Science.gov

Sample records for og indberetning ved

  1. Life and consciousness - The Vedāntic view.

    PubMed

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2015-01-01

    In the past, philosophers, scientists, and even the general opinion, had no problem in accepting the existence of consciousness in the same way as the existence of the physical world. After the advent of Newtonian mechanics, science embraced a complete materialistic conception about reality. Scientists started proposing hypotheses like abiogenesis (origin of first life from accumulation of atoms and molecules) and the Big Bang theory (the explosion theory for explaining the origin of universe). How the universe came to be what it is now is a key philosophical question. The hypothesis that it came from Nothing (as proposed by Stephen Hawking, among others), proves to be dissembling, since the quantum vacuum can hardly be considered a void. In modern science, it is generally assumed that matter existed before the universe came to be. Modern science hypothesizes that the manifestation of life on Earth is nothing but a mere increment in the complexity of matter - and hence is an outcome of evolution of matter (chemical evolution) following the Big Bang. After the manifestation of life, modern science believed that chemical evolution transformed itself into biological evolution, which then had caused the entire biodiversity on our planet. The ontological view of the organism as a complex machine presumes life as just a chance occurrence, without any inner purpose. This approach in science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness in its attempt to know the world as the relationships among forces, atoms, and molecules. On the other hand, the Vedāntic view states that the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute (unconditioned). Thus, sentient life is primitive and reproductive of itself - omne vivum ex vivo - life comes from life. This is the scientifically verified law of experience. Life is essentially cognitive and conscious. And, consciousness, which is fundamental, manifests itself in the gradational forms of all

  2. Life and consciousness – The Vedāntic view

    PubMed Central

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2015-01-01

    In the past, philosophers, scientists, and even the general opinion, had no problem in accepting the existence of consciousness in the same way as the existence of the physical world. After the advent of Newtonian mechanics, science embraced a complete materialistic conception about reality. Scientists started proposing hypotheses like abiogenesis (origin of first life from accumulation of atoms and molecules) and the Big Bang theory (the explosion theory for explaining the origin of universe). How the universe came to be what it is now is a key philosophical question. The hypothesis that it came from Nothing (as proposed by Stephen Hawking, among others), proves to be dissembling, since the quantum vacuum can hardly be considered a void. In modern science, it is generally assumed that matter existed before the universe came to be. Modern science hypothesizes that the manifestation of life on Earth is nothing but a mere increment in the complexity of matter — and hence is an outcome of evolution of matter (chemical evolution) following the Big Bang. After the manifestation of life, modern science believed that chemical evolution transformed itself into biological evolution, which then had caused the entire biodiversity on our planet. The ontological view of the organism as a complex machine presumes life as just a chance occurrence, without any inner purpose. This approach in science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness in its attempt to know the world as the relationships among forces, atoms, and molecules. On the other hand, the Vedāntic view states that the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute (unconditioned). Thus, sentient life is primitive and reproductive of itself – omne vivum ex vivo – life comes from life. This is the scientifically verified law of experience. Life is essentially cognitive and conscious. And, consciousness, which is fundamental, manifests itself in the gradational forms of all

  3. A Content Analysis of the VEDS Data Collection and Reporting Procedures Used by the 57 State Boards for Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Rocco P.

    Congress, using Public Law 94-482 entitled Education Amendments of 1976, instructed the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) to develop, implement, and operate the Vocational Education Data System (VEDS). As mandated by legislation, the primary purpose of VEDS is to provide a national reporting system to generate uniform data from the…

  4. ABC and VED Analysis of the Pharmacy Store of a Tertiary Care Teaching, Research and Referral Healthcare Institute of India.

    PubMed

    Devnani, M; Gupta, Ak; Nigah, R

    2010-04-01

    The ABC and VED (vital, essential, desirable) analysis of the pharmacy store of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, was conducted to identify the categories of items needing stringent management control. The annual consumption and expenditure incurred on each item of pharmacy for the year 2007-08 was analyzed and inventory control techniques, i.e. ABC, VED and ABC-VED matrix analysis, were applied. The drug formulary of the pharmacy consisted of 421 items. The total annual drug expenditure (ADE) on items issued in 2007-08 was Rs. 40,012,612. ABC analysis revealed 13.78%, 21.85% and 64.37% items as A, B and C category items, respectively, accounting for 69.97%, 19.95% and 10.08% of ADE of the pharmacy. VED analysis showed 12.11%, 59.38% and 28.51% items as V, E, and D category items, respectively, accounting for 17.14%, 72.38% and 10.48% of ADE of the pharmacy. On ABC-VED matrix analysis, 22.09%, 54.63% and 23.28% items were found to be category I, II and III items, respectively, accounting for 74.21%, 22.23% and 3.56% of ADE of the pharmacy. The ABC and VED techniques need to be adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out-of-stock situations in the hospital pharmacy. PMID:21264126

  5. Performance of viscoelastic dampers (VED) under various temperatures and application of magnetorheological dampers (MRD) for seismic control of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Abdul Qadir

    2013-08-01

    A number of studies have been carried out to investigate the performance of viscoelastic dampers (VEDs) and magnetorheological dampers (MRDs) in controlling the seismic response of buildings, but very few of them regarding the effect of temperature on the behavior of those dampers. The energy absorption properties of the VEDs are dependent on the ambient temperature, excitation frequency and strain amplitude. Several mathematical models have been investigated for reproducing the experimental behavior of single degree of freedom VEDs and MEDs. Of these, only the fractional derivative model can reflect the influence of temperature which is, however, so complex that it is difficult to apply in structural analysis. In order to verify the effect of temperature, two case studies of structural element have been conducted: once using VED and once using MRD. Kelvin-Voigt mathematical model applied, they were investigated and after analyzing the results, the force vs. displacement showed that MRD achieved a high force capacity and a better performance than VED. Furthermore, the effect of the temperature in case of VED observed via plotting the dissipated energy hysteresis at different temperatures. These results validate the effect of the temperature as the lower the temperature the more viscous the dashpot element becomes, hence improving damping, but this is up to a specific low temperature.

  6. Vedāntic view of life: Reply to Gustavo Caetano-Anollés

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The author would like to thank Professor Gustavo Caetano-Anollés from Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois for his interest in his work. We may sometimes observe that there is a noticeable difference between the anecdote people narrate about the implications of a scientific paper and the real conclusion of the paper. Prof. Gustavo Caetano-Anollés's response1 is an ideal example of the same, where he has tried to make great hay about the implications of the article “Life and consciousness – The Vedāntic view.”2 The Vedāntic view subscribes neither to the views of ‘Creationist Movement’/‘Intelligent Design’, nor it supports some splendid anti-science proposal. Vedāntic view refutes the dominant reductionistic view of life in modern biology by proposing a viable alternative concept of ‘Organic Whole’ and thus serves a scientific critique to the nescience (avidyā) that is practiced on the name of science. PMID:27195069

  7. Vedāntic view of life: Reply to Gustavo Caetano-Anollés.

    PubMed

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2016-01-01

    The author would like to thank Professor Gustavo Caetano-Anollés from Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois for his interest in his work. We may sometimes observe that there is a noticeable difference between the anecdote people narrate about the implications of a scientific paper and the real conclusion of the paper. Prof. Gustavo Caetano-Anollés's response(1) is an ideal example of the same, where he has tried to make great hay about the implications of the article "Life and consciousness - The Vedāntic view."(2) The Vedāntic view subscribes neither to the views of 'Creationist Movement'/'Intelligent Design', nor it supports some splendid anti-science proposal. Vedāntic view refutes the dominant reductionistic view of life in modern biology by proposing a viable alternative concept of 'Organic Whole' and thus serves a scientific critique to the nescience (avidyā) that is practiced on the name of science. PMID:27195069

  8. Terahertz-Regime, Micro-VEDs: Evaluation of Micromachined TWT Conceptual Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booske, John H.; Kory, Carol L.; Gallagher, D.; van der Weide, Daniel W.; Limbach, S; Gustafson, P; Lee, W.-J.; Gallagher, S.; Jain, K.

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. The Terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum (approx.300-3000 GHz) has enormous potential for high-data-rate communications, spectroscopy, astronomy, space research, medicine, biology, surveillance, remote sensing, industrial process control, etc. The most critical roadblock to full exploitation of the THz band is lack of coherent radiation sources that are powerful (0.01-10.0 W continuous wave), efficient (>1 %), frequency agile (instantaneously tunable over 1% bandwidths or more), reliable, and relatively inexpensive. Micro-machined Vacuum Electron Devices (micro-VEDs) represent a promising solution. We describe prospects for miniature, THz-regime TWTs fabricated using micromachining techniques. Several approx.600 GHz conceptual designs are compared. Their expected performance has been analyzed using SD, 2.51), and 3D TWT codes. A folded waveguide (FWG) TWT forward-wave amplifier design is presented based on a Northrop Grumman (NGC) optimized design procedure. This conceptual device is compared to the simulated performance of a novel, micro-VED helix TWT. Conceptual FWG TWT backward-wave amplifiers and oscillators are also discussed. A scaled (100 GHz) FWG TWT operating at a relatively low voltage (-12 kV) is under development at NGC. Also, actual-size micromachining experiments are planned to evaluate the feasibility of arrays of micro-VED TWTs. Progress and results of these efforts are described. This work was supported, in part by AFOSR, ONR, and NSF.

  9. Feasibility Study of Impact of the Proposed National Vocational Education Data Reporting and Accounting System (VEDS) Forms on Reporting Systems for Secondary Vocational Education in Wisconsin. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlmann, M. M.

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of implementing a reporting system, the National Vocational Education Reporting and Accounting System (VEDS), for secondary vocational education in Wisconsin. As proposed by the National Center for Educational Statistics, the VEDS system is a comprehensive information collection package to provide…

  10. Consciousness, cognition and the cognitive apparatus in the vedānta tradition.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, R

    2011-01-01

    A human being is a complex entity consisting of the Self (also known as Consciousness), mind, senses and the body. The Vedānta tradition holds that the mind, the senses and the body are essentially different from the Self or Consciousness. It is through consciousness that we are able to know the things of the world, making use of the medium of the mind and the senses. Furthermore, the mind, though material, is able to reveal things, borrowing the light from consciousness. From the phenomenological point of view, we have to answer the following questions: how does one know the mind/the mental operations/the cogitations of the mind? Does the mind know itself? Is it possible? There is, again, the problem of the intentionality of consciousness. Is consciousness intentional? According to Vedānta, consciousness by its very nature is not intentional, but it becomes intentional through the mind. The mind or the ego is not part of the consciousness; on the contrary, it is transcendent to consciousness. It is difficult to spell out the relation between consciousness and the mind. How does consciousness, which is totally different from the mind, get related to the mind in such a way that it makes the latter capable of comprehending the things of the world? The Vedānta tradition provides the answer to this question in terms of the knower-known relation. Consciousness is pure light, self-luminous by its very nature, that is, although it reveals other objects, it is not revealed by anything else. When Sartre describes it as nothingness, bereft of even ego, it is to show that it is pure light revealing objects outside it. PMID:21694962

  11. Consciousness, Cognition and the Cognitive Apparatus in the Vedānta Tradition

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, R.

