Science.gov

Sample records for og indberetning ved

  1. Life and consciousness - The Vedāntic view.

    PubMed

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2015-01-01

    In the past, philosophers, scientists, and even the general opinion, had no problem in accepting the existence of consciousness in the same way as the existence of the physical world. After the advent of Newtonian mechanics, science embraced a complete materialistic conception about reality. Scientists started proposing hypotheses like abiogenesis (origin of first life from accumulation of atoms and molecules) and the Big Bang theory (the explosion theory for explaining the origin of universe). How the universe came to be what it is now is a key philosophical question. The hypothesis that it came from Nothing (as proposed by Stephen Hawking, among others), proves to be dissembling, since the quantum vacuum can hardly be considered a void. In modern science, it is generally assumed that matter existed before the universe came to be. Modern science hypothesizes that the manifestation of life on Earth is nothing but a mere increment in the complexity of matter - and hence is an outcome of evolution of matter (chemical evolution) following the Big Bang. After the manifestation of life, modern science believed that chemical evolution transformed itself into biological evolution, which then had caused the entire biodiversity on our planet. The ontological view of the organism as a complex machine presumes life as just a chance occurrence, without any inner purpose. This approach in science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness in its attempt to know the world as the relationships among forces, atoms, and molecules. On the other hand, the Vedāntic view states that the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute (unconditioned). Thus, sentient life is primitive and reproductive of itself - omne vivum ex vivo - life comes from life. This is the scientifically verified law of experience. Life is essentially cognitive and conscious. And, consciousness, which is fundamental, manifests itself in the gradational forms of all

  2. Life and consciousness – The Vedāntic view

    PubMed Central

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2015-01-01

    In the past, philosophers, scientists, and even the general opinion, had no problem in accepting the existence of consciousness in the same way as the existence of the physical world. After the advent of Newtonian mechanics, science embraced a complete materialistic conception about reality. Scientists started proposing hypotheses like abiogenesis (origin of first life from accumulation of atoms and molecules) and the Big Bang theory (the explosion theory for explaining the origin of universe). How the universe came to be what it is now is a key philosophical question. The hypothesis that it came from Nothing (as proposed by Stephen Hawking, among others), proves to be dissembling, since the quantum vacuum can hardly be considered a void. In modern science, it is generally assumed that matter existed before the universe came to be. Modern science hypothesizes that the manifestation of life on Earth is nothing but a mere increment in the complexity of matter — and hence is an outcome of evolution of matter (chemical evolution) following the Big Bang. After the manifestation of life, modern science believed that chemical evolution transformed itself into biological evolution, which then had caused the entire biodiversity on our planet. The ontological view of the organism as a complex machine presumes life as just a chance occurrence, without any inner purpose. This approach in science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness in its attempt to know the world as the relationships among forces, atoms, and molecules. On the other hand, the Vedāntic view states that the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute (unconditioned). Thus, sentient life is primitive and reproductive of itself – omne vivum ex vivo – life comes from life. This is the scientifically verified law of experience. Life is essentially cognitive and conscious. And, consciousness, which is fundamental, manifests itself in the gradational forms of all

  3. A Content Analysis of the VEDS Data Collection and Reporting Procedures Used by the 57 State Boards for Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Rocco P.

    Congress, using Public Law 94-482 entitled Education Amendments of 1976, instructed the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) to develop, implement, and operate the Vocational Education Data System (VEDS). As mandated by legislation, the primary purpose of VEDS is to provide a national reporting system to generate uniform data from the…

  4. ABC and VED Analysis of the Pharmacy Store of a Tertiary Care Teaching, Research and Referral Healthcare Institute of India.

    PubMed

    Devnani, M; Gupta, Ak; Nigah, R

    2010-04-01

    The ABC and VED (vital, essential, desirable) analysis of the pharmacy store of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, was conducted to identify the categories of items needing stringent management control. The annual consumption and expenditure incurred on each item of pharmacy for the year 2007-08 was analyzed and inventory control techniques, i.e. ABC, VED and ABC-VED matrix analysis, were applied. The drug formulary of the pharmacy consisted of 421 items. The total annual drug expenditure (ADE) on items issued in 2007-08 was Rs. 40,012,612. ABC analysis revealed 13.78%, 21.85% and 64.37% items as A, B and C category items, respectively, accounting for 69.97%, 19.95% and 10.08% of ADE of the pharmacy. VED analysis showed 12.11%, 59.38% and 28.51% items as V, E, and D category items, respectively, accounting for 17.14%, 72.38% and 10.48% of ADE of the pharmacy. On ABC-VED matrix analysis, 22.09%, 54.63% and 23.28% items were found to be category I, II and III items, respectively, accounting for 74.21%, 22.23% and 3.56% of ADE of the pharmacy. The ABC and VED techniques need to be adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out-of-stock situations in the hospital pharmacy. PMID:21264126

  5. Performance of viscoelastic dampers (VED) under various temperatures and application of magnetorheological dampers (MRD) for seismic control of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Abdul Qadir

    2013-08-01

    A number of studies have been carried out to investigate the performance of viscoelastic dampers (VEDs) and magnetorheological dampers (MRDs) in controlling the seismic response of buildings, but very few of them regarding the effect of temperature on the behavior of those dampers. The energy absorption properties of the VEDs are dependent on the ambient temperature, excitation frequency and strain amplitude. Several mathematical models have been investigated for reproducing the experimental behavior of single degree of freedom VEDs and MEDs. Of these, only the fractional derivative model can reflect the influence of temperature which is, however, so complex that it is difficult to apply in structural analysis. In order to verify the effect of temperature, two case studies of structural element have been conducted: once using VED and once using MRD. Kelvin-Voigt mathematical model applied, they were investigated and after analyzing the results, the force vs. displacement showed that MRD achieved a high force capacity and a better performance than VED. Furthermore, the effect of the temperature in case of VED observed via plotting the dissipated energy hysteresis at different temperatures. These results validate the effect of the temperature as the lower the temperature the more viscous the dashpot element becomes, hence improving damping, but this is up to a specific low temperature.

  6. Terahertz-Regime, Micro-VEDs: Evaluation of Micromachined TWT Conceptual Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booske, John H.; Kory, Carol L.; Gallagher, D.; van der Weide, Daniel W.; Limbach, S; Gustafson, P; Lee, W.-J.; Gallagher, S.; Jain, K.

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. The Terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum (approx.300-3000 GHz) has enormous potential for high-data-rate communications, spectroscopy, astronomy, space research, medicine, biology, surveillance, remote sensing, industrial process control, etc. The most critical roadblock to full exploitation of the THz band is lack of coherent radiation sources that are powerful (0.01-10.0 W continuous wave), efficient (>1 %), frequency agile (instantaneously tunable over 1% bandwidths or more), reliable, and relatively inexpensive. Micro-machined Vacuum Electron Devices (micro-VEDs) represent a promising solution. We describe prospects for miniature, THz-regime TWTs fabricated using micromachining techniques. Several approx.600 GHz conceptual designs are compared. Their expected performance has been analyzed using SD, 2.51), and 3D TWT codes. A folded waveguide (FWG) TWT forward-wave amplifier design is presented based on a Northrop Grumman (NGC) optimized design procedure. This conceptual device is compared to the simulated performance of a novel, micro-VED helix TWT. Conceptual FWG TWT backward-wave amplifiers and oscillators are also discussed. A scaled (100 GHz) FWG TWT operating at a relatively low voltage (-12 kV) is under development at NGC. Also, actual-size micromachining experiments are planned to evaluate the feasibility of arrays of micro-VED TWTs. Progress and results of these efforts are described. This work was supported, in part by AFOSR, ONR, and NSF.

  7. Vedāntic view of life: Reply to Gustavo Caetano-Anollés

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The author would like to thank Professor Gustavo Caetano-Anollés from Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois for his interest in his work. We may sometimes observe that there is a noticeable difference between the anecdote people narrate about the implications of a scientific paper and the real conclusion of the paper. Prof. Gustavo Caetano-Anollés's response1 is an ideal example of the same, where he has tried to make great hay about the implications of the article “Life and consciousness – The Vedāntic view.”2 The Vedāntic view subscribes neither to the views of ‘Creationist Movement’/‘Intelligent Design’, nor it supports some splendid anti-science proposal. Vedāntic view refutes the dominant reductionistic view of life in modern biology by proposing a viable alternative concept of ‘Organic Whole’ and thus serves a scientific critique to the nescience (avidyā) that is practiced on the name of science. PMID:27195069

  8. Vedāntic view of life: Reply to Gustavo Caetano-Anollés.

    PubMed

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2016-01-01

    The author would like to thank Professor Gustavo Caetano-Anollés from Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois for his interest in his work. We may sometimes observe that there is a noticeable difference between the anecdote people narrate about the implications of a scientific paper and the real conclusion of the paper. Prof. Gustavo Caetano-Anollés's response(1) is an ideal example of the same, where he has tried to make great hay about the implications of the article "Life and consciousness - The Vedāntic view."(2) The Vedāntic view subscribes neither to the views of 'Creationist Movement'/'Intelligent Design', nor it supports some splendid anti-science proposal. Vedāntic view refutes the dominant reductionistic view of life in modern biology by proposing a viable alternative concept of 'Organic Whole' and thus serves a scientific critique to the nescience (avidyā) that is practiced on the name of science. PMID:27195069

  9. Feasibility Study of Impact of the Proposed National Vocational Education Data Reporting and Accounting System (VEDS) Forms on Reporting Systems for Secondary Vocational Education in Wisconsin. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlmann, M. M.

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of implementing a reporting system, the National Vocational Education Reporting and Accounting System (VEDS), for secondary vocational education in Wisconsin. As proposed by the National Center for Educational Statistics, the VEDS system is a comprehensive information collection package to provide…

  10. Consciousness, Cognition and the Cognitive Apparatus in the Vedānta Tradition

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, R.

    2011-01-01

    A human being is a complex entity consisting of the Self (also known as Consciousness), mind, senses and the body. The Vedānta tradition holds that the mind, the senses and the body are essentially different from the Self or Consciousness. It is through consciousness that we are able to know the things of the world, making use of the medium of the mind and the senses. Furthermore, the mind, though material, is able to reveal things, borrowing the light from consciousness. From the phenomenological point of view, we have to answer the following questions: how does one know the mind/the mental operations/the cogitations of the mind? Does the mind know itself? Is it possible? There is, again, the problem of the intentionality of consciousness. Is consciousness intentional? According to Vedānta, consciousness by its very nature is not intentional, but it becomes intentional through the mind. The mind or the ego is not part of the consciousness; on the contrary, it is transcendent to consciousness. It is difficult to spell out the relation between consciousness and the mind. How does consciousness, which is totally different from the mind, get related to the mind in such a way that it makes the latter capable of comprehending the things of the world? The Vedānta tradition provides the answer to this question in terms of the knower-known relation. Consciousness is pure light, self-luminous by its very nature, that is, although it reveals other objects, it is not revealed by anything else. When Sartre describes it as nothingness, bereft of even ego, it is to show that it is pure light revealing objects outside it. PMID:21694962

  11. Consciousness, cognition and the cognitive apparatus in the vedānta tradition.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, R

    2011-01-01

    A human being is a complex entity consisting of the Self (also known as Consciousness), mind, senses and the body. The Vedānta tradition holds that the mind, the senses and the body are essentially different from the Self or Consciousness. It is through consciousness that we are able to know the things of the world, making use of the medium of the mind and the senses. Furthermore, the mind, though material, is able to reveal things, borrowing the light from consciousness. From the phenomenological point of view, we have to answer the following questions: how does one know the mind/the mental operations/the cogitations of the mind? Does the mind know itself? Is it possible? There is, again, the problem of the intentionality of consciousness. Is consciousness intentional? According to Vedānta, consciousness by its very nature is not intentional, but it becomes intentional through the mind. The mind or the ego is not part of the consciousness; on the contrary, it is transcendent to consciousness. It is difficult to spell out the relation between consciousness and the mind. How does consciousness, which is totally different from the mind, get related to the mind in such a way that it makes the latter capable of comprehending the things of the world? The Vedānta tradition provides the answer to this question in terms of the knower-known relation. Consciousness is pure light, self-luminous by its very nature, that is, although it reveals other objects, it is not revealed by anything else. When Sartre describes it as nothingness, bereft of even ego, it is to show that it is pure light revealing objects outside it. PMID:21694962

  12. A Comparison of Community College Responders and Non-Responders to the VEDS Student Follow-Up Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; And Others

    In September 1984, a Vocational Education Data System (VEDS) follow-up survey was conducted of all 5,267 students who had graduated from Massachusetts public community colleges in 1982-83. Of these graduates, 1,881 (35.7%) returned the survey, and 3,386 (64.3%) did not. A subsequent study was conducted to compare the characteristics of survey…

  13. Grasping at ontological straws: overcoming reductionism in the Advaita Vedānta-Neuroscience dialogue.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary neuropsychology reveals that the parietal lobe contains neurons that are specifically attuned to the act of grasping and this act may be fundamental to the establishment of the phenomenal boundaries between subject and object. Furthermore, alterations to this process, such as the hypoactivation of this region during meditation or the hyperactivation associated with schizophrenia, may eliminate or confuse, respectively, the phenomenal boundaries between subject and object. Traversing disciplines, the Advaita Vedānta school of Hinduism traces some of its key terms for subject and object to the verbal root grah, to grasp. The subject is literally the grasper. Furthermore, the practice of asparśa yoga, the yoga of no-touch, is aimed at stopping, hypoactivating, the grasping process in order to transcend all subject-object boundaries. This paper will argue that while we have not uncovered an identity of thought, we have uncovered a confluence of ideas between these two disciplines. We will see that this confluence of ideas has not pitted the believer against the critic-not forced us into the great reductionism debate that has dominated so much of the interchange between religious studies and the sciences. This case study will illuminate some of the methodological ways around this reductionism battle and also the boundaries of both disciplines for the intellectual benefit of each. PMID:20681086

  14. IG/OG program for generating and displaying NASTRAN input and output data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishima, R.; Myojin, A.

    1978-01-01

    A software system was provided for structural analysis fields using NASTRAN. The HITAC users in Japan can use IG/OG (input generator/output generator) program for NASTRAN. The IG/OG saves time required to make a structure analysis for interpreting NASTRAN results.

  15. 2008 OG19: a highly elongated Trans-Neptunian object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Valenzuela, E.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Morales, N.

    2016-03-01

    From two observing runs during the 2014 summer at the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería (Spain) and at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Granada (Spain), we were able to derive CCD photometry of the Trans-Neptunian object 2008 OG19. We analysed the time series and obtained a double-peaked light curve with a peak-to-valley amplitude of 0.437 ± 0.011 mag and a rotational period of 8.727 ± 0.003 h. This implies that this object is very elongated, closely resembling the case of Varuna. The photometry also allowed us to obtain an absolute magnitude in the R band of 4.39 ± 0.07 mag. From this result, we estimated an equivalent diameter of 2008 OG19 of 619^{+56}_{-113} km using an average albedo for scattered disc objects. Finally, we interpreted the results under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and found a lower limit for the density of 544^{+42}_{-4} kg m-3. However, a more likely density is 609 ± 4 kg m-3 using an aspect angle of 60°, which corresponds to the most likely configuration for the spin axis with respect to the observer assuming random orientations.

  16. Differential expression of MYB gene (OgMYB1) determines color patterning in floral tissue of Oncidium Gower Ramsey.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-03-01

    The yellow coloration pattern in Oncidium floral lip associated with red sepal and petal tissues is an ideal model to study coordinate regulation of anthocyanin synthesis. In this study, chromatography analysis revealed that the red coloration in floral tissues was composed of malvidin-3-O-galactoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside compounds. By contrary, these pigments were not detected in yellow lip tissue. Four key genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, i.e. chalcone synthase (OgCHS), chalcone isomerase (OgCHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (OgDFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (OgANS) were isolated and their expression patterns were characterized. Northern blot analysis confirmed that although they are active during floral development, OgCHI and OgDFR genes are specifically down-regulated in yellow lip tissue. Bombardment with OgCHI and OgDFR genes into lip tissue driven by a flower-specific promoter, Pchrc (chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated gene), demonstrated that transient expression of these two genes resulted in anthocyanin production in yellow lip. Further analysis of a R2R3 MYB transcription factor, OgMYB1, revealed that although it is actively expressed during floral development, it is not expressed in yellow lip tissue. Transient expression of OgMYB1 in lip tissues by bombardment can also induce formation of red pigments through the activation of OgCHI and OgDFR transcription. These results demonstrate that differential expression of OgMYB1 is critical to determine the color pattern of floral organ in Oncidium Gower Ramsey. PMID:18161007

  17. Modelling Aṣṭādhyāyī: An Approach Based on the Methodology of Ancillary Disciplines (Vedāṅga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anand

    This article proposes a general model based on the common methodological approach of the ancillary disciplines (Vedāṅga) associated with the Vedas taking examples from Śikṣā, Chandas, Vyākaraṇa and Prātiśā khya texts. It develops and elaborates this model further to represent the contents and processes of Aṣṭādhyāyī. Certain key features are added to my earlier modelling of Pāṇinian system of Sanskrit grammar. This includes broader coverage of the Pāṇinian meta-language, mechanism for automatic application of rules and positioning the grammatical system within the procedural complexes of ancillary disciplines.

  18. Nisin-Triggered Activity of Lys44, the Secreted Endolysin from Oenococcus oeni Phage fOg44▿

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, João Gil; Guerreiro-Pereira, Maria Carolina; Costa, Sérgio Fernandes; São-José, Carlos; Santos, Mário Almeida

    2008-01-01

    The intrinsic resistance of Oenococcus oeni cells to the secreted endolysin from oenophage fOg44 (Lys44) was investigated. Experiments with several antimicrobials support the hypothesis that the full activity of Lys44 requires sudden ion-nonspecific dissipation of the proton motive force, an event undertaken by the fOg44 holin in the phage infection context. PMID:17981964

  19. What Engages Students in MetaL-FrOG? A Triarchy Perspective on Meta-Cognitive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fa, Ng Sen; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the central ideas of a grounded theory research by the name of Triarchy Perspective on Metacognitive Learning in Free Online Groups, or "TriP on MetaL-FrOG" in short. The research setting was online learning community on the platform of Free Online Group web (FrOG) intended for post-graduate students. The research…

  20. OGS improvements in the year 2011 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.; Pesaresi, D.; Saraò, A.; Di Bartolomeo, P.; Durì, G.

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - OGS (Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude Mw = 6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 12 very sensitive broad band and 21 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of 93 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy, as shown in Fig. 1 (Bragato et al., 2011; Saraò et al., 2010). Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps" (Bragato et al., 2010; Pesaresi et al., 2008). SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. In order to improve the seismological monitoring of the Northeastern Italy area, at OGS-CRS we tuned existing programs and created ad hoc ones like: a customized web server named PickServer to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, and last but not least scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. A new OGS-CRS real time seismological website (http://rts.crs.inogs.it/) has also been operative since several years.

  1. Location Capability and Site Characterization Installing a Borehole VBB Seismometer: the OGS Experience in Ferrara (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Barnaba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 19 very sensitive broad band and 17 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS CRS data centre in Udine. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara and to the deployment of a temporary seismographic network consisting of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate seismic site responses in the area. We will introduce details of the Ferrara VBB borehole station and the OGS temporary seismographic network configuration and installation. We will then illustrate the location capability performances, and finally we will shortly describe seismic site characterization with surface/borehole comparisons in terms of seismic noise, site amplification and resonance frequencies.

  2. From Black Power to Hip-Hop: Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin V.

    2005-01-01

    While history for most conjures up images of places and experiences far removed, for Dr. Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar, the field provides a "wonderful medium" to illuminate contemporary issues as well. Much of Ogbar's current research centers on events occurring in the latter half of the 20th century, such as the civil rights and Black power movements as…

  3. Decouple a coupled KdV system of Nutku and Og˜uz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Heng Chun; Liu, Q. P.

    2002-02-01

    A coupled KdV system with a free parameter proposed by Nutku and Og˜uz is considered. It is shown that the system passes the WTC's Painlevé test for arbitrary value of the parameter. A further analysis yields that the parameter can be removed and the system can be decoupled.

  4. OGS improvements in the year 2011 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.; Pesaresi, D.; Saraò, A.; Di Bartolomeo, P.; Durı, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 15 very sensitive broad band and 21 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite on several workstations plus a SUN Cluster as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. In order to improve the seismological monitoring of the Northeastern Italy area, at OGS-CRS we tuned existing programs and created ad hoc ones like: a customized web server named PickServer to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, and last but not least scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. The OGS-CRS Real Time Seismological website (RTS, http://rts.crs.inogs.it/) operative since several years was initially developed in the framework of the Italian DPC-INGV S3 Project: the RTS website shows classic earthquake locations

  5. ogs6 - a new concept for porous-fractured media simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Dmitri; Bilke, Lars; Fischer, Thomas; Rink, Karsten; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    OpenGeoSys (OGS) is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THMC) processes in porous and fractured media, continuously developed since the mid-eighties. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework for solving coupled multi-field problems. OGS is targeting mainly on applications in environmental geoscience, e.g. in the fields of contaminant hydrology, water resources management, waste deposits, or geothermal energy systems, but it has also been successfully applied to new topics in energy storage recently. OGS is actively participating several international benchmarking initiatives, e.g. DECOVALEX (waste management), CO2BENCH (CO2 storage and sequestration), SeSBENCH (reactive transport processes) and HM-Intercomp (coupled hydrosystems). Despite the broad applicability of OGS in geo-, hydro- and energy-sciences, several shortcomings became obvious concerning the computational efficiency as well as the code structure became too sophisticated for further efficient development. OGS-5 was designed for object-oriented FEM applications. However, in many multi-field problems a certain flexibility of tailored numerical schemes is essential. Therefore, a new concept was designed to overcome existing bottlenecks. The paradigms for ogs6 are: - Flexibility of numerical schemes (FEM#FVM#FDM), - Computational efficiency (PetaScale ready), - Developer- and user-friendly. ogs6 has a module-oriented architecture based on thematic libraries (e.g. MeshLib, NumLib) on the large scale and uses object-oriented approach for the small scale interfaces. Usage of a linear algebra library (Eigen3) for the mathematical operations together with the ISO C++11 standard increases the expressiveness of the code and makes it more developer-friendly. The new C++ standard also makes the template meta-programming technique code used for compile-time optimizations more compact. We have transitioned the main code development to

  6. Activation of defense response pathways by OGs and Flg22 elicitors in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Denoux, Carine; Galletti, Roberta; Mammarella, Nicole; Gopalan, Suresh; Werck, Danièle; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Dewdney, Julia

    2010-01-01

    We carried out transcriptional profiling analysis in 10 day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with oligogalacturonides (OGs), oligosaccharides derived from the plant cell wall, or the bacterial flagellin peptide Flg22, general elicitors of the basal defense response in plants. Although detected by different receptors, both OGs and Flg22 trigger a fast and transient response that is both similar and comprehensive, and characterized by activation of early stages of multiple defense signaling pathways, particularly JA-associated processes. However, the response to Flg22 is stronger in both the number of genes differentially expressed and the amplitude of change. The magnitude of induction of individual genes is in both cases dose dependent, but even at very high concentrations, OGs do not induce a response that is as comprehensive as that seen with Flg22. While high doses of either microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) elicit a late response that includes activation of senescence processes, SA-dependent secretory pathway genes and PR1 expression are substantially induced only by Flg22. These results suggest a lower threshold for activation of early responses than for sustained or SA-mediated late defenses. Expression patterns of aminocyclopropane-carboxylate synthase genes also implicate ethylene biosynthesis in regulation of the late innate immune response. PMID:19825551

  7. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  8. Comparative assessment of an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT filariasis test: a study of Myanmar migrants in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, Surang; Porksakorn, Chantima; Junpee, Alisa; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Poovorawan, Yong

    2003-12-01

    Detection of circulating filarial antigen has now emerged as an alternative method for the diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. We compared two antigen detection assays, an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT (immunochromatography) Filariasis test, for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections in migrant Myanmar workers in Tak province, Western Thailand. A total of 337 Myanmars participated in this study. The microfilarial rate was 3.3%. The Og4C3 ELISA could detect 19.1% of bancroftian filariasis while the ICT test detected 12.7%. Both antigen assays could detect all microfilaremics. The Og4C3 ELISA detected 14.8% of amicrofilaremics while the ICT test identified 8.1%. Those who were positive for the ICT test were also positive by the Og4C3 ELISA. Those Og4C3 positive cases, that were ICT negative (ICT-ve/Og4C3+ve) had statistically significant (p < 0.05, unpaired t-test) lower Og4C3 antigen levels (409.5 units, range 117-2,389) than those that were ICT positive (ICT+ve/Og4C3+ve) (5,252.0 units, range 130-28,062). Our results emphasize the problem of bancroftian filariasis in Myanmar migrants working in Thailand. Close monitoring and control of this disease in Myanmar migrants are of public health importance. Antigen detection systems are promising tools for the surveillance of bancroftian filariasis. PMID:15198343

  9. Acquiring, archiving, analyzing and exchanging seismic data in real time at the Seismological Research Center of the OGS in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraò, Angela; Pesaresi, Damiano; Bragato, Pier Luigi; di Bartolomeo, Paolo; Percy Plasencia Linares, Milton

    2010-05-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake (magnitude M=6.4) occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-east Italy (NI) seismic network: it currently consists of 11 very sensitive broad band and 23 more simple short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of 89 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. At OGS-CRS we then adapted existing programs and created new ones like: a customized web-accessible server to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, plus scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. A new OGS-CRS real time web site has also been recently designed and made operative in the framework of the DPC-INGV S3 Project.

  10. Screening Analogs of β-OG Pocket Binder as Fusion Inhibitor of Dengue Virus 2.

    PubMed

    Tambunan, Usman Sf; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Parikesit, Arli A; Idrus, Syarifuddin; Kerami, Djati

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder. There are 828 compounds used in this study, and all of them were screened based on the analysis of molecular docking, pharmacological character prediction of the compounds, and molecular dynamics simulation. The result of these analyses revealed that the compound that can be used as an antiviral candidate against DENV is 5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(p-tolyl) benzotriazol-5-yl]furan-2-carboxamide. PMID:26617459

  11. Screening Analogs of β-OG Pocket Binder as Fusion Inhibitor of Dengue Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Tambunan, Usman SF; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Parikesit, Arli A; Idrus, Syarifuddin; Kerami, Djati

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder. There are 828 compounds used in this study, and all of them were screened based on the analysis of molecular docking, pharmacological character prediction of the compounds, and molecular dynamics simulation. The result of these analyses revealed that the compound that can be used as an antiviral candidate against DENV is 5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(p-tolyl) benzotriazol-5-yl]furan-2-carboxamide. PMID:26617459

  12. Students' Decision Steps in Meta-Cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG): A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen Fa, Kinsley Ng; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2011-01-01

    What prompts the students to respond in online dialogic discussion? Why some students chose to fall out? This case study through the lens of phenomenography observation attempts to explain the five decision steps of students to respond in Meta-cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG) discussion. It presents a part of a research…

  13. SalB inactivation modulates culture supernatant exoproteins and affects autolysis and viability in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Jayendra; Walker, Rachel G; Wilkinson, Mark C; Ward, Deborah; Horsburgh, Malcolm J

    2012-07-01

    The culture supernatant fraction of an Enterococcus faecalis gelE mutant of strain OG1RF contained elevated levels of the secreted antigen SalB. Using differential fluorescence gel electrophoresis (DIGE) the salB mutant was shown to possess a unique complement of exoproteins. Differentially abundant exoproteins were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Stress-related proteins including DnaK, Dps family protein, SOD, and NADH peroxidase were present in greater quantity in the OG1RF salB mutant culture supernatant. Moreover, several proteins involved in cell wall synthesis and cell division, including d-Ala-d-Lac ligase and EzrA, were present in reduced quantity in OG1RF salB relative to the parent strain. The salB mutant displayed reduced viability and anomalous cell division, and these phenotypes were exacerbated in a gelE salB double mutant. An epistatic relationship between gelE and salB was not identified with respect to increased autolysis and cell morphological changes observed in the salB mutant. SalB was purified as a six-histidine-tagged protein to investigate peptidoglycan hydrolytic activity; however, activity was not evident. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of reduced muropeptides from peptidoglycan digested with mutanolysin revealed that the salB mutant and OG1RF were indistinguishable. PMID:22563054

  14. Reactive transport modeling in the subsurface environment with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenkui; Beyer, Christof; Fleckenstein, Jan; Jang, Eunseon; Kalbacher, Thomas; Naumov, Dimitri; Shao, Haibing; Wang, Wenqing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  15. Reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Shao, H.; Wang, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  16. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-07-01

    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden. PMID:8014511

  17. PET2OGS: Algorithms to link the static model of Petrel with the dynamic model of OpenGeoSys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.-H.; Shinn, Y. J.; Park, Y.-C.; Huh, D.-G.; Lee, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    A set of three algorithms named PET2OGS is developed to integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys). PET2OGS consists of three sub-algorithms that convert finite difference methods (FDMs) grids to finite element methods (FEMs) grids. The algorithms and the workflow of the integration procedures are described in detail. After the proposed algorithms are tested on a variety of grids both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, the integrated platform of the static and dynamic models is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. A successful demonstration of the proposed algorithms proved a robust integration of the platform. With some minor modifications of the algorithms in the part of input and output, the proposed algorithms can be extended to integrate different combinations of FDM-based static models and FEM-based dynamic models beyond the example combination in the paper.

  18. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast. PMID:26788290

  19. Physical Characteristics of Asteroid-like Comet Nucleus C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Pravec, P.; French, L. M.; Farnham, T. L.; Gaffey, M. J.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kusnirak, P.; Sarounova, L.; Sheppard, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    For many years several investigators have suggested that some portion of the near-Earth asteroid population may actually be extinct cometary nuclei. Evidence used to support these hypotheses was based on: observations of asteroid orbits and associated meteor showers (e.g. 3200 Phaethon and the Geminid meteor shower); low activity of short period comet nuclei, which implied nonvolatile surface crusts (e.g. Neujmin 1, Arend-Rigaux); and detections of transient cometary activity in some near-Earth asteroids (e.g. 4015 Wilson-Harrington). Recent investigations have suggested that approximately 5-10% of the near- Earth asteroid population may be extinct comets. However if members of the near-Earth asteroid population are extinct cometary nuclei, then there should be some objects within this population that are near their final stages of evolution and so should demonstrate only low levels of activity. The recent detections of coma from near-Earth object 2001 OG108 have renewed interest in this possible comet-asteroid connection. This paper presents the first high quality ground-based near-infrared reflectance spectrum of a comet nucleus combined with detailed lightcurve and albedo measurements.

  20. Magnesium, Potassium and Phosphorus in Available Forms in Luvisols in the Vicinity of Głogów Copper Smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, H.; Dąbkowska-Naskręt, H.; Różański, S.

    2016-02-01

    Region near Głogów is characterized as industrial—agricultural area, intensively used. Presented study was undertaken to estimate the impact of agricultural land use and the vicinity of Głogów copper smelter on the contents of available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in selected profiles of Luvisols. The following analysis were performed: soil particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon contents, CaCO3 contents. The contents of available forms of phosphorus and potassium were determined by Egner- Riehm method and that of magnesium using Schachtschabel's method. The results of the study showed that the contents of available P is medium (III class of abundance), very low in K (V class) and for available Mg very low (V class) to medium for surface horizons and very high (I class of abundance) in other soil horizons. The soils, in spite of the elevated copper content in humus horizons, according to IUNG, were classified as uncontaminated soils, therefore, can be used in plant production for all types of crops.

  1. Chemical Soil Degradation n the Area of the Głogów Copper Smelter Protective Forest/ Degradacja Ziemi Na Terenach Byłej Strefy Ochronnej Huty Miedzi Głogów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecki, Jakub; Greinert, Andrzej; Drab, Michał; Wasylewicz, Róża; Walczak, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Earth surface is under the continous influence of the environmental factors - both natural and anthropogenic. The significant impact on the environment can be noted in areas adjacent to the metal industry plants, in a consequence of pollutants emission, especially dusts containing the heavy metals, into the atmosphere,. In the surroundings of Głogów Copper Smelter (GCS) elevated amounts of copper and lead has been noted. In the soils of the test sites were found up to 5250 mg kg-1 Cu and 1290 mg kg-1 Pb. The forest litter contained 3.3-5.1 more Cu and 3.9-8.6 Pb than the humic horizon of the soil. Analyse of the different soils covering the GCS protective forest area let specify the stabilising role of particle size distribution, TOC content and the soil reaction to Cu and Pb migration in the environment. Powierzchnia ziemi jest nieustannnie narażona na oddziaływania o charakterze naturalnym i antropogenicznym. Znaczące oddziaływanie jest łatwo zauważalne na terenach przemysłowych. Szczególnie na obszarach objętych wydobyciem i przeróbką metali. Na terenach przyległych do Huty Miedzi Głogów stwierdzono wysoką koncentrację miedzi i ołowiu sięgającą 5250 mg kg-1 Cu i 1290 mg kg-1 Pb. Poziom ściółki leśnej zawierał 3,3-5,1 raza więcej Cu i 3,9-8,6 Pb niż poziom próchniczny analizowanych gleb. Analiza różnych gleb pokrywających las ochronny HMG pozwoliła wskazać na znaczącą rolę składu granulometrycznego, zawartości węgla organicznego oraz odczynu na stabilizację migracji Cu i Pb w środowisku.

  2. Application of PET2OGS to CO2 storage in a saline aquifer of the CO2CRC Otway project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Shinn, Young Jae

    2014-05-01

    PET2OGS, a set of algorithms that integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys), is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. The Otway Basin is the first demonstration site of the deep geological storage of carbon dioxide as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Australia. During Stage 2 of the CO2CRC Otway project, CO2 was injected into a saline aquifer along the injection interval of 1435 - 1450 m in a well. Upon conversion and adaption of the geological model into the dynamic model, the simulation of CO2 injection at 159 tone/day for 5 months is carried out for a hypothetical scenario. CO2 storage in each facies are analyzed for storage capacities. The discrete nature of CO2 plume behaviors known in multiphase flow in heterogeneous media is observed in the numerical simulation of CO2 storage. Sensitivity analysis of the storage capacity with respect to facies, porosity, and permeability is provided.

  3. The Two-Component System GrvRS (EtaRS) Regulates ace Expression in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Cohen, Ana Luisa V.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of ace (adhesin to collagen of Enterococcus faecalis), encoding a virulence factor in endocarditis and urinary tract infection models, has been shown to increase under certain conditions, such as in the presence of serum, bile salts, urine, and collagen and at 46°C. However, the mechanism of ace/Ace regulation under different conditions is still unknown. In this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system GrvRS as the main regulator of ace expression under these stress conditions. Using Northern hybridization and β-galactosidase assays of an ace promoter-lacZ fusion, we found transcription of ace to be virtually absent in a grvR deletion mutant under the conditions that increase ace expression in wild-type OG1RF and in the complemented strain. Moreover, a grvR mutant revealed decreased collagen binding and biofilm formation as well as attenuation in a murine urinary tract infection model. Here we show that GrvR plays a major role in control of ace expression and E. faecalis virulence. PMID:25385790

  4. SU-D-9A-01: Listmode-Driven Optimal Gating (OG) Respiratory Motion Management: Potential Impact On Quantitative PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K; Hristov, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential impact of listmode-driven amplitude based optimal gating (OG) respiratory motion management technique on quantitative PET imaging. Methods: During the PET acquisitions, an optical camera tracked and recorded the motion of a tool placed on top of patients' torso. PET event data were utilized to detect and derive a motion signal that is directly coupled with a specific internal organ. A radioactivity-trace was generated from listmode data by accumulating all prompt counts in temporal bins matching the sampling rate of the external tracking device. Decay correction for 18F was performed. The image reconstructions using OG respiratory motion management technique that uses 35% of total radioactivity counts within limited motion amplitudes were performed with external motion and radioactivity traces separately with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) with 2 iterations and 21 subsets. Standard uptake values (SUVs) in a tumor region were calculated to measure the effect of using radioactivity trace for motion compensation. Motion-blurred 3D static PET image was also reconstructed with all counts and the SUVs derived from OG images were compared with SUVs from 3D images. Results: A 5.7 % increase of the maximum SUV in the lesion was found for optimal gating image reconstruction with radioactivity trace when compared to a static 3D image. The mean and maximum SUVs on the image that was reconstructed with radioactivity trace were found comparable (0.4 % and 4.5 % increase, respectively) to the values derived from the image that was reconstructed with external trace. Conclusion: The image reconstructed using radioactivity trace showed that the blurring due to the motion was reduced with impact on derived SUVs. The resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with radioactivity trace were comparable to the resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with external respiratory traces. Research supported by Siemens.

  5. OGS#PETSc approach for robust and efficient simulations of strongly coupled hydrothermal processes in EGS reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Blucher, Guido; Cacace, Mauro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    A robust and computationally efficient solution is important for 3D modelling of EGS reservoirs. This is particularly the case when the reservoir model includes hydraulic conduits such as induced or natural fractures, fault zones, and wellbore open-hole sections. The existence of such hydraulic conduits results in heterogeneous flow fields and in a strengthened coupling between fluid flow and heat transport processes via temperature dependent fluid properties (e.g. density and viscosity). A commonly employed partitioned solution (or operator-splitting solution) may not robustly work for such strongly coupled problems its applicability being limited by small time step sizes (e.g. 5-10 days) whereas the processes have to be simulated for 10-100 years. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is desired which can guarantee a robust solution of the coupled problem with minor constraints on time step sizes. In this work, we present a Newton-Raphson based monolithic coupling approach implemented in the OpenGeoSys simulator (OGS) combined with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library. The PETSc library is used for both linear and nonlinear solvers as well as MPI-based parallel computations. The suggested method has been tested by application to the 3D reservoir site of Groß Schönebeck, in northern Germany. Results show that the exact Newton-Raphson approach can also be limited to small time step sizes (e.g. one day) due to slight oscillations in the temperature field. The usage of a line search technique and modification of the Jacobian matrix were necessary to achieve robust convergence of the nonlinear solution. For the studied example, the proposed monolithic approach worked even with a very large time step size of 3.5 years.

  6. The North East Italy (NI) broadband seismic network run by OGS: experience in improving the long period performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.

    2009-04-01

    experimented and routinely used by the world wide GEOFON seismic network and the German regional seismic network: examples and performances of a typical OGS installation will be shown.

  7. Cholera in Pregnancy: Outcomes from a Specialized Cholera Treatment Unit for Pregnant Women in Léogâne, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Ciglenecki, Iza; Bichet, Mathieu; Tena, Javier; Mondesir, Erneau; Bastard, Mathieu; Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Antierens, Annick; Staderini, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between cholera in pregnancy and negative fetal outcome has been described since the 19th century. However, there is limited published literature on the subject. We describe pregnancy outcomes from a specialized multidisciplinary hospital unit at the onset of a large cholera outbreak in Haiti in 2010 and 2011. Methods Pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized in a specialized unit within the MSF hospital compound in Léogâne and treated using standard cholera treatment guidelines but with earlier, more intense fluid replacement. All women had intravenous access established at admission regardless of their hydration status, and all received antibiotic treatment. Data were collected on patient demographics, pregnancy and cholera status, and pregnancy outcome. In this analysis we calculated risk ratios for fetal death and performed logistic regression analysis to control for confounding factors. Results 263 pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized between December 2010 and July 2011. None died during hospitalization, 226 (86%) were discharged with a preserved pregnancy and 16 (6%) had live fullterm singleton births, of whom 2 died within the first 5 days postpartum. The remaining 21 pregnancies (8%) resulted in intrauterine fetal death. The risk of fetal death was associated with factors reflecting severity of the cholera episode: after adjusting for confounding factors, the strongest risk factor for fetal death was severe maternal dehydration (adjusted risk ratio for severe vs. mild dehydration was 9.4, 95% CI 2.5–35.3, p = 0.005), followed by severe vomiting (adjusted risk ratio 5.1, 95% 1.1–23.8, p = 0.041). Conclusion This is the largest cohort of pregnant women with cholera described to date. The main risk factor identified for fetal death was severity of dehydration. Our experience suggests that establishing specialized multidisciplinary units which facilitate close follow-up of both pregnancy and dehydration

  8. Og4C3 circulating antigen, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 titers in Wuchereria bancrofti infected patients, according to their parasitological status.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L

    1994-09-01

    This study involved 221 microfilaremic (Mf+), 302 amicrofilaremic (Mf-) antigen positive (AG+) and 1454 Mf-antigen negative (AG-) individuals living in endemic villages. Whatever the group considered, antigen and antibody titers were widely distributed. Og4C3 antigen, detected both in Mf- and Mf+ patients, was significantly higher in Mf+ patients. The Mf parasitological status did not significantly influence the antifilarial antibodies levels in the infected AG+ individuals, although IgG4 was more discriminant. In the supposedly uninfected individuals (Mf-AG-), anti-filarial IgG and IgG4 could be detected in a large proportion of the group. Og4C3 circulating antigen test was confirmed to be a good marker of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection. PMID:7899800

  9. Rolling-leaf14 is a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase family protein that modulates rice leaf rolling by affecting secondary cell wall formation in leaves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Likui; Zhao, Fangming; Cong, Yunfei; Sang, Xianchun; Du, Qing; Wang, Dezhong; Li, Yunfeng; Ling, Yinghua; Yang, Zhenglin; He, Guanghua

    2012-06-01

    As an important agronomic trait, leaf rolling in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has attracted much attention from plant biologists and breeders. Moderate leaf rolling increases the amount of photosynthesis in cultivars and hence raises grain yield. Here, we describe the map-based cloning of the gene RL14, which was found to encode a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase of unknown function. rl14 mutant plants had incurved leaves because of the shrinkage of bulliform cells on the adaxial side. In addition, rl14 mutant plants displayed smaller stomatal complexes and decreased transpiration rates, as compared with the wild type. Defective development could be rescued functionally by the expression of wild-type RL14. RL14 was transcribed in sclerenchymatous cells in leaves that remained wrapped inside the sheath. In mature leaves, RL14 accumulated mainly in the mesophyll cells that surround the vasculature. Expression of genes related to secondary cell wall formation was affected in rl14-1 mutants, and cellulose and lignin content were altered in rl14-1 leaves. These results reveal that the RL14 gene affects water transport in leaves by affecting the composition of the secondary cell wall. This change in water transport results in water deficiency, which is the major reason for the abnormal shape of the bulliform cells. PMID:22329407

  10. Contribution of Individual Ebp Pilus Subunits of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF to Pilus Biogenesis, Biofilm Formation and Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sillanpää, Jouko; Chang, Chungyu; Singh, Kavindra V.; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Harvey, Barrett R.; Ton-That, Hung; Murray, Barbara E.

    2013-01-01

    The endocarditis and biofilm-associated pilus (Ebp) operon is a component of the core genome of Enterococcus faecalis that has been shown to be important for biofilm formation, adherence to host fibrinogen, collagen and platelets, and in experimental endocarditis and urinary tract infection models. Here, we created single and double deletion mutants of the pilus subunits and sortases; next, by combining western blotting, immunoelectron microscopy, and using ebpR in trans to increase pilus production, we identified EbpA as the tip pilin and EbpB as anchor at the pilus base, the latter attached to cell wall by the housekeeping sortase, SrtA. We also confirmed EbpC and Bps as the major pilin and pilin-specific sortase, respectively, both required for pilus polymerization. Interestingly, pilus length was increased and the number of pili decreased by deleting ebpA, while control overexpression of ebpA in trans restored wild-type levels, suggesting a dual role for EbpA in both initiation and termination of pilus polymerization. We next investigated the contribution of each pilin subunit to biofilm formation and UTI. Significant reduction in biofilm formation was observed with deletion of ebpA or ebpC (P<0.001) while ebpB was found to be dispensable; a similar result was seen in kidney CFUs in experimental UTI (ΔebpA, ΔebpC, P≤0.0093; ΔebpB, non-significant, each vs. OG1RF). Hence, our data provide important structural and functional information about these ubiquitous E. faecalis pili and, based on their demonstrated importance in biofilm and infection, suggest EbpA and EbpC as potential targets for antibody-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:23874774

  11. L'Anti-Atlas occidental du Maroc: étude sédimentologique et reconstitutions paléogéographiques au Cambrien inférieur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benssaou, M.; Hamoumi, N.

    2001-04-01

    L'étude lithostratigraphique en sédimentologique des formations du Cambrien inférieur de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) a permis de mettre en évidence la diversité extrême des faciès allant des faciès continentaux jusqu'au faciès franchement marins. La répartition verticale de ces faciès ainsi que leurs associations ont permis de (i) proposer un nouveau découpage de la succession en formations lithostratigraphiques, (ii) reconstituer les milieux de dépôt (système fluviatile, lacs, fan-deltas, milieu littoral, plate-forme dominée par des constructions stromatolitiques et récifales et plate-forme dominée par les tempêtes) et (iii) établir des modèles paléogéographiques retraçant les différentes étapes d'évolution de ce bassin qui fait partie de la plate-forme nord-gondwanienne au Cambrien inférieur. Lithostratigraphical and sedimentological studies of the Early Cambrian formations in the western Anti-Atlas (Morocco) evidence their large diversity of facies ranging from continental to clearly marine. Vertical distribution and associations of facies afford opportunities to (i) suggest a new classification of the sedimentary sequence in terms of lithostratigraphic formations, (ii) restore the depositional environments (fluvial system, lake, delta fan, coast, stromatolite and reef-dominated platform, tempest-dominated platform), and (iii) establish palæogeographic models displaying the different evolutionary stages of this basin that constituted a part of the Lower Cambrian north-Gondwanian platform.

  12. Transient response of a vertical electric dipole (VED) on a two-layer medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, S. Y.; Kong, J. A.

    The transient electromagnetic radiation by a vertical electric dipole on a two-layer medium is analyzed using the double deformation technique, which is a modal technique based on identification of singularities in the complex frequency and wavenumber planes. Previous application of the double deformation technique to the solution of this problem is incomplete in the early time response. In this paper it is shown that the existence of a pole locus on the negative imaginary frequency axis, which dominates the early time response, proves crucial in obtaining the solution for all times. A variety of combinations of parameters are used to illustrate the double deformation technique, and results will be compared with those obtained via explicit inversion, and a single deformation method.

  13. A Comparison of Community College Responders and Nonresponders to the VEDS Student Follow-Up Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey of respondents and nonrespondents to the Vocational Education Data System's follow-up survey of Massachusetts community college graduates was designed to measure response bias. The survey investigated employment patterns, wages, and degree of job relatedness. Results suggest original data was biased, if at all, toward underestimation, not…

  14. ABC-VED Analysis of a Drug Store in the Department of Community Medicine of a Medical College in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Anand, T; Ingle, G K; Kishore, J; Kumar, R

    2013-01-01

    A matrix based on coupling of cost (always, better and control) analysis and criticality (vital, essential and desirable) analysis was employed for drug inventory containing 129 items of drug store in the Department of Community Medicine of a Medical College in Delhi. The annual drug expenditure incurred on 129 drug items for the year 2010-2011 was found to be Rs. 4,35,847.85. On always, better and control analysis, 18.6, 24.0 and 57.4% drugs were found to be always, better and control category items, respectively, amounting for 69.1, 20.8 and 10.1% of annual drug expenditure. About 13.2 (17), 38.8 (50) and 48.0% (62) items were found to be vital, essential and desirable category items, respectively, amounting for 18.7, 49.5 and 31.8% of annual drug expenditure. Based on always, better and control-vital, essential and desirable matrix analysis there were 37 (28.68%) items in category I, 53 (41.09%) items in category II and 39 (30.23%) items in category III, amounting for 73.0, 22.2 and 4.8% of annual drug expenditure, respectively. To conclude, scientific inventory management tools are needed to be applied in routine for efficient management of the pharmacy stores as it contributes to not only in improvement in patient care but also judicious use of resources as well. PMID:23901172

  15. [Diabetes and alternative medicine: diabetic patients experiences with Ayur-Ved, "clinical ecology" and "cellular nutrition" methods].

    PubMed

    Vanelli, M; Chiari, G; Gugliotta, M; Capuano, C; Giacalone, T; Gruppi, L; Condò, M

    2002-04-01

    In the last two years we discovered that three of our patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (0.8%) suffered an unexpected worsening in their glycemic control due to a reduction of their insulin dosage in favour of some "alternative" diabetes treatments using herbs, vitamins, fantastic diets and trace elements prescribed by non-medical practitioners. The first patient, a 6.6 year old boy, was admitted to hospital because of a severe ketoacidosis with first degree coma as a result of his parents having reduced his insulin dosage by 77% and replacing the insulin with an ayurvedic herbal preparation (Bardana Actium Lapp). The second patient, a 10.4 year old boy, was admitted to hospital after his teachers noticed that he appeared tired, thinner and polyuric. During hospital admission for mild ketoacidosis the mother, reluctant at first, finally confessed that her son was under the care of a "clinical ecologist". Having identified several food allergies this "clinical ecologist" had placed the child on a spartan diet of bread, water and salt, and had reduced his insulin dosage by 68%. The third patient, a 21 year old male, upon transfer to the Adult Diabetic Center, reported that he had been under the care of a pranotherapist for several years. The pranotherapist had prescribed a cellular nutrition preparation (called "Madonna drops"), a meditation program and also a 50% reduction in his insulin dosage. During this period his HbAlc values had increased from 6.4% to 12%. Current orthodox diabetes treatments are considered unsatisfactory by many people and it is thus not surprising that they search for "miracle" cures. It is important, however, that hospital staff do not ridicule the patients or their parents for trying these alternative therapies. Nevertheless, it would be useful for staff to discuss in advance these "therapies" with patients, highlighting their ineffectiveness and strongly discouraging cures that call for a reduction or elimination of the insulin treatment. PMID:11981532

  16. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. The topic areas covered in this volume include gamma ray bursts, gamma rays from point sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission.

  17. Information Gathering Document 0321-1437-30-R-OG

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-07-15

    Fines and turnings from machining depleted uranium (Dep-U), natural uranium (Nat-U), and Thorium-232, and stainless steel and aluminum. This IGO allows only small, oxidizable pieces of Dep-U/Nat-U/Th-232, with regulated metal contaminants below regulatory limits. Fines and turnings will be in 30 gallon vented drums immersed in mineral oil. The 30 gallon drums will be overpacked in 55 gallon vented drums. The waste will be stored on site until sent for stabilization & disposal with approved TSOFs.

  18. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. Topic areas include the composition, spectra, and anisotropy of cosmic ray nuclei with energies and 1 TeV, isotopes, antiprotons and related subjects, and electrons, positrons, and measurements of synchrotron radiation.

  19. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume addresses cosmic ray sources and acceleration, interstellar propagation and nuclear interactions, and detection techniques and instrumentation.

  20. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-04-28

    This seventh quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Considerable progress has been made on coal analysis. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) target recognition software has been tested and incorporated into the system. This software decreases analysis time considerably and is more intuitive to use. Work with board-level computers has proceeded well; ultimately this will make the technology more compact and fieldable. Work with talc will be delayed because the graduate student working on this project is leaving the program. Ongoing work is devoted to more detailed coal analysis, improving the software interface, and developing procedures and a users manual.

  1. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2004-10-22

    This thirteenth quarterly technical report describes data collection at the Stillwater Mine and an additional improvement to the lighting system. The data collection system was returned to the Stillwater Mine during this reporting period and a large amount of data was collected. The data will be analyzed and correlated with fire assays in the next reporting period. The majority of work done this quarter has been devoted to collecting data from cores scanned in the Stillwater Mining Company core room. This work is somewhat tedious and tiresome, but essential to: (1) obtain enough data to reliably determine the correlation between assay results and spectral imaging results; (2) find bugs and glitches in the system that arise only periodically or after long periods of use; and (3) obtain data on the natural (and man-made) variations in the Stillwater ore that may confuse the machine vision algorithms.

  2. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-07-21

    This eighth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and preparations for Year-3 system deployment. Classification maps for coal have been generated and shown to two coal-mining executives. An application for licensing high-speed hyperspectral data analysis software from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been made. Both Western Energy and Stillwater Mining Company have offered platforms for Year-3 deployment. Barretts Minerals has expressed renewed interest in using Resonon's machine vision system for identifying dolomite in their talc ore and have agreed to provide samples to the Montana Tech team.

  3. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-10-24

    This fifth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Recent work has been devoted to implementing new hardware and examining defects in titanium sponge, a new application for the machine vision system. With the improvements in hardware and software, the data collection is much improved. Early results from data taken on titanium sponge defects indicate that some defects will be relatively easy to identify, but others will be much more difficult. Consequently, additional work is required with software algorithms for target recognition. Ongoing work will be divided into several fronts, which include data collection and analysis, improving the target recognition capabilities, and improving the electronic interface.

