these food-restricted females exhibited a 30% slower postnatal growth trajectory. Interestingly, although pregnancy success and litter dynamics were unaffected by food restriction before implantation, gestation length was increased by metabolic challenges experienced at this time, indicating that energy status may regulate the timing of implantation. We conclude that 1) there are critical periods of pregnancy, particularly after implantation, when short-term, mild energetic challenges have significant impacts on fertility and offspring postnatal development, and 2) delayed implantation may have evolved, in part, as a buffering mechanism to prevent pregnancy failure during impaired energy balance in early gestation.

Kauffman, Alexander S.; Bojkowska, Karolina; Rissman, Emilie F.

2009-01-01

123

Maternal dexamethasone exposure during pregnancy in rats disrupts gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal development in the offspring.  

PubMed

The migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons from the olfactory placode to the preoptic area (POA) from embryonic day 13 is important for successful reproduction during adulthood. Whether maternal glucocorticoid exposure alters GnRH neuronal morphology and number in the offspring is unknown. This study determines the effect of maternal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure on enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) driven by GnRH promoter neurons (TG-GnRH) in transgenic rats dual-labelled with GnRH immunofluorescence (IF-GnRH). The TG-GnRH neurons were examined in intact male and female rats at different postnatal ages, as a marker for GnRH promoter activity. Pregnant females were subcutaneously injected with DEX (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle daily during gestation days 13-20 to examine the number of GnRH neurons in P0 male offspring. The total number of TG-GnRH neurons and TG-GnRH/IF-GnRH neuronal ratio increased from P0 and P5 stages to P47-52 stages, suggesting temporal regulation of GnRH promoter activity during postnatal development in intact rats. In DEX-treated P0 males, the number of IF-GnRH neurons decreased within the medial septum, organum vasculosom of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and anterior hypothalamus. The percentage of TG-GnRH neurons with branched dendritic structures decreased in the OVLT of DEX-P0 males. These results suggest that maternal DEX exposure affects the number and dendritic development of early postnatal GnRH neurons in the OVLT/POA, which may lead to altered reproductive functions in adults. PMID:24374911

Lim, Wei Ling; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S

2014-02-01

124

Maternal "junk-food" feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring  

PubMed Central

Individuals exposed to high-fat, high-sugar diets before birth have an increased risk of obesity in later life. Recent studies have shown that these offspring exhibit increased preference for fat, leading to suggestions that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar foods results in permanent changes within the central reward system that increase the subsequent drive to overconsume palatable foods. The present study has determined the effect of a maternal “junk-food” diet on the expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring of rat dams at 6 wk and 3 mo of age. We show that offspring of junk-food-fed (JF) dams exhibit higher fat intake from weaning until at least 3 mo of age (males: 16±0.6 vs. 11±0.8 g/kg/d; females: 19±1.3 vs. 13±0.4 g/kg/d; P<0.01). mRNA expression of ?-opioid receptor (Mu) was 1.6-fold higher (P<0.01) and dopamine active transporter (DAT) was 2-fold lower (P<0.05) in JF offspring at 6 wk of age. By 3 mo, these differences were reversed, and Mu mRNA expression was 2.8-fold lower (P<0.01) and DAT mRNA expression was 1.9-fold higher (P<0.01) in the JF offspring. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar diets results in altered development of the central reward system, resulting in increased fat intake and altered response of the reward system to excessive junk-food intake in postnatal life.—Ong, Z. Y., Muhlhausler, B. S. Maternal “junk-food” feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring.

Ong, Z. Y.; Muhlhausler, B. S.

2011-01-01

125

Developing embodied cognition: insights from children's concepts and language processing  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, theories of embodied cognition have become increasingly influential with research demonstrating that sensorimotor experiences are involved in cognitive processing; however, this embodied research has primarily focused on adult cognition. The notion that sensorimotor experience is important for acquiring conceptual knowledge is not a novel concept for developmental researchers, and yet theories of embodied cognition often do not fully integrate developmental findings. We propose that in order for an embodied cognition perspective to be refined and advanced as a lifelong theory of cognition, it is important to consider what can be learned from research with children. In this paper, we focus on development of concepts and language processing, and examine the importance of children's embodied experiences for these aspects of cognition in particular. Following this review, we outline what we see as important developmental issues that need to be addressed in order to determine the extent to which language and conceptual knowledge are embodied and to refine theories of embodied cognition.

Wellsby, Michele; Pexman, Penny M.

2014-01-01

126

Development of Gauges for the QinetiQ Cognition Monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a new version of the calibration procedure for the QinetiQ Cognition Monitor so that\\u000a it can be implemented to support the development of a cognitive cockpit at NAVAIR. A new signal cleaning procedure for processing\\u000a the electro-encephalogram (EEG) automatically is outlined and the results from tests in the UK and US are summarized. It

Andy Belyavin; Chris Ryder; Blair Dickson

2007-01-01

127

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders in the Offspring of Mothers Exposed to Mild-Moderate Iodine Deficiency: A Possible Novel Iodine Deficiency Disorder in Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of almost 10 yr, we carried out a prospective study of the neuropsychological development of the offspring of 16 women from a moderately iodine-deficient area (area A) and of 11 control women from a marginally iodine-sufficient area (area B) whose thyroid function had been monitored during early gestation. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was diagnosed in

F. Vermiglio; V. P. LO PRESTI; M. MOLETI; M. SIDOTI; G. TORTORELLA; G. SCAFFIDI; M. G. CASTAGNA; F. MATTINA; M. A. VIOLI; A. CRISA; A. ARTEMISIA; F. TRIMARCHI

2004-01-01

128

System and method for providing music based cognitive skills development  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides systems and methods for providing music based cognitive skills development. More particularly the present invention may provide a music based cognitive skills development platform. The platform is provided using computer implemented systems and methods for training a human subject so as to enhance his/her intelligence, attention, language skills and brain functioning. The present invention provides these benefits using exercises, one or more of which are based on musical training aspects, however, in addition to musical training other cognitive skills development exercises may be used, as described herein. The invention may be utilized by users of varying musical skills and may be presented at a level corresponding to the prior musical training (if any) of a user, and in a form corresponding to the cognitive capacity, interests and attention span of a user.

2013-09-17

129

Using EEG to Study Cognitive Development: Issues and Practices  

PubMed Central

Developmental research is enhanced by use of multiple methodologies for examining psychological processes. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for the study of developmental changes in brain-behavior relations. In this review, we highlight some of the challenges for using EEG in cognitive development research. We also list best practices for incorporating this methodology into the study of early cognitive processes. Consideration of these issues is critical for making an informed decision regarding implementation of EEG methodology.

Bell, Martha Ann; Cuevas, Kimberly

2012-01-01

130

Inhibition and cognitive development: object, number, categorization, and reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s, the concept of inhibition sparked a new surge of interest in cognitive psychology, both in North America and in Europe. In the framework of that research trend, it is proposed here that cognitive development cannot be reduced to the coordination–activation of structural units (as in Jean Piaget's structuralist theory and in the neo-structuralist models), but that

Olivier Houdé

2000-01-01

131

Cognitive development in children with chronic protein energy malnutrition  

PubMed Central

Background Malnutrition is associated with both structural and functional pathology of the brain. A wide range of cognitive deficits has been reported in malnourished children. Effect of chronic protein energy malnutrition (PEM) causing stunting and wasting in children could also affect the ongoing development of higher cognitive processes during childhood (>5 years of age). The present study examined the effect of stunted growth on the rate of development of cognitive processes using neuropsychological measures. Methods Twenty children identified as malnourished and twenty as adequately nourished in the age groups of 5–7 years and 8–10 years were examined. NIMHANS neuropsychological battery for children sensitive to the effects of brain dysfunction and age related improvement was employed. The battery consisted of tests of motor speed, attention, visuospatial ability, executive functions, comprehension and learning and memory Results Development of cognitive processes appeared to be governed by both age and nutritional status. Malnourished children performed poor on tests of attention, working memory, learning and memory and visuospatial ability except on the test of motor speed and coordination. Age related improvement was not observed on tests of design fluency, working memory, visual construction, learning and memory in malnourished children. However, age related improvement was observed on tests of attention, visual perception, and verbal comprehension in malnourished children even though the performance was deficient as compared to the performance level of adequately nourished children. Conclusion Chronic protein energy malnutrition (stunting) affects the ongoing development of higher cognitive processes during childhood years rather than merely showing a generalized cognitive impairment. Stunting could result in slowing in the age related improvement in certain and not all higher order cognitive processes and may also result in long lasting cognitive impairments.

Kar, Bhoomika R; Rao, Shobini L; Chandramouli, B A

2008-01-01

132

Infant eyes: A window on cognitive development  

PubMed Central

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking “under the hood” if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants’ gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous datasets from eye-trackers requires users to think hard about what they are measuring and what these measures mean for making inferences about underlying cognitive processes. The present commentary highlights these concerns, both technical and interpretive, and reviews the five articles that comprise this Special Issue.

Aslin, Richard N.

2011-01-01

133

Development of a Primate Model to Study the Effects of Vaccines in Pregnant Females and Their Offspring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The antibody responses of 5 nonhuman primate species to 5 bacterial polysaccharide vaccines administered at 3 dose levels in order to select a model for studies of the effects on offspring of maternal immunizations during pregnancy. Vaccines tested were c...

L. N. Martin

1979-01-01

134

A Scale of Cognitive Development: Validating Perry's Scheme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When William G. Perry (1968) developed his scheme of nine stages of cognitive development, most of which are experienced during the college years, he did not attempt to quantify it. Subsequently, T. D. Erwin (1983) constructed a scale that attempted to quantify the Perry scheme. His findings supported the overall conception of student development

Fago, George C.

135

Effect of Maternal Lipopolysaccharide Administration on the Development of Dopaminergic Receptors and Transporter in the Rat Offspring  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological evidence supports that maternal infection during gestation are notable risk factors for developmental mental illnesses including schizophrenia and autism. In prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model of immune activation in rats, the offspring exhibit significant impairments in behaviors mediated by central dopamine (DA) system. This study aimed to examine the temporal and regional pattern of postnatal DA development in the male offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats administered with 100 µg/kg LPS or saline at gestational days 15/16. Using ligand autoradiography, D1 and D2 dopamine receptors (D1R, D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) binding levels were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and sub cortical regions (dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core and shell) at pre pubertal (P35) and post pubertal ages (P60). We found a significant decrease in D2R ligand [3H] YM-90151-2 binding in the medial PFC (mPFC) in prenatal LPS-treated animals at P35 and P60 compared to respective saline groups. The decrease in D2R levels was not observed in the striatum or accumbens of maternal LPS-treated animals. No significant changes were observed in [3H] SCH23390 binding to D1R. However, the level of [125I] RTI-121 binding to DAT was selectively reduced in the nucleus accumbens core and shell at P35 in the prenatal LPS group. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that number of D2R immunopositive cells in infralimbic/prelimbic (IL/PL) part of mPFC was significantly reduced in the LPS group at P60. Prenatal LPS treatment did not significantly affect either the total number of mature neurons or parvalbumin (PV)-immunopositive interneurons in this region. However the number of PV and D2R co-labeled neurons was significantly reduced in the IL/PL subregion of PFC of LPS treated animals. Our data suggests D2R deficit in the PFC and PV interneurons may be relevant to understanding mechanisms of cortical dysfunctions described in prenatal infection animal models as well as schizophrenia.

Baharnoori, Moogeh; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K.; Srivastava, Lalit K.

2013-01-01

136

Effect of maternal lipopolysaccharide administration on the development of dopaminergic receptors and transporter in the rat offspring.  

PubMed

Epidemiological evidence supports that maternal infection during gestation are notable risk factors for developmental mental illnesses including schizophrenia and autism. In prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model of immune activation in rats, the offspring exhibit significant impairments in behaviors mediated by central dopamine (DA) system. This study aimed to examine the temporal and regional pattern of postnatal DA development in the male offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats administered with 100 µg/kg LPS or saline at gestational days 15/16. Using ligand autoradiography, D1 and D2 dopamine receptors (D1R, D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) binding levels were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and sub cortical regions (dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core and shell) at pre pubertal (P35) and post pubertal ages (P60). We found a significant decrease in D2R ligand [(3)H] YM-90151-2 binding in the medial PFC (mPFC) in prenatal LPS-treated animals at P35 and P60 compared to respective saline groups. The decrease in D2R levels was not observed in the striatum or accumbens of maternal LPS-treated animals. No significant changes were observed in [(3)H] SCH23390 binding to D1R. However, the level of [(125)I] RTI-121 binding to DAT was selectively reduced in the nucleus accumbens core and shell at P35 in the prenatal LPS group. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that number of D2R immunopositive cells in infralimbic/prelimbic (IL/PL) part of mPFC was significantly reduced in the LPS group at P60. Prenatal LPS treatment did not significantly affect either the total number of mature neurons or parvalbumin (PV)-immunopositive interneurons in this region. However the number of PV and D2R co-labeled neurons was significantly reduced in the IL/PL subregion of PFC of LPS treated animals. Our data suggests D2R deficit in the PFC and PV interneurons may be relevant to understanding mechanisms of cortical dysfunctions described in prenatal infection animal models as well as schizophrenia. PMID:23349891

Baharnoori, Moogeh; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K; Srivastava, Lalit K

2013-01-01

137

Effect of maternal obesity with and without gestational diabetes on offspring subcutaneous and preperitoneal adipose tissue development from birth up to year-1  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may independently influence offspring fat mass and metabolic disease susceptibility. In this pilot study, body composition and fat distribution in offspring from obese women with and without GDM and lean women were assessed within the 1st year of life, and maternal and newborn plasma factors were related to offspring adipose tissue distribution. Methods Serum and plasma samples from pregnant obese women with (n?=?16) or without (n?=?13) GDM and normoglycemic lean women (n?=?15) at 3rd trimester and offspring cord plasma were used for analyzing lipid profiles, insulin and adipokine levels. At week-1 and 6, month-4 and year-1, offspring anthropometrics and skinfold thickness (SFT) were measured and abdominal subcutaneous (SCA) and preperitoneal adipose tissue (PPA) were determined by ultrasonography. Results Cord insulin was significantly increased in the GDM group, whereas levels of cord leptin, total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were similar between the groups. Neonates of the GDM group showed significantly higher SFT and fat mass until week-6 and significantly increased SCA at week-1 compared to the lean group that persisted as strong trend at week-6. Interestingly, PPA in neonates of the GDM group was significantly elevated at week-1 compared to both the lean and obese group. At month-4 and year-1, significant differences in adipose tissue growth between the groups were not observed. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that cord insulin levels are independently related to neonatal PPA that showed significant relation to PPA development at year-1. Maternal fasted C-peptide and HMW adiponectin levels at 3rd trimester emerged to be determinants for PPA at week-1. Conclusion Maternal pregravid obesity combined with GDM leads to newborn hyperinsulinemia and increased offspring fat mass until week-6, whereas pregravid obesity without GDM does not. This strongly suggests the pivotal role of GDM in the adverse offspring outcome. Maternal C-peptide and HMW adiponectin levels in pregnancy emerge to be predictive for elevated PPA in newborns and might be indicative for the obesity risk at later life. Altogether, the findings from our pilot study warrant evaluation in long-term studies. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004370

2014-01-01

138

Early markers of cognitive enhancement: developing an implicit measure of cognitive performance.  

PubMed

There is intense interest in the development of effective cognitive enhancing drugs which would have therapeutic application across a number of neurological and psychological disorders including dementia, schizophrenia and depression. However, development in this area has been limited by the absence of sensitive biomarkers which can be used to detect and refine therapeutic-like action in phase 1 clinical studies. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop a measure of cognition relevant to the action of candidate cognitive enhancers which might be sensitive to pharmacological manipulation in healthy volunteers. Healthy volunteers (n?=?34) were randomised to receive a single dose of modafinil (100 mg) or placebo. Five hours post dose, attentional flexibility in learning was assessed using a novel implicit learning task. Volunteers also completed an auditory digit span task and visual analogue scales (VAS). Modafinil increased alertness as measured by the VAS. In the implicit learning task, modafinil enhanced learning rates in terms of both accuracy and reaction time, suggesting an increase in implicit rule learning. These results suggest that the novel learning task should be explored as a biomarker of early cognitive improvement which could be more sensitive than conventional measures. PMID:23820927

Pringle, Abbie; Browning, Michael; Parsons, Elizabeth; Cowen, Phil J; Harmer, Catherine J

2013-12-01

139

The development and initial validation of the cognitive fusion questionnaire.  

PubMed

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) emphasizes the relationship a person has with their thoughts and beliefs as potentially more relevant than belief content in predicting the emotional and behavioral consequences of cognition. In ACT, "defusion" interventions aim to "unhook" thoughts from actions and to create psychological distance between a person and their thoughts, beliefs, memories, and self-stories. A number of similar concepts have been described in the psychology literature (e.g., decentering, metacognition, mentalization, and mindfulness) suggesting converging evidence that how we relate to mental events may be of critical importance. While there are some good measures of these related processes, none of them provides an adequate operationalization of cognitive fusion. Despite the centrality of cognitive fusion in the ACT model, there is as yet no agreed-upon measure of cognitive fusion. This paper presents the construction and development of a brief, self-report measure of cognitive fusion: The Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ). The results of a series of studies involving over 1,800 people across diverse samples show good preliminary evidence of the CFQ's factor structure, reliability, temporal stability, validity, discriminant validity, and sensitivity to treatment effects. The potential uses of the CFQ in research and clinical practice are outlined. PMID:24411117

Gillanders, David T; Bolderston, Helen; Bond, Frank W; Dempster, Maria; Flaxman, Paul E; Campbell, Lindsey; Kerr, Sian; Tansey, Louise; Noel, Penelope; Ferenbach, Clive; Masley, Samantha; Roach, Louise; Lloyd, Joda; May, Lauraine; Clarke, Susan; Remington, Bob

2014-01-01

140

Maternal "junk-food" feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring.  

PubMed

Individuals exposed to high-fat, high-sugar diets before birth have an increased risk of obesity in later life. Recent studies have shown that these offspring exhibit increased preference for fat, leading to suggestions that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar foods results in permanent changes within the central reward system that increase the subsequent drive to overconsume palatable foods. The present study has determined the effect of a maternal "junk-food" diet on the expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring of rat dams at 6 wk and 3 mo of age. We show that offspring of junk-food-fed (JF) dams exhibit higher fat intake from weaning until at least 3 mo of age (males: 16 ± 0.6 vs. 11 ± 0.8 g/kg/d; females: 19 ± 1.3 vs. 13 ± 0.4 g/kg/d; P<0.01). mRNA expression of ?-opioid receptor (Mu) was 1.6-fold higher (P<0.01) and dopamine active transporter (DAT) was 2-fold lower (P<0.05) in JF offspring at 6 wk of age. By 3 mo, these differences were reversed, and Mu mRNA expression was 2.8-fold lower (P<0.01) and DAT mRNA expression was 1.9-fold higher (P<0.01) in the JF offspring. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar diets results in altered development of the central reward system, resulting in increased fat intake and altered response of the reward system to excessive junk-food intake in postnatal life. PMID:21427213

Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

2011-07-01

141

Parent-Offspring Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

synopsis. When parent-offspring relations in sexually reproducing species are viewed from the standpoint of the offspring as well as the parent, conflict is seen to be an expected feature of such relations. In particular, parent and offspring are expected to disagree over how long the period of parental investment should last, over the amount of parental investment that should be

ROBERT L. TRIVERS

1974-01-01

142

Cognitive Learning and Development: Information-Processing and Piagetian Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book deals with cognitive development from the perspective of the author's theory of conceptual learning and development (CLD) and from a Piagetian perspective. Chapter I provides an overview of CLD theory and also identifies and discusses the Piagetian constructs of stage, groupement structures, and equilibration. Chapter II focuses on the…

Klausmeier, Herbert J.; And Others

143

Learning While Growing: Cognitive Development. Caring about Kids Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides an overview of stages and levels of cognitive development. Particular attention is given to language skills, the growth of understanding and memory, levels of thinking, altruism, and conscience. The importance of parents' influence on the development of their child's thinking abilities is emphasized. Nine resources that…

National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Scientific and Public Information.

144

Breastfeeding and Trajectories of Children's Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the association of breastfeeding practices with the growth trajectories of children's cognitive development. We used data from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) with variables on presence and duration of breastfeeding and standardized test scores obtained…

Huang, Jin; Peters, Kristen E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Witko, Christopher

2014-01-01

145

Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

2008-01-01

146

Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children's Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development.

Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

2014-01-01

147

Offspring from Mouse Embryos Developed Using a Simple Incubator-Free Culture System with a Deoxidizing Agent  

PubMed Central

To culture preimplantation embryos in vitro, water-jacketed CO2 incubators are used widely for maintaining an optimal culture environment in terms of gas phase, temperature and humidity. We investigated the possibility of mouse embryo culture in a plastic bag kept at 37°C. Zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization or collected from naturally mated B6D2F1 female mice were put in a drop of medium on a plastic culture dish and then placed in a commercially available plastic bag. When these were placed in an oven under air at 37°C for 96 h, the rate of blastocyst development and the cell numbers of embryos decreased. However, when the concentration of O2 was reduced to 5% using a deoxidizing agent and a small oxygen meter, most zygotes developed into blastocysts. These blastocysts were judged normal according to their cell number, Oct3/4 and Cdx2 gene expression levels, the apoptosis rate and the potential for full-term development after embryo transfer to pseudopregnant recipients. Furthermore, using this system, normal offspring were obtained simply by keeping the bag on a warming plate. This culture method was applied successfully to both hybrid and inbred strains. In addition, because the developing embryos could be observed through the transparent wall of the bag, it was possible to capture time-lapse images of live embryos until the blastocyst stage without needing an expensive microscope-based incubation chamber. These results suggest that mouse zygotes are more resilient to their environment than generally believed. This method might prove useful in economical culture systems or for the international shipment of embryos.

Itoi, Fumiaki; Tokoro, Mikiko; Terashita, Yukari; Yamagata, Kazuo; Fukunaga, Noritaka; Asada, Yoshimasa; Wakayama, Teruhiko

2012-01-01

148

Low-Dose, Gestational Exposure to Atrazine Does Not Alter Postnatal Reproductive Development of Male Offspring  

EPA Science Inventory

There is growing evidence that xenobiotic exposure during the perinatal period may result in a variety of adverse outcomes when the developing organism attains adulthood. Maternal stress and subsequent exposure of the fetus to excess glucocorticoids may underlie these effects. Pr...

149

Critical period for adverse effects on development of reproductive system in male offspring of rats given di- n-butyl phthalate during late pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the susceptible days for the adverse effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on development of reproductive system in male offspring following maternal administration on successive 3-day period during late pregnancy. Pregnant rats were given DBP by gastric intubation at 1000 or 1500 mg\\/kg on days 12–14 or 18–20 of pregnancy or at 500,

Makoto Ema; Emiko Miyawaki; Kunio Kawashima

2000-01-01

150

Maternal influences on early development: preferred temperature prior to oviposition hastens embryogenesis and enhances offspring traits in the Children's python, Antaresia childreni.  

PubMed

Embryonic life is particularly sensitive to its surroundings, and the developmental environment can have long-lasting effects on offspring. In oviparous species, the impacts of the developmental environment on offspring traits are mostly examined during development within the egg. However, as more than 25% of the development of squamate reptiles can occur prior to oviposition, we explored the effect of thermal conditions on development prior to oviposition in an oviparous snake species, the Children's python (Antaresia childreni). We housed gravid female pythons under three thermal cycles: an optimal regime that reflected maternal preference in a non-constrained environment (constant preferred body temperature of gravid females, T(set)=31.5°C) and two mildly suboptimal regimes that shared the same mean temperature of 27.7°C, but differed in the duration at T(set). In one of the constraining regimes, females had access to T(set) for 4 h daily whereas in the other regime, females never reached T(set) (maximal temperature of 29.0°C). Thermal treatments were maintained throughout gravidity in all three groups, but, after oviposition, all eggs were incubated at T(set) until hatching. Compared with the optimal regime, the two suboptimal regimes had a longer duration of gravidity, which resulted in delayed hatching. Between the two suboptimal regimes, gravidity was significantly shorter in the treatment that included time at T(set). Furthermore, suboptimal regimes influenced offspring traits at hatching, including body morphology, antipredator behavior, strength and metabolism. However, partial access to maternal T(set) significantly enhanced several offspring traits, including performance. Our results demonstrate the importance of time at T(set) on early development and suggest an adaptive significance of maternal thermoregulation prior to oviposition. PMID:22442373

Lorioux, Sophie; DeNardo, Dale F; Gorelick, Root; Lourdais, Olivier

2012-04-15

151

Parallel distributed processing: Implications for cognition and development. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief overview of the connectionist or parallel distributed processing framework for modeling cognitive processes, and considers the application of the connectionist framework to problems of cognitive development. Several aspects of cognitive development might result from the process of learning as it occurs in multi-layer networks. This learning process has the characteristic that it reduces the discrepancy between expected and observed events. As it does this, representations develop on hidden units which dramatically change both the way in which the network represents the environment from which it learns and the expectations that the network generates about environmental events. The learning process exhibits relatively abrupt transitions corresponding to stage shifts in cognitive development. These points are illustrated using a network that learns to anticipate which side of a balance beam will go down, based on the number of weights on each side of the fulcrum and their distance from the fulcrum on each side of the beam. The network is trained in an environment in which weight more frequently governs which side will go down. It recapitulates the states of development seen in children, as well as the stage transitions, as it learns to represent weight and distance information.

McClelland, J.L.

1988-07-11

152

Age affects the expression of maternal care and subsequent behavioural development of offspring in a precocial bird.  

PubMed

Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks' growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian maternal behaviour and that the way we sample maternal behaviour is highly productive. PMID:22701515

Pittet, Florent; Coignard, Maud; Houdelier, Cécilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie

2012-01-01

153

Age Affects the Expression of Maternal Care and Subsequent Behavioural Development of Offspring in a Precocial Bird  

PubMed Central

Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks’ growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian maternal behaviour and that the way we sample maternal behaviour is highly productive.

Pittet, Florent; Coignard, Maud; Houdelier, Cecilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie

2012-01-01

154

Oral Tolerance Induced by Transfer of Food Antigens via Breast Milk of Allergic Mothers Prevents Offspring from Developing Allergic Symptoms in a Mouse Food Allergy Model  

PubMed Central

We examined whether maternal exposure to food antigens during lactation and maternal allergic status would affect the development of food allergy in offspring. OVA-sensitized or OVA-nonsensitized BALB/c female mice were exposed or unexposed to OVA during lactation. After weaning, their offspring were systemically sensitized twice with OVA and repeatedly given OVA by oral intubation. While 97.1% of the mice breastfed by OVA-nonsensitized and OVA-unexposed mothers developed allergic diarrhea, 59.7% of the mice breastfed by OVA-exposed nonallergic mothers during lactation and 24.6% of the mice breastfed by OVA-exposed allergic mothers during lactation developed food allergy. Furthermore, OVA was detected in breast-milk from OVA-exposed nonallergic mothers during lactation (4.6 ± 0.5??g/mL). In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 titers were markedly increased in breast milk from allergic mothers (OVA-sensitized and OVA-unexposed mother: 11.0 ± 0.5, OVA-sensitized and OVA-exposed mother: 12.3 ± 0.3). Our results suggest that oral tolerance induced by breast milk-mediated transfer of dietary antigens along with their specific immunoglobulins to offspring leads to antigen-specific protection from food allergy.

Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tsubota, Yuma; Kodama, Toshihisa; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Kadowaki, Makoto

2012-01-01

155

Delayed physical and neurobehavioral development and increased aggressive and depression-like behaviors in the rat offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

Early maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) may influence the brain development of rat offspring and consequently affect physiology and behavior. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the somatic, physical, sensory-motor and neurobehavioral development of the offspring of dams fed an HFD (52% calories from fat, mainly saturated) and the offspring of dams fed a control diet (CD - 14.7% fat) during lactation from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day (P). Maternal body weights were evaluated during lactation. In the progeny, somatic (body weight, head and lengths axes) and physical (ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, eruption of the incisors and eye opening) development and the consolidation of reflex responses (palm grasp, righting, vibrissa placing, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, auditory startle response and free-fall righting) were determined during suckling. Depressive and aggressive behaviors were tested with the forced swimming test (FST) and the "foot-shock" test on days 60 and 110, respectively. The open field test was used to assess motor function. Compared to controls, the HFD-pups exhibited decreases in body weight (P7-P21) and body length (P4-P18), but by days P71 and P95, these pups were overweight. All indicators of physical maturation and the consolidation of the following reflexes, vibrissa placing, auditory startle responses, free-fall righting and negative geotaxis, were delayed in HFD-progeny. In addition, the pups from HFD dam rats also exhibited reduced swimming and climbing times in the FST and increased aggressive behavior. No changes in locomotion were observed. These findings show developmental and neurobehavioral changes in the rat offspring of dams fed the HFD during lactation and suggest possible disruption of physical and sensory-motor maturation and increased susceptibility to depressive and aggressive-like behavior. PMID:24071008

Giriko, Catherine Ássuka; Andreoli, Carla Albuquerque; Mennitti, Laís Vales; Hosoume, Lilian Fazion; Souto, Tayane Dos Santos; Silva, Alexandre Valotta da; Mendes-da-Silva, Cristiano

2013-12-01

156

Development and Use of "Evaluation of Cognitive Development--Pre-Reading Skills".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The methods and validity of evaluations of cognitive development, in language and numbers, of children ages three through six, by use of classroom observation inventory lists are discussed. The Evaluation of Cognitive Development--Pre-Reading Skills, an observational instrument (teacher completed), was administered to 134 first grade students in a…

Goolsby, Thomas M., Jr.; Frary, Robert B.

157

Thinking in Niches: Sociocultural Influences on Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of thinking from a sociocultural perspective, focusing on how Super and Harkness' (1986) concept of "developmental niche" may be used as a framework for organizing cognitive developmental research in relation to culture. Argues for the utility of this approach in furthering understanding of the precise linkages between…

Gauvain, Mary

1995-01-01

158

Introduction to Special Section: Theoretical Developments in the Cognitive Psychotherapies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses themes in theoretical development of cognitive psychotherapies since 1950s inception: differentiation of rationalist and constructivist therapies and metatheories of knowing; acknowledgment of social, biological, and embodiment processes in therapy; recognition of unconscious processes; self-organizing and self-protective processes in…

Mahoney, Michael J.

1993-01-01

159

Development of Thalamocortical Connectivity during Infancy and Its Cognitive Correlations.  

PubMed

Although commonly viewed as a sensory information relay center, the thalamus has been increasingly recognized as an essential node in various higher-order cognitive circuits, and the underlying thalamocortical interaction mechanism has attracted increasing scientific interest. However, the development of thalamocortical connections and how such development relates to cognitive processes during the earliest stages of life remain largely unknown. Leveraging a large human pediatric sample (N = 143) with longitudinal resting-state fMRI scans and cognitive data collected during the first 2 years of life, we aimed to characterize the age-dependent development of thalamocortical connectivity patterns by examining the functional relationship between the thalamus and nine cortical functional networks and determine the correlation between thalamocortical connectivity and cognitive performance at ages 1 and 2 years. Our results revealed that the thalamus-sensorimotor and thalamus-salience connectivity networks were already present in neonates, whereas the thalamus-medial visual and thalamus-default mode network connectivity emerged later, at 1 year of age. More importantly, brain-behavior analyses based on the Mullen Early Learning Composite Score and visual-spatial working memory performance measured at 1 and 2 years of age highlighted significant correlations with the thalamus-salience network connectivity. These results provide new insights into the understudied early functional brain development process and shed light on the behavioral importance of the emerging thalamocortical connectivity during infancy. PMID:24990927

Alcauter, Sarael; Lin, Weili; Smith, J Keith; Short, Sarah J; Goldman, Barbara D; Reznick, J Steven; Gilmore, John H; Gao, Wei

2014-07-01

160

Learning and Development as Dialectical Factors in Cognitive Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sees learning as a component of development. Explains how cognitive growth can result from dialectical interactions among modes of learning and attentional mental capacity, and that these modes and components of attention relate to contextual function areas which, being neuropsychological units, can be clarified as to function by connectionist…

Pascual-Leone, Juan

1995-01-01

161

Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender role development and functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experi- ences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide

Kay Bussey; Albert Bandura

1999-01-01

162

Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive

Barrouillet, Pierre

2011-01-01

163

Computational Models of Relational Processes in Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acquisition of relational knowledge is a core process in cognitive development. Relational knowledge is dynamic and flexible, entails structure-consistent mappings between representations, has properties of compositionality and systematicity, and depends on binding in working memory. We review three types of computational models relevant to…

Halford, Graeme S.; Andrews, Glenda; Wilson, William H.; Phillips, Steven

2012-01-01

164

Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Moral Development in Undergraduate Business Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and cognitive moral development (CMD) in undergraduate business students. The ability model of emotional intelligence was used in this study, which evaluated possible relationships between EI and CMD in a sample of 82 undergraduate business students. The sample population was…

McBride, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

165

The Function of Cognitive Imaging in a Developing Research University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive imaging was investigated as one factor associated with the development of the University of New Mexico from an undergraduate teaching institution toward becoming a nationally-ranked graduate research university. A longitudinal, ethnohistorical study was undertaken for the 1967-1978 period. The qualitative research methodology involved an…

Bjork, Lars G.

166

Contributions of Dynamic Systems Theory to Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the contributions of dynamic systems theory to the field of cognitive development, focusing on modeling using dynamic neural fields. After introducing central concepts of dynamic field theory (DFT), we probe empirical predictions and findings around two examples--the DFT of infant perseverative reaching that explains Piaget's A-not-B…

Spencer, John P.; Austin, Andrew; Schutte, Anne R.

2012-01-01

167

Parental Involvement in Young Children's Computer Use and Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, young children are using computers; however, the role of the parent in facilitating this type of learning is not yet clear. This study investigates the relationship between parental involvement in computer use and cognitive development in their children. Parents of Head Start children who owned a computer (n = 136) reported on the…

McCarrick, Katy; Li, Xiaoming; Fish, Angela; Holtrop, Teresa; Bhavnagri, Navaz P.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Butler, Sheretta; Partridge, Ty

2007-01-01

168

A Tutorial Introduction to Bayesian Models of Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an introduction to Bayesian inference as it is used in probabilistic models of cognitive development. Our goal is to provide an intuitive and accessible guide to the "what", the "how", and the "why" of the Bayesian approach: what sorts of problems and data the framework is most relevant for, and how and why it may be useful for…

Perfors, Amy; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Xu, Fei

2011-01-01

169

The Link between Nutrition and Cognitive Development in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New findings about child nutrition and cognitive development indicate that undernourished children are typically fatigued and uninterested in their social environments. Such children are less likely to establish relationships or to explore and learn from their surroundings. Undernourished children are also more susceptible to illness and, thus,…

Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

170

Are There Any Matthew Effects in Literacy and Cognitive Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Matthew effect is often used as a metaphor to describe a widening gap between good and poor readers over time. In this study we examined the development of individual differences in reading and cognitive functioning in children with reading difficulties and normal readers from Grades 1 to 3. Matthew effects were observed for individual…

Kempe, Camilla; Eriksson-Gustavsson, Anna-Lena; Samuelsson, Stefan

2011-01-01

171

Development of Cognitive Capacities in Preschool Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child development involves the process of mastering cultural tools, which modify relations with the world and provide the means to act on the self. A sign is a universal cultural tool, but these tools are not the same for all ages. The problem of specifying development becomes one of finding the tools that children use in their activity.…

Veraksa, Nikolay E.

2011-01-01

172

Mechanism of Earthquake Simulation as a Prenatal Stressor Retarding Rat Offspring Development and Chinese Medicine Correcting the Retardation: Hormones and Gene-Expression Alteration  

PubMed Central

We aimed to investigate the mechanism of shaking as a prenatal stressor impacting the development of the offspring and Chinese medicines correcting the alterations. Pregnant rats were randomized into earthquake simulation group (ESG), herbal group (HG) which received herbal supplements in feed after shaking, and control group (CG). Findings revealed body weight and open field test (OFT) score of ESG offspring were statistically inferior to the CG and HG offspring. The corticosterone levels of ESG were higher than those of CG but not than HG. The dopamine level of ESG was slightly lower than that of the CG and of HG was higher than that of ESG. The 5-HT of ESG was higher than CG and HG. The growth hormone level of the ESG was significantly lower than ESG but not than CG. Gene expression profile showed 81 genes upregulated and 39 genes downregulated in ESG versus CG, and 60 genes upregulated and 28 genes downregulated in ESG versus HG. Eighty-four genes were found differentially expressed in ESG versus CG comparison and were normalized in ESG versus HG. We conclude that maternal shaking negatively affected physical and nervous system development, with specific alterations in neurohormones and gene expression. Chinese herbal medicine reduced these negative outcomes.

Zhang, X. G.; Zhang, H.; Tan, R.; Peng, J. C.; Liang, X. L.; Liu, Q.; Wang, M. Q.; Yu, X. P.

2012-01-01

173

Brief maternal exposure of rats to the xenobiotics dibutyl phthalate or diethylstilbestrol alters adult-type Leydig cell development in male offspring  

PubMed Central

Maternal exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics or phthalates has been implicated in the distortion of early male reproductive development, referred to in humans as the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. It is not known, however, whether such early gestational and/or lactational exposure can influence the later adult-type Leydig cell phenotype. In this study, Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP; from gestational day (GD) 14.5 to postnatal day (PND) 6) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; from GD14.5 to GD16.5) during a short gestational/lactational window, and male offspring subsequently analysed for various postnatal testicular parameters. All offspring remained in good health throughout the study. Maternal xenobiotic treatment appeared to modify specific Leydig cell gene expression in male offspring, particularly during the dynamic phase of mid-puberty, with serum INSL3 concentrations showing that these compounds led to a faster attainment of peak values, and a modest acceleration of the pubertal trajectory. Part of this effect appeared to be due to a treatment-specific impact on Leydig cell proliferation during puberty for both xenobiotics. Taken together, these results support the notion that maternal exposure to certain xenobiotics can also influence the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population, possibly through an effect on the Leydig stem cell population.

Ivell, Richard; Heng, Kee; Nicholson, Helen; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

2013-01-01

174

Cognition and affect in early literacy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research examines the effects of preschool children telling stories and dramatizing them at a group time on learning to read and write. Using Vygotsky's theory of development, the significance of storytelling and dramatization activities on the intellectual and emotional development of preschool children is explored. One hundred ninety?five three?, four? and five?year?old children from ten preschool, kindergarten and day

Gillian Dowley McNamee; Joan B. McLane; Patricia M. Cooper; Sheila M. Kerwin

1985-01-01

175

White matter development and early cognition in babies and toddlers.  

PubMed

The normal myelination of neuronal axons is essential to neurodevelopment, allowing fast inter-neuronal communication. The most dynamic period of myelination occurs in the first few years of life, in concert with a dramatic increase in cognitive abilities. How these processes relate, however, is still unclear. Here we aimed to use a data-driven technique to parcellate developing white matter into regions with consistent white matter growth trajectories and investigate how these regions related to cognitive development. In a large sample of 183 children aged 3 months to 4 years, we calculated whole brain myelin volume fraction (VFM ) maps using quantitative multicomponent relaxometry. We used spatial independent component analysis (ICA) to blindly segment these quantitative VFM images into anatomically meaningful parcels with distinct developmental trajectories. We further investigated the relationship of these trajectories with standardized cognitive scores in the same children. The resulting components represented a mix of unilateral and bilateral white matter regions (e.g., cortico-spinal tract, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, white matter underlying the inferior frontal gyrus) as well as structured noise (misregistration, image artifact). The trajectories of these regions were associated with individual differences in cognitive abilities. Specifically, components in white matter underlying frontal and temporal cortices showed significant relationships to expressive and receptive language abilities. Many of these relationships had a significant interaction with age, with VFM becoming more strongly associated with language skills with age. These data provide evidence for a changing coupling between developing myelin and cognitive development. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4475-4487, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24578096

O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dean, Douglas C; Ginestet, Cedric E; Walker, Lindsay; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Lehman, Katie; Dirks, Holly; Piryatinsky, Irene; Deoni, Sean C L

2014-09-01

176

Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Offspring Brain Structure and Function: Review and Agenda for Future Research  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been associated with long-term neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits in offspring. Animal models demonstrate alterations in brain structure and function following prenatal nicotine exposure. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between MSDP and brain development in humans. Therefore, the aims of this review are (a) to synthesize findings from the small number of human studies investigating effects of MSDP on offspring brain development and (b) to outline an agenda for future research in this nascent area. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and Psychinfo databases for human studies of MSDP and offspring brain structure and/or function. Results: Eleven studies meeting our search criteria were identified; 6 studies investigated effects of MSDP on brain structure; 5 examined effects on brain function. Across studies, MSDP was associated with decreased volume/thickness of the cerebellum and corpus callosum, increased auditory brainstem responses, and lack of coordination across brain regions during information and auditory processing. Conclusions: Results from the small number of human studies revealed effects of MSDP on brain structure and function, highlighting potential neural pathways linking MSDP and offspring neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits. Given the limited amount of research in this area, we propose an agenda for future research. Gold standard studies would utilize longitudinal designs, integrated biological and maternal report measures of MSDP, and repeated measures of brain structure/function and neurobehavioral deficits across key developmental periods.

Bublitz, Margaret H.; Stroud, Laura R.

2012-01-01

177

Can emphasising cognitive development improve academic achievement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Children ordinarily begin their formal education at the age when the great majority of them are capable of understanding the role of addition and subtraction in changing number. In determining critical differences they can apply the oddity principle – the first pure abstraction that children ever develop – understanding that when all but one item are alike on some

Robert Pasnak; Julie K. Kidd; Marinka K. Gadzichowski; Deborah A. Gallington; Robin P. Saracina

2008-01-01

178

Dialectic Operations: The Final Period of Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments for an extension of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development have been derived from philosophical and historical consideration of modern natural sciences. Implicit contradictions, which characterize these sciences as well as common thought, can be systematically apprehended only through a dialectic reinterpretation. The dialectic basis of Piaget’s theory is expressed in his assimilation-accommodation paradigm. But development is interpreted as a

Klaus F. Riegel

1973-01-01

179

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

180

Taxonomy Development and Knowledge Representation of Nurses' Personal Cognitive Artifacts  

PubMed Central

Nurses prepare knowledge representations, or summaries of patient clinical data, each shift. These knowledge representations serve multiple purposes, including support of working memory, workload organization and prioritization, critical thinking, and reflection. This summary is integral to internal knowledge representations, working memory, and decision-making. Study of this nurse knowledge representation resulted in development of a taxonomy of knowledge representations necessary to nursing practice. This paper describes the methods used to elicit the knowledge representations and structures necessary for the work of clinical nurses, described the development of a taxonomy of this knowledge representation, and discusses translation of this methodology to the cognitive artifacts of other disciplines. Understanding the development and purpose of practitioner’s knowledge representations provides important direction to informaticists seeking to create information technology alternatives. The outcome of this paper is to suggest a process template for transition of cognitive artifacts to an information system.

McLane, Sharon; Turley, James P.

2009-01-01

181

Trajectories of Cognitive Development among American Indian Young Children  

PubMed Central

Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than did those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants from one Northern Plains reservation community were assessed 4 times between ages 6 months through 36 months, using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. At 6 months of age, scores were near the national norms; a drop occurred between 6 and 15 months. Scores then tended to level off below the norms through 36 months. In each domain, we observed a crucial decline over the first year of life and relatively little change in the second and third years of life, highlighting the importance of developing culturally syntonic interventions to facilitate cognitive development during the first year of life.

Mitchell, Christina M.; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N.

2011-01-01

182

Prenatal and early postnatal stress exposure influences long bone length in adult rat offspring  

PubMed Central

Stress during the prenatal and early postnatal periods (perinatal stress, PS) is known to impact offspring cognitive, behavioral, and physical development, but effects on skeletal growth are not clear. Our objective was to analyze effects of variable, mild, daily PS exposure on adult offspring long bone length. Twelve pregnant rat dams were randomly assigned to receive variable stress from gestational days 14-21 (Prenatal group), postpartum days 2-9 (Postnatal), both periods (Pre-Post), or no stress (Control). Differences in adult offspring tibia and femur length were analyzed among treatment groups. Mean tibia length differed among groups for males (p=0.016) and females (p=0.009), and differences for femur length approached significance for males (p=0.051). Long bone length was shorter among PS-exposed offspring, especially those exposed to postnatal stress (Postnatal and Pre-Post groups). Results persisted when controlling for nose-tail length. These differences might reflect early stunting that is maintained in adulthood, or delayed growth among PS-exposed offspring. This study suggests that PS results in shorter long bones in adulthood, independently of effects on overall body size. Stunting and growth retardation are major global health burdens. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that PS is a risk factor for poor linear growth.

Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Cao, Xiu Jing; Veru, Franz; Xu, Susan; Long, Hong; Yu, Chunbo; Laplante, David P.; Walker, Claire Dominique; King, Suzanne

2012-01-01

183

Reading Instruction Affects the Cognitive Skills Supporting Early Reading Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the cognitive skills associated with early reading development when children were taught by different types of instruction. Seventy-nine children (mean age at pre-test 4;10 (0.22 S.D.) and post-test 5;03 (0.21 S.D.)) were taught to read either by an eclectic approach which included sight-word learning, guessing from context and…

McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Medford, Emma

2012-01-01

184

Crime and CognitionCommunity Applications of Sociomoral Reasoning Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors first summarize briefly the results of a recent meta-analysis of community-based interventions for delinquents, pointing to the generally low-order results of such efforts. The characteristics of effective interventions are then noted. The bulk of the paper is a discussion of the theoretical basis, intervention strategy, and dissemination of an innovative and cognitively based community intervention—sociomoral reasoning development. Particular

JACK ARBUTHNOT; DONALD A. GORDON

1988-01-01

185

Vestibular activity and cognitive development in children: perspectives  

PubMed Central

Vestibular signals play an essential role in oculomotor and static and dynamic posturomotor functions. Increasing attention is now focusing on their impact on spatial and non-spatial cognitive functions. Movements of the head in space evoke vestibular signals that make important contributions during the development of brain representations of body parts relative to one another as well as representations of body orientation and position within the environment. A central nervous system pathway relays signals from the vestibular nuclei to the hippocampal system where this input is indispensable for neuronal responses selective for the position and orientation of the head in space. One aspect of the hippocampal systems’ processing to create episodic and contextual memories is its role in spatial orientation and navigation behaviors that require processing of relations between background cues. These are also impaired in adult patients with vestibular deficits. However little is known about the impact of vestibular loss on cognitive development in children. This is investigated here with a particular emphasis upon the hypothetical mechanisms and potential impact of vestibular loss at critical ages on the development of respective spatial and non-spatial cognitive processes and their brain substrates.

Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette R.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Wiener, Sidney I.

2013-01-01

186

Maternal age affects offspring lifespan of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Offspring from older parents often have shorter adult lifespans than offspring of younger mothers. We examine the effects of offspring genotype, maternal age and paternal age on offspring survival, development and adult lifespan in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus . 2. Females took about a quarter of a day longer to develop from an egg to an adult

C. W. Fox; M. L. Bush; W. G. Wallin

2003-01-01

187

Measuring higher cognitive development in anatomy and physiology students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To estimate the higher cognitive development of college science students, performance on lecture exams at different cognitive levels was measured in a two-semester sequence of anatomy and physiology at Idaho State University. Lecture exams consisted of multiple-choice test items, each classified at various cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. These included the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels. The investigation comprised students who completed both semesters from the same instructor during the same academic year. Data was collected on two separate cohorts of students. One completed the sequence during 1998--1999 and the other during the 1999--2000 school year. Student performance was assessed on four exams each semester, for a total of eight exams each year of the study. Based on preliminary analysis of the 1998--1999 data, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was incorporated as an independent and discipline-neutral measure of higher-level thinking. The CCTST was administered during the beginning, middle, and end of the 1999--2000 school year. Two years of data analysis confirmed the cumulative hierarchical relationship of the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels of the taxonomy. Performance at successively higher cognitive levels was significantly and consistently lower than at preceding levels. Higher-level thinking was substantially more difficult for students than lower-level thinking. Students averaged 73% at the knowledge level and 53% at the application and analysis levels on lecture exams. No improvement in higher-level thinking was detected at either the application and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy or on the CCTST over two semesters. The ability to detect improvement was likely complicated by varying exam topics and a lack of student motivation on the CCTST. The results of this investigation highlight the need for higher cognitive development across the curriculum. The findings have implications for curricular decision-making and course management, and are relevant at an institutional and an individual course level. This study demonstrates how Bloom's Taxonomy can provide a framework for systematically and purposefully monitoring higher-level thinking in students. At the very least, Bloom's Taxonomy provides a mechanism for distinguishing among students who can and cannot perform at higher cognitive levels.

Dobson, Christopher

188

Development under the influence of cocaine. II. Comparison of the effects of maternal cocaine and associated undernutrition on brain myelin development in the offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant and lactating Long-Evans rats were treated daily with oral cocaine at a dosage rate of 60 mg\\/kg, which is the highest dosage tolerated during chronic treatment. Brain myelin concentrations were compared in the offspring during early myelination (day 15) and peak myelination (day 20). Body and brain weights in the offspring of cocaine-treated and pair-fed dams were transiently (but

Richard C. Wiggins; Blenda Ruiz

1990-01-01

189

Development of intergeneric and intrageneric somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cat embryos and the determination of telomere length in cloned offspring.  

PubMed

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) holds potential as a useful tool for agricultural and biomedical applications. In vitro development of marbled cat intergeneric SCNT reconstructed into domestic cat cytoplast revealed that cloned, marbled cat embryo development was blocked at the morula stage. No pregnancies resulted from the transfer of one- to eight-cell stage embryos into domestic cat surrogate mothers. This suggested that abnormalities occurred in the cloned marbled cat embryos, which may be associated with incomplete reprogramming during early embryo development. Two pregnancies were established in surrogate mothers that received cloned domestic cat embryos, but SCNT offspring developed abnormally. Some specific phenotypes that were observed included incomplete abdominal wall disclosure, improper fetal development. In addition, some of the fetuses were mummified or stillbirths. The two live births died within 5 days. Telomere lengths of cloned kittens as determined by qualtitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were inconclusive: some were found to be shorter, longer, or the same as donor control cells. Our findings support the hypothesis that telomere lengths do not govern the health of these cloned animals. A lack of complete reprogramming may lead to developmental failure and the abnormalities observed in cloned offspring. PMID:22217197

Imsoonthornruksa, Sumeth; Sangmalee, Anawat; Srirattana, Kanokwan; Parnpai, Rangsun; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena

2012-02-01

190

Acquiring neural signals for developing a perception and cognition model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of how humans process information, determine salience, and combine seemingly unrelated information is essential to automated processing of large amounts of information that is partially relevant, or of unknown relevance. Recent neurological science research in human perception, and in information science regarding contextbased modeling, provides us with a theoretical basis for using a bottom-up approach for automating the management of large amounts of information in ways directly useful for human operators. However, integration of human intelligence into a game theoretic framework for dynamic and adaptive decision support needs a perception and cognition model. For the purpose of cognitive modeling, we present a brain-computer-interface (BCI) based humanoid robot system to acquire brainwaves during human mental activities of imagining a humanoid robot-walking behavior. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model. The BCI system consists of a data acquisition unit with an electroencephalograph (EEG), a humanoid robot, and a charge couple CCD camera. An EEG electrode cup acquires brainwaves from the skin surface on scalp. The humanoid robot has 20 degrees of freedom (DOFs); 12 DOFs located on hips, knees, and ankles for humanoid robot walking, 6 DOFs on shoulders and arms for arms motion, and 2 DOFs for head yaw and pitch motion. The CCD camera takes video clips of the human subject's hand postures to identify mental activities that are correlated to the robot-walking behaviors. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model.

Li, Wei; Li, Yunyi; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Lynch, Robert

2012-05-01

191

Maternal obesity induced by a high fat diet causes altered cellular development in fetal brains suggestive of a predisposition of offspring to neurological disorders in later life.  

PubMed

Fetal development in an obese maternal intrauterine environment has been shown to predispose the offspring for a number of metabolic disorders in later life. The observation that a large percentage of women of child-bearing age in the US are overweight/obese during pregnancy is therefore a source of concern. A high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in female rats has been used as a model for maternal obesity. The objective of this study was to determine cellular development in brains of term fetuses of obese rats fed a HF diet from the time of weaning. Fetal brains were dissected out on gestational day 21 and processed for immunohistochemical analysis in the hypothalamic as well as extra-hypothalamic regions. The major observation of this study is that fetal development in the obese HF female rat induced several alterations in the HF fetal brain. Marked increases were observed in orexigenic signaling and a significant decrease was observed for anorexigenic signaling in the vicinity of the 3rd ventricle in HF brains. Additionally, our results indicated diminished migration and maturation of stem-like cells in the 3rd ventricular region as well as in the brain cortex. The results from the present study indicate developmental alterations in the hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic regions in the HF fetal brain suggestive of a predisposition for the development of obesity and possibly neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the offspring. PMID:24043569

Stachowiak, Ewa K; Srinivasan, Malathi; Stachowiak, Michal K; Patel, Mulchand S

2013-12-01

192

Disorders of cognitive and affective development in cerebellar malformations.  

PubMed

Acquired cerebellar lesions in adults and children can lead to the development of a complex behavioural pattern termed 'Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome' (Schmahmann and Sherman, Brain, 1998; 121: 561-79), which is characterized by reduced cognitive efficiency associated with specific neuropsychological deficits (executive and visuospatial disorders), expressive language disorders (mild agrammatism and anomia) and affective disorders with blunting of affect. It is not known whether a symptomatological picture such as this can also be found in congenital cerebellar malformations. We studied the behavioural developmental profile of 27 patients including children and adults with congenital malformations confined to the cerebellum, the largest studied sample to date. Extensive clinical and neuropsychological investigations highlight the presence of a wide range of disorders supporting the important role played by the cerebellum in the acquisition of higher-order cognitive and affective skills. The type and extent of cerebral reorganization processes in the presence of malformative lesions are difficult to predict and may possibly account for the variability of clinical phenotypes. It is, therefore, more difficult to identify a syndromic picture defined as exactly as is the case with acquired lesions. However, the pattern of deficits that we document is in remarkable agreement with the general profile of the Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome. Malformations affecting the cerebellar vermis induce affective and social disorders and evolve towards more unfavourable pictures often associated with an autistic symptomatology. Malformations of cerebellar hemispheres are more frequently associated with selective neuropsychological deficits involving mainly executive functions and visuospatial and linguistic abilities. Motor deficits are generally less severe, and tend to improve slowly and progressively, in some cases reaching almost complete functionality. Finally, the overall favourable evolution with an onset of skills in advanced age in a consistent subset of subjects suggests that individual follow-ups should be performed in order to monitor the quality and stability of impairments and acquired abilities over time. PMID:17872929

Tavano, Alessandro; Grasso, Rita; Gagliardi, Chiara; Triulzi, Fabio; Bresolin, Nereo; Fabbro, Franco; Borgatti, Renato

2007-10-01

193

Housing under the pyramid reduces susceptibility of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons to prenatal stress in the developing rat offspring.  