    2011-01-01

    A human being is a complex entity consisting of the Self (also known as Consciousness), mind, senses and the body. The Vedānta tradition holds that the mind, the senses and the body are essentially different from the Self or Consciousness. It is through consciousness that we are able to know the things of the world, making use of the medium of the mind and the senses. Furthermore, the mind, though material, is able to reveal things, borrowing the light from consciousness. From the phenomenological point of view, we have to answer the following questions: how does one know the mind/the mental operations/the cogitations of the mind? Does the mind know itself? Is it possible? There is, again, the problem of the intentionality of consciousness. Is consciousness intentional? According to Vedānta, consciousness by its very nature is not intentional, but it becomes intentional through the mind. The mind or the ego is not part of the consciousness; on the contrary, it is transcendent to consciousness. It is difficult to spell out the relation between consciousness and the mind. How does consciousness, which is totally different from the mind, get related to the mind in such a way that it makes the latter capable of comprehending the things of the world? The Vedānta tradition provides the answer to this question in terms of the knower-known relation. Consciousness is pure light, self-luminous by its very nature, that is, although it reveals other objects, it is not revealed by anything else. When Sartre describes it as nothingness, bereft of even ego, it is to show that it is pure light revealing objects outside it. PMID:21694962

  12. A Comparison of Community College Responders and Non-Responders to the VEDS Student Follow-Up Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; And Others

    In September 1984, a Vocational Education Data System (VEDS) follow-up survey was conducted of all 5,267 students who had graduated from Massachusetts public community colleges in 1982-83. Of these graduates, 1,881 (35.7%) returned the survey, and 3,386 (64.3%) did not. A subsequent study was conducted to compare the characteristics of survey…

  13. Grasping at ontological straws: overcoming reductionism in the Advaita Vedānta-Neuroscience dialogue.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary neuropsychology reveals that the parietal lobe contains neurons that are specifically attuned to the act of grasping and this act may be fundamental to the establishment of the phenomenal boundaries between subject and object. Furthermore, alterations to this process, such as the hypoactivation of this region during meditation or the hyperactivation associated with schizophrenia, may eliminate or confuse, respectively, the phenomenal boundaries between subject and object. Traversing disciplines, the Advaita Vedānta school of Hinduism traces some of its key terms for subject and object to the verbal root grah, to grasp. The subject is literally the grasper. Furthermore, the practice of asparśa yoga, the yoga of no-touch, is aimed at stopping, hypoactivating, the grasping process in order to transcend all subject-object boundaries. This paper will argue that while we have not uncovered an identity of thought, we have uncovered a confluence of ideas between these two disciplines. We will see that this confluence of ideas has not pitted the believer against the critic-not forced us into the great reductionism debate that has dominated so much of the interchange between religious studies and the sciences. This case study will illuminate some of the methodological ways around this reductionism battle and also the boundaries of both disciplines for the intellectual benefit of each. PMID:20681086

  14. IG/OG program for generating and displaying NASTRAN input and output data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishima, R.; Myojin, A.

    1978-01-01

    A software system was provided for structural analysis fields using NASTRAN. The HITAC users in Japan can use IG/OG (input generator/output generator) program for NASTRAN. The IG/OG saves time required to make a structure analysis for interpreting NASTRAN results.

  15. 2008 OG19: a highly elongated Trans-Neptunian object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Valenzuela, E.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Morales, N.

    2016-03-01

    From two observing runs during the 2014 summer at the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería (Spain) and at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Granada (Spain), we were able to derive CCD photometry of the Trans-Neptunian object 2008 OG19. We analysed the time series and obtained a double-peaked light curve with a peak-to-valley amplitude of 0.437 ± 0.011 mag and a rotational period of 8.727 ± 0.003 h. This implies that this object is very elongated, closely resembling the case of Varuna. The photometry also allowed us to obtain an absolute magnitude in the R band of 4.39 ± 0.07 mag. From this result, we estimated an equivalent diameter of 2008 OG19 of 619^{+56}_{-113} km using an average albedo for scattered disc objects. Finally, we interpreted the results under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and found a lower limit for the density of 544^{+42}_{-4} kg m-3. However, a more likely density is 609 ± 4 kg m-3 using an aspect angle of 60°, which corresponds to the most likely configuration for the spin axis with respect to the observer assuming random orientations.

  16. Differential expression of MYB gene (OgMYB1) determines color patterning in floral tissue of Oncidium Gower Ramsey.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-03-01

    The yellow coloration pattern in Oncidium floral lip associated with red sepal and petal tissues is an ideal model to study coordinate regulation of anthocyanin synthesis. In this study, chromatography analysis revealed that the red coloration in floral tissues was composed of malvidin-3-O-galactoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside compounds. By contrary, these pigments were not detected in yellow lip tissue. Four key genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, i.e. chalcone synthase (OgCHS), chalcone isomerase (OgCHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (OgDFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (OgANS) were isolated and their expression patterns were characterized. Northern blot analysis confirmed that although they are active during floral development, OgCHI and OgDFR genes are specifically down-regulated in yellow lip tissue. Bombardment with OgCHI and OgDFR genes into lip tissue driven by a flower-specific promoter, Pchrc (chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated gene), demonstrated that transient expression of these two genes resulted in anthocyanin production in yellow lip. Further analysis of a R2R3 MYB transcription factor, OgMYB1, revealed that although it is actively expressed during floral development, it is not expressed in yellow lip tissue. Transient expression of OgMYB1 in lip tissues by bombardment can also induce formation of red pigments through the activation of OgCHI and OgDFR transcription. These results demonstrate that differential expression of OgMYB1 is critical to determine the color pattern of floral organ in Oncidium Gower Ramsey. PMID:18161007

  17. Modelling Aṣṭādhyāyī: An Approach Based on the Methodology of Ancillary Disciplines (Vedāṅga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anand

    This article proposes a general model based on the common methodological approach of the ancillary disciplines (Vedāṅga) associated with the Vedas taking examples from Śikṣā, Chandas, Vyākaraṇa and Prātiśā khya texts. It develops and elaborates this model further to represent the contents and processes of Aṣṭādhyāyī. Certain key features are added to my earlier modelling of Pāṇinian system of Sanskrit grammar. This includes broader coverage of the Pāṇinian meta-language, mechanism for automatic application of rules and positioning the grammatical system within the procedural complexes of ancillary disciplines.

  18. What Engages Students in MetaL-FrOG? A Triarchy Perspective on Meta-Cognitive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fa, Ng Sen; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the central ideas of a grounded theory research by the name of Triarchy Perspective on Metacognitive Learning in Free Online Groups, or "TriP on MetaL-FrOG" in short. The research setting was online learning community on the platform of Free Online Group web (FrOG) intended for post-graduate students. The research…

  19. Nisin-Triggered Activity of Lys44, the Secreted Endolysin from Oenococcus oeni Phage fOg44▿

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, João Gil; Guerreiro-Pereira, Maria Carolina; Costa, Sérgio Fernandes; São-José, Carlos; Santos, Mário Almeida

    2008-01-01

    The intrinsic resistance of Oenococcus oeni cells to the secreted endolysin from oenophage fOg44 (Lys44) was investigated. Experiments with several antimicrobials support the hypothesis that the full activity of Lys44 requires sudden ion-nonspecific dissipation of the proton motive force, an event undertaken by the fOg44 holin in the phage infection context. PMID:17981964

  20. Location Capability and Site Characterization Installing a Borehole VBB Seismometer: the OGS Experience in Ferrara (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Barnaba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 19 very sensitive broad band and 17 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS CRS data centre in Udine. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara and to the deployment of a temporary seismographic network consisting of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate seismic site responses in the area. We will introduce details of the Ferrara VBB borehole station and the OGS temporary seismographic network configuration and installation. We will then illustrate the location capability performances, and finally we will shortly describe seismic site characterization with surface/borehole comparisons in terms of seismic noise, site amplification and resonance frequencies.

  1. OGS improvements in the year 2011 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.; Pesaresi, D.; Saraò, A.; Di Bartolomeo, P.; Durì, G.

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - OGS (Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude Mw = 6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 12 very sensitive broad band and 21 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of 93 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy, as shown in Fig. 1 (Bragato et al., 2011; Saraò et al., 2010). Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps" (Bragato et al., 2010; Pesaresi et al., 2008). SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. In order to improve the seismological monitoring of the Northeastern Italy area, at OGS-CRS we tuned existing programs and created ad hoc ones like: a customized web server named PickServer to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, and last but not least scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. A new OGS-CRS real time seismological website (http://rts.crs.inogs.it/) has also been operative since several years.

  2. Decouple a coupled KdV system of Nutku and Og˜uz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Heng Chun; Liu, Q. P.

    2002-02-01

    A coupled KdV system with a free parameter proposed by Nutku and Og˜uz is considered. It is shown that the system passes the WTC's Painlevé test for arbitrary value of the parameter. A further analysis yields that the parameter can be removed and the system can be decoupled.

  3. From Black Power to Hip-Hop: Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin V.

    2005-01-01

    While history for most conjures up images of places and experiences far removed, for Dr. Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar, the field provides a "wonderful medium" to illuminate contemporary issues as well. Much of Ogbar's current research centers on events occurring in the latter half of the 20th century, such as the civil rights and Black power movements as…

  4. OGS improvements in the year 2011 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.; Pesaresi, D.; Saraò, A.; Di Bartolomeo, P.; Durı, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 15 very sensitive broad band and 21 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite on several workstations plus a SUN Cluster as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. In order to improve the seismological monitoring of the Northeastern Italy area, at OGS-CRS we tuned existing programs and created ad hoc ones like: a customized web server named PickServer to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, and last but not least scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. The OGS-CRS Real Time Seismological website (RTS, http://rts.crs.inogs.it/) operative since several years was initially developed in the framework of the Italian DPC-INGV S3 Project: the RTS website shows classic earthquake locations

  5. ogs6 - a new concept for porous-fractured media simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Dmitri; Bilke, Lars; Fischer, Thomas; Rink, Karsten; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    OpenGeoSys (OGS) is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THMC) processes in porous and fractured media, continuously developed since the mid-eighties. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework for solving coupled multi-field problems. OGS is targeting mainly on applications in environmental geoscience, e.g. in the fields of contaminant hydrology, water resources management, waste deposits, or geothermal energy systems, but it has also been successfully applied to new topics in energy storage recently. OGS is actively participating several international benchmarking initiatives, e.g. DECOVALEX (waste management), CO2BENCH (CO2 storage and sequestration), SeSBENCH (reactive transport processes) and HM-Intercomp (coupled hydrosystems). Despite the broad applicability of OGS in geo-, hydro- and energy-sciences, several shortcomings became obvious concerning the computational efficiency as well as the code structure became too sophisticated for further efficient development. OGS-5 was designed for object-oriented FEM applications. However, in many multi-field problems a certain flexibility of tailored numerical schemes is essential. Therefore, a new concept was designed to overcome existing bottlenecks. The paradigms for ogs6 are: - Flexibility of numerical schemes (FEM#FVM#FDM), - Computational efficiency (PetaScale ready), - Developer- and user-friendly. ogs6 has a module-oriented architecture based on thematic libraries (e.g. MeshLib, NumLib) on the large scale and uses object-oriented approach for the small scale interfaces. Usage of a linear algebra library (Eigen3) for the mathematical operations together with the ISO C++11 standard increases the expressiveness of the code and makes it more developer-friendly. The new C++ standard also makes the template meta-programming technique code used for compile-time optimizations more compact. We have transitioned the main code development to