  4. Gocad2OGS: Workflow to Integrate Geo-structural Information into Numerical Simulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Thomas; Walther, Marc; Naumov, Dmitri; Sattler, Sabine; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of fluid circulation in the Thuringian syncline is one of the INFLUINS project's targets. A 3D geo-structural model including 12 stratigraphic layers and 54 fault zones is created by geologists in the first step using the Gocad software. Within the INFLUINS project a ground-water flow simulation is used to check existing hypotheses and to gain new ideas of the underground fluid flow behaviour. We used the scientific, platform independent, open source software OpenGeoSys that implements the finite element method to solve the governing equations describing fluid flow in porous media. The geo-structural Gocad model is not suitable for the FEM numerical analysis. Therefore it is converted into an unstructured grid satisfying all mesh quality criteria required for the ground-water flow simulation. The resulting grid is stored in an open data format given by the Visualization Toolkit (vtk). In this work we present a workflow to convert geological structural models, created using the Gocad software, into a simulation model that is easy to use from numerical simulation software. We tested our workflow with the 3D geo-structural model of the Thuringian syncline and were able to setup and to evaluate a hydrogeological simulation model successfully.

  5. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2004-01-23

    This tenth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for ore grading based on hyperspectral imaging. A graduate student at Montana Tech has successfully defended her thesis related to this project. Arrangements with Stillwater Mining Company to deploy a machine vision system in their core room have been completed. Designs for they system that will be installed next quarter have been drawn and parts are being machined. Presentations on the spectral imaging system developed during this effort have been made to Stillwater Mining Company and at a remote sensing symposium at Montana State University.

  6. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2003-04-27

    This eleventh quarterly technical report discusses the installation of a spectral machine vision system in the Stillwater mine's core room. In brief, the system has been fabricated, installed, and preliminary measurements have been made. A first round of refinements has been made, included replacing a bad bearing and applying filters to the lighting. A high-speed Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) program was written to classify the cores in real time. This program identifies sulfides in the core sample quite well, but also produces false positives at boundaries and breaks in the core. Additionally, bright reflections from facets within the ore occasionally saturate the camera. Overall, the project is on schedule, but additional refinement in the algorithm and lighting is required to obtain more accurate results.

  7. Phenological tracking og agricultural feilds investigated by using dual polarimetry tanDEM-X images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, S.; Motagh, M.; Arefi, H.; Nooryazdan, A.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing plays a key role in monitoring and assessing environmental changes. Because of its special imaging characteristics such as high-resolution, capabilities to obtain data in all weather conditions and sensitivity to geometrical and dielectric properties of the features, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology has become a powerful technique to detect small scale changes related to earth surface.SAR images contain the information of both phase and intensity in different modes like single, dual and full polarimetric states which are important in order to extract information about various targets. In this study we investigate phenological changes in an agricultural region using high-resolution X-band SAR data. The case study is located in Doroud region of Lorestan province, west of Iran. The purpose is to investigate the ability of copolar and interferometric coherence extracted from TanDEM-X dual polarimetry (HH/VV) in bistatic StripMap mode for tracking the phenological changes of crops during growing season. The data include 11 images acquired between 12.06.2012 and 02.11.2012 and 6 images acquired between 30.05.2013 and 04.08.2013 in the CoSSC format. Results show that copolar coherence is almost able to follow phenological changes but interferometric coherence has a near constant behaviour with fluctuations mainly related to baseline variations.

  8. A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kolditz, O.; Naumov, D.; Kalbacher, T.

    2015-03-01

    This technical paper presents an efficient and performance-oriented method to model reactive mass transport processes in environmental and geotechnical subsurface systems. The open source scientific software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc have been coupled, to combine their individual strengths and features to simulate thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes in porous and fractured media with simultaneous consideration of aqueous geochemical reactions. Furthermore, a flexible parallelization scheme using MPI (Message Passing Interface) grouping techniques has been implemented, which allows an optimized allocation of computer resources for the node-wise calculation of chemical reactions on the one hand, and the underlying processes such as for groundwater flow or solute transport on the other hand. The coupling interface and parallelization scheme have been tested and verified in terms of precision and performance.

  9. A kind of integrated method discuss of fOG signal processing circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Pan, Xin; Ying, Jiaju; Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    In view of the circuit miniaturization need in project application of fiber optic gyroscope(FOG), a new integrated technical scheme adopting system in package(SIP) for signal processing circuit of FOG was put forward. At first, the principle on signal processing circuit of FOG was analyzed, and the technical scheme adopting SIP based on low-temperature co-fired substrate technology was presented according to circuit characteristic and actual condition. Secondly, under the prerequisite of the concept introduction of SIP and LTCC, the SIP prototype of signal processing circuit of FOG was trialed produced,and it passed through the debug test. This SIP modular is an overall circuit complete integrated the signal processing circuit of FOG, and only a potentiometer and EPROM do not case outside. The testing results indicate that SIP is a kind of feasible scheme that carries out miniaturization for signal processing circuit of FOG.

  10. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-04-25

    This third quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. The work done this quarter has utilized a miniature imaging spectrometer. Procedures to collect and process the spectral and spatial data from the imaging spectrometer have been established, and software routines have been employed to use this data to differentiate sulfides from background rock in platinum/palladium core samples. These sulfides are indicator minerals for high-grade platinum/palladium ore. Mappings of the sulfides generated with this procedure have been quite accurate. Samples of coal have also been obtained and preliminary measurements with the imaging spectrometer have been made.

  11. Handels- og Kontorfunktionaerernes Forbund i Danmark v. Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening [17 October 1989].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The plaintiff employee's Danish union challenged as contrary to Sex Discrimination Directive 75/117 the salary practice of the defendant employer, which resulted in male employees receiving an average wage 6.85% higher than that received by female employees in the same job category. The difference resulted from a system of supplements paid to employees on the basis of mobility, vocational training, and length of service. The court held that when an employer applies a system of remuneration that is totally lacking in transparency, the employer is required to prove that the system does not discriminate against women if it is shown that the system results in women receiving average pay less than that received by men. It also ruled that pay differentials based on seniority were acceptable and that pay differentials based on mobility and vocational training were acceptable only if it was shown that such mobility or vocational training was important to the performance of specific tasks entrusted to an employee. PMID:12344117

  12. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-01-31

    The overall approach of this effort is to spectrally image ore or coal, and then use the spectral content (i.e., the particular colors of the ore or coal) to differentiate between the ore or coal grades. Currently, experts with practiced eyes do just this to identify the grade of platinum/palladium ore from the Stillwater Mine in south-central Montana. Additionally, trained eyes can identify high-sulfur and high-ash coal visually. The premise of this effort is that machine vision can accomplish this same differentiation. During the first quarter, machine vision results using a digital color camera did not correlate as well with assay results for platinum/palladium ore as would be required for a commercial device. One of the possible reasons for this is that the digital camera did not provide enough spectral information to obtain good differentiation between the sulfides associated with high-grade platinum/palladium ore and background interference, most notably yellow grease that contaminates some of the sample and green colored rock. The second quarter efforts have largely been devoted to implementing an imaging spectrometer for machine vision. In brief, modifying an imaging spectrometer that was designed for remote sensing from a Remotely Controlled (RC) airplane has done this. The imaging spectrometer provides 320 spectral channels, allowing for much better spectral resolution that can be obtained with a digital color camera, which provides 3 spectral channels. Preliminary results, as discussed below in more detail, are encouraging. The technical portion of the report below is organized into subsections as dictated by the DoE contract for this effort. These sections are: Experimental Apparatus, Experimental and Operating Data, Data Reduction, and Hypothesis and Conclusions. Partners in this effort are: Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Stillwater Mining Co., Western Syncoal, and the Montana Board of Research and Commercialization.

  13. Penile rehabilitation with a vacuum erectile device in an animal model is related to an antihypoxic mechanism: blood gas evidence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao-Cheng; Yang, Wen-Li; Zhang, Jun-Lan; Dai, Yu-Tian; Wang, Run

    2013-05-01

    Our previous study showed that vacuum erectile device (VED) therapy has improved erectile function in rats with bilateral cavernous nerve crush (BCNC) injuries. This study was designed to explore the mechanism of VED in penile rehabilitation by analyzing cavernous oxygen saturation (SO2) and to examine the effect of VED therapy on preventing penile shrinkage after BCNC. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: group 1, sham surgery; group 2, BCNC; and group 3, BCNC+VED. Penile length and diameter were measured on a weekly basis. After 4 weeks of therapy, the penile blood was extracted by three methods for blood gas analysis (BGA): method 1, cavernous blood was aspirated at the flaccid state; method 2, cavernous blood was aspirated at the traction state; and method 3, cavernous blood was aspirated immediately after applying VED. SO2 values were tested by the blood gas analyzer. The results showed that VED therapy is effective in preventing penile shrinkage induced by BCNC (Penile shortening: BCNC group 1.9±1.1 mm; VED group 0.3±1.0 mm; P<0.01. Penile diameter reduction: BCNC group 0.28±0.14 mm; VED group 0.04±0.14 mm; P<0.01). The mean SO2±s.d. values were increased by VED application (88.25%±4.94%) compared to the flaccid (76.53%±4.16%) or traction groups (78.93%±2.56%) (P<0.05). The calculated blood constructs in the corpus cavernosum right after VED application were 62% arterial and 38% venous blood. These findings suggest that VED therapy can effectively preserve penile size in rats with BCNC injury. The beneficial effect of VED therapy is related to antihypoxia by increasing cavernous blood SO2. PMID:23564044

  14. GO2OGS: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Walther, M.; Sattler, S.; Naumov, D.; Kolditz, O.

    2015-08-01

    We offer a versatile workflow to convert geological models built with the software Paradigm™ GOCAD© into the open-source VTU format for the usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of similar environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modelling. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  15. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  16. The formation of pentagon-heptagon pair defect by the reconstruction og vacancy defects in carbon nanotube

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.D.; Wang, C.Z.; Yoon, E.; Hwang, N.M.; Ho, K.M.

    2008-01-29

    The reconstruction process of vacancy hole in carbon nanotube is investigated by tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations and by ab initio total energy calculations. In the molecular dynamics simulation, a vacancy hole is found to reconstruct into two separated pentagon-heptagon pair defects. As the result of reconstruction, the radius of the carbon nanotube is reduced and the chirality of the tube is partly changed. During the vacancy hole healing process, the formation of pentagonal and heptagonal rings is proceeded by the subsequent Stone-Wales.

  17. Utilizing Federal Reporting Requirements to Generate Useful Data at the Local Level: Creating an Open-Book Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; Shwedel, Allan

    Various procedures, technologies, and products were developed by the Massachusetts Board of Regents and the Massachusetts Community Colleges in implementing the student followup component of the Vocational Education Data System (VEDS). The Board of Regents took the lead in coordinating the VEDS followup study among the 15 state-supported community…

  18. Structure-permeability relationship analysis of the permeation barrier properties of the stratum corneum and viable epidermis/dermis of rat skin.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Mitsui, Tetsuya; Aso, Yoshinori; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate structure-permeability relationships for chemicals through stratum corneum (SC) and viable epidermis/dermis (VED). In vitro skin permeation of ten compounds through excised rat skin was analyzed based on a two-layer diffusion model and the diffusion coefficients in SC (D(SC)) and VED (D(VED)) were determined. The relationships between the permeation parameters and the physicochemical parameters (octanol-water partition coefficient (log K(o/w)), and hydrogen bond donor number (HBD)) of the compounds were analyzed. D(SC) increased as lipophilicity increased, whereas D(VED) decreased for log K(o/w) > 2. Increases in log K(o/w) caused a decrease in the permeability coefficient from SC through VED (P(VED/SC)) for log K(o/w) > 1. The simulation study suggests that the in vitro skin permeation of a highly lipophilic compound is strongly controlled by skin thickness due to low diffusivity in VED. The present study suggests that VED act as a considerable permeation barrier for highly lipophilic compounds due to low diffusivity. PMID:18228598

  19. Vacuum therapy in penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: review of hemodynamic and antihypoxic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Sheng-Qiang; Gao, Liang; Wei, Qiang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Generally, hypoxia is a normal physiological condition in the flaccid penis, which is interrupted by regular nocturnal erections in men with normal erectile function.1 Lack of spontaneous and nocturnal erections after radical prostatectomy due to neuropraxia results in persistent hypoxia of cavernosal tissue, which leads to apoptosis and degeneration of cavernosal smooth muscle fibers. Therefore, overcoming hypoxia is believed to play a crucial role during neuropraxia. The use of a vacuum erectile device (VED) in penile rehabilitation is reportedly effective and may prevent loss of penile length. The corporal blood after VED use is increased and consists of both arterial and venous blood, as revealed by color Doppler sonography and blood gas analysis. A similar phenomenon was observed in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, NPWT employs a lower negative pressure than VED, and a hypoperfused zone, which increases in response to negative pressure adjacent to the wound edge, was observed. Nonetheless, questions regarding ideal subatmospheric pressure levels, modes of action, and therapeutic duration of VED remain unanswered. Moreover, it remains unclear whether a hypoperfused zone or PO2 gradient appears in the penis during VED therapy. To optimize a clinical VED protocol in penile rehabilitation, further research on the mechanism of VED, especially real-time PO2 measurements in different parts of the penis, should be performed. PMID:26289397

  20. Vacuum therapy in penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: review of hemodynamic and antihypoxic evidence.

    PubMed

    Qian, Sheng-Qiang; Gao, Liang; Wei, Qiang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Generally, hypoxia is a normal physiological condition in the flaccid penis, which is interrupted by regular nocturnal erections in men with normal erectile function. [1] Lack of spontaneous and nocturnal erections after radical prostatectomy due to neuropraxia results in persistent hypoxia of cavernosal tissue, which leads to apoptosis and degeneration of cavernosal smooth muscle fibers. Therefore, overcoming hypoxia is believed to play a crucial role during neuropraxia. The use of a vacuum erectile device (VED) in penile rehabilitation is reportedly effective and may prevent loss of penile length. The corporal blood after VED use is increased and consists of both arterial and venous blood, as revealed by color Doppler sonography and blood gas analysis. A similar phenomenon was observed in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, NPWT employs a lower negative pressure than VED, and a hypoperfused zone, which increases in response to negative pressure adjacent to the wound edge, was observed. Nonetheless, questions regarding ideal subatmospheric pressure levels, modes of action, and therapeutic duration of VED remain unanswered. Moreover, it remains unclear whether a hypoperfused zone or PO 2 gradient appears in the penis during VED therapy. To optimize a clinical VED protocol in penile rehabilitation, further research on the mechanism of VED, especially real-time PO 2 measurements in different parts of the penis, should be performed. PMID:26289397

  1. Functional and hierarchical interactions among zebrafish vox/vent homeobox genes.

    PubMed

    Gilardelli, Claudio N; Pozzoli, Ombretta; Sordino, Paolo; Matassi, Giorgio; Cotelli, Franco

    2004-07-01

    The vertebrate Vox/Vent family of transcription factors plays a crucial role in the establishment of the dorsoventral (DV) axis, by repressing organizer genes such as bozozok/dharma, goosecoid, and chordino. In Danio rerio (zebrafish), members of the vox/vent gene family (vox/vega1, vent/vega2, and ved) are thought to share expression patterns and functional properties. Bringing novel insights in the differential activity of the zebrafish vox/vent genes, we propose a critical role for the ved gene in DV patterning of vertebrate embryos. ved is not only expressed as a maternal gene, but it also appears to function as a repressor of dorsal factors involved in organizer formation. At early- and mid-gastrula stage, ved appears to be finely controlled by antagonist crosstalks in a complex regulatory network, involving gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) activity, dorsal factors, and vox/vent family members. We show that ved transcripts are ventrally restricted by BMP factors such as bmp2b, bmp7, smad5, and alk8, and by dorsal factors (chd and gsc). Alteration of ved expression in both vox and vent deletion mutants and vox and vent mRNAs-injected embryos, suggests that vox and vent function downstream of BMP signaling to negatively regulate ved expression. This inhibitory role is emphasized by a vox and vent redundant activity, compared with single gene effects. PMID:15188434

  2. Spontaneous decidualization in pseudopregnant rats with vitamin E deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lang, Nan; Wu, Bin; He, Bin; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jiedong

    2016-05-13

    Successful implantation of an embryo requires adequate depth of invasion in the endometrium, which depends upon decidualization. The aim of the present study was to elucidate why humans experience spontaneous decidualization and menstruation while most other mammals do not. We established a spontaneous decidualization model in pseudopregnant rats with vitamin E deficiency (VED) to investigate mechanisms associated with spontaneous decidualization. Vaginal smears were used to monitor bleeding while vitamin E levels were analyzed with a commercial vitamin E assay kit. Trypan blue staining was used to observe the implantation site at 5.5 days post-coitum (dpc). Uterine morphology, estradiol (E2) and progesterone levels, and the anti-oxidation system were evaluated at 5.5, 7.5, and 9.5 dpc. The proportion of rats in the VED group exhibiting endometrial bleeding gradually increased (5.9%, 32.3%, and 50%) over three consecutive cycles of pseudopregnancy. Vitamin E levels in the VED group were markedly lower compared to the control group in both the plasma and uterus, while the level of vitamin E in the liver did not differ between the control and VED groups. Spontaneous decidualization in the VED group was validated by histological examination and immunohistochemistry. At 5.5 dpc, the mean serum E2 level in the VED group was more than twice that of the control group. The mean total anti-oxidizing capability, catalase level, and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly reduced in the decidualized portion of the VED group compared to controls, while the malondialdehyde level was also significantly higher in the decidualized portion of the VED group. We hypothesize that the E2 surge at 5.5 dpc and increasing levels of reactive oxygen species are responsible for spontaneous decidualization in VED rats. PMID:27033606

  3. The field of the vertical electric dipole immersed in the heterogeneous half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsukov, P. O.; Fainberg, E. B.

    2014-07-01

    The field of the vertical electric dipole (VED) immersed in the heterogeneous conductive halfspace (sea) is analyzed in time domain. In the near field of the source, the amplitudes of the electric and magnetic components of the field are proportional to power 3/2 and power 5/2 of the conductivity of the medium, respectively. After termination of the transmitter pulse, all the VED components decay with time as ˜1/ t 5/2. The possibility of applying the VED field for estimating the electrical properties of the offshore geological sections is demonstrated.

  4. Finiteness of the vacuum energy density in quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoukian, Edward B.

    1983-03-01

    Recent interest in the finiteness problem of the vacuum energy density (VED) in finite QED has motivated us to reexamine this problem in the light of an analysis we have carried out earlier. By a loopwise summation procedure, supplemented by a renormalization-group analysis, we study the finiteness of the VED with α, the renormalized fine-structure constant, fixed in the process as the (infinite order) zero of the eigenvalue condition F[1](x)|x=α=0∞, and with the electron mass totally dynamical of origin. We propose a possible finite solution for the VED in QED which may require only one additional eigenvalue condition for α.

  5. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Batagini, Nayara Cioffi; Gornik, Heather; Kirksey, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (VEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant collagen vascular disorder. Different from other Ehler-Danlos Syndrome subtypes, VEDS has poor prognosis due to severe fragility of connective tissues and association with life-threatening vascular and gastrointestinal complications. Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but hazardous complication related to this syndrome. To date, only 2 cases have been reported in the literature. Here we present another case of this uncommon complication, occurring in a 54-year-old woman in clinical follow-up for VEDS who presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain and hypotension. PMID:26323967

  6. A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator exhibiting dual-channel responsive sensing behaviours towards fluoride ion via gel-gel states.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Hassan; Pang, Hongchang; Gong, Weitao; Dhinakaran, Manivannan Kalavathi; Wajahat, Ali; Kuang, Xiaojun; Ning, Guiling

    2016-07-01

    A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator G-16 containing anion and metal-coordination ability has been designed and synthesized. It shows excellent and robust gelation capability as a strong blue fluorescent supramolecular organic gel OG in DMF. Addition of Zn(2+) produced Zn(2+)-coordinated supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn. Organic gel OG and organometallic gel OG-Zn exhibited efficient and different sensing behaviors towards fluoride ion due to the variation in self-assembling nature. Supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn displayed specific selectivity for fluoride ion and formed OG-Zn-F with dramatic color change from blue to blue green in solution and gel to gel states. Furthermore after directly addition of fluoride into OG produced fluoride containing organic gel OG-F with drastically modulation in color from blue to greenish yellow fluorescence via strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property. A number of experiments were conducted such as FTIR, (1)H NMR, and UV/Vis spectroscopies, XRD, SEM and rheology. These results revealed that the driving forces involved in self-assembly of OG, OG-Zn, OG-Zn-F and OG-F were hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, π-π interactions, and van der Waal forces. In contrast to the most anion responsive gels, particularly fluoride ion responsive gels showed gel-sol state transition on stimulation by anions, the gel state of OG and OG-Zn did not show any gel-to-sol transition during the whole F(-) response process. PMID:27193611

  7. GO2OGS 1.0: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Naumov, D.; Sattler, S.; Kolditz, O.; Walther, M.

    2015-11-01

    We offer a versatile workflow to convert geological models built with the ParadigmTM GOCAD© (Geological Object Computer Aided Design) software into the open-source VTU (Visualization Toolkit unstructured grid) format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modeling, in our case employing the OpenGeoSys open-source numerical toolbox for groundwater flow simulations. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing the growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  8. Re-oxidation Kinetics of Flash-Reduced Iron Particles in H2-H2O(g) Atmosphere Relevant to a Novel Flash Ironmaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhixue; Sohn, Hong Yong; Olivas-Martinez, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    A novel flash ironmaking process based on hydrogen-containing reduction gases is under development at the University of Utah. The goal of this work was to study the possibility of the re-oxidation of iron particles in a H2-H2O gas mixture in the lower part of the flash reactor from the kinetic point of view. The last stage of hydrogen reduction of iron oxide, i.e., the reduction of wustite, is limited by equilibrium. As the reaction mixture cools down, the re-oxidation of iron could take place because of the decreasing equilibrium constant and the high reactivity of the freshly reduced fine iron particles. The effects of temperature and H2O partial pressure on the re-oxidation rate were examined in the temperature range of 823 K to 973 K (550 °C to 700 °C) and H2O contents of 40 to 100 pct. The nucleation and growth kinetics model was shown to best describe the re-oxidation kinetics. The partial pressure dependence with respect to water vapor was determined to be of first order, and the activation energy of re-oxidation reaction was 146 kJ/mol. A complete rate equation that adequately represents the experimental data was developed.

  9. A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc 5.5.7-3.1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kolditz, O.; Naumov, D.; Kalbacher, T.

    2015-10-01

    The open-source scientific software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc have been coupled to set up and simulate thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes with simultaneous consideration of aqueous geochemical reactions faster and easier on high-performance computers. In combination with the elaborated and extendable chemical database of IPhreeqc, it will be possible to set up a wide range of multiphysics problems with numerous chemical reactions that are known to influence water quality in porous and fractured media. A flexible parallelization scheme using MPI (Message Passing Interface) grouping techniques has been implemented, which allows an optimized allocation of computer resources for the node-wise calculation of chemical reactions on the one hand and the underlying processes such as for groundwater flow or solute transport on the other. This technical paper presents the implementation, verification, and parallelization scheme of the coupling interface, and discusses its performance and precision.

  10. Paléogéographie du Jurassique supérieur au sud du choot El Hodna, Algérie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissaoui, D. M.

    The Upper Jurassic outcrops as isolated mounts along the southern end of chott el Hodna, Algeria. They consist mainly on shallow platform deposited limestones immediately north (Bout Taleb) and east (Aures) of chott el Hodna, the carbonates of the same age are pelagic and deposited within basin or external platform respectively. Detailed study of Meharga-Fnoud series demonstrates that the shallow carbonate sedimentation in this sector is interrupted by periodic emersions as indicated by vadose diagenesis (birds-eyes, opened burrows, evaporite and dolomite, vadose silts etc). The proposed paleogeography locates the internal jurassic shoreline near the present southern limit of chott el Hodna. Each maximal extension of the emersion leads to the formation of a tidal flat whose origin is not associated with a reefal nor a sedimentary barrier. The emersions are mainly favored by the large dimension and the absence of significant submarine relief within the Jurassic platform. Each emersion starts in the north then progrades southwards by lateral accretions. Its progression is interrupted by deep tectonic reactivation which provokes marine transgression over the tidal flat. One of the main interest of the Jurassic paleogeography in this region concerns the association between the tidal flat and an extensive dolomitization which may transform limestones precursors into good reservoirs.

  11. Evaluation of digital halftones image by vector error diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzaki, Masahiro; Itoh, Tetsuya; Kawaguchi, Takayuki; Tsumura, Norimichi; Haneishi, Hideaki; Miyake, Yoichi

    1998-12-01

    The vector error diffusion (VED) method is applied to proudce the digital halftone images by an electrophotographic printer with 600 dpi. Objective image quality of those obtained images is evaluated and analyzed. As a result, in the color reproduction of halftone image by the VED method, it was clear that there are large color difference between target color and printed color typically in the mid-tone colors. We consider it is due to the printer properties including dot-gain. It was also clear that the color noise of the VED method is larger compared with that of the conventional scalar error diffusion method in some patches. It was remarkable that ununiform patterns are generated by the VED method.

  12. [Abdominal ischemia and lesions of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Myshanych, T V; Moskal', O M; Arkhiĭ, E Ĭ; Sozoniuk, O V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the results of 50 patients with diseases of coronary heart disease (25 pers.) And chronic pancreatitis (25 people) are submitted. Along with the standard test from these patients underwent Doppler-ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its visceral branches. Conclusions: A characteristic feature of Doppler indices in AIC is to reduce Vps and Ved, and PI BbA, increase Vps, Ved, IR and PI after exercise in chBA, chC and BbA. At patients with CP with IHD feature is the increase in Ved and IR in the chC, and Ved and PI in BbA under act of loading Bleed a feature at CP with IHD must be taken into account for optimization of treatment of IHD at CP. PMID:25796868

  13. Effect of agmatine on experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nader, M A; Gamiel, N M; El-Kashef, H; Zaghloul, M S

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of agmatine sulfate (AG, CAS2482-00-0) in nicotine (NIC)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rabbits. NIC was administered to produce VED in rabbits with or without AG for 6 weeks. Serum lipid profile, serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase generation, serum nitrite/nitrate, serum vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and aortic nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) levels were analyzed.Treatment with AG markedly improves lipid profile and prevented NIC-induced VED and oxidative stress. The mechanism of AG in improving NIC-induced VED may be due to the significant reduction in serum VCAM-1 levels and aortic NF-κB. Thus, it may be concluded that AG reduces the oxidative stress, nitric oxide production, VCAM-1 levels, and aortic NF-κB expression, thereby consequently improving the integrity of vascular endothelium. PMID:26424770

  14. Oral phenotype and scoring of vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Michael; Gogly, Bruno; Golmard, Lisa; Naveau, Adrien; Chérifi, Hafida; Emmerich, Joseph; Gaultier, Frédérick; Berdal, Ariane; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Fournier, Benjamin P J

    2012-01-01

    Objective Vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare genetic condition related to mutations in the COL3A1 gene, responsible of vascular, digestive and uterine accidents. Difficulty of clinical diagnosis has led to the design of diagnostic criteria, summarised in the Villefranche classification. The goal was to assess oral features of vEDS. Gingival recession is the only oral sign recognised as a minor diagnostic criterion. The authors aimed to check this assumption since bibliographical search related to gingival recession in vEDS proved scarce. Design Prospective case–control study. Setting Dental surgery department in a French tertiary hospital. Participants 17 consecutive patients with genetically proven vEDS, aged 19–55 years, were compared with 46 age- and sex-matched controls. Observations Complete oral examination (clinical and radiological) with standardised assessment of periodontal structure, temporomandibular joint function and dental characteristics were performed. COL3A1 mutations were identified by direct sequencing of genomic or complementary DNA. Results Prevalence of gingival recession was low among patients with vEDS, as for periodontitis. Conversely, patients showed marked gingival fragility, temporomandibular disorders, dentin formation defects, molar root fusion and increased root length. After logistic regression, three variables remained significantly associated to vEDS. These variables were integrated in a diagnostic oral score with 87.5% and 97% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusions Gingival recession is an inappropriate diagnostic criterion for vEDS. Several new specific oral signs of the disease were identified, whose combination may be of greater value in diagnosing vEDS. PMID:22492385

  15. Podzol development in S Norway - a soil chronosequence of 31 pedons covering soil ages from 85 to 9650 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Svendgård-Stokke, Siri; Sperstad, Ragnhild; Sørensen, Rolf; Fuchs, Markus; Gebers, Henrik; Schülli-Maurer, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    horizons. The mineralogical composition of the parent material is dominated by quartz and feldspars, whereby the feldspar grains show features of proceeding weathering with time. In addition to podzolisation features, illuvial clay is observed below the Bs horizons. Apparently, the sand is sufficiently buffered during the first millennia of soil formation so that acidification proceeds slowly enough to allow for clay translocation prior to podzolisation. Reference Sørensen, R., Høeg, H.I., Henningsmoen, K.E., Skog, G., Labowsky, S.F., Stabell, B. (2012): Utviklingen av det senglasiale og tidlig preboreale landskapet og vegetasjonen omkring steinalderboplassene ved Pauler, Larvik kommune, Vestfold. In: Jaksland, L. (Ed.), E18 Brunlaneprospektet. Varia 79. Kulturhistorisk Museum, University of Oslo.

  16. Micromorphological changes over time observed in the Vestfold Podzol chronosequence, SE Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Musztyfaga, Elżbieta; Sørensen, Rolf; Svendgård-Stokke, Siri; Rennert, Thilo; Sperstad, Ragnhild; Fuchs, Markus

    2016-04-01

    addition, micromorphological analysis shows that clay translocation took place prior to strong acidification and podzolisation in many profiles. In some rare cases, clay coatings are observed even on top of spodic material, suggesting that - at least to minor extent - translocation of coarse clay may take place even contemporarily to podzolisation. This apparent contradiction can be explained by different depths of mobilisation of metal-organic complexes and clay. Apparently, even when the upper, strongly acid part of the soils is already subject to podzolisation, acidification and Al saturation at some depth are still not as advanced as further up in the profile and still allow for clay mobilisation. In addition, cappings of coarse clay and fine silt on top of larger grains suggest that water flushing through the coarse voids of the sandy material, e.g., after snow-melt, may sweep down also clay particles in a not completely dispersed state. In this way, clay translocation might take place also outside the pH range that is usually considered suitable for clay migration. Reference Sørensen, R., Høeg, H.I., Henningsmoen, K.E., Skog, G., Labowsky, S.F., Stabell, B., 2012. Utviklingen av det senglasiale og tidlig preboreale landskapet og vegetasjonen omkring steinalderboplassene ved Pauler, Larvik kommune, Vestfold. In: Jaksland, L. (Ed.), E18 Brunlaneprospektet. Varia 79. Kulturhistorisk Museum, University of Oslo.

  17. Work Programme, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This publication presents the work program for 2001 for the European Center for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) set in the framework of four operational guidelines (OGs). The section on each OG contains an introduction including CEDEFOP's aims, followed by descriptions of research projects relevant to the OG. Each of the 11…

  18. Operational Group Sandy technical progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Department of the Interior Strategic Science Group

    2013-01-01

    This report documents results from the March 2013 deployment of the OGS. It includes background information on Hurricane Sandy and the federal response; the OGS methodology; scenarios for Hurricane Sandy’s impact on coastal communities and urban ecosystems; potential interventions to improve regional resilience to future major storms; a discussion of scenario results; and lessons learned about the OGS process.

  19. Two Grammatical Models of Modern English. The Old and the New from A to Z. Germanic Linguistic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuurman, Frits

    Case studies provide detailed comparisons, arranged alphabetically by title for ease of reference, of 26 problems in Modern English grammar, from both the old grammar (OG) and new grammar (NG) viewpoints. This A-Z approach juxtaposes contributions made by OG and NG to the description of Modern English grammar. Part I surveys large OG and NG…

  20. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome without the characteristic facial features: a case report.

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Ryota; Kurata, Hideaki; Endo, Kiyoshi; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Yahagi, Naoki

    2014-12-01

    As a type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), vascular EDs (vEDS) is typified by a number of characteristic facial features (eg, large eyes, small chin, sunken cheeks, thin nose and lips, lobeless ears). However, vEDs does not typically display hypermobility of the large joints and skin hyperextensibility, which are features typical of the more common forms of EDS. Thus, colonic perforation or aneurysm rupture may be the first presentation of the disease. Because both complications are associated with a reduced life expectancy for individuals with this condition, an awareness of the clinical features of vEDS is important. Here, we describe the treatment of vEDS lacking the characteristic facial attributes in a 24-year-old healthy man who presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain. Enhanced computed tomography revealed diverticula and perforation in the sigmoid colon. The lesion of the sigmoid colon perforation was removed, and Hartmann procedure was performed. During the surgery, the control of bleeding was required because of vascular fragility. Subsequent molecular and genetic analysis was performed based on the suspected diagnosis of vEDS. These analyses revealed reduced type III collagen synthesis in cultured skin fibroblasts and identified a previously undocumented mutation in the gene for a1 type III collagen, confirming the diagnosis of vEDS. After eliciting a detailed medical profile, we learned his mother had a history of extensive bruising since childhood and idiopathic hematothorax. Both were prescribed oral celiprolol. One year after admission, the patient was free of recurrent perforation. This case illustrates an awareness of the clinical characteristics of vEDS and the family history is important because of the high mortality from this condition even in young people. Importantly, genetic assays could help in determining the surgical procedure and offer benefits to relatives since this condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. PMID

  1. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Without the Characteristic Facial Features

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, Ryota; Kurata, Hideaki; Endo, Kiyoshi; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Yahagi, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Abstract As a type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), vascular EDs (vEDS) is typified by a number of characteristic facial features (eg, large eyes, small chin, sunken cheeks, thin nose and lips, lobeless ears). However, vEDs does not typically display hypermobility of the large joints and skin hyperextensibility, which are features typical of the more common forms of EDS. Thus, colonic perforation or aneurysm rupture may be the first presentation of the disease. Because both complications are associated with a reduced life expectancy for individuals with this condition, an awareness of the clinical features of vEDS is important. Here, we describe the treatment of vEDS lacking the characteristic facial attributes in a 24-year-old healthy man who presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain. Enhanced computed tomography revealed diverticula and perforation in the sigmoid colon. The lesion of the sigmoid colon perforation was removed, and Hartmann procedure was performed. During the surgery, the control of bleeding was required because of vascular fragility. Subsequent molecular and genetic analysis was performed based on the suspected diagnosis of vEDS. These analyses revealed reduced type III collagen synthesis in cultured skin fibroblasts and identified a previously undocumented mutation in the gene for a1 type III collagen, confirming the diagnosis of vEDS. After eliciting a detailed medical profile, we learned his mother had a history of extensive bruising since childhood and idiopathic hematothorax. Both were prescribed oral celiprolol. One year after admission, the patient was free of recurrent perforation. This case illustrates an awareness of the clinical characteristics of vEDS and the family history is important because of the high mortality from this condition even in young people. Importantly, genetic assays could help in determining the surgical procedure and offer benefits to relatives since this condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant

  2. Vessel enhancing diffusion: a scale space representation of vessel structures.

    PubMed

    Manniesing, Rashindra; Viergever, Max A; Niessen, Wiro J

    2006-12-01

    A method is proposed to enhance vascular structures within the framework of scale space theory. We combine a smooth vessel filter which is based on a geometrical analysis of the Hessian's eigensystem, with a non-linear anisotropic diffusion scheme. The amount and orientation of diffusion depend on the local vessel likeliness. Vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) is applied to patient and phantom data and compared to linear, regularized Perona-Malik, edge and coherence enhancing diffusion. The method performs better than most of the existing techniques in visualizing vessels with varying radii and in enhancing vessel appearance. A diameter study on phantom data shows that VED least affects the accuracy of diameter measurements. It is shown that using VED as a preprocessing step improves level set based segmentation of the cerebral vasculature, in particular segmentation of the smaller vessels of the vasculature. PMID:16876462

  3. Spontaneous Dissection of the Renal Artery in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Filipa; Cardoso, Teresa; Sá, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders. The vascular type (vEDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the COL3A1 gene predisposing to premature arterial, intestinal, or uterine rupture. We report a case of a 38-year-old woman with a recent diagnosis of vEDS admitted in the Emergency Department with a suspicion of a pyelonephritis that evolved to a cardiopulmonary arrest. A fatal retroperitoneal hematoma related with a haemorrhagic dissection of the right renal artery was found after emergency surgery. This case highlights the need to be aware of the particular characteristics of vEDS, such as a severe vascular complication that can lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:26175915

  4. Total pleural covering technique for intractable pneumothorax in patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yoshihisa; Fukui, Eriko; Kitahara, Naoto; Okura, Eiji; Ohta, Mitsunori

    2016-07-01

    We report a patient with vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) who developed pneumothorax and was treated with a total pleural covering technique (TPC). A 24-year-old man developed repeat pneumothorax with intermittent hemo-sputum. Based on unusual radiological manifestations of lung lesions and physical findings, EDS was suspected as an underlying cause of the pneumothorax. Surgical treatment was performed using a mediastinal fat pad and TPC, and no relapse was seen up to 2 years after surgery. TPC is a less invasive surgical approach for selected patients with vEDS. Accurate underlying diagnosis of vEDS and systemic evaluation of vascular complications are necessary before planning surgery. PMID:25512090

  5. Spontaneous Dissection of the Renal Artery in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Filipa; Cardoso, Teresa; Sá, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders. The vascular type (vEDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the COL3A1 gene predisposing to premature arterial, intestinal, or uterine rupture. We report a case of a 38-year-old woman with a recent diagnosis of vEDS admitted in the Emergency Department with a suspicion of a pyelonephritis that evolved to a cardiopulmonary arrest. A fatal retroperitoneal hematoma related with a haemorrhagic dissection of the right renal artery was found after emergency surgery. This case highlights the need to be aware of the particular characteristics of vEDS, such as a severe vascular complication that can lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:26175915

  6. The 2-oxoglutarate supply exerts significant control on the lysine synthesis flux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Héctor; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Rumjanek, Franklin D; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma

    2013-11-01

    To determine the extent to which the supply of the precursor 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) controls the synthesis of lysine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing exponentially in high glucose, top-down elasticity analysis was used. Three groups of reactions linked by 2-OG were defined. The 2-OG supply group comprised all metabolic steps leading to its formation, and the two 2-OG consumer groups comprised the enzymes and transporters involved in 2-OG transformation into lysine and glutamate and their further utilization for protein synthesis and storage. Various 2-OG steady-state concentrations that produced different fluxes to lysine and glutamate were attained using yeast mutants with increasing activities of Krebs cycle enzymes and decreased activities of Lys synthesis enzymes. The elasticity coefficients of the three enzyme groups were determined from the dependence of the amino acid fluxes on the 2-OG concentration. The respective degrees of control on the flux towards lysine (flux control coefficients) were determined from their elasticities, and were 1.1, 0.41 and -0.52 for the 2-OG producer group and the Lys and Glu branches, respectively. Thus, the predominant control exerted by the 2-OG supply on the rate of lysine synthesis suggests that over-expression of 2-OG producer enzymes may be a highly effective strategy to enhance Lys production. PMID:24034837

  7. Effect of rosiglitazone in sodium arsenite-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tajpreet; Goel, Rajesh Kumar; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2010-04-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonist in sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. The rats were administered sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) to induce VED. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Further, the integrity of the aortic endothelium was assessed histologically using haematoxylin-eosin staining. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, aortic reactive oxygen species and reduced form of glutathione. The administration of sodium arsenite produced VED by impairing acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation, diminishing the integrity of vascular endothelium and decreasing the serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. In addition, sodium arsenite was noted to produce oxidative stress as it increased serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and aortic reactive oxygen species and consequently decreased glutathione. Treatment with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg/day, p.o., 2 weeks and 5 mg/kg/day, p.o., 2 weeks) significantly prevented sodium arsenite-induced VED by enhancing acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation, improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the nitrite/nitrate concentration and decreasing the oxidative stress. However, the vascular protective effect of rosiglitazone was markedly abolished by co-administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-Omega-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) (25 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks). Thus, it may be concluded that rosiglitazone reduces oxidative stress, activates eNOS and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent sodium arsenite-induced VED in rats. PMID:20422371

  8. Benfotiamine attenuates nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Sharma, Ramica; Singh, Manjeet

    2008-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative, in nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 4 weeks) and uric acid (150 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 3 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of thoracic aorta. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion generation. The administration of nicotine and uric acid produced VED by impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine and uric acid produced oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with benfotiamine (70 mg kg(-1)day(-1), p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1)day(-1) p.o., a standard agent) markedly prevented nicotine and uric acid-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Thus, it may be concluded that benfotiamine reduces the oxidative stress and consequently improves the integrity of vascular endothelium and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent nicotine and uric acid-induced experimental VED. PMID:18951979

  9. Vitamin E deficiency ataxia associated with adenoma.

    PubMed

    Benomar, A; Yahyaoui, M; Marzouki, N; Birouk, N; Bouslam, N; Belaidi, H; Amarti, A; Ouazzani, R; Chkili, T

    1999-01-01

    Vitamin E is one of the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant nutrient. Severe vitamin E deficiency (VED) can have a profound effect on the central nervous system. VED causes ataxia and peripheral neuropathy that resembles Friedreich's ataxia. We report here a patient presenting this syndrome, but also a prolactin and FSH adenoma. Both the neurological syndromes and the adenoma regressed after treatment with alpha-tocopherol. Although, the presence of the prolactinoma in this patient may not be related to his vitamin E deficiency, alpha-tocopherol treatment seems to be beneficial and might usefully be tested in patients with hypophyseal secreting other forms of adenoma. PMID:10064178

  10. Cervical artery dissections and type A aortic dissection in a family with a novel missense COL3A1 mutation of vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Makrygiannis, Georgios; Loeys, Bart; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2015-11-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CeAD) is a rare condition. One of the causes is the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS). A novel missense mutation in COL3A1 was found in a young patient with CeAD as the single manifestation of vEDS. This is a heterozygous c.953G > A mutation in exon 14, disrupting the normal Gly-X-Y repeats of type III procollagen, by converting glycine to aspartic acid. PMID:26497932

  11. Rickettsia Phylogenomics: Unwinding the Intricacies of Obligate Intracellular Life

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Williams, Kelly; Shukla, Maulik; Snyder, Eric E.; Nordberg, Eric K.; Ceraul, Shane M.; Dharmanolla, Chitti; Rainey, Daphne; Soneja, Jeetendra; Shallom, Joshua M.; Vishnubhat, Nataraj Dongre; Wattam, Rebecca; Purkayastha, Anjan; Czar, Michael; Crasta, Oswald; Setubal, Joao C.; Azad, Abdu F.; Sobral, Bruno S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Completed genome sequences are rapidly increasing for Rickettsia, obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria responsible for various human diseases, including epidemic typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In light of phylogeny, the establishment of orthologous groups (OGs) of open reading frames (ORFs) will distinguish the core rickettsial genes and other group specific genes (class 1 OGs or C1OGs) from those distributed indiscriminately throughout the rickettsial tree (class 2 OG or C2OGs). Methodology/Principal Findings We present 1823 representative (no gene duplications) and 259 non-representative (at least one gene duplication) rickettsial OGs. While the highly reductive (∼1.2 MB) Rickettsia genomes range in predicted ORFs from 872 to 1512, a core of 752 OGs was identified, depicting the essential Rickettsia genes. Unsurprisingly, this core lacks many metabolic genes, reflecting the dependence on host resources for growth and survival. Additionally, we bolster our recent reclassification of Rickettsia by identifying OGs that define the AG (ancestral group), TG (typhus group), TRG (transitional group), and SFG (spotted fever group) rickettsiae. OGs for insect-associated species, tick-associated species and species that harbor plasmids were also predicted. Through superimposition of all OGs over robust phylogeny estimation, we discern between C1OGs and C2OGs, the latter depicting genes either decaying from the conserved C1OGs or acquired laterally. Finally, scrutiny of non-representative OGs revealed high levels of split genes versus gene duplications, with both phenomena confounding gene orthology assignment. Interestingly, non-representative OGs, as well as OGs comprised of several gene families typically involved in microbial pathogenicity and/or the acquisition of virulence factors, fall predominantly within C2OG distributions. Conclusion/Significance Collectively, we determined the relative conservation and distribution of 14354 predicted

  12. Nouveaux restes aviens du Néogène de la Sperrgebiet (Namibie): Complément à la biostratigraphie avienne des éolianites du désert de Namib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senut, Brigitte; Dauphin, Yannicke; Pickford, Martin

    1998-11-01

    Two new types of fossil ratite eggshells discovered in aeolianites at Karingarab (Sperrgebiet, Namibia) exhibit morphologies intermediate between those of types already described. They help to refine the biochronology of the aeolianites of the Namib Desert.

  13. Smaborns Dagpasning: Et Problem for Foraeldre og Kommuner. (Day-Care of Pre-School Children: A Problem to Parents and Local Authorities. With an English Summary). Publication No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Bodil

    Survey data were collected for the purposes of describing and comparing various forms of day care provision for preschool children within Danish municipalities with different day care provision and different degrees of urbanization. Information concerning the family background of subjects, parental assessment of different aspects of day care and…

  14. Différenciation paléogéographique à l'Ordovicien supérieur dans le Tafilalt (Anti-Atlas oriental, Maroc) sous l'interaction de la glaciation et de la tectonique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Maazouz, Brahim; Hamoumi, Naima

    2007-07-01

    The Tafilalt domain, which corresponded, during the Lower and Middle Ordovician, to a storm and/or tide-dominated epeiric shelf with east-west- to ENE-WSW-trending isopachs, such as the whole 'Anti-Atlasic basin', recorded major palaeogeographical changes during the Upper Ordovician. An extensional tectonic event resulted in the individualization of two sub-basins: the 'Khabt-El-Hejar sub-basin' and the 'western Tafilalt sub-basin', where new environments developed under the interplay between tectonics and glaciation. In the northeastern Tafilalt sub-basin took place an isolated carbonate platform, where Bryozoan mounds nucleated, and a mixed siliciclastic carbonate high-energy peritidal littoral. In the 'western Tafilalt sub-basin', the siliciclastic shelf was structured in half-graben, where sediments from the Saharan glacier and the carbonate platform of the Khabt-El-Hejar sub-basin accumulated in fan deltas.

  15. L'Arenig Llanvirn du Haut Atlas occidental et central (Maroc). Environnements sédimentaires, paléogéographie et contrôle de la sédimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacrone, Choukri; Hamoumi, Naïma

    2005-09-01

    The sedimentological study of Arenig-Llanvirn successions of Aït Lahsen (western High Atlas), Tizi-n-Tichka and Imini (central High Atlas) allow us to recognise two independent epeiric seas. In the western High Atlas, the sedimentation occurred in a wave- and storm-influenced delta, alimented by a source situated at the present-day location of the Argana corridor, under the control of sea-level fluctuations and subsidence. In the central High Atlas, the sedimentation occurred in an influenced tide and episodic storm delta, alimented by sources situated at the present-day location of the Siroua and Ouzellagh Massifs under the control of sea-level fluctuations and tectonics. To cite this article: C. Chacrone, N. Hamoumi, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  16. Nonselective and polarization effects in time-resolved optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhechev, D.; Steflekova, V.

    2016-02-01

    Three interfering effects in optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy are identified in a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) - OG detector. The laser beam is found to generate two nonselective processes, namely photoelectron emission (PE) from the cathode surface with a sub-breakdown bias applied, and nonresonant space ionization. The convolution of these galvanic contributions was determined experimentally as an instrumental function and a deconvolution procedure to determine the actual OG signal was developed. Specific plasma conductance is detected dependent on the polarization of the laser beam irradiating. Linearly/circularly polarized light beam is found to induce OG signals differ in amplitude (and their shape parameters in the time-resolved OG signals (TROGS)). The phenomena coherence and specific conductance are found to be in causal relationship. The additional conductance due to coherent states of atoms manifests itself as an intrinsic instrumental property of OG detector.

  17. Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression.

    PubMed

    Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

    2014-01-01

    G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.) PMID:24575366

  18. Structural Underpinnings of Nitrogen Regulation by the Prototypical Nitrogen-Responsive Transcriptional Factor NrpR

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Dranow, David M.; Lie, Thomas J.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Patskovsky, Yury; Ozyurt, Sinem A.; Sauder, J. Michael; Almo, Steven C.; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Burley, Stephen K.; Leigh, John A.; Gonen, Tamir

    2010-11-29

    Plants and microorganisms reduce environmental inorganic nitrogen to ammonium, which then enters various metabolic pathways solely via conversion of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) to glutamate and glutamine. Cellular 2OG concentrations increase during nitrogen starvation. We recently identified a family of 2OG-sensing proteins - the nitrogen regulatory protein NrpR - that bind DNA and repress transcription of nitrogen assimilation genes. We used X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of NrpR regulatory domain. We identified the NrpR 2OG-binding cleft and show that residues predicted to interact directly with 2OG are conserved among diverse classes of 2OG-binding proteins. We show that high levels of 2OG inhibit NrpRs ability to bind DNA. Electron microscopy analyses document that NrpR adopts different quaternary structures in its inhibited 2OG-bound state compared with its active apo state. Our results indicate that upon 2OG release, NrpR repositions its DNA-binding domains correctly for optimal interaction with DNA thereby enabling gene repression.

  19. A reporter ligand NMR screening method for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Demetriades, Marina; Hardy, Adam P.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Smart, Tristan J.; Szöllössi, Andrea; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The human 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases belong to a family of structurally related enzymes that play important roles in many biological processes. We report that competition-based NMR methods, using 2OG as a reporter ligand, can be used for quantitative and site-specific screening of ligand binding to 2OG oxygenases. The method was demonstrated using hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases and histone demethylases, and KD values were determined for inhibitors that compete with 2OG at the metal centre. This technique is also useful as a screening or validation tool for inhibitor discovery, as exemplified by work with protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC). PMID:23234607

  20. A Culture-Based Model for Strategic Implementation of Virtual Education Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Janice; Thongprasert, Nalinee

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the critical success factors for implementing Virtual Education Delivery (VED) in Thailand, and to identify ways to facilitate such adoption and lead to effective outcomes. The study incorporated an analysis of three specific factors related to Thai culture: high power distance "Bhun Khun", uncertainty…

  1. Types of Empathy and Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale (VEDS) and an…

  2. Hearings on Reauthorization of the Vocational Education Act of 1963. Part 10: Vocational Education Data System. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives. Ninety-Seventh Congress. First Session (December 10, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This is a report of a hearing on December 10, 1981, before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, regarding reauthorization of the Vocational Education Act of 1963. It focuses on the vocational education data system known as VEDS. Testimony includes…

  3. Community College Journal for Research and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edith H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    This journal, designed as a forum for the exchange of ideas among research and planning professionals, offers articles of research studies and practices. After Timothy Lightfield highlights upcoming professional association events, Janice S. Ancarrow's article, "The National Vocational Education Data Reporting and Accounting System (VEDS): Its…

  4. Performance of an array of vertical dipoles over an inhomogeneous ground system

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.J.; Mathur, N.C.

    1983-03-01

    The elevation radiation patterns of a stacked array of vertical electric dipoles (VEDs) over several different azimuthally symmetric inhomogeneous ground systems are studied using an integral formulation. As the ground influences the pattern of each VED differently, there is no known optimum array excitation which can be used to achieve desired beam shaping and steering. Patterns in an array of 21 VEDs spaced 0.1 lambda apart are computed and compared to HF (10 MHz) for three excitation functions: (a) conventional linear spacial phasing, (b) phasing according to the complex conjugate of the field produced by each VED in the direction of steering, and (c) spacially sinusoidal excitation with constant phasing. Results are given for grounds consisting of homogeneous earth, a perfectly conducting ground plane, a perfectly conducting disk on homogeneous earth and 2 lambda long radial wire ground systems on well- and poorly-conducting earth. It is found that the radiation pattern cannot be steered below about 9/sup 0/ in elevation for any of the excitation functions or the ground systems used. For low-angle steering conjugate excitation produces a slightly narrower beam with smaller sidelobes. Highly conducting grounds tend to permit steering to slightly higher elevations with narrower beams.

  5. Vocational Education. Report by the Secretary of Education to the Congress, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This annual report provides an overview of the status of vocational education during school year 1980-81. It includes final data for school year 1979-80 obtained through the Vocational Education Data System (VEDS), the national vocational education reporting and accounting system. Part 1 of the report describes the status of vocational education…

  6. Exploring the Meaningful Learning of Students in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki; Pyykko, Elli; Ruokamo, Heli

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a case study in which a pedagogical model, namely the Global Virtual Education (GloVEd) model, which is based on the teaching-studying-learning process (TSL process) and the characteristics of meaningful learning, is developed and used to evaluate students' meaningful learning experiences during the Global Virtual Collaboration…

  7. Embolization of Life-Threatening Arterial Rupture in Patients with Vascular Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takuya; Frank, Michael; Pellerin, Olivier Primio, Massimiliano Di Angelopoulos, Georgios; Boughenou, Marie-Fazia; Pagny, Jean-Yves; Messas, Emmanuel; Sapoval, Marc

    2013-05-09

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of transarterial embolization of life-threatening arterial rupture in patients with vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) in a single tertiary referral center.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed transarterial embolization for vEDS performed at our institution from 2000 to 2012. The indication of embolization was spontaneous arterial rupture or pseudoaneurysm with acute bleeding. All interventions used a percutaneous approach through a 5F or less introducer sheath. Embolic agents were microcoils and glue in 3 procedures, glue alone in 2, and microcoils alone in 2.ResultsFive consecutive vEDS patients were treated by 7 embolization procedures (4 women, mean age 29.8 years). All procedures were successfully performed. Two patients required a second procedure for newly arterial lesions at a different site from the first procedure. Four of the five patients were still alive after a mean follow-up of 19.4 (range 1–74.7) months. One patient died of multiple organ failure 2 days after procedure. Minor procedural complications were observed in 3 procedures (43 %), all directly managed during the same session. Remote arterial lesions occurred after 3 procedures (43 %); one underwent a second embolization, and the other 2 were observed conservatively. Puncture site complication was observed in only one procedure (14 %).ConclusionEmbolization for vEDS is a safe and effective method to manage life-threatening arterial rupture.