PubMed

Mother-offspring interaction begins before birth. The foetus is particularly vulnerable to environmental insults and stress. The body responds by releasing excess of the stress hormone cortisol, which acts on glucocorticoid receptors. Hippocampus in the brain is rich in glucocorticoid receptors and therefore susceptible to stress. The stress effects are reduced when the animals are placed under a model wooden pyramid. The present study was to first explore the effects of prenatal restraint-stress on the plasma corticosterone levels and the dendritic arborisation of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of the offspring. Further, to test whether the pyramid environment would alter these effects, as housing under a pyramid is known to reduce the stress effects, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were restrained for 9 h per day from gestation day 7 until parturition in a wire-mesh restrainer. Plasma corticosterone levels were found to be significantly increased. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the apical and the basal total dendritic branching points and intersections of the CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The results thus suggest that, housing in the pyramid dramatically reduces prenatal stress effects in rats. PMID:24579372

Murthy, Krishna Dilip; George, Mitchel Constance; Ramasamy, Perumal; Mustapha, Zainal Arifin

2013-12-01

194

Part I: Cognitive Development in Children--Piaget Development and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author gives a general introduction of a few ideas on cognitive development in children. In the first part, he deals with the topic of development, a process which concerns the totality of the structures of knowledge. He reviews the stages of development of operational structures, distinguishes four main stages of development,…

Piaget, Jean

2003-01-01

195

Effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate exposure on offspring development and male reproduction of rat.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to assess the effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) exposure during late gestation on offspring's development and reproductive system of male rats. Pregnant rats were treated orally with DBP (2, 10, 50 mg/kg), BBP (4, 20, 100 mg/kg), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) 6 ?g/kg (positive control) from GD14 to parturition. A significant reduction in dams' body weight on GD21 in DBP-, BBP-, and DES-treated groups was observed. The gestation length was considerably elevated in the treated groups. Decline in male pups' body weight was significant at PND75 in DBP- (50 mg/kg), BBP- (20,100 mg/kg), and DES-treated groups. The weight of most of the reproductive organs and sperm quality parameters was impaired significantly in DBP- (50 mg/kg) and BBP- (100 mg/kg) treated groups. Further, a non-significant decline in testicular spermatid count and daily sperm production was also monitored in treated groups. A significant reduction in serum testosterone level in BBP (100 mg/kg), whereas the testicular activity of 17?-HSD was declined non-significantly in the treated groups with respect to control. The data suggests that DBP and BBP exposure during late gestation period might have adverse effects on offspring's development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis in adult rats. PMID:24213843

Ahmad, Rahish; Gautam, A K; Verma, Y; Sedha, S; Kumar, Sunil

2014-02-01

196

The developing utility of zebrafish models for cognitive enhancers research.  

PubMed

Whereas cognitive impairment is a common symptom in multiple brain disorders, predictive and high-throughput animal models of cognition and behavior are becoming increasingly important in the field of translational neuroscience research. In particular, reliable models of the cognitive deficits characteristic of numerous neurobehavioral disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia have become a significant focus of investigation. While rodents have traditionally been used to study cognitive phenotypes, zebrafish (Danio rerio) are gaining popularity as an excellent model to complement current translational neuroscience research. Here we discuss recent advances in pharmacological and genetic approaches using zebrafish models to study cognitive impairments and to discover novel cognitive enhancers and neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:23449968

Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

2012-09-01

197

[Effects on children's cognitive development of chronic exposure to screens].  

PubMed

During the last few years, the time spent in front of various screens, including TV sets, video games, smartphones and computers, has dramatically increased. Numerous studies show, with a remarkable consistency, that this trend has a strong negative influence on the cognitive development of children and teenagers. The affected fields include, in particular, scholastic achievement, language, attention, sleep and aggression. We believe that this often disregarded - not to say denied - problem should now be considered a major public health issue. Primary care physicians should inform parents and children about this issue to support efficient prevention. PMID:22609414

Harlé, B; Desmurget, M

2012-07-01

198

Metacognition and the Autonomous Learner: Student Reflections on Cognitive Profiles and Learning Environment Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the role of metacognitive skills in the development of autonomous learners. This is done by considering the use of student cognitive profiles for constructing interfaces for interacting with learning environments. For the purposes of this study, a cognitive profile is considered to consist of measures of an individual's cognitive style, learning style and personality. Student awareness of

Ray Webster

199

The Development of Socio-Moral Cognition in Late Adolescence: A Three-Dimensional Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of the developmental shift from adolescence to adulthood has been of ongoing interest to researchers studying the development of socio-moral cognition from within the "cognitive-developmental" paradigm. This paper identifies three dimensions along which developmental changes in socio-moral cognition occur during late adolescence:…

Tappan, Mark B.

200

The CLAI Model: A Cognitive Theory of Instruction To Guide ITS Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Cognitive Learning from Automated Instruction (CLAI) model. Discusses cognitive learning, learning from instruction, and automatic instruction; reviews instructional theories relating cognitive processes and instruction; and describes the CLAI model for developing intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). Illustrates a practical approach…

Arruarte, Ana; And Others

1996-01-01

201

[The 1998 domestic state of development of cognitive enhancers].  

PubMed

Recently, there is a great social problem that geriatric disorders, especially senile dementia, are growing rapidly with the increasing percentage of aged individuals in the total population. However, there is yet no drug that has reliable effects on senile dementia on the market. Therefore, society requires the development of new drugs that can support patients so that they can smoothly live their daily lives by themselves. In this study, we attempted to investigate the 1998 domestic state of development of cognitive enhancers by summarizing many publications and by gathering questionnaires from pharmaceutical, food, synthetic fiber and chemical manufacturing companies. There were 40 currently investigated cognitive enhancers in Japan as of the end of March, 1999 including 37 newly synthesized compounds and 3 new dosage forms or applications of additional effects. On the classification according to the mechanism of drug action, 12 of the investigated drugs are cholinomimetic agents, 12 are ameliorators of neuronal transmission, 1 is an intracellular mediative substance, 3 are neuropeptides, 2 are cerebral metabolic activators, 2 are cerebral circulation enhancers and 7 are neuronal cell protectors, and 1 is another type. For dementia of the Alzheimer's type, there are 1, 3, 10 and 2 drugs in prerecognition, phase late II, early II and I of clinical trials, respectively. For cerebrovascular dementia and cerebrovascular disease, there are 19 drugs being investigated. Seven of these compounds such as E2020 (donepedil HCl), DM-9384 (nefiracetam), TA-0910 (taltirelin), NS-3 (montirelin), TTC-909 (clinprost), DR-3305 (ebselen) and AVS (nicaraven) are at the prerecognition stage for marketing. It is important that effective cognitive enhancers will be supplied for clinical stage use as soon as possible. PMID:10672593

Hasegawa, M; Noda, Y; Maeda, Y; Yamada, K; Nabeshima, T

1999-12-01

202

Early Childhood Development Interventions and Cognitive Development of Young Children in Rural Vietnam1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the long-term benefits of interventions that aim to promote early childhood development programs. The goal of this research was to determine whether an early childhood development intervention added to a nutrition intervention during preschool ages had lasting effects on the cognitive develop- ment of school-age children in communes of Thanh Hoa province in rural Vietnam. The

Koichiro Watanabe; Rafael Flores; Junko Fujiwara; Lien Thi; Huong Tran

203

Alcohol Exposure and Cognitive Development: An Example of Why We Need a Contextualized, Dynamic Life Course Approach to Cognitive Ageing – A Mini-Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A substantial literature exists that demonstrates associations between putative risk factors and cognitive decline in late life. However, there is a need to integrate this broad literature within a framework that incorporates the interaction of behavioral and ecological influences with cognitive development. Such a framework is required for developing a range of personal and environmental interventions to optimize cognitive

Kaarin J. Anstey

2008-01-01

204

Breastfeeding and trajectories of children's cognitive development.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the association of breastfeeding practices with the growth trajectories of children's cognitive development. We used data from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) with variables on presence and duration of breastfeeding and standardized test scores obtained during three different panel waves (N = 2681). After adjusting for covariates we found that breastfed children had higher test scores but that breastfed and non-breastfed children had similar growth trajectories in test scores over time. The results indicate that breastfeeding has an important association with test scores, and that subsequent schooling and other experiences during adolescence do not eliminate the breastfeeding gap that appears in very early childhood. PMID:24410811

Huang, Jin; Peters, Kristen E; Vaughn, Michael G; Witko, Christopher

2014-05-01

205

X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

Walzer, Stanley

1985-01-01

206

A Systemic Model of Development: Strategically Enhancing Students' Cognitive, Psychomotor, Affective and Social Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges of the 21st century create an imperative for engineering educators: to design learning experiences that result in engineering professionals with a sophisticated level of cognitive, psychomotor, social and affective development. We propose a tool for the design process. Our systemic model of development (SMD) is based on a large body of learning theory and empirical data. It maps

Linda Vanasupa; Jonathan Stolk; Trevor Harding; Richard Savage

2007-01-01

207

Maternal diabetes programs hypertension and kidney injury in offspring.  

PubMed

We investigated whether maternal diabetes programs the offspring to develop hypertension and kidney injury in adulthood and examined potential underlying mechanisms. In a murine model we studied the offspring of three groups of dams (non-diabetic, diabetic, and diabetic treated with insulin). Mean systolic blood pressure in the offspring was monitored from 8 to 20 weeks. Body and kidney weights in the offspring of diabetic mothers were significantly lower than in offspring of non-diabetic mothers. Offspring of diabetic mothers developed hypertension, microalbuminuria, and glucose intolerance. Increased accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the glomeruli and marked upregulation of angiotensinogen, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene expression were evident in the renal cortex of hypertensive offspring of diabetic mothers. By contrast, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) gene expression was lower in the hypertensive offspring of diabetic mothers than in that of non-diabetic mothers. These changes were prevented in the offspring of insulin-treated diabetic mothers. These data indicate that maternal diabetes induces perinatal programming of hypertension, renal injury, and glucose intolerance in the offspring and suggest a central role for the activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system and TGF-beta1 gene expression in this process. PMID:20422227

Chen, Yun-Wen; Chenier, Isabelle; Tran, Stella; Scotcher, Michael; Chang, Shiao-Ying; Zhang, Shao-Ling

2010-07-01

208

The Influence of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors on the Development of Rifle Marksmanship Skills. CRESST Report 753  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, researchers examined rifle marksmanship development within a skill development framework outlined by Chung, Delacruz, de Vries, Bewley, and Baker (2006). Thirty-three novice shooters used an M4 rifle training simulator system to learn to shoot an 8-inch target at a simulated distance of 200 yards. Cognitive, psychomotor, and…

Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

2009-01-01

209

The different effects of LPS and poly I:C prenatal immune challenges on the behavior, development and inflammatory responses in pregnant mice and their offspring.  

PubMed

In recent years, in vivo animal models of prenatal infection have been developed in an attempt to recreate behavioral and neuropathological features associated to a number of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, these models are still in their emerging phase and a better understanding of how these types of infections relate to adult-onset of brain-related disorders is needed. Here, we undertook an extensive behavioral characterization of both pregnant females and their pups following late gestational exposure (from gestational days (GD) 15-17) to either lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 120?g/kg i.p.) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C; 5mg/kg i.v.). We observed that both LPS and poly I:C treatments produced anxiety-like behaviors in treated pregnant females, although to a lesser extent with LPS. LPS injections, but not poly I:C, led to reduced food intake and consequently decreased weight gain in pregnant dams. In pups, poly I:C treatments triggered a delay in growth and sensorimotor development, as evaluated by righting, geotaxis and grasping reflexes. At the cellular level, both toxins induced an initial inflammatory response while only LPS reduced the expression of brain cell markers in foetuses (GFAP and NeuN), which was no longer observable at postnatal day (PnD) 10. Higher levels of IL-2, IL-5 and IL-6 in plasma and an upregulation of the metabotropic receptor 5 (mGluR5) in foetal brains of 10-day-old offspring prenatally exposed to poly I:C was also observed. Interestingly, the increased mGluR5 expression correlated with impairments of the righting reflex. This study is the first to directly compare reflex development following LPS and poly I:C prenatal immune challenges in mice and sheds light onto the different patterns of behavior and pathology in dams and their offspring. PMID:24384468

Arsenault, Dany; St-Amour, Isabelle; Cisbani, Giulia; Rousseau, Louis-Simon; Cicchetti, Francesca

2014-05-01

210

From neural development to cognition: unexpected roles for chromatin.  

PubMed

Recent genome-sequencing studies in human neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders have uncovered mutations in many chromatin regulators. These human genetic studies, along with studies in model organisms, are providing insight into chromatin regulatory mechanisms in neural development and how alterations to these mechanisms can cause cognitive deficits, such as intellectual disability. We discuss several implicated chromatin regulators, including BAF (also known as SWI/SNF) and CHD8 chromatin remodellers, HDAC4 and the Polycomb component EZH2. Interestingly, mutations in EZH2 and certain BAF complex components have roles in both neurodevelopmental disorders and cancer, and overlapping point mutations are suggesting functionally important residues and domains. We speculate on the contribution of these similar mutations to disparate disorders. PMID:23568486

Ronan, Jehnna L; Wu, Wei; Crabtree, Gerald R

2013-05-01

211

From neural development to cognition: unexpected roles for chromatin  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-sequencing studies in human neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders have uncovered mutations in many chromatin regulators. These human genetic studies, along with studies in model organisms, are providing insight into chromatin regulatory mechanisms in neural development and how alterations to these mechanisms can cause cognitive deficits, such as intellectual disability. We discuss several implicated chromatin regulators, including BAF (also known as SWI/SNF) and CHD8 chromatin remodellers, HDAC4 and the Polycomb component EZH2. Interestingly, mutations in EZH2 and certain BAF complex components have roles in both neurodevelopmental disorders and cancer, and overlapping point mutations are suggesting functionally important residues and domains. We speculate on the contribution of these similar mutations to disparate disorders.

Ronan, Jehnna L.; Wu, Wei

2014-01-01

212

Development of rostral prefrontal cortex and cognitive and behavioural disorders  

PubMed Central

Summary Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in humans than in other primates. It also has a large number of dendritic spines per cells and numerous connections to the supramodal cortex. These characteristics suggest that rostral PFC is likely to support processes of integration or coordination of inputs particularly developed in humans. The development of rostral PFC is prolonged, with decreases in grey matter and synaptic density continuing into adolescence. Functions attributed to rostral PFC, such as prospective memory, appear to similarly follow a prolonged development until adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have generally found reduced recruitment of rostral PFC, e.g. in tasks requiring response inhibition, in adults compared with children or adolescents, which is consistent with grey matter maturation. The examples of autism, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia show that rostral PFC could be affected in several disorders due to the susceptibility of its prolonged maturation to developmental abnormalities.

Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

2008-01-01

213

Assessing the Cognitive Development of Counseling Students: Changes in Epistemological Assumptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the cognitive development of counseling students at 3 points in their training. Analysis showed a linear trend between the students' progression through the program and their cognitive development. Results lend support to the idea that it may be possible to capture the broad development of counselor education students with a…

Granello, Darcy Haag

2002-01-01

214

Information Literacy and its Relationship to Cognitive Development and Reflective Judgment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article maps the Association of College and Research Libraries' Information Competency Standards for Higher Education to the cognitive development levels developed by William G. Perry and Patricia King and Karen Kitchener to suggest which competencies are appropriate for which level of cognitive development. (Contains 1 table.)

Jackson, Rebecca

2008-01-01

215

Structural and functional organization of a developing brain and formation of cognitive functions in child ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of multidisciplinary studies, including neuromorphological, neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and psychphysiological\\u000a studies, are reviewed. They allow the brain mechanisms of cognition formation and development during maturation to be identified.\\u000a The role of regulatory (modulatory) brain systems in forming the cognitive function in the child is demonstrated. Data on\\u000a considerable changes in the brain systems responsible for the development of cognitive functions

M. M. Bezrukikh; R. I. Machinskaya; D. A. Farber

2009-01-01

216

Student Cognitive and Affective Development in the Context of Classroom-Level Curriculum Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the impact of teacher curriculum approaches (curriculum-transmitter/curriculum-developer/curriculum-maker) on student cognitive change (reading, writing, speaking, and listening abilities) and their affective change (motivation and interests). This study's conceptual framework was grounded in teacher curriculum…

Shawer, Saad Fathy; Gilmore, Deanna; Banks-Joseph, Susan Rae

2008-01-01

217

Reduced Cognition in Syngap1 Mutants Is Caused by Isolated Damage within Developing Forebrain Excitatory Neurons.  

PubMed

Syngap1 haploinsufficiency is a common cause of sporadic intellectual disability. Syngap1 mutations disrupt developing pyramidal neurons, although it remains unclear if this process contributes to cognitive abnormalities. Here, we found that haploinsufficiency restricted to forebrain glutamatergic neurons was sufficient to disrupt cognition and removing mutations from this population prevented cognitive abnormalities. In contrast, manipulating Syngap1 function in GABAergic neurons had no effect on cognition, excitability, or neurotransmission, highlighting the specificity of Syngap1 mutations within forebrain excitatory neurons. Interestingly, cognitive abnormalities were reliably predicted by the emergence of enhanced excitatory synaptic function in mature superficial cortical pyramidal cells, which was a neurophysiological disruption caused by Syngap1 dysfunction in developing, but not adult, forebrain neurons. We conclude that reduced cognition in Syngap1 mutants is caused by isolated damage to developing forebrain glutamatergic neurons. This damage triggers secondary disruptions to synaptic homeostasis in mature cortical pyramidal cells, which perpetuates brain dysfunction into adulthood. PMID:24945774

Ozkan, Emin D; Creson, Thomas K; Kramár, Enikö A; Rojas, Camilo; Seese, Ron R; Babyan, Alex H; Shi, Yulin; Lucero, Rocco; Xu, Xiangmin; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Miller, Courtney A; Lynch, Gary; Rumbaugh, Gavin

2014-06-18

218

Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology ("theory of mind") in offspring of mothers with psychoses  

PubMed Central

Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind”) and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.

Marothi, Rebeka

2014-01-01

219

Dimensional psychopathology in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the dimensional psychopathology in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) with offspring of community control parents as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Methods Offspring of parents with BP, who were healthy or had no non-BP disorders (n = 319) and bipolar spectrum disorders (n = 35), and offspring of community controls (n = 235) ages 6–18 years old were compared using the CBCL, the CBCL-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP), and a sum of the CBCL items associated with mood lability. The results were adjusted for multiple comparisons and any significant between-group demographic and clinical differences in both biological parents and offspring. Results With few exceptions, several CBCL (e.g., Total, Internalizing, and Aggression Problems), CBCL-DP, and mood lability scores in non-BP offspring of parents with BP were significantly higher than in offspring of control parents. In addition, both groups of offspring showed significantly lower scores in most scales when compared with offspring of parents with BP who already developed BP. Similar results were obtained when analyzing the rates of subjects with CBCL T-scores that were two standard deviations or higher above the mean. Conclusions Even before developing BP, offspring of parents with BP had more severe and higher rates of dimensional psychopathology than offspring of control parents. Prospective follow-up studies in non-BP offspring of parents with BP are warranted to evaluate whether these dimensional profiles are prodromal manifestations of mood or other disorders and can predict those who are at higher risk to develop BP.

Diler, Rasim Somer; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Obreja, Mihaela; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina; Sakolsky, Dara; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Kupfer, David

2011-01-01

220

The role of falsification in the development of cognitive architectures: insights from a lakatosian analysis.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive architectures should be understood as theories that develop over time. However, Newell's own candidate cognitive architecture adhered only loosely to Lakatosian principles. This paper reconsiders the role of falsification and the potential utility of Lakatosian principles in the development of cognitive architectures. It is argued that a lack of direct falsifiability need not undermine the scientific development of a cognitive architecture if broadly Lakatosian principles are adopted. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the Lakatosian concepts of positive and negative heuristics for theory development and of general heuristic power offer methods for guiding the development of an architecture and for evaluating the contribution and potential of an architecture's research program. PMID:21635306

Cooper, Richard P

2007-05-01

221

Rate of Physical Growth and Its Affect on Head Start Children's Motor and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…

Marcon, Rebecca A.

222

The cognitive development of pre-school children treated for chronic renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic renal failure in young children is associated with impaired cognitive development, but recent studies present a more optimistic perspective. An important question is whether the earlier initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) might prevent the reported developmental retardation. The cognitive development of 31 patients (age P<0.01) than those on dialysis. The effect of starting dialysis treatment appeared to be

Gerdine M. Hulstijn-Dirkmaatt; Ilse H. W. Damhuisl; Mirjam L. J. Jettenl; Anja M. Koster; Cornelis H. Schriider

1995-01-01

223

Quality of Family Context or Sibling Status? Influences on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes the influence of socioeconomic status, quality of family context and sibling status on cognitive development in a sample of 551 five-year-old children. The regression analyses confirmed the predictive value of socioeconomic status and quality of family context on cognitive development. The quality of family context mediates the…

Freijo, Enrique B. Arranz; Oliva, Alfredo; Olabarrieta, Fernando; Martin, Juan Luis; Manzano, Ainhoa; Richards, Martin P. M.

2008-01-01

224

Predicting Preschool Cognitive Development from Infant Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Psychosocial Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation between psychosocial risk and children's cognitive development. A mixed sample comprising 27 low-risk (i.e., adult mothers)

Jean-Pascal. Lemelin; Marc A. Provost

2006-01-01

225

Social Experience and the Development of Social Cognition in Orthopedically Disabled and Non Disabled Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated were the cognitive and social development of 40 orthopedially handicapped children ages 6 to 12 years. Social development was measured by the Children's Social Relations Rating Scale, the Children's Social Relations Interview Schedule, and the Children's Role Taking Task. The Concrete Operations Tasks assessed cognitive ability. Data…

Volpe, Richard

226

Insights From Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a critical role in the development of academic skills such as reading. This

Kelly B. Cartwright

2012-01-01

227

Cognitive and Social Development in the Second Year of Life: A Neo-Piagetian Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study of 18 pairs of mothers and infants of 14-22 months to determine the cognitive and social development of the child in its second year. Results support the prediction that a new stage of development is achieved between 18 and 22 months in both cognitive and social domains. (RJC)

Leitner, Karen L.

1989-01-01

228

The Social-Emotional and Cultural Contexts of Cognitive Development: Neo-Piagetian Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ways in which researchers have examined the role of social and emotional factors in cognitive functioning and development to uncover additional sources of variation to explain interindividual and intraindividual differences in cognitive development from within a Piagetian framework. Considers the implications of recent Francophone…

Suizzo, Marie-Anne

2000-01-01

229

Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: II-the developmental pattern of neurons in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.  

PubMed

Excessive concentrations of free radicals in the developing brain may lead to neurons maldevelopment and neurons damage and death. Thyroid hormones (THs) states play an important role in affecting the modulation of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. Thus, the objective of this study was to clarify the effect of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rat dams on the neurons development of different brain regions of their offspring at several postnatal weeks in relation to changes in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. The adult female rats were administered methimazole (MMI) in drinking water (0.02% w/v) from gestation day 1 to lactation day 21 to induce hypothyroidism and exogenous thyroxine (T4) in drinking water (0.002% w/v) beside intragastric incubation of 50--200 T4 ?g/kg body weight (b. wt.) to induce hyperthyroidism. In normal female rats, the sera total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) levels were detectably increased at day 10 post-partum than those at day 10 of pregnancy. Free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations in normal offspring were elevated at first, second and third postnatal weeks in an age-dependent manner. In hypothyroid group, a marked depression was observed in sera of dam TT3 and TT4 as well as offspring FT3, FT4 and GH, while there was a significant increase in TSH level with the age progress. The reverse pattern to latter state was recorded in hyperthyroid group. Concomitantly, in control offspring, the rate of neuron development in both cerebellar and cerebral cortex was increased in its density and complexity with age progress. This development may depend, largely, on THs state. Both maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism caused severe growth retardation in neurons of these regions of their offspring from the first to third weeks. Additionally, in normal offspring, seven antioxidant enzymes, four non-enzymatic antioxidants and one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation, LPO) followed a synchronized course of alterations in cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. In both thyroid states, the oxidative damage has been demonstrated by the increased LPO and inhibition of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in most examined ages and brain regions. These disturbances in the antioxidant defense system led to deterioration in the neuronal maturation and development. In conclusion, it can be suggested that the maldevelopment of neurons and dendrites in different brain regions of offspring of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid mother rat dams may be attributed, at least in part, to the excess oxidative stress and deteriorated antioxidant defense system in such conditions. PMID:22664656

Ahmed, O M; Ahmed, R G; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M

2012-10-01

230

Development of stereotypies and polydipsia in wild caught bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and their laboratory-bred offspring. Is polydipsia a symptom of diabetes mellitus?  

PubMed

The development of stereotypies and polydipsia was studied in wild caught bank voles (P: n=92) and their laboratory-bred offspring (F1: n=248). All animals were kept isolated in barren cages in the laboratory. In the P generation, no individuals developed stereotypies, but 22% developed polydipsia (>21 ml/day water intake against normally 10 ml/day). Polydipsia was more frequent among males (34%) than females (13%). In F1, 30% developed locomotor stereotypies alone, 21% showed polydipsia alone, and, additionally, 7% developed both stereotypies and polydipsia. Fewer males than females developed stereotypies (23% vs. 38%), whereas polydipsia was more frequent in males than in females (30% vs. 11%). The occurrence and distribution of polydipsia among sexes were the same in F1 and P. The distribution of different types of stereotypies in stereotyping voles were backward somersaulting (BS, 80%), high-speed jumping (JUMP, 29%), pacing following a fixed route (PF, 12%) and windscreen wiper movement (WIN, 5%). Some individuals (10%) showed two or more different types of stereotypies. The average age for developing stereotypies was 96 days while polydipsia was registered at the age of 63 days in both sexes. Voles showing both polydipsia and stereotypies developed polydipsia later (79 days) than polydipsic voles not showing stereotypies. This difference was especially pronounced in stereotyping females in which the occurrence of polydipsia was postponed to the age of 114 days. Polydipsic voles were tested positive for glucosuria indicating that polydipsia could be a symptom of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that the development of stereotypies and polydipsia among bank voles in the laboratory are the results of frustration and prolonged stress. Stereotypies seem to depend on frustrative experiences early in life, while polydipsia may be related to diabetes mellitus caused by the experience of prolonged stress. Moreover, circumstances related to the development of stereotypies may be adaptive by reducing the risks of prolonged stress, including the development of fatal polydipsia. PMID:10844158

Schoenecker; Heller; Freimanis

2000-07-01

231

The Cognitive Link Between Geography and Development: Iodine Deficiency and Schooling Attainment in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 20 million children born each year are at risk of brain damage from in utero iodine deficiency, the only micronutrient deficiency known to have significant, non-reversible effects on cognitive development. Cognitive damage from iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) has potentially important implications for economic growth through its effect on human capital attainment. To gauge the magnitude of this influence,

Erica M. Field; Omar Robles; Máximo Torero

2008-01-01

232

Development of Online Cognitive and Algorithm Tests as Assessment Tools in Introductory Computer Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the online cognitive and algorithm tests, which were developed in order to determine if certain cognitive factors and fundamental algorithms correlate with the performance of students in their introductory computer science course. The tests were implemented among Management Information Systems majors from the Philippines and…

Avancena, Aimee Theresa; Nishihara, Akinori; Vergara, John Paul

2012-01-01

233

Socialization, Culture and Ecology in the Development of Group and Sex Differences in Cognitive Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of the theory of psychological differentiation and particularly of its field-dependence-independence cognitive-style component. Recent cross-cultural research on the roles of child-rearing, culture and ecology in the development of individual, group and sex differences in cognitive style is reviewed.Copyright © 1979 S. Karger AG, Basel

Herman A. Witkin

1979-01-01

234

Development and Analysis of a Cognitive Preference Test in the Social Sciences. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to allow for formulating affective objectives in communicable terms, the Cognitive Preference Test in the Social Sciences was developed. This exploratory device, which reflects cognitive preferences in terms of students' dispositions to respond consistently to either particular or general features of data, uses multiple choice wherein 4…

Payette, Roland Francis

235

Cash transfers, behavioral changes, and cognitive development in early childhood : evidence from a randomized experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of theories of skill formation suggest that investments in schooling and other dimensions of human capital will have lower returns if children do not have adequate levels of cognitive and social skills at an early age. This paper analyzes the impact of a randomized cash transfer program on cognitive development in early childhood in rural Nicaragua. It shows

Karen Macours; Norbert Schady; Renos Vakis

2008-01-01

236

Development of Thinking About Things and People: Social and Nonsocial Cognition During Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among a group of 90 adolescents, the tendency to use organizing terms in free descriptions of persons was positively associated with a measure of formal operations. This association endured when age and mental age were statistically partialled out of the relationship. The results are taken to support the notion that basic cognitive developments also manifest themselves in the social-cognitive area.