  6. Activation of defense response pathways by OGs and Flg22 elicitors in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Denoux, Carine; Galletti, Roberta; Mammarella, Nicole; Gopalan, Suresh; Werck, Danièle; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Dewdney, Julia

    2010-01-01

    We carried out transcriptional profiling analysis in 10 day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with oligogalacturonides (OGs), oligosaccharides derived from the plant cell wall, or the bacterial flagellin peptide Flg22, general elicitors of the basal defense response in plants. Although detected by different receptors, both OGs and Flg22 trigger a fast and transient response that is both similar and comprehensive, and characterized by activation of early stages of multiple defense signaling pathways, particularly JA-associated processes. However, the response to Flg22 is stronger in both the number of genes differentially expressed and the amplitude of change. The magnitude of induction of individual genes is in both cases dose dependent, but even at very high concentrations, OGs do not induce a response that is as comprehensive as that seen with Flg22. While high doses of either microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) elicit a late response that includes activation of senescence processes, SA-dependent secretory pathway genes and PR1 expression are substantially induced only by Flg22. These results suggest a lower threshold for activation of early responses than for sustained or SA-mediated late defenses. Expression patterns of aminocyclopropane-carboxylate synthase genes also implicate ethylene biosynthesis in regulation of the late innate immune response. PMID:19825551

  7. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  8. Comparative assessment of an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT filariasis test: a study of Myanmar migrants in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, Surang; Porksakorn, Chantima; Junpee, Alisa; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Poovorawan, Yong

    2003-12-01

    Detection of circulating filarial antigen has now emerged as an alternative method for the diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. We compared two antigen detection assays, an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT (immunochromatography) Filariasis test, for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections in migrant Myanmar workers in Tak province, Western Thailand. A total of 337 Myanmars participated in this study. The microfilarial rate was 3.3%. The Og4C3 ELISA could detect 19.1% of bancroftian filariasis while the ICT test detected 12.7%. Both antigen assays could detect all microfilaremics. The Og4C3 ELISA detected 14.8% of amicrofilaremics while the ICT test identified 8.1%. Those who were positive for the ICT test were also positive by the Og4C3 ELISA. Those Og4C3 positive cases, that were ICT negative (ICT-ve/Og4C3+ve) had statistically significant (p < 0.05, unpaired t-test) lower Og4C3 antigen levels (409.5 units, range 117-2,389) than those that were ICT positive (ICT+ve/Og4C3+ve) (5,252.0 units, range 130-28,062). Our results emphasize the problem of bancroftian filariasis in Myanmar migrants working in Thailand. Close monitoring and control of this disease in Myanmar migrants are of public health importance. Antigen detection systems are promising tools for the surveillance of bancroftian filariasis. PMID:15198343

  9. Acquiring, archiving, analyzing and exchanging seismic data in real time at the Seismological Research Center of the OGS in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraò, Angela; Pesaresi, Damiano; Bragato, Pier Luigi; di Bartolomeo, Paolo; Percy Plasencia Linares, Milton

    2010-05-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake (magnitude M=6.4) occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-east Italy (NI) seismic network: it currently consists of 11 very sensitive broad band and 23 more simple short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of 89 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. At OGS-CRS we then adapted existing programs and created new ones like: a customized web-accessible server to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, plus scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. A new OGS-CRS real time web site has also been recently designed and made operative in the framework of the DPC-INGV S3 Project.

  10. Screening Analogs of β-OG Pocket Binder as Fusion Inhibitor of Dengue Virus 2.

    PubMed

    Tambunan, Usman Sf; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Parikesit, Arli A; Idrus, Syarifuddin; Kerami, Djati

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder. There are 828 compounds used in this study, and all of them were screened based on the analysis of molecular docking, pharmacological character prediction of the compounds, and molecular dynamics simulation. The result of these analyses revealed that the compound that can be used as an antiviral candidate against DENV is 5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(p-tolyl) benzotriazol-5-yl]furan-2-carboxamide. PMID:26617459

  11. Screening Analogs of β-OG Pocket Binder as Fusion Inhibitor of Dengue Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Tambunan, Usman SF; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Parikesit, Arli A; Idrus, Syarifuddin; Kerami, Djati

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder. There are 828 compounds used in this study, and all of them were screened based on the analysis of molecular docking, pharmacological character prediction of the compounds, and molecular dynamics simulation. The result of these analyses revealed that the compound that can be used as an antiviral candidate against DENV is 5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(p-tolyl) benzotriazol-5-yl]furan-2-carboxamide. PMID:26617459

  12. SalB inactivation modulates culture supernatant exoproteins and affects autolysis and viability in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Jayendra; Walker, Rachel G; Wilkinson, Mark C; Ward, Deborah; Horsburgh, Malcolm J

    2012-07-01

    The culture supernatant fraction of an Enterococcus faecalis gelE mutant of strain OG1RF contained elevated levels of the secreted antigen SalB. Using differential fluorescence gel electrophoresis (DIGE) the salB mutant was shown to possess a unique complement of exoproteins. Differentially abundant exoproteins were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Stress-related proteins including DnaK, Dps family protein, SOD, and NADH peroxidase were present in greater quantity in the OG1RF salB mutant culture supernatant. Moreover, several proteins involved in cell wall synthesis and cell division, including d-Ala-d-Lac ligase and EzrA, were present in reduced quantity in OG1RF salB relative to the parent strain. The salB mutant displayed reduced viability and anomalous cell division, and these phenotypes were exacerbated in a gelE salB double mutant. An epistatic relationship between gelE and salB was not identified with respect to increased autolysis and cell morphological changes observed in the salB mutant. SalB was purified as a six-histidine-tagged protein to investigate peptidoglycan hydrolytic activity; however, activity was not evident. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of reduced muropeptides from peptidoglycan digested with mutanolysin revealed that the salB mutant and OG1RF were indistinguishable. PMID:22563054

  13. Students' Decision Steps in Meta-Cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG): A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen Fa, Kinsley Ng; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2011-01-01

    What prompts the students to respond in online dialogic discussion? Why some students chose to fall out? This case study through the lens of phenomenography observation attempts to explain the five decision steps of students to respond in Meta-cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG) discussion. It presents a part of a research…

  14. Reactive transport modeling in the subsurface environment with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenkui; Beyer, Christof; Fleckenstein, Jan; Jang, Eunseon; Kalbacher, Thomas; Naumov, Dimitri; Shao, Haibing; Wang, Wenqing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  15. Reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Shao, H.; Wang, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  16. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-07-01

    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden. PMID:8014511

  17. PET2OGS: Algorithms to link the static model of Petrel with the dynamic model of OpenGeoSys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.-H.; Shinn, Y. J.; Park, Y.-C.; Huh, D.-G.; Lee, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    A set of three algorithms named PET2OGS is developed to integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys). PET2OGS consists of three sub-algorithms that convert finite difference methods (FDMs) grids to finite element methods (FEMs) grids. The algorithms and the workflow of the integration procedures are described in detail. After the proposed algorithms are tested on a variety of grids both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, the integrated platform of the static and dynamic models is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. A successful demonstration of the proposed algorithms proved a robust integration of the platform. With some minor modifications of the algorithms in the part of input and output, the proposed algorithms can be extended to integrate different combinations of FDM-based static models and FEM-based dynamic models beyond the example combination in the paper.

  18. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast. PMID:26788290

  19. Physical Characteristics of Asteroid-like Comet Nucleus C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Pravec, P.; French, L. M.; Farnham, T. L.; Gaffey, M. J.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kusnirak, P.; Sarounova, L.; Sheppard, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    For many years several investigators have suggested that some portion of the near-Earth asteroid population may actually be extinct cometary nuclei. Evidence used to support these hypotheses was based on: observations of asteroid orbits and associated meteor showers (e.g. 3200 Phaethon and the Geminid meteor shower); low activity of short period comet nuclei, which implied nonvolatile surface crusts (e.g. Neujmin 1, Arend-Rigaux); and detections of transient cometary activity in some near-Earth asteroids (e.g. 4015 Wilson-Harrington). Recent investigations have suggested that approximately 5-10% of the near- Earth asteroid population may be extinct comets. However if members of the near-Earth asteroid population are extinct cometary nuclei, then there should be some objects within this population that are near their final stages of evolution and so should demonstrate only low levels of activity. The recent detections of coma from near-Earth object 2001 OG108 have renewed interest in this possible comet-asteroid connection. This paper presents the first high quality ground-based near-infrared reflectance spectrum of a comet nucleus combined with detailed lightcurve and albedo measurements.

  20. Magnesium, Potassium and Phosphorus in Available Forms in Luvisols in the Vicinity of Głogów Copper Smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, H.; Dąbkowska-Naskręt, H.; Różański, S.

    2016-02-01

    Region near Głogów is characterized as industrial—agricultural area, intensively used. Presented study was undertaken to estimate the impact of agricultural land use and the vicinity of Głogów copper smelter on the contents of available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in selected profiles of Luvisols. The following analysis were performed: soil particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon contents, CaCO3 contents. The contents of available forms of phosphorus and potassium were determined by Egner- Riehm method and that of magnesium using Schachtschabel's method. The results of the study showed that the contents of available P is medium (III class of abundance), very low in K (V class) and for available Mg very low (V class) to medium for surface horizons and very high (I class of abundance) in other soil horizons. The soils, in spite of the elevated copper content in humus horizons, according to IUNG, were classified as uncontaminated soils, therefore, can be used in plant production for all types of crops.