  8. Treadmill walking is not equivalent to overground walking for the study of walking smoothness and rhythmicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Row Lazzarini, Brandi S; Kataras, Theodore J

    2016-05-01

    Treadmills are appealing for gait studies, but some gait mechanics are disrupted during treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of speed and treadmill walking on walking smoothness and rhythmicity of 40 men and women between the ages of 70-96 years. Gait smoothness was examined during overground (OG) and treadmill (TM) walking by calculating the harmonic ratio from linear accelerations measured at the level of the lumbar spine. Rhythmicity was quantified as the stride time standard deviation. TM walking was performed at two speeds: a speed matching the natural OG walk speed (TM-OG), and a preferred TM speed (PTM). A dual-task OG condition (OG-DT) was evaluated to determine if TM walking posed a similar cognitive challenge. Statistical analysis included a one-way Analysis of Variance with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for non-normally distributed variables. Average PTM speed was slower than OG. Compared to OG, those who could reach the TM-OG speed (74.3% of sample) exhibited improved ML smoothness and rhythmicity, and the slower PTM caused worsened vertical and AP smoothness, but did not affect rhythmicity. PTM disrupted smoothness and rhythmicity differently than the OG-DT condition, likely due to reduced speed. The use of treadmills for gait smoothness and rhythmicity studies in older adults is problematic; some participants will not achieve OG speed during TM walking, walking at the TM-OG speed artificially improves rhythmicity and ML smoothness, and walking at the slower PTM speed worsens vertical and AP gait smoothness. PMID:27131175

  9. Aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum improves hematological parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats via its antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Shehu-Tijani Toyin; Oyeyemi, Wahab A; Lasisi, Taye J; Shittu, Seyid Alli-Siise; Lawal, Temitope T; Olujobi, Samuel T

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) on hematological parameters and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five male rats (150–200 g) were randomly grouped into five as control, normal + OG, diabetic untreated, diabetic + OG, and diabetic + glibenclamide groups. Diabetes was induced by 100 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate in the diabetic untreated and diabetic + OG groups followed by treatment with distilled water and 400 mg/kg OG, respectively, whereas control, normal + OG, and diabetic + glibenclamide groups were treated with distilled water, 400 mg/kg OG, and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, respectively. Body weight and fasting blood glucose level were monitored weekly. After 28 days of treatments, under anesthesia induced by 50 mg/kg sodium thiopental i.p., blood samples were obtained for hematological analysis, malondialdehyde (MDA) level determination, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Data were compared using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: There was a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose of the diabetic + OG animals compared to the diabetic untreated and the initial reduction in weight observed in this group was reversed at the end of the experiments. Packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin concentration were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the diabetic + OG when compared with the untreated group. The MDA concentration was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) in the diabetic + OG group when compared with diabetic untreated while SOD activity was significantly reduced in the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: It was concluded that OG reverses anemia secondary to alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats probably via its antioxidant activity. PMID:27127737

  10. Fenofibrate attenuates nicotine-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Chakkarwar, Vishal Arvind

    2011-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of fenofibrate on nicotine-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) was administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy of thoracic aorta. The expression of mRNA for p22phox and eNOS was assessed by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion concentration were estimated to assess oxidative stress. Moreover, the serum lipid profile was assessed by estimating serum cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein. The administration of nicotine induces VED by increased oxidative stress, altered lipid profile and impaired the integrity of vascular endothelium as assessed in terms of decrease in expression of mRNA for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine produced oxidative stress, assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation and increase in expression of mRNA for p22phox. Nicotine altered the lipid profile by increasing the serum cholesterol, triglycerides and decreasing the high density lipoprotein. However, treatment with fenofibrate (32 mg/kg, p.o.) markedly prevented nicotine-induced VED by decreasing oxidative stress and improving integrity of vascular endothelium, normalising the altered lipid profile, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic

  11. Electrical activity of corpus cavernosum in vasculogenic and non-vasculogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Atahan, O; Kayigil, O; Metin, A

    1997-12-01

    We aimed to compare the electrical activity of corpus cavernosum before and after intracavernous papaverine injection and to determine the blood lipid profile in vascular and non-vascular erectile dysfunction, and also to assess whether vascular pathology and abnormal blood lipid levels impair cavernosal smooth-muscle relaxation. We determined total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in peripheral and cavernosal blood in 39 patients with erectile dysfunction. Electromyography of the corpus cavernosum was performed before and after an intracavernous injection with 60 mg of papaverine in all patients. Thirty-nine impotent patients have been divided into two groups: vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED) and non-vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (NVED), according to colour Doppler ultrasonic flowmetry, dynamic infusion cavernosometry and the pressure difference between the brachial arterial systolic pressure and cavernosal arterial systolic pressure measurements. Biochemical values and amplitude changes were compared in both groups. The TC level was higher in both peripheral and cavernosal samples of the VED group than in the NVED group (p = 0.000), with no differences between peripheral and cavernosal blood levels within the same groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant changes in TG and HDL levels in any of the groups (p > 0.05). The mean amplitude differences before and after papaverine injection (delta A) were found to be 2.05 +/- 0.78 microV in the VED group and 4.68 +/- 2.53 microV in the NVED group, showing that the relaxation response to papaverine was more significant in the NVED than in the VED group (p = 0.003). The moderate decreases in the amplitude of electrical activity of corpus cavernosum and the higher TC levels found in the VED group can be accepted as the parameters of impairment in the relaxation of corpus cavernosum, showing the role of hypercholesterolaemia and vascular pathologies in erectile

  12. Involvement of Rho-kinase in experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dhvanit I; Singh, Manjeet

    2006-02-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of fasudil (Rho-kinase inhibitor) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperhomocyteinemia (HHcy) induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). Streptozotocin (55 mg kg(-1), i.v., once only) and methionine (1.7% w/w, p.o., daily for 4 weeks) were administered to rats to produce DM (serum glucose >140 mg dl(-1)) and HHcy (serum homocysteine >10 microM) respectively. VED was assessed using isolated aortic ring, electron microscopy of thoracic aorta, and serum concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration was estimated to assess oxidative stress. Atorvastatin has been employed in the present study as standard agent to improve vascular endothelial dysfunction. Fasudil (15 mg kg(-1) and 30 mg kg(-1), p.o., daily) and atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1), p.o., daily) treatments significantly attenuated increase in serum glucose and homocysteine but their concentrations remained markedly higher than sham control value. Fasudil and atorvastatin treatments markedly prevented DM and HHcy-induced (i) attenuation of acetylcholine induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, (ii) impairment of vascular endothelial lining, (iii) decrease in serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, and (iv) increase in serum TBARS. It may be concluded that fasudil prevented DM and HHcy-induced VED partially by decreasing serum glucose and homocysteine concentration due to inhibition of Rho-kinase. Moreover, inhibition of Rho-kinase by fasudil and consequent prevention of oxidative stress may have directly improved VED in diabetic and hyperhomocysteinemic rats. The Rho-kinase appears to be a pivotal target site involved in DM and HHcy-induced VED. PMID:16444602

  13. Is early measles vaccination better than later measles vaccination?

    PubMed

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2015-01-01

    WHO recommends delaying measles vaccination (MV) until maternal antibody has waned. However, early MV may improve child survival by reducing mortality from conditions other than measles infection. We tested whether early MV improves child survival compared with later MV. We found 43 studies comparing measles-vaccinated and measles-unvaccinated children; however, only 16 studies had specific information that MV had been provided at 4-13 months of age, many before 9 months of age. In the 10 best studies (4 randomized trials and 6 observational studies) control children did not receive MV during follow-up. In eight of these studies the vaccine efficacy against death (VED) was 60% or more. In four studies with information on MV provided both before and after 12 months of age, the all-cause mortality reduction was significantly larger for children vaccinated in infancy (VED=74%; 95% CI 51-86%) than for children vaccinated after 12 months of age (VED=29%; CI 8-46%). Prevention of measles explained little of the reduction in mortality. In five studies with information on measles infection, VED was 67% (51-78%) and when measles deaths were excluded, VED was only reduced to 65% (47-77%). One natural experiment compared MV at 4-8 months versus MV at 9-11 months of age and found significantly lower all-cause mortality with early vaccination, the difference being 39% (8-60%). Child mortality may be reduced if MV is given earlier than currently recommended by international organizations. PMID:25573106

  14. Interleukin-27 inhibits vaccine-enhanced pulmonary disease following respiratory syncytial virus infection by regulating cellular memory responses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ruihong; Zhang, Huixian; Hai, Yan; Cui, Yuxiu; Wei, Lin; Li, Na; Liu, Jianxun; Li, Caixia; Liu, Ying

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young children. In the 1960s, infants vaccinated with formalin-inactivated RSV developed a more severe disease characterized by excessive inflammatory immunopathology in lungs upon natural RSV infection. The fear of causing the vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) is an important obstacle for development of safe and effective RSV vaccines. The recombinant vaccine candidate G1F/M2 immunization also led to VED. It has been proved that cellular memory induced by RSV vaccines contributed to VED. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-23 regulate Th1, Th17, and/or Th2 cellular immune responses. In this study, mice coimmunized with pcDNA3-IL-27 and G1F/M2 were fully protected and, importantly, did not develop vaccine-enhanced inflammatory responses and immunopathology in lungs after RSV challenge, which was correlated with moderate Th1-, suppressed Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses activated by RSV. In contrast, G1F/M2- or pcDNA3-IL-23+G1F/M2-immunized mice, in which robust Th2- and Th17-like memory responses were induced, developed enhanced pulmonary inflammation and severe immunopathology. Mice coimmunized with G1F/M2 and the two cytokine plasmids exhibited mild inflammatory responses as well as remarkable Th1-, suppressed Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses. These results suggested that Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses and, in particular, excessive Th2- and Th17-like memory responses were closely associated with VED; IL-27 may inhibit VED following respiratory syncytial virus infection by regulating cellular memory responses. PMID:22301139

  15. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C.; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de. PMID:26582926

  16. VERTICAL STRATIFICATION OF SOIL WATER STORAGE AND RELEASE DYNAMICS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST CONIFEROUS FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract for journal article We characterized vertical variation in the seasonal depletion of stored soil moisture in old-growth ponderosa pine (OG-PP, xeric), and young and old-growth Douglas-fir (Y-DF, OG-DF, mesic) forests to evaluate changes in water availability for root up...

  17. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400.... 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20...

  18. 40 CFR 432.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the corresponding limitations specified in... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in §...

  19. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400.... 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20...

  20. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400.... 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20...

  1. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de. PMID:26582926

  2. The low temperature oxidation of lithium thin films on HOPG by O2 and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfsberg, Steven M.; Koel, Bruce E.; Bernasek, Steven L.

    2016-09-01

    Lithiated graphite and lithium thin films have been used in fusion devices. In this environment, lithiated graphite will undergo oxidation by background gases. In order to gain insight into this oxidation process, thin (< 15 monolayer (ML)) lithium films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were exposed to O2(g) and H2O(g) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to identify the surface species formed during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain the relative oxidation rates during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. AES showed that as the lithium film thickness decreased from 15 to 5 to 1 ML, the oxidation rate decreased for both O2(g) and H2O(g). HREELS showed that a 15 ML lithium film was fully oxidized after 9.7 L (L) of O2(g) exposure and Li2O was formed. HREELS also showed that during initial exposure (< 0.5 L) H2O(g), lithium hydride and lithium hydroxide were formed on the surface of a 15 ML lithium film. After 0.5 L of H2O(g) exposure, the H2O(g) began to physisorb, and after 15 L of H2O(g) exposure, the 15 ML lithium film was not fully oxidized.

  3. 40 CFR 432.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the..., fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the corresponding limitations specified in § 432.12(a)(1... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in §...

  4. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1...

  5. 40 CFR 432.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the..., fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the corresponding limitations specified in § 432.12(a)(1... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in §...

  6. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1...

  7. 40 CFR 432.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the..., fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.42(a)(1); and standards... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  8. 40 CFR 432.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the..., fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.42(a)(1); and standards... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  9. Reading and Spelling Gains Following One Year of Orton-Gillingham Intervention in Singaporean Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Lois; Oei, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of Orton-Gillingham (OG) based approaches to dyslexia remediation, empirical support documenting its effectiveness is lacking. Recently, Chia and Houghton demonstrated the effectiveness of the OG approach for remediation of dyslexia in Singapore. As a conceptual replication and extension of that research, we report…

  10. Detection of induced seismicity due to oil and gas extraction in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadugba, Oluwaseun Idowu

    Drilling operations and extraction of oil and gas (O&G) may lead to subsurface slumping or compression of sediments due to reduced vertical principal stress which may lead to small earthquakes at the drilling site. O&G extraction is common in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGM) and only thirty-five earthquakes of magnitudes between 2.3 and 6.0 have been recorded in the area from 1974 to the present. The purpose of this research is to detect more earthquakes using stacks of seismic data from the Transportable USArray (TA) from 2011 to 2013, and determine the spatiotemporal relationship between the detected earthquakes and O&G extraction. Five new small offshore earthquakes, that may be associated with the offshore O&G production, have been detected in the data. Spatial correlation of the epicenters with offshore drilling sites shows that the earthquakes may be due to the O&G extraction.

  11. Molecular diagnosis in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Predicts Pattern of Arterial Involvement and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shalhub, Sherene; Black, James H; Cecchi, Alana C.; Xu, Zhi; Griswold, Ben F; Safi, Hazim J; Milewicz, Dianna M.; McDonnell, Nazli B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The management of arterial pathology in individuals with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) remains a challenge. Here we describe the correlation between COL3A1 gene mutation type and the clinical phenotype in individuals with vEDS. METHODS Individuals with confirmed molecular diagnoses of vEDS were enrolled in a multi institutional natural history study. Data collected included demographics, clinical and family histories, arterial pathology (aneurysm, dissection, and rupture), operative details, and autopsy reports. Individuals were classified into two cohorts based on the type of COL3A1 mutations and their effect on the amount of normal collagen produced: MIN group had mutations that lead to minimal (10–15%) production of normal type III collagen and HI group had haploinsufficiency mutations that lead to production of half the normal type III collagen. RESULTS A cohort of 68 (72%) individuals from 56 families had arterial pathology (44% male, 13% HI). The HI group was older at the time of their first vascular event (mean 42 years, range 26–58 vs. 33 years, range 8–62, P = .016). The HI group had a higher incidence of aortic pathology compared to the MIN group (56% vs. 21%. P = .025). Visceral arterial pathology was seen in 43 arteries in 23 individuals in the MIN group versus only a single artery in 5 individuals in the HI group. Emergent surgical procedures were more likely to be undertaken when vEDS diagnosis was not known (81% vs. 41%, P = .005) and the majority of these procedures were open surgical repair compared to endovascular repair (81% vs. 19%, P = .019). In the elective setting, there was equal use of open and endovascular repair. Post-operative complications were highest when the diagnosis of vEDS was not known (62% vs. 14%, P < .001) and when procedures were undertaken in an emergency setting (5% vs. 55% P < .001). There was no mortality due to arterial complications in the HI cohort and 21% in the MIN cohort (P = .132

  12. The use of the osmole gap as a screening test for the presence of exogenous substances.

    PubMed

    Purssell, Roy A; Lynd, Larry D; Koga, Yoshikata

    2004-01-01

    The rapid and accurate diagnosis of toxic alcohol poisoning due to methanol (methyl alcohol) [MeOH] and ethylene glycol (EG), is paramount in preventing serious adverse outcomes. The quantitative measurement of specific serum levels of these substances using gas chromatography is expensive, time consuming and generally only available at major tertiary-care facilities. Therefore, because these toxic substances are osmotically active and the measurement of serum osmolality is easily performed and more readily available, the presence of an osmole gap (OG) has been adopted as an alternative screening test. By definition, the OG is the difference between the measured serum osmolality determined using the freezing point depression (Osm(m)) and the calculated serum molarity (Mc), which is estimated from the known and readily measurable osmotically active substances in the serum, in particular sodium, urea, glucose, and potassium and ethanol (alcohol). Thus, the OG=Osm(m)-Mc, and an OG above a specific threshold (the threshold of positivity) suggests the presence of unmeasured osmotically active substances, which could be indicative of a toxic exposure. The objectives of this study were to review the principles of evaluating screening tests, the theory behind the OG as a screening test and the literature upon which the adoption of the OG as a screening test has been based. This review revealed that there have been numerous equations derived and proposed for the estimation of the Mc, with the objective of developing empirical evidence of the best equation for the determination of the OG and ultimately the utility of OG as a screening test. However, the methods and statistical analysis employed have generally been inconsistent with recommended guidelines for screening test evaluation and although many equations have been derived, they have not been appropriately validated. Specific evidence of the clinical utility of the OG requires that a threshold of positivity be

  13. Morphology and structure of extremely red objects at z ∼ 1 in the CANDELS-COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Guan-Wen; Ma, Zhong-Yang; Chen, Yang; Kong, Xu

    2015-06-01

    Using high-resolution HST/Wide Field Camera 3 F125W imaging from the CANDELS-COSMOS field, we report the structural and morphological properties of extremely red objects (EROs) at z ∼ 1. Based on the UVJ color criteria, we separate EROs into two types: old passive galaxies (OGs) and dusty star-forming galaxies (DGs). For a given stellar mass, we find that the mean size of OGs (DGs) is smaller by a factor of ∼ 2 (1.5) than that of present-day early-type (late-type) galaxies at a rest-frame optical wavelength. We derive the average effective radii of OGs and DGs, corresponding to 2.09 ± 1.13 kpc and 3.27 ± 1.14 kpc, respectively. Generally, the DGs are heterogeneous, with mixed features including bulges, disks and irregular structures, with relatively high M20, large size and low G. By contrast, OGs have elliptical-like compact morphologies with lower M20, smaller size and higher G, indicating a more concentrated and symmetric spatial extent of the stellar population distribution in OGs than DGs. These findings imply that OGs and DGs have different evolutionary processes, and that the minor merger scenario is the most likely mechanism for the structural properties of OGs. However, the size evolution of DGs is possibly due to the secular evolution of galaxies. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  14. A comparison of surgical procedures and postoperative cares for minimally invasive laparoscopic gastrectomy and open gastrectomy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong-Na; Hu, Jun-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive, laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) has assumed an ever-expanding role in gastric cancer treatment. Accumulating data so far seem to suggest that LG is at least a viable alternative of conventional open gastrectomy (OG) in different contexts. However, even though reviews and meta-analyses have compared the advantages and limitations of each option, it is still controversial whether LG is a better alternative to OG, especially in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). The major goal of this study is to evaluate the readouts of LG, in comparison with OG. A literature search was performed for studies published from 2009 to 2013. Medical records of 20868 gastric cancer patients from 32 independent studies were reviewed and analyzed. All 32 studies concluded that LG is at least comparable with OG. LG is superior to OG in offering less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and lower risk of complications, although LG is probably inferior in operative time, and not different from OG in mortality. Considering the merits and the potential future technical improvement, it is reasonable to speculate that LG may eventually replace OG in most clinical contexts. PMID:26379823

  15. Decolourization of the azo dye Orange G in aqueous solution via a heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction catalysed by goethite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Honghai; Dou, Xiaowen; Deng, Dayi; Guan, Yufeng; Zhang, Liguo; He, Guangping

    2012-01-01

    Decolourization of the azo dye Orange G (OG) was investigated by using goethite/H2O2 as a heterogeneous Fenton-like reagent. Five principle operational parameters, namely pH, ion strength, concentrations ofgoethite (alpha-FeOOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and reaction temperature, were taken into account to investigate how these controlling factors mediated OG decolourization. Goethite surfaces catalysed a Fenton-like reaction responsible for decolourizing OG following pseudo-first-order kinetics (R2 > 0.964). This process was effective but seriously impacted by the medium pH and the dosages of both alpha-FeOOH and H2O2. The decolourization efficiencies of OG increased with the decrease of solution pH and NaCl (chloride ion) concentration and/or the increase of H2O2. The acidic aqueous medium conditions were likely favourable due to the surface adsorption of the negatively charged OG leading to the promotion of decolourizing OG. The apparent activation energy (E) for this reaction was 42.18 kJ mol(-1), a relatively low value. This is consistent with the OG decolourization being enhanced with the reaction temperature increase. PMID:22988614

  16. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of MCF10ADCIS.com xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity. PMID:23380593

  17. Land-use change effects on soil quality in Montilla-Moriles DO, Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Carrillo, M.; Parras-Alcántara, L.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-02-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last few decades, a significant number of AC has a land use change (LUC) to olive grove cultivations (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 yr) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (DO), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the thickness horizon, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C:N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG, respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG, respectively). With respect to the soil quality, the effect was opposite; 46 yr after LUC improved the soil quality, increasing the stratification ratio (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C:N ratio.

  18. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, L.; Martín-Carrillo, M.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-05-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC) to olive grove (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O.), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the horizon thickness, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C : N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). With respect to the stratification ratios (SRs), the effects were opposite; 46 years after LUC increased the SRs (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C : N ratio.

  19. Studies of DNA Aptamer OliGreen and PicoGreen Fluorescence Interactions in Buffer and Serum.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John G; Sivils, Jeffrey C

    2016-07-01

    Spectrofluorometric and emission peak titration and timed studies of OliGreen (OG) and PicoGreen (PG) were conducted in Tris EDTA (TE) buffer, pooled rat and fetal bovine serum with two different aptamers of 72 and 192 bases in length to determine if OG or PG were suitable for aptamer pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in sera. Results indicated that OG and PG detected the single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) stem-loop structures of the two aptamers quite well in TE with reliable standard curves having exponential character (or several linear detection regions) up to 1 μg/ml of aptamer DNA with detection limits of ~1 ng/ml. The intensity of OG and PG staining appeared to correlate with the number and percentage of ss and ds bases in each aptamer. OG and PG fluorescence in pooled rat serum or fetal bovine serum (FBS) did not titer as a function of DNA aptamer concentration from 1 μg/ml to 1 ng/ml. This lack of OG or PG aptamer assays in serum is contrary to most published reports of OG or PG assays for ss antisense oligonucleotides, ds PCR amplicons or other types of DNA in serum or plasma. Further studies suggested that the lack of OG and PG assay titration in serum might not be entirely due to aptamer degradation from nucleases in serum since the fluorescence signals in serum appeared relatively stable over time from 30 min to 4 hours. A hypothesis is presented which attributes the inability of OG or PG to assay aptamers in serum to a combination of high blue-green autofluorescence in serum with possible serum nuclease degradation of aptamers over time and the changing aptamer to serum protein ratio coupled to nonspecific binding of serum proteins to aptamers thereby possibly changing aptamer conformations as a function of aptamer concentration during titration experiments. PMID:27209004

  20. Mechanism of 2-oxoglutarate signaling by the Synechococcus elongatus PII signal transduction protein

    PubMed Central

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Chellamuthu, Vasuki-Ranjani; Forchhammer, Karl; Zeth, Kornelius

    2010-01-01

    PII proteins control key processes of nitrogen metabolism in bacteria, archaea, and plants in response to the central metabolites ATP, ADP, and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), signaling cellular energy and carbon and nitrogen abundance. This metabolic information is integrated by PII and transmitted to regulatory targets (key enzymes, transporters, and transcription factors), modulating their activity. In oxygenic phototrophs, the controlling enzyme of arginine synthesis, N-acetyl-glutamate kinase (NAGK), is a major PII target, whose activity responds to 2-OG via PII. Here we show structures of the Synechococcus elongatus PII protein in complex with ATP, Mg2+, and 2-OG, which clarify how 2-OG affects PII–NAGK interaction. PII trimers with all three sites fully occupied were obtained as well as structures with one or two 2-OG molecules per PII trimer. These structures identify the site of 2-OG located in the vicinity between the subunit clefts and the base of the T loop. The 2-OG is bound to a Mg2+ ion, which is coordinated by three phosphates of ATP, and by ionic interactions with the highly conserved residues K58 and Q39 together with B- and T-loop backbone interactions. These interactions impose a unique T-loop conformation that affects the interactions with the PII target. Structures of PII trimers with one or two bound 2-OG molecules reveal the basis for anticooperative 2-OG binding and shed light on the intersubunit signaling mechanism by which PII senses effectors in a wide range of concentrations. PMID:21041661

  1. Mechanism of 2-oxoglutarate signaling by the Synechococcus elongatus PII signal transduction protein.

    PubMed

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Chellamuthu, Vasuki-Ranjani; Forchhammer, Karl; Zeth, Kornelius

    2010-11-16

    P(II) proteins control key processes of nitrogen metabolism in bacteria, archaea, and plants in response to the central metabolites ATP, ADP, and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), signaling cellular energy and carbon and nitrogen abundance. This metabolic information is integrated by P(II) and transmitted to regulatory targets (key enzymes, transporters, and transcription factors), modulating their activity. In oxygenic phototrophs, the controlling enzyme of arginine synthesis, N-acetyl-glutamate kinase (NAGK), is a major P(II) target, whose activity responds to 2-OG via P(II). Here we show structures of the Synechococcus elongatus P(II) protein in complex with ATP, Mg(2+), and 2-OG, which clarify how 2-OG affects P(II)-NAGK interaction. P(II) trimers with all three sites fully occupied were obtained as well as structures with one or two 2-OG molecules per P(II) trimer. These structures identify the site of 2-OG located in the vicinity between the subunit clefts and the base of the T loop. The 2-OG is bound to a Mg(2+) ion, which is coordinated by three phosphates of ATP, and by ionic interactions with the highly conserved residues K58 and Q39 together with B- and T-loop backbone interactions. These interactions impose a unique T-loop conformation that affects the interactions with the P(II) target. Structures of P(II) trimers with one or two bound 2-OG molecules reveal the basis for anticooperative 2-OG binding and shed light on the intersubunit signaling mechanism by which P(II) senses effectors in a wide range of concentrations. PMID:21041661

  2. Use of benzo analogs to enhance antimycotic activity of kresoxim methyl for control of aflatoxigenic fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Mahoney, Noreen; Chan, Kathleen L.; Campbell, Bruce C.; Haff, Ronald P.; Stanker, Larry H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine two benzo analogs, octylgallate (OG) and veratraldehyde (VT), as antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus parasiticus and A.flavus (toxigenic or atoxigenic). Both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains used were capable of producing kojic acid, another cellular secondary product. A. fumigatus was used as a genetic model for this study. When applied independently, OG exhibits considerably higher antifungal activity compared to VT. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of OG were 0.3–0.5 mM, while that of VT were 3.0–5.0 mM in agar plate-bioassays. OG or VT in concert with the fungicide kresoxim methyl (Kre-Me; strobilurin) greatly enhanced sensitivity of Aspergillus strains to Kre-Me. The combination with OG also overcame the tolerance of A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants to Kre-Me. The degree of compound interaction resulting from chemosensitization of the fungi by OG was determined using checkerboard bioassays, where synergistic activity greatly lowered MICs or minimum fungicidal concentrations. However, the control chemosensitizer benzohydroxamic acid, an alternative oxidase inhibitor conventionally applied in concert with strobilurin, did not achieve synergism. The level of antifungal or chemosensitizing activity was also “compound—strain” specific, indicating differential susceptibility of tested strains to OG or VT, and/or heat stress. Besides targeting the antioxidant system, OG also negatively affected the cell wall-integrity pathway, as determined by the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall-integrity MAPK pathway mutants. We concluded that certain benzo analogs effectively inhibit fungal growth. They possess chemosensitizing capability to increase efficacy of Kre-Me and thus, could reduce effective dosages of strobilurins and alleviate negative side effects associated with current antifungal practices. OG also exhibits moderate antiaflatoxigenic activity. PMID

  3. Nanopore Detection of 8-Oxoguanine in the Human Telomere Repeat Sequence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The human telomere repeat sequence 5′-TTAGGG-3′ is a hot spot for oxidation at guanine, yielding 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), a biomarker of oxidative stress. Telomere shortening resulting from oxidation will ultimately induce cellular senescence. In this study, α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore technology was applied to detect and quantify OG in the human telomeric DNA sequence. This repeat sequence adopts a basket G-quadruplex in the NaCl electrolyte used for analysis that enters the α-HL channel, slowly unfolds, and translocates. The basket fold containing OG disrupts the structure, leading to >10× increase in the unfolding kinetics without yielding a detectable current pattern. Therefore, detection of OG with α-HL required labeling of OG with aminomethyl-[18-crown-6] using a mild oxidant. The labeled OG yielded a pulse-like signal in the current vs time trace when the DNA strand was electrophoretically passed through α-HL in NaCl electrolyte. However, the rate of translocation was too slow using NaCl salts, leading us to further refine the method. A mixture of NH4Cl and LiCl electrolytes induced the propeller fold that unravels quickly outside the α-HL channel. This electrolyte allowed observation of the labeled OG, while providing a faster recording of the currents. Lastly, OG distributions were probed with this method in a 120-mer stretch of the human telomere sequence exposed to the cellular oxidant 1O2. Single-molecule profiles determined the OG distributions to be random in this context. Application of the method in nanomedicine can potentially address many questions surrounding oxidative stress and telomere attrition observed in various disease phenotypes including prostate cancer and diabetes. PMID:25768204

  4. [Vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome incidentally diagnosed at surgical treatment for hemothorax; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kazunori; Yoshizu, Akira; Kashizaki, Fumihiro

    2013-02-01

    Vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(vEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder of the connective tissue, which often causes arterial ruptures and surgical complications. We report the case of a vEDS patient who was incidentally diagnosed at surgical treatment for hemothorax. A 64-year-old woman with a past history of hysterectomy due to excessive bleeding during childbirth visited our hospital complaining of chest pain. Chest computed tomography revealed right pleural effusion suspected of hemothorax and a high density area behind the right anterior chest wall. Emergency thoracoscopy revealed bloody spots throughout the mediastinal pleura, suggestive of bleeding from the right internal thoracic artery. During thoracoscopy, easy bruising of the tissue by surgical manipulation was noted which led us to suspect connective tissue disease. A biochemical analysis by cultured dermal fibroblasts and molecular biological examination established the diagnosis of vEDS. PMID:23381370

  5. Micromachined TWTs for THz Radiation Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booske, John H.; vanderWeide, Daniel W.; Kory, Carol L.; Limbach, S.; Downey, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum (about 300 - 3000 GHz in frequency or about 0.1 - 1 mm free space wavelength) has enormous potential for high-data-rate communications, spectroscopy, astronomy, space research, medicine, biology, surveillance, remote sensing, industrial process control, etc. It has been characterized as the most scientifically rich, yet under-utilized, region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The most critical roadblock to full exploitation of the THz band is lack of coherent radiation sources that are powerful (0.001 - 1.0 W continuous wave), efficient (> 1%), frequency agile (instantaneously tunable over 1% bandwidths or more), reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. To develop vacuum electron device (VED) radiation sources satisfying these requirements, fabrication and packaging approaches must be heavily considered to minimize costs, in addition to the basic interaction physics and circuit design. To minimize size of the prime power supply, beam voltage must be minimized, preferably 10 kV. Solid state sources satisfy the low voltage requirement, but are many orders of magnitude below power, efficiency, and bandwidth requirements. On the other hand, typical fast-wave VED sources in this regime (e.g., gyrotrons, FELs) tend to be large, expensive, high voltage and very high power devices unsuitable for most of the applications cited above. VEDs based on grating or inter-digital (ID) circuits have been researched and developed. However, achieving forward-wave amplifier operation with instantaneous fractional bandwidths > 1% is problematic for these devices with low-energy (< 15 kV) electron beams. Moreover, the interaction impedance is quite low unless the beam-circuit spacing is kept particularly narrow, often leading to significant beam interception. One solution to satisfy the THz source requirements mentioned above is to develop micromachined VEDs, or "micro-VEDs". Among other benefits, micro-machining technologies

  6. Overview of Ground Station 1 of the NASA space communications and navigation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, W. T.; Antsos, D.; Croonquist, A.; Piazzolla, S.; Roberts, L. C.; Garkanian, V.; Trinh, T.; Wright, M. W.; Rogalin, R.; Wu, J.; Clare, L.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Ground Station 1 (OGS1) is the first of a new breed of dedicated ground terminals to support NASA's developing space-based optical communications infrastructure. It is based at NASA's Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at the Table Mountain Observatory near Wrightwood, CA. The system will serve as the primary ground station for NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) experiment. This paper presents an overview of the OCTL telescope facility, the OGS1 ground-based optical communications systems, and the networking and control infrastructure currently under development. The OGS1 laser safety systems and atmospheric monitoring systems are also briefly described.

  7. Severe suppression of Frzb/sFRP3 transcription in osteogenic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Deendayal; Srivastava, Alok; Mahlum, Eric; Desai, Dinakar; Maran, Avudaiappan; Yaszemski, Michael; Jalal, Syed M; Gitelis, Steven; Bertoni, Franco; Damron, Tim; Irwin, Ronald; O'connor, Mary; Schwartz, Herbert; Bolander, Mark E; Sarkar, Gobinda

    2007-01-15

    Deciphering the molecular basis of cancer is critical for developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. To better understand the early molecular events involving osteogenic sarcoma (OGS), we have initiated a program to identify potential tumor suppressor genes. Expression profiling of total RNA from ten normal bone cell lines and eleven OGS-derived cell lines by microarray showed 135-fold lower expression of FRZB/sFRP3 mRNA in OGS cells compared to bone cells; this down-regulation of Frzb/sFRP3 mRNA expression was found to be serum-independent. Subsequently, fourteen OGS biopsy specimens showed nine-fold down-regulation of Frzb/sFRP3 mRNA expression compared to expression in eight normal bone specimens as determined by microarray. FRZB /sFRP3 protein level was also found to be at a very low level in 4/4 OGS cell lines examined. Quantitation by RT-PCR indicated approximately 70% and approximately 90% loss of Frzb/sFRP3 mRNA expression in OGS biopsy specimens and OGS-derived cell lines respectively, compared to expression in bone (p<0.0001). Hybridization experiments of a cDNA microarray containing paired normal and tumor specimens from nineteen different organs did not show any significant difference in the level of Frzb/sFRP3 mRNA expression between the normal and the corresponding tumor tissues. Exogenous expression of FRZB/sFRP3 mRNA in two OGS-derived cell lines lacking endogenous expression of the mRNA produced abundant mRNA from the exogenous gene, eliminating degradation as a possibility for very low level of FRZB/sFRP3 mRNA in OGS specimens. Results from PCR-based experiments suggest that the FRZB/sFRP3 gene is not deleted in OGS cell lines, however, karyotyping shows gross abnormalities involving chromosome 2 (location of the FRZB gene) in five of twelve OGS-derived cell lines. Together, these data suggest a tumor-suppressive potential for FRZB/sFRP3 in OGS. PMID:17079093

  8. Melatonin ameliorates vascular endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and atherosclerosis by suppressing the TLR4/NF-κB system in high-fat-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ze-Ping; Fang, Xiao-Ling; Fang, Nan; Wang, Xiao-Bian; Qian, Hai-Yan; Cao, Zhong; Cheng, Yuan; Wang, Bang-Ning; Wang, Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and inflammation contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Melatonin (MLT) normalizes lipid profile, improves endothelial function, and possesses anti-inflammatory properties. However, the precise mechanisms are still unclear. This study investigated whether MLT could ameliorate VED, inflammation, and atherosclerosis by suppressing the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) system in high-fat-fed rabbits. Rabbits were randomly divided into three groups that received a standard diet (control group), high-cholesterol diet (atherosclerosis group), or high-cholesterol diet plus 10 mg/kg/day MLT (MLT group) for 12 wk. After treatment, high-fat diet significantly increased serum lipid and inflammatory markers in rabbits in atherosclerosis group compared with that in control group. In addition, high-fat diet also induced VED and typical atherosclerotic plaque formation and increased intima/media thickness ratio, which were significantly improved by MLT therapy as demonstrated in MLT group. Histological and immunoblot analysis further showed that high-fat diet enhanced the expressions of TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88), and NF-κB p65, but decreased inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) expression. By contrast, MLT therapy decreased the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 and increased IκB expression. This study has demonstrated that MLT ameliorates lipid metabolism, VED, and inflammation and inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis in high-fat-fed rabbits. Moreover, our study indicates for the first time that suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB system in local vasculature with atherosclerotic damage is important for the protective effects of MLT. PMID:24006943

  9. Optimum connecting dampers to reduce the seismic responses of parallel structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. P.; Ge, D. D.; Huang, X.

    2011-04-01

    Parameters of connecting dampers between two adjacent structures and twin-tower structure with large podium are optimized through theoretical analysis. The connecting visco-elastic damper (VED) is represented by the Kelvin model and the connecting viscous fluid damper (VFD) is represented by the Maxwell model. Two optimization criteria are selected to minimize the vibration energy of the primary structure and to minimize the vibration energy of both structures. Two representative numerical examples of adjacent structures and one three-dimensional finite element model of a twin-tower with podium structure are used to verify the correctness of the theoretical approach. On the one hand, by means of theoretical analysis, the first natural circular frequencies and total mass of the two structures can be taken as parameters in the general formula to get the optimal parameters of the coupling dampers. On the other hand, using the Kanai-Tajimi filtered white-noise ground motion model and several actual earthquake records, the appropriate parameters of two types of linking dampers are obtained through extensive parametric studies. By comparison, it can be found that the results of parametric studies are consistent with the results of theoretical studies for the two types of dampers under the two optimization criteria. The effectiveness of VED and VFD is investigated in terms of the seismic response reduction of the neighboring structures. The numerical results demonstrate that the seismic response and vibration energy of parallel structures are mitigated significantly. The performances of VED and VFD are comparable to one another. The explicit formula of VED and VFD can help engineers in application of coupled structure control strategies.

  10. The novel role of fenofibrate in preventing nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Reddy, Krishna; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated the effect of fenofibrate, an agonist of PPAR-alpha, in nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) and sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The scanning electron microscopy study in thoracic aorta revealed that administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite impaired the integrity of vascular endothelium. Further, administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite significantly decreased serum and aortic concentrations of nitrite/nitrate and subsequently reduced acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Moreover, nicotine or sodium arsenite produced oxidative stress by increasing serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg/kg/day p.o., a standard agent) significantly prevented nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentrations of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Conversely, co-administration of L-NAME (25 mg/kg/day, i.p.), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, markedly attenuated these vascular protective effects of fenofibrate. The administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite altered the lipid profile by increasing serum cholesterol and triglycerides and consequently decreasing high-density lipoprotein levels, which were significantly prevented by treatment with fenofibrate or atorvastatin. It may be concluded that fenofibrate improves the integrity and function of vascular endothelium, and the vascular protecting potential of fenofibrate in preventing the development of nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced VED may be attributed to its

  11. Reduction in visceral adiposity is highly related to improvement in vascular endothelial dysfunction among obese women: an assessment of endothelial function by radial artery pulse wave analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Hoon; Shim, Kyung-Won

    2005-08-31

    Because obesity is frequently complicated by other cardiovascular risk factors, the impact of a reduction in visceral adiposity on vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in obese patients is difficult to determine. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a reduction in visceral adiposity on VED in obese women. Thirty-six premenopausal obese women (BMI >/= 25 kg/m2) without complications were enrolled in the study. VED was evaluated by determining the augmentation index (AIx) from radial artery pulse waves obtained by applanation tonometry. Changes in AIx in response to nitroglycerin- induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation (DeltaAIx-NTG) and in response to salbutamol administration (DeltaAIx-Salb) were determined before and after weight reduction. After a 12-week weight reduction program, the average weight loss was 7.96 +/- 3.47 kg, with losses of 21.88 +/- 20.39 cm2 in visceral fat areas (p < 0.001). Pulse wave analysis combined with provocative pharmacological testing demonstrated preserved endothelium-independent vasodilation in healthy premenopausal obese women (DeltaAIx-NTG: 31.36 +/- 9.80% before weight reduction vs. 28.25 +/- 11.21% after weight reduction, p > 0.1) and an improvement in endothelial-dependent vasodilation following weight reduction (DeltaAIx-Salb: 10.03 +/- 6.49% before weight reduction vs. 19.33 +/- 9.28% after reduction, p < 0.001). A reduction in visceral adipose tissue was found to be most significantly related to an increase in DeltaAIx-Salb (beta=-0.57, p < 0.001). A reduction in visceral adiposity was significantly related to an improvement in VED. This finding suggests that reduction of visceral adiposity may be as important as the control of other major risk factors in the prevention of atherosclerosis in obese women. PMID:16127776

  12. Astronomy of the Vedic Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ôhashi, Yukio

    Aryans who produced Vedic literature migrated to India in the middle of the second millennium BC. After this, they gradually developed astronomical knowledge which was associated with local climate, agriculture, and their predecessors' culture. Toward the end of the Vedic period, sometime around the middle of the first millennium BC, the Vedic calendrical astronomy text entitled Jyotiṣa-vedāṅga was created.

  13. Resistance of nanofill and nanohybrid resin composites to toothbrush abrasion with calcium carbonate slurry.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu; Kyoizumi, Hideaki; Finger, Werner J; Kanehira, Masafumi; Endo, Tatsuo; Utterodt, Andreas; Hisamitsu, Hisashi; Komatsu, Masashi

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the wear of four nanofilled resin composites using simulated toothbrushing for 50,000 cycles with calcium carbonate slurry. The depth of abrasion and roughness (Ra) were measured after each 10,000 brushing cycle. The surface texture of the worn samples was examined by SEM.The wear depths of the nanofill Filtek Supreme XT (FIL), the nanohybrides Grandio (GRA), Tetric EvoCeram (TET), and Venus Diamond (VED) increased linearly with numbers of brushing cycles or approximately 80, 12, 600, and 60 mum, respectively after 50,000 strokes. Surface roughness showed virtually no change between 10,000 and 50,000 brushing cycles; the ranking order was TET < FIL < GRA < VED. FIL showed rather uniform abrasion with nanoclusters protruding from the surface. TET was very smoothly abraded without signs of debonding of the prepolymerized particles, whereas GRA and VED showed pronounced wear of the matrix polymer surrounding larger glass filler particles. PMID:20019422

  14. Transvenous Embolization for Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in a Patient with Vascular Type of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome—Direct Superior Ophthalmic Vein Approach: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Teppei; HAYAKAWA, Motoharu; SADATO, Akiyo; ADACHI, Kazuhide; WATABE, Takeya; MAEDA, Shingo; OHMURA, Masahiro; HIROSE, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease characterized by connective tissue fragility throughout the body, including the arteries, viscera, and gastrointestinal tract. We report a case in which we performed transvenous embolization (TVE) via direct superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) approach to treat a direct carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The patient was a 37-year-old woman who developed tinnitus in her left ear and a headache during examination in the outpatient clinic of another hospital in order to make a definitive diagnosis of vEDS, and she was referred to our hospital and examined. Based on the results of all of the studies she was diagnosed with a CCF. Conservative treatment was attempted, but was not very effective. Because of progressing aphasia, TVE was performed via the SOV direct cut. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. It has been reported that cerebral angiography is generally contraindicated in vEDS and that the morbimortality associated with endovascular treatment is very high. When performing treatment it is necessary to be sufficiently aware of the risks it entails. PMID:24418783

  15. The Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis in Mice Is Modulated by Dietary Vitamin E12

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Patricia A.; Beck, Melinda A.

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is the most common fatal sporadic encephalitis in humans. HSE is primarily caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 infection of the brain. HSE results in increased levels of oxidative stress, including the production of reactive oxygen species, free radicals, and neuroinflammation. The most biologically active form of vitamin E (VE) is α-tocopherol (α-TOC). In cellular membranes, α-TOC prevents lipid peroxidation by scavenging free radicals and functioning as an antioxidant. Supplementation with VE has been shown to decrease immunosenescence, improve immune function, and may be neuroprotective. To determine how VE deficiency and VE supplementation would alter the pathogenesis of HSE, we placed weanling male BALB/cByJ mice on VE-deficient (VE-D), VE-adequate (VE-A), or 10× VE-supplemented diets for 4 wk, and then infected the mice intranasally with HSV-1. VE-D mice had more severe symptoms of encephalitis than VE-A mice, including weight loss, keratitis, hunched posture, and morbidity. VE-D mice had increased cytokine and chemokine expression in the brain and increased viral titers. In contrast, VE supplementation failed to decrease cytokine production and had no effect on viral titer. We demonstrated that adequate levels of VE are important in limiting HSE pathology and that 10× supplementation does not enhance protection. PMID:18156415

  16. Estimation of skin concentrations of topically applied lidocaine at each depth profile.

    PubMed

    Oshizaka, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Kadhum, Wesam R; Todo, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Tomomi; Wierzba, Konstanty; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2014-11-20

    Skin concentrations of topically administered compounds need to be considered in order to evaluate their efficacies and toxicities. This study investigated the relationship between the skin permeation and concentrations of compounds, and also predicted the skin concentrations of these compounds using their permeation parameters. Full-thickness skin or stripped skin from pig ears was set on a vertical-type diffusion cell, and lidocaine (LID) solution was applied to the stratum corneum (SC) in order to determine in vitro skin permeability. Permeation parameters were obtained based on Fick's second law of diffusion. LID concentrations at each depth of the SC were measured using tape-stripping. Concentration-depth profiles were obtained from viable epidermis and dermis (VED) by analyzing horizontal sections. The corresponding skin concentration at each depth was calculated based on Fick's law using permeation parameters and then compared with the observed value. The steady state LID concentrations decreased linearly as the site became deeper in SC or VED. The calculated concentration-depth profiles of the SC and VED were almost identical to the observed profiles. The compound concentration at each depth could be easily predicted in the skin using diffusion equations and skin permeation data. Thus, this method was considered to be useful for promoting the efficient preparation of topically applied drugs and cosmetics. PMID:25158219

  17. A Recombinant G Protein Plus Cyclosporine A-Based Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Elicits Humoral and Regulatory T Cell Responses against Infection without Vaccine-Enhanced Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaofan; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Yiwei; Li, Changgui; Dong, Aihua; He, Zhonghuai; Zhang, Shuren; Wang, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause severe disease in the lower respiratory tract of infants and older people. Vaccination with a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine (FI-RSV) and subsequent RSV infection has led to mild to severe pneumonia with two deaths among vaccinees. The vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) was recently demonstrated to be due to an elevated level of Th2 cell responses following loss of regulatory T (Treg) cells from the lungs. To induce high levels of neutralizing Abs and minimize pathogenic T cell responses, we developed a novel strategy of immunizing animals with a recombinant RSV G protein together with cyclosporine A. This novel vaccine induced not only a higher level of neutralizing Abs against RSV infection, but, most importantly, also significantly higher levels of Treg cells that suppressed VED in the lung after RSV infection. The induced responses provided protection against RSV challenge with no sign of pneumonia or bronchitis. Treg cell production of IL-10 was one of the key factors to suppress VED. These finding indicate that G protein plus cyclosporine A could be a promising vaccine against RSV infection in children and older people. PMID:26792805

  18. 40 CFR 432.117 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, TSS, O&G (as HEM), and fecal coliform are the same as the corresponding limitation specified...

  19. 40 CFR 432.127 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, TSS, O&G (as HEM), and fecal coliform are the same as the corresponding limitation specified...

  20. Protein Hydroxylation Catalyzed by 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Oxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Markolovic, Suzana; Wilkins, Sarah E.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The post-translational hydroxylation of prolyl and lysyl residues, as catalyzed by 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases, was first identified in collagen biosynthesis. 2OG oxygenases also catalyze prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation of the hypoxia-inducible factors that play important roles in the adaptive response to hypoxia. Subsequently, they have been shown to catalyze N-demethylation (via hydroxylation) of Nϵ-methylated histone lysyl residues, as well as hydroxylation of multiple other residues. Recent work has identified roles for 2OG oxygenases in the modification of translation-associated proteins, which in some cases appears to be conserved from microorganisms through to humans. Here we give an overview of protein hydroxylation catalyzed by 2OG oxygenases, focusing on recent discoveries. PMID:26152730

  1. What Is Coronary Angiography?

    MedlinePlus

    ... OG-rah-fee) is a test that uses dye and special x rays to show the insides ... the coronary arteries. Overview During coronary angiography, special dye is released into the bloodstream. The dye makes ...

  2. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols – Nh, Mc, Ts and Og – after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  3. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  4. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  5. Investigation into the High Voltage Shutdown of the Oxygen Generator System in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Golden, John L.; VanKeuren, Steve; Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony J.; Varsik, Jerome D.; Montefusco, Daniel J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Worthy, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen Dome Assembly Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) serial number 00001 suffered a cell stack high-voltage shutdown on July 5, 2010. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was removed and replaced with the on-board spare ORU serial number 00002 to maintain OGS operation. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was returned from ISS on STS-133/ULF-5 in March 2011 with test, teardown and evaluation (TT&E) and failure analysis to follow.

  6. 40 CFR 432.82 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.22 0.11 TSS 0.74 0.37 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs (or g/kg) of finished product... pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and...

  7. 40 CFR 432.82 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.22 0.11 TSS 0.74 0.37 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs (or g/kg) of finished product... pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and...

  8. 40 CFR 432.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.22... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.22(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  9. 40 CFR 432.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.22... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.22(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  10. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  11. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... animals on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in paragraph (a)(1)...

  12. 40 CFR 432.82 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.22 0.11 TSS 0.74 0.37 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs (or g/kg) of finished product... pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and...

  13. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  14. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... animals on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in paragraph (a)(1)...

  15. 40 CFR 432.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.32... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.32(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  16. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  17. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  18. 40 CFR 432.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.42(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  19. 40 CFR 432.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.32... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.32(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  20. 40 CFR 432.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.42(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  1. Orcinol glucoside produces antidepressant effects by blocking the behavioural and neuronal deficits caused by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Gao, Wen-Chao; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Lu, Wei-Li; Tang, Jie; Peng, Lei; Li, Ning; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the antidepressant potential of orcinol glucoside (OG) and its possible mechanisms of action. We established a depressed rat model using 3 consecutive weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The antidepressant-like effect of OG was revealed using the sucrose preference test, the open field test, the forced swimming test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST). The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the serum corticosterone (CORT) concentrations and mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus. The protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and total phosphorylated-ERK1/2 were detected by western blot. The results showed that OG treatment (1.5, 3, or 6mg/kg) alleviated the depression-like behaviour of rats under CUMS, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobility in both the FST and TST, although the rearing frequency in the open field test increased only in the group that received the lowest dose (1.5mg/kg OG). Rats that received OG treatment exhibited reduced serum CORT levels and CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by OG treatment. Moreover, OG treatment upregulated the protein levels of BDNF and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus, even above control levels. Our findings suggest that OG improved depressive behaviour in CUMS rats by downregulating HPA axis hyperactivity and increasing BDNF expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. PMID:23838013

  2. Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Das, Subhasis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (ME-Og) was tested against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro. Phytochemical analysis of ME-Og shown high amount of flavonoid and phenolic compound present in it. The cytotoxic effect of ME-Og was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 µg/ml) using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To establish the protective role of ME-Og against nicotine toxicity, peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10 mM), nicotine + ME-Og (1 to 25 µg/ml) for 12 h in culture media. The significantly (p < 0.05) increased super oxide anion generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in ME-Og supplemented groups in concentration dependent manner. More over, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status due to nicotine exposure was effectively ameliorated by ME-Og supplementation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Among the different concentration of ME-Og, maximum protective effect was observed by 25 µg/ml, which does not produce significant cell cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced free radical generation, lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in important immune cell, peritoneal macrophages. PMID:20716908

  3. Foot-Ground Reaction Force During Resistance Exercise in Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Cobb, Kendall; Loehr, James A.; Nguyen, Daniel; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    An interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED) was designed to provide resistive exercise as a countermeasure to space flight-induced loss of muscle strength and endurance as well as decreased bone mineral density. The purpose of this project was to compare foot-ground reaction force during iRED exercise in normal gravity (l-g) versus micro gravity (O-g) achieved during parabolic flight. METHODS: Four subjects performed three exercises using the iRED (squat, heel raise, and deadlift) during I-g and O-g at a moderate intensity (60% of maximum strength during deadlift exercise). Foot-ground reaction force was measured in three axes (x,y,z) using a force plate, and the magnitude of the resultant force vector was calculated (r = X 2 + y2 + Z2 ). Range of motion (ROM) was measured using a linear encoder. Peak force (PkF) and total work (TW) were calculated using a customized computer program. Paired t-tests were used to test if significant differences (p.::::0.05) were observed between I-g and O-g exercise. RESULTS: PkF and TW measured in the resultant axis were significantly less in O-g for each of the exercises tested. During O-g, PkF was 42-46% and TW was 33- 37% of that measured during I-g. ROM and average time to complete each repetition were not different from I-g to O-g. CONCLUSIONS: When performing exercises in which body mass is a portion of the resistance during I-g, PkF and TW measured during resistive exercise were reduced approximately 60-70% during O-g. Thus, a resistive exercise device during O-g will be required to provided higher resistances to induce a similar training stimulus to that on Earth.