John F. Omahony

1989-01-01

237

Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

Cartwright, Kelly B.

2012-01-01

238

Reconsidering the Role of Overcoming Perturbations in Cognitive Development: Constructivism and Consciousness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivist theory must choose between the hypothesis that felt perturbation drives cognitive development (the priority of felt perturbation) and the hypothesis that the particular process that eventually produces new cognitive structures first produces felt perturbation (the continuity of process). There is ambivalence in Piagetian theory…

Becker, Joe

2004-01-01

239

The Role of Falsification in the Development of Cognitive Architectures: Insights from a Lakatosian Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive architectures should be understood as theories…

Cooper, Richard P.

2007-01-01

240

Parent Cognitions and Parent-Infant Interaction: The Relationship with Development in the First 12 Months  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined parent cognitions and parent-infant interaction in terms of their contribution to infant development in the first 12 months. With a sample of 95 mother-infant dyads, results using structural equation modelling confirmed the expected finding that parent-infant interaction mediates the association between parent cognitions and…

Ferrier-Lynn, Melissa; Skouteris, Helen

2008-01-01

241

Experimental evidence for offspring learning in parent-offspring communication.  

PubMed Central

The offspring of birds and mammals solicit food from their parents by a combination of movements and vocalizations that have come to be known collectively as 'begging'. Recently, begging has most often been viewed as an honest signal of offspring need. Yet, if offspring learn to adjust their begging efforts to the level that rewards them most, begging intensities may also reflect offsprings' past experience rather than their precise current needs. Here we show that bird nestlings with equal levels of need can learn to beg at remarkably different levels. These experiments with hand-raised house sparrows (Passer domesticus) indicated that chicks learn to modify begging levels within a few hours. Moreover, we found that the begging postures of hungry chicks in natural nests are correlated with the average postures that had previously yielded them parental feedings. Such learning challenges parental ability to assess offspring needs and may require that, in response, parents somehow filter out learned differences in offspring signals.

Kedar, H; Rodriguez-Girones, M A; Yedvab, S; Winkler, D W; Lotem, A

2000-01-01

242

Contributions of societal modernity to cognitive development: a comparison of four cultures.  

PubMed

This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old children (N = 192) on 7 cognitive measures were examined. Results replicated age-related improvement on all measures. Contributions of modernity were evident in children's play behaviors and cognitive performances, especially in skills related to schooling. Modernization and schooling independently predicted differences on most of the measures. Results are discussed in relation to the Flynn effect, the worldwide increase in cognitive scores across generations, and the ways in which societal modernization may contribute to cognitive development. PMID:19930342

Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L

2009-01-01

243

Problem Solving and Reasoning Skills Cognitive Development Model for Severely Disadvantaged Puerto Rican College Students. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the Problem Solving and Reasoning Skills Cognitive Development Model for Severely Disadvantaged Puerto Rican College Students, the Ana G. Mendez Educational Foundation developed a model for cognitive skills development for disadvantaged, low-achieving Hispanics. The program incorporates cognitive skills into existing remedial courses in…

Ana G. Mendez Educational Foundation, Rio Piedras, PR.

244

In-Utero Exposure to Bereavement and Offspring IQ: A Danish National Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Intelligence is a life-long trait that has strong influences on lifestyle, adult morbidity and life expectancy. Hence, lower cognitive abilities are therefore of public health interest. Our primary aim was to examine if prenatal bereavement measured as exposure to death of a close family member is associated with the intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 18-years of age of adult Danish males completing a military cognitive screening examination. Methods We extracted records for the Danish military screening test and found kinship links with biological parents, siblings, and maternal grandparents using the Danish Civil Registration System (N?=?167,900). The prenatal exposure period was defined as 12 months before conception until birth of the child. We categorized children as exposed in utero to severe stress (bereavement) during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband, parent or sibling during the prenatal period; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. Mean score estimates were adjusted for maternal and paternal age at birth, residence, income, maternal education, gestational age at birth and birth weight. Results When exposure was due to death of a father the offsprings' mean IQ scores were lower among men completing the military recruitment exam compared to their unexposed counterparts, adjusted difference of 6.5 standard IQ points (p-value?=?0.01). We did not observe a clinically significant association between exposure to prenatal maternal bereavement caused by death of a sibling, maternal uncle/aunt or maternal grandparent even after stratifying deaths only due to traumatic events. Conclusion We found maternal bereavement to be adversely associated with IQ in male offspring, which could be related to prenatal stress exposure though more likely is due to changes in family conditions after death of the father. This finding supports other literature on maternal adversity during fetal life and cognitive development in the offspring.

Virk, Jasveer; Obel, Carsten; Li, Jiong; Olsen, J?rn

2014-01-01

245

Development and application of an ELISA for the detection of duck antibodies against Riemerella anatipestifer antigens in egg yolk of vaccinees and in serum of their offspring.  

PubMed

A direct and an indirect antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for duck yolk IgY and duck serum IgY was developed and tested on egg yolk and serum of ducks vaccinated with Riemerella anatipestifer (Ra). Tests were performed either with primary antibodies labelled with horseradish peroxidase or with alkaline phosphatase-labelled secondary antibodies reacting with specifically bound rabbit anti-duck IgY antibodies, respectively. Ra-specific IgYs in egg yolk from three ducks increased rapidly at day 8 after the first of two vaccinations. In two ducks, the IgY titre persisted on a high plateau for 3 months. The concentration of Ra-specific IgYs in the serum of the progeny of vaccinees decreased between day 3 and day 10 after hatching. The fraction of total IgYs decreased less but also significantly. It was shown that antibodies were vertically transmitted and therefore protect offspring against Ra infection at least during the first week after hatching. The test design with anti-IgY rabbit antibodies is further suitable to detect other specific antibodies if respective antigens were fixed on solid phases. PMID:12675899

Lobbedey, L; Schlatterer, B

2003-03-01

246

Environmental Risk and Young Children's Cognitive and Behavioral Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a longitudinal, large-scale sample of British twins, we addressed the prediction of both cognitive abilities and behavioral adjustment from eight domains of environmental risk: minority status, socio-economic status, maternal medical factors, twin medical factors, maternal depression, chaos within the home environment, and parental feelings…

Pike, Alison; Iervolino, Alessandra C.; Eley, Thalia C.; Price, Thomas S.; Plomin, Robert

2006-01-01

247

Development of nicotinic drug therapy for cognitive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine, as well as other nicotinic drugs, may provide useful therapeutic treatment for a variety of cognitive impairments including those found in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have found that nicotine skin patches significantly improve attentional performance in people with these disease states as well as normal nonsmoking adults. Animal models are critical for determining

Edward D Levin; Amir H Rezvani

2000-01-01

248

Educating the Developing Mind: The View from Cognitive Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demetriou, Spanoudis, and Mouyi have provided a comprehensive view of the relation between a model of the mind and the process of education. The model they propose is based on cognitive theories of mental action, rather than neuroscientific evidence. I argue here that that is the correct approach, for a model of the information processing…

Hunt, Earl

2012-01-01

249

Cognitive and Social Constructivism: Developing Tools for an Effective Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective classroom, where teachers and students are communicating optimally, is dependent on using constructivist strategies, tools and practices. There are two major types of constructivism in the classroom: (1) Cognitive or individual constructivism depending on Piaget's theory, and (2) Social constructivism depending on Vygotsky's theory.…

Powell, Katherine C.; Kalina, Cody J.

2009-01-01

250

Avram Noam Chomsky and His Cognitive Development Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, cognitive scientist, logician, historian, political critic and activist. Chomsky is an Institute Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy at MIT where he has worked for over fifty years. Chomsky has been described as the father of modern linguistics and a major…

Costley, Kevin C.; Nelson, Jaime

2013-01-01

251

Schooling, Environment and Cognitive Development: A Cross-Cultural Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the influence of schooling and environment on young children's memory and cognitive skills. Subjects were five- and six-year-old Mestizo and Quechua Indian children living in jungle villages or city slums in Peru. Samples of upper-middle-class children in Lima and poor children in Detroit were also tested. (JMB)

Stevenson, Harold W.; And Others

1978-01-01

252

Bounded Rationality and Cognitive Development: Upper Limits on Growth?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Piaget's characterization of formal operational thought and human judgment psychologists' model of bounded rationality are two conflicting models dealing with the nature and limits of mature thought. However, a look at the respective databases demonstrates their complementarity and their contribution to understanding mature cognition. (Author/RD)

Shaklee, Harriet

1979-01-01

253

Exploring Science: The Cognition and Development of Discovery Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores individual cognitive processes and the psychology of scientific discovery. Nine studies are presented that investigate childrens' and adults' attempts to make scientific discoveries from a theoretical perspective. Contents include: (1) "Investigating Scientific Thinking: Why and How"; (2) "Scientific Discovery as Problem…

Klahr, David

254

Adolescent offspring of mothers with chronic fatigue syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this study was to determine if adolescent offspring of mothers with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have higher prevalence of CFS and report more fatigue, greater pain sensitivity, more sleep problems, and poorer cardiopulmonary fitness than comparison offspring with no exposure to maternal CFS. Methods Twenty-six adolescent offspring of 20 mothers diagnosed with CFS were compared with 45 adolescent offspring of 30 age-matched healthy control mothers. Study measures included structured interviews and medical and laboratory examinations for CFS; tender point examination; maximum oxygen uptake and perceived exertion; dolorimetry pain ratings; and questionnaires on fatigue severity and sleepiness. Results Compared to offspring of healthy mothers, those who were exposed to mothers with CFS reported higher prevalence of fatigue of at least one month duration (23% versus 4%), fatigue of 6 months or longer (15% versus 2%), and met criteria for CFS (12% versus 2%), although these differences only approached statistical significance. CFS and healthy mothers differed on almost all study outcomes, but offspring groups did not differ on measures of current fatigue severity, pain sensitivity, sleep, mean number of tender points, and cardiopulmonary fitness. Conclusions The higher prevalence of fatiguing states in offspring of CFS mothers, despite the lack of statistical significance, suggests that familial factors may potentially play a role in developing chronically fatiguing states. Alternately, perturbations in pain sensitivity, and cardiopulmonary fitness may be consequences of CFS. Future studies should focus on examining the impact of maternal CFS and associated disability on offspring psychosocial functioning.

Smith, Mark S.; Buchwald, Dedra; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Smith, Wayne R.; Afari, Niloofar

2009-01-01

255

[Development of the locomotive and neurologic symptoms in the offspring of schizophrenics during the first few years of life].  

PubMed

The author provides the neurological characteristics and the follow-up data on the development of locomotion in 36 children aged 3 months to 3 years born to schizophrenic patients. Three variants of motor development were distinguished: the first one--early and proper development; the second one--short-term retardation at some stages, namely before the age of 1 year and 4 months, with intermittent episodes in the development and a proper or little changed formula of the postural and motor development; the third one--appreciable retardation and perversion of the motor developmental formula, insufficiency of the extrapyramidal and cortical components of the motor act, preserved even after 3 years of age. Among the discovered neurological symptoms, disorders in the system of gaze innervation, vocal and motor disorders, motor stereotypies, disturbances of the extrapyramidal and cortical component of the motor act, the hydrocephalic syndrome can be attributed to more specific ones as regards the schizotypic dysontogenesis. They were distinguished for using in further follow-up of the children. PMID:1701598

Goriunova, A V

1990-01-01

256

The Integration of Cognition and Emotion during Infancy and Early Childhood: Regulatory Processes Associated with the Development of Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 4 1/2-years of…

Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann

2007-01-01

257

Differences in the early cognitive development of children and great apes.  

PubMed

There is very little research comparing great ape and human cognition developmentally. In the current studies we compared a cross-sectional sample of 2- to 4-year-old human children (n=48) with a large sample of chimpanzees and bonobos in the same age range (n=42, hereafter: apes) on a broad array of cognitive tasks. We then followed a group of juvenile apes (n=44) longitudinally over 3 years to track their cognitive development in greater detail. In skills of physical cognition (space, causality, quantities), children and apes performed comparably at 2 years of age, but by 4 years of age children were more advanced (whereas apes stayed at their 2-year-old performance levels). In skills of social cognition (communication, social learning, theory of mind), children out-performed apes already at 2 years, and increased this difference even more by 4 years. Patterns of development differed more between children and apes in the social domain than the physical domain, with support for these patterns present in both the cross-sectional and longitudinal ape data sets. These results indicate key differences in the pattern and pace of cognitive development between humans and other apes, particularly in the early emergence of specific social cognitive capacities in humans. PMID:23765870

Wobber, Victoria; Herrmann, Esther; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard; Tomasello, Michael

2014-04-01

258

The Effect of Health and Poverty on Early Childhood Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although evidence of a link between socioeconomic status and child health has been researched extensively, much less attention\\u000a has been devoted to studying the link between child health and cognitive development. This paper seeks to determine whether\\u000a early childhood illnesses and poverty significantly impede cognitive development. The empirical model attempts to control\\u000a for observed and unobserved heterogeneity through the use

David M. Welsch; David M. Zimmer

2010-01-01

259

Does parent education moderate relations between low birth weight and child cognitive development outcomes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using baseline and 3-year data from The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examined the potential for mothers' and fathers' education to buffer at-risk and low birth weight (LBW) children from poor cognitive development outcomes at age 3. Findings suggest that mothers' and fathers' education may both buffer at-risk children from poor cognitive development outcomes, although in different ways.

Bharathi J. Zvara; Sarah J. Schoppe-Sullivan

2010-01-01

260

Children's Cognitive Skill Development in Britain and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares the cognitive test scores of children in Great Britain and the United States in vocabulary, reading, mathematics and memory of words and numbers. Children age 5-9 in Britain systematically out-perform their U.S. counterparts on reading and mathematics tests, while children age 10-14 show far fewer differences. In many of the comparisons, there are no statistical differences in

Robert T. Michael

2001-01-01

261

Development of and change in cognitive control: A comparison of children, young adults, and older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive control involves adjustments in behavior to conflicting information, develops throughout childhood, and declines\\u000a in aging. Accordingly, developmental and age-related changes in cognitive control and response-conflict detection were assessed\\u000a in a response-compatibility task. We recorded performance measures, pre-response time (pre-RT) activity and medial frontal\\u000a negativity (MFN)—sequentially occurring, putative event-related potential (ERP) indexes, respectively, of cognitive control\\u000a and response-conflict detection. When

David Friedman; Doreen Nessler; Yael M. Cycowicz; Cort Horton

2009-01-01

262

The Evolution of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Schizophrenia: Current Practice and Recent Developments  

PubMed Central

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) evolved from behavioral theory and developed to focus more on cognitive models that incorporated reappraisal of thinking errors and schema change strategies. This article will describe the key elements of CBT for schizophrenia and the current evidence of its efficacy and effectiveness. We conclude with a description of recent concepts that extend the theoretical basis of practice and expand the range of CBT strategies for use in schizophrenia. Mindfulness, meta-cognitive approaches, compassionate mind training, and method of levels are postulated as useful adjuncts for CBT with psychotic patients.

Tai, Sara; Turkington, Douglas

2009-01-01

263

The development of the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern score and its application to the American diet in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.  

PubMed

Previous Mediterranean diet scores were simple to apply but may not be appropriate for non-Mediterranean populations. We developed a Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score (MSDPS) to assess the conformity of an individual's diet to a traditional Mediterranean-style diet. The MSDPS is based on the recommended intakes of 13 food groups in the Mediterranean diet pyramid. Each food group is scored from 0 to 10 depending on the degree of correspondence with recommendations. Exceeding the recommendations results in a lower score proportional to the degree of overconsumption. The sum of the component scores is standardized to a 0-100 scale and weighted by the proportion of energy consumed from Mediterranean diet foods. We applied the MSDPS to dietary data collected at the 7th examination of the Framingham Offspring Cohort and tested the content validity of the score against selected nutrients known to be associated with the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern. The mean MSDPS was 24.8 (range, 3.1-60.7). Participants with a higher MSDPS were more likely to be women, older, multivitamin users, to have lower BMI and waist circumferences, and less likely to be current smokers. The MSDPS demonstrated content validity through expected positive associations with intakes of dietary fiber, (n-3) fatty acids, antioxidant vitamins, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, and inverse associations with those of added sugar, glycemic index, saturated fat, and trans-fat, and the (n-6):(n-3) fatty acid ratio. The MSDPS is a useful instrument to measure overall diet quality according to the principles of a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern. PMID:19357215

Rumawas, Marcella E; Dwyer, Johanna T; McKeown, Nicola M; Meigs, James B; Rogers, Gail; Jacques, Paul F

2009-06-01

264

The Teacher's Guide to Diversity: Building a Knowledge Base. Volume I: Human Development, Culture, and Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the reigning theories of human development and cognition? How are human development and culture related? How does identity development intersect with achievement motivation? What is intelligence? How can our knowledge of human development inform our work as educators working with an increasingly diverse student population? What is known…

Trumbull, Elise; Pacheco, Maria

2005-01-01

265

Maternal Transfer of BDE-47 to Offspring and Neurobehavioral Development in C57BL/6J Mice  

PubMed Central

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used worldwide in a variety of commercial goods, and are now widely found in both environmental and biological samples. BDE-47 is one of the most pervasive of these PBDE congeners and therefore is of particular concern. In this study C57BL/6J mice were exposed perinatally to 0.03, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg/day of BDE-47, a dose range chosen to encompass human exposure levels. Tissue levels of BDE-47 were measured in the blood, brain, fat and milk of dams and in whole fetal homogenate and blood and brain of pups on gestational day (GD) 15, and postnatal days (PND) 1, 10 and 21. From GD 15 to PND 1 levels of BDE-47 increased within dam tissue and then decreased from PND 1 to 21. Over the period of lactation levels in dam milk were comparatively high when compared to both brain and blood for all dose groups. Measurable levels of BDE-47 were found in the fetus on GD 15 confirming gestational exposure. From PND 1 to 21, levels of BDE-47 in pup tissue increased over the period of lactation due to the transfer of BDE-47 through milk. Behavioral tests of fine motor function and learning and memory were carried out between postnatal weeks 5–17 in order to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of BDE-47. Behavioral deficits were only seen in the Barnes spatial maze where mice in the three exposure groups had longer latencies and traveled longer distances to find the escape hole when compared to vehicle control mice. These results support the conclusions that perinatal exposure to BDE-47 can have neurodevelopmental consequences, and that lactational exposure represents a significant exposure risk during development.

Koenig, Claire M.; Lango, Jozsef; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.

2012-01-01

266

Maternal Dietary Restriction Alters Offspring's Sleep Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD) or 50% dietary restriction (DR) groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8–9 weeks), we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (Ppar?) and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c) mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure.

Shimizu, Noriyuki; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Nishi, Yuina; Harada, Saki; Iwaki, Yohei; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Sei, Hiroyoshi

2013-01-01

267

The Development of Cognitive and Academic Abilities: Growth Curves From an Early Childhood Educational Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Abecedarian Project, a prospective randomized trial, the effects of early educational intervention on patterns of cognitive and academic development among poor, minority children were examined. Participants in the follow-up were 104 of the original 111 participants in the study (98% African American). Early treatment was full-time, high-quality, educational child care from infancy to age 5. Cognitive test scores

Frances A. Campbell; Elizabeth P. Pungello; Shari Miller-Johnson; Margaret Burchinal; Craig T. Ramey

2001-01-01

268

Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. Subjects/Methods: We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. Results: We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ?4.1 × 10?5) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10?18), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. Conclusions: We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study.

Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

2014-01-01

269

Cognitive Development in Young-old Type2 Diabetes Patients: A Longitudinal Analysis From The “Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Aging”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated cognitive status and cognitive development in young-old Type-2 diabetes patients. Extending\\u000a previous research, using the sample of the ILSE study (“Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Aging”), we applied a comprehensive\\u000a cognitive test battery to 38 Type-2 diabetes patients (mean age at T1: 63 years) and 421 control participants and tested both\\u000a cognitive status and longitudinal changes

Ingo Aberle; Matthias Kliegel; Daniel Zimprich

2008-01-01

270

Neurobehavioral toxic effects of perinatal oral exposure to aluminum on the developmental motor reflexes, learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters of mice offspring.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) is a known neurotoxicant and circumstantial evidence has linked this metal with several neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, but no causal relationship has yet been proved. Al-induced behavioral alterations as well as cognitive deficits and rodent brain neurotransmitter level, are well known in adults but the exact mechanism in the offspring of perinatally Al exposed dams is not yet understood properly and needs more attention. In the present study, the perinatal oral exposure of the dams to 300 and 600mg/kg/day Al (aluminum chloride) resulted in significant and deleterious effects in the offspring inflicting a dose-dependent reduction in postnatal body weight gain, delays in opening of the eyes and appearance of body hair fuzz, and deficits in the sensory motor reflexes of the mice pups during weaning period (from the day of birth to postnatal day 21). During adolescent ages of the male offspring, a significant and dose-dependent deficit was also observed in their locomotor activity at postnatal day 22 (PD 22), learning capability (at PD 25), and cognitive behavior (at PD 30-36). Furthermore, a significant and dose-dependent disturbance in the levels of neurotransmitters like dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) was also observed in the forebrain region of the offspring at PD 7, PD 14, PD 21, PD 30, and PD 36. Thus, perinatal Al exposure, particularly during pregnancy and lactation period, can affect the in utero developing fetus and postnatal developing sucklings, raising the concerns that during a critical perinatal period of brain development, Al exposure has potential and long lasting neurotoxic hazards and might modify the properties of the dopaminergic system and thus can change the threshold of that system or other related systems at later ages. A reduced use of Al during pregnancy is of crucial importance in preventing Al-induced delayed neurotoxicity in the offspring. PMID:22115621

Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

2012-03-01

271

The development of cognitive control in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is caused by the most common human microdeletion, and it is associated with cognitive impairments across many domains. While impairments in cognitive control have been described in children with 22q11.2DS, the nature and development of these impairments are not clear. Children with 22q11.2DS and typically developing children (TD) were tested on four well-validated tasks aimed at measuring specific foundational components of cognitive control: response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. Molecular assays were also conducted in order to examine genotype of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a gene located within the deleted region in 22q11.2DS and hypothesized to play a role in cognitive control. Mixed model regression analyses were used to examine group differences, as well as age-related effects on cognitive control component processes in a cross-sectional analysis. Regression models with COMT genotype were also conducted in order to examine potential effects of the different variants of the gene. Response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were impaired in children with 22q11.2DS relative to TD children, even after accounting for global intellectual functioning (as measured by full-scale IQ). When compared with TD individuals, children with 22q11.2DS demonstrated atypical age-related patterns of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Both groups demonstrated typical age-related associations with working memory. The results of this cross-sectional analysis suggest a specific aberration in the development of systems mediating response inhibition in a sub-set of children with 22q11.2DS. It will be important to follow up with longitudinal analyses to directly examine these developmental trajectories, and correlate neurocognitive variables with clinical and adaptive outcome measures.

Shapiro, Heather M.; Tassone, Flora; Choudhary, Nimrah S.; Simon, Tony J.

2014-01-01

272

Effects of parental larval diet on egg size and offspring traits in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

If a mother's nutritional status predicts the nutritional environment of the offspring, it would be adaptive for mothers experiencing nutritional stress to prime their offspring for a better tolerance to poor nutrition. We report that in Drosophila melanogaster, parents raised on poor larval food laid 3–6% heavier eggs than parents raised on standard food, despite being 30 per cent smaller. Their offspring developed 14 h (4%) faster on the poor food than offspring of well-fed parents. However, they were slightly smaller as adults. Thus, the effects of parental diet on offspring performance under malnutrition apparently involve both adaptive plasticity and maladaptive effects of parental stress.

Vijendravarma, Roshan K.; Narasimha, Sunitha; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

2010-01-01

273

Impact on Infants' Cognitive Development of Antenatal Exposure to Iron Deficiency Disorder and Common Mental Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and common mental disorders (CMD) on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. Methods A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12–20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb <11 g/dL and serum ferritin <15 ng/mL. CMD symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam validation. Infant cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Ed. Path analyses were performed to determine the direct and indirect, partly or fully mediated, causal effects of the antenatal exposures. Results A total of 497 pregnant women were recruited, of those 378 women provided complete data which were included in the analyses. Statistically significant direct adverse effects of persistent antenatal IDA (estimated difference of ?11.62 points; 95% CI ?23.01 to ?0.22) and antenatal CMD (?4.80 points; 95% CI: ?9.40 to ?0.20) on infant Bayley cognitive scores at six months were found. Higher birthweight, household wealth, and self-rated sufficient supply of breastmilk were associated with higher cognitive scores. Maternal age >30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants’ Bayley cognitive scores. Conclusions These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.

Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane

2013-01-01

274

How Many Pathways Underlie Socioeconomic Differences in the Development of Cognition and Achievement?  

PubMed Central

Children whose parents have higher education enjoy greater age-linked gains in cognitive abilities and academic achievement. Different researchers have typically focused on different outcomes, and the extent to which parental education relates to multiple child outcomes via a single developmental pathway has received little empirical attention. This issue was examined by applying common factor structural equation models to a large (N = 4,810) nationally representative sample of kindergarten through 12th grade children, who were measured on 6 distinct cognitive abilities and 5 distinct forms of knowledge and academic achievement. Results indicated that a single pathway accounted for the relations between parental education and age differences in children’s cognitive abilities. However, additional unique pathways were necessary to account for the relations between parental education and age differences in academic knowledge and mathematics. These results suggest that while socioeconomic differences are largely manifest in global aspects of cognitive development, they have incremental relations with some forms of academic achievement.

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

2013-01-01

275

Providing Education to Child Care Instructors: Matching Children's Learning Activities to Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child care instructors and their aides at the Good Shepherd Day Care Center, Punta Gorda, Florida, were taught skills needed to develop classroom activities matching the cognitive development of 3- and 4-year-old children. Through a program of in-service activity in child growth and development, instruction was provided to enable teachers to more…

Desjardins, Margaret M.

276

Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Developments: Implications for Clinical Assessment in Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescence is a time of significant physical, social, and emotional developments, accompanied by changes in cognitive and language skills. Underlying these are significant developments in brain structures and functions including changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter tracts. Among the brain regions that develop during…

Ciccia, Angela Hein; Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.

2009-01-01

277

On the Problem of Development of Cognitive Abilities in Preschool Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational objective of the Russian "Development" curriculum for children ages 3-7 is the development of creative and intellectual abilities. Theoretical foundations for the curriculum include the works of Vygotsky, Venger, Leontev, and Zaporozhets, which offer ideas such as: (1) child development is the unity of affective and cognitive

Diachenko, O. M.

278

The Influence of Emotion on Cognitive Control: Relevance for Development and Adolescent Psychopathology  

PubMed Central

The last decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the neural mechanisms underlying emotion processing on the one hand, and cognitive control and executive function on the other hand. More recently, studies have begun to directly examine how concurrent emotion processing influences cognitive control performance but many questions remain currently unresolved. Interestingly, parallel to investigations in healthy adults, research in developmental cognitive neuroscience and developmental affective disorders has provided some intriguing findings that complement the adult literature. This review provides an overview of current research on cognitive control and emotion interactions. It integrates parallel lines of research in adulthood and development and will draw on several lines of evidence ranging from behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging work in healthy adults and extend these to work in pediatric development and patients with affective disorders. Particular emphasis is given to studies that provide information on the neurobiological underpinnings of emotional and cognitive control processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The findings are then summarized and discussed in relation to neurochemical processes and the dopamine hypothesis of prefrontal cortical function. Finally, open areas of research for future study are identified and discussed within the context of cognitive control emotion interactions.