  1. Chemical Soil Degradation n the Area of the Głogów Copper Smelter Protective Forest/ Degradacja Ziemi Na Terenach Byłej Strefy Ochronnej Huty Miedzi Głogów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecki, Jakub; Greinert, Andrzej; Drab, Michał; Wasylewicz, Róża; Walczak, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Earth surface is under the continous influence of the environmental factors - both natural and anthropogenic. The significant impact on the environment can be noted in areas adjacent to the metal industry plants, in a consequence of pollutants emission, especially dusts containing the heavy metals, into the atmosphere,. In the surroundings of Głogów Copper Smelter (GCS) elevated amounts of copper and lead has been noted. In the soils of the test sites were found up to 5250 mg kg-1 Cu and 1290 mg kg-1 Pb. The forest litter contained 3.3-5.1 more Cu and 3.9-8.6 Pb than the humic horizon of the soil. Analyse of the different soils covering the GCS protective forest area let specify the stabilising role of particle size distribution, TOC content and the soil reaction to Cu and Pb migration in the environment. Powierzchnia ziemi jest nieustannnie narażona na oddziaływania o charakterze naturalnym i antropogenicznym. Znaczące oddziaływanie jest łatwo zauważalne na terenach przemysłowych. Szczególnie na obszarach objętych wydobyciem i przeróbką metali. Na terenach przyległych do Huty Miedzi Głogów stwierdzono wysoką koncentrację miedzi i ołowiu sięgającą 5250 mg kg-1 Cu i 1290 mg kg-1 Pb. Poziom ściółki leśnej zawierał 3,3-5,1 raza więcej Cu i 3,9-8,6 Pb niż poziom próchniczny analizowanych gleb. Analiza różnych gleb pokrywających las ochronny HMG pozwoliła wskazać na znaczącą rolę składu granulometrycznego, zawartości węgla organicznego oraz odczynu na stabilizację migracji Cu i Pb w środowisku.

  2. The Two-Component System GrvRS (EtaRS) Regulates ace Expression in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Cohen, Ana Luisa V.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of ace (adhesin to collagen of Enterococcus faecalis), encoding a virulence factor in endocarditis and urinary tract infection models, has been shown to increase under certain conditions, such as in the presence of serum, bile salts, urine, and collagen and at 46°C. However, the mechanism of ace/Ace regulation under different conditions is still unknown. In this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system GrvRS as the main regulator of ace expression under these stress conditions. Using Northern hybridization and β-galactosidase assays of an ace promoter-lacZ fusion, we found transcription of ace to be virtually absent in a grvR deletion mutant under the conditions that increase ace expression in wild-type OG1RF and in the complemented strain. Moreover, a grvR mutant revealed decreased collagen binding and biofilm formation as well as attenuation in a murine urinary tract infection model. Here we show that GrvR plays a major role in control of ace expression and E. faecalis virulence. PMID:25385790

  3. Application of PET2OGS to CO2 storage in a saline aquifer of the CO2CRC Otway project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Shinn, Young Jae

    2014-05-01

    PET2OGS, a set of algorithms that integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys), is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. The Otway Basin is the first demonstration site of the deep geological storage of carbon dioxide as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Australia. During Stage 2 of the CO2CRC Otway project, CO2 was injected into a saline aquifer along the injection interval of 1435 - 1450 m in a well. Upon conversion and adaption of the geological model into the dynamic model, the simulation of CO2 injection at 159 tone/day for 5 months is carried out for a hypothetical scenario. CO2 storage in each facies are analyzed for storage capacities. The discrete nature of CO2 plume behaviors known in multiphase flow in heterogeneous media is observed in the numerical simulation of CO2 storage. Sensitivity analysis of the storage capacity with respect to facies, porosity, and permeability is provided.

  4. SU-D-9A-01: Listmode-Driven Optimal Gating (OG) Respiratory Motion Management: Potential Impact On Quantitative PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K; Hristov, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential impact of listmode-driven amplitude based optimal gating (OG) respiratory motion management technique on quantitative PET imaging. Methods: During the PET acquisitions, an optical camera tracked and recorded the motion of a tool placed on top of patients' torso. PET event data were utilized to detect and derive a motion signal that is directly coupled with a specific internal organ. A radioactivity-trace was generated from listmode data by accumulating all prompt counts in temporal bins matching the sampling rate of the external tracking device. Decay correction for 18F was performed. The image reconstructions using OG respiratory motion management technique that uses 35% of total radioactivity counts within limited motion amplitudes were performed with external motion and radioactivity traces separately with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) with 2 iterations and 21 subsets. Standard uptake values (SUVs) in a tumor region were calculated to measure the effect of using radioactivity trace for motion compensation. Motion-blurred 3D static PET image was also reconstructed with all counts and the SUVs derived from OG images were compared with SUVs from 3D images. Results: A 5.7 % increase of the maximum SUV in the lesion was found for optimal gating image reconstruction with radioactivity trace when compared to a static 3D image. The mean and maximum SUVs on the image that was reconstructed with radioactivity trace were found comparable (0.4 % and 4.5 % increase, respectively) to the values derived from the image that was reconstructed with external trace. Conclusion: The image reconstructed using radioactivity trace showed that the blurring due to the motion was reduced with impact on derived SUVs. The resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with radioactivity trace were comparable to the resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with external respiratory traces. Research supported by Siemens.

  5. OGS#PETSc approach for robust and efficient simulations of strongly coupled hydrothermal processes in EGS reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Blucher, Guido; Cacace, Mauro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    A robust and computationally efficient solution is important for 3D modelling of EGS reservoirs. This is particularly the case when the reservoir model includes hydraulic conduits such as induced or natural fractures, fault zones, and wellbore open-hole sections. The existence of such hydraulic conduits results in heterogeneous flow fields and in a strengthened coupling between fluid flow and heat transport processes via temperature dependent fluid properties (e.g. density and viscosity). A commonly employed partitioned solution (or operator-splitting solution) may not robustly work for such strongly coupled problems its applicability being limited by small time step sizes (e.g. 5-10 days) whereas the processes have to be simulated for 10-100 years. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is desired which can guarantee a robust solution of the coupled problem with minor constraints on time step sizes. In this work, we present a Newton-Raphson based monolithic coupling approach implemented in the OpenGeoSys simulator (OGS) combined with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library. The PETSc library is used for both linear and nonlinear solvers as well as MPI-based parallel computations. The suggested method has been tested by application to the 3D reservoir site of Groß Schönebeck, in northern Germany. Results show that the exact Newton-Raphson approach can also be limited to small time step sizes (e.g. one day) due to slight oscillations in the temperature field. The usage of a line search technique and modification of the Jacobian matrix were necessary to achieve robust convergence of the nonlinear solution. For the studied example, the proposed monolithic approach worked even with a very large time step size of 3.5 years.

  6. The North East Italy (NI) broadband seismic network run by OGS: experience in improving the long period performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.

    2009-04-01

    experimented and routinely used by the world wide GEOFON seismic network and the German regional seismic network: examples and performances of a typical OGS installation will be shown.

  7. Cholera in Pregnancy: Outcomes from a Specialized Cholera Treatment Unit for Pregnant Women in Léogâne, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Ciglenecki, Iza; Bichet, Mathieu; Tena, Javier; Mondesir, Erneau; Bastard, Mathieu; Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Antierens, Annick; Staderini, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between cholera in pregnancy and negative fetal outcome has been described since the 19th century. However, there is limited published literature on the subject. We describe pregnancy outcomes from a specialized multidisciplinary hospital unit at the onset of a large cholera outbreak in Haiti in 2010 and 2011. Methods Pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized in a specialized unit within the MSF hospital compound in Léogâne and treated using standard cholera treatment guidelines but with earlier, more intense fluid replacement. All women had intravenous access established at admission regardless of their hydration status, and all received antibiotic treatment. Data were collected on patient demographics, pregnancy and cholera status, and pregnancy outcome. In this analysis we calculated risk ratios for fetal death and performed logistic regression analysis to control for confounding factors. Results 263 pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized between December 2010 and July 2011. None died during hospitalization, 226 (86%) were discharged with a preserved pregnancy and 16 (6%) had live fullterm singleton births, of whom 2 died within the first 5 days postpartum. The remaining 21 pregnancies (8%) resulted in intrauterine fetal death. The risk of fetal death was associated with factors reflecting severity of the cholera episode: after adjusting for confounding factors, the strongest risk factor for fetal death was severe maternal dehydration (adjusted risk ratio for severe vs. mild dehydration was 9.4, 95% CI 2.5–35.3, p = 0.005), followed by severe vomiting (adjusted risk ratio 5.1, 95% 1.1–23.8, p = 0.041). Conclusion This is the largest cohort of pregnant women with cholera described to date. The main risk factor identified for fetal death was severity of dehydration. Our experience suggests that establishing specialized multidisciplinary units which facilitate close follow-up of both pregnancy and dehydration

  8. Og4C3 circulating antigen, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 titers in Wuchereria bancrofti infected patients, according to their parasitological status.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L

    1994-09-01

    This study involved 221 microfilaremic (Mf+), 302 amicrofilaremic (Mf-) antigen positive (AG+) and 1454 Mf-antigen negative (AG-) individuals living in endemic villages. Whatever the group considered, antigen and antibody titers were widely distributed. Og4C3 antigen, detected both in Mf- and Mf+ patients, was significantly higher in Mf+ patients. The Mf parasitological status did not significantly influence the antifilarial antibodies levels in the infected AG+ individuals, although IgG4 was more discriminant. In the supposedly uninfected individuals (Mf-AG-), anti-filarial IgG and IgG4 could be detected in a large proportion of the group. Og4C3 circulating antigen test was confirmed to be a good marker of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection. PMID:7899800

  9. Rolling-leaf14 is a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase family protein that modulates rice leaf rolling by affecting secondary cell wall formation in leaves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Likui; Zhao, Fangming; Cong, Yunfei; Sang, Xianchun; Du, Qing; Wang, Dezhong; Li, Yunfeng; Ling, Yinghua; Yang, Zhenglin; He, Guanghua

    2012-06-01

    As an important agronomic trait, leaf rolling in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has attracted much attention from plant biologists and breeders. Moderate leaf rolling increases the amount of photosynthesis in cultivars and hence raises grain yield. Here, we describe the map-based cloning of the gene RL14, which was found to encode a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase of unknown function. rl14 mutant plants had incurved leaves because of the shrinkage of bulliform cells on the adaxial side. In addition, rl14 mutant plants displayed smaller stomatal complexes and decreased transpiration rates, as compared with the wild type. Defective development could be rescued functionally by the expression of wild-type RL14. RL14 was transcribed in sclerenchymatous cells in leaves that remained wrapped inside the sheath. In mature leaves, RL14 accumulated mainly in the mesophyll cells that surround the vasculature. Expression of genes related to secondary cell wall formation was affected in rl14-1 mutants, and cellulose and lignin content were altered in rl14-1 leaves. These results reveal that the RL14 gene affects water transport in leaves by affecting the composition of the secondary cell wall. This change in water transport results in water deficiency, which is the major reason for the abnormal shape of the bulliform cells. PMID:22329407

  10. Contribution of Individual Ebp Pilus Subunits of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF to Pilus Biogenesis, Biofilm Formation and Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sillanpää, Jouko; Chang, Chungyu; Singh, Kavindra V.; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Harvey, Barrett R.; Ton-That, Hung; Murray, Barbara E.