  4. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever ISRU payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP. Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  5. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever In situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  6. Rapid Oligo-Galacturonide Induced Changes in Protein Phosphorylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kohorn, Bruce D; Hoon, Divya; Minkoff, Benjamin B; Sussman, Michael R; Kohorn, Susan L

    2016-04-01

    The wall-associated kinases (WAKs)(1)are receptor protein kinases that bind to long polymers of cross-linked pectin in the cell wall. These plasma-membrane-associated protein kinases also bind soluble pectin fragments called oligo-galacturonides (OGs) released from the wall after pathogen attack and damage. WAKs are required for cell expansion during development but bind water soluble OGs generated from walls with a higher affinity than the wall-associated polysaccharides. OGs activate a WAK-dependent, distinct stress-like response pathway to help plants resist pathogen attack. In this report, a quantitative mass-spectrometric-based phosphoproteomic analysis was used to identify Arabidopsis cellular events rapidly induced by OGsin planta Using N(14/)N(15)isotopicin vivometabolic labeling, we screened 1,000 phosphoproteins for rapid OG-induced changes and found 50 proteins with increased phosphorylation, while there were none that decreased significantly. Seven of the phosphosites within these proteins overlap with those altered by another signaling molecule plants use to indicate the presence of pathogens (the bacterial "elicitor" peptide Flg22), indicating distinct but overlapping pathways activated by these two types of chemicals. Genetic analysis of genes encoding 10 OG-specific and two Flg22/OG-induced phosphoproteins reveals that null mutations in eight proteins compromise the OG response. These phosphorylated proteins with genetic evidence supporting their role in the OG response include two cytoplasmic kinases, two membrane-associated scaffold proteins, a phospholipase C, a CDPK, an unknown cadmium response protein, and a motor protein. Null mutants in two proteins, the putative scaffold protein REM1.3, and a cytoplasmic receptor like kinase ROG2, enhance and suppress, respectively, a dominantWAKallele. Altogether, the results of these chemical and genetic experiments reveal the identity of several phosphorylated proteins involved in the kinase

  7. The opposite roles of agdA and glaA on citric acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Zhanglei; Hou, Li; Yin, Liuhua; Wang, Dawei; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Depei

    2016-07-01

    Citric acid is produced by an industrial-scale process of fermentation using Aspergillus niger as a microbial cell factory. However, citric acid production was hindered by the non-fermentable isomaltose and insufficient saccharification ability in A. niger when liquefied corn starch was used as a raw material. In this study, A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA was constructed by deletion of the α-glucosidase-encoding agdA gene in A. niger CGMCC 10142 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformants A. niger OG 1, OG 17, and OG 31 then underwent overexpression of glucoamylase in A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA. The results showed that the α-glucosidase activity of TNA 101ΔagdA was decreased by 62.5 % compared with CGMCC 10142, and isomaltose was almost undetectable in the fermentation broth. The glucoamylase activity of the transformants OG 1 and OG 17 increased by 34.5 and 16.89 % compared with that of TNA 101ΔagdA, respectively. In addition, for the recombinants TNA 101ΔagdA, OG 1 and OG 17, there were no apparent defects in the growth development. Consequently, in comparison with CGMCC 10142, TNA 101ΔagdA and OG 1 decreased the residual reducing sugar by 52.95 and 88.24 %, respectively, and correspondingly increased citric acid production at the end of fermentation by 8.68 and 16.87 %. Citric acid production was further improved by decreasing the non-fermentable residual sugar and increasing utilization rate of corn starch material in A. niger. Besides, the successive saccharification and citric acid fermentation processes were successfully integrated into one step. PMID:26837219

  8. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... animals on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in paragraph (a)(1)...

  9. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... animals on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in paragraph (a)(1)...

  10. 40 CFR 432.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.32..., fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.32(a)(1) and the... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  11. 40 CFR 432.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.22..., fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.22(a)(1), and the... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  12. 40 CFR 432.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.22..., fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.22(a)(1), and the... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  13. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.50 0.25 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  14. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.50 0.25 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  15. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  16. 40 CFR 432.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.32..., fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.32(a)(1) and the... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  17. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  18. Répartition des dépôts carbonatés du Lias inférieur et moyen le long de la côte atlantique du Maroc: conséquences sur la paléogéographie de l'Atlantique naissant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresnay, Renaud Du

    Along the Atlantic coast of Morocco a series of embayments or basins including the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène and Tarfaya-Laayoune basins, contain marine sediments which may attain considerable thickness and whose Early Jurassic (Liassic) age has been well documented. This paper describes Liassic deposits from six exposures or drill holes between the Saharan coast of Tarfaya and the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène region. These Atlantic basins do not connect with the marine troughs of the High and Middle Atlas, which follow a Mediterranean Tethys trend, but are separated from them by a SSW-NNE trending threshold made up of the axial portion of the central Hercynian Massif (Moroccan Meseta). Their opening to the ancestral Mediterranean must have been farther north, probably by means of interconnecting, WSW-ENE trending rift-related graben trenches, possibly starting with the Rharb (Kenitra) basin. More likely, however, openingsexisted beneath the present nappes of the Rif and along the undoubtedly wide fracture zone represented by the Azores-Gibraltar line separating the Rif terrain from that of the Betic Cordilleras (both of which contain well dated marine Hettangian). Farther SW, probably hidden by the sedimentary prism of the African continental shelf, connections may exist with the Liassic occurrence of Central America, as already suggested by Avias (1953. Sci. Terre1 (1), 1-276; 1956. 20° Congr. géol. Intern Mexico, Secc. II, 1-5), shown in a figure by Erben (1956b. Neues Jb. geol. paläontol. Abh., Stuttgart 103, 28-79), and subsequently upheld by Hallam (1971a. J. Geol. Chicago79 (2), 129-157; 1983. Palaeogeogr. P. clim. P. ecol.43, 181-193) and Thierry (1982. Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., Sér. 7, 24, 1053-1067). These lines of communication would have centered on a "Panamanian Strait" ("Panama Strasse") and would have permitted faunal migrations, in particular towards South America. Migrations of certain European and Mesogean faunal species have recently been proposed by Schmidt-Effing (1976a. Münster Forsch. Géol. Paläont.38-39, 201-217; 1976b. Publ. geol. ICAITI, Guatemala, 5, 22-23; 1980. In: The Origin of the Gulf of Mexico and the Early Opening of the Central North Atlantic Ocean (Edited by Pilger, R. H., Jr), pp. 79-86, Von Hillebrandt (1981b. Geol. Rdsch.70 (2), 570-582; 1984. Int. Symp. Jurassic Stratigraphy3, 716-729) and Riccardi (1983. In: The Phanerozoic Geology of the World (Edited by Moullade, M. and Nairn, A. E. M.), II. B, 201-264). Unless one believes that in all localities cosmopolitan faunas arrived from a universal ocean, these relationships lead to the model of an "Atlantic corridor", starting in the Middle, and perhaps even the Early Liassic (the "Paleotethys" of Bernoulli and Lemoine, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 168-179; or the "proto-Atlantic" or "Atlantic Tethys" of Lancelot, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 215-223; and Lancelot and Winterer, 1980 Initial Report of the Deep Sea Drilling Project50, 801-821; although the latter authors postulate such a connection only from Late Liassic time on). This model raises the specific question whether or not Early Jurassic deposits are present in the Senegal basin (Guieu, 1976. Rapp. Dépt. Géol. Fac. Sci. Univ. Dakar32, 1-87).

  19. Explosion and/or fire risk assessment methodology: a common approach, structured for underground coalmine environments / Metoda szacowania ryzyka wybuchu i pożarów: podejście ogólne, dostosowane do środowiska kopalni podziemnej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioca, Ionel-Lucian; Moraru, Roland Iosif

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet statutory requirements concerning the workers health and safety, it is necessary for mine managers within Valea Jiului coal basin in Romania to address the potential for underground fires and explosions and their impact on the workforce and the mine ventilation systems. Highlighting the need for a unified and systematic approach of the specific risks, the authors are developing a general framework for fire/explosion risk assessment in gassy mines, based on the quantification of the likelihood of occurrence and gravity of the consequences of such undesired events and employing Root-Cause analysis method. It is emphasized that even a small fire should be regarded as being a major hazard from the point of view of explosion initiation, should a combustible atmosphere arise. The developed methodology, for the assessment of underground fire and explosion risks, is based on the known underground explosion hazards, fire engineering principles and fire test criteria for potentially combustible materials employed in mines.

  20. "Dieu a cree la femelle, l'homme a fait la femme." En rekognoscering i dansk og undenlandsk konssprogsforskning ("God Created the Female, Man Created Woman." A Reconnaissance in Danish and Foreign Research on Sex Differences and Language). ROLIG papir 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennicke, Annette

    Research on sex differences and language includes the following (many titles are English translations): "Language--The Child, the Women, the Family"; "Woman and Man"; "In Society's Words"; "The Life of Words"; "Verbs and Women"; "Lines from a Ladies Luncheon"; "The History of the Danish Language"; "How Sex Roles Are Represented and Conserved in…

  1. Le graben de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) : contrôle tectonique de la paléogéographie et des séquences au Cambrien inférieurThe Lower-Cambrian western Anti-Atlasic graben: tectonic control of palaeogeography and sequential organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benssaou, Mohammed; Hamoumi, Naı̈ma

    2003-03-01

    In the Moroccan western Anti-Atlas, the combined extensive tectonic events with a long-term sea-level rise is the main factor on building vertical stacking transgressive-regressive sequences. In the Ait Abdallah-Boussafene axis, the subsidence processes, relayed by a brutal platform tilting generated an elongated NE-SW graben. This is an evidence of the persistence of the Anti-Atlasic rifting process during the last part of the Lower-Cambrian succession.

  2. Activités volcaniques sous-marines à la limite Jurassique-Crétacé dans le Rif externe (Maroc). Âge et relation avec la sédimentation et la paléogéographie du sillon rifain externe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzaggagh, Mohamed

    2011-04-01

    Following the recent stratigraphic works carried out on the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the external Rif chain (Mesorif area and Bou Haddoud nappe), numerous submarine volcanism traces have been discovered in Upper Oxfordian to Upper Berriasian deposits. These traces display various aspects: volcaniclastic complexes incorporated within Upper Berriasian marls; volcanic lavas and basalt clasts included in the breccias with clay matrix of Upper Oxfordian to Lower Berriasian age, or in brecciated Lower Tothonian calcareous beds of the Early Tithonian. These submarine volcanic activities took place in a carbonate platform environment during the Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian interval or in a pelagic basin from Late Tithonian onwards. They caused an intense brecciation of Upper Jurassic carbonate formations and a general dismantling of marly calcareous alternations of Upper Tithonian-Lower Berriasian. Therefore, the Upper Tithonian-Lower Berriasian deposits are marked by frequent stratigraphic gaps in many outcrops of Mesorif, Prerif areas and in the Bou Haddoud nappe.

  3. La coupe d'Ouled Haddou (Rif externe oriental) : un affleurement continu de la transition Crétacé Paléogène au Maroc, révélé par les Foraminifères planctoniquesThe Ouled Haddou section (oriental external Rif): a continuous outcrop of the Cretaceous Palaeogene transition in Morocco, revealed by planktonic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toufiq, Abdelkabir; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Feinberg, Hugues

    2002-10-01

    In the Ouled Haddou section, deposits of the Uppermost Maastrichtian correspond to the Abathomphalus mayaroensis Biozone. The index species is regularly present until the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary, which is marked by a mass extinction affecting 41 species (large and complex). Some Cretaceous small species persist in the Lowermost Danian. The first levels of the Danian are assigned to the Guembelitria cretacea Biozone, in which the species index persist without being affected, and the first species of the Tertiary appear. The upper part of the Lower Danian corresponds to the succession of Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina, Parasubbotina pseudobulloides, and Subbotina triloculinoides Biozones. From the P. eugubina Biozone, associations of Danian vary to undergo a complete renewal in the upper zones. The Ouled Haddou section, described for the first time, presents, according to planktonic Foraminifera, a complete record of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene transition. To cite this article: A. Toufiq et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 995-1001.

  4. PII signal transduction proteins are ATPases whose activity is regulated by 2-oxoglutarate

    PubMed Central

    Radchenko, Martha V.; Thornton, Jeremy; Merrick, Mike

    2013-01-01

    PII proteins are one of the most widespread families of signal transduction proteins in nature, being ubiquitous throughout bacteria, archaea, and plants. In all these organisms, PII proteins coordinate many facets of nitrogen metabolism by interacting with and regulating the activities of enzymes, transcription factors, and membrane transport proteins. The primary mode of signal perception by PII proteins derives from their ability to bind the effector molecules 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) and ATP or ADP. The role of 2-OG as an indicator of cellular nitrogen status is well understood, but the function of ATP/ADP binding has remained unresolved. We have now shown that the Escherichia coli PII protein, GlnK, has an ATPase activity that is inhibited by 2-OG. Hence, when a drop in the cellular 2-OG pool signals nitrogen sufficiency, 2-OG depletion of GlnK causes bound ATP to be hydrolyzed to ADP, leading to a conformational change in the protein. We propose that the role of ATP/ADP binding in E. coli GlnK is to effect a 2-OG-dependent molecular switch that drives a conformational change in the T loops of the PII protein. We have further shown that two other PII proteins, Azospirillum brasilense GlnZ and Arabidopsis thaliana PII, have a similar ATPase activity, and we therefore suggest that this switch mechanism is likely to be a general property of most members of the PII protein family. PMID:23818625

  5. Decolorization of azo dye Orange G by aluminum powder enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei Qiang; Wei, Xiao Qin; Song, Zhi Jun; Jin, Mi Cong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the decolorization of azo dye Orange G (OG) in aqueous solution by aluminum powder enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation (AlP-UI) was investigated. The effects of various operating operational parameters such as the initial pH, initial OG concentration, AlP dosage, ultrasound power and added hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration were studied. The results showed that the decolorization rate was enhanced when the aqueous OG was irradiated simultaneously by ultrasound in the AlP-acid systems. The decolorization rate decreased with the increase of both initial pH values of 2.0-4.0 and OG initial concentrations of 10-80mg/L, increased with the ultrasound power enhancing from 500 to 900W. An optimum value was reached at 2.0g/L of the AlP dosage in the range of 0.5-2.5g/L. The decolorization rate enhanced significantly by the addition of hydrogen peroxide in the range of 10-100mM to AlP-UI system reached an optimum value of 0.1491min(-1). The decolorization of OG appears to involve primarily oxidative steps, the cleavage of NN bond, which were verificated by the intermediate products of OG under the optimal tested degradation system, aniline and 1-amino-2-naphthol-6,8-disulfonate detected by the LC-MS. PMID:25132495

  6. Three Years of on Orbit ISS Oxygen Generation System Operation 2007-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diderich, Greg S.; Polis, Pete; VanKeuren, Steven P.; Erickson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) has accumulated 240 days of continuous operation at varied oxygen production rates within the US Laboratory Module (LAB) since it was first activated in July 2007. OGS relocated from the ISS LAB to Node 3 during 20A Flight (February 2010). The OGS rack delivery was accelerated for on-orbit checkout in the LAB, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006. During the on-orbit checkout interval within the LAB from July 2007 to October 2008, OGS operational times were limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Longer runtimes are now achievable due to the continuous feedwater availability after ULF2 delivery and activation of the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. OGS is considered a critical function to maintaining six crew capability. There have been a number of failures which interrupted or threatened to interrupt oxygen production. Filters in the recirculation loop have clogged and have been replaced, Hydrogen sensors have fallen out of specifications, a pump delta pressure sensor failed, a pump failed to start, and the voltage on the cell stack increased out of tolerance. This paper will discuss the operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  7. Development of reactive transport features within the OpenGeoSys project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Zolfaghari, R.; Centler, F.; Maier, U.; He, W.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    The numerical modeling of reactive transport processes has wide applications in different disciplines of earth sciences. In contaminant hydrogeology, it was often utilized to predict the degradation of chemical pollutants in the groundwater. For the waste repositories, it is one of the tools to evaluate long term behaviors of hazardous materials' migration. In geothermal research, it is also helpful in the understanding of geochemical water-rock reactions and accessing its impact on the performance of deep geothermal reservoirs. To simulate the above mentioned reactive transport problems, the sequential non-iterative approach (SNIA) has been implemented. Previously, this approach has been adopted. In the resulting coupled codes, namely OGS-PhreeqC, OGS-GEMS and OGS-BRNS, the mass transport part is simulated by OGS in each time step, and a chemical solver is then employed to handle the local chemical systems. Recently, the Global Implicit Approach (GIA) with reduction scheme proposed by Kräutel et al (2010) has been implemented into OGS6. The new method allows a separation of linearly transported components and chemically coupled nonlinear ones. Through the separation, it reduces the number of primary unknowns in the nonlinearly coupled partial differential equation system, thus alleviated the memory and computational demand of the simulation. This newly developed reactive transport feature of OGS has been verified by a set of benchmarks. For mineral equilibrium reactions, the OGS6 code is verified against the OGS-PhreeqC result using the calcite example, in which calcite in a column slowly dissolves under the flushing of MgCl2 solution and dolomite is temporarily precipitated. For kinetic reactions, a sequential degradation benchmark has been simulated. In it, benzene is degraded through both aerobic oxidation and anaerobic sulfate reduction pathways. Three different codes, namely MIN3P, OGS-BRNS, and the newly implemented reduction scheme in OGS6 have produced

  8. The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Maayan; Libersat, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The jewel wasp stings cockroaches and injects venom into their cerebral ganglia, namely the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) and supraesophageal ganglion (SupOG). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state, during which the stung cockroach shows little or no spontaneous walking. It was shown that venom injection to the SOG reduces neuronal activity, thereby suggesting a similar effect of venom injection in the SupOG. Paradoxically, SupOG-ablated cockroaches show increased spontaneous walking in comparison with control. Yet most of the venom in the SupOG of cockroaches is primarily concentrated in and around the central complex (CX). Thus the venom could chiefly decrease activity in the CX to contribute to the hypokinetic state. Our first aim was to resolve this discrepancy by using a combination of behavioral and neuropharmacological tools. Our results show that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking, and that focal injection of procaine to the CX is sufficient to induce the decrease in spontaneous walking. Furthermore, it was shown that artificial venom injection to the SOG decreases walking. Hence our second aim was to test the interactions between the SupOG and SOG in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation. We show that, in the absence of the inhibitory control of the SupOG on walking initiation, injection of venom in the SOG alone by the wasp is sufficient to induce the hypokinetic state. To summarize, we show that venom injection to either the SOG or the CX of the SupOG is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking. PMID:25687435

  9. JBP1 and JBP2 Proteins Are Fe2+/2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Dioxygenases Regulating Hydroxylation of Thymidine Residues in Trypanosome DNA*

    PubMed Central

    Cliffe, Laura J.; Hirsch, Gwen; Wang, Jin; Ekanayake, Dilrukshi; Bullard, Whitney; Hu, Muhan; Wang, Yinsheng; Sabatini, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that O-linked glucosylation of thymine in trypanosome DNA (base J) regulates polymerase II transcription initiation. In vivo analysis has indicated that base J synthesis is initiated by the hydroxylation of thymidine by proteins (JBP1 and JBP2) homologous to the Fe2+/2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent dioxygenase superfamily where hydroxylation is driven by the oxidative decarboxylation of 2-OG, forming succinate and CO2. However, no direct evidence for hydroxylase activity has been reported for the JBP proteins. We now demonstrate recombinant JBP1 hydroxylates thymine specifically in the context of dsDNA in a Fe2+-, 2-OG-, and O2-dependent manner. Under anaerobic conditions, the addition of Fe2+ to JBP1/2-OG results in the formation of a broad absorption spectrum centered at 530 nm attributed to metal chelation of 2-OG bound to JBP, a spectroscopic signature of Fe2+/2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. The N-terminal thymidine hydroxylase domain of JBP1 is sufficient for full activity and mutation of residues involved in coordinating Fe2+ inhibit iron binding and thymidine hydroxylation. Hydroxylation in vitro and J synthesis in vivo is inhibited by known inhibitors of Fe2+/2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. The data clearly demonstrate the JBP enzymes are dioxygenases acting directly on dsDNA, confirming the two-step J synthesis model. Growth of trypanosomes in hypoxic conditions decreases JBP1 and -2 activity, resulting in reduced levels of J and changes in parasite virulence previously characterized in the JBP KO. The influence of environment upon J biosynthesis via oxygen-sensitive regulation of JBP1/2 has exciting implications for the regulation of gene expression and parasite adaptation to different host niches. PMID:22514282

  10. Effects of Organogel Hardness and Formulation on Acceptance of Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A G

    2016-09-01

    Different organogel formulations used as beef fat (BF) replacement (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) were utilized to optimize the mechanical properties of frankfurters. Organogels, made of canola oil (CO), included different concentrations of ethyl cellulose (EC) and sorbitan monostearate (SMS). They consisted of: 8% EC + 1.5% SMS referred to as organogel-I (OG-I), 8% EC + 3.0% SMS (OG-II), and 10% EC + 1.5% SMS (OG-III), which were found promising in a previous study when used at 100% replacement. Replacement of BF with organogels at all levels could bring down the very high hardness values (texture profile analysis and sensory) of frankfurters prepared using CO by itself, relative to the BF control. OG-I and OG-II quantity had no significant effect on hardness and springiness, being similar in many cases to the BF and lower than the CO control. Shear force values of all organogel treatments were not significantly different from one another, and were between the BF and CO controls. Smokehouse yield showed a pattern of decreasing losses with increasing organogel replacement level. Sensory analysis revealed that using CO by itself significantly increased hardness, but structuring the oil (via organogelation), brought it down to the BF control value in all OG-I and OG-II formulations. Juiciness was significantly reduced by using liquid oil but increased with raising the amount of organogels. Oiliness sensation increased with higher organogel substitution and was actually higher than the beef control. The study demonstrates the potential use of vegetable oil structuring in replacing the more saturated BF in emulsion-type meat products. PMID:27514694

  11. IMPACT OF DEFICIENT NUTRITION IN BONE MASS AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    COSTA, Tatiana Munhoz da Rocha Lemos; PAGANOTO, Mariana; RADOMINSKI, Rosana Bento; BORBA, Victoria Zeghbi Cochenski

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential nutrients are considered for the prevention of the bone loss that occurs after bariatric surgery. Aim: Evaluate nutrients involved in bone metabolism, and relate to serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone, and the use of supplements and sun exposure on the bone mass of patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery. Methods: An observational study, with patients who had undergone the surgery 12 or more months previously, operated group (OG), compared to a control group (CG). Results: Were included 56 in OG and 27 in the CG. The mean age was 36.4±8.5 years. The individuals in the OG, compared to CG, consumed inadequate amounts of protein and daily calcium. The OG had a higher prevalence of low sun exposure, lower levels of 25OH Vitamin D (21.3±10.9 vs. 32.1±11.8 ng/dl), and increased serum levels of parathyroid hormone (68.1±32.9 vs. 39.9±11.9 pg/ml, p<0.001). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was present only in the OG (41.7%). The mean lumbar spine bone mineral density was lower in the OG. Four individuals from the OG had low bone mineral density for chronological age, and no one from the CG. Conclusion: The dietary components that affect bone mass in patients undergoing bariatric surgery were inadequate. The supplementation was insufficient and the sun exposure was low. These changes were accompanied by secondary hyperparathyroidism and a high prevalence of low bone mass in lumbar spine in these subjects. PMID:27120738

  12. Streptobacillus ratti sp. nov., isolated from a black rat (Rattus rattus).

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Imaoka, Koichi; Kimura, Masanobu; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Ewers, Christa; Semmler, Torsten; Rau, Jörg; Nicklas, Werner; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Kämpfer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    An indole-, oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-motile bacterium, strain OGS16T, was isolated from an oral swab of a feral black rat (Rattus rattus) in 2007 in Japan. It stained Gram-negative and had pleomorphic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming cells. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, strain OGS16T was assigned to the genus Streptobacillus, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99.3, 99.0, 98.6 and 95.5 % to the type strains of Streptobacillus moniliformis, Streptobacillus notomytis, Streptobacillus felis and Streptobacillus hongkongensis, respectively. Strain OGS16T could also be differentiated clearly from other species of the genus Streptobacillus by rpoB, groEL and recA nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analysis. DNA-DNA relatedness as obtained by average nucleotide identity was 89.10 % between strain OGS16T and Streptobacillus moniliformis DSM 12112T. Chemotaxonomic and physiological data for strain OGS16T were congruent with results for other closely related members of the family Leptotrichiaceae, represented by highly similar enzyme profiles and fatty acid patterns. MALDI-TOF MS analysis also proved suitable in discriminating strain OGS16T unequivocally from all currently described taxa of the genus Streptobacillus. On the basis of these data, we propose the novel species Streptobacillus ratti sp. nov., with the type strain OGS16T ( = JCM 31098T = DSM 101843T). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 25.9 mol% and the genome size is 1.50 Mbp. PMID:26705259

  13. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Harriss, Robert; Palacios, Virginia; Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Lavoie, Tegan; Shepson, Paul; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Marchese, Anthony J; Zimmerle, Daniel; Robinson, Allen L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-07-01

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas industry (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region were estimated by constructing a spatially resolved emission inventory. Eighteen source categories were estimated using multiple data sets, including new empirical measurements at regional O&G sites and a national study of gathering and processing facilities. Spatially referenced activity data were compiled from federal and state databases and combined with O&G facility emission factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations that account for high emission sites representing the very upper portion, or fat-tail, in the observed emissions distributions. Total methane emissions in the 25-county Barnett Shale region in October 2013 were estimated to be 72,300 (63,400-82,400) kg CH4 h(-1). O&G emissions were estimated to be 46,200 (40,000-54,100) kg CH4 h(-1) with 19% of emissions from fat-tail sites representing less than 2% of sites. Our estimate of O&G emissions in the Barnett Shale region was higher than alternative inventories based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively. Gathering compressor stations, which accounted for 40% of O&G emissions in our inventory, had the largest difference from emission estimates based on EPA data sources. Our inventory's higher O&G emission estimate was due primarily to its more comprehensive activity factors and inclusion of emissions from fat-tail sites. PMID:26148553

  14. Long-term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Clinical Stage I Gastric Cancer: The LOC-1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Michitaka; Hiki, Naoki; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Yabusaki, Hiroshi; Abe, Takayuki; Nunobe, Souya; Terada, Mitsumi; Matsuki, Atsushi; Sunagawa, Hideki; Aizawa, Masaki; Healy, Mark A.; Iwasaki, Manabu; Furukawa, Toshi A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical trials comparing laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus traditional open gastrectomy (OG) have been planned, their surgical outcomes reported but their oncologic outcomes are still pending. Consequently, we have conducted this large-scale historical cohort study to provide relevant information rapidly to guide our current practice. Methods: Through a consensus meeting involving surgeons, biostatisticians, and epidemiologists, 30 variables of preoperative information possibly influencing surgeons’ choice between LG versus OG and potentially associating with outcomes were identified to enable rigorous estimation of propensity scores. A total of 4235 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma were identified and their relevant data were gathered from the participating hospitals. After propensity score matching, 1848 patients (924 each for LG and OG) were selected for comparison of long-term outcomes. Results: In the propensity-matched population, the 5-year overall survival was 96.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 95.0–97.6] in the OG as compared with 97.1% (95% CI, 95.9–98.3) in LG. The number of all-cause death was 33/924 in the OG and 24/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio (LG/OG) for overall death was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.44–1.27; P = 0.290). The 3-year recurrence-free survival was 97.4% (95% CI, 96.4–98.5) in the OG and 97.7% (95% CI, 96.5–98.8) in the LG. The number of recurrence was 22/924 in the OG and 21/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.55–1.84; P = 0.981). Conclusions: This observational study adjusted for all-known confounding factors seems to provide strong enough evidence to suggest that LG is oncologically comparable to OG for gastric cancer. PMID:27115899

  15. Enterococcus faecalis adhesin, ace, mediates attachment to extracellular matrix proteins collagen type IV and laminin as well as collagen type I.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, S R; Qin, X; Weinstock, G M; Höök, M; Murray, B E

    2000-09-01

    Adhesin-mediated binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is thought to be a crucial step in the pathogenic process of many bacterial infections. We have previously reported conditional adherence of most Enterococcus faecalis isolates, after growth at 46 degrees C, to ECM proteins collagen types I and IV and laminin; identified an E. faecalis-specific gene, ace, whose encoded protein has characteristics of a bacterial adhesin; and implicated Ace in binding to collagen type I. In this study, we constructed an ace disruption mutant from E. faecalis strain OG1RF that showed marked reduction in adherence to collagen types I and IV and laminin when compared to the parental OG1RF strain after growth at 46 degrees C. Polyclonal immune serum raised against the OG1RF-derived recombinant Ace A domain reacted with a single approximately 105-kDa band of mutanolysin extracts from OG1RF grown at 46 degrees C, while no band was detected in extracts from OG1RF grown at 37 degrees C, nor from the OG1RF ace mutant grown at 37 or 46 degrees C. IgGs purified from the anti-Ace A immune serum inhibited adherence of 46 degrees C-grown E. faecalis OG1RF to immobilized collagen type IV and laminin as well as collagen type I, at a concentration as low as 1 microg/ml, and also inhibited the 46 degrees C-evoked adherence of two clinical isolates tested. We also showed in vitro interaction of collagen type IV with Ace from OG1RF mutanolysin extracts on a far-Western blot. Binding of recombinant Ace A to immobilized collagen types I and IV and laminin was demonstrated in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and was shown to be concentration dependent. These results indicate that Ace A mediates the conditional binding of E. faecalis OG1RF to collagen type IV and laminin in addition to collagen type I. PMID:10948147

  16. Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the

  17. Cytotoxicity of obacunone and obacunone glucoside in human prostate cancer cells involves Akt-mediated programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Kotamballi N Chidambara; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2015-03-01

    Obacunone and obacunone glucoside (OG) are naturally occurring triterpenoids commonly found in citrus and other plants of the Rutaceae family. The current study reports the mechanism of cytotoxicity of citrus-derived obacunone and OG on human androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Both limonoids exhibited time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, with more than 60% inhibition of cell viability at 100 μM, after 24 and 48 h. Analysis of fragmentation of DNA, activity of caspase-3, and cytosolic cytochrome-c in the cells treated with limonoids provided evidence for activation of programmed cell death by limonoids. Treatment of LNCaP cells with obacunone and OG resulted in dose-dependent changes in expression of proteins responsible for the induction of programmed cell death through the intrinsic pathway and down-regulation of Akt, a key molecule in cell signaling pathways. In addition, obacunone and OG also negatively regulated an inflammation-associated transcription factor, androgen receptor, and prostate-specific antigen, and activated proteins related to the cell cycle, confirming the ability of limonoids to induce cytotoxicity through multiple pathways. The results of this study provided, for the first time, an evidence of the cytotoxicity of obacunone and OG in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cells. PMID:25592883

  18. Pectin Biosynthesis Is Critical for Cell Wall Integrity and Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bethke, Gerit; Thao, Amanda; Xiong, Guangyan; Li, Baohua; Soltis, Nicole E; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Hillmer, Rachel A; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Pauly, Markus; Glazebrook, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Plant cell walls are important barriers against microbial pathogens. Cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves contain three major types of polysaccharides: cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and pectins. UDP-d-galacturonic acid, the key building block of pectins, is produced from the precursor UDP-d-glucuronic acid by the action of glucuronate 4-epimerases (GAEs). Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) repressed expression of GAE1 and GAE6 in Arabidopsis, and immunity to Pma ES4326 was compromised in gae6 and gae1 gae6 mutant plants. These plants had brittle leaves and cell walls of leaves had less galacturonic acid. Resistance to specific Botrytis cinerea isolates was also compromised in gae1 gae6 double mutant plants. Although oligogalacturonide (OG)-induced immune signaling was unaltered in gae1 gae6 mutant plants, immune signaling induced by a commercial pectinase, macerozyme, was reduced. Macerozyme treatment or infection with B. cinerea released less soluble uronic acid, likely reflecting fewer OGs, from gae1 gae6 cell walls than from wild-type Col-0. Although both OGs and macerozyme-induced immunity to B. cinerea in Col-0, only OGs also induced immunity in gae1 gae6. Pectin is thus an important contributor to plant immunity, and this is due at least in part to the induction of immune responses by soluble pectin, likely OGs, that are released during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26813622

  19. Crystal Structure and Functional Analysis of Homocitrate Synthase, an Essential Enzyme in Lysine Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Scott, Erin M.; Couture, Jean-François; Pillus, Lorraine; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-01-12

    Homocitrate synthase (HCS) catalyzes the first and committed step in lysine biosynthesis in many fungi and certain Archaea and is a potential target for antifungal drugs. Here we report the crystal structure of the HCS apoenzyme from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and two distinct structures of the enzyme in complex with the substrate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). The structures reveal that HCS forms an intertwined homodimer stabilized by domain-swapping between the N- and C-terminal domains of each monomer. The N-terminal catalytic domain is composed of a TIM barrel fold in which 2-OG binds via hydrogen bonds and coordination to the active site divalent metal ion, whereas the C-terminal domain is composed of mixed {alpha}/{beta} topology. In the structures of the HCS apoenzyme and one of the 2-OG binary complexes, a lid motif from the C-terminal domain occludes the entrance to the active site of the neighboring monomer, whereas in the second 2-OG complex the lid is disordered, suggesting that it regulates substrate access to the active site through its apparent flexibility. Mutations of the active site residues involved in 2-OG binding or implicated in acid-base catalysis impair or abolish activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results yield new insights into the structure and catalytic mechanism of HCSs and furnish a platform for developing HCS-selective inhibitors.

  20. Laser-induced optogalvanic signal oscillations in miniature neon glow discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K

    2013-06-20

    Laser-induced optogalvanic (OG) signal oscillations detected in miniature neon glow discharge plasma are investigated using a discharge equivalent-circuit model. The damped oscillations in OG signal are generated when a pulsed dye laser is tuned to a specific neon transition (1s5→2p2) at 588.2 nm under the discharge conditions where dynamic resistance changes its sign. Penning ionization via quasi-resonant energy transfer collisions between neon gas atoms in metastable state and sputtered electrode atoms in ground state is discussed to explain the negative differential resistance properties of discharge plasma that are attributed to oscillations in the OG signal. The experimentally observed results are simulated by analyzing the behavior of an equivalent discharge-OG circuit. Good agreement between theoretically calculated and experimental results is observed. It is found that discharge plasma is more sensitive and less stable in close vicinity to dynamic resistance sign inversion, which can be useful for weak-optical-transition OG detection. PMID:23842186

  1. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa. PMID:25312603

  2. Effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li-Tao; Zhong, Kui; Liu, Liya; Zhou, Xianrong; Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Sumei

    2015-02-15

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan (HBG) on cholesterol metabolism in hamsters which were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. The hamsters were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental diets, containing 5‰ HBG or 5‰ oat β-glucan (OG), for 30days. The HBG, as well as OG, lowered the concentration of plasma LDL-cholesterol significantly. The excretion of total lipids and cholesterol in feces were increased in HBG and OG groups compared with the control group. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in liver was reduced significantly in the HBG group compared with the control and OG groups. The activity of cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver, in the HBG and OG groups, was significantly increased compared with the control group. The concentrations of acetate, propionate and total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were not significantly different between the HBG and control groups. These results indicate that dietary HBG reduces the concentration of plasma LDL cholesterol by promoting the excretion of fecal lipids, and regulating the activities of HMG-CoA reductase and CYP7A1 in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. PMID:25236236

  3. Disruption of Microtubular Cytoskeleton Induced by Cryptogein, an Elicitor of Hypersensitive Response in Tobacco Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; Humbert, Claude; Lecourieux, David; Vantard, Marylin; Pugin, Alain

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of microtubular cytoskeleton were studied in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) cells in response to two different plant defense elicitors: cryptogein, a protein secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea and oligogalacturonides (OGs), derived from the plant cell wall. In tobacco plants cryptogein triggers a hypersensitive-like response and induces systemic resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, whereas OGs induce defense responses, but fail to trigger cell death. The comparison of the microtubule (MT) dynamics in response to cryptogein and OGs in tobacco cells indicates that MTs appear unaffected in OG-treated cells, whereas cryptogein treatment caused a rapid and severe disruption of microtubular network. When hyperstabilized by the MT depolymerization inhibitor, taxol, the MT network was still disrupted by cryptogein treatment. On the other hand, the MT-depolymerizing agent oryzalin and cryptogein had different and complementary effects. In addition to MT destabilization, cryptogein induced the death of tobacco cells, whereas OG-treated cells did not die. We demonstrated that MT destabilization and cell death induced by cryptogein depend on calcium influx and that MT destabilization occurs independently of active oxygen species production. The molecular basis of cryptogein-induced MT disruption and its potential significance with respect to cell death are discussed. PMID:11161014

  4. Impact of surgical approach on postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing gastrectomy: laparoscopic versus open approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium is a frequent complication in elderly patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and is associated with a poor outcome. We compared postoperative delirium in elderly patients following laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus open gastrectomy (OG). Methods In total, 130 patients aged ≥ 65 years with gastric cancer undergoing LG and OG were enrolled prospectively. Postoperative delirium and cognitive status were assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), respectively, for 3 days postoperatively. For CAM-positive patients, delirium severity was then assessed using the Delirium Index (DI). Results In total, 123 subjects (LG, n = 60; OG, n = 63) were included in the analysis. In both groups, the overall incidences of postoperative delirium were similar: 31.6% (19/60) in the LG group and 41.2% (26/63) in the OG group. When considering only those with delirium, the severity, expressed as the highest DI score, was similar between the groups. A decline in cognitive function (reduction in MMSE ≥ 2 points from baseline) during 3 days postoperatively was observed in 23 patients in the LG group (38.3%) and 27 patients in the OG group (42.9%) (P = 0.744). In both groups, postoperative cognitive decline was significantly associated with postoperative delirium (P < 0.001). Conclusions We found that, compared with traditional open gastrectomy, laparoscopic gastrectomy did not reduce either postoperative delirium or cognitive decline in elderly patients with gastric cancer. PMID:26257851

  5. Evolution of food provision to athletes at the summer Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Pelly, Fiona E; O'Connor, Helen T; Denyer, Gareth S; Caterson, Ian D

    2011-06-01

    The history of food provision at the summer Olympic Games (OG) over the past century (1896-2008) provides insight into the evolution of sports nutrition research and the dietary strategies of athletes. Early research favoring protein as the main fuel for exercise was reflected in OG menus from 1932 to 1968. Despite conclusive research from the 1960s demonstrating the clear benefit of carbohydrate on exercise performance, a specific emphasis on carbohydrate-rich foods was not noted until the 1970s. Athlete food preferences and catering complexity evolved rapidly between 1970 and 2000, driven predominantly by a dramatic expansion of the OG and the emergence of systematic sports nutrition research. Nutritional advice by experts and sponsorship by food companies became increasingly important beginning with the 1984 Los Angeles OG. More recent developments include nutritional labeling of menu items and provision of a nutrition information desk (Barcelona 1992), demand for a "high-starch, low-fat menu" (Atlanta 1996), the addition of a dedicated menu website and the systematic gathering of information on athletes' apparent consumption (Sydney 2000), and appointment of the first international dietetic review committee (Beijing 2008). The history of catering at the OG tracks the evolution of sports nutrition practice from anecdotes and myth towards an established specialty in nutrition and dietetics grounded in evidence-based science. PMID:21631513

  6. Nonmetabolizable analogue of 2-oxoglutarate elicits heterocyst differentiation under repressive conditions in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Sophie; Chen, Han; Bédu, Sylvie; Ziarelli, Fabio; Peng, Ling; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2005-01-01

    In response to combined nitrogen starvation in the growth medium, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is able to develop a particular cell type, called a heterocyst, specialized in molecular nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts are regularly intercalated among vegetative cells and represent 5–10% of all cells along each filament. In unicellular cyanobacteria, the key Krebs cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), has been suggested as a nitrogen status signal, but in vivo evidence is still lacking. In this study we show that nitrogen starvation causes 2-OG to accumulate transiently within cells of Anabaena PCC 7120, reaching a maximal intracellular concentration of ≈0.1 mM 1 h after combined nitrogen starvation. A nonmetabolizable fluorinated 2-OG derivative, 2,2-difluoropentanedioic acid (DFPA), was synthesized and used to demonstrate the signaling function of 2-OG in vivo. DFPA is shown to be a structural analogue of 2-OG and the process of its uptake and accumulation in vivo can be followed by 19F magic angle spinning NMR because of the presence of the fluorine atom and its chemical stability. DFPA at a threshold concentration of 0.3 mM triggers heterocyst differentiation under repressing conditions. The multidisciplinary approaches using synthetic fluorinated analogues, magic angle spinning NMR for their analysis in vivo, and techniques of molecular biology provide a powerful means to identify the nature of the signals that remain unknown or poorly defined in many signaling pathways. PMID:15985552

  7. Characterization of the Effects of an rpoC Mutation That Confers Resistance to the Fst Peptide Toxin-Antitoxin System Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Cassandra L.; Bumgarner, Roger; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Dunman, Paul M.; Kuechenmeister, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the Fst toxin in Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1X leads to defects in chromosome segregation, cell division and, eventually, membrane integrity. The M7 mutant derivative of OG1X is resistant to most of these effects but shows a slight growth defect in the absence of Fst. Full-genome sequencing revealed two differences between M7 and its OG1X parent. First, OG1X contains a frameshift mutation that inactivates the etaR response regulator gene, while M7 is a wild-type revertant for etaR. Second, the M7 mutant contains a missense mutation in the rpoC gene, which encodes the β′ subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that the rpoC mutation was primarily responsible for the resistance phenotype. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of transporters were induced in OG1X when Fst was overexpressed. These transporters were not induced in M7 in response to Fst, and further experiments indicated that this had a direct protective effect on the mutant cells. Therefore, exposure of cells to Fst appears to have a cascading effect, first causing membrane stress and then potentiation of these effects by overexpression of certain transporters. PMID:23104812

  8. Possible involvement of PPARγ-associated eNOS signaling activation in rosuvastatin-mediated prevention of nicotine-induced experimental vascular endothelial abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Sonam; Mahadevan, Nanjaian; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2013-02-01

    Nicotine exposure via cigarette smoking and tobacco chewing is associated with vascular complications. The present study investigated the effect of rosuvastatin in nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Further, scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of thoracic aorta were performed to assess the vascular endothelial integrity. Moreover, oxidative stress was assessed by estimating aortic superoxide anion generation and serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. The nicotine administration produced VED by markedly reducing acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium, decreasing aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, increasing oxidative stress, and inducing lipid alteration. However, treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) markedly attenuated nicotine-induced vascular endothelial abnormalities, oxidative stress, and lipid alteration. Interestingly, the co-administration of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist, GW9662 (1 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) submaximally, significantly prevented rosuvastatin-induced improvement in vascular endothelial integrity, endothelium-dependent relaxation, and nitrite/nitrate concentration in rats administered nicotine. However, GW9662 co-administration did not affect rosuvastatin-associated vascular anti-oxidant and lipid-lowering effects. The incubation of aortic ring, isolated from rosuvastatin-treated nicotine-administered rats, with L-NAME (100 μM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), significantly attenuated rosuvastatin-induced improvement in acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Rosuvastatin prevents nicotine-induced vascular endothelial abnormalities by activating

  9. Usefulness of visceral obesity (waist/hip ratio) in predicting vascular endothelial function in healthy overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Brook, R D; Bard, R L; Rubenfire, M; Ridker, P M; Rajagopalan, S

    2001-12-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) is associated with obesity; however, its etiology remains controversial. By determining the predictors of fasting and postprandial endothelial function in overweight adults without other cardiovascular risk factors, we were able to investigate novel mechanisms directly linking obesity to VED. Thirty-two healthy adults (body mass index [BMI] > or =27 kg/m(2)) underwent determination of fasting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size, high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, anthropometric measurements, and endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Postprandial lipemia and FMD were measured 4 hours after ingestion of a high-fat meal. Blood pressures and fasting levels of lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and fatty acids were within normal limits in all subjects. An abdominal fat pattern, as determined by an increased waist/hip ratio (WHR), was the sole significant predictor of FMD (r = -0.58, p = 0.001), despite no significant correlation between whole body obesity (BMI) and FMD. At comparable levels of BMI, obese subjects with a WHR > or =0.85 had a significantly blunted FMD compared with those with a WHR <0.85 (3.93 +/- 2.85% vs 8.34 +/- 5.47%, p = 0.016). Traditional coronary risk factors, C-reactive protein, postprandial lipemia, and LDL particle size did not predict FMD. We found no appreciable alteration in the postprandial state from fasting FMD (6.31 +/- 4.62% vs 6.25 +/- 5.47%, p = 0.95). The same results were found when women were analyzed alone. Increased abdominal adiposity determined by a simple WHR is a strong independent predictor of VED even in healthy overweight adults; this is a finding unexplained by alterations in conventional risk factors, systemic inflammation, or the atherogenic lipoprotein pattern. PMID:11728354

  10. On the electromagnetic fields produced by marine frequency domain controlled sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chave, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, marine controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) has found increasing use in hydrocarbon exploration due to its ability to detect thin resistive zones beneath the seafloor. Although it must be recognized that the quantitative interpretation of marine CSEM data over petroleum-bearing formations will typically require 2-D surveys and 2-D or 3-D modelling, the use of the 1-D approximation is useful under some circumstances and provides considerable insight into the physics of marine CSEM. It is the purpose of this paper to thoroughly explore the 1-D solutions for all four fundamental source types-vertical and horizontal, electric and magnetic dipole (VED, HED, VMD and HMD)-using a set of canonical reservoir models that encompass brine to weak to strong hydrocarbon types. The paper introduces the formalism to solve the Maxwell equations for a 1-D structure in terms of independent and unique toroidal and poloidal magnetic modes that circumscribe the salient diffusion physics. Green's functions for the two modes from which solutions for arbitrary source current distributions can be constructed are derived and used to obtain the electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by finite VED, HED, VMD and HMD sources overlying an arbitrary 1-D electrical structure. Field behaviour is analysed using the Poynting vector that represents the time-averaged flow of energy through the structure and a polarization ellipse decomposition of the triaxial seafloor EM field that is a complete field description. The behaviour of the two EM modes using unimodal VED and VMD sources is presented. The paper closes by extending these results to the bimodal HED and HMD sources.

  11. Computational simulations of vorticity enhanced diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vold, Erik L.

    1999-11-01

    Computer simulations are used to investigate a phenomenon of vorticity enhanced diffusion (VED), a net transport and mixing of a passive scalar across a prescribed vortex flow field driven by a background gradient in the scalar quantity. The central issue under study here is the increase in scalar flux down the gradient and across the vortex field. The numerical scheme uses cylindrical coordinates centered with the vortex flow which allows an exact advective solution and 1D or 2D diffusion using simple numerical methods. In the results, the ratio of transport across a localized vortex region in the presence of the vortex flow over that expected for diffusion alone is evaluated as a measure of VED. This ratio is seen to increase dramatically while the absolute flux across the vortex decreases slowly as the diffusion coefficient is decreased. Similar results are found and compared for varying diffusion coefficient, D, or vortex rotation time, τv, for a constant background gradient in the transported scalar vs an interface in the transported quantity, and for vortex flow fields constant in time vs flow which evolves in time from an initial state and with a Schmidt number of order unity. A simple analysis shows that for a small diffusion coefficient, the flux ratio measure of VED scales as the vortex radius over the thickness for mass diffusion in a viscous shear layer within the vortex characterized by (Dτv)1/2. The phenomenon is linear as investigated here and suggests that a significant enhancement of mixing in fluids may be a relatively simple linear process. Discussion touches on how this vorticity enhanced diffusion may be related to mixing in nonlinear turbulent flows.

  12. Initial validation of a novel rat model of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction with generalized atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Park, K; Son, H; Kim, S W; Paick, J-S

    2005-01-01

    Although rats have been widely used in evaluating various causes of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED), the atherosclerotic rat model has seldom been tried probably due to its inherent tolerance to a cholesterol diet. To enhance endothelial sensitivity to cholesterol diet, we tested the effects of transient interruption of nitric oxide synthase on atherogenesis induced by cholesterol diet in a rat model. Rats with atherosclerosis (AS group) received 1% cholesterol diet for 6 weeks. During the initial 2 weeks, they drank water that contained N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (3 mg/ml). After 6 weeks, we carried out histologic and hemodynamic evaluation to confirm pelvic atherosclerosis and erectile dysfunction, respectively, and the results were compared with those of cholesterol only (Chol) group and normal control (C) group. Compared to the C or Chol group, the mean intima/media (I/M) of the internal pudendal artery, which contributes approximately 70% of the total resistance of the penile vasculature, was markedly increased by the treatment (1.82+/-0.25 vs 0.77+/-0.13, P<0.05). Correspondingly, significantly diminished erectile function was observed. Combined treatment for 2 weeks elicited early atherosclerotic changes in proximal arteries and erectile impairment and further 4 weeks of cholesterol diet spread overt atherosclerosis to the periphery. The Chol group showed no arterial pathology, although they showed mild VED. A correlation study showed that atherosclerosis of the distal artery was better correlated with erectile dysfunction than the proximal artery. Based on these results, our study demonstrates that combination treatment of cholesterol diet with L-NAME would be used as a rapid, effective protocol of developing atherosclerotic rat model of VED. PMID:15889122

  13. Effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure on heart function in uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qianli; Montes, Sergio; Larson, Douglas F; Watson, Ronald R

    2002-07-12

    Methamphetamine (MA) increases catecholamine levels, which have detrimental effects on heart function through vasoconstriction, myocardial hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Murine retrovirus infection induces dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The present study investigated the cardiovascular effects of chronic MA treatment on uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice. C57BL/6 mice were studied after 12 weeks treatment. The four study groups were (group I) uninfected, MA placebo; (group II) infected, MA placebo; (group III) uninfected, MA treatment; and (group IV) infected and MA treatment. MA injections were given i.p. once a day for 5 days/week with a increasing dose from 15 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg. Left ventricular mechanics were measured in situ a using Millar conductance catheter system for pressure-volume loop analysis. Cardiac pathology was determined with histological analysis. In the uninfected mice, the load independent contractile parameters, pre-load recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and dP/dt(max) vs. Ved, significantly decreased by 32% and 35% in MA treated mice when compared to the saline injected mice. In retrovirus-infected mice, although there were no significant difference in Ees, PRSW, and dP/dt(max) vs. Ved due to MA treatment, they were increased 45%, 15% and 42% respectively when compared to saline treated mice. No further lowered heart function during murine AIDS may be due to the counteraction of the retroviral DCM and the MA induced myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy (thickening of the ventricular walls). This is supported by increases in the End-diastolic volume (Ved, 38%) and End-systolic volume (Ves, 84%) in the retrovirus-infected saline injected mice, the decreases of 33% and 17% in the uninfected MA-treated mice, but no significant changes in the retrovirus-infected MA treated mice when compared to uninfected saline injected mice. These data suggest that MA induced myocardial cellular changes compensate for retrovirus induced DCM. PMID:12084392

  14. Myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML7 improves vascular endothelial dysfunction via tight junction regulation in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaobian; Wan, Yufeng; Zhou, Qing; Zhu, Huaqing; Wang, Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) is an important factor in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis (AS). Previous studies have demonstrated that endothelial permeability is increased in diet‑induced AS. However, the precise underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze whether the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML7 is able to improve VED and AS by regulating the expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins zona occludens (ZO)‑1 and occludin via mechanisms involving MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in high‑fat diet‑fed rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Control group, AS group and ML7 group. The rabbits were fed a standard diet (control group), a high‑fat diet (AS group) or a high‑fat diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg/day ML7 (ML7 group). After 12 weeks, endothelium‑dependent relaxation and endothelium‑independent relaxation were measured using high-frequency ultrasound. Administration of a high‑fat diet significantly increased the levels of serum lipids and inflammatory markers in the rabbits in the AS group, as compared with those in the rabbits in the control group. Furthermore, a high‑fat diet contributed to the formation of a typical atherosclerotic plaque, as well as an increase in endothelial permeability and VED. These symptoms of AS were significantly improved following treatment with ML7, as demonstrated in the ML7 group. Hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistochemical staining indicated that ML7 was able to decrease the expression of MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in the arterial wall of rabbits fed a high‑fat diet. A similar change was observed for the TJ proteins ZO‑1 and occludin. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that ML7 increased the expression levels of occludin in the precipitate, but reduced its expression in the supernatant of lysed aortas. These results indicated that occludin, which is a dynamic protein at the TJ

  15. Myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML7 improves vascular endothelial dysfunction via tight junction regulation in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, XIAOWEN; WANG, XIAOBIAN; WAN, YUFENG; ZHOU, QING; ZHU, HUAQING; WANG, YUAN

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) is an important factor in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis (AS). Previous studies have demonstrated that endothelial permeability is increased in diet-induced AS. However, the precise underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze whether the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML7 is able to improve VED and AS by regulating the expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins zona occludens (ZO)-1 and occludin via mechanisms involving MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in high-fat diet-fed rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Control group, AS group and ML7 group. The rabbits were fed a standard diet (control group), a high-fat diet (AS group) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg/day ML7 (ML7 group). After 12 weeks, endothelium-dependent relaxation and endothelium-independent relaxation were measured using high-frequency ultrasound. Administration of a high-fat diet significantly increased the levels of serum lipids and inflammatory markers in the rabbits in the AS group, as compared with those in the rabbits in the control group. Furthermore, a high-fat diet contributed to the formation of a typical atherosclerotic plaque, as well as an increase in endothelial permeability and VED. These symptoms of AS were significantly improved following treatment with ML7, as demonstrated in the ML7 group. Hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistochemical staining indicated that ML7 was able to decrease the expression of MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in the arterial wall of rabbits fed a high-fat diet. A similar change was observed for the TJ proteins ZO-1 and occludin. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that ML7 increased the expression levels of occludin in the precipitate, but reduced its expression in the supernatant of lysed aortas. These results indicated that occludin, which is a dynamic protein at the TJ, is associated with

  16. Numerical simulation and experimental results of ultrasonic waves scattering on a model of the artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, J.; Powalowski, T.; Trawinski, Z.