Mueller, Sven C.

2011-01-01

279

Using the MATRICS to guide development of a preclinical cognitive test battery for research in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are among the core symptoms of the disease, correlate with functional outcome, and are not well treated with current antipsychotic therapies. In order to bring together academic, industrial, and governmental bodies to address this great ‘unmet therapeutic need’, the NIMH sponsored the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative. Through careful factor analysis and consensus of expert opinion, MATRICS identified seven domains of cognition that are deficient in schizophrenia (attention/vigilance, working memory, reasoning and problem solving, processing speed, visual learning and memory, verbal learning and memory, and social cognition) and recommended a specific neuropsychological test battery to probe these domains. In order to move the field forward and outline an approach for translational research, there is a need for a “preclinical MATRICS” to develop a rodent test battery that is appropriate for drug development. In this review, we outline such an approach and review current rodent tasks that target these seven domains of cognition. The rodent tasks are discussed in terms of their validity for probing each cognitive domain as well as a brief overview of the pharmacology and manipulations relevant to schizophrenia for each task.

YOUNG, Jared W; POWELL, Susan; RISBROUGH, Victoria; MARSTON, Hugh M; GEYER, Mark A

2009-01-01

280

Poor maternal environment enhances offspring disease resistance in an invertebrate  

PubMed Central

Natural populations vary tremendously in their susceptibility to infectious disease agents. The factors (environmental or genetic) that underlie this variation determine the impact of disease on host population dynamics and evolution, and affect our capacity to contain disease outbreaks and to enhance resistance in agricultural animals and disease vectors. Here, we show that changes in the environmental conditions under which female Daphnia magna are kept can more than halve the susceptibility of their offspring to bacterial infection. Counter-intuitively, and unlike the effects typically observed in vertebrates for transfer of immunity, mothers producing offspring under poor conditions produced more resistant offspring than did mothers producing offspring in favourable conditions. This effect occurred when mothers who were well provisioned during their own development then found themselves reproducing in poor conditions. These effects likely reflect adaptive optimal resource allocation where better quality offspring are produced in poor environments to enhance survival. Maternal exposure to parasites also reduced offspring susceptibility, depending on host genotype and offspring food levels. These maternal responses to environmental conditions mean that studies focused on a single generation, and those in which environmental variation is experimentally minimized, may fail to describe the crucial parameters that influence the spread of disease. The large maternal effects we report here will, if they are widespread in nature, affect disease dynamics, the level of genetic polymorphism in populations, and likely weaken the evolutionary response to parasite-mediated selection.

Mitchell, Suzanne E; Read, Andrew F

2005-01-01

281

Making Care Decisions for Cognitively Impaired Parents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This qualitative hermeneutic/phenomenological study was conducted to answer the question, 'What is the experience of making care decisions for cognitively impaired parents.' A purposeful sample consisted of 22 adult offspring aged 35-64 (14 daughters, 6 s...

K. C. Cook

2005-01-01

282

Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24?h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology.

Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

2014-01-01

283

Cognitive Impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairments, including learning disability, traumatic brain injury, and minimal brain dysfunction, have characteristics that include impulsiveness, communication skill deficits, difficulties with reasoning and problem solving, and impaired self-concept. Without professional intervention, these problems are likely to lead to marginal social acceptance, low levels of intimacy, and impaired sexuality development. This paper describes selected cognitive and behavioral implications of cognitive

Gary Sigler; Romel W. Mackelprang

1993-01-01

284

Developing models of how cognitive improvements change functioning: Mediation, moderation and moderated mediation  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive remediation (CRT) affects functioning but the extent and type of cognitive improvements necessary are unknown. Aim To develop and test models of how cognitive improvement transfers to work behaviour using the data from a current service. Method Participants (N49) with a support worker and a paid or voluntary job were offered CRT in a Phase 2 single group design with three assessments: baseline, post therapy and follow-up. Working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning and work outcomes were assessed. Results Three models were tested (mediation — cognitive improvements drive functioning improvement; moderation — post treatment cognitive level affects the impact of CRT on functioning; moderated mediation — cognition drives functioning improvements only after a certain level is achieved). There was evidence of mediation (planning improvement associated with improved work quality). There was no evidence that cognitive flexibility (total Wisconsin Card Sorting Test errors) and working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III digit span) mediated work functioning despite significant effects. There was some evidence of moderated mediation for planning improvement if participants had poorer memory and/or made fewer WCST errors. The total CRT effect on work quality was d = 0.55, but the indirect (planning-mediated CRT effect) was d = 0.082 Conclusion Planning improvements led to better work quality but only accounted for a small proportion of the total effect on work outcome. Other specific and non-specific effects of CRT and the work programme are likely to account for some of the remaining effect. This is the first time complex models have been tested and future Phase 3 studies need to further test mediation and moderated mediation models.

Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Huddy, Vyv; Taylor, Rumina; Wood, Helen; Ghirasim, Natalia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Landau, Sabine

2012-01-01

285

A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a comprehensive and detailed theory of early human development based on the principles of dynamic systems theory. It raises fundamental questions about prevailing assumptions in the field and proposes a new theory of the development of cognition and action, unifying recent advances in dynamic systems theory with current research…

Thelen, Esther; Smith, Linda B.

286

Cognitive development and children's perceptions of fruit and vegetables; a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most children do not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake. Since preference is an important predictor of intake, more knowledge is needed about children's preferences and about how these preferences develop. As most research about preferences has ignored cognitive development, this study was designed to explore the relation between children's perceptions and preferences for fruit and

Gertrude G Zeinstra; Maria A Koelen; Frans J Kok; Cees de Graaf

2007-01-01

287

Language and cognitive development in 47, XXX females followed since birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, data are presented on language and cognitive development in an unselected group of eleven 47, XXX females, followed since birth, who are now 6–14 years old. The results of the Yale Developmental Exam (at 2 years) and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) (at 4–6 years) show an early delay in language development. Those girls who

B. Pennington; M. Puck; A. Robinson

1980-01-01

288

Where Cognitive Development and Aging Meet: Face Learning Ability Peaks after Age 30  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on age-related cognitive change traditionally focuses on either development or aging, where development ends with adulthood and aging begins around 55 years. This approach ignores age-related changes during the 35 years in-between, implying that this period is uninformative. Here we investigated face recognition as an ability that may…

Germine, Laura T.; Duchaine, Bradley; Nakayama, Ken

2011-01-01

289

The Role of Maternal Literacy in Child Health and Cognitive Development in Rural Guatemala.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing evidence supporting the powerful role that maternal education plays in child growth and cognitive development in developing countries. This study examined the contribution of maternal literacy in mediating the relationship between maternal education and variation in child outcomes from birth to 7 years of age. It was hypothesized…

Khandke, Veena; Pollitt, Ernesto; Gorman, Kathleen S.

290

Different Conceptions of Stage in Theories of Cognitive and Moral Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that the concept of developmental stages is going through a revival. Compares developmental stages from three points of view: (1) Piaget's original formulation, (2) cognitive development, and (3) socio-moral development. Outlines reasons for maintaining a hard-structural stage model by the Kohlbergian theorists. (GG)

Boom, Jan

1989-01-01

291

Birth weight, cognitive development, and life chances: A comparison of siblings from childhood into early adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Sample (CNLSY79), we sought to elaborate the complex interplay between childhood health and educational development over the early life course. Our approach made use of sibling comparisons to estimate the relationship between birth weight, cognitive development, and timely high school completion in models that spanned childhood, adolescence, and into early

Jacob E. Cheadle; Bridget J. Goosby

2010-01-01

292

A Time-Series Analysis of Transition in Social-Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employs a time-series analysis of naturalistic developmental functioning to describe characteristics of transition in social development. A special education classroom of eight preadolescents, ages 11 and 12, provided subjects for this study. Transitional patterns in social cognitive development were studied in children's…

Jaquette, Daniel S.

293

The Past, Present, and Future of Computational Models of Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does modeling matter? We address this question by providing a broad survey of the computational models of cognitive development that have been proposed and studied over the last three decades. We begin by noting the advantages and limitations of computational models. We then describe four key dimensions across which models of development can be…

Schlesinger, Matthew; McMurray, Bob

2012-01-01

294

Current developments of metacognitive concepts and their clinical implications: mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

High relapse and recurrence rate of depression put financial pressure on already stretched resources for health care. Therefore, the demand for the development of prophylactic treatments in order to keep patients well, once recovered, has increased during the last decade. The development of a new therapy manual for group interventions, ‘Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy for Depression’ (MBCT), appears to be one

Nicole Scherer-Dickson

2004-01-01

295

Cognitive Development among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health, and Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the relationship between early cognitive development, socioeconomic status (SES), child health, and parenting quality in a developing country. We use a sample of more than 3,000 predominantly poor preschool-aged children from Ecuador, and analyze determinants of their scores on a widely used test of language ability. We find that…

Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert

2007-01-01

296

Development and evaluation of social cognitive measures related to adolescent dietary behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to develop and evaluate the reliability and factorial validity, of social-cognitive measures related to adolescent healthy eating behaviors. Methods A questionnaire was developed based on constructs from Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and included the following scales: self-efficacy, intentions (proximal goals), situation (perceived environment), social support, behavioral strategies, outcome expectations and expectancies. The questionnaire was administered with a two week test-retest among secondary school students (n?=?173, age?=?13.72?±?1.24). Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to examine model-fit for each scale using multiple indices including: chi-square index, comparative-fit index (CFI), goodness-of-fit index (GFI), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Reliability properties were also examined (ICC and Cronbach’s alpha). Results The reliability and factorial validity of each scale is supported: fit indices suggest each model to be an adequate-to-exact fit to the data; internal consistency was acceptable-to-good (?=0.65?0.79); rank order repeatability was strong (ICC?=?0.81?0.89). Conclusions and implications Results support the reliability and factorial validity of social cognitive scales relating to healthy eating behaviors among adolescents. As such, the developed scales have utility for identifying potential social cognitive correlates of adolescent dietary behavior, mediators of dietary behavior change and validity testing of theoretical models based on Social Cognitive Theory.

2012-01-01

297

Maternal and developmental immune challenges alter behavior and learning ability of offspring  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of the offspring immune response during development is known to influence growth and behavioral phenotype. However, the potential for maternal antibodies to block the behavioral effects of immune activation during the neonatal period has not been assessed. We challenged female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) prior to egg laying and then challenged offspring during the nestling and juvenile periods with one of two antigens (keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). We then tested the effects of maternal and neonatal immune challenges on offspring growth rates and neophobia and learning ability of offspring during adulthood. Neonatal immune challenge depressed growth rates. Neophobia of adult offspring was influenced by a combination of maternal treatment, offspring treatment, and offspring sex. Males challenged with LPS during the nestling and juvenile periods had reduced learning performance in a novel foraging task; however, female learning was not impacted. Offspring challenged with the same antigen as mothers exhibited similar growth suppression and behavioral changes as offspring challenged with a novel antigen. Thus, developmental immune challenges have long-term effects on the growth and behavioral phenotype of offspring. We found limited evidence that matching of maternal and offspring challenges reduces the effects of immune challenge in the altricial zebra finch. This may be a result of rapid catabolism of maternal antibodies in altricial birds. Our results emphasize the need to address sex differences in the long-term effects of developmental immune challenge and suggest neonatal immune activation may be one proximate mechanism underlying differences in adult behavior.

Grindstaff, Jennifer L.; Hunsaker, Veronica R.; Cox, Shelby N.

2012-01-01

298

Oxidative stress and altered lipid homeostasis in the programming of offspring fatty liver by maternal obesity.  

PubMed

Changes in the maternal nutritional environment during fetal development can influence offspring's metabolic risk in later life. Animal models have demonstrated that offspring of diet-induced obese dams develop metabolic complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms in young offspring that lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female offspring of C57BL/6J dams fed either a control or obesogenic diet were studied at 8 wk of age. We investigated the roles of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in contributing to fatty liver in offspring. There were no differences in body weight or adiposity at 8 wk of age; however, offspring of obese dams were hyperinsulinemic. Oxidative damage markers were significantly increased in their livers, with reduced levels of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1. Mitochondrial complex I and II activities were elevated, while levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c were significantly reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase was significantly increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Offspring of obese dams also had significantly greater hepatic lipid content, associated with increased levels of PPAR? and reduced triglyceride lipase. Liver glycogen and protein content were concomitantly reduced in offspring of obese dams. In conclusion, offspring of diet-induced obese dams have disrupted liver metabolism and develop NAFLD prior to any differences in body weight or body composition. Oxidative stress may play a mechanistic role in the progression of fatty liver in these offspring. PMID:24789994

Alfaradhi, Maria Z; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Musial, Barbara; Fowden, Abigail; Ozanne, Susan E

2014-07-01

299

Interdisciplinary perspectives on the development, integration, and application of cognitive ontologies  

PubMed Central

We discuss recent progress in the development of cognitive ontologies and summarize three challenges in the coordinated development and application of these resources. Challenge 1 is to adopt a standardized definition for cognitive processes. We describe three possibilities and recommend one that is consistent with the standard view in cognitive and biomedical sciences. Challenge 2 is harmonization. Gaps and conflicts in representation must be resolved so that these resources can be combined for mark-up and interpretation of multi-modal data. Finally, Challenge 3 is to test the utility of these resources for large-scale annotation of data, search and query, and knowledge discovery and integration. As term definitions are tested and revised, harmonization should enable coordinated updates across ontologies. However, the true test of these definitions will be in their community-wide adoption which will test whether they support valid inferences about psychological and neuroscientific data.

Hastings, Janna; Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Smith, Barry; Jensen, Mark; Poldrack, Russell A.; Lomax, Jane; Bandrowski, Anita; Imam, Fahim; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E.

2014-01-01

300

Interdisciplinary perspectives on the development, integration, and application of cognitive ontologies.  

PubMed

We discuss recent progress in the development of cognitive ontologies and summarize three challenges in the coordinated development and application of these resources. Challenge 1 is to adopt a standardized definition for cognitive processes. We describe three possibilities and recommend one that is consistent with the standard view in cognitive and biomedical sciences. Challenge 2 is harmonization. Gaps and conflicts in representation must be resolved so that these resources can be combined for mark-up and interpretation of multi-modal data. Finally, Challenge 3 is to test the utility of these resources for large-scale annotation of data, search and query, and knowledge discovery and integration. As term definitions are tested and revised, harmonization should enable coordinated updates across ontologies. However, the true test of these definitions will be in their community-wide adoption which will test whether they support valid inferences about psychological and neuroscientific data. PMID:24999329

Hastings, Janna; Frishkoff, Gwen A; Smith, Barry; Jensen, Mark; Poldrack, Russell A; Lomax, Jane; Bandrowski, Anita; Imam, Fahim; Turner, Jessica A; Martone, Maryann E

2014-01-01

301

Self-Regulated Strategy Development: Relationship to the Social-Cognitive Perspective and the Development of Self-Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research investigating how students who struggle with learning, as well as typically achieving students, can develop powerful self-regulation and academic strategies has become a major endeavor in both general and special education. In this article, we examine how one model of cognitive strategies instruction, Self-Regulated Strategy Development

Zito, Jennifer R.; Adkins, Mary; Gavins, Marva; Harris, Karen R.; Graham, Steve

2007-01-01

302

The integration of cognition and emotion during infancy and early childhood: Regulatory processes associated with the development of working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 412-years of age in a study designed to examine

Christy D. Wolfe; Martha Ann Bell

2007-01-01

303

Self-locomotion and spatial language and spatial cognition: insights from typical and atypical development  

PubMed Central

Various studies have shown that occurrence of locomotion in infancy is correlated with the development of spatial cognitive competencies. Recent evidence suggests that locomotor experience might also be important for the development of spatial language. Together these findings suggest that locomotor experience might play a crucial role in the development of linguistic-cognitive spatial skills. However, some studies indicate that, despite their total deprivation of locomotor experience, young children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have the capacity to acquire and use rich spatial representations including good spatial language. Nonetheless, we have to be cautious about what the striking performances displayed by SMA children can reveal on the link between motor and spatial development, as the dynamics of brain development in atypically developing children are different from typically developing children.

Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Riviere, James

2014-01-01

304

Large offspring syndrome  

PubMed Central

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a human loss-of-imprinting syndrome primarily characterized by macrosomia, macroglossia, and abdominal wall defects. BWS has been associated with misregulation of two clusters of imprinted genes. Children conceived with the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) appear to have an increased incidence of BWS. As in humans, ART can also induce a similar overgrowth syndrome in ruminants which is referred to as large offspring syndrome (LOS). The main goal of our study is to determine if LOS shows similar loss-of-imprinting at loci known to be misregulated in BWS. To test this, Bos taurus indicus × Bos taurus taurus F1 hybrids were generated by artificial insemination (AI; control) or by ART. Seven of the 27 conceptuses in the ART group were in the > 97th percentile body weight when compared with controls. Further, other characteristics reported in BWS were observed in the ART group, such as large tongue, umbilical hernia, and ear malformations. KCNQ1OT1 (the most-often misregulated imprinted gene in BWS) was biallelically-expressed in various organs in two out of seven overgrown conceptuses from the ART group, but shows monoallelic expression in all tissues of the AI conceptuses. Furthermore, biallelic expression of KCNQ1OT1 is associated with loss of methylation at the KvDMR1 on the maternal allele and with downregulation of the maternally-expressed gene CDKN1C. In conclusion, our results show phenotypic and epigenetic similarities between LOS and BWS, and we propose the use of LOS as an animal model to investigate the etiology of BWS.

Chen, Zhiyuan; Robbins, Katherine Marie; Wells, Kevin Dale; Rivera, Rocio Melissa

2013-01-01

305

COGNITIVE MAPS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development is a very broad, complex and ambiguous concept. It accounts for very different issues (i.e. economic, social and environmental issues), concerns and actions. Moreover, sustainable development projects involve many actors (stakeholders) both at global and local levels, such as local communities, companies, local administrators and governments. In the Mediterranean area sustainable development is becoming a fundamental issue within

Vito Albino; Silvana Kühtz; Barbara Scozzi

306

A Cognitive Model for Conceptual Change in Science Instruction with a Focus on Educational Software Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Inventive Model, a constructivist approach to conceptual change, as a theoretical base for science instruction and for software development in science education. Highlights include the hesitancy of some school systems to implement computer-assisted science instruction, student misconceptions, and cognitive approaches to conceptual…

Rezaei, Alireza; Katz, Larry

1998-01-01

307

Cognitive aging as an extension of brain development: A model linking learning, brain plasticity, and neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in cognitive aging rates among mammals suggest that the pace of brain aging is genetically determined. In this work, we investigate the possibility that brain aging is an extension of brain development. It is possible that a subset of developmental mechanisms are extreme cases of antagonistic pleiotropy in that they are necessary for reaching adulthood and yet later cause

João Pedro de Magalhães; Anders Sandberg

2005-01-01

308

Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development. NBER Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a sample of 3- and 4-year-old children of female respondents from the 1986 National Longitudinal Surveys Youth Cohort to analyze the relationship between maternal labor supply and children's cognitive development. Respondents were 21 to 29 years old in 1986. Thus, the sample consisted of children of relatively young mothers.…

Blau, Francine D.; Grossberg, Adam J.

309

Assessing the application of cognitive moral development theory to business ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive moral development (CMD) theory has been accepted as a construct to help explain business ethics, social responsibility and other organizational phenomena. This article critically assesses CMD as a construct in business ethics by presenting the history and criticisms of CMD. The value of CMD is evaluated and problems with using CMD as one predictor of ethical decisions are addressed.

John Fraedrich; Debbie M. Thorne; O. C. Ferrell

1994-01-01

310

Item Equivalence in English and Chinese Translation of a Cognitive Development Test for Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a study of potential sources of item nonequivalence between English and Chinese language versions of a cognitive development test for preschool-aged children. Items were flagged for potential nonequivalence through statistical and judgment-based procedures, and the relationship between flag status and item…

He, Wei; Wolfe, Edward W.

2010-01-01

311

Cognitive Coaching: A Critical Phase in Professional Development to Implement Sheltered Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This documentary account describes professional development for teachers in the USA serving culturally and linguistically diverse students. The purpose of the project was to monitor effectiveness of training in Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) and to assess the value of cognitive coaching. Quantitative and qualitative data sources…

Batt, Ellen G.

2010-01-01

312

The Development of a Content Analysis Model for Assessing Students' Cognitive Learning in Asynchronous Online Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a content analysis model for assessing students' cognitive learning in asynchronous online discussions. It adopted a fully mixed methods design, in which qualitative and quantitative methods were employed sequentially for data analysis and interpretation. Specifically, the design was a…

Yang, Dazhi; Richardson, Jennifer C.; French, Brian F.; Lehman, James D.

2011-01-01

313

Primal Splitting as a Basis for Emotional and Cognitive Development in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of good primal splitting as the basis for the child's emotional and cognitive development. A theoretical introduction analyses the possible pathologies of primal splitting, as they were first pointed out by Melanie Klein and then by some post-Kleinian authors, in particular Donald Meltzer. This is followed by…

Caccia, Ornella

2009-01-01

314

Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Mother-Infant Interaction and the Infant's Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between mother-infant behavior and the infant's performance on perceptual-cognitive tasks as a function of the infant's sex. A total of 189 12-week-old infants and their mothers were observed in their homes during 2 hours of infant awake time. In addition, the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales…

Gallas, Howard B.; Lewis, Michael

315

Effect of Pediatric Well Child Care on the Mother-Infant Relationship and Infant Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to examine whether a pediatrician in well child care could promote mother-child interaction in the infant's first 6 months of life, and whether this intervention could affect the infant's cognitive development. Thirty-two mothers and their healthy, first born infants were followed by one pediatrician at 2, 4, 8, 15…

Casey, Patrick H.; Whitt, J. Kenneth

316

Parental Involvement, Parenting Behaviors, and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income and Minority Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the longitudinal association of parental involvement in Head Start parent-focused programs, parenting behaviors, and the cognitive development of children by specifying two longitudinal growth models. Model 1 examined the longitudinal effects of the parental involvement in three Head Start parenting programs (parenting classes,…

Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Singh, Kusum; Sung, Youngji Y.

2009-01-01

317

Cognitive State Verbs and Complement Clauses in Children with SLI and Their Typically Developing Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the use of cognitive state verbs (CSVs) and complement clauses in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. In Study 1, conversational samples from 23 children with SLI (M = 6;2), 24 age-matched TD children (M = 6;2) and 21 vocabulary-matched TD children (M = 4;9) were…

Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Lin, Shanju

2011-01-01

318

Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Depression, Part VIII. Developing and Utilizing the Therapeutic Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good therapeutic relationship is essential for the successful implementation of any form of therapy. The present manuscript provides recommendations for developing and utilizing the therapeutic relationship in the cognitive-behavioral treatment of depression. Throughout therapy, the therapist should attempt to: (1) establish an atmosphere of openness and trust, (2) instill hope in the client's potential for change, (3) display empathic

James C. Overholser; Eden J. Silverman

1998-01-01

319

Assessing and Facilitating Children's Cognitive Development: Developmental Counseling and Therapy in a Case of Child Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines practical implications for assessing child's cognitive development and then facilitating developmental growth. Presents concepts of developmental counseling and therapy as systematic framework to integrate neo-Piagetian developmental theory into interview. Example of treatment of case of child abuse illustrates concept in action.…

Ivey, Allen; Ivey, Mary Bradford

1990-01-01

320

The Intranet as a Cognitive Architecture for Training and Education: Basic Assumptions and Development Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper makes basic assumptions regarding the development of an intranet architecture that will actively promote the cognitive apprenticeship of a new community of learners. The authors consider the intranet as a dynamic and virtual environment in which individuals may communicate, share resources, and reciprocally generate and organize…

Seffah, Ahmed; Bouchard, Robert Maurice

321

Cognitive Coping Tool Kit for Psychosis: Development of a Group-Based Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT…

Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica

2007-01-01

322

The Relationship Between Measures of Cognitive Attention and Behavioral Ratings of Attention in Typically Developing Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we explored the relation between performance on cognitive measures of attention (selection, sustained, and control) and behavioral ratings of inattention and hyperactivity in a sample of typically developing children aged 3 to 7 years. We also examined the influence of chronological age and IQ on both task performance and behavior ratings. Four well-documented attention paradigms were

Shohreh M. Rezazadeh; John Wilding; Kim Cornish

2011-01-01

323

Development and Validation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Skills Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although several theories exist to describe why patients improve in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in only a limited number of studies has CBT skill acquisition been examined, particularly among patients with complex clinical profiles. Thus, the overarching aim of this research was to develop a tool to measure patients' use of CBT skills,…

Jacob, Karen L.; Christopher, Michael S.; Neuhaus, Edmund C.

2011-01-01

324

Has the innateness concept helped or hindered the understanding of behavioural and cognitive development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of innateness is a part of folk wisdom but is also used by biologists and cognitive scientists, albeit in various ways. The folk distinction between innate and non-innate traits is applied differently. While some of the proposed uses are clearly faulty, other proposals appeal to conceptual tools that are useful for studying biological development. These include the concepts

PATRICK BATESON; MATTEO MAMELI

325

Viewing Clinical Research Career Development through the Lens of Social Cognitive Career Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues such as, over commitment, insufficient time, and lack of funding, threaten physicians' entry and sustainability in a research career pathway. Social cognitive career theory is presented as a conceptual framework to critically examine the limitations of the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) efforts to promote the career development of…

Bakken, Lori L.; Byars-Winston, Angela; Wang, Min-fen

2006-01-01

326

Evaluating FOCUS-2's Effectiveness in Enhancing First-Year College Students' Social Cognitive Career Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of the computer-assisted career guidance system, FOCUS-2, on 1st-year college students' social cognitive career development. Specifically, the authors assessed career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and assessment of attributions for career decision making (AACDM) using repeated measures analyses of variance…

Tirpak, David M.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.

2013-01-01

327

Iron Deficiency and the Cognitive and Psychomotor Development of Children: A Pilot Study with Institutionalized Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a pilot study, involving 48 institutionalized infants and toddlers, which aimed to treat iron deficiency anemia and to discover other factors contributing to the problem. Results indicate improvement in cognitive development after the administration of iron among three groups, while no significant differences were observed in psychomotor…

Driva, A.; And Others

1985-01-01

328

Posibilidades y limites de un fomento cognitivo temprano (Possibilities and Limits of Early Cognitive Development).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses preschool education and the research conducted in that field on various relevant topics in an effort to establish recommendations and programs. Cognitive development is the main issue and is seen as a product of maturation as well as of a broad base of experience which results from interaction between the mind and the…

Schmalohr, Emil

329

Development of the BACKIE questionnaire: A measure of children's behaviors, attitudes, cognitions, knowledge, and injury experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to develop a standardized questionnaire (BACKIE) that would assess the Behaviors (B), Attitudes (A), Cognitions (C), Knowledge (K), and Injury Experiences (IE) that elementary-school children possess pertaining to seven types of injuries, including: falls; motor vehicle collisions; burns; drowning; choking\\/suffocation; poisoning; and bicycle\\/pedestrian injuries.

Barbara A. Morrongiello; Michael Cusimano; Benjamin K. Barton; Elizabeth Orr; Mary Chipman; Jeffrey Tyberg; Abhaya Kulkarini; Nazilla Khanlou; Ralph Masi; Tsegaye Bekele

2010-01-01

330

The Development of a Substance Abuse Treatment Program for Forensic Patients with Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Substance Abuse and Mental Illness (SAMI) program combines cognitive rehabilitation and dual-diagnosis substance abuse treatment within a stages of change context. This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary outcome analysis of the SAMI program in a forensic hospital.