    2013-01-01

    The endocarditis and biofilm-associated pilus (Ebp) operon is a component of the core genome of Enterococcus faecalis that has been shown to be important for biofilm formation, adherence to host fibrinogen, collagen and platelets, and in experimental endocarditis and urinary tract infection models. Here, we created single and double deletion mutants of the pilus subunits and sortases; next, by combining western blotting, immunoelectron microscopy, and using ebpR in trans to increase pilus production, we identified EbpA as the tip pilin and EbpB as anchor at the pilus base, the latter attached to cell wall by the housekeeping sortase, SrtA. We also confirmed EbpC and Bps as the major pilin and pilin-specific sortase, respectively, both required for pilus polymerization. Interestingly, pilus length was increased and the number of pili decreased by deleting ebpA, while control overexpression of ebpA in trans restored wild-type levels, suggesting a dual role for EbpA in both initiation and termination of pilus polymerization. We next investigated the contribution of each pilin subunit to biofilm formation and UTI. Significant reduction in biofilm formation was observed with deletion of ebpA or ebpC (P<0.001) while ebpB was found to be dispensable; a similar result was seen in kidney CFUs in experimental UTI (ΔebpA, ΔebpC, P≤0.0093; ΔebpB, non-significant, each vs. OG1RF). Hence, our data provide important structural and functional information about these ubiquitous E. faecalis pili and, based on their demonstrated importance in biofilm and infection, suggest EbpA and EbpC as potential targets for antibody-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:23874774

  11. L'Anti-Atlas occidental du Maroc: étude sédimentologique et reconstitutions paléogéographiques au Cambrien inférieur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benssaou, M.; Hamoumi, N.

    2001-04-01

    L'étude lithostratigraphique en sédimentologique des formations du Cambrien inférieur de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) a permis de mettre en évidence la diversité extrême des faciès allant des faciès continentaux jusqu'au faciès franchement marins. La répartition verticale de ces faciès ainsi que leurs associations ont permis de (i) proposer un nouveau découpage de la succession en formations lithostratigraphiques, (ii) reconstituer les milieux de dépôt (système fluviatile, lacs, fan-deltas, milieu littoral, plate-forme dominée par des constructions stromatolitiques et récifales et plate-forme dominée par les tempêtes) et (iii) établir des modèles paléogéographiques retraçant les différentes étapes d'évolution de ce bassin qui fait partie de la plate-forme nord-gondwanienne au Cambrien inférieur. Lithostratigraphical and sedimentological studies of the Early Cambrian formations in the western Anti-Atlas (Morocco) evidence their large diversity of facies ranging from continental to clearly marine. Vertical distribution and associations of facies afford opportunities to (i) suggest a new classification of the sedimentary sequence in terms of lithostratigraphic formations, (ii) restore the depositional environments (fluvial system, lake, delta fan, coast, stromatolite and reef-dominated platform, tempest-dominated platform), and (iii) establish palæogeographic models displaying the different evolutionary stages of this basin that constituted a part of the Lower Cambrian north-Gondwanian platform.

  12. Transient response of a vertical electric dipole (VED) on a two-layer medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, S. Y.; Kong, J. A.

    The transient electromagnetic radiation by a vertical electric dipole on a two-layer medium is analyzed using the double deformation technique, which is a modal technique based on identification of singularities in the complex frequency and wavenumber planes. Previous application of the double deformation technique to the solution of this problem is incomplete in the early time response. In this paper it is shown that the existence of a pole locus on the negative imaginary frequency axis, which dominates the early time response, proves crucial in obtaining the solution for all times. A variety of combinations of parameters are used to illustrate the double deformation technique, and results will be compared with those obtained via explicit inversion, and a single deformation method.

  13. A Comparison of Community College Responders and Nonresponders to the VEDS Student Follow-Up Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey of respondents and nonrespondents to the Vocational Education Data System's follow-up survey of Massachusetts community college graduates was designed to measure response bias. The survey investigated employment patterns, wages, and degree of job relatedness. Results suggest original data was biased, if at all, toward underestimation, not…

  14. ABC-VED Analysis of a Drug Store in the Department of Community Medicine of a Medical College in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Anand, T; Ingle, G K; Kishore, J; Kumar, R

    2013-01-01

    A matrix based on coupling of cost (always, better and control) analysis and criticality (vital, essential and desirable) analysis was employed for drug inventory containing 129 items of drug store in the Department of Community Medicine of a Medical College in Delhi. The annual drug expenditure incurred on 129 drug items for the year 2010-2011 was found to be Rs. 4,35,847.85. On always, better and control analysis, 18.6, 24.0 and 57.4% drugs were found to be always, better and control category items, respectively, amounting for 69.1, 20.8 and 10.1% of annual drug expenditure. About 13.2 (17), 38.8 (50) and 48.0% (62) items were found to be vital, essential and desirable category items, respectively, amounting for 18.7, 49.5 and 31.8% of annual drug expenditure. Based on always, better and control-vital, essential and desirable matrix analysis there were 37 (28.68%) items in category I, 53 (41.09%) items in category II and 39 (30.23%) items in category III, amounting for 73.0, 22.2 and 4.8% of annual drug expenditure, respectively. To conclude, scientific inventory management tools are needed to be applied in routine for efficient management of the pharmacy stores as it contributes to not only in improvement in patient care but also judicious use of resources as well. PMID:23901172

  15. [Diabetes and alternative medicine: diabetic patients experiences with Ayur-Ved, "clinical ecology" and "cellular nutrition" methods].

    PubMed

    Vanelli, M; Chiari, G; Gugliotta, M; Capuano, C; Giacalone, T; Gruppi, L; Condò, M

    2002-04-01

    In the last two years we discovered that three of our patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (0.8%) suffered an unexpected worsening in their glycemic control due to a reduction of their insulin dosage in favour of some "alternative" diabetes treatments using herbs, vitamins, fantastic diets and trace elements prescribed by non-medical practitioners. The first patient, a 6.6 year old boy, was admitted to hospital because of a severe ketoacidosis with first degree coma as a result of his parents having reduced his insulin dosage by 77% and replacing the insulin with an ayurvedic herbal preparation (Bardana Actium Lapp). The second patient, a 10.4 year old boy, was admitted to hospital after his teachers noticed that he appeared tired, thinner and polyuric. During hospital admission for mild ketoacidosis the mother, reluctant at first, finally confessed that her son was under the care of a "clinical ecologist". Having identified several food allergies this "clinical ecologist" had placed the child on a spartan diet of bread, water and salt, and had reduced his insulin dosage by 68%. The third patient, a 21 year old male, upon transfer to the Adult Diabetic Center, reported that he had been under the care of a pranotherapist for several years. The pranotherapist had prescribed a cellular nutrition preparation (called "Madonna drops"), a meditation program and also a 50% reduction in his insulin dosage. During this period his HbAlc values had increased from 6.4% to 12%. Current orthodox diabetes treatments are considered unsatisfactory by many people and it is thus not surprising that they search for "miracle" cures. It is important, however, that hospital staff do not ridicule the patients or their parents for trying these alternative therapies. Nevertheless, it would be useful for staff to discuss in advance these "therapies" with patients, highlighting their ineffectiveness and strongly discouraging cures that call for a reduction or elimination of the insulin treatment. PMID:11981532

  16. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. Topic areas include the composition, spectra, and anisotropy of cosmic ray nuclei with energies and 1 TeV, isotopes, antiprotons and related subjects, and electrons, positrons, and measurements of synchrotron radiation.

  17. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. The topic areas covered in this volume include gamma ray bursts, gamma rays from point sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission.

  18. Information Gathering Document 0321-1437-30-R-OG

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-07-15

    Fines and turnings from machining depleted uranium (Dep-U), natural uranium (Nat-U), and Thorium-232, and stainless steel and aluminum. This IGO allows only small, oxidizable pieces of Dep-U/Nat-U/Th-232, with regulated metal contaminants below regulatory limits. Fines and turnings will be in 30 gallon vented drums immersed in mineral oil. The 30 gallon drums will be overpacked in 55 gallon vented drums. The waste will be stored on site until sent for stabilization & disposal with approved TSOFs.

  19. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume addresses cosmic ray sources and acceleration, interstellar propagation and nuclear interactions, and detection techniques and instrumentation.

  20. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2004-01-23

    This tenth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for ore grading based on hyperspectral imaging. A graduate student at Montana Tech has successfully defended her thesis related to this project. Arrangements with Stillwater Mining Company to deploy a machine vision system in their core room have been completed. Designs for they system that will be installed next quarter have been drawn and parts are being machined. Presentations on the spectral imaging system developed during this effort have been made to Stillwater Mining Company and at a remote sensing symposium at Montana State University.

  1. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2003-04-27

    This eleventh quarterly technical report discusses the installation of a spectral machine vision system in the Stillwater mine's core room. In brief, the system has been fabricated, installed, and preliminary measurements have been made. A first round of refinements has been made, included replacing a bad bearing and applying filters to the lighting. A high-speed Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) program was written to classify the cores in real time. This program identifies sulfides in the core sample quite well, but also produces false positives at boundaries and breaks in the core. Additionally, bright reflections from facets within the ore occasionally saturate the camera. Overall, the project is on schedule, but additional refinement in the algorithm and lighting is required to obtain more accurate results.

  2. Phenological tracking og agricultural feilds investigated by using dual polarimetry tanDEM-X images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, S.; Motagh, M.; Arefi, H.; Nooryazdan, A.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing plays a key role in monitoring and assessing environmental changes. Because of its special imaging characteristics such as high-resolution, capabilities to obtain data in all weather conditions and sensitivity to geometrical and dielectric properties of the features, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology has become a powerful technique to detect small scale changes related to earth surface.SAR images contain the information of both phase and intensity in different modes like single, dual and full polarimetric states which are important in order to extract information about various targets. In this study we investigate phenological changes in an agricultural region using high-resolution X-band SAR data. The case study is located in Doroud region of Lorestan province, west of Iran. The purpose is to investigate the ability of copolar and interferometric coherence extracted from TanDEM-X dual polarimetry (HH/VV) in bistatic StripMap mode for tracking the phenological changes of crops during growing season. The data include 11 images acquired between 12.06.2012 and 02.11.2012 and 6 images acquired between 30.05.2013 and 04.08.2013 in the CoSSC format. Results show that copolar coherence is almost able to follow phenological changes but interferometric coherence has a near constant behaviour with fluctuations mainly related to baseline variations.

  3. A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kolditz, O.; Naumov, D.; Kalbacher, T.

    2015-03-01

    This technical paper presents an efficient and performance-oriented method to model reactive mass transport processes in environmental and geotechnical subsurface systems. The open source scientific software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc have been coupled, to combine their individual strengths and features to simulate thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes in porous and fractured media with simultaneous consideration of aqueous geochemical reactions. Furthermore, a flexible parallelization scheme using MPI (Message Passing Interface) grouping techniques has been implemented, which allows an optimized allocation of computer resources for the node-wise calculation of chemical reactions on the one hand, and the underlying processes such as for groundwater flow or solute transport on the other hand. The coupling interface and parallelization scheme have been tested and verified in terms of precision and performance.