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the results of the mathematical modeling and experimental results of the ultrasonic waves scattering in the inhomogeneous dissipative medium. The research was carried out for an artery model (a pipe made of a latex), with internal diameter of 5 mm and wall thickness of 1.25 mm. The numerical solver was created for calculation of the fields of ultrasonic beams and scattered fields under different boundary conditions, different angles and transversal displacement of ultrasonic beams with respect to the position of the arterial wall. The investigations employed the VED ultrasonic apparatus. The good agreement between the numerical calculation and experimental results was obtained.

  17. A new overgrowth syndrome is due to mutations in RNF125.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Jair; Mansilla, Alicia; Valencia, María; Martínez-Glez, Víctor; Romanelli, Valeria; Arias, Pedro; Castrejón, Nerea; Poletta, Fernando; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Gordo, Gema; Mansilla, Elena; García-Santiago, Fé; González-Casado, Isabel; Vallespín, Elena; Palomares, María; Mori, María A; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Fernández, Luis; Mena, Rocío; Benito-Sanz, Sara; del Pozo, Ángela; Silla, Juan Carlos; Ibañez, Kristina; López-Granados, Eduardo; Martín-Trujillo, Alex; Montaner, David; Heath, Karen E; Campos-Barros, Ángel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Nevado, Julián; Monk, David; Ruiz-Pérez, Víctor L; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Overgrowth syndromes (OGS) are a group of disorders in which all parameters of growth and physical development are above the mean for age and sex. We evaluated a series of 270 families from the Spanish Overgrowth Syndrome Registry with no known OGS. We identified one de novo deletion and three missense mutations in RNF125 in six patients from four families with overgrowth, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, mild hydrocephaly, hypoglycemia, and inflammatory diseases resembling Sjögren syndrome. RNF125 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and is a novel gene of OGS. Our studies of the RNF125 pathway point to upregulation of RIG-I-IPS1-MDA5 and/or disruption of the PI3K-AKT and interferon signaling pathways as the putative final effectors. PMID:25196541

  18. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O.

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  19. Biochemistry and Occurrence of O-Demethylation in Plant Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism. PMID:21423357

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Reduced-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Brian R.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Wirzburger, John H.; Smith, Daniel C.; VanArsadall, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Following gyro failures in April 2001 and April 2003, HST Pointing Control System engineers designed reduced-gyro control laws to extend the spacecraft science mission. The Two-Gyro Science (TGS) and One-Gyro Science (OGS) control laws were designed and implemented using magnetometers, star trackers, and Fine Guidance Sensors in succession to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro axes. Both TGS and OGS have demonstrated on-orbit pointing stability of 7 milli-arcseconds or less, which depends upon the guide star magnitude used by the Fine Guidance Sensor. This paper describes the design, implementation, and on-orbit performance of the TGS and OGS control law fine-pointing modes using Fixed Head Star Trackers and Fine Guidance Sensors, after successfully achieving coarse-pointing control using magnetometers.

  1. Photochemistry of phytoalexins containing phenalenone-like chromophores: photophysics and singlet oxygen photosensitizing properties of the plant oxoaporphine alkaloid oxoglaucine.

    PubMed

    Flors, Cristina; Prat, Chantal; Suau, Rafael; Nájera, Francisco; Nonell, Santi

    2005-01-01

    Oxoglaucine (OG) is an oxoaporphine alkaloid, which has been linked to plant defense mechanisms. It contains a phenalenone (PN)-like chromophore, which suggests a role as singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) photosensitizer. Indeed, OG is able to photosensitize (1)O(2) with 100% efficiency in nonpolar environments, similar to PN. However, this efficiency decreases in polar and protic media, although (1)O(2) is formed in all environments ranging from benzene to water. OG is a rather inefficient (1)O(2) quencher (k(q) = 8 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) unlike the related alkaloids boldine and glaucine, for which an antioxidant role has been suggested. The results of this study contribute to the view that plant defense mediated by PN-like secondary metabolites may have a photochemical component. PMID:15493958

  2. Nouvelles données biostratigraphiques et sédimentologiques des formations carbonifères de la région de Bouqachmir (Maroc central). Implications sur la paléogéographie des bassins carbonifères nord-mésétiensNew biostratigraphic and sedimentological data of the Carboniferous formations in the Bouqachmir area (central Morocco). Implications on the palaeogeography of the north Mesetian Carboniferous basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izart, Alain; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; El Boursoumi, Abdou; Vachard, Daniel; Saidi, Mariam; Chèvremont, Philippe; Berkhli, Mostafa

    2001-02-01

    New Visean formations and biozones of foraminifera were defined on the Bouqachmir map. The new biozonation concerns the Moroccan biozone, Cfm1, which is subdivided into two subzones, Cfm1a and Cfm1b. This map exhibited, from north-west to south-east, the Tilouine, Bouqachmir-Tougouroulmès and Fourhal turbiditic basins. The first one, from Tournaisian to Late Visean, was the equivalent of the Sidi Bettache basin, located westwards. The second extended the Tilouine basin eastwards during the Visean. The third was a basin from Visean to Westphalian. They were separated by the Zaer-Oulmes and El Hammam horsts, else emerged or immersed, bordered by faults and with materials feeding chaotic deposits.

  3. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP). Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA), in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP (OLG; age: 40.5 ± 10.1 years; BMI: 42.39 ± 5.47 Kg/m2), 10 obese females (OG; age: 33.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI: 39.26 ± 2.39 Kg/m2) and 10 healthy female subjects (CG; age: 33.4 ± 9.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 3.2 Kg/m2), were enrolled in this study and assessed with video recording and GA. Results and Discussion OLG showed longer stance duration and shorter step length when compared to OG and CG. They also had a low pelvis and hip ROM on the frontal plane, a low knee flexion in the swing phase and knee range of motion, a low dorsiflexion in stance and swing as compared to OG. No statistically significant differences were found in ankle power generation at push-off between OLG and OG, which appeared lower if compared to CG. At hip level, both OLG and OG exhibited high power generation levels during stance, with OLG showing the highest values. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the association of obesity and LBP affects more the gait pattern than obesity alone. OLG were in fact characterised by an altered knee and ankle strategy during gait as compared to OG and CG. These elements may help optimizing rehabilitation planning and treatment in these patients. PMID:21943156

  4. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region. PMID:27355197

  5. Six Novel O Genotypes from Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Atsushi; Iyoda, Sunao; Seto, Kazuko; Nishii, Hironobu; Ohnishi, Makoto; Mekata, Hirohisa; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Serotyping is one of the typing techniques used to classify strains within the same species. O-serogroup diversification shows a strong association with the genetic diversity of O-antigen biosynthesis genes. In a previous study, based on the O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster (O-AGC) sequences of 184 known Escherichia coli O serogroups (from O1 to O187), we developed a comprehensive and practical molecular O serogrouping (O genotyping) platform using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, named E. coli O-genotyping PCR. Although, the validation assay using the PCR system showed that most of the tested strains were successfully classified into one of the O genotypes, it was impossible to classify 6.1% (35/575) of the strains, suggesting the presence of novel O genotypes. In this study, we conducted sequence analysis of O-AGCs from O-genotype untypeable Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains and identified six novel O genotypes; OgN1, OgN8, OgN9, OgN10, OgN12 and OgN31, with unique wzx and/or wzy O-antigen processing gene sequences. Additionally, to identify these novel O-genotypes, we designed specific PCR primers. A screen of O genotypes using O-genotype untypeable strains showed 13 STEC strains were classified into five novel O genotypes. The O genotyping at the molecular level of the O-AGC would aid in the characterization of E. coli isolates and will assist future studies in STEC epidemiology and phylogeny. PMID:27242776

  6. Six Novel O Genotypes from Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Atsushi; Iyoda, Sunao; Seto, Kazuko; Nishii, Hironobu; Ohnishi, Makoto; Mekata, Hirohisa; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Serotyping is one of the typing techniques used to classify strains within the same species. O-serogroup diversification shows a strong association with the genetic diversity of O-antigen biosynthesis genes. In a previous study, based on the O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster (O-AGC) sequences of 184 known Escherichia coli O serogroups (from O1 to O187), we developed a comprehensive and practical molecular O serogrouping (O genotyping) platform using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, named E. coli O-genotyping PCR. Although, the validation assay using the PCR system showed that most of the tested strains were successfully classified into one of the O genotypes, it was impossible to classify 6.1% (35/575) of the strains, suggesting the presence of novel O genotypes. In this study, we conducted sequence analysis of O-AGCs from O-genotype untypeable Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains and identified six novel O genotypes; OgN1, OgN8, OgN9, OgN10, OgN12 and OgN31, with unique wzx and/or wzy O-antigen processing gene sequences. Additionally, to identify these novel O-genotypes, we designed specific PCR primers. A screen of O genotypes using O-genotype untypeable strains showed 13 STEC strains were classified into five novel O genotypes. The O genotyping at the molecular level of the O-AGC would aid in the characterization of E. coli isolates and will assist future studies in STEC epidemiology and phylogeny. PMID:27242776

  7. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Linton, J A Voelker; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism. PMID:26774713

  8. Differences in the Therapeutic Approach to Colorectal Cancer in Young and Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Ana B.; García-Alhambra, María A.; Pla, Rosa; Vidán, Maite; Rodríguez, Paz; Ortiz, Javier; García-Alfonso, Pilar; Martín, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze differences in the therapeutic approach to and tumor-related mortality of young and elderly colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Patients and Methods. This was a descriptive study of a retrospective cohort, based on administrative databases, of all patients with CRC diagnosed or treated in our institution. We extracted data on sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity, type of cancer, type of treatment received, survival time, and cause of death. We compared differences between a young group (YG) (age <75 years) and an older group (OG) (age ≥75 years) and assessed the variables associated with receiving different therapeutic options (multivariate analysis) and with survival time (Cox proportional hazards models). Results. The study included 503 patients (YG, 320; OG, 183), with mean ages of 63.1 years in the YG and 81.8 years in the OG. No differences were observed between the groups in degree of differentiation, extension, tumor stage, or comorbidity. After adjustment for gender, comorbidity, and tumor localization and extension, YG patients were more likely than OG patients to receive surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy and less likely to receive palliative care. After a median follow-up of 36.5 months, YG patients had a longer tumor-specific survival time than OG patients (36.41 months vs 26.05 months). After further adjustment, the YG had a lower tumor-specific mortality risk (hazard ratio, 0.66) than the OG. Conclusion. In comparison with younger patients, elderly CRC patients are undertreated, mainly because of their age and not because of their tumor type or comorbidity. Elderly patients have a significantly shorter tumor-specific survival time, partially because of this undertreatment. PMID:22923453

  9. Diode laser excited optogalvanic spectroscopy of glow discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Barshick, C.M.; Shaw, R.W.; Post-Zwicker, A., Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    The development of diode-laser-excited isotopically-selective optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) of uranium metal, oxide and fluoride in a glow discharge (GD) is presented. The technique is useful for determining isotopic ratios of {sup 235}U/({sup 235}U + {sup 238}U) in the above samples. The precision and accuracy of this determination is evaluated, and a study of experimental parameters pertaining to optimization of he measurement is discussed. Application of the GD-OGS to other f-transition elements is also described.

  10. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  11. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  12. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  13. Catalytic Mechanisms of Fe(II)- and 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Oxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Salette; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Mononuclear non-heme Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases comprise a large family of enzymes that utilize an Fe(IV)-oxo intermediate to initiate diverse oxidative transformations with important biological roles. Here, four of the major types of Fe(II)/2OG-dependent reactions are detailed: hydroxylation, halogenation, ring formation, and desaturation. In addition, an atypical epimerization reaction is described. Studies identifying several key intermediates in catalysis are concisely summarized, and the proposed mechanisms are explained. In addition, a variety of other transformations catalyzed by selected family members are briefly described to further highlight the chemical versatility of these enzymes. PMID:26152721

  14. Clinical presentation and cardiovascular risk profiles in patients with left main coronary artery disease in a middle eastern country.

    PubMed

    Gehani, A A; El-Menyar, Ayman; Elgendy, Islam; Abuzaid, Ahmed; Ahmed, Emad; Haque, Saiful

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the prevalence and clinical profile of patients with left main coronary artery disease (LMCA) in Qatar between 2006 and 2010. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with LMCA and patients without LMCA but had severe 3-vessel disease (VeD) eligible for surgical revascularization. Among 7000 patients who underwent coronary angiography, 210 patients had significant LMCA and 200 patients with severe 3VeD were matched for age and sex. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension were comparable in the 2 groups. Presentations with myocardial infarction or heart failure were comparable in both groups. Isolated LMCA was 4-fold higher in women (P = .02). Dyslipidemia and smoking were more prevalent in patients with distal and proximal lesions, respectively. Renal failure was independent predictor of LMCA (adjusted odds ratio: 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.43-4.69). One-year mortality was higher in LMCA (P = .01). The LMCA carries high mortality. Certain cardiovascular risk factors were important predictors of stenosis site. PMID:22492251

  15. Salvianolic acid A protects against vascular endothelial dysfunction in high-fat diet fed and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Ying; Qiang, Gui-Fen; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Shou-Bao; Sun, Lan; Yang, Hai-Guang; Du, Guan-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Salvianolic acid A (SalA) is one of the main active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhizae. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of SalA on the diabetic vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). The rats were given a high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 1 month followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). The diabetic rats were treated with SalA (1 mg/kg, 90% purity) orally for 10 weeks after modeling, and were given a high-fat diet. Contractile and relaxant responses of aorta rings as well as the serum indications were measured. Our results indicated that SalA treatment decreased the level of serum Von Willebrand factor and ameliorated acetylcholine-induced relaxation and KCl-induced contraction in aorta rings of the diabetic rats. SalA treatment also reduced the serum malondialdehyde, the content of aortic advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity as well as the expression of endothelial NOS protein in the rat aorta. Exposure of EA.hy926 cells to AGEs decreased the cell viability and changed the cell morphology, whereas SalA had protective effect on AGEs-induced cellular vitality. Our data suggested that SalA could protect against vascular VED in diabetes, which might attribute to its suppressive effect on oxidative stress and AGEs-induced endothelial dysfunction. PMID:21972802

  16. Exploration of resistive targets within shallow marine environments using the circular electrical dipole and the differential electrical dipole methods: a time-domain modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haroon, Amir; Mogilatov, Vladimir; Goldman, Mark; Bergers, Rainer; Tezkan, Bülent

    2016-05-01

    Two novel transient controlled source electromagnetic methods called circular electrical dipole (CED) and differential electrical dipole (DED) are theoretically analysed for applications in shallow marine environments. 1-D and 3-D time-domain modelling studies are used to investigate the detectability and applicability of the methods when investigating resistive layers/targets representing hydrocarbon-saturated formations. The results are compared to the conventional time-domain horizontal electrical dipole (HED) and vertical electrical dipole (VED) sources. The applied theoretical modelling studies demonstrate that CED and DED have higher signal detectability towards resistive targets compared to TD-CSEM, but demonstrate significantly poorer signal amplitudes. Future CED/DED applications will have to solve this issue prior to measuring. Furthermore, the two novel methods have very similar detectability characteristics towards 3-D resistive targets embedded in marine sediments as VED while being less susceptible towards non-verticality. Due to the complex transmitter design of CED/DED the systems are prone to geometrical errors. Modelling studies show that even small transmitter inaccuracies have strong effects on the signal characteristics of CED making an actual marine application difficult at the present time. In contrast, the DED signal is less affected by geometrical errors in comparison to CED and may therefore be more adequate for marine applications.

  17. Medical store management: an integrated economic analysis of a tertiary care hospital in central India.

    PubMed

    Mahatme, Ms; Dakhale, Gn; Hiware, Sk; Shinde, At; Salve, Am

    2012-04-01

    Economic analysis plays a pivotal role in the management of medical store. The main objectives of this study were to consider always better control-vital, essential and desirable (ABC-VED) analysis with economic order quantity (EOQ), comparison of indexed cost and the actual cost, and to assess the expenditure for the forthcoming years. Based on cost and criticality, a matrix of nine groups by combining ABC and VED analysis was formulated. Drug categories were narrowed down for prioritization to direct supervisory monitoring. The subgroups AE and AV of the categories category I and II should be ordered based on EOQ. The difference between the actual annual drug expenditure (ADE) and the derived indexed cost using the cost inflation index (CII) was calculated. Linear regression was used to assess the expenditure for the forth coming years. The total ADE for the financial year of 2010-2011 was Rs. 1,91,44,253 which was only 7.68% of annual hospital expenditure. Using the inflation index, the indexed cost of acquisition of ADE for year 2010-2011 was Rs. 1,95,10,387. The difference between the two was estimated to be 2.11%. Thus, the CII justifies the demand of increased budget for next year and prompts us for cautious use of drugs. By taking into consideration the ADE of last 10 years, we have forecasted the budget for forthcoming years which will help significantly for making policies according to the available budget. PMID:22754264

  18. Is apolipoprotein-(a) an important indicator of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Atahan, O; Kayigil, O; Hizel, N; Metin, A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether high peripheral and cavernosal plasma levels of apolipoprotein-(a) [Lp (a)] is an indicator for vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. We determined Lp (a), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in peripheral and cavernosal blood in 39 patients with erectile dysfunction. Thirty-nine impotent patients have been divided into two groups: vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED) and nonvasculogenic erectile dysfunction (NVED), according to colour Doppler ultrasonic flowmetry, dynamic infusion cavernosometry, and the pressure difference between the brachial arterial systolic pressure and cavernosal arterial systolic pressure measurements. Biochemical values were compared in both groups. Lp (a) and TC levels were higher in both peripheral and cavernosal samples of VED group than in NVED group, with no differences between peripheral and cavernosal blood levels within the same groups. There were no significant changes in TG and HDL levels in either group. The detection of more than 31 mg/dl in Lp (a) level solely shows the vascular origin with a sensitivity and specificity of 95 and 82.3%, respectively. High Lp (a) levels can be considered an indicator of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. PMID:9607890

  19. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a case with fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Morais, Paulo; Mota, Alberto; Eloy, Catarina; Lopes, José Manuel; Torres, Fátima; Palmeiro, Aida; Tavares, Purificação; Azevedo, Filomena

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy, born prematurely and hypotonic, from non-consanguineous healthy parents, was referred to our department because of easy bruising. A slightly extensible, thin and translucent skin, associated with dysmorphic facies, acrogeria, multiple ecchymoses, hypermobility of the small joints, dorsal kyphosis, genu valgum, flat feet, elongated upper limbs, and low muscle tone were all evident. A history of learning disability and bilateral inguinal hernia was present. Blood and imaging studies were unremarkable. A skin biopsy disclosed an unremarkable dermis; electron microscopy showed abnormalities in the diameter, contour, and shape of collagen fibrils/fibers. Genetic analysis revealed heterozygosity for a novel mutation in COL3A1 gene (c.3527G>A), confirming the diagnosis of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (VEDS). The patient died at 15 years of age because of aortic dissection. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a rare, life-threatening, autosomal dominant variant of EDS, resulting from mutations in COL3A1 gene. Affected individuals are prone to serious and potentially fatal complications, especially vascular, intestinal, and uterine ruptures. Delay in diagnosis is common, even when the clinical presentation is typical. Therefore, dermatologists should be familiar with VEDS features because the skin findings may be the first signs. Early diagnosis will improve management of visceral complications and allow early genetic counseling. PMID:21549076

  20. Spontaneous colon perforations associated with a vascular type of ehlers-danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Akira; Okada, Kazuya; Okubo, Hitoshi; Matsuo, Mitsutoshi; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Naing, Banyar Than; Watanabe, Atsushi; Shimada, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vascular type (vEDS) (MIM #130050) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutation in the type III collagen gene, COL3A1, leading to fragility of blood vessels, bowel and uterus that leads to spontaneous rupture. We report a previously undiagnosed vEDS patient with bowel complications. A 20-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital with abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed notable dilatation of the sigmoid colon with intraperitoneal fluid. Laparotomy revealed dilatation of the sigmoid colon, breakdown of serosa and muscularis propria of the sigmoid colon with impending perforation, and intra-abdominal hemorrhage caused by breakdown of the mesenterium. Resection of the sigmoid colon with Hartmann's pouch and an end colostomy were performed. Physical examination showed joint hypermobility, translucent skin with venous prominence and facial structure abnormalities. Genetic analysis using cDNA extracted from the patient's fibroblasts by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing showed a missense mutation within the triple helix region of COL3A1 (c.2150 G>A; Gly717Asp). PMID:24932165

  1. Quantitative wear and wear damage analysis of composite resins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Koottathape, Natthavoot; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Kanehira, Masafumi; Finger, Werner J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate volume loss and worn surfaces' morphologies of eight composite resins: Durafill VS (DUR), Clearfil AP-X (APX), Filtek Z250 (Z250), Filtek Supreme XT (FIL), Kalore (KAL), MI Flow (MFL), Venus Diamond (VED) and Venus Pearl (VEP). Disc-shaped specimens were fabricated and mounted in a ball-on-disc wear testing machine and abraded in water or with the third-body media, poppy seed slurry and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slurry. Volume loss (n=5) was determined after 50k sliding cycles, and analyzed using two-way ANOVA (α=0.05). The worn surfaces were examined with SEM. Two-way ANOVA suggested significant interaction between composite and wear condition. DUR, KAL and MFL showed low wear in water. DUR, Z250 and FIL showed moderate wear with PMMA slurry, whereas APX, KAL and MFL were deeper abraded. Under the action of poppy seed slurry DUR proved high volume loss. SEM showed that Z250, FIL and MFL were uniformly abraded in water. KAL and MFL with poppy seed were heavily destructed, whereas VED and VEP appeared very smooth. KAL and MFL abraded with PMMA slurry showed many cracks, but VEP remained crack-free and smooth. Volume loss and worn surfaces' morphologies varied with type of composite and third-body media used. PMID:24219861

  2. Assessment of Ganga river ecosystem at Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India with reference to water quality indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhutiani, R.; Khanna, D. R.; Kulkarni, Dipali Bhaskar; Ruhela, Mukesh

    2016-06-01

    The river Ganges is regarded as one of the most holy and sacred rivers of the world from time immemorial. The evaluation of river water quality is a critical element in the assessment of water resources. The quality/potability of water that is consumed defines the base line of protection against many diseases and infections. The present study aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) by the analysis of sixteen physico-chemical parameters on the basis of River Ganga index of Ved Prakash, weighted arithmetic index and WQI by National sanitation foundation (NSF) to assess the suitability of water for drinking, irrigation purposes and other human uses. These three water quality indices have been used to assess variation in the quality of the River Ganga at monitored locations over an 11-year period. Application of three different indexes to assess the water quality over a period of 11 years shows minor variations in water quality. Index values as per River Ganga Index by Ved Prakash et al. from 2000 to 2010 ranged between medium to good, Index values as per NSF Index for years 2000-2010 indicate good water quality, while Index values as per the weighted arithmetic index method for the study period indicate poor water quality.

  3. Octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside partitioning into lipid bilayers: thermodynamics of binding and structural changes of the bilayer.

    PubMed Central

    Wenk, M R; Alt, T; Seelig, A; Seelig, J

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the nonionic detergent octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) with lipid bilayers was studied with high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and solid-state 2H-NMR spectroscopy. The transfer of OG from the aqueous phase to lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) can be investigated by employing detergent at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration; it can be defined by a surface partition equilibrium with a partition coefficient of K = 120 +/- 10 M-1, a molar binding enthalpy of delta H degrees D = 1.3 +/- 0.15 kcal/mol, and a free energy of binding of delta G degrees D = -5.2 kcal/mol. The heat of transfer is temperature dependent, with a molar heat capacity of delta CP = -75 cal K-1 mol-1. The large heat capacity and the near-zero delta H are typical for a hydrophobic binding equilibrium. The partition constant K decreased to approximately 100 M-1 for POPC membranes mixed with either negatively charged lipids or cholesterol, but was independent of membrane curvature. In contrast, a much larger variation was observed in the partition enthalpy. delta H degrees D increased by about 50% for large vesicles and by 75% for membranes containing 50 mol% cholesterol. Structural changes in the lipid bilayer were investigated with solid-state 2H-NMR. POPC was selectively deuterated at the headgroup segments and at different positions of the fatty acyl chains, and the measurement of the quadrupolar splittings provided information on the conformation and the order of the bilayer membrane. Addition of OG had almost no influence on the lipid headgroup region, even at concentrations close to bilayer disruption. In contrast, the fluctuations of fatty acyl chain segments located in the inner part of the bilayer increased strongly with increasing OG concentration. The 2H-NMR results demonstrate that the headgroup region is the most stable structural element of the lipid membrane, remaining intact

  4. Structure, thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid MgSiO 3: Comparison of molecular models and laboratory results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, Frank J.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Nevins, Dean

    2011-03-01

    Liquid MgSiO 3 is a model for the Earth's magma ocean and of remnant melt present near the core-mantle boundary. Here, models for molten MgSiO 3 are computed employing empirical potential molecular dynamics (EPMD) and results are compared to published results including two EPMD studies and three first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) models and to laboratory data. The EPMD results derived from the Oganov (OG) potential come closest to the density of MgSiO 3 liquid at the 1-bar melting point inferred from the melting curve. At higher P, EPMD densities calculated from the OG potential and FPMD broadly match shock wave studies, with the OG potential yielding the better comparison. Matsui (M) potential results deviate from other studies above ˜50 GPa. Overall, results based on the OG potential compare best to experimental densities over the P-T range of the mantle. Isothermally, upon increasing P the mean coordination numbers ( CN¯) of oxygen around Si and Mg monotonically increase with pressure. Tetrahedral Si and octahedral Si monotonically increase and decrease, respectively, whereas pentahedral Si maximizes at 10-20 GPa. Tetrahedral Mg decreases monotonically as P increases whereas pentahedral, octahedral and higher coordination polyhedra each show similar behavior first increasing and then decreasing after attaining a maximum; the P of the maximum for each polyhedra type migrates to higher P as the CN increases. Free oxygen and oxygen with one nearest neighbor of either Si or Mg decreases whereas Si or Mg with two or three nearest oxygens (i.e., tricluster oxygen) increases with increasing P isothermally. The increase of tricluster oxygen is consistent with spectroscopy on MgSiO 3 glass quenched from 2000 K and 0-40 GPa and high-energy X-ray studies constraining the coordination of O around Mg and around Si at 2300 K and 1 bar. Coordination statistics from FPMD studies for O around Si and Si around O are in agreement with the EPMD results based on the M and

  5. Rates of particle size reduction and passage are faster for legume compared with cool-season grass, resulting in lower rumen fill and less effective fiber.

    PubMed

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-06-01

    Effects of forage family on rates of particle size reduction in, and passage from, the rumen and the relationship of these effects with preliminary dry matter intake (pDMI) were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 19.6 to 29.5 kg/d (mean = 25.9 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing either a) alfalfa silage (AL) or b) orchardgrass silage (OG) as the sole forage. Silages were chopped to 10-mm theoretical length of cut and contained 42.3 and 58.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) for alfalfa and orchardgrass, respectively. Both diets contained approximately 25% forage NDF and 30% total NDF. Feed, orts, rumen, and duodenal samples were wet sieved to fractionate particles above (large) and below (small) 2.36 mm. Indigestible NDF (iNDF) was used as a flow marker. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of forage family and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Approximately 75% of the NDF consumed was large and 25% was small for both treatments, but cows fed AL consumed more iNDF and less potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) than cows fed OG. The AL diet increased the reduction rate (large to small) compared with OG despite less rumination per unit of forage NDF for AL than OG, suggesting alfalfa NDF was more fragile than orchardgrass NDF. Over 55% of particles in the rumen were below 2.36 mm for AL and OG, indicating that particle size was not a limiting constraint to passage. Passage rates (k(p)) of large iNDF and large pdNDF were similar for AL and OG, but AL increased k(p) of large pdNDF and OG decreased it as pDMI increased. The AL diet increased k(p) of small iNDF and small pdNDF compared with OG, resulting in lower rumen fill

  6. Examination of Science Achievement in the 8th Grade Level in Turkey in Terms of National and International Exams Depending upon Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalmis, Erkan H.; Avgin, Sakine S.; Demir, Papatya; Yildirim, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of demographic characteristics of students in Turkey upon their performance in TIMSS, an international assessment exam and Secondary Education Transition Examination which is a national exam (OGS). One of the fields of sciences, biology is taken into account as student performance. As a result…

  7. 77 FR 3745 - Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Trademark-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Registration System, 76 FR 59114 (September 23, 2011), 1371 OG 168 (October 18, 2011). The USPTO received no... That Have Been Scanned Into the Trademark Initial Capture Registration System AGENCY: United States... disposal would otherwise have occurred. The one-year retention period for papers scanned into TICRS...

  8. BRST invariance in Coulomb gauge QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraši, A.; Taylor, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    In the Coulomb gauge, the Hamiltonian of QCD contains terms of order ħ2, identified by Christ and Lee, which are non-local but instantaneous. The question is addressed how do these terms fit in with BRST invariance. Our discussion is confined to the simplest, O(g4) , example.

  9. Lipid bilayer elasticity measurements in giant liposomes in contact with a solubilizing surfactant.

    PubMed

    Ménager, Christine; Guemghar, Dihya; Perzynski, Régine; Lesieur, Sylviane; Cabuil, Valérie

    2008-05-01

    A new method to probe the modification of the elasticity of phospholipid bilayers is presented. The purpose here concerns the action of a solubilizing surfactant on a vesicle bilayer. This method is based on the measure of the under-field elongation of giant magnetic-fluid-loaded liposomes. The addition of the nonionic surfactant octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (OG) to vesicles at sublytic levels increases the elasticity of the membrane, as shown by the value of the bending modulus K(b), which decreases. K(b) measured around 20 kT for a pure 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer indeed reaches a few kT in the case of the mixed OG-DOPC bilayer. The purpose and interest of this study are to allow the determination of the membrane bending modulus before and after the addition of OG on the same magnetic liposome. Moreover, the experimental conditions used in this work allow the control of lipid and surfactant molar fractions in the mixed aggregates. Then, optical microscopy observation can be performed on samples in well-defined regions of the OG-phospholipid state diagram. PMID:18363418

  10. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices. PMID:27233046

  11. Bioinformatics analysis of thousands of TCGA tumors to determine the involvement of epigenetic regulators in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Many cancer cells show distorted epigenetic landscapes. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project profiles thousands of tumors, allowing the discovery of somatic alterations in the epigenetic machinery and the identification of potential cancer drivers among members of epigenetic protein families. Methods We integrated mutation, expression, and copy number data from 5943 tumors from 13 cancer types to train a classification model that predicts the likelihood of being an oncogene (OG), tumor suppressor (TSG) or neutral gene (NG). We applied this predictor to epigenetic regulator genes (ERGs), and used differential expression and correlation network analysis to identify dysregulated ERGs along with co-expressed cancer genes. Furthermore, we quantified global proteomic changes by mass spectrometry after EZH2 inhibition. Results Mutation-based classifiers uncovered the OG-like profile of DNMT3A and TSG-like profiles for several ERGs. Differential gene expression and correlation network analyses revealed that EZH2 is the most significantly over-expressed ERG in cancer and is co-regulated with a cell cycle network. Proteomic analysis showed that EZH2 inhibition induced down-regulation of cell cycle regulators in lymphoma cells. Conclusions Using classical driver genes to train an OG/TSG predictor, we determined the most predictive features at the gene level. Our predictor uncovered one OG and several TSGs among ERGs. Expression analyses elucidated multiple dysregulated ERGs including EZH2 as member of a co-expressed cell cycle network. PMID:26110843

  12. Unity in diversity, a systems approach to regulating plant cell physiology by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Could a disjoint group of enzymes synchronize their activities and execute a complex multi-step, measurable, and reproducible response? Here, I surmise that the alpha-ketoglutarate dependent superfamily of non-haem iron (II) dioxygenases could influence cell physiology as a cohesive unit, and that the broad spectra of substrates transformed is an absolute necessity to this portrayal. This eclectic group comprises members from all major taxa, and participates in pesticide breakdown, hypoxia signaling, and osmotic stress neutralization. The oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate is coupled with a concomitant substrate hydroxylation and, in most cases, is followed by an additional specialized conversion. The domain profile of a protein sequence was used as an index of miscellaneous reaction chemistry and interpreted alongside existent kinetic data in a linear model of integrated function. Statistical parameters were inferred by the creation of a novel, empirically motivated flat-file database of over 3800 sequences (DB2OG) with putative 2-oxoglutarate dependent activity. The collated information was categorized on the basis of existing annotation schema. The data suggests that 2OG-dependent enzymes incorporate several desirable features of a systems level player. DB2OG, is free, accessible without a login to all users, and available at the following URL (http://comp-biol.theacms.in/DB2OG.html). PMID:25814993

  13. PEE-PEO block copolymer exchange rate between micelles is detergent and temperature activated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schantz, Allen; Saboe, Patrick; Lee, Hee-Young; Sines, Ian; Butler, Paul; Bishop, Kyle; Maranas, Janna; Kumar, Manish

    We examine the kinetics of polymer chain exchange between polymer/detergent micelles, a system relevant to the synthesis of protein-containing biomimetic membranes. Although chain exchange between polymer aggregates in water is too slow to observe, adding detergent allows us to determine chain exchange rates using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). We examine a membrane-protein-relevant, vesicle-forming ultra-short polymer, Poly(ethyl ethylene)20-Poly(ethylene oxide)18 (PEE20-PEO18). PEE20-PEO18 is solubilized in mixed micelles with the membrane-protein-compatible non-ionic detergent octyl- β -D-glucoside (OG). We show that OG activates block copolymer exchange, and obtain rate constants at two detergent concentrations above the CMC (critical micellar concentration) of OG. We find that chain exchange increases two orders of magnitude when temperature increases from 308 to 338 K, and that even a 1 mg/mL increase in OG concentration leads to a noticeable increase in exchange rate. We also calculate the activation energy for chain exchange and find that it is much higher than for lipid exchange. These findings explain the need for high detergent concentration and/or temperature to synthesize densely packed polymer/protein membranes.

  14. Orchardgrass ley for improved manure management in Wisconsin: II. Nutritive value and voluntary intake by dairy heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confinement dairy feeding operations in the Upper Midwest could benefit from utilizing a wider range of forages than alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn silage (Zea mays L.). A short cycle, frequently manured, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) ley (OG) was compared with corn silage (CS) in a 2 ...

  15. Effect of Oral Glucose Administration on Rebound Growth Hormone Release in Normal and Obese Women: The Role of Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity and Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Pena-Bello, Lara; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Outeiriño-Blanco, Elena; Garcia-Buela, Jesus; Tovar, Sulay; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Dieguez, Carlos; Cordido, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Context Metabolic substrates and nutritional status play a major role in growth hormone (GH) secretion. Uncovering the mechanisms involved in GH secretion following oral glucose (OG) administration in normal and obese patients is a pending issue. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate GH after OG in relation with adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion in obese and healthy women, to further elucidate the mechanism of GH secretion after OG and the altered GH secretion in obesity. Participants and Methods We included 64 healthy and obese women. After an overnight fast, 75 g of OG were administered; GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin were obtained during 300 minutes. Insulin secretion and action indices and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated for GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were employed. Results The AUC of GH (μg/L•min) was lower in obese (249.8±41.8) than in healthy women (490.4±74.6), P=0.001. The AUC of total ghrelin (pg/mL•min) was lower in obese (240995.5±11094.2) than in healthy women (340797.5±37757.5), P=0.042. There were significant correlations between GH secretion and the different adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion indices. After multivariate analysis only ghrelin AUC remained a significant predictor for fasting and peak GH. PMID:25782001

  16. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit; Pudhom, Khanitha; Palaga, Tanapat

    2011-11-18

    Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14μM. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-κB p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions. PMID:22037580

  17. A novel detection of radon based on its decay product inducing conformational changes of an aptamer probe.

    PubMed

    Long, Minzhi; Deng, Han; Tian, Gang; Song, Chunli; Liu, Hongwen; Shen, Yi; Lv, Changyin

    2016-09-14

    This study proposes a novel method for the detection of inert gas radon using a label-free, specific, fluorescence-sensing aptamer in the context of PW17-OG system. This method utilizes the cyanine dye OliGreen (OG) as a signal reactor and the aptamer PW17 as a fluorescent identification probe. When OG integrates into the free curling PW17, a strong fluorescence signal is generated. After radon decays, the long lived naturally occurring radon progeny Pb being disposed and introduced to the system. Lead ions induce PW17 to form a stable G-quadruplex, thereby inhibiting the interaction between OG and PW17 and resulting in a reduction of the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence intensity show a good linear relationship with lead ion and the radon concentration (D), thereinto, We fitted linear regression of radon concentration in the range of 0.92-4.22 (×10(4) Bqhm(-3)) to receive a good relationship between ΔF and the concentration of radon with the detection limit of 1963 Bqhm(-3). This method has been successfully applied for detecting standard cumulative concentration of radon and the detection limit reached the national standard of China. This sensitive method can exclude radiation damage in field testing, furthermore, it explores a new field in biological analysis using an aptamer to detected inorganic, gaseous, and radioactive materials. PMID:27566356

  18. Plant immunity triggered by engineered in vivo release of oligogalacturonides, damage-associated molecular patterns.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Manuel; Pontiggia, Daniela; Raggi, Sara; Cheng, Zhenyu; Scaloni, Flavio; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2015-04-28

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are fragments of pectin that activate plant innate immunity by functioning as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We set out to test the hypothesis that OGs are generated in planta by partial inhibition of pathogen-encoded polygalacturonases (PGs). A gene encoding a fungal PG was fused with a gene encoding a plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. We show that expression of the PGIP-PG chimera results in the in vivo production of OGs that can be detected by mass spectrometric analysis. Transgenic plants expressing the chimera under control of a pathogen-inducible promoter are more resistant to the phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Pseudomonas syringae. These data provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that OGs released in vivo act as a DAMP signal to trigger plant immunity and suggest that controlled release of these molecules upon infection may be a valuable tool to protect plants against infectious diseases. On the other hand, elevated levels of expression of the chimera cause the accumulation of salicylic acid, reduced growth, and eventually lead to plant death, consistent with the current notion that trade-off occurs between growth and defense. PMID:25870275

  19. Maturation and experience in action representation: Bilateral deficits in unilateral congenital amelia.

    PubMed

    Philip, B A; Buckon, C; Sienko, S; Aiona, M; Ross, S; Frey, S H

    2015-08-01

    Congenital unilateral absence of the hand (amelia) completely deprives individuals of sensorimotor experiences with their absent effector. The consequences of such deprivation on motor planning abilities are poorly understood. Fourteen patients and matched controls performed two grip selection tasks: 1) overt grip selection (OGS), in which they used their intact hand to grasp a three-dimensional object that appeared in different orientations using the most natural (under-or over-hand) precision grip, and 2) prospective grip selection (PGS), in which they selected the most natural grip for either the intact or absent hand without moving. For the intact hand, we evaluated planning accuracy by comparing concordance between grip preferences expressed in PGS vs. OGS. For the absent hand, we compared PGS responses with OGS responses for the intact hand that had been phase shifted by 180°, thereby accounting for mirror symmetrical biomechanical constraints of the two limbs. Like controls, amelic individuals displayed a consistent preference for less awkward grips in both OGS and PGS. Unexpectedly, however, they were slower and less accurate for PGS based on either the intact or the absent hand. We conclude that direct sensorimotor experience with both hands may be important for the typical development or refinement of effector-specific internal representations of either limb. PMID:26092768

  20. The Effect of Vision on Postural Strategies in Prader-Willi Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Vismara, Luca; Grugni, Graziano; Priano, Lorenzo; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the role of visual contribution in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) on balance maintenance using a force platform. We enrolled 14 individuals with PWS free from conditions associated with impaired balance, 44 obese (OG) and 20 healthy controls (CG). Postural sway was measured for 60 s while standing…

  1. Studies on pulsed optogalvanic effect in Eu/Ne hollow cathode discharge.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K; Kumar, P; Dixit, S K; Nakhe, S V

    2014-07-01

    The optogalvanic (OG) effect has been observed in a Eu/Ne hollow cathode discharge lamp using pulsed laser irradiation. An OG spectrum is recorded in dye laser wavelength region 574–602 nm using a boxcar-averager. In total 41 atomic lines are observed. Of these, 38 lines are assigned to neon transitions. Two lines observed corresponding to wavelengths 576.519 and 601.815 nm are assigned to europium transitions; (4f 7 6s 2 , S 8 7/2 →4f 7 6s6p , zP 6 7/2 ) and (4f 7 6s 2 , S 8 7/2 →4f 7 6s6p , zP 8 9/2 ), respectively, and the remaining line at 582.475 nm could not be assigned. The effect of the discharge current on europium as well as neon OG signals is also studied. At moderate discharge current values, an extra positive peak is observed in neon OG signal for the transition (1s 5 →2p 2 ) at 588.189 nm, which is explained by Penning-ionization process using the quasi-resonant energy transfer interactions between excited neon and europium atoms lying in 2p 2 and D 10 9/2 states, respectively. PMID:25089996

  2. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the value obtained by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (c) The term ammonia-N (or ammonia-nitrogen) means...

  3. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the value obtained by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (c) The term ammonia-N (or ammonia-nitrogen) means...

  4. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the value obtained by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (c) The term ammonia-N (or ammonia-nitrogen) means...

  5. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the value obtained by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (c) The term ammonia-N (or ammonia-nitrogen) means...

  6. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the value obtained by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (c) The term ammonia-N (or ammonia-nitrogen) means...

  7. Cosmic Ray Origin, Acceleration and Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes highlights of the OG3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 sessions of the 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference in Salt Lake City, which were devoted to issues of origin/composition, acceleration and propagation.

  8. Plant immunity triggered by engineered in vivo release of oligogalacturonides, damage-associated molecular patterns

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Manuel; Pontiggia, Daniela; Raggi, Sara; Cheng, Zhenyu; Scaloni, Flavio; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are fragments of pectin that activate plant innate immunity by functioning as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We set out to test the hypothesis that OGs are generated in planta by partial inhibition of pathogen-encoded polygalacturonases (PGs). A gene encoding a fungal PG was fused with a gene encoding a plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. We show that expression of the PGIP–PG chimera results in the in vivo production of OGs that can be detected by mass spectrometric analysis. Transgenic plants expressing the chimera under control of a pathogen-inducible promoter are more resistant to the phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Pseudomonas syringae. These data provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that OGs released in vivo act as a DAMP signal to trigger plant immunity and suggest that controlled release of these molecules upon infection may be a valuable tool to protect plants against infectious diseases. On the other hand, elevated levels of expression of the chimera cause the accumulation of salicylic acid, reduced growth, and eventually lead to plant death, consistent with the current notion that trade-off occurs between growth and defense. PMID:25870275

  9. OpenGeoSys: an open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we describe the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project, which is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical processes in porous media. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework (using primarily the Finite Element Method (FEM)) for solving multifield problems in porous and fractured media for applications in geoscience and hydrology. To this purpose OGS is based on an object-oriented FEM concept including a broad spectrum of interfaces for pre- and postprocessing. The OGS idea has been in development since the mid-eighties; meanwhile we are working on its 6th version. We provide a short historical note about the continuous process of concept and software development having evolved through Fortran, C, and C++ implementations. The idea behind OGS is to provide an open platform to the community, outfitted with professional software-engineering tools such as platform-independent compiling and automated benchmarking. A comprehensive benchmarking book has been prepared for publication. Benchmarking has been proven to be a valuable tool for cooperation between different developer teams, for example, for code comparison and validation purposes (DEVOVALEX, CO2BENCH and SSBENCH projects). On one hand, object-orientation (OO) provides a suitable framework for distributed code development; however, the parallelization of OO codes still lacks efficiency. High-performance-computing efficiency of OO codes is subject to future research (accompanying poster).

  10. Parent-of-origin dependent gene-specific knock down in mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Khursheed; Kues, Wilfried A.; Niemann, Heiner . E-mail: niemann@tzv.fal.de

    2007-07-06

    In mice hemizygous for the Oct4-GFP transgene, the F1 embryos show parent-of-origin dependent expression of the marker gene. F1 embryos with a maternally derived OG2 allele (OG2{sup mat}/-) express GFP in the oocyte and during preimplantation development until the blastocyst stage indicating a maternal and embryonic expression pattern. F1-embryos with a paternally inherited OG2 allele (OG2{sup pat}/-) express GFP from the 4- to 8-cell stage onwards showing only embryonic expression. This allows to study allele specific knock down of GFP expression. RNA interference (RNAi) was highly efficient in embryos with the paternally inherited GFP allele, whereas embryos with the maternally inherited GFP allele showed a delayed and less stringent suppression, indicating that the initial levels of the target transcript and the half life of the protein affect RNAi efficacy. RT-PCR analysis revealed only minimum of GFP mRNA. These results have implications for studies of gene silencing in mammalian embryos.

  11. The use of local concentrated heat versus topical acyclovir for a herpes labialis outbreak: results of a pilot study under real life conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wohlrab, Johannes; Voß, Franziska; Müller, Christian; Brenn, Lars C

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent outbreak of herpes labialis can affect quality of life by prodromes like burning, itching, and swelling. Topical applied preparations aim to shorten the duration of symptoms, inhibit the virus replication and/or accelerate the healing process. Local concentrated heat (LCH) can reduce burning, itching, or swelling of the skin by influence of mechano-heat sensitive afferent neurons. Patients and methods To examine the effectiveness of two different topical applications (LCH versus topical acyclovir [TACV]) under real life conditions, we conducted a prospective, observational, reference-controlled cohort pilot study with 103 patients. Occurrence of prodromal burning, itching, swelling, and quality of life were assessed. Results The LCH observation group (OG) showed a significantly faster improvement in all symptoms after 1-day of application than the TACV OG. The burden and duration of disease was lower and shorter in the LCH OG than in the TACV OG. Conclusions The prodromal symptoms in recurrent herpes labialis were attenuated more effectively by LCH than by TACV. PMID:24231728

  12. Synthesis of octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside catalyzed by Thai rosewood β-glucosidase-displaying Pichia pastoris in an aqueous/organic two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Guo, DongHeng; Xu, YanShan; Kang, YaJun; Han, ShuangYan; Zheng, SuiPing

    2016-04-01

    We explored the ability of a Thai rosewood β-glucosidase-displaying P. pastoris whole-cell biocatalyst (Pp-DCBGL) system to synthesize alkyl β-D-glucosides. The primary investigation centered on the synthesis of octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (octyl-glu, OG). OG could be synthesized through reverse hydrolysis reaction with very low efficiency. Then, OG was synthesized between BG and octanol by a transglycosylation reaction. In a 2-ml reaction system, OG was synthesized with a conversion rate of 51.1% in 3h when 5 mg/ml BG was utilized as the glucosyl donor under optimized conditions. And, even after being reused four times, the Pp-DCBGL was relatively stable. Additionally, a 500-ml-scale reaction system was conducted in a 2-L stirred reactor with a conversion rate of 47.5% in 1.5 h. Moreover, the conversion rate did not decrease after the whole-cell catalyst was reused two times. In conclusion, Pp-DCBGL has high reaction efficiency and operational stability, which is a powerful biocatalyst available for industrial synthesis. PMID:26920486

  13. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  14. 40 CFR 432.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2.0 1.0 Fecal Coliform (2) (2) O&G 3 1.0 0.5 TSS 2.4...

  15. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM)...

  16. 40 CFR 432.17 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, TSS, O&G, and fecal coliform are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.12....

  17. 40 CFR 432.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.82... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in § 432.82(a). (b) Facilities that generate more than 50 million pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5,...

  18. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM)...

  19. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in... 0.18 0.09 Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1,4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1...

  20. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM)...

  1. 40 CFR 432.27 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.22....

  2. 40 CFR 432.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.82... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in § 432.82(a). (b) Facilities that generate more than 50 million pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5,...

  3. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in... 0.18 0.09 Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1 4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1...

  4. 40 CFR 432.37 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.32....

  5. 40 CFR 432.17 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, TSS, O&G, and fecal coliform are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.12....

  6. 40 CFR 432.37 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.32....

  7. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in... 0.18 0.09 Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1,4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1...

  8. 40 CFR 432.47 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.42....

  9. 40 CFR 432.47 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.42....

  10. 40 CFR 432.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2.0 1.0 Fecal Coliform (2) (2) O&G 3 1.0 0.5 TSS 2.4...

  11. 40 CFR 432.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.82... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in § 432.82(a). (b) Facilities that generate more than 50 million pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5,...

  12. 40 CFR 432.37 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.32....

  13. 40 CFR 432.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2.0 1.0 Fecal Coliform (2) (2) O&G 3 1.0 0.5 TSS 2.4...

  14. 40 CFR 432.27 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.22....

  15. 40 CFR 432.47 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.42....

  16. 40 CFR 432.27 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.22....

  17. 40 CFR 432.17 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, TSS, O&G, and fecal coliform are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.12....

  18. Propagation experiments in the near infrared along a 150-km path and from stars in the Canarian archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeron, Adolfo; Rubio, Juan A.; Belmonte, Aniceto M.; Garcia, Enrique; Prud'homme, Tony; Sodnik, Zoran; Connor, Chris

    2002-03-01

    Within the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA) SILEX project, aimed at experimentally demonstrating the feasibility of inter-satellite optical communications links, an Optical Ground Station (OGS) has been built by ESA in the premises of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC, Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands) Observatory of Teide, in the Tenerife island. The OGS is designed to test the optical communications payload on board the ESA's Artemis satellite and to perform ground-satellite optical communications experiments. As part of the OGS design study, an assessment of the impact of the atmosphere on the ground- satellite links was carried out. This assessment included experimental characterizations of the atmospheric effects through both measurements from stars in positions close to the Artemis one in bands comprising the SILEX wavelengths, using the IAC's Mons telescope in the Observatory of Teide, and measurements on a horizontal link with a transmitter near the IAC's Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma island, based on a laser diode similar to those to be used in SILEX, and a receiver in the Teide Observatory, almost 150 km apart, in the Tenerife island. The 830-nm wavelength horizontal measurements allowed checking the variations in the behavior of the atmospheric turbulence through the diurnal cycle. Besides the information relevant to assess the OGS performance, the horizontal-propagation experiments allowed to gather a considerable amount of propagation data on a very long path, most of it 2400 m above the sea.

  19. Ocimum gratissimum Aqueous Extract Induces Apoptotic Signalling in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell A549

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Han-Min; Lee, Mu-Jang; Kuo, Cheng-Yi; Tsai, Pei-Lin; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Ocimum gratissimum (OG) is widely used as a traditional herb for its antibacterial activity in Taiwan. Recently, antitumor effect of OG on breast cancer cell is also reported; however, the effects of OG on human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell A549 remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether aqueous OG extract (OGE) affects viability of A549 cells and the signals induced by OGE in A549 cells. Cell viability assays revealed that OGE significantly and dose-dependently decreased the viability of A549 cell but not that of BEAS-2B cell. Morphological examination and DAPI staining indicated that OGE induced cell shrinkage and DNA condensation for A549 cells. Further investigation showed that OGE enhanced activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and caspase-8 and increased protein level of Apaf-1 and Bak, but diminished the level of Bcl-2. Additionally, OGE inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) yet enhanced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase (p38). In conclusion, our findings indicate that OGE suppressed the cell viability of A549 cells, which may result from the activation of apoptotic signaling and the inhibition of anti-apoptotic signaling, suggesting that OGE might be beneficial to lung carcinoma treatment. PMID:20953389

  20. Structure and Mechanism of a Viral Collagen Prolyl Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent dioxygenases comprise a large and diverse enzyme superfamily the members of which have multiple physiological roles. Despite this diversity, these enzymes share a common chemical mechanism and a core structural fold, a double-stranded β-helix (DSBH), as well as conserved active site residues. The prolyl hydroxylases are members of this large superfamily. Prolyl hydroxylases are involved in collagen biosynthesis and oxygen sensing in mammalian cells. Structural–mechanistic studies with prolyl hydroxylases have broader implications for understanding mechanisms in the Fe(II)- and 2-OG-dependent dioxygenase superfamily. Here, we describe crystal structures of an N-terminally truncated viral collagen prolyl hydroxylase (vCPH). The crystal structure shows that vCPH contains the conserved DSBH motif and iron binding active site residues of 2-OG oxygenases. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to delineate structural changes in vCPH upon binding its substrate. Kinetic investigations are used to report on reaction cycle intermediates and compare them to the closest homologues of vCPH. The study highlights the utility of vCPH as a model enzyme for broader mechanistic analysis of Fe(II)- and 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases, including those of biomedical interest. PMID:26368022

  1. Heifer growth performance from fall-oat pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise as an emergency fall forage option, or to extend the grazing season in Wisconsin. Our objectives for this project were: i) to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat cultivars (Ogle and ForagePlus; OG and FP, respectively) using...