Glassmire, David M.; Welsh, Robert K.; Clevenger, Jeanne K.

2007-01-01

331

The Effect of Learning Background and Imagery Cognitive Development on Visual Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research looked into the effect of how cognitive development toward imagery is formed through visual perception by means of a quantitative questionnaire. The main variable was the difference between the learning backgrounds of the interviewees. A two-way ANOVA mixed design was the statistical method used for the analysis of the 2 × 4 (2 by 4)…

Chiang, Shyh-Bao; Sun, Chun-Wang

2013-01-01

332

The Relationship of Moral and Cognitive Development to Dimensions of Juvenile Delinquency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Quay's typology, three equal groups (n=12) of adolescent psychopathic, neurotic, and subcultural delinquent males and a matched nondelinquent control group were individually administered Kohlberg's structured moral dilemmas, two Piagetian tasks of cognitive development (pendulum and balance), and an adaption of Flavell's role-taking task.…

Prentice, Normal M.; Jurkovic, Gregory J.

333

Family Interaction and the Social, Emotional and Cognitive Development of Children Following Divorce.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between family interaction, parenting behaviors, and the social, cognitive and emotional development of children in the two years following divorce. Subjects were 48 children (24 boys, 24 girls and their parents) from single parent families in which custody had been granted to the mother and 48 children (24…

Hetherington, E. Mavis; And Others

334

Education for Character: An Alternative to Values Clarification and Cognitive Moral Development Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the weaknesses inherent in Sidney Simon's values clarification method and Lawrence Kohlberg's cognitive moral development method, suggesting that single class, isolated instruction overlooks the affective, unconscious elements of character formation. Recommends an alternative holistic approach based on John Locke's concept of all…

Beller, Edward

1986-01-01

335

Strategy Development and Utilization in Concept Identification as a Function of an Individual's Cognitive Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is an experiment undertaken to determine the extent to which analytic and global cognitive styles differed in developing or utilizing a selection type strategy in concept identification. Using the Hidden Figures Test (HFT) in five sections of an introductory psychology class, two groups of students, one analytical and one global, were…

Davis, J. Kent

336

Early Childhood Computer Experience and Cognitive Development among Urban Low-Income Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the association between home computer experience and cognitive development among preschool children in inner-city Head Start programs. Approximately 200 children enrolled in four Head Start centers in Detroit, Michigan were recruited to participate in this study. Data was collected from parents regarding the children's…

Fish, Angela M.; Li, Xiaoming; McCarrick, Katy; Butler, Sheretta T.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan; Holtrop, Teresa; Partridge, Ty

2008-01-01

337

Linking Written Language to Cognitive Development: Reading, Writing, and Concrete Operations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates Piagetian measures of concrete operations in relation to specific school tasks. Shows that seriation ability of fifth graders was relevant to the organization of temporal and causal relationships but that development of theoretically relevant cognitive abilities is a necessary but not sufficient condition for high levels of…

Webster, Linda; Ammon, Paul

1994-01-01

338

Cognitive Concomitants of Interactive Board Use and Their Relevance to Developing Effective Research Methodologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the need for systematic and replicable research methods for the examination of student learning using so called interactive whiteboard technologies. As a basis for these methods a model is developed of the cognitive concomitants evident in students' use of these technologies. While interactive whiteboards are shared spaces,…

Geer, Ruth; Barnes, Alan

2007-01-01

339

Crowding and Cognitive Development: The Mediating Role of Maternal Responsiveness among 36-Month-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Residential crowding in both U.S. and U.K. samples of 36-month-old children is related concurrently to the Bracken scale, a standard index of early cognitive development skills including letter and color identification, shape recognition, and elementary numeric comprehension. In the U.S. sample, these effects also replicate prospectively.…

Evans, Gary W.; Ricciuti, Henry N.; Hope, Steven; Schoon, Ingrid; Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Hazan, Cindy

2010-01-01

340

Contributions of Societal Modernity to Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Four Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how societal changes associated with modernization are related to cognitive development. Data were from 4 cultural communities that represented a broad range of traditional and modern elements: the Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa). Naturalistic observations and the performances of…

Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

2009-01-01

341

Understanding Writing Problems in Young Children: Contributions of Cognitive Skills to the Development of Written Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While several models of adult writing have been proposed and studied, the development of writing skills in young children has only recently garnered attention. Using measures of fine-motor, language, working memory, and attention/executive functions, the current study explored motor and cognitive skills that may contribute to writing skill in…

Childress, Amy

2011-01-01

342

Methods of Investigating Cognitive Development of Children in Rural Kenya: Some Kamba Results. Staff Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little cognitive development research has been done among African children, and most of the completed studies have relied on "translated" versions of Western test materials that are inappropriate to the African milieu. This paucity of research has had two affects: (1) rural African children have been represented as somewhat less advanced…

Fjellman, Janet S.

343

From cognition to the system: developing a multilevel taxonomy of patient safety in general practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the process of developing a taxonomy of patient safety in general practice. The methodologies employed included fieldwork, task analysis and confidential reporting of patient-safety events in five West Midlands practices. Reported events were traced back to their root causes and contributing factors. The resulting taxonomy is based on a theoretical model of human cognition, includes multiple levels

O. Kostopoulou

2006-01-01

344

The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

2012-01-01

345

A Cognitive Analysis of Credit Card Acquisition and College Student Financial Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines cognitions relevant to credit card decision making in college-aged participants (N=304). Assesses measures of beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral alternatives toward acquiring a credit card. Identifies a multivariate model predicting college student financial development of the attitudes and behavioral tendencies of acquiring a new card.…

Kidwell, Blair; Turrisi, Robert

2000-01-01

346

Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Internet-Facilitated Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Maternal Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Develop and pilot an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Method: Mothers (N = 70) of children enrolled in Head Start, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session,…

Sheeber, Lisa B.; Seeley, John R.; Feil, Edward G.; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Kosty, Derek B.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

2012-01-01

347

Fathers' Influence on Their Children's Cognitive and Emotional Development: From Toddlers to Pre-K  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present findings based on several of our recent studies that have shown that father engagement has significant effects on children's cognition and language at 24 and 36 months and their social and emotional development at 24, 36 months, and pre-Kindergarten. These studies are guided by the Dynamics of Paternal Influences on Children over the…

Cabrera, Natasha J.; Shannon, Jacqueline D.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine

2007-01-01

348

Key Steps in Developing a Cognitive Vaccine against Traumatic Flashbacks: Visuospatial Tetris versus Verbal Pub Quiz  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFlashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event) are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a ‘cognitive vaccine’ [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be

Emily A. Holmes; Ella L. James; Emma J. Kilford; Catherine Deeprose; Kenji Hashimoto

2010-01-01

349

The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology  

PubMed Central

The circumplex model of affect proposes that all affective states arise from cognitive interpretations of core neural sensations that are the product of two independent neurophysiological systems. This model stands in contrast to theories of basic emotions, which posit that a discrete and independent neural system subserves every emotion. We propose that basic emotion theories no longer explain adequately the vast number of empirical observations from studies in affective neuroscience, and we suggest that a conceptual shift is needed in the empirical approaches taken to the study of emotion and affective psychopathologies. The circumplex model of affect is more consistent with many recent findings from behavioral, cognitive neuroscience, neuroimaging, and developmental studies of affect. Moreover, the model offers new theoretical and empirical approaches to studying the development of affective disorders as well as the genetic and cognitive underpinnings of affective processing within the central nervous system.

Posner, Jonathan; Russell, James A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

2008-01-01

350

Impaired brain development and reduced cognitive function in phospholipase D-deficient mice.  

PubMed

The phospholipases D (PLD1 and 2) are signaling enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid, a lipid second messenger involved in cell proliferation, and choline, a precursor of acetylcholine (ACh). In the present study, we investigated development and cognitive function in mice that were deficient for PLD1, or PLD2, or both. We found that PLD-deficient mice had reduced brain growth at 14-27 days post partum when compared to wild-type mice. In adult PLD-deficient mice, cognitive function was impaired in social and object recognition tasks. Using brain microdialysis, we found that wild-type mice responded with a 4-fold increase of hippocampal ACh release upon behavioral stimulation in the open field, while PLD-deficient mice released significantly less ACh. These results may be relevant for cognitive dysfunctions observed in fetal alcohol syndrome and in Alzheimer' disease. PMID:24813107

Burkhardt, Ute; Stegner, David; Hattingen, Elke; Beyer, Sandra; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Klein, Jochen

2014-06-20

351

A Cognitive Cascade in Infancy: Pathways from Prematurity to Later Mental Development  

PubMed Central

Using data from a longitudinal study of preterms and full-terms, the present study examined the structure of infant cognition at 12 months, the extent to which five 12-month abilities (attention, speed, recognition, recall, and representational competence) mediated the relation from prematurity to mental development at 2 – 3 years, and how continuity and change in infant information processing from 7 to 12 months affected later outcome. The results indicated that 12-month measures of infant information processing completely mediated the effect of prematurity on outcome and the infant measures form a ‘cognitive cascade,’ similar to that seen at 7 months, in which the two more elementary abilities (attention and speed) influenced the more complex ones, which in turn influenced later cognition. Additionally, despite cross-age stability, 7- month assessments contribute to outcome independently of their 12-month counterparts, suggesting that infant abilities undergo important developmental transformations in the second half of the first year of life.

Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.; Van Rossem, Ronan

2008-01-01

352

Accelerating Leadership Development via Immersive Learning and Cognitive Apprenticeship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors put forward an approach to leadership development that builds on the principle of accelerated learning. They argue that leadership development, particularly in a period of recession or slow economic growth, needs to deliver results more quickly and with fewer resources. Indeed, they raise the question of whether or not this is what is…

Backus, Clark; Keegan, Kevin; Gluck, Charles; Gulick, Lisa M. V.

2010-01-01

353

The Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): Development and Validation of an Empirically Derived, Brief Interview-Based Measure of Cognition  

PubMed Central

Background Practical, reliable “real world” measures of cognition are needed to supplement neurocognitive performance data to evaluate possible efficacy of new drugs targeting cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Because interview-based measures of cognition offer one possible approach, data from the MATRICS initiative (n=176) were used to examine the psychometric properties of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) and the Clinical Global Impression of Cognition in Schizophrenia (CGI-CogS). Method We used classical test theory methods and item response theory to derive the 10 item Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI) from the SCoRS and CGI-Cogs (“parent instruments”). Sources of information for CAI ratings included the patient and an informant. Validity analyses examined the relationship between the CAI and objective measures of cognitive functioning, intermediate measures of cognition, and functional outcome. Results The rater’s score from the newly derived CAI (10-items) correlate highly (r = .87) with those from the combined set of the SCoRS and CGI-CogS (41 items). Both the patient (r= .82) and the informant (r= .95) data were highly correlated with the rater’s score. The CAI was modestly correlated with objectively measured neurocognition (r = ?.32), functional capacity (r = ?.44), and functional outcome (r = ?.32), which was comparable to the parent instruments. Conclusions The CAI allows for expert judgment in evaluating a patient’s cognitive functioning and was modestly correlated with neurocognitive functioning, functional capacity, and functional outcome. The CAI is a brief, repeatable, and potentially valuable tool for rating cognition in schizophrenia patients who are participating in clinical trials.

Ventura, Joseph; Reise, Steven P.; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Baade, Lyle E.; Gold, James M.; Green, Michael F.; Kern, Robert S.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Seidman, Larry J.; Bilder, Robert M.

2011-01-01

354

Vitamin A supplementation in rats under pregnancy and nursing induces behavioral changes and oxidative stress upon striatum and hippocampus of dams and their offspring.  

PubMed

Vitamin A is important for both development and maintenance of adult brain homeostasis. However, excessive vitamin A exposure has been linked to cognitive impairments and may induce congenital defects, including neuronal malformations. Recently, we demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation is able to alter behavioral parameters and induce a pro-oxidant state in hippocampus and striatum of adult male rat. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation in pregnant and nursing rats on maternal and offspring striatum and hippocampus. Wistar female rats (7 per group) were orally supplemented with retinyl palmitate (2500, 12,500 and 25,000 IU/kg/day) or saline (control) throughout pregnancy and nursing. Homing test was performed at postnatal days (PND) 5 and 10 for offspring, while open field test (OFT) was carried out at PND19 and 20 for dams and offspring, respectively. Redox parameters were evaluated at PND21 for both. Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy and nursing increased superoxide dismutase/catalase (SOD/CAT) ratio and oxidative damage in maternal and offspring striatum and hippocampus. Additionally, supplementation induced behavioral alterations. In conclusion, we suggest some caution regarding vitamin A intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding, since oxidative stress can disturb several biological phenomena, including neuronal signaling and neurotransmission, which may induce several behavioral deficits. PMID:21092734

Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Morrone, Maurílio; Simões-Pires, André; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

2011-01-19

355

The Development and Initial Validation of Social Cognitive Career Theory Instruments to Measure Choice of Medical Specialty and Practice Location  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social cognitive career theory served as the basis for the instrument development for scales assessing self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and goals to predict medical career choice. Lent and Brown's conceptualization of social cognitive constructs guided the development of items to measure choice of medical specialty and practice location. Study…

Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Searle, Judy

2009-01-01

356

The schooling of offspring and the survival of parents.  

PubMed

Contemporary stratification research on developed societies usually views the intergenerational transmission of educational advantage as a one-way effect from parent to child. However, parents' investment in their offspring's schooling may yield significant returns for parents themselves in later life. For instance, well-educated offspring have greater knowledge of health and technology to share with their parents and more financial means to provide for them than do their less-educated counterparts. We use data from the 1992-2006 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine whether adult offspring's educational attainments are associated with parents' survival in the United States. We show that adult offspring's educational attainments have independent effects on their parents' mortality, even after controlling for parents' own socioeconomic resources. This relationship is more pronounced for deaths that are linked to behavioral factors: most notably, chronic lower respiratory disease and lung cancer. Furthermore, at least part of the association between offspring's schooling and parents' survival may be explained by parents' health behaviors, including smoking and physical activity. These findings suggest that one way to influence the health of the elderly is through their offspring. To harness the full value of schooling for health, then, a family and multigenerational perspective is needed. PMID:24917296

Friedman, Esther M; Mare, Robert D

2014-08-01

357

Cognitive Science: Implications for Curriculum Research and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model of human information processing is summarized and discussed in terms of the implications of the model and its associated technologies for curriculum research and development. Description of the model focuses on its input and output systems and its...

G. J. Posner

1978-01-01

358

Development Principles for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Integrating Cognitive Theory into the Development of Computer-Based Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a basic development model for an intelligent tutoring system that includes the interface, the expert and learner models, and the pedagogical model. Possibilities for more extensive integration of cognitive learning theories into computer-based instruction (CBI) are illustrated, and two examples of CBI designed from this perspective are…

Orey, Michael A.; Nelson, Wayne A.

1993-01-01

359

Neuroimaging, a new tool for investigating the effects of early diet on cognitive and brain development  

PubMed Central

Nutrition is crucial to the initial development of the central nervous system (CNS), and then to its maintenance, because both depend on dietary intake to supply the elements required to develop and fuel the system. Diet in early life is often seen in the context of “programming” where a stimulus occurring during a vulnerable period can have long-lasting or even lifetime effects on some aspect of the organism's structure or function. Nutrition was first shown to be a programming stimulus for growth, and then for cognitive behavior, in animal studies that were able to employ methods that allowed the demonstration of neural effects of early nutrition. Such research raised the question of whether nutrition could also programme cognition/brain structure in humans. Initial studies of cognitive effects were observational, usually conducted in developing countries where the presence of confounding factors made it difficult to interpret the role of nutrition in the cognitive deficits that were seen. Attributing causality to nutrition required randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and these, often in developed countries, started to appear around 30 years ago. Most demonstrated convincingly that early nutrition could affect subsequent cognition. Until the advent of neuroimaging techniques that allowed in vivo examination of the brain, however, we could determine very little about the neural effects of early diet in humans. The combination of well-designed trials with neuroimaging tools means that we are now able to pose and answer questions that would have seemed impossible only recently. This review discusses various neuroimaging methods that are suitable for use in nutrition studies, while pointing out some of the limitations that they may have. The existing literature is small, but examples of studies that have used these methods are presented. Finally, some considerations that have arisen from previous studies, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.

Isaacs, Elizabeth B.

2013-01-01

360

A cognitive perspective on developer comprehension of software design documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software design documentation is an important aid for communication during software development and maintenance. Nevertheless, little empirical evidence exists regarding the use of software documentation, and effective software design representation in particular. In an experimental setting, we used documentation from industry in which aspects of a software design were modeled in both a (UML) diagram and text. We recorded and

Hugo H. Schoonewille; Werner Heijstek; Michel R. V. Chaudron; Thomas Kühne

2011-01-01

361

What Infants Know: The New Cognitive Science of Early Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that beyond the individual variations among humans, there is a body of mental abilities common to every human being, this book examines the debate among researchers about the extent to which humans are "preprogrammed," and suggests a new scientific psychology of human development. By examining experimental data obtained from adults,…

Mehler, Jacques; Dupoux, Emmanuel

362

The Development of Embodied Cognition: Six Lessons from Babies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The embodiment hypothesis is the idea that intelligence emerges in the interaction of an agent with an environment and as a result of sensorimotor activity. In this paper we offer six lessons for developing embodied intelligent agents suggested by research in developmental psychology. We argue that starting as a baby grounded in a physical, social and linguistic world is crucial

Linda Smith; Michael Gasser

2005-01-01

363

Systems and Cascades in Cognitive Development and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large-scale ("N" = 552) controlled multivariate prospective 14-year longitudinal study of a developmental cascade embedded in a developmental system showed that information-processing efficiency in infancy (4 months), general mental development in toddlerhood (18 months), behavior difficulties in early childhood (36 months), psychometric…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Wolke, Dieter

2013-01-01

364

Pathogenic SYNGAP1 mutations impair cognitive development by disrupting the maturation of dendritic spine synapses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mutations that cause Intellectual Disability (ID) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are commonly found in genes that encode for synaptic proteins. However, it remains unclear how mutations that disrupt synapse function impact intellectual ability. In the SYNGAP1 mouse model of ID/ASD, we found that dendritic spine synapses develop prematurely during the early postnatal period. Premature spine maturation dramatically enhanced excitability in the developing hippocampus, which corresponded with the emergence of behavioral abnormalities. Inducing SYNGAP1 mutations after critical developmental windows closed had minimal impact on spine synapse function, while repairing these pathogenic mutations in adulthood did not improve behavior and cognition. These data demonstrate that SynGAP protein acts as a critical developmental repressor of neural excitability that promotes the development of life-long cognitive abilities. We propose that the pace of dendritic spine synapse maturation in early life is a critical determinant of normal intellectual development.

Clement, James P.; Aceti, Massimiliano; Creson, Thomas K.; Ozkan, Emin D.; Shi, Yulin; Reish, Nicholas J.; Almonte, Antoine G.; Miller, Brooke H.; Wiltgen, Brian J.; Miller, Courtney A.; Xu, Xiangmin; Rumbaugh, Gavin

2012-01-01

365

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Subjects at Ultrahigh Risk for Developing Psychosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background : Evidence for the effectiveness of treatments for subjects at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for developing psychosis remains inconclusive. Objective : A new cognitive behavioral intervention specifically targeted at cognitive biases (ie, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [CBT] for UHR patients plus treatment as usual [TAU] called CBTuhr) is compared with TAU in a group of young help-seeking UHR subjects. Methods : A total of 201 patients were recruited at 4 sites and randomized. In most cases, CBTuhr was an add-on therapy because most people were seeking help for a comorbid disorder. The CBT was provided for 6 months, and the follow-up period was 18 months. Results : In the CBTuhr condition, 10 patients transitioned to psychosis compared with 22 in the TAU condition (? 2 (1) = 5.575, P = .03). The number needed to treat (NNT) was 9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.7–89.9). At 18-month follow-up the CBTuhr group was significantly more often remitted from an at-risk mental state, with a NNT of 7 (95% CI: 3.7–71.2). Intention-to-treat analysis, including 5 violations against exclusion criteria, showed a statistical tendency (? 2 (1) = 3.338, P = .06). Conclusions : Compared with TAU, this new CBT (focusing on normalization and awareness of cognitive biases) showed a favorable effect on the transition to psychosis and reduction of subclinical psychotic symptoms in subjects at UHR to develop psychosis.

van der Gaag, Mark

2012-01-01

366

Developing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Depressive Relapse in Youth  

PubMed Central

Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed youth, children and adolescents frequently report ongoing residual symptoms and often relapse following acute treatment. Recent adult trials have begun examining augmentation with psychosocial treatment after successful medication treatment to enhance medication response and prevent future relapse. This strategy has not yet been examined in youth with depression. Here we present initial efforts to develop a sequential, combination treatment strategy to promoting rapid remission and to prevent relapse in depressed youth. We describe efforts to adapt CBT to prevent relapse (RP-CBT) in youth who respond to pharmacotherapy. The goals of RP-CBT include: preventing relapse, increasing wellness, and developing skills to promote and sustain a healthy emotional lifestyle. We describe the rationale for, components of, and methods used to develop RP-CBT. The results from a small open series sample demonstrate feasibility and indicate that youth appear to tolerate RP-CBT well. A future test of the treatment in a randomized controlled trial is described.

Kennard, Beth D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.

2010-01-01

367

Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4459-4474, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24615961

Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

2014-09-01

368

Impact of Maternal Prenatal Stress on Growth of the Offspring  

PubMed Central

Unperturbed fetal development is essential for future health of an individual. Previous studies have linked diseases of aging to harmful alterations that happen during fetal development. Given the significant long-term impact that intrauterine environment has on an individual’s life, it was hypothesized that maternal stress during pregnancy will have negative effects on the offspring’s prenatal and postnatal growth. To test this, twenty-eight female and seven male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were purchased and bred to produce 176 offspring. During pregnancy, dams were randomly divided into four groups (n=7, per group) and immobilization stress induced as follows; Group 1 (GW1): immobilization stress on days 1–7 of pregnancy, Group 2 (GW2): on days 8–14, Group 3 (GW3): on days 15–21, Group 4 (Controls): left undisturbed. Maternal cortisol hormone, food intake, and weight gain were monitored during pregnancy. Pups were raised under normal laboratory conditions and sacrificed at ages: 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks to determine the effect of prenatal stress. At necropsy, the tibia was removed and processed for histology. Differences among groups were determined by T-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Linear regression analysis was performed to establish the relationship between stress in utero and indicators of bone development in offspring. P values ? 0.05 were considered significant. Cortisol hormone levels in controls were lower than those of stressed animals. Stressed dams consumed 12.5% less food per day compared to controls. Animals in GW1 and GW2 gained less weight during pregnancy but had larger litters than did GW3 or the control group. Offspring born to GW3 were heavier compared to all other groups. GW3 offspring had a higher rate of bone formation. In conclusion, stress during pregnancy resulted in increased cortisol and reduced food intake in mothers, but faster growth and higher weight gain in offspring compared to controls.

Amugongo, Sarah K.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

2014-01-01

369

A psychology based approach for longitudinal development in cognitive robotics.  

PubMed

A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behavior that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks. This paper presents an approach to these issues through robotic implementations inspired by the learning behavior of human infants. We describe an approach to developmental learning and present results from a demonstration of longitudinal development on an iCub humanoid robot. The results cover the rapid emergence of staged behavior, the role of constraints in development, the effect of bootstrapping between stages, and the use of a schema memory of experiential fragments in learning new skills. The context is a longitudinal experiment in which the robot advanced from uncontrolled motor babbling to skilled hand/eye integrated reaching and basic manipulation of objects. This approach offers promise for further fast and effective sensory-motor learning techniques for robotic learning. PMID:24478693

Law, J; Shaw, P; Earland, K; Sheldon, M; Lee, M

2014-01-01

370

A psychology based approach for longitudinal development in cognitive robotics  

PubMed Central

A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behavior that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks. This paper presents an approach to these issues through robotic implementations inspired by the learning behavior of human infants. We describe an approach to developmental learning and present results from a demonstration of longitudinal development on an iCub humanoid robot. The results cover the rapid emergence of staged behavior, the role of constraints in development, the effect of bootstrapping between stages, and the use of a schema memory of experiential fragments in learning new skills. The context is a longitudinal experiment in which the robot advanced from uncontrolled motor babbling to skilled hand/eye integrated reaching and basic manipulation of objects. This approach offers promise for further fast and effective sensory-motor learning techniques for robotic learning.

Law, J.; Shaw, P.; Earland, K.; Sheldon, M.; Lee, M.

2014-01-01

371

Cognitive development in introductory physics: A research-based approach to curriculum reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project describes the research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created for designing and clarifying educational objectives, for developing assessments that can evaluate individual component processes of the problem-solving process, and for guiding curriculum design in introductory physics courses, specifically within the context of a "thinking-skills" curriculum. TIPP relies on the following resources: (1) cognitive research findings adopted by physics education research, (2) expert-novice research discoveries acknowledged by physics education research, (3) an educational psychology taxonomy for educational objectives, and (4) various collections of physics problems created by physics education researchers or developed by textbook authors. TIPP was used in the years 2006--2008 to reform the first semester of the introductory algebra-based physics course (called Phys 11) at The George Washington University. The reform sought to transform our curriculum into a "thinking-skills" curriculum that trades "breadth for depth" by focusing on fewer topics while targeting the students' cognitive development. We employed existing research on the physics problem-solving expert-novice behavior, cognitive science and behavioral science findings, and educational psychology recommendations. Our pedagogy relies on didactic constructs such as the GW-ACCESS problem-solving protocol, learning progressions and concept maps that we have developed and implemented in our introductory physics course. These tools were designed based on TIPP. Their purpose is: (1) to help students build local and global coherent knowledge structures, (2) to develop more context-independent problem-solving abilities, (3) to gain confidence in problem solving, and (4) to establish connections between everyday phenomena and underlying physics concepts. We organize traditional and research-based physics problems such that students experience a gradual increase in complexity related to problem context, problem features and cognitive processes needed to solve the problem. The instructional environment that we designed allows for explicit monitoring, control and measurement of the cognitive processes exercised during the instruction period. It is easily adaptable to any kind of curriculum and can be readily adjusted throughout the semester. To assess the development of students' problem-solving abilities, we created rubrics that measure specific aspects of the thinking involved in physics problem solving. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' shift in dispositions towards learning physics. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' level of conceptual understanding. The results feature improvements in students' problem-solving abilities and in their attitudes towards learning physics.

Teodorescu, Raluca Elena

372

Cognitive Load Theory and Complex Learning: Recent Developments and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) has focused on instructional methods to decrease extraneous cognitive load so that available cognitive resources can be fully devoted to learning. This article strengthens the cognitive base of CLT by linking cognitive processes to the processes used by biological evolution. The article discusses recent…

van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Sweller, John

2005-01-01

373

Gender-specific impairments on cognitive and behavioral development in mice exposed to fenvalerate during puberty.  

PubMed

In human and rodent models, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the development of cognition and behaviors. Fenvalerate is a potential EDC. The purpose of this study was to examine whether pubertal fenvalerate exposure altered behavioral development. Mice were orally administered with either vehicle or fenvalerate (7.5 or 30 mg/kg/day) from postnatal day (PND) 28 to PND56. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris Water Maze. Aggressive performance was evaluated by aggressive behavior test. Anxiety-related activities were detected by three tests: open-field, plus-maze and black-white alley. Sensorimotor function was analyzed using beam walking and tightrope. Results found that the impairment for spatial learning and memory was more severe in fenvalerate-exposed female mice than in male mice. In addition, pubertal fenvalerate exposure inhibited aggressive behavior in males. Moreover, pubertal fenvalerate exposure increased anxiety activities in females. Altogether, these results suggest that pubertal fenvalerate exposure impairs spatial cognition and behavioral development in a gender-dependent manner. These findings identify fenvalerate as candidate environmental risk factors for cognitive and behavioral development, especially in the critical period of development. PMID:21458547

Meng, Xiu-Hong; Liu, Ping; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Xu, Zhong-Mei; Chen, Gui-Hai; Xu, De-Xiang

2011-06-24

374

Developing intuition: neural correlates of cognitive-skill learning in caudate nucleus.  