  4. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-01-31

    The overall approach of this effort is to spectrally image ore or coal, and then use the spectral content (i.e., the particular colors of the ore or coal) to differentiate between the ore or coal grades. Currently, experts with practiced eyes do just this to identify the grade of platinum/palladium ore from the Stillwater Mine in south-central Montana. Additionally, trained eyes can identify high-sulfur and high-ash coal visually. The premise of this effort is that machine vision can accomplish this same differentiation. During the first quarter, machine vision results using a digital color camera did not correlate as well with assay results for platinum/palladium ore as would be required for a commercial device. One of the possible reasons for this is that the digital camera did not provide enough spectral information to obtain good differentiation between the sulfides associated with high-grade platinum/palladium ore and background interference, most notably yellow grease that contaminates some of the sample and green colored rock. The second quarter efforts have largely been devoted to implementing an imaging spectrometer for machine vision. In brief, modifying an imaging spectrometer that was designed for remote sensing from a Remotely Controlled (RC) airplane has done this. The imaging spectrometer provides 320 spectral channels, allowing for much better spectral resolution that can be obtained with a digital color camera, which provides 3 spectral channels. Preliminary results, as discussed below in more detail, are encouraging. The technical portion of the report below is organized into subsections as dictated by the DoE contract for this effort. These sections are: Experimental Apparatus, Experimental and Operating Data, Data Reduction, and Hypothesis and Conclusions. Partners in this effort are: Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Stillwater Mining Co., Western Syncoal, and the Montana Board of Research and Commercialization.

  5. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-04-28

    This seventh quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Considerable progress has been made on coal analysis. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) target recognition software has been tested and incorporated into the system. This software decreases analysis time considerably and is more intuitive to use. Work with board-level computers has proceeded well; ultimately this will make the technology more compact and fieldable. Work with talc will be delayed because the graduate student working on this project is leaving the program. Ongoing work is devoted to more detailed coal analysis, improving the software interface, and developing procedures and a users manual.

  6. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2004-10-22

    This thirteenth quarterly technical report describes data collection at the Stillwater Mine and an additional improvement to the lighting system. The data collection system was returned to the Stillwater Mine during this reporting period and a large amount of data was collected. The data will be analyzed and correlated with fire assays in the next reporting period. The majority of work done this quarter has been devoted to collecting data from cores scanned in the Stillwater Mining Company core room. This work is somewhat tedious and tiresome, but essential to: (1) obtain enough data to reliably determine the correlation between assay results and spectral imaging results; (2) find bugs and glitches in the system that arise only periodically or after long periods of use; and (3) obtain data on the natural (and man-made) variations in the Stillwater ore that may confuse the machine vision algorithms.

  7. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-07-21

    This eighth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and preparations for Year-3 system deployment. Classification maps for coal have been generated and shown to two coal-mining executives. An application for licensing high-speed hyperspectral data analysis software from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been made. Both Western Energy and Stillwater Mining Company have offered platforms for Year-3 deployment. Barretts Minerals has expressed renewed interest in using Resonon's machine vision system for identifying dolomite in their talc ore and have agreed to provide samples to the Montana Tech team.

  8. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-10-24

    This fifth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Recent work has been devoted to implementing new hardware and examining defects in titanium sponge, a new application for the machine vision system. With the improvements in hardware and software, the data collection is much improved. Early results from data taken on titanium sponge defects indicate that some defects will be relatively easy to identify, but others will be much more difficult. Consequently, additional work is required with software algorithms for target recognition. Ongoing work will be divided into several fronts, which include data collection and analysis, improving the target recognition capabilities, and improving the electronic interface.

  9. Gocad2OGS: Workflow to Integrate Geo-structural Information into Numerical Simulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Thomas; Walther, Marc; Naumov, Dmitri; Sattler, Sabine; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of fluid circulation in the Thuringian syncline is one of the INFLUINS project's targets. A 3D geo-structural model including 12 stratigraphic layers and 54 fault zones is created by geologists in the first step using the Gocad software. Within the INFLUINS project a ground-water flow simulation is used to check existing hypotheses and to gain new ideas of the underground fluid flow behaviour. We used the scientific, platform independent, open source software OpenGeoSys that implements the finite element method to solve the governing equations describing fluid flow in porous media. The geo-structural Gocad model is not suitable for the FEM numerical analysis. Therefore it is converted into an unstructured grid satisfying all mesh quality criteria required for the ground-water flow simulation. The resulting grid is stored in an open data format given by the Visualization Toolkit (vtk). In this work we present a workflow to convert geological structural models, created using the Gocad software, into a simulation model that is easy to use from numerical simulation software. We tested our workflow with the 3D geo-structural model of the Thuringian syncline and were able to setup and to evaluate a hydrogeological simulation model successfully.

  10. Handels- og Kontorfunktionaerernes Forbund i Danmark v. Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening [17 October 1989].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The plaintiff employee's Danish union challenged as contrary to Sex Discrimination Directive 75/117 the salary practice of the defendant employer, which resulted in male employees receiving an average wage 6.85% higher than that received by female employees in the same job category. The difference resulted from a system of supplements paid to employees on the basis of mobility, vocational training, and length of service. The court held that when an employer applies a system of remuneration that is totally lacking in transparency, the employer is required to prove that the system does not discriminate against women if it is shown that the system results in women receiving average pay less than that received by men. It also ruled that pay differentials based on seniority were acceptable and that pay differentials based on mobility and vocational training were acceptable only if it was shown that such mobility or vocational training was important to the performance of specific tasks entrusted to an employee. PMID:12344117

  11. A kind of integrated method discuss of fOG signal processing circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Pan, Xin; Ying, Jiaju; Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    In view of the circuit miniaturization need in project application of fiber optic gyroscope(FOG), a new integrated technical scheme adopting system in package(SIP) for signal processing circuit of FOG was put forward. At first, the principle on signal processing circuit of FOG was analyzed, and the technical scheme adopting SIP based on low-temperature co-fired substrate technology was presented according to circuit characteristic and actual condition. Secondly, under the prerequisite of the concept introduction of SIP and LTCC, the SIP prototype of signal processing circuit of FOG was trialed produced,and it passed through the debug test. This SIP modular is an overall circuit complete integrated the signal processing circuit of FOG, and only a potentiometer and EPROM do not case outside. The testing results indicate that SIP is a kind of feasible scheme that carries out miniaturization for signal processing circuit of FOG.

  12. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-04-25

    This third quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. The work done this quarter has utilized a miniature imaging spectrometer. Procedures to collect and process the spectral and spatial data from the imaging spectrometer have been established, and software routines have been employed to use this data to differentiate sulfides from background rock in platinum/palladium core samples. These sulfides are indicator minerals for high-grade platinum/palladium ore. Mappings of the sulfides generated with this procedure have been quite accurate. Samples of coal have also been obtained and preliminary measurements with the imaging spectrometer have been made.

  13. Penile rehabilitation with a vacuum erectile device in an animal model is related to an antihypoxic mechanism: blood gas evidence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao-Cheng; Yang, Wen-Li; Zhang, Jun-Lan; Dai, Yu-Tian; Wang, Run

    2013-05-01

    Our previous study showed that vacuum erectile device (VED) therapy has improved erectile function in rats with bilateral cavernous nerve crush (BCNC) injuries. This study was designed to explore the mechanism of VED in penile rehabilitation by analyzing cavernous oxygen saturation (SO2) and to examine the effect of VED therapy on preventing penile shrinkage after BCNC. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: group 1, sham surgery; group 2, BCNC; and group 3, BCNC+VED. Penile length and diameter were measured on a weekly basis. After 4 weeks of therapy, the penile blood was extracted by three methods for blood gas analysis (BGA): method 1, cavernous blood was aspirated at the flaccid state; method 2, cavernous blood was aspirated at the traction state; and method 3, cavernous blood was aspirated immediately after applying VED. SO2 values were tested by the blood gas analyzer. The results showed that VED therapy is effective in preventing penile shrinkage induced by BCNC (Penile shortening: BCNC group 1.9±1.1 mm; VED group 0.3±1.0 mm; P<0.01. Penile diameter reduction: BCNC group 0.28±0.14 mm; VED group 0.04±0.14 mm; P<0.01). The mean SO2±s.d. values were increased by VED application (88.25%±4.94%) compared to the flaccid (76.53%±4.16%) or traction groups (78.93%±2.56%) (P<0.05). The calculated blood constructs in the corpus cavernosum right after VED application were 62% arterial and 38% venous blood. These findings suggest that VED therapy can effectively preserve penile size in rats with BCNC injury. The beneficial effect of VED therapy is related to antihypoxia by increasing cavernous blood SO2. PMID:23564044

  14. GO2OGS: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Walther, M.; Sattler, S.; Naumov, D.; Kolditz, O.

    2015-08-01

    We offer a versatile workflow to convert geological models built with the software Paradigm™ GOCAD© into the open-source VTU format for the usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of similar environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modelling. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  15. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  16. The formation of pentagon-heptagon pair defect by the reconstruction og vacancy defects in carbon nanotube

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.D.; Wang, C.Z.; Yoon, E.; Hwang, N.M.; Ho, K.M.

    2008-01-29

    The reconstruction process of vacancy hole in carbon nanotube is investigated by tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations and by ab initio total energy calculations. In the molecular dynamics simulation, a vacancy hole is found to reconstruct into two separated pentagon-heptagon pair defects. As the result of reconstruction, the radius of the carbon nanotube is reduced and the chirality of the tube is partly changed. During the vacancy hole healing process, the formation of pentagonal and heptagonal rings is proceeded by the subsequent Stone-Wales.

  17. Utilizing Federal Reporting Requirements to Generate Useful Data at the Local Level: Creating an Open-Book Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; Shwedel, Allan

    Various procedures, technologies, and products were developed by the Massachusetts Board of Regents and the Massachusetts Community Colleges in implementing the student followup component of the Vocational Education Data System (VEDS). The Board of Regents took the lead in coordinating the VEDS followup study among the 15 state-supported community…

  18. Structure-permeability relationship analysis of the permeation barrier properties of the stratum corneum and viable epidermis/dermis of rat skin.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Mitsui, Tetsuya; Aso, Yoshinori; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate structure-permeability relationships for chemicals through stratum corneum (SC) and viable epidermis/dermis (VED). In vitro skin permeation of ten compounds through excised rat skin was analyzed based on a two-layer diffusion model and the diffusion coefficients in SC (D(SC)) and VED (D(VED)) were determined. The relationships between the permeation parameters and the physicochemical parameters (octanol-water partition coefficient (log K(o/w)), and hydrogen bond donor number (HBD)) of the compounds were analyzed. D(SC) increased as lipophilicity increased, whereas D(VED) decreased for log K(o/w) > 2. Increases in log K(o/w) caused a decrease in the permeability coefficient from SC through VED (P(VED/SC)) for log K(o/w) > 1. The simulation study suggests that the in vitro skin permeation of a highly lipophilic compound is strongly controlled by skin thickness due to low diffusivity in VED. The present study suggests that VED act as a considerable permeation barrier for highly lipophilic compounds due to low diffusivity. PMID:18228598

  19. Vacuum therapy in penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: review of hemodynamic and antihypoxic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Sheng-Qiang; Gao, Liang; Wei, Qiang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Generally, hypoxia is a normal physiological condition in the flaccid penis, which is interrupted by regular nocturnal erections in men with normal erectile function.1 Lack of spontaneous and nocturnal erections after radical prostatectomy due to neuropraxia results in persistent hypoxia of cavernosal tissue, which leads to apoptosis and degeneration of cavernosal smooth muscle fibers. Therefore, overcoming hypoxia is believed to play a crucial role during neuropraxia. The use of a vacuum erectile device (VED) in penile rehabilitation is reportedly effective and may prevent loss of penile length. The corporal blood after VED use is increased and consists of both arterial and venous blood, as revealed by color Doppler sonography and blood gas analysis. A similar phenomenon was observed in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, NPWT employs a lower negative pressure than VED, and a hypoperfused zone, which increases in response to negative pressure adjacent to the wound edge, was observed. Nonetheless, questions regarding ideal subatmospheric pressure levels, modes of action, and therapeutic duration of VED remain unanswered. Moreover, it remains unclear whether a hypoperfused zone or PO2 gradient appears in the penis during VED therapy. To optimize a clinical VED protocol in penile rehabilitation, further research on the mechanism of VED, especially real-time PO2 measurements in different parts of the penis, should be performed. PMID:26289397

  20. Vacuum therapy in penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: review of hemodynamic and antihypoxic evidence.