  2. Telecom and scintillation first data analysis for DOMINO: laser communication between SOTA, onboard SOCRATES satellite, and MEO optical ground station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phung, D.-H.; Samain, E.; Maurice, N.; Albanesse, D.; Mariey, H.; Aimar, M.; M. Lagarde, G.; Artaud, G.; Issler, J.-L.; Vedrenne, N.; Velluet, M.-T.; Toyoshima, M.; Akioka, M.; Kolev, D.; Munemasa, Y.; Takenaka, H.; Iwakiri, N.

    2016-03-01

    In collaboration between CNES, NICT, Geoazur, the first successful lasercom link between the micro-satellite SOCRATES and an OGS in Europe has been established. This paper presents some results of telecom and scintillation first data analysis for 4 successful links in June & July 2015 between SOTA terminal and MEO optical ground station (OGS) at Caussols France. The telecom and scintillation data have been continuously recorded during the passes by using a detector developed at the laboratory. An irradiance of 190 nW/m2 and 430 nW/m2 has been detected for 1549 nm and 976 nm downlinks at 35° elevation. Spectrums of power fluctuation measured at OGS are analyzed at different elevation angles and at different diameters of telescope aperture to determine fluctuations caused by pointing error (due to satellite & OGS telescope vibrations) and caused by atmospheric turbulence. Downlink & Uplink budgets are analyzed, the theoretical estimation matches well to measured power levels. Telecom signal forms and bit error rates (BER) of 1549 nm and 976 nm downlink are also shown at different diameters of telescope aperture. BER is 'Error Free' with full-aperture 1.5m telescope, and almost in `good channel' with 0.4 m sub-aperture of telescope. We also show the comparison between the expected and measured BER distributions.

  3. Desiccation tolerance during different desiccation strategies in A. angustifolia embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is native to the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil and is an endangered species. The mature seeds are recalcitrant and have large embryos (about 2.5 cm in length) that contain more than 1 g H2O.g dry mass (dm)-1. Successful cryopreservation requires reduction of ...

  4. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health. PMID:21242603

  5. 75 FR 62414 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: October 8, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  6. 75 FR 4836 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: January 29, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  7. 75 FR 47616 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: August 6, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  8. 75 FR 44975 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: July 30, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.), HUD publishes...

  9. Improvement in nutrient handling in STZ induced diabetic rats treated with Ocimum gratissimum

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Davies, Koofreh Godwin; Olubobokun, Titilope Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alteration in digestive and absorptive enzymatic activities has been reported in diabetes mellitus (DM), but not with Ocimum gratissimum (OG) treatment. This study was, therefore, designed to indirectly assess the effect of DM and treatment with OG on nutrient digestion and absorption, through estimation of their fecal excretion. Materials and Methods: Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of six per group for control, DM and diabetic mellitus treated (DMT). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in the test groups. OG was administered to the DMT group at dose of 1500 mg/kg once daily for 28 days. Fecal glucose, protein and cholesterol were determined. Results: Fecal glucose was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the DM group compared to the control and DMT groups, with the DMT groups significantly (P < 0.001) lower than the control. Fecal protein was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the DM group than the control whereas it was significantly lower in the DMT groups than the DM. Fecal cholesterol was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the DM than the DMT and control groups with DMT significantly (P < 0.01) higher than the control. Conclusion: This result indicates the propensity of OG to reverse impairment of nutrient digestion and absorption in DM. PMID:25664269

  10. Preliminary results of the in-orbit test of ARTEMIS with the Optical Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Garcia-Talavera, Marcos; Sodnik, Zoran; Lopez, Pablo; Alonso, Angel; Viera, Teodora; Oppenhauser, Gotthard

    2002-04-01

    ESA and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) reached an agreemenet for building the Optical Ground Station (OGS), in the IAC Teide Observatory, in order to perform In Orbit Testing (IOT) of Optical Data Relay payloads onboard communication satellites, the first being ARTEMIS. During its recent launch, ARTEMIS was put into a degraded orbit due to a malfunction on the launcher's upper stage. ESA rapidly adopted a recovery strategy aimed to take the satellite to its nominal geostationary position. After completion of the first manoeuvres, ARTEMIS was successfully positioned in a circular parking orbit, at about 31,000 kilometers, and turned into full operation. In this orbit, its optical payload has been tested with the OGS, before establishing the link with SPOT IV. New tracking algorithms were developed at OGS control system in order to correct for ARTEMIS new orbit. The OGS has established a bi-directional link to ARTEMIS, behaving, seen from ARTEMIS, as a LEO terminal. Preliminary results are presented on the space-to- ground bi-directional link, including pointing acquisition and tracking (PAT) performance, received beam characterization and BER measurements.

  11. 78 FR 5171 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... (NGA), DoD. ACTION: Notice. In compliance with Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Online GEOINT Services (OGS) directorate of NGA announces a proposed public information... NGA seeks ways to deliver geospatial information more rapidly and more efficiently. By...

  12. Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

  13. Interaction of NaCl(g) and HCl(g) with condensed NA2SO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of Na2SO4(l) with NaCl(g), HCl(g) and H2O(g) was studied in atmospheric pressure flowing air and oxygen at Na2SO4(l) temperatures of 900 and 1000 C. Thermomicrogravimetric and high pressure mass spectrometric sampling techniques were used. Experimental results establish that previously reported enhanced rates of weight loss of Na2SO4(l) in the presence of NaCl(g) are due to the reaction: Na2SO4(c) + 2HCl(g) = 2NaCl(g) + SO2(g) + H2O(g) + 1/2O2(g) being driven to the right in flowing gas systems. The HCl(g) is the product of hydrolysis of NaCl caused by small but significant amounts of H2O(g) present in the system. Thermochemical calculations are used to show that even with sub-ppm levels of H2O(g) present, significant quantities of HCl(g) are produced.

  14. 5. Photocopy of painting (original in the possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of painting (original in the possession of the Handel og Sofartsmuseet pea Kronborg Trade and Seafaring Museum, Helsingor, Denmark) H. P. Thorsoe, painter, c. 1825 VIEW OF CHRISTIANSTED HARBOR FROM SEA, SHIPS IN FOREGROUND, HARBOR IN BACKGROUND - City of Christiansted (General Views), Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  15. 78 FR 759 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW145615, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW145615... reinstatement from Meagher O&G Properties, Inc., for competitive oil and gas lease WYW145615 for land in...

  16. Sprog, kultur, intersprog (Language, Culture, Interlanguage). ROLIG-Papir 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risager, Karen, Ed.

    Four articles on language, culture, and interlanguage are included in this volume. The first by Karen Risager, "Sprog, kultur, og internationalisering" ("Language, Culture, and Internationalization") takes issue with the very broad perception that foreign language and culture cannot be separated in instruction. The second article,…

  17. Oxygen amendment on growth and nitrogen-use efficiency of flooded Italian Basil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flooding is a frequent and often unavoidable cause of stress, in vegetable production in Florida. Flooding results in hypoxia i.e., oxygen deficiency. This study was conducted with traditional Italian basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), cv. Genovese OG, treated with either a fast- or slow-release solid oxy...

  18. CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE TERATOGENESIS: EVIDENCE FOR COMPENSATORY RESPONSES TO INDUCED CELLULAR TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) administered ip to pregnant mice on day 10 og gestation causes severe malformations at 20 mg/kg and is embryolethal at higher doses. n the present study, CP was administered at 1, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg. mbryos were removed at 8 and 28 hrs post dosing for immedia...

  19. Computerized occlusal analysis: correlation with occlusal indexes to assess the outcome of orthodontic treatment or the severity of malocculusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of our study were to verify the validity of the T-Scan III system (Tekscan) as an objective occlusal evaluation tool, and to assess the differences between two occlusal indexes-the peer assessment rating (PAR) index and the American Board of Orthodontics objective grading system (OGS)-by comparing the scores derived from the T-Scan III system with the two occlusal indexes and analyzing the correlations between them. Methods The final study sample included 48 adult volunteers (39 men and 9 women, mean age 24.14 ± 3.16 years), after excluding 29 volunteers whose occlusion could not be evaluated by the T-Scan III system due to severe skeletal or occlusal problems. PAR index and OGS scores were assessed using dental study models, and measurements of centric occlusion, protrusive movement, and lateral excursion movement were obtained via the T-Scan III system. The results were analyzed to determine correlations. Results Occlusal analysis by the T-Scan III system was clinically reliable (p < 0.05), and the PAR index and OGS scores were significantly correlated with several measurements obtained with the T-Scan III system (p < 0.05). Conclusions The T-Scan III system is a quantitative and reliable method for occlusal evaluation, and represents a potential substitute for occlusal indexes. Compared to the PAR index, the OGS scores of more variables were significantly correlated with the T-Scan measurements. PMID:26877980

  20. Comparison of Oogenesis and Sex Steroid Profiles between Twice and Once Annually Spawning of Rainbow Trout Females (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Estay, Francisco; Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth (OG), gonadal histology, and plasma level concentrations of sex hormones (estradiol-17β (E2) and vitellogenin (V)) of twice-spawning (T-SP) and once-spawning (O-SP) females of rainbow trout throughout the additional and the normal reproductive cycle, respectively. In T-SP, the GSI values rapidly increase from May to November, in contrast to O-SP, which showed low and constant GSI values (1.19 to 14.5 and 1.19 to 0.63, resp.). T-SP exhibited a marked increase of OG in the same period, reaching a maximum diameter of 4,900 ± 141.42 μm, in contrast to O-SP, which presented a slow OG. The gonadal histology of T-SP agreed with the general pattern of ovogenesis observed for O-SP (vitellogenesis, ovulation, and recrudescence); however, this process was nonsynchronous between the two breeder groups. Plasma steroid levels showed significant variation during oogenesis, which agreed with the GSI, OG, and gonadal histology patterns. The level of E2 increased to a maximum value of 26.2 ng/mL and 36.0 ng/mL in O-SP and T-SP, respectively, one or two months before the spawning event where vitellogenesis was fully active. The V concentrations followed a pattern similar to those of E2. PMID:23213308

  1. Sequential capillary electrophoresis analysis using optically gated sample injection and UV/vis detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Tian, Miaomiao; Camara, Mohamed Amara; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2015-10-01

    We present sequential CE analysis of amino acids and L-asparaginase-catalyzed enzyme reaction, by combing the on-line derivatization, optically gated (OG) injection and commercial-available UV-Vis detection. Various experimental conditions for sequential OG-UV/vis CE analysis were investigated and optimized by analyzing a standard mixture of amino acids. High reproducibility of the sequential CE analysis was demonstrated with RSD values (n = 20) of 2.23, 2.57, and 0.70% for peak heights, peak areas, and migration times, respectively, and the LOD of 5.0 μM (for asparagine) and 2.0 μM (for aspartic acid) were obtained. With the application of the OG-UV/vis CE analysis, sequential online CE enzyme assay of L-asparaginase-catalyzed enzyme reaction was carried out by automatically and continuously monitoring the substrate consumption and the product formation every 12 s from the beginning to the end of the reaction. The Michaelis constants for the reaction were obtained and were found to be in good agreement with the results of traditional off-line enzyme assays. The study demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of integrating the OG injection with UV/vis detection for sequential online CE analysis, which could be of potential value for online monitoring various chemical reaction and bioprocesses. PMID:26040711

  2. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  3. Unity in diversity, a systems approach to regulating plant cell physiology by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Could a disjoint group of enzymes synchronize their activities and execute a complex multi-step, measurable, and reproducible response? Here, I surmise that the alpha-ketoglutarate dependent superfamily of non-haem iron (II) dioxygenases could influence cell physiology as a cohesive unit, and that the broad spectra of substrates transformed is an absolute necessity to this portrayal. This eclectic group comprises members from all major taxa, and participates in pesticide breakdown, hypoxia signaling, and osmotic stress neutralization. The oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate is coupled with a concomitant substrate hydroxylation and, in most cases, is followed by an additional specialized conversion. The domain profile of a protein sequence was used as an index of miscellaneous reaction chemistry and interpreted alongside existent kinetic data in a linear model of integrated function. Statistical parameters were inferred by the creation of a novel, empirically motivated flat-file database of over 3800 sequences (DB2OG) with putative 2-oxoglutarate dependent activity. The collated information was categorized on the basis of existing annotation schema. The data suggests that 2OG-dependent enzymes incorporate several desirable features of a systems level player. DB2OG, is free, accessible without a login to all users, and available at the following URL (http://comp-biol.theacms.in/DB2OG.html). PMID:25814993

  4. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  5. 5-Carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline is a Broad Spectrum 2-Oxoglutarate Oxygenase Inhibitor which Causes Iron Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Aik, WeiShen; Che, Ka Hing; Li, Xuan Shirley; Kristensen, Jan B. L.; King, Oliver N. F.; Chan, Mun Chiang; Yeoh, Kar Kheng; Choi, Hwanho; Walport, Louise J.; Thinnes, Cyrille C.; Bush, Jacob T.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Rydzik, Anna M.; Rose, Nathan R.; Bagg, Eleanor A.; McDonough, Michael A.; Krojer, Tobias; Yue, Wyatt W.; Ng, Stanley S.; Olsen, Lars; Brennan, Paul E.; Oppermann, Udo; Muller-Knapp, Susanne; Klose, Robert J.; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Kawamura, Akane

    2015-01-01

    2-Oxoglutarate and iron dependent oxygenases are therapeutic targets for human diseases. Using a representative 2OG oxygenase panel, we compare the inhibitory activities of 5-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (IOX1) and 4-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (4C8HQ) with that of two other commonly used 2OG oxygenase inhibitors, N-oxalylglycine (NOG) and 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA). The results reveal that IOX1 has a broad spectrum of activity, as demonstrated by the inhibition of transcription factor hydroxylases, representatives of all 2OG dependent histone demethylase subfamilies, nucleic acid demethylases and γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. Cellular assays show that, unlike NOG and 2,4-PDCA, IOX1 is active against both cytosolic and nuclear 2OG oxygenases without ester derivatisation. Unexpectedly, crystallographic studies on these oxygenases demonstrate that IOX1, but not 4C8HQ, can cause translocation of the active site metal, revealing a rare example of protein ligand-induced metal movement PMID:26682036

  6. Iron supplementation: oral tablets versus intramuscular injection.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel; Blee, Tanya; Claydon, Gary; Peeling, Peter; Beilby, John; Prins, Alex

    2006-04-01

    Non-anemic, iron depleted women were randomly assigned to an injection group (IG) or oral group (OG) to assess which method is more efficient for increasing iron stores over a short time period. IG received a course of 5 x 2 mL intramuscular injections over 10 d, and OG received one tablet daily for 30 d. Fourteen, 21 and 28 d after commencing supplementation, ferritin concentration in OG significantly increased from baseline (means +/- standard error: 27 +/- 3 to 40 +/- 5 to 41 +/- 5 to 41 +/- 5 microg/L; P < 0.01). Similarly, on days 15, 20, and 28 post the first injection, ferritin concentration in IG significantly increased from baseline (means +/- standard error: 20 +/- 2 to 71 +/- 17 to 63 +/- 11 to 63 +/- 7 microg/L; P < 0.01), and was also significantly greater than OG at day 15 and 28 (P < 0.05). Iron injections are significantly more effective (both in time and degree of increase) in improving ferritin levels over 30 d than oral tablets. PMID:16779924

  7. "[We're on the Right Track, Baby], We Were Born This Way!" Exploring Sports Participation in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Vaage, Odd; Roberts, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Based on quantitative data from the Norwegian Statistisk Sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) study of "Mosjon, Friluftsliv og Kulturaktiviteter," this paper explores trends in Norwegians' participation in sports, with a focus on young people. Norway boasts particularly high levels of sports participation as well as sports club…

  8. Evaluation of the bone healing process in an experimental tibial bone defect model in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kido, Hueliton Wilian; Bossini, Paulo Sérgio; Tim, Carla Roberta; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antônio; da Cunha, Anderson Ferreira; Malavazi, Iran; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of postmenopausal bone loss (induced by ovariectomy) in the process of bone healing in a tibial bone defect model in rats by means of histological evaluation of bone defects and the analysis of the expression of genes and proteins involved in bone consolidation. Twenty female Wistar rats (12 weeks old, weighing ±250 g) were randomly divided into two groups: control group (CG) and ovariectomized group (OG). Rats of OG were submitted to ovariectomy and after 8 weeks post-surgery, all animals were submitted to the tibial bone defect model. The main histological finding analysis revealed that ovariectomized animals showed a higher amount of granulation tissue and immature newly formed bone compared to CG. Furthermore, quantitative histological analysis showed that OG presented a significant decrease in the amount of newly formed bone (p = 0.0351). RT-PCR analysis showed no difference in Runx2, ALP, RANK, RANKL and Osterix gene expression 14-day post-surgery. Interestingly, immunohistochemical evaluation showed that Runx2 was down expressed (p = 0.0001) and RANKL was up expressed (p = 0.0022) in the OG. In conclusion, these data highlight that bone loss induced by ovariectomy causes an impairment in the capacity of bone to heal mainly probably because of alterations in the imbalance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts activities. PMID:24532218

  9. The Synchrony and Diachrony of Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian Adjectival Long-Form Allomorphy (ALFA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, James Joshua

    2010-01-01

    In Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), the gentive (G) and dative/locative (DL) cases exhibit adjectival long-form allomorphy (ALFA). The genitive -"og" -"oga" and the DL -"om" -"ome" -"omu" stand in free variation, inasmuch as when one form is substituted for another the truth value of an utterance remains unchanged. Some sociolinguists (particularly…

  10. Compensatory Vowel Lengthening for Omitted Coda Consonants: A Phonetic Investigation of Children's Early Representations of Prosodic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Children's early word productions often differ from the target form, sometimes exhibiting vowel lengthening when word-final coda consonants are omitted (e.g., "dog" /d[open o]g/ [arrow right] [d[open o]:]). It has typically been assumed that such lengthening compensates for a missing prosodic unit (a mora). However, this study raises the…

  11. 40 CFR 432.102 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.20 0.10 TSS 0.42...

  12. 40 CFR 432.122 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that further... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM)...

  13. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432... Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1,4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1 Pounds per 1000...

  14. 40 CFR 432.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2.0 1.0 Fecal Coliform (2) (2) O&G 3 1.0 0.5 TSS 2.4...

  15. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that slaughters... avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1...

  16. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that slaughters... avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1...

  17. 40 CFR 432.102 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.20 0.10 TSS 0.42...

  18. 40 CFR 432.122 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that further... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM)...

  19. OpenGeoSys: An Open-Source Initiative for Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical/Chemical (THM/C) Processes in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, N.; Bilke, L.; Fischer, T.; Kalbacher, T.; Nagel, T.; Naumov, D.; Rink, K.; Shao, H.; Wang, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we describe the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project, which is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulations of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical processes in fractured porous media. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework (using primarily the Finite Element Method (FEM)) for solving multi-field problems in porous and fractured media for applications in geoscience, hydrology and energy conversion. To this purpose OGS is based on an object-oriented (OO) FEM concept including a broad spectrum of interfaces for pre- and post-processing. OGS has been developed since the mid-eighties, has been continuously improved in concept and evolved through Fortran, C, and C++ implementations. The idea behind OGS is to provide an open platform to the scientific community featuring professional software-engineering tools such as platform-independent compiling and automated benchmarking. Comprehensive benchmarking books (Kolditz et al. 2012, 2014) and tutorials (Sachse et al. 2014) are being published. Benchmarking has proven to be a valuable tool for cooperation between different developer teams, for example, for code comparison and validation purposes (DEVOVALEX, CO2 BENCH and SSBENCH projects). The computational efficiency of OO codes is very important in scientific computing (Wang et al. 2009). We have already parallelized the OO codes by using both custom schemes and the PETSc library (Wang et al. 2014). Meanwhile the 6th version, ogs6, is under construction to further foster various parallel computing techniques and to improve code modularity for enhancing collaborative development by several researchers. The code is openly accessible via GitHub (https://github.com/ufz/ogs) and our development workflow extensively builds on Git features such as branching, merging automatic compiling, executing unit tests and code review to improve communication among developers and maintain code quality. OGS also provides a graphical user interface (Data

  20. Integrating Oil and Gas Measurement Data to Estimate Spatially-Gridded Methane Emissions in the Barnett Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, D. R.; Zavala Araiza, D.; Alvarez, R.; Harriss, R. C.; Palacios, V.; Lan, X.; Talbot, R. W.; Shepson, P. B.; Lavoie, T. N.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Hamburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    In October 2013, a dozen research teams measured methane emissions from oil and gas (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas at multiple scales ranging from bottom-up component measurements to top-down regional emission measurements. This work integrates ground- and aircraft-based measurements of site-level emissions from the campaign and a recent national study of gathering and processing facilities to construct a spatially resolved emission inventory for the Barnett Shale. Spatially referenced activity data including O&G site locations were obtained from multiple databases. O&G site emission factors were estimated with two-step Monte Carlo simulations that integrated emission rates from unbiased datasets with higher measurements obtained with targeted sampling. Emissions from other fossil and biogenic sources were estimated from reported emissions data or published emission factors. We constructed a 4 km x 4 km gridded emission inventory to estimate emissions by source category in the 25-county Barnett region. Total methane emissions in October 2013 were estimated to be 72.3 (+10.1/-8.9) Mg CH4 h-1 with 46.2 (+7.9/-6.2) from O&G sources. Fat-tail sites, which were defined as emission rates above the unbiased sampling distributions, accounted for 19% of O&G emissions but less than 2% of sites. In comparison to alternative estimates of O&G emissions based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research, our custom inventory was higher by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively, similar to published ratios of top-down and bottom up estimates. Our custom inventory was higher than alternatives primarily due to more complete activity data and the inclusion of fat-tail site emissions. Gathering facilities, which accounted for 40% of our O&G emission estimate, had the largest difference from alternative inventories.

  1. Land use change from forest to olive grove soils in a toposequence in Mediterranean areas (South of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Maria Luisa; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Olive grove (OG) is the most important crop in Andalusia (South of Spain), the main production area in the world. Throughout its development over the years, land use change (LUC) has been one of the most common phenomena, causing soil erosion and the loss of soil quality. This effect is aggravated by the climatic conditions and poor soil management practices. This study examined the effect of LUC from natural forest to OG in a toposequence (summit, backslope, toeslope) of a calcisols-regosols-vertisols sequence in Torredecampo (South of Spain). The studied parameters were soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen content; C and N stock; and stratification ratio (SR). Total SOC (T-SOC) was low for both forest and OG soils, with a pattern of decrease from the highest (summit) to the lowest topographical position (toeslope) in forest soils, but not for OG soils, where the highest T-SOC was found in the lowest topographical position. T-SOC was more than 40% higher in forest soils than in OG soils in the summit and backslope, but not in the toeslope. This can be explained by the difference in tree and vegetative coverage from both soil uses. Natural vegetation prevents that erosion diminishes soil quality and carbon content, as well as excessive erosion from higher to lower topographical positions. SOC stock in forest soils remained evenly distributed in the three topographical positions. However, the trend for the studied olive OG soils was to have the highest SOC stock in the toeslope and the lowest in the summit. Erosion and subsequent sediment deposition in the toeslope could also be the reason behind this difference between forest and OG soils. TN followed a pattern of decrease with depth in the OG soils, but not in the forest soils. This could be because of increased erosion and fertiliser leaching caused by the lack of vegetative cover. As for TN stock, it was higher in forest soils than in OG soils, with an exception (toeslope). In this case, the exception can also

  2. Nutrient demand interacts with forage family to affect digestion responses in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-06-01

    Effects of forage family on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal pool sizes, digestion and passage kinetics, and chewing activity and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI), an index of nutrient demand, were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 19.6 to 29.5 kg/d (mean=25.9 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield ranged from 24.3 to 60.3 kg/d (mean=42.1 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing either a) alfalfa silage (AL) or b) orchardgrass silage (OG) as the sole forage. Alfalfa and orchardgrass contained 42.3 and 58.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 22.5 and 11.4% crude protein, respectively. Forage:concentrate ratios were 60:40 and 43:57 for AL and OG, respectively; both diets contained approximately 25% forage NDF and 30% total NDF. Preliminary DMI was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of forage family and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Forage family and its interaction with pDMI did not affect feed intake, milk yield, or milk composition. The AL diet increased indigestible NDF (iNDF) intake and decreased potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) intake compared with OG. The AL diet increased ruminal pH, digestion rates of pdNDF and starch, and passage rates of pdNDF and iNDF compared with OG, which affected ruminal digestibility. Passage rate of iNDF was related to pDMI; AL increased iNDF passage rate and OG decreased it as pDMI increased. The AL diet decreased ruminal pool sizes of pdNDF, starch, organic matter, dry matter, and rumen digesta wet weight and volume compared with OG. The AL diet decreased ruminating time per unit of forage NDF consumed compared with OG, indicating that alfalfa provided less physically effective

  3. The Expression of 2-Oxoglutarate/Malate Translocator in the Bundle-Sheath Mitochondria of Panicum miliaceum, a NAD-Malic Enzyme-Type C4 Plant, Is Regulated by Light and Development.

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, M.; Sugiyama, T.

    1997-01-01

    The bundle-sheath mitochondria in NAD-malic enzyme-type C4 plants participate in the C4 dicarboxylate cycle and require high capacities of translocators to accommodate the high rates of exchange of metabolites involved in photosynthesis. In Panicum miliaceum, a NAD-malic enzyme-type C4 plant, the steady-state level of mRNA for the mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)/malate translocator was higher in leaves than in nonphotosynthetic tissues. Furthermore, the expression of the gene for the mitochondrial 2-OG/malate translocator was restricted to bundle-sheath cells (BSC) but not mesophyll cells. The transcript level of the BSC-located mitochondrial 2-OG/malate translocator increased during greening in accordance with levels of photosynthetic genes, although the relative transcript levels of other mitochondrial membrane proteins decreased. The specific activities of C4 photosynthetic enzymes and the relative abundance of the 2-OG/malate translocator protein in bundle-sheath mitochondria increased in successive sections from the basal meristem to the distal tip, whereas the specific activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes remained constant or decreased. These findings indicate that the specific 2-OG/malate translocator in BSC mitochondria of P. miliaceum is expressed in concert with C4 enzymes during the differentiation of BSC and parallels the capacity of C4 photosynthesis. Most unusual, northern analysis showed that significant amounts of unspliced mRNAs, the levels of which are variable during greening, were present in leaf tissues. It is possible that this incomplete splicing is involved in posttranscriptional regulation of expression of this gene. PMID:12223705

  4. Data inconsistencies from states with unconventional oil and gas activity.

    PubMed

    Malone, Samantha; Kelso, Matthew; Auch, Ted; Edelstein, Karen; Ferrar, Kyle; Jalbert, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The quality and availability of unconventional oil and gas (O&G) data in the United States have never been compared methodically state-to-state. By conducting such an assessment, this study seeks to better understand private and publicly sourced data variability and to identify data availability gaps. We developed an exploratory data-grading tool - Data Accessibility and Usability Index (DAUI) - to guide the review of O&G data quality. Between July and October 2013, we requested, collected, and assessed 5 categories of unconventional O&G data (wells drilled, violations, production, waste, and Class II disposal wells) from 10 states with active drilling activity. We based our assessment on eight data quality parameters (accessibility, usability, point location, completeness, metadata, agency responsiveness, accuracy, and cost). Using the DAUI, two authors graded the 10 states and then averaged their scores. The average score received across all states, data categories, and parameters was 67.1 out of 100, largely insufficient for proper data transparency. By state, Pennsylvania received the highest average ( = 93.5) and ranked first in all but one data category. The lowest scoring state was Texas ( = 44) largely due to its policy of charging for certain data. This article discusses the various reasons for scores received, as well as methodological limitations of the assessment metrics. We argue that the significant variability of unconventional O&G data-and its availability to the public-is a barrier to regulatory and industry transparency. The lack of transparency also impacts public education and broader participation in industry governance. This study supports the need to develop a set of data best management practices (BMPs) for state regulatory agencies and the O&G industry, and suggests potential BMPs for this purpose. PMID:25734825

  5. Formaldehyde release from durable-press apparel textiles. Final project report to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T.G.; Daffron, C.R.; Merchant, E.R.

    1985-10-01

    A survey of formaldehyde (CH/sub 2/O) release from durable-press apparel textiles has been performed to better characterize the CH/sub 2/O emission properties of fabrics marketed in the US. An intercomparison of the ORNL extraction, the Japanese standard and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) sealed jar methods using 12 fabrics selected from the textile survey yielded an average emission ratio of 0.46 +- 0.16 for the ORNL/AATCC methods and 1.5 +- 0.5 for the ORNL/Japenese methods. The average CH/sub 2/O releases from the survey fabrics, as measured with the ORNL extraction test, were 117 +- 140, 58 +- 72, 19 +- 17 and 31 +- 29 ..mu..g CH/sub 2/O/g fabric for top-weight, bottom-weight, knit and flatgood categories, respectively. Formaldehyde releases of <100 ..mu..g CH/sub 2/O/g fabric were measured from 86% of the survey fabrics. Three to fourfold increases in CH/sub 2/O release were observed with additional seven to nine weeks of storage in a laboratory environment between repeated testing using the ORNL extraction test. The strongest emitting fabrics with initial emission levels of >125 ..mu..g CH/sub 2/O/g fabric exhibited a 74 +- 11% decline in CH/sub 2/O emission levels following the first washing, with an additional 13 +- 6% decline after the completion of six further washings. The weakest emitting fabrics with initial emission levels of <25 ..mu..g CH/sub 2/O/g fabric demonstrated both increases and decreases in CH/sub 2/O emission strength after washing but never exceeded 11 ..mu..g CH/sub 2/O/g fabric.

  6. Hyaluronic acid-shelled acid-activatable paclitaxel prodrug micelles effectively target and treat CD44-overexpressing human breast tumor xenografts in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yinan; Goltsche, Katharina; Cheng, Liang; Xie, Fang; Meng, Fenghua; Deng, Chao; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Haag, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of nanoscale anticancer drug delivery systems is severely truncated by their low tumor-targetability and inefficient drug release at the target site. Here, we report the design and development of novel endosomal pH-activatable paclitaxel prodrug micelles based on hyaluronic acid-b-dendritic oligoglycerol (HA-dOG-PTX-PM) for active targeting and effective treatment of CD44-overexpressing human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice. HA-dOG-PTX-PM had a high drug content of 20.6 wt.% and an average diameter of 155 nm. The release of PTX was slow at pH 7.4 but greatly accelerated at endosomal pH. MTT assays, flow cytometry and confocal experiments showed that HA-dOG-PTX-PM possessed a high targetability and antitumor activity toward CD44 receptor overexpressing MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies showed that HA-dOG-PTX-PM had a prolonged circulation time in the nude mice and a remarkably high accumulation in the MCF-7 tumor (6.19%ID/g at 12 h post injection). Interestingly, HA-dOG-PTX-PM could effectively treat mice bearing MCF-7 human breast tumor xenografts with little side effects, resulting in complete inhibition of tumor growth and a 100% survival rate over an experimental period of 55 days. These results indicate that hyaluronic acid-shelled acid-activatable PTX prodrug micelles have a great potential for targeted chemotherapy of CD44-positive cancers. PMID:26851390

  7. Can we predict the presence of coronary lesions from blood pressure measurement? A new clinical method.

    PubMed

    El Tahlawi, Mohammad; Abdelbaset, Mohammad; Gouda, Mohammad; Hussein, Ikhlas

    2015-04-01

    The roles of arterial function and structure in cardiovascular physiology have expanded with the development of a variety of parameters that evaluate arterial stiffness. Markers of arterial stiffness have been correlated with cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed to find a simple, clinical, noninvasive method to predict atherosclerosis that leads to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to find a simple, clinical, noninvasive method to predict atherosclerosis that leads to the development of CAD. We included 100 cases that underwent coronary angiography in our center owing to different indications. The blood pressure in all cases was measured by two different observers. The oscillatory systolic blood pressure (OSBP) was defined as the point at which the mercury began to oscillate to a minimum level of 1 mm Hg. The auscultatory systolic blood pressure (AUSBP) was defined as the first Korotkoff sound. The difference between OSBP and AUSBP was calculated and called the oscillatory gap (OG). The correlation between the OG and the presence of coronary lesion in coronary angiography was statistically calculated. The study populations had a mean age of 57.3±9 years. The mean±s.d. OG was 14.44±10.44. There was a highly significantly positive correlation between the OG and the presence of coronary artery lesions (r=0.399 and P-value <0.000). There was also a significantly positive correlation between the presence of hypertension and the OG (r=0.376 and P-value <0.000). The difference between OSBP and AUSBP could be used as a simple method to detect atherosclerotic arterial changes. This method could indicate the degree of arterial stiffness. There was a significantly positive correlation between this new indicator of arterial stiffness and the presence of CAD. Any patient with a wide gap between OSBP and AUSBP should be treated early with antihypertensive drugs and statins before the development of CAD. PMID:25567772

  8. Modeled Oil and Gas Atmospheric Impacts in National Parks and Wilderness Areas in the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Barna, M. G.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Moore, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil and gas production in the Western United States has increased considerably over the past 10 years. While many of the still limited oil and gas impact assessments have focused on potential human health impacts, the typically remote locations of production in the Intermountain West suggests that the impacts of oil and gas production on national parks and wilderness areas (class 1&2 areas) could also be important. To evaluate this, we utilize the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) with two year-long modeling episodes representing 2008 and 2011, meteorology and emissions. The model inputs for the 2008 and 2011 episodes were generated as part of the West-wide Jump-start Air Quality Modeling Study (WestJumpAQMS) and Three State Air Quality Study (3SAQS) respectively. Both studies included a detailed assessment of oil and gas (O&G) emissions in Western States for the respective years. Each year-long modeling episode was run both with and without emissions from O&G production. The difference between these two runs provides an estimate of the contribution of the O&G production to air quality. These data were used to assess the contribution of O&G to the 8 hour average ozone concentrations, daily and annual fine particulate concentrations, annual nitrogen deposition totals and visibility in the modeling domain. We present the results for the class 1&2 areas in the Western US. We also present temporal trends of O&G impacts, differentiating between trends in urban and rural areas.

  9. Overhydration measured by bioimpedance analysis and the survival of patients on maintenance hemodialysis: a single-center study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ye Jin; Jeon, Hong Jae; Kim, Yoo Hyung; Jeon, Jaewoong; Ham, Young Rok; Chung, Sarah; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) helps measuring the constituents of the body noninvasively. Prior studies suggest that BIA-guided fluid assessment helps to predict survival in dialysis patients. We aimed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of BIA for predicting the survival rate of hemodialysis patients in Korea. Methods We conducted a single-center retrospective study. All patients were diagnosed with end-stage renal disorder and started maintenance hemodialysis between June 2009 and April 2014. BIA was performed within the 1st week from the start of hemodialysis. The patients were classified into 2 groups based on volume status measured by the body composition monitor (BCM; Fresenius): an overhydrated group [OG; overhydration/extracellular water (OH/ECW) >15%] and a nonoverhydrated group (NOG; OH/ECW ≤15%). Results A total of 344 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 252 patients (73.3%) were categorized into the OG and 92 patients (26.7%) into the NOG. Age- and sex-matching patients were selected with a rate of 2:1. Finally, 160 overhydrated patients and 80 nonoverhydrated patients were analyzed. Initial levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin were significantly lower in the OG. During follow-up, 43 patients from the OG and 7 patients from the NOG died (median follow-up duration, 24.0 months). The multivariate-adjusted all-cause mortality was significantly increased in the OG (odds ratio, 2.569; P = 0.033) and older patients (odds ratio, 1.072/y; P < 0.001). No significant difference of all-cause or disease-specific admission rate was observed between the 2 groups. Conclusion The ratio of OH/ECW volume measured with body composition monitor is related to the overall survival of end-stage renal disorder patients who started maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:26779424

  10. Functional analysis and association state of water channel (AQP-1) isoforms purified from six mammals.

    PubMed

    Schulte, D J; van Hoek, A N

    1997-09-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) or CHIP28 occurs in glycosylated (glyCHIP) and non-glycosylated (CHIP) forms and solubilization in octyl-beta-D-glucoside (OG) results in a tight association of glyCHIP and CHIP to form a heterodimer. The tight association did not permit separation of the two forms by affinity chromatography. We examined the mechanism of the tight association by enzymatic removal of sugar moieties, utilized organic solvents for preferential solubilization and purified CHIP28 from six mammals for inspection of glycosylation and association state in OG. Removal of terminal saccharides sustained the dimeric state of human CHIP28, while endo-glycosidases induced the transition into monomers, without leaving an affinity tag for separation purposes. Separation was achieved by preferential solubilization of non-glycosylated CHIP28 in CHCl3/MeOH/H2O mixtures. The two CHIP28 forms were solubilized in SDS, chromatographed in OG, and reconstituted into proteoliposomes; pf values were 1.5 and 1.6 x 10(-14) cm3/s (10 degrees C). Among erythrocytes from cow, pig, sheep, rabbit, dog, and horse CHIP28, one out of two molecules was glycosylated and High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) analysis also indicated heterodimers in OG; functional analysis of reconstituted proteoliposomes gave single channel water permeabilities, pf's, ranging from 2.0-3.4 x 10(-14) cm3/s (10 degrees C). The results indicate that CHIP28 structure, function, and association in OG are conserved among mammals and establish procedures to obtain glycosylated and non-glycosylated CHIP28 in functional form. PMID:9417990

  11. Oxidation of Orange G by persulfate activated by Fe(II), Fe(III) and zero valent iron (ZVI).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, S; Vasquez, L; Costa, D; Romero, A; Santos, A

    2014-04-01

    Persulfate (PS) was employed in the oxidation of Orange G (OG), an azo dye commonly found in textile wastewaters. Activation of PS was conducted with iron to generate sulfate free radicals (SO4(-)) with high redox potential capable to oxidize most of the organics in water. Identification of oxidation intermediates was carried out by analyzing at different times organic by-products generated from treatment of a concentrate dye solution (11.6 mM) with 153 mM of PS and 20 mM of Fe(II) at 20 °C. Intermediate reaction products (mainly phenol (PH) and benzoquinone (BQ), and in less extent aniline, phenolic compounds and naphthalene type compounds with quinone groups) were identified by GC/MS and HPLC, and an oxidation pathway was proposed for the oxidation of OG with iron activated PS. The effect of iron valence (0, II and III) in the oxidation of an aqueous solution of OG (containing 0.1 mM) was studied in a 0.5 L batch reactor at 20 °C. Initial activator and PS concentrations employed were both 1 mM. Complete pollutant removal was achieved within the first 30 min when iron II or III were employed as activators. Quinone intermediates generated during pollutant oxidation may act as electron shuttles, allowing the reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II) in the redox cycling of iron. Therefore, activation of PS by Fe(III) allowed complete OG removal. When zero valent iron (ZVI) was employed (particle diameter size 0.74 mm) the limiting step in SO4(-) generation was the surface reaction between ZVI and the oxidant yielding a lower oxidation rate of the dye. An increase in the oxidant dosage (0.2 mM OG, 2 mM Fe(III) and 6 mM PS) allowed complete pollutant and ecotoxicity removal, as well as mineralization close to 75%. PMID:24439838

  12. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, John S.; Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A.; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B.; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M.; Bowman, Lesley A. H.; Loik, Nikita D.; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J.; Tang, Christoph M.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; Preston, Gail M.; McDonough, Michael A.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins. PMID:25197067

  13. Optical properties of soot particles: measurement - model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, S.; Lambe, A. T.; Lack, D.; Massoli, P.; Cross, E. S.; Dubey, M.; Mazzoleni, C.; Olfert, J.; Freedman, A.; Davidovits, P.; Onasch, T. B.; Cappa, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Soot, a product of incomplete combustion, plays an important role in the earth's climate system through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. In order to accurately model the direct radiative impact of black carbon (BC), the refractive index and shape dependent scattering and absorption characteristics must be known. At present, the assumed shape remains highly uncertain because BC particles are fractal-like, being agglomerates of smaller (20-40 nm) spherules, yet traditional optical models such as Mie theory typically assume a spherical particle morphology. To investigate the ability of various optical models to reproduce observed BC optical properties, we measured light absorption and extinction coefficients of methane and ethylene flame soot particles. Optical properties were measured by multiple instruments: absorption by a dual cavity ringdown photoacoustic spectrometer (CRD-PAS), absorption and scattering by a 3-wavelength photoacoustic/nephelometer spectrometer (PASS-3) and extinction and scattering by a cavity attenuated phase shift spectrometer (CAPS). Soot particle mass was quantified using a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) and mobility size was measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Measurements were made for nascent soot particles and for collapsed soot particles following coating with dioctyl sebacate or sulfuric acid and thermal denuding to remove the coating. Wavelength-dependent refractive indices for the sampled particles were derived by fitting the observed absorption and extinction cross-sections to spherical particle Mie theory and Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory. The Rayleigh-Debye-Gans approximation assumes that the absorption properties of soot are dictated by the individual spherules and neglects interaction between them. In general, Mie theory reproduces the observed absorption and extinction cross-sections for particles with volume equivalent diameters (VED) < ~160 nm, but systematically predicts lower

  14. Extending color primary set in spectral vector error diffusion by multilevel halftoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Ole; Nyström, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Ever since its origin in the late 19th century, a color reproduction technology has relied on a trichromatic color reproduction approach. This has been a very successful method and also fundamental for the development of color reproduction devices. Trichromatic color reproduction is sufficient to approximate the range of colors perceived by the human visual system. However, tricromatic systems only have the ability to match colors when the viewing illumination for the reproduction matches that of the original. Furthermore, the advancement of digital printing technology has introduced printing systems with additional color channels. These additional color channels are used to extend the tonal range capabilities in light and dark regions and to increase color gamut. By an alternative approach the addition color channels can also be used to reproduce the spectral information of the original color. A reproduced spectral match will always correspond to original independent of lighting situation. On the other hand, spectral color reproductions also introduce a more complex color processing by spectral color transfer functions and spectral gamut mapping algorithms. In that perspective, spectral vector error diffusion (sVED) look like a tempting approach with a simple workflow where the inverse color transfer function and halftoning is performed simultaneously in one single operation. Essential for the sVED method are the available color primaries, created by mixing process colors. Increased numbers of as well as optimal spectral characteristics of color primaries are expected to significantly improve the color accuracy of the spectral reproduction. In this study, sVED in combination with multilevel halftoning has been applied on a ten channel inkjet system. The print resolution has been reduced and the underlying physical high resolution of the printer has been used to mix additional primaries. With ten ink channels and halfton cells built-up by 2x2 micro dots where each

  15. Partition coefficient of a surfactant between aggregates and solution: application to the micelle-vesicle transition of egg phosphatidylcholine and octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

    PubMed Central

    Paternostre, M; Meyer, O; Grabielle-Madelmont, C; Lesieur, S; Ghanam, M; Ollivon, M

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of the solubilization of egg phosphatidylcholine containing 10% (M/M) of egg phosphatidic acid unilamellar vesicles by the nonionic detergent, octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, has been investigated at both molecular and supramolecular levels by using fluorescence and turbidity measurements. In the lamellar region of the transition, the solubilization process has been shown to be first a function of the initial size before reaching an equilibrium aggregation state at the end of this region (the onset of the micellization process). The analysis during the solubilization process of the evolution of both the fluorescence energy transfer between N-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)-phosphatidylethanolamine (NBD-PE) and N-(lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl)-phosphatidylethanolamine (Rho-PE) and the fluorescence of 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminoaphtalene (Laurdan) has allowed us to determine the evolution of the detergent partitioning between the aqueous and the lipidic phases, i.e., the evolution of the molar fraction of OG in the aggregates (XOG/Lip) with its monomeric detergent concentration in equilibrium ([OG]H2O), throughout the vesicle-to-micelle transition without isolating the aqueous medium from the aggregates. The curve described by XOG/Lip versus [OG]H2O shows that the partition coefficient of OG is changing throughout the solubilization process. From this curve, which tends to a value of 1/(critical micellar concentration), five different domains have been delimited: two in the lamellar part of the transition (for 0 < [OG]H2O < 15.6 mM), one in the micellization part, and finally two in the pure micellar region (for 16.5 < [OG]H2O < 21 mM). The first domain in the lamellar part of the transition is characterized by a continuous variation of the partition coefficient. In the second domain, a linear relation relates XOG/Lip and [OG]H2O, indicating the existence of a biphasic domain for which the detergent presents a constant partition coefficient of 18

  16. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle. Agriculture contributes to carbon sequestration through photosynthesis and the incorporation of carbon into carbohydrates. Soil management is one of the best tools for climate change mitigation. Small increases or decreases in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices, may result in a significant net exchange of carbon between the soil carbon pool and the atmosphere. In the last decades arable crops (AC) have been transformed into olive grove cultivations (OG) or vineyards (V) in Mediterranean areas. A field study was conducted to determine long-term effects of land use change (LUC) (AC by OG and V) on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr) in Mediterranean conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS An unirrigated farm in Montilla-Moriles (Córdoba, Spain) cultivated under conventional tillage (animal power with lightweight reversible plows and non-mineral fertilization or pesticides) was selected for study in 1965. In 1966, the farm was divided into three plots with three different uses (AC, OG and V). The preliminary analyses were realized in 1965 for AC (AC1), and the second analyses were realized in 2011 for AC (AC2 - winter crop rotation with annual wheat and barley, receiving mineral fertilization or pesticides), OG (annual passes with disk harrow and cultivator in the spring, followed by a tine harrow in the summer receiving mineral fertilization and weed control with residual herbicides), and V (with three or five chisel passes a year from early spring to early autumn with mineral fertilization or pesticides.). In all cases (AC1, AC2, OG and V) were collected soil entire profiles. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, bulk density, SOC, TN, C:N ratio, stocks and SRs. The statistical significance of the differences in the variables between land use practices was tested using the

  17. OpenGeoSys-GEMS: Hybrid parallelization of a reactive transport code with MPI and threads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.; Shao, H.

    2012-04-01

    OpenGeoSys-GEMS is a generic purpose reactive transport code based on the operator splitting approach. The code couples the Finite-Element groundwater flow and multi-species transport modules of the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project (http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=18345) with the GEM-Selektor research package to model thermodynamic equilibrium of aquatic (geo)chemical systems utilizing the Gibbs Energy Minimization approach (http://gems.web.psi.ch/). The combination of OGS and the GEM-Selektor kernel (GEMS3K) is highly flexible due to the object-oriented modular code structures and the well defined (memory based) data exchange modules. Like other reactive transport codes, the practical applicability of OGS-GEMS is often hampered by the long calculation time and large memory requirements. • For realistic geochemical systems which might include dozens of mineral phases and several (non-ideal) solid solutions the time needed to solve the chemical system with GEMS3K may increase exceptionally. • The codes are coupled in a sequential non-iterative loop. In order to keep the accuracy, the time step size is restricted. In combination with a fine spatial discretization the time step size may become very small which increases calculation times drastically even for small 1D problems. • The current version of OGS is not optimized for memory use and the MPI version of OGS does not distribute data between nodes. Even for moderately small 2D problems the number of MPI processes that fit into memory of up-to-date workstations or HPC hardware is limited. One strategy to overcome the above mentioned restrictions of OGS-GEMS is to parallelize the coupled code. For OGS a parallelized version already exists. It is based on a domain decomposition method implemented with MPI and provides a parallel solver for fluid and mass transport processes. In the coupled code, after solving fluid flow and solute transport, geochemical calculations are done in form of a central loop over all finite

  18. An evaluation of the accuracy of some radar wind profiling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koscielny, A. J.; Doviak, R. J.

    1983-12-01

    Major advances in Doppler radar measurement in optically clear air have made it feasible to monitor radial velocities in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. For most applications the three dimensional wind vector is monitored rather than the radial velocity. Measurement of the wind vector with a single radar can be made assuming a spatially linear, time invariant wind field. The components and derivatives of the wind are estimated by the parameters of a linear regression of the radial velocities on functions of their spatial locations. The accuracy of the wind measurement thus depends on the locations of the radial velocities. The suitability is evaluated of some of the common retrieval techniques for simultaneous measurement of both the vertical and horizontal wind components. The techniques considered for study are fixed beam, azimuthal scanning (VAD) and elevation scanning (VED).

  19. [The relevance of multiple sclerosis drugs in private health insurance (PHI)].

    PubMed

    Wild, F

    2015-06-01

    The development of expenses and prescriptions in the pharmacotherapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) is examined on the basis of prescription data of 14 PHI firms. The drugs for the treatment of MS are among the most top-selling drugs in the PHI. From 2007 to 2012, the expenses increase 2.33-fold. The main cause is the increas of the prescription figures. In 2012, about 8,400 privately insured persons receive an MS drug. The prevalence of MS is 2.3 times higher in women than in men Impro ved diagnostic possibilities and expensive new drugs will lead to a dynamic cost de velopment in the next years. PMID:26281288

  20. Dosimetric advantages of IMRT simultaneous integrated boost for high-risk prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. Allen . E-mail: ali@radonc.mcw.edu; Wang, Jian Z.; Jursinic, Paul A.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Wang Dian

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: A sequential two-phase process, initial and boost irradiation, is the common practice for the radiotherapy management of high-risk prostate cancer. In this work, we explore the feasibility of using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) simultaneous integrated boost (SIB), a single-phase process, to simultaneously deliver high dose to the prostate and lower dose to the pelvic nodes. In addition, we introduce the concept of voxel-equivalent dose for the comparison of treatment plans. Methods and materials: The SIB is designed to deliver the same dose (e.g., 45 Gy, 25 x 1.8 Gy) as the conventional method to the pelvic nodes and to deliver higher doses to prostate in the same 25 fractions (i.e., hypofractionation). The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) was used to determine suitable SIB fractionations that deliver the biologically equivalent doses to prostate. For tumor, the EUD was estimated based on the linear quadratic (LQ) model. The most recent LQ parameters derived from clinical data for prostate cancer were used. The sensitivity of LQ parameters was evaluated. The EUD for normal tissue was computed based on the widely used Lyman model. To be able to consider biologic effectiveness spatially (e.g., voxel by voxel), we propose a new concept, termed the voxel-equivalent dose (VED). The calculation of VED was similar to that for EUD, except that it was done within a voxel. To demonstrate dosimetric feasibility and advantages of the proposed IMRT SIB, we have performed a retrospective planning study on selected patient cases using commercial IMRT and three-dimensional (3D) planning systems. Four treatment scenarios were considered: (1) the conventional 3D plan for initial whole-pelvic irradiation and subsequent conventional 3D boost plan for prostate gland (2) the conventional 3D plan for initial whole-pelvic irradiation and subsequent IMRT boost plan for prostate (3) IMRT plan for initial whole-pelvic irradiation and subsequent IMRT boost plan for

  1. The natural and social-economic resourses of the Republic of Komi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, Anton; Yakovleva, Maya; Kuchkina, Ekaterina; Lyaskovskiy, Sergey; Ievlev, Nikolay

    2013-04-01

    North-West of Russian Federation, include 11 subjects of Russian Federation. One of the most interesting regions is republic of Komi.. The native population of North - korely, rusichi, komi, ved', permyaki and other peoples are living here. Main characteristics of region are pollution-free territory, low population concentration, material wealth and huge forest and water resources. Flora and fauna are also interesting. Successful fishing and hunting are possible because of great variety of animals and fish. There are 240 protected natural areas in Republic of Komi (information on the 1st January 2010). All these features let organize scientific expeditions, tourists' routes helping to know unique nature and ethnical culture of North.

  2. [Adult hepatoblastoma. A case report].