PubMed

The superior capability of cognitive experts largely depends on automatic, quick information processing, which is often referred to as intuition. Intuition develops following extensive long-term training. There are many cognitive models on intuition development, but its neural basis is not known. Here we trained novices for 15 weeks to learn a simple board game and measured their brain activities in early and end phases of the training while they quickly generated the best next-move to a given board pattern. We found that the activation in the head of caudate nucleus developed over the course of training, in parallel to the development of the capability to quickly generate the best next-move, and the magnitude of the caudate activity was correlated with the subject's performance. In contrast, cortical activations, which already appeared in the early phase of training, did not further change. Thus, neural activation in the caudate head, but not those in cortical areas, tracked the development of capability to quickly generate the best next-move, indicating that circuitries including the caudate head may automate cognitive computations. PMID:23197739

Wan, Xiaohong; Takano, Daisuke; Asamizuya, Takeshi; Suzuki, Chisato; Ueno, Kenichi; Cheng, Kang; Ito, Takeshi; Tanaka, Keiji

2012-11-28

375

The Relationship between Language and Cognitive Development and Emotional-Behavioral Problems in Financially-Disadvantaged Preschoolers: A Longitudinal Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between language and cognitive development and emotional-behavioral problems (measured concurrently and at a 5- and 17-month follow-up) in 680 nonreferred 4-year-olds from financially-disadvantaged families. Found that language delays were significantly related to emotional-behavioral problems. When cognitive differences…

Gilliam, Walter S.; de Mesquita, Paul B.

2000-01-01

376

Contributions of Domain-General Cognitive Resources and Different Forms of Arithmetic Development to Pre-Algebraic Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of domain-general cognitive resources and different forms of arithmetic development to individual differences in pre-algebraic knowledge. Children (n = 279, mean age = 7.59 years) were assessed on 7 domain-general cognitive resources as well as arithmetic calculations and word problems…

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Powell, Sarah R.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Vernier, Emily; Namkung, Jessica M.; Vukovic, Rose K.

2012-01-01

377

Reading Acquisition, Cognitive and Visual Development, and Self-Esteem in Four Children with Cerebral Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During a longitudinal in-depth study of the reading acquisition and cognitive and visual development of four children with cerebral visual impairment, the children's visual acuity improved, but their full-scale IQs declined, mostly because of difficulties in abstract thinking, visual cognitive organization, and extremely low processing speed. The…

Ek, Ulla; Fellenius, Kerstin; Jacobson, Lena

2003-01-01

378

Student Cognitive Difficulties and Mental Model Development of Complex Earth and Environmental Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students organize scientific knowledge and reason about environmental issues through manipulation of mental models. The nature of the environmental sciences, which are focused on the study of complex, dynamic systems, may present cognitive difficulties to students in their development of authentic, accurate mental models of environmental systems. The inquiry project seeks to develop and assess the coupling of information technology (IT)-based learning with physical models in order to foster rich mental model development of environmental systems in geoscience undergraduate students. The manipulation of multiple representations, the development and testing of conceptual models based on available evidence, and exposure to authentic, complex and ill-constrained problems were the components of investigation utilized to reach the learning goals. Upper-level undergraduate students enrolled in an environmental geology course at Texas A&M University participated in this research which served as a pilot study. Data based on rubric evaluations interpreted by principal component analyses suggest students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry is limited and the ability to cross scales and link systems proved problematic. Results categorized into content knowledge and cognition processes where reasoning, critical thinking and cognitive load were driving factors behind difficulties in student learning. Student mental model development revealed multiple misconceptions and lacked complexity and completeness to represent the studied systems. Further, the positive learning impacts of the implemented modules favored the physical model over the IT-based learning projects, likely due to cognitive load issues. This study illustrates the need to better understand student difficulties in solving complex problems when using IT, where the appropriate scaffolding can then be implemented to enhance student learning of the earth system sciences.

Sell, K.; Herbert, B.; Schielack, J.

2004-05-01

379

Cognitive development and children's perceptions of fruit and vegetables; a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Most children do not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake. Since preference is an important predictor of intake, more knowledge is needed about children's preferences and about how these preferences develop. As most research about preferences has ignored cognitive development, this study was designed to explore the relation between children's perceptions and preferences for fruit and vegetables and their cognitive development. Methods The study population consisted of eight 4–5-year-old children, eight 7–8-year-old children and twelve 11–12-year-old children, recruited via a primary school in Wageningen, The Netherlands. Qualitative in-depth information was obtained by duo-interviews and focus group discussions. A structured guide with questions and game tasks was applied to address different domains in a consistent way. Results The developmental progress at the abstraction level was seen in children's reasoning across all domains. Children's preferences expanded and increased in complexity as they moved to a higher age bracket. The most important determinants for liking and disliking shifted from appearance and texture attributes in 4–5-year-olds towards taste attributes in 11–12-year-olds. Children's knowledge of basic tastes increased. Their understanding of health improved as they grew older. The emergence of social norms and perspectives of others as the children grew older was also seen in relation to fruit and vegetables. Child-reported parental strategies to stimulate healthy eating appeared to vary with age in line with cognitive development. Conclusion Cognitive development is paralleled by changes in the importance given to the attributes that determine whether a child likes or dislikes fruits and vegetables; children's understanding of and reasoning about health; and parental use of strategies. These developmental differences should be incorporated in programs designed to increase long-term fruit and vegetable intake in children.

Zeinstra, Gertrude G; Koelen, Maria A; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

2007-01-01

380

Maternal allergic contact dermatitis causes increased asthma risk in offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. Methods BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, dinitrochlorobenzene, or toluene diisocyanate before mating with untreated males. Dinitrochlorobenzene is a skin-sensitizer only and known to induce a Th1 response, while toluene diisocyanate is both a skin and respiratory sensitizer that causes a Th2 response. Both cause allergic contact dermatitis. Offspring underwent an intentionally suboptimal protocol of allergen sensitization and aerosol challenge, followed by evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway inflammation, and cytokine production. Mothers were tested for allergic airway disease, evidence of dermatitis, cellularity of the draining lymph nodes, and systemic cytokine levels. The role of interleukin-4 was also explored using interleukin-4 deficient mice. Results Offspring of toluene diisocyanate but not dinitrochlorobenzene-treated mothers developed an asthmatic phenotype following allergen sensitization and challenge, seen as increased Penh values, airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell counts and eosinophilia, and Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung. Toluene diisocyanate treated interleukin-4 deficient mothers were able to transfer asthma risk to offspring. Mothers in both experimental groups developed allergic contact dermatitis, but not allergic airway disease. Conclusion Maternal non-respiratory allergy (Th2-skewed dermatitis caused by toluene diisocyanate) can result in the maternal transmission of asthma risk in mice.

Lim, Robert H; Arredouani, Mohamed S; Fedulov, Alexey; Kobzik, Lester; Hubeau, Cedric

2007-01-01

381

Helping Young Children Develop Cognitive Skills in a Bilingual-Multicultural Environment. Bilingual/Bicultural Child Development Associate Pilot Project: Module VIII.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, the seventh in a series of 16, provides an introduction to cognitive development in young children for bilingual/bicultural preschool teacher trainees. Perceptual skills (visual, figure-ground, part-whole, spatial, auditory and tactile discrimination) and cognitive processes and concepts…

Coleman, Joyce H.

382

Recessive mutations in SPTBN2 implicate ?-III spectrin in both cognitive and motor development.  

PubMed

?-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding ?-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5), an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as "Lincoln ataxia," because the largest known family is descended from relatives of the United States President Abraham Lincoln. Using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a homozygous stop codon in SPTBN2 in a consanguineous family in which childhood developmental ataxia co-segregates with cognitive impairment. The cognitive impairment could result from mutations in a second gene, but further analysis using whole-genome sequencing combined with SNP array analysis did not reveal any evidence of other mutations. We also examined a mouse knockout of ?-III spectrin in which ataxia and progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells has been previously reported and found morphological abnormalities in neurons from prefrontal cortex and deficits in object recognition tasks, consistent with the human cognitive phenotype. These data provide the first evidence that ?-III spectrin plays an important role in cortical brain development and cognition, in addition to its function in the cerebellum; and we conclude that cognitive impairment is an integral part of this novel recessive ataxic syndrome, Spectrin-associated Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia type 1 (SPARCA1). In addition, the identification of SPARCA1 and normal heterozygous carriers of the stop codon in SPTBN2 provides insights into the mechanism of molecular dominance in SCA5 and demonstrates that the cell-specific repertoire of spectrin subunits underlies a novel group of disorders, the neuronal spectrinopathies, which includes SCA5, SPARCA1, and a form of West syndrome. PMID:23236289

Lise, Stefano; Clarkson, Yvonne; Perkins, Emma; Kwasniewska, Alexandra; Sadighi Akha, Elham; Schnekenberg, Ricardo Parolin; Suminaite, Daumante; Hope, Jilly; Baker, Ian; Gregory, Lorna; Green, Angie; Allan, Chris; Lamble, Sarah; Jayawant, Sandeep; Quaghebeur, Gerardine; Cader, M Zameel; Hughes, Sarah; Armstrong, Richard J E; Kanapin, Alexander; Rimmer, Andrew; Lunter, Gerton; Mathieson, Iain; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Buck, David; Taylor, Jenny C; Bentley, David; McVean, Gilean; Donnelly, Peter; Knight, Samantha J L; Jackson, Mandy; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Németh, Andrea H

2012-01-01

383

Recessive Mutations in SPTBN2 Implicate ?-III Spectrin in Both Cognitive and Motor Development  

PubMed Central

?-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding ?-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5), an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as “Lincoln ataxia,” because the largest known family is descended from relatives of the United States President Abraham Lincoln. Using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a homozygous stop codon in SPTBN2 in a consanguineous family in which childhood developmental ataxia co-segregates with cognitive impairment. The cognitive impairment could result from mutations in a second gene, but further analysis using whole-genome sequencing combined with SNP array analysis did not reveal any evidence of other mutations. We also examined a mouse knockout of ?-III spectrin in which ataxia and progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells has been previously reported and found morphological abnormalities in neurons from prefrontal cortex and deficits in object recognition tasks, consistent with the human cognitive phenotype. These data provide the first evidence that ?-III spectrin plays an important role in cortical brain development and cognition, in addition to its function in the cerebellum; and we conclude that cognitive impairment is an integral part of this novel recessive ataxic syndrome, Spectrin-associated Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia type 1 (SPARCA1). In addition, the identification of SPARCA1 and normal heterozygous carriers of the stop codon in SPTBN2 provides insights into the mechanism of molecular dominance in SCA5 and demonstrates that the cell-specific repertoire of spectrin subunits underlies a novel group of disorders, the neuronal spectrinopathies, which includes SCA5, SPARCA1, and a form of West syndrome.

Kwasniewska, Alexandra; Sadighi Akha, Elham; Parolin Schnekenberg, Ricardo; Suminaite, Daumante; Hope, Jilly; Baker, Ian; Gregory, Lorna; Green, Angie; Allan, Chris; Lamble, Sarah; Jayawant, Sandeep; Quaghebeur, Gerardine; Cader, M. Zameel; Hughes, Sarah; Armstrong, Richard J. E.; Kanapin, Alexander; Rimmer, Andrew; Lunter, Gerton; Mathieson, Iain; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Buck, David; Taylor, Jenny C.; Bentley, David; McVean, Gilean; Donnelly, Peter; Knight, Samantha J. L.; Jackson, Mandy; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Nemeth, Andrea H.

2012-01-01

384

Genome-Wide Alteration of Histone H3K9 Acetylation Pattern in Mouse Offspring Prenatally Exposed to Arsenic  

PubMed Central

Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water, especially in utero or perinatal exposure, can initiate neurological and cognitive dysfunction, as well as memory impairment. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated cognitive and learning deficits in children with early exposure to low to moderate levels of arsenic, but pathogenic mechanisms or etiology for these deficits are poorly understood. Since in vivo studies show a role for histone acetylation in cognitive performance and memory formation, we examined if prenatal exposure to arsenic causes changes in the epigenomic landscape. We exposed C57Bl6/J mice to 100 ?g/L arsenic in the drinking water starting 1 week before conception till birth and applied chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) to evaluate H3K9 acetylation pattern in the offspring of exposed and control mice. Arsenic exposure during embryonic life caused global hypo-acetylation at H3K9 and changes in functional annotation with highly significant representation of Krüppel associated box (KRAB) transcription factors in brain samples from exposed pups. We also found that arsenic exposure of adult mice impaired spatial and episodic memory, as well as fear conditioning performance. This is the first study to demonstrate: a) genome wide changes in H3K9 acetylation pattern in an offspring prenatally exposed to arsenic, and b) a connection between moderate arsenic exposure and cognitive impairment in adult mice. The results also emphasize the applicability of Next Generation Sequencing methodology in studies aiming to reveal the role of environmental factors, other than dietary restriction, in developmental reprogramming through histone modifications during embryonic development.

Cronican, Andrea A.; Fitz, Nicholas F.; Carter, Alexis; Saleem, Muzamil; Shiva, Sruti; Barchowsky, Aaron; Koldamova, Radosveta; Schug, Jonathan; Lefterov, Iliya

2013-01-01

385

Applying a Cognitive-Affective Model of Conceptual Change to Professional Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated Gregoire’s (2003) Cognitive–Affective Conceptual Change model (CAMCC) for predicting and assessing conceptual change in science teachers engaged\\u000a in a long-term professional development project set in a large school district in the southwestern United States. A multiple\\u000a case study method with data from three teacher participants was used to understand the process of integrating and applying\\u000a a reform

Ellen K. EbertKent; Kent J. Crippen

2010-01-01

386

Combining Mindfulness Meditation with Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Insomnia: A Treatment-Development Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This treatment-development study is a Stage I evaluation of an intervention that combines mindfulness meditation with cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Thirty adults who met research diagnostic criteria for Psychophysiological Insomnia (Edinger et al., 2004) participated in a 6-week, multi-component group intervention using mindfulness meditation, sleep restriction, stimulus control, sleep education, and sleep hygiene. Sleep diaries and self-reported pre-sleep arousal

Jason C. Ong; Shauna L. Shapiro; Rachel Manber

2008-01-01

387

Relation of moral and cognitive development to dimensions of juvenile delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using H. C. Quay's (1972) typology, 3 groups of 12 Ss each––adolescent psychopathic, neurotic, and subcultural delinquent males (mean age 15.68 yrs)––and a matched nondelinquent control group were individually administered L. Kohlberg's (1964, 1969) structured moral dilemmas, 2 Piagetian tasks of cognitive development (pendulum and balance), and an adaptation of J. Flavell's (1968) role-taking task. Psychopathic Ss were more immature

Gregory J. Jurkovic; Norman M. Prentice

1977-01-01

388

Parents’ mental health and children’s cognitive and social development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The development of children of parents who are experiencing mental health difficulties is a continuing cause of concern for\\u000a professionals working in health, social care and education as well as policy makers. In light of this interest our study investigates\\u000a the interplay between the mental health of mothers and fathers and family socioeconomic resources, and the impact for children’s\\u000a cognitive

Fiona K. MensahKathleen; Kathleen E. Kiernan

2010-01-01

389

Current understanding of the interplay between catechol-O-methyltransferase genetic variants, sleep, brain development and cognitive performance in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Abnormal sleep is an endophenotype of schizophrenia. Here we provide an overview of the genetic mechanisms that link specific sleep physiological processes to schizophrenia-related cognitive defects. In particular, we will review the possible relationships between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), sleep regulation and schizophrenia development. Recent studies validate the hypothesis that COMT mutations may trigger disturbances during adolescence that affect sleep and cortical development. Anomalies in cortical development during this critical developmental phase may increase the susceptibility for schizophrenia. In conclusion, in view of therapeutic efficacy, we can envisage indications for future investigations into the role of COMT for sleep regulation, cognitive performance and sleep-related cognitive deficits. PMID:22483299

Tucci, Valter; Lassi, Glenda; Kas, Martien J

2012-05-01

390

Development of reference assignment in children: a direct comparison to the performance of cognitive shift.  

PubMed

The referent of a deictic embedded in a particular utterance or sentence is often ambiguous. Reference assignment is a pragmatic process that enables the disambiguation of such a referent. Previous studies have demonstrated that receivers use social-pragmatic information during referent assignment; however, it is still unclear which aspects of cognitive development affect the development of referential processing in children. The present study directly assessed the relationship between performance on a reference assignment task (Murakami and Hashiya, in preparation) and the dimensional change card sort task (DCCS) in 3- and 5-years-old children. The results indicated that the 3-years-old children who passed DCCS showed performance above chance level in the event which required an explicit (cognitive) shift, while the performance of the children who failed DCCS remained in the range of chance level; however, such a tendency was not observed in the 5-years-old, possibly due to a ceiling effect. The results indicated that, though the development of skills that mediate cognitive shifting might adequately explain the explicit shift of attention in conversation, the pragmatic processes underlying the implicit shift, which requires reference assignment, might follow a different developmental course. PMID:24910629

Murakami, Taro; Hashiya, Kazuhide

2014-01-01

391

Development of reference assignment in children: a direct comparison to the performance of cognitive shift  

PubMed Central

The referent of a deictic embedded in a particular utterance or sentence is often ambiguous. Reference assignment is a pragmatic process that enables the disambiguation of such a referent. Previous studies have demonstrated that receivers use social-pragmatic information during referent assignment; however, it is still unclear which aspects of cognitive development affect the development of referential processing in children. The present study directly assessed the relationship between performance on a reference assignment task (Murakami and Hashiya, in preparation) and the dimensional change card sort task (DCCS) in 3- and 5-years-old children. The results indicated that the 3-years-old children who passed DCCS showed performance above chance level in the event which required an explicit (cognitive) shift, while the performance of the children who failed DCCS remained in the range of chance level; however, such a tendency was not observed in the 5-years-old, possibly due to a ceiling effect. The results indicated that, though the development of skills that mediate cognitive shifting might adequately explain the explicit shift of attention in conversation, the pragmatic processes underlying the implicit shift, which requires reference assignment, might follow a different developmental course.

Murakami, Taro; Hashiya, Kazuhide

2014-01-01

392

Paternal low protein diet affects adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic function in mice.  

PubMed

Although the association between maternal periconceptional diet and adult offspring health is well characterised, our understanding of the impact of paternal nutrition at the time of conception on offspring phenotype remains poorly defined. Therefore, we determined the effect of a paternal preconception low protein diet (LPD) on adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic health in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal protein diet (NPD; 18% casein) or LPD (9% casein) for 7 wk before mating. At birth, a reduced male-to-female ratio (P = 0.03) and increased male offspring weight (P = 0.009) were observed in litters from LPD compared with NPD stud males with no differences in mean litter size. LPD offspring were heavier than NPD offspring at 2 and 3 wk of age (P < 0.02). However, no subsequent differences in body weight were observed. Adult male offspring derived from LPD studs developed relative hypotension (decreased by 9.2 mmHg) and elevated heart rate (P < 0.05), whereas both male and female offspring displayed vascular dysfunction and impaired glucose tolerance relative to NPD offspring. At cull (24 wk), LPD males had elevated adiposity (P = 0.04), reduced heart-to-body weight ratio (P = 0.04), and elevated circulating TNF-? levels (P = 0.015) compared with NPD males. Transcript expression in offspring heart and liver tissue was reduced for genes involved in calcium signaling (Adcy, Plcb, Prkcb) and metabolism (Fto) in LPD offspring (P < 0.03). These novel data reveal the impact of suboptimal paternal nutrition on adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis, and provide some insight into the underlying regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24658019

Watkins, Adam J; Sinclair, Kevin D

2014-05-15

393

The Significance of Gender in Predicting the Cognitive Moral Development of Business Practitioners Using the Sociomoral Reflection Objective Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study constitutes a contribution to the discussion about moral reasoning in business. Kohlberg’s (1971, in Cognitive Development and Epistemology (Academic Press, New York), 1976, in Moral Development and Behavior: Theory and Research and Social Issues (Holt, Rienhart and Winston, New York)) cognitive moral development (CMD) theory is one explanation of moral reasoning. One\\u000a unresolved debate on the topic of

Beverly Kracher; Robert P. Marble

2008-01-01

394

Cognitive development and student approaches to learning: An investigation of Perry's theory with Chinese and U.S. university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to provide cross-culturalevidence of the relationship between student approaches tolearning and stages of cognitive development and of the validityof Perry's theory of such development. The participants for thisstudy were 67 U.S. and 193 Mainland Chinese students. Theparticipants rated their ability on several scales, responded tothe Zhang Cognitive Development Inventory (Zhang 1995) and theStudy Process

Li-Fang Zhang; David Watkins

2001-01-01

395

Mild iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Europe and its consequences for cognitive and psychomotor development of children: a review.  

PubMed

Despite the introduction of salt iodization programmes as national measures to control iodine deficiency, several European countries are still suffering from mild iodine deficiency (MID). In iodine sufficient or mildly iodine deficient areas, iodine deficiency during pregnancy frequently appears in case the maternal thyroid gland cannot meet the demand for increasing production of thyroid hormones (TH) and its effect may be damaging for the neurodevelopment of the foetus. MID during pregnancy may lead to hypothyroxinaemia in the mother and/or elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the foetus, and these conditions have been found to be related to mild and subclinical cognitive and psychomotor deficits in neonates, infants and children. The consequences depend upon the timing and severity of the hypothyroxinaemia. However, it needs to be noted that it is difficult to establish a direct link between maternal iodine deficiency and maternal hypothyroxinaemia, as well as between maternal iodine deficiency and elevated neonatal TSH levels at birth. Finally, some studies suggest that iodine supplementation from the first trimester until the end of pregnancy may decrease the risk of cognitive and psychomotor developmental delay in the offspring. PMID:23395294

Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Tafforeau, Jean; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

2013-07-01

396

Physical exercise during pregnancy improves object recognition memory in adult offspring.  

PubMed

Exercising during pregnancy has been shown to improve spatial learning and short-term memory, as well as increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels and hippocampal cell survival in juvenile offspring. However, it remains unknown if these effects endure into adulthood. In addition, few studies have considered how maternal exercise can impact cognitive functions that do not rely on the hippocampus. To address these issues, the present study tested the effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on object recognition memory, which relies on the perirhinal cortex (PER), in adult offspring. Pregnant rats were given access to a running wheel throughout gestation and the adult male offspring were subsequently tested in an object recognition memory task at three different time points, each spaced 2-weeks apart, beginning at 60 days of age. At each time point, offspring from exercising mothers were able to successfully discriminate between novel and familiar objects in that they spent more time exploring the novel object than the familiar object. The offspring of non-exercising mothers were not able to successfully discriminate between objects and spent an equal amount of time with both objects. A subset of rats was euthanized 1h after the final object recognition test to assess c-FOS expression in the PER. The offspring of exercising mothers had more c-FOS expression in the PER than the offspring of non-exercising mothers. By comparison, c-FOS levels in the adjacent auditory cortex did not differ between groups. These results indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy can improve object recognition memory in adult male offspring and increase c-FOS expression in the PER; suggesting that exercise during the gestational period may enhance brain function of the offspring. PMID:24157927

Robinson, A M; Bucci, D J

2014-01-01

397

Preparing Offspring for a Dangerous World: Potential Costs of Being Wrong  

PubMed Central

Adaptive maternal responses to stressful environments before young are born can follow two non-exclusive pathways: either the mother reduces current investment in favor of future investment, or influences offspring growth and development in order to fit offspring phenotype to the stressful environment. Inducing such developmental cues, however, may be risky if the environment changes meanwhile, resulting in maladapted offspring. Here we test the effects of a predator-induced maternal effect in a predator-free postnatal environment. We manipulated perceived predation-risk for breeding female great tits by exposing them to stuffed models of either a predatory bird or a non-predatory control. Offspring were raised either in an environment matching the maternal one by exchanging whole broods within a maternal treatment group, or in a mismatching environment by exchanging broods among the maternal treatments. Offspring growth depended on the matching of the two environments. While for offspring originating from control treated mothers environmental mismatch did not significantly change growth, offspring of mothers under increased perceived predation risk grew faster and larger in matching conditions. Offspring of predator treated mothers fledged about one day later when growing under mismatching conditions. This suggests costs paid by the offspring if mothers predict environmental conditions wrongly.

Coslovsky, Michael; Richner, Heinz

2012-01-01

398

Increased de novo copy number variants in the offspring of older males  

PubMed Central

The offspring of older fathers have an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. In light of the evidence implicating copy number variants (CNVs) with schizophrenia and autism, we used a mouse model to explore the hypothesis that the offspring of older males have an increased risk of de novo CNVs. C57BL/6J sires that were 3- and 12–16-months old were mated with 3-month-old dams to create control offspring and offspring of old sires, respectively. Applying genome-wide microarray screening technology, 7 distinct CNVs were identified in a set of 12 offspring and their parents. Competitive quantitative PCR confirmed these CNVs in the original set and also established their frequency in an independent set of 77 offspring and their parents. On the basis of the combined samples, six de novo CNVs were detected in the offspring of older sires, whereas none were detected in the control group. Two of the CNVs were associated with behavioral and/or neuroanatomical phenotypic features. One of the de novo CNVs involved Auts2 (autism susceptibility candidate 2), and other CNVs included genes linked to schizophrenia, autism and brain development. This is the first experimental demonstration that the offspring of older males have an increased risk of de novo CNVs. Our results support the hypothesis that the offspring of older fathers have an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism by generation of de novo CNVs in the male germline.

Flatscher-Bader, T; Foldi, C J; Chong, S; Whitelaw, E; Moser, R J; Burne, T H J; Eyles, D W; McGrath, J J

2011-01-01

399

Selective organ specific inflammation in offspring harbouring microchimerism from strongly alloreactive mothers.  

PubMed

The origins of autoimmunity are not yet understood despite significant advances in immunology. The trafficking of maternal cells to the offspring represents the very first immunological event in foetal life and is reinforced during lactation. The persistence of maternal cells in offspring's tissues and circulation has been associated with several autoimmune disorders. However a direct causal effect has never been demonstrated. Maternal T cells specifically targeting foetal insulin producing cells have been shown to generate islet inflammation without directly participating in this process. Our objective was to evaluate if alloreactive maternal cells could directly trigger a graft-versus host like reaction or indirectly influence the development of the offspring's regulatory T cells favouring autoimmunity. We adopted a breeding strategy comparing genetically identical offspring from either strongly alloreactive transgenic mothers compared to immunodeficient mothers. We detected maternal alloreactive T cells in the offspring and early signs of inflammation in small intestine of 6 weeks old offspring. Interestingly, CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell frequency was diminished in mesenteric lymph nodes from eight months old offspring born of alloreactive mothers compared to offspring of immunodeficient mothers. Our study favours a hypothesis where highly alloreactive maternal cell microchimerism indirectly predisposes offspring to autoimmunity. PMID:24268809

Leveque, Lucie; Hodgson, Samantha; Peyton, Stephen; Koyama, Motoko; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

2014-05-01

400

Gestational Chronodisruption Impairs Hippocampal Expression of NMDA Receptor Subunits Grin1b/Grin3a and Spatial Memory in the Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological and experimental evidence correlates adverse intrauterine conditions with the onset of disease later in life. For a fetus to achieve a successful transition to extrauterine life, a myriad of temporally integrated humoral/biophysical signals must be accurately provided by the mother. We and others have shown the existence of daily rhythms in the fetus, with peripheral clocks being entrained by maternal cues, such as transplacental melatonin signaling. Among developing tissues, the fetal hippocampus is a key structure for learning and memory processing that may be anticipated as a sensitive target of gestational chronodisruption. Here, we used pregnant rats exposed to constant light treated with or without melatonin as a model of gestational chronodisruption, to investigate effects on the putative fetal hippocampus clock, as well as on adult offspring’s rhythms, endocrine and spatial memory outcomes. The hippocampus of fetuses gestated under light:dark photoperiod (12:12 LD) displayed daily oscillatory expression of the clock genes Bmal1 and Per2, clock-controlled genes Mtnr1b, Slc2a4, Nr3c1 and NMDA receptor subunits 1B-3A-3B. In contrast, in the hippocampus of fetuses gestated under constant light (LL), these oscillations were suppressed. In the adult LL offspring (reared in LD during postpartum), we observed complete lack of day/night differences in plasma melatonin and decreased day/night differences in plasma corticosterone. In the adult LL offspring, overall hippocampal day/night difference of gene expression was decreased, which was accompanied by a significant deficit of spatial memory. Notably, maternal melatonin replacement to dams subjected to gestational chronodisruption prevented the effects observed in both, LL fetuses and adult LL offspring. Collectively, the present data point to adverse effects of gestational chronodisruption on long-term cognitive function; raising challenging questions about the consequences of shift work during pregnancy. The present study also supports that developmental plasticity in response to photoperiodic cues may be modulated by maternal melatonin.