    PubMed

    Qian, Sheng-Qiang; Gao, Liang; Wei, Qiang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Generally, hypoxia is a normal physiological condition in the flaccid penis, which is interrupted by regular nocturnal erections in men with normal erectile function. [1] Lack of spontaneous and nocturnal erections after radical prostatectomy due to neuropraxia results in persistent hypoxia of cavernosal tissue, which leads to apoptosis and degeneration of cavernosal smooth muscle fibers. Therefore, overcoming hypoxia is believed to play a crucial role during neuropraxia. The use of a vacuum erectile device (VED) in penile rehabilitation is reportedly effective and may prevent loss of penile length. The corporal blood after VED use is increased and consists of both arterial and venous blood, as revealed by color Doppler sonography and blood gas analysis. A similar phenomenon was observed in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, NPWT employs a lower negative pressure than VED, and a hypoperfused zone, which increases in response to negative pressure adjacent to the wound edge, was observed. Nonetheless, questions regarding ideal subatmospheric pressure levels, modes of action, and therapeutic duration of VED remain unanswered. Moreover, it remains unclear whether a hypoperfused zone or PO 2 gradient appears in the penis during VED therapy. To optimize a clinical VED protocol in penile rehabilitation, further research on the mechanism of VED, especially real-time PO 2 measurements in different parts of the penis, should be performed. PMID:26289397

  1. Functional and hierarchical interactions among zebrafish vox/vent homeobox genes.

    PubMed

    Gilardelli, Claudio N; Pozzoli, Ombretta; Sordino, Paolo; Matassi, Giorgio; Cotelli, Franco

    2004-07-01

    The vertebrate Vox/Vent family of transcription factors plays a crucial role in the establishment of the dorsoventral (DV) axis, by repressing organizer genes such as bozozok/dharma, goosecoid, and chordino. In Danio rerio (zebrafish), members of the vox/vent gene family (vox/vega1, vent/vega2, and ved) are thought to share expression patterns and functional properties. Bringing novel insights in the differential activity of the zebrafish vox/vent genes, we propose a critical role for the ved gene in DV patterning of vertebrate embryos. ved is not only expressed as a maternal gene, but it also appears to function as a repressor of dorsal factors involved in organizer formation. At early- and mid-gastrula stage, ved appears to be finely controlled by antagonist crosstalks in a complex regulatory network, involving gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) activity, dorsal factors, and vox/vent family members. We show that ved transcripts are ventrally restricted by BMP factors such as bmp2b, bmp7, smad5, and alk8, and by dorsal factors (chd and gsc). Alteration of ved expression in both vox and vent deletion mutants and vox and vent mRNAs-injected embryos, suggests that vox and vent function downstream of BMP signaling to negatively regulate ved expression. This inhibitory role is emphasized by a vox and vent redundant activity, compared with single gene effects. PMID:15188434

  2. Spontaneous decidualization in pseudopregnant rats with vitamin E deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lang, Nan; Wu, Bin; He, Bin; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jiedong

    2016-05-13

    Successful implantation of an embryo requires adequate depth of invasion in the endometrium, which depends upon decidualization. The aim of the present study was to elucidate why humans experience spontaneous decidualization and menstruation while most other mammals do not. We established a spontaneous decidualization model in pseudopregnant rats with vitamin E deficiency (VED) to investigate mechanisms associated with spontaneous decidualization. Vaginal smears were used to monitor bleeding while vitamin E levels were analyzed with a commercial vitamin E assay kit. Trypan blue staining was used to observe the implantation site at 5.5 days post-coitum (dpc). Uterine morphology, estradiol (E2) and progesterone levels, and the anti-oxidation system were evaluated at 5.5, 7.5, and 9.5 dpc. The proportion of rats in the VED group exhibiting endometrial bleeding gradually increased (5.9%, 32.3%, and 50%) over three consecutive cycles of pseudopregnancy. Vitamin E levels in the VED group were markedly lower compared to the control group in both the plasma and uterus, while the level of vitamin E in the liver did not differ between the control and VED groups. Spontaneous decidualization in the VED group was validated by histological examination and immunohistochemistry. At 5.5 dpc, the mean serum E2 level in the VED group was more than twice that of the control group. The mean total anti-oxidizing capability, catalase level, and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly reduced in the decidualized portion of the VED group compared to controls, while the malondialdehyde level was also significantly higher in the decidualized portion of the VED group. We hypothesize that the E2 surge at 5.5 dpc and increasing levels of reactive oxygen species are responsible for spontaneous decidualization in VED rats. PMID:27033606

  3. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Batagini, Nayara Cioffi; Gornik, Heather; Kirksey, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (VEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant collagen vascular disorder. Different from other Ehler-Danlos Syndrome subtypes, VEDS has poor prognosis due to severe fragility of connective tissues and association with life-threatening vascular and gastrointestinal complications. Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but hazardous complication related to this syndrome. To date, only 2 cases have been reported in the literature. Here we present another case of this uncommon complication, occurring in a 54-year-old woman in clinical follow-up for VEDS who presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain and hypotension. PMID:26323967

  4. The field of the vertical electric dipole immersed in the heterogeneous half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsukov, P. O.; Fainberg, E. B.

    2014-07-01

    The field of the vertical electric dipole (VED) immersed in the heterogeneous conductive halfspace (sea) is analyzed in time domain. In the near field of the source, the amplitudes of the electric and magnetic components of the field are proportional to power 3/2 and power 5/2 of the conductivity of the medium, respectively. After termination of the transmitter pulse, all the VED components decay with time as ˜1/ t 5/2. The possibility of applying the VED field for estimating the electrical properties of the offshore geological sections is demonstrated.

  5. Finiteness of the vacuum energy density in quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoukian, Edward B.

    1983-03-01

    Recent interest in the finiteness problem of the vacuum energy density (VED) in finite QED has motivated us to reexamine this problem in the light of an analysis we have carried out earlier. By a loopwise summation procedure, supplemented by a renormalization-group analysis, we study the finiteness of the VED with α, the renormalized fine-structure constant, fixed in the process as the (infinite order) zero of the eigenvalue condition F[1](x)|x=α=0∞, and with the electron mass totally dynamical of origin. We propose a possible finite solution for the VED in QED which may require only one additional eigenvalue condition for α.

  6. A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator exhibiting dual-channel responsive sensing behaviours towards fluoride ion via gel-gel states.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Hassan; Pang, Hongchang; Gong, Weitao; Dhinakaran, Manivannan Kalavathi; Wajahat, Ali; Kuang, Xiaojun; Ning, Guiling

    2016-07-01

    A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator G-16 containing anion and metal-coordination ability has been designed and synthesized. It shows excellent and robust gelation capability as a strong blue fluorescent supramolecular organic gel OG in DMF. Addition of Zn(2+) produced Zn(2+)-coordinated supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn. Organic gel OG and organometallic gel OG-Zn exhibited efficient and different sensing behaviors towards fluoride ion due to the variation in self-assembling nature. Supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn displayed specific selectivity for fluoride ion and formed OG-Zn-F with dramatic color change from blue to blue green in solution and gel to gel states. Furthermore after directly addition of fluoride into OG produced fluoride containing organic gel OG-F with drastically modulation in color from blue to greenish yellow fluorescence via strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property. A number of experiments were conducted such as FTIR, (1)H NMR, and UV/Vis spectroscopies, XRD, SEM and rheology. These results revealed that the driving forces involved in self-assembly of OG, OG-Zn, OG-Zn-F and OG-F were hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, π-π interactions, and van der Waal forces. In contrast to the most anion responsive gels, particularly fluoride ion responsive gels showed gel-sol state transition on stimulation by anions, the gel state of OG and OG-Zn did not show any gel-to-sol transition during the whole F(-) response process. PMID:27193611

  7. Re-oxidation Kinetics of Flash-Reduced Iron Particles in H2-H2O(g) Atmosphere Relevant to a Novel Flash Ironmaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhixue; Sohn, Hong Yong; Olivas-Martinez, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    A novel flash ironmaking process based on hydrogen-containing reduction gases is under development at the University of Utah. The goal of this work was to study the possibility of the re-oxidation of iron particles in a H2-H2O gas mixture in the lower part of the flash reactor from the kinetic point of view. The last stage of hydrogen reduction of iron oxide, i.e., the reduction of wustite, is limited by equilibrium. As the reaction mixture cools down, the re-oxidation of iron could take place because of the decreasing equilibrium constant and the high reactivity of the freshly reduced fine iron particles. The effects of temperature and H2O partial pressure on the re-oxidation rate were examined in the temperature range of 823 K to 973 K (550 °C to 700 °C) and H2O contents of 40 to 100 pct. The nucleation and growth kinetics model was shown to best describe the re-oxidation kinetics. The partial pressure dependence with respect to water vapor was determined to be of first order, and the activation energy of re-oxidation reaction was 146 kJ/mol. A complete rate equation that adequately represents the experimental data was developed.

  8. A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc 5.5.7-3.1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kolditz, O.; Naumov, D.; Kalbacher, T.

    2015-10-01

    The open-source scientific software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc have been coupled to set up and simulate thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes with simultaneous consideration of aqueous geochemical reactions faster and easier on high-performance computers. In combination with the elaborated and extendable chemical database of IPhreeqc, it will be possible to set up a wide range of multiphysics problems with numerous chemical reactions that are known to influence water quality in porous and fractured media. A flexible parallelization scheme using MPI (Message Passing Interface) grouping techniques has been implemented, which allows an optimized allocation of computer resources for the node-wise calculation of chemical reactions on the one hand and the underlying processes such as for groundwater flow or solute transport on the other. This technical paper presents the implementation, verification, and parallelization scheme of the coupling interface, and discusses its performance and precision.