    PubMed

    Goikoetxea Urdiain, A; Sánchez Acedo, P; Mateo Retuerta, J; Tarifa Castilla, A; Zazpe Ripa, C; Herrera Cabezón, J

    Adult hepatoblastoma is a rare pathology. Its pathogeny is not well understood and prognosis is very bad. We pre-sent a case of adult hepatoblastoma treated in our centre. A 65 year-old male, without previous hepatopathy, who consulted due to right hypochondrial pain with a subacute evolution. The pathological diagnosis was adult epithelial hepatoblastoma, with free surgical margins. The patient recei-ved a second surgical intervention 5 months later due to early recurrence and died 10 months after the diagnosis due to a new massive recurrence. His definitive diagnosis is histological. Radical surgery is the only treatment that increases survival, but recurrence is frequent. There are no well-defined patterns of adjuvant chemotherapy nor is there any trans-plant experience. PMID:27599957

  3. Identification of GI cancers utilising rapid mid-infrared spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Kendall, Catherine; Barr, Hugh; Shepherd, Neil; Stone, Nick

    2016-03-01

    Pathologists find it notoriously difficult to provide both inter- and intra-observer agreement on a diagnosis of early gastrointestinal cancers. Vibrational spectroscopic approaches have shown their value in providing molecular compositional data from tissue samples and therefore enabling the identification of disease specific changes, when combined with multivariate techniques. Mid-infrared microscopic imaging is undergoing rapid developments in sources, detectors and spectrometers. Here we explore the use of high magnification FTIR for GI cancers and consider how the MINERVA (MId- to NEaR infrared spectroscopy for improVed medical diAgnostics) project, which is developing discrete frequency IR imaging tools will enable histopathologists to obtain rapid molecular images form unstained tissue sections.

  4. The treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with neurogenic disease

    PubMed Central

    Brant, William O.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) related to compromise of the nervous system is an increasingly common occurrence. This may be due to the multifactorial nature of ED, the myriad of disorders affecting the neurotransmission of erectogenic signals, and improved awareness and diagnosis of ED. Nevertheless, neurogenic ED remains poorly understood and characterized. Disease related factors such as depression, decreased physical and mental function, the burden of chronic illness, and loss of independence may preclude sexual intimacy and lead to ED as well. The amount of data regarding treatment options in subpopulations of differing neurologic disorders remains scarce except for men with spinal cord injury. The treatment options including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, intracavernosal or intraurethral vasoactive agents, vacuum erection devices (VED) and penile prosthetic implantation remain constant. This review discusses the options in specific neurologic conditions, and briefly provides insight into new and future developments that may reshape the management of neurogenic ED. PMID:26904415

  5. A Low Cost Traveling Wave Tube for Wireless Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancil, Bernard Kenneth; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Demand for high data rate wireless communications is pushing up amplifier power, bandwidth and frequency requirements. Some systems are using vacuum electron devices again because solid-state power amplifiers are not able to efficiently meet the new requirements. The traveling wave tube is the VED of choice because of its excellent broadband capability as well as high power efficiency and frequency. But TWTs are very expensive on a per watt basis below about 200 watts of output power. We propose a new traveling wave tube that utilizes cathode ray tube construction technology and electrostatic focusing. We believe the tube can be built in quantity for under $1,000 each. We discuss several traveling wave tube slow wave circuits that lend themselves to the new construction. We will present modeling results and data on prototype devices.

  6. The treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with neurogenic disease.

    PubMed

    Shridharani, Anand N; Brant, William O

    2016-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) related to compromise of the nervous system is an increasingly common occurrence. This may be due to the multifactorial nature of ED, the myriad of disorders affecting the neurotransmission of erectogenic signals, and improved awareness and diagnosis of ED. Nevertheless, neurogenic ED remains poorly understood and characterized. Disease related factors such as depression, decreased physical and mental function, the burden of chronic illness, and loss of independence may preclude sexual intimacy and lead to ED as well. The amount of data regarding treatment options in subpopulations of differing neurologic disorders remains scarce except for men with spinal cord injury. The treatment options including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, intracavernosal or intraurethral vasoactive agents, vacuum erection devices (VED) and penile prosthetic implantation remain constant. This review discusses the options in specific neurologic conditions, and briefly provides insight into new and future developments that may reshape the management of neurogenic ED. PMID:26904415

  7. Aerosol Optical Extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) 2014 Summertime Field Campaign, Colorado U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingle, J. H.; Vu, K. K. T.; Bahreini, R.; Apel, E. C.; Campos, T. L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Ebben, C. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Herndon, S. C.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Huey, L. G.; Kaser, L.; Mauldin, L.; Montzka, D. D.; Nowak, J. B.; Richter, D.; Roscioli, J. R.; Shertz, S.; Stell, M. H.; Tanner, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Walega, J.; Weibring, P.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range Denver Metropolitan Area as part of the summertime air quality airborne field campaign to characterize the influence of sources, photochemical processing, and transport of pollution on local air quality. An Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex) was deployed to measure dry βext at λ=632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret the βext under various categories of aged air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios of Δβext/ΔCO were evaluated under 3 differently aged air mass categories (fresh, intermediately aged, and aged) to investigate impacts of photochemistry on βext. Δβext/ΔCO was significantly increased in heavily aged air masses compared to fresh air masses (0.17 Mm-1/ppbv and 0.094 Mm-1/ppbv respectively). The resulting increase in Δβext/ΔCO under heavily aged air masses was represented by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation. Aerosol composition and sources from urban, natural oil and gas wells (OG), and agriculture and livestock operations were also evaluated for their impacts on βext. Linear regression fits to βext vs. organic aerosol mass showed higher correlation coefficients under the urban and OG plumes (r=0.55 and r=0.71 respectively) and weakest under agricultural and livestock plumes (r=0.28). The correlation between βext and nitrate aerosol mass however was best under the agriculture and livestock plumes (r=0.81), followed by OG plumes (r=0.74), suggesting co-location of aerosol nitrate precursor sources with OG emissions. Finally, non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE) was analyzed. MEE was observed to be 1.37 g/m2 and 1.30 g/m2 in OG and urban+OG plumes, respectively.

  8. Quantifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Methane Emissions from Super-emitters in the Oil and Gas Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, David Richard

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas (O&G) supply chain reduce potential climate benefits of natural gas as a replacement for other fossil fuels that emit more carbon dioxide per energy produced. O&G facilities have skewed emission rate distributions with a small fraction of sites contributing the majority of emissions. Knowledge of the identity and cause of these high emission facilities, referred to as super-emitters or fat-tail sources, is critical for reducing supply chain emissions. This dissertation addresses the quantification of super-emitter emissions, assessment of their prevalence and relationship to site characteristics, and mitigation with continuous leak detection systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the state of the knowledge of O&G methane emissions. Chapter 2 constructs a spatially-resolved emission inventory to estimate total and O&G methane emissions in the Barnett Shale as part of a coordinated research campaign using multiple top-down and bottom-up methods to quantify emissions. The emission inventory accounts for super-emitters with two-phase Monte Carlo simulations that combine site measurements collected with two approaches: unbiased sampling and targeted sampling of super-emitters. More comprehensive activity data and the inclusion of super-emitters, which account for 19% of O&G emissions, produces a emission inventory that is not statistically different than top-down regional emission estimates. Chapter 3 describes a helicopter-based survey of over 8,000 well pads in seven basins with infrared optical gas imaging to assess high emission sources. Four percent of sites are observed to have high emissions with over 90% of observed sources from tanks. The occurrence of high emissions is weakly correlated to site parameters and the best statistical model explains only 14% of variance, which demonstrates that the occurrence of super-emitters is primarily stochastic. Chapter 4 presents a Gaussian dispersion model for optimizing the placement of

  9. Preventive effect of rikkunshito on gastric motor function inhibited by L-dopa in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixin; Mogami, Sachiko; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Yamada, Chihiro; Yakabi, Seiichi; Yakabi, Koji; Hattori, Tomohisa; Taché, Yvette

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported that ghrelin prevented l-dopa (LD)-induced inhibition of gastric emptying (GE) of a non-nutrient solution in rats. Parkinson's disease treatment involves the combined administration of l-dopa with the enzyme l-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, carbidopa (CD) to reduce peripheral formation of dopamine. We investigated the effect LD/CD given orogastrically (og) on GE of a non-nutrient or nutrient meal and whether og pretreatment with rikkunshito, a kampo medicine clinically used to treat gastroparesis, influenced LD/CD effect on GE and postprandial antral and duodenal motility in conscious rats. LD/CD (20/2 mgkg(-1)) decreased significantly GE to 26.3 ± 6.0% compared to 61.2 ± 3.2% in og vehicle monitored 20-min after a non-nutrient meal and to 41.9 ± 5.8% compared to 72.9 ± 5.2% in og vehicle monitored 60 min after a nutrient meal. Rikkunshito (0.5 or 1.0 g kg(-1)) reduced the LD/CD (20/2 mg kg(-1)) inhibition of GE of non-nutrient meal (36.9 ± 7.4% and 46.6 ± 4.8% respectively vs. 12.1 ± 7.4% in og vehicle plus LD/CD) while having no effect alone (56.6 ± 8.5%). The ghrelin antagonist, [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6 (1 mg kg(-1)) injected intraperitoneally partially reversed rikkunshito preventive effect on LD/CD-inhibited GE. Rikkunshito (1.0 g kg(-1)) blocked LD/CD (20/2 mg kg(-1))-induced delayed GE of a nutrient meal and the reduction of postprandial antral motility. In 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease rat model, rikkunshito (1.0 g kg(-1), og) also prevented LD/CD-inhibited gastric emptying of a nutrient meal and enhanced fasting plasma levels of acylated ghrelin. These data indicate that oral rikkunshito alleviates the delayed GE induced by LD/CD in naïve and PD rat model in part through ghrelin-related mechanisms. PMID:24631952

  10. Treatment of newly diagnosed symptomatic pure low-grade oligodendrogliomas with PCV chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, C; Fontaine, D; Bourg, V; Ramaioli, A; Chanalet, S; Vandenbos, F; Lonjon, M; Fauchon, F; Paquis, P; Frenay, M

    2007-04-01

    Based on studies relating to anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OG) chemosensitivity and benefit of time to progression or overall survival, chemotherapy for pure OG has been proposed. Several studies have reported the efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents in a small number of patients with low-grade gliomas, e.g. pure astrocytomas, OG or mixed histologies. The 5-year survival rate varies from 61% to 89% with a mean time to progression of 5 years. We report the outcome of 33 consecutive patients with pure low-grade OG diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 systematically treated for residual or non-removable tumor with PCV chemotherapy regimen as the front-line treatment after surgery. All the tumors were low grade (grade II) pure OG according to the WHO classification. All patients were symptomatic at presentation and underwent neurosurgical procedure for histological diagnosis. Response was evaluated by clinical assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-one men and 12 women with a mean age at pathological diagnosis of 46.5 years were studied. The most common first symptom was partial epileptic seizure (73.7%). Six patients (18%) had initial gadolinium enhancement, associated with methoxyisobutyl (MIBI) hypermetabolism (P < 0.001). The resection was partial in seven cases (21%), and 26 patients (79%) had biopsy only. Eleven patients (36%) had a malignant transformation during the follow-up with a median time to progression of 19 months. Favorable prognostic factors were lack of contrast enhancement (P < 0.0001), and age <40 years (P < 0.0003); 90% of patients were progression-free at 1 year. Survival rates at 2, 5 and 10 years were 85%, 75% and 50%, respectively. Up-front chemotherapy with PCV regimen is a good treatment for symptomatic pure low-grade OG, as it increases the number of progression-free patients and time to progression. These results suggest that radiotherapy could be postponed until the malignant transformation occurs to delay cognitive

  11. High fat diet exacerbates vascular endothelial dysfunction in rats exposed to continuous hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Xia; Tang, Feng; Ga, Qin; Wuren, Tana; Wang, Ya-Ping; Rondina, Matthew T; Ge, Ri-Li

    2015-02-13

    Independently, a high fat diet and hypoxia are associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and often occur concurrently in patients. Nevertheless, the effects of a high fat diet on vascular endothelial function combined with hypoxia, a situation occurring with increasing frequency in many parts of the world, remain largely unknown. We investigated the effects of a high fat diet on vascular endothelial function in rats exposed to continuous hypoxia for 4 weeks. Seventy two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: a hypoxia group fed regular chow, a combined hypoxia and high fat diet (HFD) group, and for comparison, rats maintained in normoxia, regular chow conditions were set as baseline (BL) group. The experimental data of BL group were obtained at beginning of hypoxia given in the other groups. Continuous hypoxia was induced in a hypobaric chamber maintained at an altitude of 5000 m. Compared to hypoxic conditions alone, hypoxia plus a HFD prevented adaptive changes in plasma nitric oxide (NOx) levels and caused earlier and more severe changes in aortic endothelial structures. Functionally, hypoxia plus a HFD resulted in impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation responses to acetylcholine and altered the bioavailability of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate L-Arginine. At the molecular level, hypoxia plus a HFD blunted increases in endothelial NOS (eNOS) mRNA and protein in aortic endothelial tissue. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that in the setting of hypoxia, a high fat diet leads to earlier and more severe VED than hypoxia alone. These data have important implications for populations residing at high-altitude, as dietary patterns shift towards increased fat intake. PMID:25603049

  12. Black carbon measurements in the Pearl River Delta region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Gao, R.; Schwarz, J. P.; Ling-Yan, H.; Fahey, D. W.; Laurel A, W.; Zeng, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southeastern China is one of the most polluted industrial/metropolitan areas in the world. The 3C-STAR campaign (Synthesized Prevention Techniques for Air Pollution Complex and Integrated Demonstration in Key City-Cluster Region), carried out in October-November, 2008, was aimed at improving the understanding and quantification of air pollution in the region, while developing technical capacity for regional air quality monitoring and modeling. We report single-particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements and analyses of refractory black carbon (rBC) at Kaiping, a rural site downwind of the major pollution sources in the PRD area. The rBC mass loadings varied between 0.5 and 10 µg-rBC kg-air-1, and averaged 2.8 µg-rBC kg-air-1. These values are roughly an order of magnitude higher than those measured in the Houston, Texas, a major US metropolitan area. The rBC mass distributions show a primary lognormal peak with a median mass diameter of 0.22 µm volume-equivalent diameter (VED), which is similar to those observed in Houston and other regions with the SP2 instrument. A second mode with a mass median diameter of 0.69 µm VED, has not been observed before. Coatings are found on over 50% of rBC particles, suggesting that they are aged and/or of biomass-burning origin. The high rBC loadings cause significant heating of the atmosphere due to direct solar absorption. A diurnal heating rate of over 0.5 K day-1. is estimated for the average of entire dataset with a maximum heating rate near 3 K day-1.

  13. Catechin averts experimental diabetes mellitus-induced vascular endothelial structural and functional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Khanna, Deepa; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an induction of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED), an initial event that could lead to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Previous studies showed that catechin, a key component of green tea, possesses vascular beneficial effects. We investigated the effect of catechin hydrate in diabetes mellitus-induced experimental vascular endothelial abnormalities (VEA). Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, i.p., once) administration to rats produced diabetes mellitus, which subsequently induced VEA in 8 weeks by markedly attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in the isolated aortic ring preparation, decreasing aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentrations and impairing aortic endothelial integrity. These abnormalities in diabetic rats were accompanied with elevated aortic superoxide anion generation and serum lipid peroxidation in addition to hyperglycemia. Catechin hydrate treatment (50 mg/kg/day p.o., 3 weeks) markedly prevented diabetes mellitus-induced VEA and vascular oxidative stress. Intriguingly, in vitro incubation of L-NAME (100 μM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, or Wortmannin (100 nM), a selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), markedly prevented catechin hydrate-induced improvement in acetylcholine-provoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in the diabetic rat aorta. Moreover, catechin hydrate treatment considerably reduced the elevated level of serum glucose in diabetic rats. In conclusion, catechin hydrate treatment prevents diabetes mellitus-induced VED through the activation of endothelial PI3K signal and subsequent activation of eNOS and generation of nitric oxide. In addition, reduction in high glucose, vascular oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation might additionally contribute to catechin hydrate-associated prevention of diabetic VEA. PMID:24048981

  14. Myocardial performance index is sensitive to changes in cardiac contractility, but is also affected by vascular load condition.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Kazunori; Kawada, Toru; Zheng, Can; Li, Meihua; Shishido, Toshiaki; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial performance index (MPI), or Tei index, is measured by Doppler echocardiography in clinical practice. MPI has been shown to be useful in evaluating left ventricular (LV) performance and predicting prognosis in cardiac patients. However, the effects of LV load and contractile states on MPI remain to be thoroughly investigated. In 14 anesthetized dogs, we obtained LV pressure-volume relationship with use of sonomicrometry and catheter-tip manometry. MPI was determined from the time derivative of LV volume and pressure. LV end-systolic pressure-volume ratio (Ees'), effective arterial elastance (Ea) and LV end-diastolic volume (Ved) were used as indices of LV contractility, afterload and preload, respectively. Hemodynamic conditions were varied over wide ranges [heart rate (HR), 66-192 bpm; mean arterial pressure, 71-177 mmHg] by infusing cardiovascular agents, by inducing ischemic heart failure and by electrical atrial pacing. Multiple linear regression analysis of pooled data (66 data sets) indicated that MPI (0.6-1.8) significantly correlated with Ees' [1.5-17.5 mmHg · ml(-1), p<0.0001, standard partial regression coefficient (β) =-0.66], Ea (3.6-21.9 mmHg · ml(-1), p<0.001, β = 0.4) and Ved (11-100 ml, p<0.0001, β = -0.69). MPI directly correlated with the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (19-66 ms, p<0.05), but not with HR or LV diastolic-stiffness (all p>0.1). Theoretical analysis also indicated that MPI decreases following the increases in LV contractility and in preload, while it increases in response to an increase in LV afterload. We conclude that MPI sensitively detects changes in LV contractility. However, MPI is also affected by changes in LV afterload and preload. PMID:24109782

  15. Postprandial hyperglycemia impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy men by inducing lipid peroxidation and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Noh, Sang K; Ballard, Kevin D; Matos, Manuel E; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2011-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia induces vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and increases future cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that postprandial hyperglycemia would decrease vascular function in healthy men by inducing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine (ADMA:arginine), a biomarker that is predictive of reduced NO biosynthesis. In a randomized, cross-over design, healthy men (n = 16; 21.6 ± 0.8 y) ingested glucose or fructose (75 g) after an overnight fast. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose and insulin, antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA), inflammatory proteins, arginine, and ADMA were measured at regular intervals during the 3-h postprandial period. Baseline FMD did not differ between trials (P > 0.05). Postprandial FMD was reduced following the ingestion of glucose only. Postprandial MDA concentrations increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose compared to fructose. Plasma arginine decreased and the ratio of ADMA:arginine increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose. Inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules were unaffected by the ingestion of either sugar. Postprandial AUC(0-3 h) for FMD and MDA were inversely related (r = -0.80; P < 0.05), suggesting that hyperglycemia-induced lipid peroxidation suppresses postprandial vascular function. Collectively, these findings suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia in healthy men reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing lipid peroxidation independent of inflammation. Postprandial alterations in arginine and ADMA:arginine also suggest that acute hyperglycemia may induce VED by decreasing NO bioavailability through an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. Additional work is warranted to define whether inhibiting lipid peroxidation and restoring arginine metabolism would mitigate hyperglycemia-mediated decreases in vascular function. PMID:21940510

  16. The type of variants at the COL3A1 gene associates with the phenotype and severity of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael; Albuisson, Juliette; Ranque, Brigitte; Golmard, Lisa; Mazzella, Jean-Michael; Bal-Theoleyre, Laurence; Fauret, Anne-Laure; Mirault, Tristan; Denarié, Nicolas; Mousseaux, Elie; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Fiessinger, Jean-Noël; Emmerich, Joseph; Messas, Emmanuel; Jeunemaitre, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare and severe autosomal dominant disorder caused by variants at the COL3A1 gene. Clinical characteristics and course of disease of 215 molecularly proven patients (146 index cases and 69 relatives) were analysed. We found 126 distincts variants that were divided into five groups: (1) Glycine substitutions (n=71), (2) splice-site and in-frame insertions-deletions (n=36), (3) variants leading to haplo-insufficiency (n=7), (4) non-glycine missense variants within the triple helix (n=4 variants), and (5) non-glycine missense variants or in-frame insertions-deletions, in the N- or C-terminal part of the protein (n=8). Overall, our cohort confirmed the severity of the disease with a median age at first complication of 29 years (IQR 22-39), the most frequent being arterial (48%) and digestive (24%) ruptures. Groups 2 and 1 were significantly more severe than groups 3-5, with extreme median ages at first major complication of 23-47 years. Patients of groups 3-5 had a less typical phenotype and remarkably absence of digestive events. The distribution of glycine-replacing amino acids was strongly biased towards more destabilizing residues of the collagen assembly. Thus the natural course of vEDS and the clinical phenotype of patients are influenced by the type of COL3A1 variant. This study also confirms that patients with variants located in the C- and N-termini or leading to haplo-insufficiency have milder course of the disease and less prevalent diagnostic criteria. These findings may help refine diagnostic strategy, genetic counselling and clinical care. PMID:25758994

  17. Clinical, structural, biochemical and X-ray crystallographic correlates of pathogenicity for variants in the C-propeptide region of the COL3A1 gene.

    PubMed

    Stembridge, Natasha S; Vandersteen, Anthony M; Ghali, Neeti; Sawle, Philip; Nesbitt, Mandy; Pollitt, Rebecca C; Ferguson, David J P; Holden, Simon; Elmslie, Frances; Henderson, Alex; Hulmes, David J S; Pope, F Michael

    2015-08-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a heritable disorder of connective tissue caused by pathological variants in the COL3A1 gene, which encodes the α1 chain of type III collagen. Type III collagen is a major component of skin, arterial walls, and the gastrointestinal tract. Collagen III protein deficiency manifests as an increased risk of rupture, perforation, and dissection of these structures. The most disruptive gene variants affect the collagen helix via glycine substitutions or splice donor site mutations. The C-propeptide region of COL3A1 includes exons 49-52 and has a crucial role in initiating the C-terminal assembly of procollagen monomers in the early stages of collagen biosynthesis. Nineteen COL3A1 variants have previously been reported in these exons, of which four were associated with a severe vEDS phenotype. We identified two novel C-propeptide missense variants; p.Pro1440Leu, p.Arg1432Leu, and a non-stop mutation, c.4400A > T, p. (*1467Leuext*45). These variants produce variable phenotypes ranging from obvious acrogeria to classical or hypermobile EDS. A previously reported variant p.Lys1313Arg is of unknown clinical significance but likely benign, based on this study. Assigning disease pathogenicity remains complex, clinical phenotyping and crystal structure evidence being crucial. We briefly compare reported phenotypes for patients with missense variants in the C-propeptide domain for other human collagen disorders including COL1A1 and COL1A2 (osteogenesis imperfecta). PMID:25846194

  18. Doxycycline ameliorates the susceptibility to aortic lesions in a mouse model for the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Briest, Wilfried; Cooper, Timothy K; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Krawczyk, Melissa; McDonnell, Nazli B; Talan, Mark I

    2011-06-01

    The vascular form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS), a rare disease with grave complications resulting from rupture of major arteries, is caused by mutations of collagen type III [α1 chain of collagen type III (COL3A1)]. The only, recently proven, preventive strategy consists of the reduction of arterial wall stress by β-adrenergic blockers. The heterozygous (HT) Col3a1 knockout mouse has reduced expression of collagen III and recapitulates features of a mild presentation of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether changing the balance between synthesis and degradation of collagen by chronic treatment with doxycycline, a nonspecific matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, could prevent the development of vascular pathology in HT mice. After 3 months of treatment with doxycycline or placebo, 9-month-old HT or wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to surgical stressing of the aorta. A 3-fold increase in stress-induced aortic lesions found in untreated HT mice 1 week after intervention (cumulative score 4.5 ± 0.87 versus 1.3 ± 0.34 in WT, p < 0.001) was fully prevented in the doxycycline-treated group (1.1 ± 0.56, p < 0.001). Untreated HT mice showed increased MMP-9 activity in the carotid artery and decreased collagen content in the aorta; however, in doxycycline-treated animals there was normalization to the levels observed in WT mice. Doxycycline treatment inhibits the activity of tissue MMP and attenuates the decrease in the collagen content in aortas of mice haploinsufficient for collagen III, as well as prevents the development of stress-induced vessel pathology. The results suggest that doxycycline merits clinical testing as a treatment for vEDS. PMID:21363928

  19. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-signal pathway mediates proliferation and secretory function of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in rats after partial hepatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Ping . E-mail: chenping@263.net; Zhang Lin; Ding Jiming; Zhu Jin; Li Ying; Duan Shigang; Yan Hongtao; Huan Yongwei; Dong Jiahong

    2006-04-14

    Objective: To investigate the role of AKT signaling pathway in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) early after partial hepatectomy in rats and the regulatory mechanisms involved. Methods: The animal model of 70% hepatectomy was made. Hepatic SECs were isolated and cultured according to Braet et al.'s method with some modifications. The cultured hepatic SECs were divided into two groups: 70% partial hepatectomy groups and LY294002 group (LY). We observed the expressions of AKT and NF-{kappa}B in cultured hepatic SECs by Western blot, measured the levels of NO, NOs, IL-6, and HGF in the supernatants of hepatic SEC cultures and [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation, and analyzed cell cycle of cultured hepatic SECs by flow cytometer. The relationship of the Akt pathway with secretions and proliferation of hepatic SECs after partial hepatectomy was probed. Results: The levels of Akt protein expression increased significantly after partial hepatectomy in OG group and with a peak at 24 h post operation. Meanwhile, there was a markedly increase in phosphorylated Akt protein during 2-72 h after operation. But the expression and activity of Akt protein did not change significantly after partial hepatectomy in the LY group. So, partial hepatectomy can marked induce Akt expression and result in rapid and marked phosphorylation of Akt from 2 to 72 h thereafter. The changes of NF-{kappa}B expression in cultured hepatic SECs were similar to those of Akt expression after operation. The concentrations of HGF and IL-6 in the supernatants of cultured hepatic SECs were relatively low in the LY group, and were markedly increased after partial hepatectomy, with a peak at 24 h in the OG group. There were significant differences between the OG and LY groups at 6 and 24 h (P < 0.05). Both NO and NOS secretion was increased in the OG group compared to the LY group within 24 h after partial hepatectomy. But the secretion of NO and NOS was increased more markedly in the LY group than that

  20. Development of algorithms to link the static model of Petrel with the dynamic model of OpenGeoSys and application to CO2 storage in a saline aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Shinn, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A set of three algorithms named PET2OGS is developed to integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys). PET2OGS consists of three sub-algorithms that convert finite difference methods (FDMs) grids to finite element methods (FEMs) grids. The algorithms and the workflow of the integration procedures are described in detail. After the proposed algorithms are tested on a variety of grids both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, the integrated platform of the static and dynamic models is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. A successful demonstration of the proposed algorithms proved a robust integration of the platform. With some minor modifications of the algorithms in the part of input and output, the proposed algorithms can be extended to integrate different combinations of FDM-based static models and FEM-based dynamic models beyond the example combination.

  1. Investigation of the Makeup, Source, and Removal Strategies for Total Organic Carbon in the Oxygen Generation System Recirculation Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carpenter, Joyce; Roy, Robert J.; Van Keuren, Steve; Wilson, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) on board the International Space Station (ISS) has been producing oxygen for crew respiration via water electrolysis. As water is consumed in the OGS recirculating water loop, make-up water is furnished by the ISS potable water bus. A rise in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was observed beginning in February, 2011, which continues through the present date. Increasing TOC is of concern because the organic constituents responsible for the TOC were unknown and had not been identified; hence their impacts on the operation of the electrolytic cell stack components and on microorganism growth rates and types are unknown. Identification of the compounds responsible for the TOC increase, their sources, and estimates of their loadings in the OGA as well as possible mitigation strategies are presented.

  2. Study of Driving Fatigue Alleviation by Transcutaneous Acupoints Electrical Stimulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuwang; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Driving fatigue is more likely to bring serious safety trouble to traffic. Therefore, accurately and rapidly detecting driving fatigue state and alleviating fatigue are particularly important. In the present work, the electrical stimulation method stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) of human body is proposed, which is used to alleviate the mental fatigue of drivers. The wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) is used to extract θ, α, and β subbands of drivers' electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Performances of the two algorithms (θ + α)/(α + β) and θ/β are also assessed as possible indicators for fatigue detection. Finally, the differences between the drivers with electrical stimulation and normal driving are discussed. It is shown that stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) using electrical stimulation method can alleviate driver fatigue effectively during longtime driving. PMID:25254242

  3. Taphonomic analysis of the early Pleistocene (2.4 Ma) faunal assemblage from A.L. 894 (Hadar, Ethiopia).

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido

    2012-03-01

    The A.L. 894 site (Hadar, Ethiopia) is, together with OGS 7 (Gona, Ethiopia), one of the oldest archaeological sites documenting a spatial association of stone tools and bones retrieved from an in situ excavation. In contrast with OGS 7, the better preservation of the bone assemblage at A.L. 894 allows the identification of taphonomic processes of bone breakage, thanks to abundant green bone fractures. The presence of tooth marks and the lack of hominin-produced bone modifications together argue against hominins as the responsible agents for bone accumulation and modification. This taphonomic study of A.L. 894 shows lack of evidence for functional associations between stone tools and bones, a pattern documented in several other early Pleistocene sites. Such a pattern underscores the complex phenomena involved in site formation processes, especially in the earliest archaeological assemblages. PMID:20207393

  4. Integrated testing of an electrochemical depolarized CO2 concentrator /EDC/ and a Bosch CO2 reduction subsystem /BRS/. [in spaceborne oxygen reclamation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Clark, D. C.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1976-01-01

    An oxygen reclamation system (ORS) in a spacecraft has the task to revitalize the spacecraft atmosphere by recovering the elementary oxygen from metabolically produced carbon dioxide and water vapor. Life support subsystems which can form such an ORS are an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator (EDC), a Bosch carbon dioxide reduction subsystem (BRS), and an oxygen generation subsystem (OGS). A total recovery of the oxygen from metabolically generated carbon dioxide can be obtained with the aid of system composed of the considered three subsystems. Attention is given to the control concept which assures an integrated operation of the EDC, BRS, and OGS. A description is presented of the test results obtained during 86 days of testing.

  5. First Results & Future Prospects for 30 GeV Gamma Rays from CELESTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Naurois, Mathieu

    The CELESTE solar farm gamma-ray telescope detected the Crab Nebula at 80 GeV ( Hz) using 18 heliostats in 1998. In March 1999, observations began with a setup extended to 40 heliostats, and with upgraded electronics. Technical delays and bad weather only permitted a very small data set for the Crab nebula. hours of data were taken simultaneously with the CAT imaging telescope showing evidence for a gamma signal. In this talk the analysis method of these data is described. CELESTE has passed major milestones and the groundwork is laid for the blazar and pulsar studies presented elsewhere in this conference (OG 2.1.20, OG 2.2.31). DEDICATION : CELESTE is the brainchild of Eric Pare, who died at the age of 39 in an automobile accident, two weeks after finding our first gamma ray signal. Eric also played a major role in the conception and design of CAT. We dedicate this work to his memory.

  6. Functional Model of Carbon Nanotube Programmable Resistors for Hybrid Nano/CMOS Circuit Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weisheng; Agnus, Guillaume; Derycke, Vincent; Filoramo, Ariana; Gamrat, Christian; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe

    Hybrid Nano (e.g. Nanotube and Nanowire) /CMOS circuits combine both the advantages of Nano-devices and CMOS technologies; they have thus become the most promising candidates to relax the intrinsic drawbacks of CMOS circuits beyond Moore’s law. A functional simulation model for an hybrid Nano/CMOS design is presented in this paper. It is based on Optically Gated Carbon NanoTube Field Effect Transistors (OG-CNTFET), which can be used as 2-terminal programmable resistors. Their resistance can be adjusted precisely, reproducibly and in a non-volatile way, over three orders of magnitude. These interesting behaviors of OG-CNTFET promise great potential for developing the non-volatile memory and neuromorphic adaptive computing circuits. The model is developed in Verilog-A language and implemented on Cadence Virtuoso platform with Spectre 5.1.41 simulator. Many experimental parameters are included in this model to improve the simulation accuracy.

  7. Metabolite regulation of the interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana PII and N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase.

    PubMed

    Feria Bourrellier, Ana Belén; Ferrario-Méry, Sylvie; Vidal, Jean; Hodges, Michael

    2009-10-01

    The metabolic control of the interaction between ArabidopsisN-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase (NAGK) and the PII protein has been studied. Both gel exclusion and affinity chromatography analyses of recombinant, affinity-purified PII (trimeric complex) and NAGK (hexameric complex) showed that NAGK strongly interacted with PII only in the presence of Mg-ATP, and that this process was reversed by 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). Furthermore, metabolites such as arginine, glutamate, citrate, and oxalacetate also exerted a negative effect on the PII-NAGK complex formation in the presence of Mg-ATP. Using chloroplast protein extracts and PII affinity chromatography, NAGK interacted with PII only in the presence of ATP-Mg(2+), and this process was antagonized by 2-OG. These results reveal a complex metabolic control of the PII interaction with NAGK in the chloroplast stroma of higher plants. PMID:19631611

  8. The oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate inhibits histone lysine demethylases

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Yeoh, Kar Kheng; Tian, Ya-Min; Hillringhaus, Lars; Bagg, Eleanor A; Rose, Nathan R; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Li, Xuan S; Woon, Esther C Y; Yang, Ming; McDonough, Michael A; King, Oliver N; Clifton, Ian J; Klose, Robert J; Claridge, Timothy D W; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Schofield, Christopher J; Kawamura, Akane

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) have a gain-of-function effect leading to R(−)-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) accumulation. By using biochemical, structural and cellular assays, we show that either or both R- and S-2HG inhibit 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases with varying potencies. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for the R-form of 2HG varied from approximately 25 μM for the histone Nɛ-lysine demethylase JMJD2A to more than 5 mM for the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase. The results indicate that candidate oncogenic pathways in IDH-associated malignancy should include those that are regulated by other 2OG oxygenases than HIF hydroxylases, in particular those involving the regulation of histone methylation. PMID:21460794

  9. Indian data on bone and soft tissue sarcomas: A summary of published study results.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Anant; Rekhi, Bharat; Bakhshi, Sameer; Hingmire, Sachin; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are rare tumors, approximating 0.2% of all cancers, with osteosarcoma (OGS), chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma being the most common cancers in this subset. The formation of disease management groups/clinics focused on sarcomas has resulted in better understanding and management of these uncommon tumors. Multiple large-scale retrospective data from Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) and All India Institute of Medical Sciences have reported outcomes comparable to Western data in the field of OGS and Ewing sarcoma, with interesting prognostic factors identified for further evaluation. Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors, more than 50 different tumor entities. The common subtypes identified in India include Ewing sarcoma and synovial sarcoma. Valuable work regarding brachytherapy has been done by radiation oncologists from the TMH, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27606300

  10. Phylogenomics Using Transcriptome Data.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Johanna Taylor; Kocot, Kevin Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a generalized protocol for conducting phylogenetic analyses using large-scale molecular datasets, specifically using transcriptome data from the Illumina sequencing platform. The general molecular lab bench protocol consists of RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and sequencing, in this case via Illumina. After sequences have been obtained, bioinformatics methods are used to assemble raw reads, identify coding regions, and categorize sequences from different species into groups of orthologous genes (OGs). The specific OGs to be used for phylogenetic inference are selected using a custom shell script. Finally, the selected orthologous groups are concatenated into a supermatrix. Generalized methods for phylogenomic inference using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference software are presented. PMID:27460370

  11. CONSTRAINING PULSAR MAGNETOSPHERE GEOMETRY WITH {gamma}-RAY LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Romani, Roger W.; Watters, Kyle P. E-mail: kwatters@stanford.ed

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate a method for quantitatively comparing {gamma}-ray pulsar light curves with magnetosphere beaming models. With the Fermi LAT providing many pulsar discoveries and high-quality pulsar light curves for the brighter objects, such a comparison allows greatly improved constraints on the emission zone geometry and the magnetospheric physics. Here we apply the method to Fermi LAT light curves of a set of bright pulsars known since EGRET or before. We test three approximate models for the magnetosphere structure and two popular schemes for the location of the emission zone, the two pole caustic model and the outer gap (OG) model. We find that OG models and relatively physical B fields approximating force-free dipole magnetospheres are preferred at high statistical significance. An application to the full LAT pulsar sample will allow us to follow the emission zone's evolution with pulsar spindown.

  12. Indian data on bone and soft tissue sarcomas: A summary of published study results

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Anant; Rekhi, Bharat; Bakhshi, Sameer; Hingmire, Sachin; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are rare tumors, approximating 0.2% of all cancers, with osteosarcoma (OGS), chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma being the most common cancers in this subset. The formation of disease management groups/clinics focused on sarcomas has resulted in better understanding and management of these uncommon tumors. Multiple large-scale retrospective data from Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) and All India Institute of Medical Sciences have reported outcomes comparable to Western data in the field of OGS and Ewing sarcoma, with interesting prognostic factors identified for further evaluation. Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors, more than 50 different tumor entities. The common subtypes identified in India include Ewing sarcoma and synovial sarcoma. Valuable work regarding brachytherapy has been done by radiation oncologists from the TMH, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27606300

  13. Removal of nitrate ions from water by activated carbons (ACs)—Influence of surface chemistry of ACs and coexisting chloride and sulfate ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Kazunari; Amano, Yoshimasa; Aikawa, Masami; Machida, Motoi

    2013-07-01

    Adsorptive removal of nitrate ions in aqueous solution using activated carbons (ACs) was examined. After ash was removed from Filtrasorb 400 AC, oxidation and outgassing and several heat treatments were carried out to modify the textural and surface properties of ACs. AC oxidized with 8 M nitric acid followed by outgassing at 900 °C (Ox-9OG) exhibited the greatest Langmuir adsorption capacity and affinity for nitrate removal among the total 7 ACs examined. Influence of coexisting chloride and sulfate ions was investigated as well to inspect the nitrate adsorption sites. The highest amount of sites which adsorbed nitrate ions exclusively could be observed for Ox-9OG adsorbent even though as great as 250 times greater number of chloride or sulfate ions over nitrate ions were present in the same aqueous system. Some basic oxygen species on carbon were estimated to work as selective adsorption sites for nitrate ions.

  14. Meals on Wheels? A Decade of Megafaunal Visual and Acoustic Observations from Offshore Oil & Gas Rigs and Platforms in the North and Irish Seas.

    PubMed

    Todd, Victoria Louise Georgia; Warley, Jane Clare; Todd, Ian Boyer

    2016-01-01

    A decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore Oil & Gas (O&G) installations in the North and Irish Seas are presented. Marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) qualified and experienced Marine Mammal Observers (MMO) and Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) Operators respectively, with real-time towed PAM in combination with industry standard software, PAMGuard. Monitoring was performed during routine O&G industrial operations for underwater noise mitigation purposes, and to ensure adherence to regulatory guidelines. Incidental sightings by off-effort MMOs and installation crew were also reported. Visual and acoustic monitoring spanned 55 non-consecutive days between 2004 and 2014. A total of 47 marine mammal sightings were recorded by MMOs on dedicated watch, and 10 incidental sightings of marine megafauna were reported over 10 years. Species included: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), white beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), common seal (Phoca vitulina), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and, basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). Passive Acoustic Monitoring was conducted on two occasions in 2014; 160 PAM hours over 12 days recorded a total of 308 individual clicks identified as harbour porpoises. These appear to be the first such acoustic detections obtained from a North Sea drilling rig whilst using a typically configured hydrophone array designed for towing in combination with real-time PAMGuard software. This study provides evidence that marine megafauna are present around mobile and stationary offshore O&G installations during routine operational activities. On this basis, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for decommissioning O&G platforms should be carried-out on a case-by-case basis, and must include provisions for

  15. Increased Drought Impacts on Temperate Rainforests from Southern South America: Results of a Process-Based, Dynamic Forest Model

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Alvaro G.; Armesto, Juan J.; Díaz, M. Francisca; Huth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S). The model incorporates the dynamic linkages between changing rainfall regimes, soil moisture and individual tree growth. Declining rainfall, as predicted for the study area, should mean up to 50% less summer rain by year 2100. We analysed forest responses to increased drought using the model proposed focusing on changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (above-ground biomass and basal area). We compared the responses of a young stand (YS, ca. 60 years-old) and an old-growth forest (OG, >500 years-old) in the same area. Based on detailed field measurements of water fluxes, the model provides a reliable account of the hydrologic balance of these evergreen, broad-leaved rainforests. We found higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climate. Increasing drought predicted for this century can reduce evapotranspiration by 15% in the OG compared to current values. Drier climate will alter forest structure, leading to decreases in above ground biomass by 27% of the current value in OG. The model presented here can be used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on forest hydrology and other threats of global change on future forests such as fragmentation, introduction of exotic tree species, and changes in fire regimes. Our study expands the applicability of forest dynamics models in remote and hitherto overlooked regions of the world, such as southern temperate rainforests. PMID:25068869

  16. A lipid-based liquid crystalline matrix that provides sustained release and enhanced oral bioavailability for a model poorly water soluble drug in rats.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Ben J; Khoo, Shui-Mei; Whittaker, Darryl V; Davey, Greg; Porter, Christopher J H

    2007-08-01

    Liquid crystalline phases that are stable in excess water, formed using lipids such as glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and oleyl glycerate (OG), are known to provide a sustained release matrix for poorly water soluble drugs in vitro, yet there has been no report of the use of these materials to impart oral sustained release behaviour in vivo. In the first part of this study, in vitro lipolysis experiments were used to compare the digestibility of GMO with a second structurally related lipid, oleyl glycerate, which was found to be less susceptible to hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase than GMO. Subsequent oral bioavailability studies were conducted in rats, in which a model poorly water soluble drug, cinnarizine (CIN), was administered orally as an aqueous suspension, or as a solution in GMO or OG. In the first bioavailability study, plasma samples were taken over a 30 h period and CIN concentrations determined by HPLC. Plasma CIN concentrations after administration in the GMO formulation were only sustained for a few hours after administration while for the OG formulation, the plasma concentration of cinnarizine was at its highest level 30 h after dosing, and appeared to be increasing. A second study in which CIN was again administered in OG, and plasma samples taken for 120 h, revealed a Tmax for CIN in rats of 36 h and a relative oral bioavailability of 344% when compared to the GMO formulation (117%) and the aqueous suspension formulation (assigned a nominal bioavailability of 100%). The results indicate that lipids that form liquid crystalline structures in excess water, may have application as an oral sustained release delivery system, providing they are not digested rapidly on administration. PMID:17467935

  17. Adjustment among mothers reporting same-gender sexual partners: a study of a representative population sample from Quebec Province (Canada).

    PubMed

    Julien, Danielle; Jouvin, Emilie; Jodoin, Emilie; L'archevêque, Alexandre; Chartrand, Elise

    2008-12-01

    We examined the well-being of mothers and non-mothers reporting exclusive opposite-gender sexual partners (OG), same-gender sexual partners (SG), or both (BI) in a representative sample of 20,773 participants (11,034 women) 15-years-old or older from the population of Quebec province in Canada. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire and SG and BI women (n = 179) were matched to a sample of OG women (n = 179) based on age, income, geographical area, and children (having at least one 18-year-old or younger biological or adopted child at home). We assessed social milieu variables, risk factors for health disorders, mental health, and quality of mothers' relationship with children. The findings indicated a sexual orientation main effect: Mothers and non-mothers in the SG and BI group, as compared to their OG controls, were significantly less likely to live in a couple relationship, had significantly lower levels of social support, higher prevalence of early negative life events, substance abuse, suicide ideation, and higher levels of psychological distress. There were no Sexual Orientation X Parenthood status effects. The results further indicated that sexual orientation did not account for unique variance in women's psychological distress beyond that afforded by their social milieu, health risk factors, and parenthood status. No significant differences were found for the quality of mothers' relationship with children. SG-BI and OG mothers with low levels of social integration were significantly more likely to report problems with children than parents with high levels of social integration. We need to understand how marginal sexualities and their associated social stigma, as risk indicators for mothers, interact with other factors to impact family life, parenting skills, and children's adjustment. PMID:17665300

  18. Meals on Wheels? A Decade of Megafaunal Visual and Acoustic Observations from Offshore Oil & Gas Rigs and Platforms in the North and Irish Seas

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Victoria Louise Georgia; Todd, Ian Boyer

    2016-01-01

    A decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore Oil & Gas (O&G) installations in the North and Irish Seas are presented. Marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) qualified and experienced Marine Mammal Observers (MMO) and Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) Operators respectively, with real-time towed PAM in combination with industry standard software, PAMGuard. Monitoring was performed during routine O&G industrial operations for underwater noise mitigation purposes, and to ensure adherence to regulatory guidelines. Incidental sightings by off-effort MMOs and installation crew were also reported. Visual and acoustic monitoring spanned 55 non-consecutive days between 2004 and 2014. A total of 47 marine mammal sightings were recorded by MMOs on dedicated watch, and 10 incidental sightings of marine megafauna were reported over 10 years. Species included: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), white beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), common seal (Phoca vitulina), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and, basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). Passive Acoustic Monitoring was conducted on two occasions in 2014; 160 PAM hours over 12 days recorded a total of 308 individual clicks identified as harbour porpoises. These appear to be the first such acoustic detections obtained from a North Sea drilling rig whilst using a typically configured hydrophone array designed for towing in combination with real-time PAMGuard software. This study provides evidence that marine megafauna are present around mobile and stationary offshore O&G installations during routine operational activities. On this basis, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for decommissioning O&G platforms should be carried-out on a case-by-case basis, and must include provisions for

  19. Computational analysis of pediatric ventricular assist device implantation to decrease cerebral particulate embolization.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, ThuyTien; Argueta-Morales, I Ricardo; Guimond, Stephen; Clark, William; Ceballos, Andres; Osorio, Ruben; Divo, Eduardo A; De Campli, William M; Kassab, Alain J

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the most devastating complication after ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation with a 19% incidence and 65% mortality in the pediatric population. Current pediatric VAD technology and anticoagulation strategies alone are suboptimal. VAD implantation assisted by computational methods (CFD) may contribute reducing the risk of cerebral embolization. Representative three-dimensional aortic arch models of an infant and a child were generated. An 8 mm VAD outflow-graft (VAD-OG) anastomosed to the aorta was rendered and CFD was applied to study blood flow patterns. Particle tracks, originating in the VAD, were computed with a Lagrangian phase model and the percentage of particles entering the cerebral vessels was calculated. Eight implantation configurations (infant = 5 and child = 3) and 5 particle sizes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm) were considered. For the infant model, percentage of particles entering the cerebral vessels ranged from 15% for a VAD-OG anastomosed at 90° to the aorta, to 31% for 30° VAD-OG anastomosis (overall percentages: X(2) = 10,852, p < 0.0001). For the child model, cerebral embolization ranged from 9% for the 30° VAD-OG anastomosis to 15% for the 60° anastomosis (overall percentages: χ(2) = 10,323, p < 0.0001). Using detailed CFD calculations, we demonstrate that the risk of stroke depends significantly on the VAD implantation geometry. In turn, the risk probably depends on patient-specific anatomy. CFD can be used to optimize VAD implantation geometry to minimize stroke risk. PMID:26214744

  20. Role of (p)ppGpp in Biofilm Formation by Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, José A.; Wickström, Claes; Sedgley, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1RF and its (p)ppGpp-deficient ΔrelA, ΔrelQ, and ΔrelA ΔrelQ mutants were grown in biofilms and evaluated for growth profiles, biofilm morphology, cell viability, and proteolytic activity. E. faecalis lacking (p)ppGpp had a diminished capacity to sustain biofilm formation over an extended period of time and expressed abundant proteolytic activity. PMID:22179256

  1. Corticosterone suppresses vasotocin-enhanced clasping behavior in male rough-skinned newts by novel mechanisms interfering with V1a receptor availability and receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Audrey; Abraham, Emily; McEvoy, Erin; Sonnenfeld, Sarah; Lewis, Christine; Hubbard, Catherine S; Dolence, E Kurt; Rose, James D; Coddington, Emma

    2015-03-01

    In rough-skinned newts, Taricha granulosa, exposure to an acute stressor results in the rapid release of corticosterone (CORT), which suppresses the ability of vasotocin (VT) to enhance clasping behavior. CORT also suppresses VT-induced spontaneous activity and sensory responsiveness of clasp-controlling neurons in the rostromedial reticular formation (Rf). The cellular mechanisms underlying this interaction remain unclear. We hypothesized that CORT blocks VT-enhanced clasping by interfering with V1a receptor availability and/or VT-induced endocytosis. We administered a physiologically active fluorescent VT conjugated to Oregon Green (VT-OG) to the fourth ventricle 9 min after an intraperitoneal injection of CORT (0, 10, 40 μg/0.1mL amphibian Ringers). The brains were collected 30 min post-VT-OG, fixed, and imaged with confocal microscopy. CORT diminished the number of endocytosed vesicles, percent area containing VT-OG, sum intensity of VT-OG, and the amount of VT-V1a within each vesicle; indicating that CORT was interfering with V1a receptor availability and VT-V1a receptor-mediated endocytosis. CORT actions were brain location-specific and season-dependent in a manner that is consistent with the natural and context-dependent expression of clasping behavior. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the Rf to CORT was much higher in animals during the breeding season, arguing for ethologically appropriate seasonal variation in CORT's ability to prevent VT-induced endocytosis. Our data are consistent with the time course and interaction effects of CORT and VT on clasping behavior and neurophysiology. CORT interference with VT-induced endocytosis may be a common mechanism employed by hormones across taxa for mediating rapid context- and season-specific behavioral responses. PMID:25528549

  2. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the...

  3. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the...

  4. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the...

  5. Interaction of Aβ(1-42) amyloids with lipids promotes "off-pathway" oligomerization and membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Henry, Sarah; Vignaud, Hélène; Bobo, Claude; Decossas, Marion; Lambert, Oliver; Harte, Etienne; Alves, Isabel D; Cullin, Christophe; Lecomte, Sophie

    2015-03-01

    The toxicity of amyloids, as Aβ(1-42) involved in Alzheimer disease, is a subject under intense scrutiny. Many studies link their toxicity to the existence of various intermediate structures prior to fiber formation and/or their specific interaction with membranes. In this study we focused on the interaction between membrane models and Aβ(1-42) peptides and variants (L34T, mG37C) produced in E. coli and purified in monomeric form. We evaluated the interaction of a toxic stable oligomeric form (oG37C) with membranes as comparison. Using various biophysical techniques as fluorescence and plasmon waveguide resonance, we clearly established that the oG37C interacts strongly with membranes leading to its disruption. All the studied peptides destabilized liposomes and accumulated slowly on the membrane (rate constant 0.02 min(-1)). Only the oG37C exhibited a particular pattern of interaction, comprising two steps: the initial binding followed by membrane reorganization. Cryo-TEM was used to visualize the peptide effect on liposome morphologies. Both oG37C and mG37C lead to PG membrane fragmentation. The PG membrane promotes peptide oligomerization, implicated in membrane disruption. WT (Aβ(1-42)) also perturbs liposome organization with membrane deformation rather than disruption. For all the peptides studied, their interaction with the membranes changes their fibrillization process, with less fibers and more small aggregates being formed. These studies allowed to establish, a correlation between toxicity, fiber formation, and membrane disruption. PMID:25689632

  6. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit; Pudhom, Khanitha; Palaga, Tanapat

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A gedunin type limonoid from seeds of mangroves, 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin, exhibits strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with this limonoid results in significant decrease in expression of NFATc1 and osteoclast-related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mode of action of this limonoid is by inhibiting activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways which are activated by RANKL. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14 {mu}M. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions.