Vilches, Nelson; Spichiger, Carlos; Mendez, Natalia; Abarzua-Catalan, Lorena; Galdames, Hugo A.; Hazlerigg, David G.; Richter, Hans G.; Torres-Farfan, Claudia

2014-01-01

401

The effect of brief neonatal cryoanesthesia on physical development and adult cognitive function in mice.  

PubMed

Deep hypothermia (cryoanesthesia) is often used as general anesthesia during surgery in neonatal rodents. Neonatal cryoanesthesia has been used recently to generate somatic brain transgenic (SBT) mouse models via intracerebral ventricular injection of rAAV vectors into both non-transgenic mice and numerous transgenic mouse models. Since, the evaluation of cognition is one of the main experimental endpoints in many of these studies, we examined the consequences of brief neonatal cryoanesthesia on the physical development and mnemonic function of adult mice. Two groups of 129FVBF1 pups from reciprocal breeding crosses underwent cryoanesthesia for 6 min (Cryo6) or 12 min (Cryo12), respectively, within the first hours (<12h) of postnatal life. A group of pups separated from the nest and kept in ambient temperature of 33 °C for 6 min served as a control. Our results revealed that lowering the temperature of pups to ~8 °C (Cryo6) or ~5 °C (Cryo12) did not affect their body weight at pre-weaning stage and in the adulthood. The evaluation of cognitive function in adult mice revealed strong and comparable to control spatial reference, and context and tone fear memories of neonatally cryoanesthetized mice. Also, the experimental and control groups had comparable brain weight at the end of the study. Our results demonstrate that neonatal cryoanesthesia, lasting up to 12 min, has no adverse effects on the body weight of mice during development, and on their cognition in the adulthood. PMID:24239696

Janus, Christopher; Golde, Todd

2014-02-01

402

Parents' Education, Mothers' Vocabulary, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Evidence From Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Objectives. I estimated the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and early child cognitive development in a sample of poor children in rural Ecuador. Methods. I used regression analysis to estimate the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and the vocabulary, memory, and visual integration skills of children at early ages, controlling for possible confounders. The study is based on a longitudinal cohort of children in rural Ecuador (n = 2118). Results. The schooling and vocabulary levels of mothers were strong predictors of the cognitive development of young children. Household wealth and child's height, weight, and hemoglobin levels explained only a modest fraction of the observed associations. The vocabulary levels of mothers and children were more strongly correlated among older children in the sample, suggesting that the effects of a richer maternal vocabulary are cumulative. Conclusions. Differences in children's cognitive outcomes start very early, which has important implications for the intergenerational transmission of poverty and inequality. Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children, perhaps through parenting programs or high-quality center-based care, hold promise.

2011-01-01

403

Invariance of cognitive triage in the development of recall in adulthood.  

PubMed

Past research has demonstrated that cognitive triage (weak-strong-weak recall pattern) is a robust effect that optimises children's recall. The aim of the current research was to determine whether adults' free recall also exhibits triage and whether cognitive triage is less marked with older than younger adults' recall. Younger and older adults memorized 16 unrelated words until all items were recalled perfectly. The triage pattern existed for both the younger and older adults' recall and there was evidence for age differences in triage. Our results are consistent with claims of greater verbatim forgetting and increased susceptibility to output interference with age in adulthood. Further research is needed to determine whether fuzzy-trace theory adequately explains the ageing of triage and what factors play a role in the development of this pattern of recall in adulthood. PMID:19468958

Marche, Tammy A; Howe, Mark L; Lane, David G; Owre, Keith P; Briere, Jennifer L

2009-07-01

404

Insulin resistance in offspring of hypertensive parents.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine if insulin resistance is present in normotensive adults at increased risk of developing hypertension. DESIGN--Normotensive subjects with at least one hypertensive parent were paired with offspring of normotensive parents (controls), being matched for age, sex, social class, and physical activity. SETTING--Outpatient clinic. SUBJECTS--30 paired subjects (16 men and 14 women) with and without a family history of hypertension, aged 18-32, with a body mass index < 25 kg/m2, with blood pressure < 130/85 mm Hg, and not taking drugs. INTERVENTIONS--Euglycaemic glucose clamp (two hour infusion of insulin 1 mU/kg/min) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (injection of 100 ml 20% glucose). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Insulin mediated glucose disposal and insulin secretion. RESULTS--The offspring of hypertensive parents had slightly higher blood pressure than did the controls (mean 117 (SD 6) v 108 (5) mm Hg systolic, p = 0.013; 76 (7) v 67 (6) mm Hg diastolic, p = 0.017). Their insulin mediated glucose disposal was lower than that of controls (29.5 (6.5) v 40.1 (8.6) mumol/kg/min, p = 0.002), but, after adjustment for blood pressure, the difference was not significant (difference 6.9 (95% confidence interval -1.5 to 15.3), p = 0.10). Insulin secretion in the first hour after injection of glucose was slightly but not significantly higher in the offspring of hypertensive patients (9320 (5484) v 6723 (3751) pmol.min/l). The two groups had similar concentrations of plasma glucose (5.2 (0.3) v 5.1 (0.4) mmol/l), serum cholesterol (4.4 (0.8) v 4.6 (0.8) mmol/l), serum triglyceride (0.89 (0.52) v 0.68 (0.27) mmol/l), and serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.81 (0.65) v 2.79 (0.61) mmol/l). The offspring of hypertensive parents, however, had lower serum concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.24 (0.31) v 1.56 (0.35) mmol/l, p = 0.002) and higher serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (0.7 (0.4) v 0.4 (0.4) mmol/l, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS--Young normotensive subjects who are at increased risk of developing hypertension are insulin resistant.

Beatty, O L; Harper, R; Sheridan, B; Atkinson, A B; Bell, P M

1993-01-01

405

Maternal smoking during pregnancy induces airway remodelling in mice offspring.  

PubMed

Children from smoking mothers have an increased risk of developing asthma for reasons largely unknown. The effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on remodelling, allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in offspring were investigated in an experimental asthma model. Mice were exposed to fresh air or cigarette smoke from 3 weeks prior to conception until birth. Offspring were exposed to house dust mite (HDM) or PBS intranasally four times per week from week 5 to week 10 after birth onwards. Maternal smoking increased airway smooth muscle layer, collagen III deposition and HDM-induced goblet cell numbers in offspring. It additionally increased methacholine responsiveness, which correlated significantly with increased airway smooth muscle layer and collagen deposition. Maternal smoking increased HDM-induced numbers of neutrophils and mast cells in lung tissue. No further effects were observed. Smoking during pregnancy induces airway remodelling in mice offspring, which may contribute to increased methacholine responsiveness. This takes place irrespective of allergen exposure but may worsen the outcome of the allergic stimulus, resulting in higher methacholine responsiveness in house dust mite-exposed offspring from smoking mothers when compared to nonsmoking mothers. The results provide a possible mechanism behind the association between maternal smoking and asthma. PMID:19129273

Blacquière, M J; Timens, W; Melgert, B N; Geerlings, M; Postma, D S; Hylkema, M N

2009-05-01

406

Parental dietary fat intake alters offspring microbiome and immunity.  

PubMed

Mechanisms underlying modern increases in prevalence of human inflammatory diseases remain unclear. The hygiene hypothesis postulates that decreased microbial exposure has, in part, driven this immune dysregulation. However, dietary fatty acids also influence immunity, partially through modulation of responses to microbes. Prior reports have described the direct effects of high-fat diets on the gut microbiome and inflammation, and some have additionally shown metabolic consequences for offspring. Our study sought to expand on these previous observations to identify the effects of parental diet on offspring immunity using mouse models to provide insights into challenging aspects of human health. To test the hypothesis that parental dietary fat consumption during gestation and lactation influences offspring immunity, we compared pups of mice fed either a Western diet (WD) fatty acid profile or a standard low-fat diet. All pups were weaned onto the control diet to specifically test the effects of early developmental fat exposure on immune development. Pups from WD breeders were not obese or diabetic, but still had worse outcomes in models of infection, autoimmunity, and allergic sensitization. They had heightened colonic inflammatory responses, with increased circulating bacterial LPS and muted systemic LPS responsiveness. These deleterious impacts of the WD were associated with alterations of the offspring gut microbiome. These results indicate that parental fat consumption can leave a "lard legacy" impacting offspring immunity and suggest inheritable microbiota may contribute to the modern patterns of human health and disease. PMID:23935191

Myles, Ian A; Fontecilla, Natalia M; Janelsins, Brian M; Vithayathil, Paul J; Segre, Julia A; Datta, Sandip K

2013-09-15

407

The development of cognitive flexibility beyond the preschool period: An investigation using a modified Flexible Item Selection Task.  

PubMed

We explored the development of cognitive flexibility in typically developing 6-, 8-, and 10-year-olds and adults by modifying a common cognitive flexibility task, the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST). Although performance on the standard FIST reached ceiling by 8years, FIST performance on other variations continued to improve until 10years of age. Within a detailed task analysis, we also explored working memory storage and processing components of executive function and how these contribute to the development of cognitive flexibility. The findings reinforce the notion that cognitive flexibility is a multifaceted construct but that the development of working memory contributes in part to age-related change in this ability. PMID:24814204

Dick, Anthony Steven

2014-09-01

408

Low Cortisol and Risk for PTSD in Adult Offspring of Holocaust Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study examined the asso- ciation between cortisol and putative risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of subjects at in- creased risk for the development of PTSD. Method: Twenty-four-hour urinary corti- sol excretion was measured in 35 adult offspring of Holocaust survivors and 15 healthy comparison subjects who were not offspring of Holocaust survivors. Sub-

Rachel Yehuda; Linda M. Bierer; James Schmeidler; Daniel H. Aferiat; M. S. W. Ilana Breslau; Susan Dolan

2000-01-01

409

Impact of maternal prenatal stress on growth of the offspring.  

PubMed

Unperturbed fetal development is essential for future health of an individual. Previous studies have linked diseases of aging to harmful alterations that happen during fetal development. Given the significant long-term impact that intrauterine environment has on an individual's life, it was hypothesized that maternal stress during pregnancy will have negative effects on the offspring's prenatal and postnatal growth. To test this, twenty-eight female and seven male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were purchased and bred to produce 176 offspring. During pregnancy, dams were randomly divided into four groups (n=7, per group) and immobilization stress induced as follows; Group 1 (GW1): immobilization stress on days 1-7 of pregnancy, Group 2 (GW2): on days 8-14, Group 3 (GW3): on days 15-21, Group 4 (Controls): left undisturbed. Maternal cortisol hormone, food intake, and weight gain were monitored during pregnancy. Pups were raised under normal laboratory conditions and sacrificed at ages: 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks to determine the effect of prenatal stress. At necropsy, the tibia was removed and processed for histology. Differences among groups were determined by T-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Linear regression analysis was performed to establish the relationship between stress in utero and indicators of bone development in offspring. P values ? 0.05 were considered significant. Cortisol hormone levels in controls were lower than those of stressed animals. Stressed dams consumed 12.5% less food per day compared to controls. Animals in GW1 and GW2 gained less weight during pregnancy but had larger litters than did GW3 or the control group. Offspring born to GW3 were heavier compared to all other groups. GW3 offspring had a higher rate of bone formation. In conclusion, stress during pregnancy resulted in increased cortisol and reduced food intake in mothers, but faster growth and higher weight gain in offspring compared to controls. PMID:24490112

Amugongo, Sarah K; Hlusko, Leslea J

2014-02-01

410

Reward learning as a potential target for pharmacological augmentation of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: a roadmap for preclinical development  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Impaired cognitive abilities are a key characteristic of schizophrenia. Although currently approved pharmacological treatments have demonstrated efficacy for positive symptoms, to date no pharmacological treatments successfully reverse cognitive dysfunction in these patients. Cognitively-based interventions such as cognitive remediation (CR) and other psychosocial interventions however, may improve some of the cognitive and functional deficits of schizophrenia. Given that these treatments are time-consuming and labor-intensive, maximizing their effectiveness is a priority. Augmenting psychosocial interventions with pharmacological treatments may be a viable strategy for reducing the impact of cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Objective: We propose a strategy to develop pharmacological treatments that can enhance the reward-related learning processes underlying successful skill-learning in psychosocial interventions. Specifically, we review clinical and preclinical evidence and paradigms that can be utilized to develop these pharmacological augmentation strategies. Prototypes for this approach include dopamine D1 receptor and ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists as attractive targets to specifically enhance reward-related learning during CR. Conclusion: The approach outlined here could be used broadly to develop pharmacological augmentation strategies across a number of cognitive domains underlying successful psychosocial treatment.

Acheson, Dean T.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Young, Jared W.

2013-01-01

411

Building the infrastructure: the effects of role identification behaviors on team cognition development and performance.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this study was to extend theory and research regarding the emergence of mental models and transactive memory in teams. Utilizing Kozlowski, Gully, Nason, and Smith's (1999) model of team compilation, we examined the effect of role identification behaviors and posited that such behaviors represent the initial building blocks of team cognition during the role compilation phase of team development. We then hypothesized that team mental models and transactive memory would convey the effects of these behaviors onto team performance in the team compilation phase of development. Results from 60 teams working on a command-and-control simulation supported our hypotheses. PMID:20085416

Pearsall, Matthew J; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Bell, Bradford S

2010-01-01

412

Cognitive, emotional and social development in adolescents born to substance using women.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to investigate the long-term developmental consequences of being born to a substance-using mother, focusing on cognitive functions, attention, emotional and social development. The longitudinal sample comprised 48 adolescents aged 12-16 at the time of follow-up assessments, which included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children, The Tower of London test and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The adolescents scored significantly lower than the norms on Wechsler's subtests and Full-Scale IQ, and on The Everyday Attention test. There were few differences on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The girls reported significantly more hyperactivity than the British norms, and the teachers reported higher impact scores in boys, compared to the British norms. Thus, the results on cognitive consequences of maternal substance use appear to be very substantial while the emotional and social consequences do not. The results suggest serious negative effects of substance exposure in utero on attention and cognitive functioning in general. PMID:24828950

Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Nielsen, Tine; Vedal, Sissel; Olofsson, May

2014-08-01

413

Developing predictive animal models and establishing a preclinical trials network for assessing treatment effects on cognition in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Animal models are an essential initial phase in the discovery of novel drugs to treat psychiatric disorders. At the sixth Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia conference, "New Approaches to Assessing and Improving Cognition in Schizophrenia," a discussion group was formed to address issues related to the development of predictive animal models of cognition that may be used as preclinical assays for putative cognitive enhancers. We identified 2 complementary approaches used to model cognitive impairments in animals. First, basic lesion/pharmacological models provide information about the particular neural substrates that may underlie different types of cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia. Findings from these studies can be mapped onto the second, more elaborate and etiologically relevant neurodevelopmental models of the disorder to ascertain which cognitive systems may be altered by early developmental insults. Particular attention must be given to the types of animal tasks used, in order to relate directly to the cognitive domains that are affected in schizophrenia patients. Importantly, the validation and standardization of the methodologies used in these preclinical assays would require the establishment of a preclinical trials network, serving as a counterpart to the recently established Treatment Units for Research on Neurocognition and Schizophrenia. The need to validate specific approaches to assess cognitive functions relevant to schizophrenia could be satisfied by a concerted effort enabled by a new funding directive from the National Institute of Mental Health with the explicit purpose of facilitating research on these models and assessing novel drug therapies that may be used to ameliorate the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:16079387

Floresco, Stan B; Geyer, Mark A; Gold, Lisa H; Grace, Anthony A

2005-10-01

414

Paternal ethanol exposure and behavioral abnormities in offspring: Associated alterations in imprinted gene methylation.  

PubMed

Research confirms that maternal ethanol (EtOH) exposure can induce physical and mental disorders in offspring, yet the effect of paternal ethanol exposure on offspring is unclear. Methylation alterations in imprinted genes may be related to the well-documented teratogenic effects of ethanol. Here, we report that ethanol (0, 1.1, 3.3 g/kg) was administered intragastrically to male mice and a behavioral study was performed on their F1 generation. Data show that F1 mice with fathers exposed to the highest dose of ethanol had delayed cognitive performance and increased anxiety and depression. A specific circling behavior was observed in the offspring of the paternally ethanol-exposed group. The degree of methylation and mRNA expression of H19, Peg3, Ndn and Snrpn were assessed in paternal sperm and in the cerebral cortices of each offspring. It did affect methylation in paternal sperm (H19 and Peg3) and in the offspring's cerebral cortices (CpG7 and CpG11 in Peg3 and Snrpn), but the level of mRNA expression has not changed. In the circling mice, the highest ethanol exposure increase in methylation (CpG 1, 2, 7 and 11) and decreases in mRNA of Peg3.Thus, chronic paternal ethanol exposure can affect the methylation of imprinted genes in sire sperm that may be passed on to offspring, giving rise to mental deficits. PMID:24486713

Liang, Fei; Diao, Lei; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Huijun; Zhou, Wenhao; Huang, Guoying; Ma, Duan

2014-06-01

415

[Birth weight and later nutritional status, cognitive development and job status: a critical revision].  

PubMed

The impact of prenatal nutritional status, assessed through birth weight (BW) and their effects in the short, medium and long-term on nutritional status, cognitive development and job status in the adult life, has been a problem of interest for several researchers; as regards, some of these report a positive and significant association between these variables and others do not find any relation. Children with insufficient, low or very low BW despite the early more deteriorate nutritional status should present higher risk for brain maturation, failure cognitive development and lowered head circumference which implies both lowered brain volume and intellectual development. In the short and medium-term, this situation damages the learning process at school-age, while in the long-term this might condition the quality of jobs. At present, the body of knowledge pinpoints that findings related to these associations is not conclusive verifying a great controversy in these matters. This review article has the purpose of analyzing the current evidence, in order to stimulate research about to these aspects which are relevant for child development and their future life. PMID:20677450

Villegas, S; Ivanovic, R; Pérez, H; Almagià, A; Urrutia, M S; Rodríguez, M del P; Larrain, C; Ivanovic, D

2009-12-01

416

Breast milk and cognitive development--the role of confounders: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The association between breastfeeding and child cognitive development is conflicted by studies reporting positive and null effects. This relationship may be confounded by factors associated with breastfeeding, specifically maternal socioeconomic class and IQ. Design Systematic review of the literature. Setting and participants Any prospective or retrospective study, in any language, evaluating the association between breastfeeding and cognitive development using a validated method in healthy term infants, children or adults, was included. Primary and secondary outcome measures Extracted data included the study design, target population and sample size, breastfeeding exposure, cognitive development assessment tool used and participants’ age, summary of the results prior to, and following, adjustment for confounders, and all confounders adjusted for. Study quality was assessed as well. Results 84 studies met our inclusion criteria (34 rated as high quality, 26 moderate and 24 low quality). Critical assessment of accepted studies revealed the following associations: 21 null, 28 positive, 18 null after adjusting for confounders and 17 positive—diminished after adjusting for confounders. Directionality of effect did not correlate with study quality; however, studies showing a decreased effect after multivariate analysis were of superior quality compared with other study groupings (14/17 high quality, 82%). Further, studies that showed null or diminished effect after multivariate analysis corrected for significantly more confounders (7.7±3.4) as compared with those that found no change following adjustment (5.6±4.5, p=0.04). The majority of included studies were carried out during childhood (75%) and set in high-income countries (85.5%). Conclusions Much of the reported effect of breastfeeding on child neurodevelopment is due to confounding. It is unlikely that additional work will change the current synthesis. Future studies should attempt to rigorously control for all important confounders. Alternatively, study designs using sibling cohorts discordant for breastfeeding may yield more robust conclusions.

Walfisch, Asnat; Sermer, Corey; Cressman, Alex; Koren, Gideon

2013-01-01

417

Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization (WHO) recently increased their recommended iodine intake during pregnancy from 200 to 250 microg/d and suggested that a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 150-249 microg/L indicates adequate iodine intake in pregnant women. Thyrotropin concentrations in blood collected from newborns 3-4 d after birth may be a sensitive indicator of even mild iodine deficiency during late pregnancy; a <3% frequency of thyrotropin values >5 mU/L indicates iodine sufficiency. New reference data and a simple collection system may facilitate use of the median UI concentration as an indicator of iodine status in newborns. In areas of severe iodine deficiency, maternal and fetal hypothyroxinemia can cause cretinism and adversely affect cognitive development in children; to prevent fetal damage, iodine should be given before or early in pregnancy. Whether mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency produces more subtle changes in cognitive function in offspring is unclear; no controlled intervention studies have measured long-term clinical outcomes. Cross-sectional studies have, with few exceptions, reported impaired intellectual function and motor skills in children from iodine-deficient areas, but many of these studies were likely confounded by other factors that affect child development. In countries or regions where <90% of households are using iodized salt and the median UI concentration in school-age children is <100 microg/L, the WHO recommends iodine supplementation in pregnancy and infancy. PMID:19088150

Zimmermann, Michael B

2009-02-01

418

Cancer in the offspring of parents with lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite several studies on the role of passive smoking in the development of childhood cancer, particularly leukaemia, lymphomas and brain cancer, no definitive answer has yet been provided. The aim of the cohort study reported here was to analyse the incidence of cancer in the offspring of young lung cancer patients on the basis of the assumption that all of

N Seersholm; H Hertz; J. H Olsen

1997-01-01

419

Development of Mentalizing and Communication: From Viewpoint of Developmental Cybernetics and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to mentalize is essential for human socialization. Such ability is strongly related to communication. In this paper, I discuss the development of mentalizing and communication from the perspectives of a new idea, Developmental Cybernetics, and developmental cognitive neuroscience. Children only attributed intention to a robot when they saw it behaving as a human and displaying social signals such as eye gaze. The emergence of powerful new methods and tools, such as neuroimaging, now allows questions about mentalizing to resolved more directly than before.

Itakura, Shoji

420

Microduplication of 3p26.3 Implicated in Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

We report here a 34-month-old boy with global developmental delay referred for molecular karyotyping and fragile X studies. Molecular karyotype analysis revealed a microduplication in the 3p26.3 region involving part of the CHL1 and CNTN6 genes. Several deletions, one translocation, and one duplication have previously been described in this region of chromosome 3. The CHL1 gene has been proposed as a dosage-sensitive gene with a central role in cognitive development, and so the microduplication reported here appears to be implicated in our patient's phenotype.

Te Weehi, Leah; Maikoo, Raj; Mc Cormack, Adrian; Mazzaschi, Roberto; Ashton, Fern; Zhang, Liangtao; George, Alice M.; Love, Donald R.

2014-01-01

421

Maternal high fat diet consumption during the perinatal period programs offspring behavior.  

PubMed

The environment that a developing offspring experiences during the perinatal period is markedly influenced by maternal health and diet composition. Evidence from both epidemiological studies and animal models indicates that maternal diet and metabolic status play a critical role in programming the neural circuitry that regulates behavior, resulting in long-term consequences for offspring behavior. Maternal diet and metabolic state influence the behavior of offspring directly by impacting the intrauterine environment and indirectly by modulating maternal behavior. The mechanisms by which maternal diet and metabolic profile shape the perinatal environment remain largely unknown, but recent research has found that increases in inflammatory cytokines, nutrients (glucose and fatty acids), and hormones (insulin and leptin) affect the environment of the developing offspring. Offspring exposed to maternal obesity and high fat diet consumption during development are more susceptible to developing mental health and behavioral disorders such as anxiety, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. Recent evidence suggests that this increased risk for behavioral disorders is driven by modifications in the development of neural pathways involved in behavioral regulation. In particular, research indicates that the development of the serotonergic system is impacted by exposure to maternal obesity and high fat diet consumption, and this disruption may underlie many of the behavioral disturbances observed in these offspring. Given the high rates of obesity and high fat diet consumption in pregnant women, it is vital to examine the influence that maternal nutrition and metabolic profile have on the developing offspring. PMID:23085399

Sullivan, Elinor L; Nousen, Elizabeth K; Chamlou, Katherine A

2014-01-17

422

Cognitive characteristics of patients with borderline personality disorder: Development and validation of a self-report inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on cognitive concepts of personality disorders as well as on the bio-social model of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a 34-item instrument, the questionnaire of thoughts and feelings (QTF) was developed for the assessment of feelings, strategic cognitions, and assumptions characteristic for BPD. In different studies, item- and factor analyses were conducted with a dataset of N=646 clinical and non-clinical

Babette Renneberg; Claudia Schmidt-Rathjens; Robert Hippin; Matthias Backenstrass; Thomas Fydrich

2005-01-01

423

Anticipatory guidance for cognitive and social-emotional development: Birth to five years  

PubMed Central

The present article serves as a quick office reference for clinicians, providing anticipatory guidance about the cognitive and social-emotional development of newborns, and children up to five years of age. The present review links recommendations to specific evidence in the medical literature, citing sources of developmental standards and advice, so that these may be further explored if desired. Practising primary care providers have indicated that these are areas of child development that are not well addressed by training and other available resources. The present article includes parenting information on important clinical presentations with which clinicians may be less familiar, such as promoting attachment, prosocial behaviours, healthy sleep habits, self-discipline and problem-solving; as well as on managing behaviours that are part of normal development, such as separation anxiety, tantrums, aggression, picky eating and specific fears. Information on the development of language, literacy and socialization are also included.

Dosman, Cara; Andrews, Debbi

2012-01-01

424

Neuronal Activity-Regulated Gene Transcription in Synapse Development and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Activity-dependent plasticity of vertebrate neurons allows the brain to respond to its environment. During brain development, both spontaneous and sensory-driven neural activity are essential for instructively guiding the process of synapse development. These effects of neuronal activity are transduced in part through the concerted regulation of a set of activity-dependent transcription factors that coordinate a program of gene expression required for the formation and maturation of synapses. Here we review the cellular signaling networks that regulate the activity of transcription factors during brain development and discuss the functional roles of specific activity-regulated transcription factors in specific stages of synapse formation, refinement, and maturation. Interestingly, a number of neurodevelopmental disorders have been linked to abnormalities in activity-regulated transcriptional pathways, indicating that these signaling networks are critical for cognitive development and function.

West, Anne E.; Greenberg, Michael E.

2011-01-01

425

The role of Nox2-derived ROS in the development of cognitive impairment after sepsis  

PubMed Central

Background Sepsis- associated encephalopathy (SAE) is an early and common feature of severe infections. Oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of SAE. The goal of this study was to investigate the involvement of NADPH oxidase in neuroinflammation and in the long-term cognitive impairment of sepsis survivors. Methods Sepsis was induced in WT and gp91phox knockout mice (gp91phox-/-) by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce fecal peritonitis. We measured oxidative stress, Nox2 and Nox4 gene expression and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus at six hours, twenty-four hours and five days post-sepsis. Mice were also tr