  7. Effect of isolation methodology on stem cell properties and multilineage differentiation potential of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hilkens, P; Gervois, P; Fanton, Y; Vanormelingen, J; Martens, W; Struys, T; Politis, C; Lambrichts, I; Bronckaers, A

    2013-07-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are an attractive alternative mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) source because of their isolation simplicity compared with the more invasive methods associated with harvesting other MSC sources. However, the isolation method to be favored for obtaining DPSC cultures remains under discussion. This study compares the stem cell properties and multilineage differentiation potential of DPSCs obtained by the two most widely adapted isolation procedures. DPSCs were isolated either by enzymatic digestion of the pulp tissue (DPSC-EZ) or by the explant method (DPSC-OG), while keeping the culture media constant throughout all experiments and in both isolation methods. Assessment of the stem cell properties of DPSC-EZ and DPSC-OG showed no significant differences between the two groups with regard to proliferation rate and colony formation. Phenotype analysis indicated that DPSC-EZ and DPSC-OG were positive for CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD117 and CD146 expression without any significant differences. The multilineage differentiation potential of both stem cell types was confirmed by using standard immuno(histo/cyto)chemical staining together with an in-depth ultrastructural analysis by means of transmission electron microscopy. Our results indicate that both DPSC-EZ and DPSC-OG could be successfully differentiated into adipogenic, chrondrogenic and osteogenic cell types, although the adipogenic differentiation of both stem cell populations was incomplete. The data suggest that both the enzymatic digestion and outgrowth method can be applied to obtain a suitable autologous DPSC resource for tissue replacement therapies of both bone and cartilage. PMID:23715720

  8. Biological treatment of produced water in a sequencing batch reactor by a consortium of isolated halophilic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Pendashteh, A R; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Chuah, T G; Radiah, A B Dayang; Madaeni, S S; Zurina, Z A

    2010-10-01

    Produced water or oilfield wastewater is the largest volume ofa waste stream associated with oil and gas production. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological pretreatment of synthetic and real produced water in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to remove hydrocarbon compounds. The SBR was inoculated with isolated tropical halophilic microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil. A total sequence of 24 h (60 min filling phase; 21 h aeration; 60 min settling and 60 min decant phase) was employed and studied. Synthetic produced water was treated with various organic loading rates (OLR) (0.9 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), 1.8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) and 3.6 kg COD m(-3) d(-1)) and different total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration (35,000 mg L(-1), 100,000 mg L(-1), 150,000 mg L(-1), 200,000 mg L(-1) and 250,000 mg L(-1)). It was found that with an OLR of 0.9 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) and 1.8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), average oil and grease (O&G) concentrations in the effluent were 7 mg L(-1) and 12 mg L(-1), respectively. At TDS concentration of 35,000 mg L(-1) and at an OLR of 1.8 kg COD m(-3)d(-1), COD and O&G removal efficiencies were more than 90%. However, with increase in salt content to 250,000 mg L(-1), COD and O&G removal efficiencies decreased to 74% and 63%, respectively. The results of biological treatment of real produced water showed that the removal rates of the main pollutants of wastewater, such as COD, TOC and O&G, were above 81%, 83%, and 85%, respectively. PMID:21046953

  9. Postural alignment in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its relationship with balance

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Cyntia R. J. A.; Costa, Andreia A.; Pizzato, Tatiana M.; Souza, Francine B.; Mattiello-Sverzut, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    Background In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, functional deficits seem to arise from body misalignment, deconditioning, and obesity secondary to weakness and immobility. The question remains about the effects of postural deviations on the functional balance of these children. Objectives To identify and quantify postural deviations in children with DMD in comparison to non-affected children (eutrophic and overweight/obese), exploring relationships between posture and function. Method This case-control study evaluated 29 participants aged 6 to 11 years: 10 DMD (DG), 10 eutrophic (EG), and 9 overweight/obese (OG). Digital photogrammetry and SAPo program were used to measure postural alignment and the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) was used to measure balance. The Kruskall-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests were used for inter-group comparison of posture and balance. Spearman's coefficient tested the correlation between postural and balance variables. Results The horizontal pelvic alignment data indicated that the anteversion of the DG was similar to that of the OG and twice that of the EG (p<0.05). Compared to the EG, the DG and OG showed an increased forward position of the center of mass (p<0.05). There was a moderate and weak correlation between the PBS score and horizontal pelvic alignment (0.58 and 0.47-left/right). The PBS showed a weak correlation with asymmetries in the sagittal plane (-0.39). The PBS scores for the OG and EG suggest that obesity did not have a deleterious effect on balance. Conclusions The balance deficit in children with DMD was accompanied by an increased forward position of the center of mass and significant pelvic anteversion that constitutes a compensatory strategy to guarantee similar performance to the children not affected by the disease. PMID:24838810

  10. 40 CFR 420.132 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 TSS 0.00998 0.00465 pH (2) (2) 1 Pounds per thousand pound of product. 2... Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 O&G (as HEM) 0.00746 0.00446 TSS 0.0123 0.00508 pH (2) (2) 1...

  11. 40 CFR 432.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2 0.48 0.24 Fecal Coliform (3) (4) O&G 5 0.26 0.13 TSS 2 0.62 0.31 1... processing of the carcasses of animals slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform,...

  12. 40 CFR 432.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2 0.48 0.24 Fecal Coliform (3) (4) O&G 5 0.26 0.13 TSS 2 0.62 0.31 1... processing of the carcasses of animals slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform,...

  13. Prediction of optical communication link availability: real-time observation of cloud patterns using a ground-based thermal infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, Clément; Cros, Sylvain; Saint-Antonin, Laurent; Schmutz, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    The growing demand for high-speed broadband communications with low orbital or geostationary satellites is a major challenge. Using an optical link at 1.55 μm is an advantageous solution which potentially can increase the satellite throughput by a factor 10. Nevertheless, cloud cover is an obstacle for this optical frequency. Such communication requires an innovative management system to optimize the optical link availability between a satellite and several Optical Ground Stations (OGS). The Saint-Exupery Technological Research Institute (France) leads the project ALBS (French acronym for BroadBand Satellite Access). This initiative involving small and medium enterprises, industrial groups and research institutions specialized in aeronautics and space industries, is currently developing various solutions to increase the telecommunication satellite bandwidth. This paper presents the development of a preliminary prediction system preventing the cloud blockage of an optical link between a satellite and a given OGS. An infrared thermal camera continuously observes (night and day) the sky vault. Cloud patterns are observed and classified several times a minute. The impact of the detected clouds on the optical beam (obstruction or not) is determined by the retrieval of the cloud optical depth at the wavelength of communication. This retrieval is based on realistic cloud-modelling on libRadtran. Then, using subsequent images, cloud speed and trajectory are estimated. Cloud blockage over an OGS can then be forecast up to 30 minutes ahead. With this information, the preparation of the new link between the satellite and another OGS under a clear sky can be prepared before the link breaks due to cloud blockage.

  14. CHERCAM: The Cherenkov imager of the CREAM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaz-Damaz, Y.; Barrau, A.; Bazer-Bachi, R.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Boyer, B.; Buénerd, M.; Derome, L.; Eraud, L.; Foglio, R.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Ganel, O.; Han, J. H.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, M. H.; Lutz, L.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Malinine, A.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Périé, J. N.; Putze, A.; Scordilis, J.-P.; Seo, E. S.; Walpole, P.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, Y. S.; Zinn, S. Y.

    2008-09-01

    A Cherenkov imager, CHERCAM (CHERenkov CAMera), has been designed and built for the CREAM (Cosmic-Ray Energetic and Mass) balloon-borne experiment. The instrument will perform charge measurements of nuclear cosmic-ray over a range extending from proton to iron. It will achieve individual charge separation of the elements over this range [M. Buénerd, et al., in: 28th ICRC, Tsukuba, Japan, OG 1.5, 2003, p. 2157. [2

  15. Genotoxic evaluation of extracts from Aplysina fulva, a Brazilian marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Aiub, Claudia; Giannerini, Ana; Ferreira, Flavia; Mazzei, José; Stankevicins, Luiza; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Guimarães, Pedro; Hajdu, Eduardo; Felzenszwalb, Israel

    2006-12-10

    A range of biologically active secondary metabolites with pharmacological application has been reported to occur in marine sponges. The present study was undertaken to provide a set of data on the safety of a hydro-alcoholic extract (ALE) and an aqueous fraction (AQE) from Aplysina fulva Pallas, 1766 (Aplysinidae, Verongida, Porifera). Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, Escherichia coli strains PQ65, OG40, OG100, PQ35 and PQ37 and Balb/c 3T3 mouse fibroblasts were used to detect induction of DNA lesions by ALE and AQE. Assays used for these analyses were a bacterial (reverse) mutation assay (Ames test), the SOS-chromotest and the comet assay. Both extracts presented identical infrared 2-oxazolidone spectra. ALE treatment induced a higher frequency of type-4 comets, indicative of increasing DNA migration, in the alkaline comet assay. ALE also induced a weak genotoxic effect, as expressed by the induction factor (IF) values in the test with E. coli strain PQ35 (IF=1.5) and by cytotoxic effects in strains PQ35, PQ65 and PQ37. Positive SOS induction (IF=1.7) was detected in strain PQ37 treated with diluted AQE. No genotoxic effects were observed in strains PQ35, PQ65, OG40 and OG 100 after treatment with AQE dilutions. Using the bacterial (reverse) mutation test and survival assays with or without S9 mix, after 60min of pre-incubation, we observed for strain TA97 treated with ALE a weak mutagenic response (MI=2.2), while cytotoxic effects were seen for strains TA98, TA100 and TA102. AQE did not show mutagenic activity in any of the strains tested, but a weak cytotoxic effect was noted in strain TA102. Our data suggest that both ALE and AQE from A. fulva induce DNA breaks leading to cytotoxicity and mutagenicity under the conditions used. PMID:16987694

  16. 12 CFR 263.50 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under section 38 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o); (12) Reclassification of a member bank on grounds of unsafe or unsound condition under section 38(g)(1) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o(g)(1)); (13) Reclassification of a member bank on grounds of unsafe and unsound practice under section 38(g)(1) of the FDI...

  17. 12 CFR 263.50 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under section 38 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o); (12) Reclassification of a member bank on grounds of unsafe or unsound condition under section 38(g)(1) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o(g)(1)); (13) Reclassification of a member bank on grounds of unsafe and unsound practice under section 38(g)(1) of the FDI...

  18. 12 CFR 263.50 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... under section 38 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o); (12) Reclassification of a member bank on grounds of unsafe or unsound condition under section 38(g)(1) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o(g)(1)); (13) Reclassification of a member bank on grounds of unsafe and unsound practice under section 38(g)(1) of the FDI...

  19. 12 CFR 263.50 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... under section 38 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o); (12) Reclassification of a member bank on grounds of unsafe or unsound condition under section 38(g)(1) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o(g)(1)); (13) Reclassification of a member bank on grounds of unsafe and unsound practice under section 38(g)(1) of the FDI...

  20. 12 CFR 263.50 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... under section 38 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o); (12) Reclassification of a member bank on grounds of unsafe or unsound condition under section 38(g)(1) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o(g)(1)); (13) Reclassification of a member bank on grounds of unsafe and unsound practice under section 38(g)(1) of the FDI...

  1. Is there any empirical support for biodiversity offset policy?

    PubMed

    Curran, Michael; Hellweg, Stefanie; Beck, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Biodiversity offsets are seen as a policy mechanism to balance development and conservation goals. Many offset schemes employ habitat restoration in one area to recreate biodiversity value that is destroyed elsewhere, assuming that recovery is timely and predictable. Recent research has challenged these assumptions on the grounds that restoration implies long time delays and a low certainty of success. To investigate these assertions, and to assess the strength of empirical support for offset policy, we used a meta-analytic approach to analyze data from 108 comparative studies of secondary growth (SG) and old-growth (OG) habitat (a total of 1228 SG sites and 716 OG reference sites). We extracted species checklists and calculated standardized response ratios for species richness, Fisher's alpha, Sorenson similarity, and Morisita-Horn similarity. We modeled diversity change with habitat age using generalized linear models and multi-model averaging, correcting for a number of potential explanatory variables. We tested whether (1) diversity of passively and actively restored habitat converges to OG values over time, (2) active restoration significantly accelerates this process, and (3) current offset policies are appropriate to the predicted uncertainties and time lags associated with restoration. The results indicate that in the best case, species richness converges to OG reference values within a century, species similarity (Sorenson) takes about twice as long, and assemblage composition (Morisita-Horn) up to an order of magnitude longer (hundreds to thousands of years). Active restoration significantly accelerates the process for all indices, but the inherently large time lags, uncertainty, and risk of restoration failure require offset ratios that far exceed what is currently applied in practice. Restoration offset policy therefore leads to a net loss of biodiversity, and represents an inappropriate use of the otherwise valuable tool of ecosystem restoration. PMID

  2. The Use of NMR Metabolite Profiling and in vivo Hypoglycemic Assay for Comparison of Unfractionated Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Two Ocimum Species.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Livia Marques; Espíndola-Netto, Jair Machado; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2016-06-01

    Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae) are used to treat diabetes mellitus in Africa. In a previous work, we identified chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic substance in O. gratissimum. This study aims to compare the chemical metabolite profile and the hypoglycemic activity of unfractionated aqueous extracts from leaves of both Lamiaceae species. The metabolite composition of OB and OG decoctions (10% w/v) was analyzed using HPLC-DAD and NMR tools. Chicoric acid showed to be the major phenolic in both extracts, besides caftaric, caffeic, and rosmarinic acids; nevertheless, there is approximately three times more of this substance in OG. From 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, 19 substances were identified in OB, while 12 in OG. The in vivo acute hypoglycemic activity of the extracts was assessed intraperitoneally in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg of both extracts significantly reduced their glycemia, compared to controls (P < 0.05). OB was a little more effective than OG, despite the lower content of chicoric acid in OB. This result strongly suggests that components other than chicoric acid contribute to the hypoglycemic activity of the two extracts. Despite the abundance of caffeic and rosmarinic acids in OB, their hypoglycemic activity observed at 8.3 μmol/kg was low. This is the first chemical profile of crude extracts from Ocimum species by NMR. Our findings confirmed the potential of both species in DM treatment in spite of marked differences in their chemical composition. However, long-term studies are necessary in order to identify the most promising of the two species for the development of an herbal medicine. PMID:27218231

  3. Increased drought impacts on temperate rainforests from southern South America: results of a process-based, dynamic forest model.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Alvaro G; Armesto, Juan J; Díaz, M Francisca; Huth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S). The model incorporates the dynamic linkages between changing rainfall regimes, soil moisture and individual tree growth. Declining rainfall, as predicted for the study area, should mean up to 50% less summer rain by year 2100. We analysed forest responses to increased drought using the model proposed focusing on changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (above-ground biomass and basal area). We compared the responses of a young stand (YS, ca. 60 years-old) and an old-growth forest (OG, >500 years-old) in the same area. Based on detailed field measurements of water fluxes, the model provides a reliable account of the hydrologic balance of these evergreen, broad-leaved rainforests. We found higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climate. Increasing drought predicted for this century can reduce evapotranspiration by 15% in the OG compared to current values. Drier climate will alter forest structure, leading to decreases in above ground biomass by 27% of the current value in OG. The model presented here can be used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on forest hydrology and other threats of global change on future forests such as fragmentation, introduction of exotic tree species, and changes in fire regimes. Our study expands the applicability of forest dynamics models in remote and hitherto overlooked regions of the world, such as southern temperate rainforests. PMID:25068869

  4. Zn distribution and speciation in zinc-containing steelmaking wastes by synchrotron radiation induced μ-XRF and μ-XANES spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lihua; Huang, Yuying; Lu, Xiaoming

    2013-04-01

    Zinc is an important element in steelmaking industry not only for its impact on environment but also for its hazardous influence to steel production. Collecting information about the chemical association of zinc in zinc-containing steelmaking wastes is fundamental for monitoring its behavior during further treatment. In the work presented here, the spatial distribution, and chemical forms of zinc in accumulated particles of zinc-containing steelmaking wastes, including electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) and basic oxygen furnace OG sludge (BOF OG), have been investigated using synchrotron radiation induced μ-XRF and μ-XANES spectroscopy. Results of μ-XRF analysis showed that zinc distributed in two ways. One was shared with iron and its distribution showed a positive correlation with that of iron. The other was accumulated in some well-defined hot spots with high amount and its distribution showed negative correlation with that of iron. For EAFD, results of μ-XANES spectroscopy indicated that zinc was mainly present in the form of ZnFe2O4 within the whole particles no matter the spots with high or low zinc content. Whereas for BOF OG, ZnFe2O4 was the main constituent in well-defined hot spots while in other regions zinc was mainly in the form of zinc carbonate. These results indicated that chemical reaction between zinc and other components occurred during the formation of accumulated OG sludge particles. If the above findings could be confirmed by more systematic investigations, it will provide valuable information for treating and utilizing these metallurgical residues.

  5. Design and evaluation of 1,7-naphthyridones as novel KDM5 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Labadie, Sharada S; Dragovich, Peter S; Cummings, Richard T; Deshmukh, Gauri; Gustafson, Amy; Han, Ning; Harmange, Jean-Christophe; Kiefer, James R; Li, Yue; Liang, Jun; Liederer, Bianca M; Liu, Yichin; Manieri, Wanda; Mao, Wiefeng; Murray, Lesley; Ortwine, Daniel F; Trojer, Patrick; VanderPorten, Erica; Vinogradova, Maia; Wen, Li

    2016-09-15

    Features from a high throughput screening (HTS) hit and a previously reported scaffold were combined to generate 1,7-naphthyridones as novel KDM5 enzyme inhibitors with nanomolar potencies. These molecules exhibited high selectivity over the related KDM4C and KDM2B isoforms. An X-ray co-crystal structure of a representative molecule bound to KDM5A showed that these inhibitors are competitive with the co-substrate (2-oxoglutarate or 2-OG). PMID:27499454

  6. [Effect of grazing on sandy grassland ecosystem in Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Halin; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Ruilian

    2004-03-01

    This experiment was carried out for 5 years in Horqin sandy land, lnner Mongolia, which had 4 treatments: Non-grazing (NG), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG) and over grazing (OG). The results showed that different grazing intensities resulted in different development trend of the pasture ecosystem, of which, the injury of OG on pasture ecosystem was very great. The plant diversity, vegetation coverage, plant height and primary productivity under continuous overgrazing for 5 year were 87.9%, 82.1%, 94.0% and 57.0%, respectively, lower than those in NG. The biomass on the OG pasture was only 2.1% of NG, and the contents of soil clay, C and N as well as the quantities of soil microbes and small animals in OG were respectively 6.0%, 31.9%, 25.0%, 95.0% and 75.9% lower than those in NG, but the soil hardness was raised by 274.0%. Especially, the secondary productivity of the pasture became negative from the third year, and the productive foundation of the pasture ecosystem was completely destroyed. Non-grazing was beneficial to pasture, and enclosure caused an increase in vegetation coverage, plant height and primary productivity. The vegetation coverage, plant height and soil status in LG and MG were not as good as those in NG, but were stable and didn't show worsening trend. Based on the above results, it's considered that on the sandy pasture in the semi-arid area of Inner Mongolia, the rational grass utilization ratio is 45%-50%, and the suitable loading capacity is 3-4 sheep unit.hm-2. PMID:15227991

  7. Time independent universal computing with spin chains: quantum plinko machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. F.; Gokler, C.; Lloyd, S.; Shor, P. W.

    2016-07-01

    We present a scheme for universal quantum computing using XY Heisenberg spin chains. Information is encoded into packets propagating down these chains, and they interact with each other to perform universal quantum computation. A circuit using g gate blocks on m qubits can be encoded into chains of length O({g}3+δ {m}3+δ ) for all δ \\gt 0 with vanishingly small error.

  8. Water-soluble oxoglaucine-Y(III), Dy(III) complexes: in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities by triggering DNA damage, leading to S phase arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian-Hua; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Qin, Jiao-Lan; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Li, Zhu-Quan; Khan, Taj-Malook; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Wen-Ying; Liang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Complexes of yttrium(III) and dysprosium(III) with the traditional Chinese medicine active ingredient oxoglaucine (OG), namely [Y(OG)2(NO3)3]·CH3OH (1) and [Dy(OG)2(NO3)3]·H2O (2), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In vitro the complexes exhibited higher anticancer activity than the free ligand OG against the tested cancer cell lines. Among the tested cell lines, HepG2 is the most sensitive to the complexes. Complex 2 can trigger DNA damage in HepG2 cells, resulting in cell cycle arrest in the S phase and leading to cell apoptosis. The S phase cell-cycle arrest is caused via the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated)-Chk2-Cdc25A pathway. Chk2 is phosphorylated and activated in an ATM-dependent manner. It, in turn, phosphorylates Cdc25A phosphatise on serine124, causing the inactivation of Cdc25A in ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic degradation. The cyclin-Cdk complexes of the S phase could also be inhibited by limited supply of cyclins A and E. This irreversible cell cycle arrest process ultimately induces mitochondria-involved apoptotic cell death via the activation of Bcl-2 protein. Complex e2 ffectively inhibited tumour growth in the BEL-7402 xenograft mouse model and exhibited higher safety in vivo than cisplatin. PMID:26017376

  9. A population-based observational study on the factors associated with the completion of palliative chemotherapy among patients with oesophagogastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Groene, Oliver; Crosby, Tom; Hardwick, Richard Henry; Riley, Stuart; Greenaway, Kimberley; Cromwell, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Palliative chemotherapy is routinely given to patients diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic oesophagogastric (O-G) cancer. We examine which patients with O-G cancer in England receive palliative chemotherapy, and identify factors associated with treatment completion. Design A prospective population-based observational study. Setting All English National Health Service (NHS) trusts diagnosing patients with O-G cancer. Participants Data were prospectively collected on patients diagnosed with invasive epithelial cancer of the oesophagus or stomach between 1 October 2007 and 30 June 2009 in English NHS hospitals, and those who had palliative treatment intent. Outcome measure We calculated the proportion of patients with different characteristics (eg, age, sex, stage at diagnosis, performance status) starting palliative chemotherapy. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify characteristics associated with non-completion of chemotherapy. Results There were 9768 patients in the study whose treatment intent was palliative. Among these, 2313 (24%) received palliative chemotherapy. It was received by 51% of patients aged under 55 years but only 9% of patients aged 75 years or over. Overall, 917 patients (53%) completed their treatment among the 1741 patients for whom information on treatment completion was recorded. Treatment completion ranged from 50–60% for patients with good performance status but was under 35% for patients aged 55 years or older with poor performance status. Treatment completion was not associated with site of cancer, pretreatment stage, sex, comorbidities or histology. Conclusions Completion rates of palliative chemotherapy in patients with O-G cancer are low and elderly patients with poor performance status are very unlikely to complete a palliative chemotherapy treatment. Clinicians and patients should consider this information when balancing potential (survival) benefits, toxicity of treatment and its effect on

  10. Detergent-dependent separation of postsynaptic density, membrane rafts and other subsynaptic structures from the synaptic plasma membrane of rat forebrain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, LiYing; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2014-10-01

    We systematically investigated the purification process of post-synaptic density (PSD) and post-synaptic membrane rafts (PSRs) from the rat forebrain synaptic plasma membranes by examining the components and the structures of the materials obtained after the treatment of synaptic plasma membranes with TX-100, n-octyl β-d-glucoside (OG) or 3-([3-cholamidopropyl]dimethylammonio)-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPSO). These three detergents exhibited distinct separation profiles for the synaptic subdomains. Type I and type II PSD proteins displayed mutually exclusive distribution. After TX-100 treatment, type I PSD was recovered in two fractions: a pellet and an insoluble fraction 8, which contained partially broken PSD-PSR complexes. Conventional PSD was suggested to be a mixture of these two PSD pools and did not contain type II PSD. An association of type I PSD with PSRs was identified in the TX-100 treatment, and those with type II PSD in the OG and CHAPSO treatments. An association of GABA receptors with gephyrin was easily dissociated. OG at a high concentration solubilized the type I PSD proteins. CHAPSO treatment resulted in a variety of distinct fractions, which contained certain novel structures. Two different pools of GluA, either PSD or possibly raft-associated, were identified in the OG and CHAPSO treatments. These results are useful in advancing our understanding of the structural organization of synapses at the molecular level. We systematically investigated the purification process of post-synaptic density (PSD) and synaptic membrane rafts by examining the structures obtained after treatment of the SPMs with TX-100, n-octyl β-d-glucoside or CHAPSO. Differential distribution of type I and type II PSD, synaptic membrane rafts, and other novel subdomains in the SPM give clues to understand the structural organization of synapses at the molecular level. PMID:24985044

  11. 40 CFR 437.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.40(b), any existing facility subject to this subpart which...&G, pH, and TSS are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 437.42(b). (c) Combined waste receipts from subparts A and B of this part: Limitations for O&G, pH, and TSS are the same as...

  12. 40 CFR 432.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2 0.48 0.24 Fecal Coliform (3) (4) O&G 5 0.26 0.13 TSS 2 0.62 0.31 1... processing of the carcasses of animals slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform,...

  13. 40 CFR 432.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2 0.48 0.24 Fecal Coliform (3) (4) O&G 5 0.26 0.13 TSS 2 0.62 0.31 1... processing of the carcasses of animals slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform,...

  14. Topography, syntopy and morphology of the human otic ganglion: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Senger, Miriam; Stoffels, Hans-Jürgen; Angelov, Doychin N

    2014-09-01

    The human otic ganglion (OG) is not readily accessible during ordinary anatomical teaching courses because of insufficient time and severe difficulties encountered in dissection. Accordingly, most anatomical descriptions of its location, relation to neighbouring structures, size and shape are supported only by drawings, but not by photographs. The aim of this study has been to present the OG with associated roots and branches in dissected anatomic specimens. Following cumbersome dissection and precise photo-documentation, a detailed analysis of location, syntopy and morphology was performed. We carried out this study in 21 infratemporal fossae of 18 cadavers and were able to identify the OG, the mandibular-, the inferior alveolar- and the lingual nerve in all of them. We found no significant variation regarding the location of the GO in the infratemporal fossa and its syntopy to the adjacent structures. An OG resembling the classic description was found only in 90.50% of the cases. All 3 roots (parasympathetic, sympathetic and sensory) could be identified only in 82.3% of the specimens. The established presence of ganglionic branches varied from 0% (communicating rami to the meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve, to the greater petrosal nerve and to the lingual nerve) to 90% (r. communicans to n. canalis pterygoideus). We conclude that precise knowledge of this enormous variety might be very helpful not only to students of medicine and dentistry during anatomical dissection courses, but also to head and neck surgeons, ear-nose-throat specialists and neurosurgeons when treating pathology of pre- and postganglionic fibres. PMID:24973995

  15. GRP-3 and KAPP, encoding interactors of WAK1, negatively affect defense responses induced by oligogalacturonides and local response to wounding.

    PubMed

    Gramegna, Giovanna; Modesti, Vanessa; Savatin, Daniel V; Sicilia, Francesca; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) act as danger signals to activate the plant immune response. These molecules are recognized by surface receptors that are referred to as pattern recognition receptors. Oligogalacturonides (OGs), DAMPs released from the plant cell wall homogalacturonan, have also been proposed to act as local signals in the response to wounding. The Arabidopsis Wall-Associated Kinase 1 (WAK1), a receptor of OGs, has been described to form a complex with a cytoplasmic plasma membrane-localized kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP) and a glycine-rich protein (GRP-3) that we find localized mainly in the cell wall and, in a small part, on the plasma membrane. By using Arabidopsis plants overexpressing WAK1, and both grp-3 and kapp null insertional mutant and overexpressing plants, we demonstrate a positive function of WAK1 and a negative function of GRP-3 and KAPP in the OG-triggered expression of defence genes and the production of an oxidative burst. The three proteins also affect the local response to wounding and the basal resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. GRP-3 and KAPP are likely to function in the phasing out of the plant immune response. PMID:26748394

  16. A Cell-Permeable Ester Derivative of the JmjC Histone Demethylase Inhibitor IOX1

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Rachel; Scozzafava, Giuseppe; Tumber, Anthony; Wickens, James R; Bush, Jacob T; Rai, Ganesha; Lejeune, Clarisse; Choi, Hwanho; Yeh, Tzu-Lan; Chan, Mun Chiang; Mott, Bryan T; McCullagh, James S O; Maloney, David J; Schofield, Christopher J; Kawamura, Akane

    2014-01-01

    The 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent Jumonji C domain (JmjC) family is the largest family of histone lysine demethylases. There is interest in developing small-molecule probes that modulate JmjC activity to investigate their biological roles. 5-Carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (IOX1) is the most potent broad-spectrum inhibitor of 2OG oxygenases, including the JmjC demethylases, reported to date; however, it suffers from low cell permeability. Here, we describe structure–activity relationship studies leading to the discovery of an n-octyl ester form of IOX1 with improved cellular potency (EC50 value of 100 to 4 μm). These findings are supported by in vitro inhibition and selectivity studies, docking studies, activity versus toxicity analysis in cell cultures, and intracellular uptake measurements. The n-octyl ester was found to have improved cell permeability; it was found to inhibit some JmjC demethylases in its intact ester form and to be more selective than IOX1. The n-octyl ester of IOX1 should find utility as a starting point for the development of JmjC inhibitors and as a use as a cell-permeable tool compound for studies investigating the roles of 2OG oxygenases in epigenetic regulation. PMID:24504543

  17. Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

  18. Enterococcus faecalis Ebp pili are important for cell-cell aggregation and intraspecies gene transfer.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2016-05-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen that ranks among the leading causes of biofilm-associated infections. We previously demonstrated that the endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pili (Ebp) of E. faecalis play a major role in biofilm formation, adherence to abiotic surfaces and experimental infections. In this study, derivatives of E. faecalis strain OG1 were engineered to further characterize functions of Ebp pili. Loss of pili resulted in a 36-fold decrease in the number of closely associated cells when OG1RFΔebpABC was mixed with OG1SSpΔebpABC, compared with mixing the Ebp+ parental strains. In addition, using the Ebp+ parental strains as donor and recipient, we found a statistically significant increase (280-360 %, P < 0.05) in the frequency of plasmid transfer versus using Ebp-  mutants in the conjugation experiments. These results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of Ebp pili, namely, as important contributors to microscale cell aggregation and horizontal spread of genetic material. PMID:26967674

  19. Long-term effects of soil management on ecosystem services and soil loss estimation in olive grove top soils.

    PubMed

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi; Brevik, Eric C

    2016-11-15

    Soil management has important effects on soil properties, runoff, soil losses and soil quality. Traditional olive grove (OG) management is based on reduced tree density, canopy size shaped by pruning and weed control by ploughing. In addition, over the last several decades, herbicide use has been introduced into conventional OG management. These management strategies cause the soil surface to be almost bare and subsequently high erosion rates take place. To avoid these high erosion rates several soil management strategies can be applied. In this study, three strategies were assessed in OG with conventional tillage in three plots of 1ha each. Soil properties were measured and soil erosion rates were estimated by means of the RUSLE model. One plot was managed with no amendments (control), and the other two were treated with olive leaves mulch and oil mill pomace applied yearly from 2003 until 2013. The control plot experienced the greatest soil loss while the use of olive leaves as mulch and olive mill pomace as an amendment resulted in a soil loss reduction of 89.4% and 65.4% respectively (assuming a 5% slope). In addition, the chemical and physical soil properties were improved with the amendments. This combined effect will created a higher quality soil over the long term that it is more resilient to erosion and can provide better ecosystem services, as its functions are improved. PMID:27405516

  20. Studies on laser-assisted Penning ionization by the optogalvanic effect in Ne/Eu hollow cathode discharge.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K; Kumar, P; Dixit, S K; Nakhe, S V

    2015-02-01

    Laser-assisted Penning ionization (LAPI) is detected in a Ne/Eu hollow cathode (HC) discharge lamp using the pulsed optogalvanic (OG) method. In the Ne/Eu discharge, doubly ionized europium excited energy levels Eu[4f(7)(P(7/2,5/2)6)] lie within the thermal limit (∼kT) from the laser-excited neon's energy level [2p(5)(P3/202)3p or 2p(8) (in Paschen notation)] lying at 149,848  cm(-1). Therefore, Penning ionization (PI) of europium atoms likely to occur into its highly excited ionic states is investigated. To probe the PI of europium, the temporal profiles of its counterpart neon OG signal are studied as a function of discharge current for the transitions (1s(4)→2p(8)) and (1s(2)→2p(2)), corresponding to 650.65 and 659.89 nm wavelengths, respectively. It is observed that PI of europium alters the overall discharge characteristics significantly and, hence, modifies the temporal profile of the OG signals accordingly. The quasi-resonant ionizing energy transfer collisions between laser-excited Ne 2p(8) atoms and electronically excited europium P(9/2)10 atoms are used to explain the LAPI mechanism. Such LAPI studies carried out in HC discharge could be useful for the discharge of a metal-vapor laser with appropriate Penning mixtures. PMID:25967764

  1. Comprehensive Analysis of the Membrane Phosphoproteome Regulated by Oligogalacturonides in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Benedetta; Spinelli, Francesco; Pontiggia, Daniela; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Early changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana membrane phosphoproteome in response to oligogalacturonides (OGs), a class of plant damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), were analyzed by two complementary proteomic approaches. Differentially phosphorylated sites were determined through phosphopeptide enrichment followed by LC-MS/MS using label-free quantification; differentially phosphorylated proteins were identified by 2D-DIGE combined with phospho-specific fluorescent staining (phospho-DIGE). This large-scale phosphoproteome analysis of early OG-signaling enabled us to determine 100 regulated phosphosites using LC-MS/MS and 46 differential spots corresponding to 34 pdhosphoproteins using phospho-DIGE. Functional classification showed that the OG-responsive phosphoproteins include kinases, phosphatases and receptor-like kinases, heat shock proteins (HSPs), reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes, proteins related to cellular trafficking, transport, defense and signaling as well as novel candidates for a role in immunity, for which elicitor-induced phosphorylation changes have not been shown before. A comparison with previously identified elicitor-regulated phosphosites shows only a very limited overlap, uncovering the immune-related regulation of 70 phosphorylation sites and revealing novel potential players in the regulation of elicitor-dependent immunity. PMID:27532006

  2. Affordable and High-heritage SMEX Spacecraft Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Greg; Rickey, J.; Lo, A.; Griffin, K.; Riesco, M.

    2012-05-01

    Given NASA’s Astrophysics budget constraints in the next several years, the Small Explorers (SMEX) Program is becoming an even more crucial aspect of space-borne scientific investigations as it provides frequent mission opportunities at modest mission cost cap. As such, SMEX missions require inexpensive yet reliable spacecraft to achieve the science objectives. To meet the mission needs of low-cost, reliable spacecraft, Northrop Grumman (NG) Corporation and Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) have teamed to provide ideal SMEX bus solutions, combining SNC’s low cost, small bus from the current ORBCOMM 2 (OG-2) production line and NG’s world-class expertise and over half a century of experience in space science mission architecture, systems engineering and space vehicle integration. The OG-2 spacecraft bus is 3-axis stabilized, capable of providing modest pointing capabilities and able to accommodate a wide range of SMEX-class instruments; with slight modifications, the performance is greatly enhanced in pointing and payload accommodation capabilities. Our combination of NG’s expertise and SNC’s low cost, OG-2 based spacecraft provides our science partners with the depth and skill set needed during all phases of SMEX investigation development from mission inception to flight element development, successful launch, and high-performance science operations.

  3. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  4. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  5. Tolerogenic modulation of the immune response by oligoglycerol- and polyglycerol-peptide conjugates.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shilpi; Pfeil, Jennifer; Kumar, Sumit; Poulsen, Christina; Lauer, Uta; Hamann, Alf; Hoffmann, Ute; Haag, Rainer

    2015-04-15

    Peptide-based therapy is a promising strategy for antigen-specific immunosuppression to treat or even heal autoimmune diseases with significantly reduced adverse effects compared to conventional therapies. However, there has been no major success due to the drawbacks of native peptides, i.e., limited bioavailability. Considering the importance and limitations of peptide-based therapies for treatment of autoimmune diseases, we designed and constructed oligoglycerol (OG)- and polyglycerol (PG)-based peptide conjugates. They were evaluated for their biological activity (in vitro and in vivo), bioavailability, and tolerogenic potential. Among the OG- and PG-peptide constructs, PG-peptide constructs exhibited an extended bioavailability compared to OG-peptide constructs and unconjugated peptide. Interestingly, size, structure, and linker chemistry played a critical role for the tolerogenic capacity of the constructs. The PG-peptide construct bound via an ester linkage was the most tolerogenic conjugate, while the PG-peptide construct bound via an amide induced stronger proliferation, but also higher TNF production and lower frequencies of Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cells. Therefore, we conclude that PG-peptide conjugates bound via an ester linkage are not only promising candidates for tolerogenic vaccination, but also open a new avenue toward the application of peptides for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25757018

  6. Treatment of oilfield produced water by waste stabilization ponds: biodegradation of petroleum-derived materials.

    PubMed

    Shpiner, R; Liu, G; Stuckey, D C

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluated the biological treatability of produced water (PW), the water separated from oil at the wellhead which contains both dispersed oil and low levels of heavy metals, using waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs). We examined both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and oil and grease (O&G) removal using different process configurations (hydraulic retention time (HRT), aerobic and anaerobic conditions, oil skimming, effluent recycle) in a small (10 L) reactor being fed a synthetic PW (COD=1050-1350 mg L(-1), O&G=400-500 microL L(-1), 6 g NaCl/L). The reactor was operated for 6 months, and at a HRT of 6 days (8 with evaporation) COD removals were greater than 85%, and improved over time to >90%, while O&G removals (measured with a newly developed method) were greater than 82% and also improved with time. Operating with an anaerobic section, oil skimming and 300% recycling were all found to enhance COD removal. PMID:19695873

  7. Analysis of the preliminary optical links between ARTEMIS and the Optical Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Garcia-Talavera, Marcos; Chueca, Sergio; Alonso, Angel; Viera, Teodora; Sodnik, Zoran

    2002-12-01

    In the frame of the SILEX project, the European Space Agency (ESA) has put into orbit two Laser Communication Terminals, to establish an experimental free space optical communication link between a GEO satellite (ARTEMIS) and a LEO satellite (SPOT IV), to relay earth observation data. In order to perform In Orbit Testing (IOT) of these, and other, optical communications systems, ESA and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) reached an agreement for building the Optical Ground Station (OGS), in the Teide Observatory of the IAC. With ARTEMIS placed in a circular parking orbit at about 31000 kilometres, its optical payload has been preliminary tested with the OGS. First results and analysis are presented on the space-to-ground bi-directional link, including pointing acquisition and tracking performance, Bit-Error Rate (BER) and transmitted beam divergence effects related with atmospheric models and predictions. Future plans include deeper optical bi-directional communication tests of OGS, not only with ARTEMIS but also with OSCAR-40 (downlink) and SMART-1 (up-link) satellites, in order to do a full characterisation of the performances of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence and a comparison with theoretical predictions.

  8. Non-intrusive method of measuring PCV blowby constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, M.E.; Ariga, S.; Boulard, R.; Lindamood, B.

    1994-10-01

    A technique is presented that has been successfully demonstrated to non-intrusively and quickly sample gases typically found in PCV systems. Color Detection Tubes (CDTs) were used with a simple sampling arrangement to monitor CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O(g) at the closure line, crankcase, and PCV line. Measurements were accurate and could be made instantaneously. Short Path Thermal Desorbtion Tubes (SPTDTs) were used at the same engine locations for the characterization of fuel- and oil-derived hydrocarbon (HC) fractions and required only 50 cc samples. High engine loads caused pushover of blowby vapors as indicated by increased concentrations of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, H{sub 2}O(g), and fuel HCs in the engines` fresh air inlets during WOT operation. Peak concentrations of blowby vapors were measured in the crankcase under no load and part throttle conditions. Oxygen concentrations always opposed the trends of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and H{sub 2}O(g). SPTDT data revealed that the PCV system consumes approximately 100-200 times more fuel vapors than oil vapors, on a mass basis; however, PCV-derived oil consumption represented almost 12 percent of total engine oil consumption under no load conditions. 8 refs., 17 figs.

  9. Signal-transduction protein P(II) from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 senses low adenylate energy charge in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Herrmann, Christina; Forchhammer, Karl

    2011-11-15

    P(II) proteins belong to a family of highly conserved signal-transduction proteins that occurs widely in bacteria, archaea and plants. They respond to the central metabolites ATP, ADP and 2-OG (2-oxoglutarate), and control enzymes, transcription factors and transport proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism. In the present study, we examined the effect of ADP on in vitro P(II)-signalling properties for the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, a model for oxygenic phototrophic organisms. Different ADP/ATP ratios strongly affected the properties of P(II) signalling. Increasing ADP antagonized the binding of 2-OG and directly affected the interactions of P(II) with its target proteins. The resulting P(II)-signalling properties indicate that, in mixtures of ADP and ATP, P(II) trimers are occupied by mixtures of adenylate nucleotides. Binding and kinetic activation of NAGK (N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase), the controlling enzyme of arginine biosynthesis, by P(II) was weakened by ADP, but relief from arginine inhibition remained unaffected. On the other hand, ADP enhanced the binding of P(II) to PipX, a co-activator of the transcription factor NtcA and, furthermore, antagonized the inhibitory effect of 2-OG on P(II)-PipX interaction. These results indicate that S. elongatus P(II) directly senses the adenylate energy charge, resulting in target-dependent differential modification of the P(II)-signalling properties. PMID:21774788

  10. Population shift of binding pocket size and dynamic correlation analysis shed new light on the anticooperative mechanism of PII protein

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cheng-Wei; Lüddecke, Jan; Forchhammer, Karl; Zeng, An-Ping

    2014-01-01

    PII protein is one of the largest families of signal transduction proteins in archaea, bacteria, and plants, controlling key processes of nitrogen assimilation. An intriguing characteristic for many PII proteins is that the three ligand binding sites exhibit anticooperative allosteric regulation. In this work, PII protein from Synechococcus elongatus, a model for cyanobacteria and plant PII proteins, is utilized to reveal the anticooperative mechanism upon binding of 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). To this end, a method is proposed to define the binding pocket size by identifying residues that contribute greatly to the binding of 2-OG. It is found that the anticooperativity is realized through population shift of the binding pocket size in an asymmetric manner. Furthermore, a new algorithm based on the dynamic correlation analysis is developed and utilized to discover residues that mediate the anticooperative process with high probability. It is surprising to find that the T-loop, which is believed to be responsible for mediating the binding of PII with its target proteins, also takes part in the intersubunit signal transduction process. Experimental results of PII variants further confirmed the influence of T-loop on the anticooperative regulation, especially on binding of the third 2-OG. These discoveries extend our understanding of the PII T-loop from being essential in versatile binding of target protein to signal-mediating in the anticooperative allosteric regulation. Proteins 2014; 82:1048–1059. PMID:24218085

  11. SANS with contrast variation study of the bacteriorhodopsin-octyl glucoside complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yiming; Heller, William T.

    2010-11-01

    Membrane proteins (MPs), which play vital roles in trans-membrane trafficking and signalling between cells and their external environment, comprise a major fraction of the expressed proteomes of many organisms. MP production for biophysical characterization requires detergents for extracting MPs from their native membrane and to solubilize the MP in solution for purification and study. In a proper detergent solution, the detergent-associated MPs retain their native fold and oligomerization state, key requirements for biophysical characterization and crystallization. SANS with contrast variation was performed to characterize BR in complex with OG to better understand the MP-detergent complex. Contrast variation makes it possible to not only probe the conformation of the entire structure but also investigate the conformation of the polypeptide chain within the BR-OG complex. The BR-OG SANS contrast variation series is not consistent with a compact structure, such as a trimeric BR complex surrounded by a belt of detergent. The data strongly suggest that the protein is partially unfolded through its association with the detergent micelles.

  12. SANS with Contrast Variation Study of the Bacteriorhodopsin-octyl Glucoside Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, William T; Mo, Yiming

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteins (MPs), which play vital roles in trans-membrane trafficking and signaling between cells and their external environment, comprise a major fraction of the expressed proteomes of many organisms. MP production for biophysical characterization requires detergents for extracting MPs from their native membrane and to solubilize the MP in solution for purification and study. In a proper detergent solution, the detergent-associated MPs retain their native fold and oligomerization state, key requirements for biophysical characterization and crystallization. SANS with contrast variation was performed to characterize BR in complex with OG to better understand the MP-detergent complex. Contrast variation makes it possible to not only probe the conformation of the entire structure but also investigate the conformation of the polypeptide chain within the BR-OG complex. The BR-OG SANS contrast variation series is not consistent with a compact structure, such as a trimeric BR complex surrounded by a belt of detergent. The data strongly suggest that the protein is partially unfolded through its association with the detergent micelles.

  13. Pretreatment of coconut mill effluent using celite-immobilized hydrolytic enzyme preparation from Staphylococcus pasteuri and its impact on anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Palanisamy; Kumaresan, Kuppamuthu; Aravind, Jeyaseelan

    2015-01-01

    Biological treatment of oil and grease (O&G)-containing industrial effluents has long been a challenging issue. Practically feasible avenues to bring down their O&G load and enhance treatability are desired. In one such endeavour, the partially purified lipase from Staphylococcus pasteuri COM-4A was immobilized on celite carrier and applied for the enzymatic hydrolysis of unsterilized coconut oil mill effluent. In batch hydrolysis experiments, optimum conditions of 1% (w/v) immobilized lipase beads, one in four effluent dilution, and a contact time of 30 h resulted in 46% and 24% increase in volatile fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids and a concomitant 52% and 32% decrease in O&G and chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels, respectively. Batch anaerobic biodegradation trials with this prehydrolyzed effluent showed 89%, 91%, and 90% decrease in COD, proteins, and reducing sugars, respectively. These results were validated in a hybrid stirred tank--upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Average COD and O&G reductions effected by the hybrid reactor were found to be 89% and 88%, whereas that by the control reactor without enzymatic hydrolysis were only 60% and 47%, respectively. A maximum of 0.86 L methane gas was generated by the hybrid reactor per gram of VS added. Hence, this celite-immobilized crude lipase, sourced from a native laboratory isolate, seems to be a workable alternative to commercial enzyme preparations for the management of lipid-rich industrial effluents. PMID:26033963

  14. Detection of Induced Seismicity Due to Oil and Gas Extraction in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadugba, O. I.; Ebel, J.

    2014-12-01

    Drilling operations and extraction of oil and gas (O&G) may lead to subsurface slumping or compression of sediments due to reduced vertical principal stress which may lead to small earthquakes at the drilling site. O&G extraction is common in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGM) and only thirty-five earthquakes of magnitudes between 2.3 and 6.0 have been recorded in the area from 1974 to the present. The purpose of this research is to detect more earthquakes using stacks of seismic data from the EarthScope Transportable USArray (TA) from 2011 to 2013, and determine the spatiotemporal relationship between the detected earthquakes and O&G extraction. TA waveform records were retrieved from IRIS database and a narrow bandpass filter of 1 - 2 Hz was applied to remove background and high frequency noises and focus on the low energy part of the signal. The seismic record at all stations was plotted vertically with respect to distance from the Gulf. An Automatic Gain Control (AGC) using Root Mean Square was applied to boost the signals at farther stations. More than 1500 events have been detected, including teleseisms and local blasts from the area, especially from the three Walter Minerals coal mines in Alabama. No offshore earthquakes have been detected in the data, although data processing is still ongoing. Therefore, any earthquake activity, if present, associated with the offshore oil and gas production must be at a magnitude below the detection threshold of the algorithm.

  15. Effects of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water on seed germination, seedling development, and biomass production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; de Souza, Paulo Sérgio Alves; Rigo, Michelle Machado; Cerqueira, Alexandre Andrade; de Paiva, Julieta L; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate possible toxic effects of oil and other contaminants from oilfield-produced water from oil exploration and production, on seed germination, and seedling development of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In comparison, as treated by electroflocculation, oilfield-produced water, with lower oil and organic matter content, was also used. Electroflocculation treatment of oilfield-produced water achieved significant removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (94 %), oil and grease (O&G) (96 %), color (97 %), and turbidity (99 %). Different O&G, COD, and salt levels of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water did not influence germination process and seedling biomass production. Normal seedlings percentage and vigor tended to decrease more intensely in O&G and COD levels, higher than 337.5 mg L(-1) and 1321 mg O2 L(-1), respectively, using untreated oilfield-produced water. These results indicate that this industrial effluent must be treated, in order to not affect adversely seedling development. This way, electroflocculation treatment appears as an interesting alternative to removing oil and soluble organic matter in excess from oilfield-produced water improving sunflower's seedling development and providing a friendly environmental destination for this wastewater, reducing its potential to harm water resources, soil, and biota. PMID:26059762

  16. On the nonlinear development of the most unstable Goertler vortex mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denier, James P.; Hall, Philip

    1991-01-01

    The nonlinear development of the most unstable Gortler vortex mode in boundary layer flows over curved walls is investigated. The most unstable Gortler mode is confined to a viscous wall layer of thickness O(G -1/5) and has spanwise wavelength O(G 11/5); it is, of course, most relevant to flow situations where the Gortler number G is much greater than 1. The nonlinear equations covering the evolution of this mode over an O(G -3/5) streamwise lengthscale are derived and are found to be of a fully nonparallel nature. The solution of these equations is achieved by making use of the numerical scheme used by Hall (1988) for the numerical solution of the nonlinear Gortler equations valid for O(1) Gortler numbers. Thus, the spanwise dependence of the flow is described by a Fourier expansion, whereas the streamwise and normal variations of the flow are dealt with by employing a suitable finite difference discretization of the governing equations. Our calculations demonstrate that, given a suitable initial disturbance, after a brief interval of decay, the energy in all the higher harmonics grows until a singularity is encountered at some downstream position. The structure of the flowfield as this singularity is approached suggests that the singularity is responsible for the vortices, which are initially confined to the thin viscous wall layer, moving away from the wall and into the core of the boundary layer.

  17. Zein based oil-in-glycerol emulgels enriched with β-carotene as margarine alternatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Fu, Shi-Yao; Hou, Jun-Jie; Guo, Jian; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-11-15

    Structuring edible oils into solid lipids without saturated and trans fats has attracted increasing interest due to the benefits for human health and promises potential as novel delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive ingredients. The study shows that a zein stabilized high (ϕ=0.6) oil-in-glycerol (O/G) emulgels enriched with β-carotene was performed, by a facile one-step homogenization. Rheological measurements and morphologies observations indicated that increasing β-carotene resulted in a progressive strengthening of gel-like network and improving their spreadability in the O/G emulgels stabilized by zein, which was closely related to the hydrophobic interaction of zein and β-carotene. The formation of emulgels significantly enhanced the UV photo-stability of β-carotene, and more than 88% of β-carotene was retained in 64h storage under UV exposure, and consequently retarded oil oxidation while storage. Further, cakes prepared using zein-based O/G emulgels as a margarine alternative showed comparable functionalities (texture and sensory attributes) to the standard cake. PMID:27283703

  18. Short-term effects of CO(2) and O(2) on citrate metabolism in illuminated leaves.

    PubMed

    Tcherkez, Guillaume; Mahé, Aline; Guérard, Florence; Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard R A; Gout, Elisabeth; Lamothe, Marlène; Barbour, Margaret M; Bligny, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Although there is now a considerable literature on the inhibition of leaf respiration (CO(2) evolution) by light, little is known about the effect of other environmental conditions on day respiratory metabolism. In particular, CO(2) and O(2) mole fractions are assumed to cause changes in the tricarboxylic acid pathway (TCAP) but the amplitude and even the direction of such changes are still a matter of debate. Here, we took advantage of isotopic techniques, new simple equations and instant freeze sampling to follow respiratory metabolism in illuminated cocklebur leaves (Xanthium strumarium L.) under different CO(2) /O(2) conditions. Gas exchange coupled to online isotopic analysis showed that CO(2) evolved by leaves in the light came from 'old' carbon skeletons and there was a slight decrease in (13) C natural abundance when [CO(2) ] increased. This suggested the involvement of enzymatic steps fractionating more strongly against (13) C and thus increasingly limiting for the metabolic respiratory flux as [CO(2) ] increased. Isotopic labelling with (13) C(2) -2,4-citrate lead to (13) C-enriched Glu and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG), clearly demonstrating poor metabolism of citrate by the TCAP. There was a clear relationship between the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenation-to-carboxylation ratio (v(o) /v(c) ) and the (13) C commitment to 2OG, demonstrating that 2OG and Glu synthesis via the TCAP is positively influenced by photorespiration. PMID:22646810

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of the Membrane Phosphoproteome Regulated by Oligogalacturonides in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Benedetta; Spinelli, Francesco; Pontiggia, Daniela; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Early changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana membrane phosphoproteome in response to oligogalacturonides (OGs), a class of plant damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), were analyzed by two complementary proteomic approaches. Differentially phosphorylated sites were determined through phosphopeptide enrichment followed by LC-MS/MS using label-free quantification; differentially phosphorylated proteins were identified by 2D-DIGE combined with phospho-specific fluorescent staining (phospho-DIGE). This large-scale phosphoproteome analysis of early OG-signaling enabled us to determine 100 regulated phosphosites using LC-MS/MS and 46 differential spots corresponding to 34 pdhosphoproteins using phospho-DIGE. Functional classification showed that the OG-responsive phosphoproteins include kinases, phosphatases and receptor-like kinases, heat shock proteins (HSPs), reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes, proteins related to cellular trafficking, transport, defense and signaling as well as novel candidates for a role in immunity, for which elicitor-induced phosphorylation changes have not been shown before. A comparison with previously identified elicitor-regulated phosphosites shows only a very limited overlap, uncovering the immune-related regulation of 70 phosphorylation sites and revealing novel potential players in the regulation of elicitor-dependent immunity. PMID:27532006

  20. Experimental Correlation of Substrate Position with Reaction Outcome in the Aliphatic Halogenase, SyrB2.

    PubMed

    Martinie, Ryan J; Livada, Jovan; Chang, Wei-chen; Green, Michael T; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J Martin; Silakov, Alexey

    2015-06-01

    The iron(II)- and 2-(oxo)glutarate-dependent (Fe/2OG) oxygenases catalyze an array of challenging transformations, but how individual members of the enzyme family direct different outcomes is poorly understood. The Fe/2OG halogenase, SyrB2, chlorinates C4 of its native substrate, l-threonine appended to the carrier protein, SyrB1, but hydroxylates C5 of l-norvaline and, to a lesser extent, C4 of l-aminobutyric acid when SyrB1 presents these non-native amino acids. To test the hypothesis that positioning of the targeted carbon dictates the outcome, we defined the positions of these three substrates by measuring hyperfine couplings between substrate deuterium atoms and the stable, EPR-active iron-nitrosyl adduct, a surrogate for reaction intermediates. The Fe-(2)H distances and N-Fe-(2)H angles, which vary from 4.2 Å and 85° for threonine to 3.4 Å and 65° for norvaline, rationalize the trends in reactivity. This experimental correlation of position to outcome should aid in judging from structural data on other Fe/2OG enzymes whether they suppress hydroxylation or form hydroxylated intermediates on the pathways to other outcomes. PMID:25965587