  9. GO2OGS 1.0: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Naumov, D.; Sattler, S.; Kolditz, O.; Walther, M.

    2015-11-01

    We offer a versatile workflow to convert geological models built with the ParadigmTM GOCAD© (Geological Object Computer Aided Design) software into the open-source VTU (Visualization Toolkit unstructured grid) format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modeling, in our case employing the OpenGeoSys open-source numerical toolbox for groundwater flow simulations. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing the growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  10. Paléogéographie du Jurassique supérieur au sud du choot El Hodna, Algérie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissaoui, D. M.

    The Upper Jurassic outcrops as isolated mounts along the southern end of chott el Hodna, Algeria. They consist mainly on shallow platform deposited limestones immediately north (Bout Taleb) and east (Aures) of chott el Hodna, the carbonates of the same age are pelagic and deposited within basin or external platform respectively. Detailed study of Meharga-Fnoud series demonstrates that the shallow carbonate sedimentation in this sector is interrupted by periodic emersions as indicated by vadose diagenesis (birds-eyes, opened burrows, evaporite and dolomite, vadose silts etc). The proposed paleogeography locates the internal jurassic shoreline near the present southern limit of chott el Hodna. Each maximal extension of the emersion leads to the formation of a tidal flat whose origin is not associated with a reefal nor a sedimentary barrier. The emersions are mainly favored by the large dimension and the absence of significant submarine relief within the Jurassic platform. Each emersion starts in the north then progrades southwards by lateral accretions. Its progression is interrupted by deep tectonic reactivation which provokes marine transgression over the tidal flat. One of the main interest of the Jurassic paleogeography in this region concerns the association between the tidal flat and an extensive dolomitization which may transform limestones precursors into good reservoirs.

  11. Evaluation of digital halftones image by vector error diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzaki, Masahiro; Itoh, Tetsuya; Kawaguchi, Takayuki; Tsumura, Norimichi; Haneishi, Hideaki; Miyake, Yoichi

    1998-12-01

    The vector error diffusion (VED) method is applied to proudce the digital halftone images by an electrophotographic printer with 600 dpi. Objective image quality of those obtained images is evaluated and analyzed. As a result, in the color reproduction of halftone image by the VED method, it was clear that there are large color difference between target color and printed color typically in the mid-tone colors. We consider it is due to the printer properties including dot-gain. It was also clear that the color noise of the VED method is larger compared with that of the conventional scalar error diffusion method in some patches. It was remarkable that ununiform patterns are generated by the VED method.

  12. [Abdominal ischemia and lesions of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Myshanych, T V; Moskal', O M; Arkhiĭ, E Ĭ; Sozoniuk, O V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the results of 50 patients with diseases of coronary heart disease (25 pers.) And chronic pancreatitis (25 people) are submitted. Along with the standard test from these patients underwent Doppler-ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its visceral branches. Conclusions: A characteristic feature of Doppler indices in AIC is to reduce Vps and Ved, and PI BbA, increase Vps, Ved, IR and PI after exercise in chBA, chC and BbA. At patients with CP with IHD feature is the increase in Ved and IR in the chC, and Ved and PI in BbA under act of loading Bleed a feature at CP with IHD must be taken into account for optimization of treatment of IHD at CP. PMID:25796868

  13. Effect of agmatine on experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nader, M A; Gamiel, N M; El-Kashef, H; Zaghloul, M S

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of agmatine sulfate (AG, CAS2482-00-0) in nicotine (NIC)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rabbits. NIC was administered to produce VED in rabbits with or without AG for 6 weeks. Serum lipid profile, serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase generation, serum nitrite/nitrate, serum vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and aortic nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) levels were analyzed.Treatment with AG markedly improves lipid profile and prevented NIC-induced VED and oxidative stress. The mechanism of AG in improving NIC-induced VED may be due to the significant reduction in serum VCAM-1 levels and aortic NF-κB. Thus, it may be concluded that AG reduces the oxidative stress, nitric oxide production, VCAM-1 levels, and aortic NF-κB expression, thereby consequently improving the integrity of vascular endothelium. PMID:26424770

  14. Oral phenotype and scoring of vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Michael; Gogly, Bruno; Golmard, Lisa; Naveau, Adrien; Chérifi, Hafida; Emmerich, Joseph; Gaultier, Frédérick; Berdal, Ariane; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Fournier, Benjamin P J

    2012-01-01

    Objective Vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare genetic condition related to mutations in the COL3A1 gene, responsible of vascular, digestive and uterine accidents. Difficulty of clinical diagnosis has led to the design of diagnostic criteria, summarised in the Villefranche classification. The goal was to assess oral features of vEDS. Gingival recession is the only oral sign recognised as a minor diagnostic criterion. The authors aimed to check this assumption since bibliographical search related to gingival recession in vEDS proved scarce. Design Prospective case–control study. Setting Dental surgery department in a French tertiary hospital. Participants 17 consecutive patients with genetically proven vEDS, aged 19–55 years, were compared with 46 age- and sex-matched controls. Observations Complete oral examination (clinical and radiological) with standardised assessment of periodontal structure, temporomandibular joint function and dental characteristics were performed. COL3A1 mutations were identified by direct sequencing of genomic or complementary DNA. Results Prevalence of gingival recession was low among patients with vEDS, as for periodontitis. Conversely, patients showed marked gingival fragility, temporomandibular disorders, dentin formation defects, molar root fusion and increased root length. After logistic regression, three variables remained significantly associated to vEDS. These variables were integrated in a diagnostic oral score with 87.5% and 97% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusions Gingival recession is an inappropriate diagnostic criterion for vEDS. Several new specific oral signs of the disease were identified, whose combination may be of greater value in diagnosing vEDS. PMID:22492385

  15. Podzol development in S Norway - a soil chronosequence of 31 pedons covering soil ages from 85 to 9650 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Svendgård-Stokke, Siri; Sperstad, Ragnhild; Sørensen, Rolf; Fuchs, Markus; Gebers, Henrik; Schülli-Maurer, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    horizons. The mineralogical composition of the parent material is dominated by quartz and feldspars, whereby the feldspar grains show features of proceeding weathering with time. In addition to podzolisation features, illuvial clay is observed below the Bs horizons. Apparently, the sand is sufficiently buffered during the first millennia of soil formation so that acidification proceeds slowly enough to allow for clay translocation prior to podzolisation. Reference Sørensen, R., Høeg, H.I., Henningsmoen, K.E., Skog, G., Labowsky, S.F., Stabell, B. (2012): Utviklingen av det senglasiale og tidlig preboreale landskapet og vegetasjonen omkring steinalderboplassene ved Pauler, Larvik kommune, Vestfold. In: Jaksland, L. (Ed.), E18 Brunlaneprospektet. Varia 79. Kulturhistorisk Museum, University of Oslo.

  16. Micromorphological changes over time observed in the Vestfold Podzol chronosequence, SE Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Musztyfaga, Elżbieta; Sørensen, Rolf; Svendgård-Stokke, Siri; Rennert, Thilo; Sperstad, Ragnhild; Fuchs, Markus

    2016-04-01

    addition, micromorphological analysis shows that clay translocation took place prior to strong acidification and podzolisation in many profiles. In some rare cases, clay coatings are observed even on top of spodic material, suggesting that - at least to minor extent - translocation of coarse clay may take place even contemporarily to podzolisation. This apparent contradiction can be explained by different depths of mobilisation of metal-organic complexes and clay. Apparently, even when the upper, strongly acid part of the soils is already subject to podzolisation, acidification and Al saturation at some depth are still not as advanced as further up in the profile and still allow for clay mobilisation. In addition, cappings of coarse clay and fine silt on top of larger grains suggest that water flushing through the coarse voids of the sandy material, e.g., after snow-melt, may sweep down also clay particles in a not completely dispersed state. In this way, clay translocation might take place also outside the pH range that is usually considered suitable for clay migration. Reference Sørensen, R., Høeg, H.I., Henningsmoen, K.E., Skog, G., Labowsky, S.F., Stabell, B., 2012. Utviklingen av det senglasiale og tidlig preboreale landskapet og vegetasjonen omkring steinalderboplassene ved Pauler, Larvik kommune, Vestfold. In: Jaksland, L. (Ed.), E18 Brunlaneprospektet. Varia 79. Kulturhistorisk Museum, University of Oslo.

  17. Operational Group Sandy technical progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Department of the Interior Strategic Science Group

    2013-01-01

    This report documents results from the March 2013 deployment of the OGS. It includes background information on Hurricane Sandy and the federal response; the OGS methodology; scenarios for Hurricane Sandy’s impact on coastal communities and urban ecosystems; potential interventions to improve regional resilience to future major storms; a discussion of scenario results; and lessons learned about the OGS process.

  18. Work Programme, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This publication presents the work program for 2001 for the European Center for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) set in the framework of four operational guidelines (OGs). The section on each OG contains an introduction including CEDEFOP's aims, followed by descriptions of research projects relevant to the OG. Each of the 11…

  19. Two Grammatical Models of Modern English. The Old and the New from A to Z. Germanic Linguistic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuurman, Frits

    Case studies provide detailed comparisons, arranged alphabetically by title for ease of reference, of 26 problems in Modern English grammar, from both the old grammar (OG) and new grammar (NG) viewpoints. This A-Z approach juxtaposes contributions made by OG and NG to the description of Modern English grammar. Part I surveys large OG and NG…

  20. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Without the Characteristic Facial Features

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, Ryota; Kurata, Hideaki; Endo, Kiyoshi; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Yahagi, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Abstract As a type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), vascular EDs (vEDS) is typified by a number of characteristic facial features (eg, large eyes, small chin, sunken cheeks, thin nose and lips, lobeless ears). However, vEDs does not typically display hypermobility of the large joints and skin hyperextensibility, which are features typical of the more common forms of EDS. Thus, colonic perforation or aneurysm rupture may be the first presentation of the disease. Because both complications are associated with a reduced life expectancy for individuals with this condition, an awareness of the clinical features of vEDS is important. Here, we describe the treatment of vEDS lacking the characteristic facial attributes in a 24-year-old healthy man who presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain. Enhanced computed tomography revealed diverticula and perforation in the sigmoid colon. The lesion of the sigmoid colon perforation was removed, and Hartmann procedure was performed. During the surgery, the control of bleeding was required because of vascular fragility. Subsequent molecular and genetic analysis was performed based on the suspected diagnosis of vEDS. These analyses revealed reduced type III collagen synthesis in cultured skin fibroblasts and identified a previously undocumented mutation in the gene for a1 type III collagen, confirming the diagnosis of vEDS. After eliciting a detailed medical profile, we learned his mother had a history of extensive bruising since childhood and idiopathic hematothorax. Both were prescribed oral celiprolol. One year after admission, the patient was free of recurrent perforation. This case illustrates an awareness of the clinical characteristics of vEDS and the family history is important because of the high mortality from this condition even in young people. Importantly, genetic assays could help in determining the surgical procedure and offer benefits to relatives since this condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant

  1. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome without the characteristic facial features: a case report.

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Ryota; Kurata, Hideaki; Endo, Kiyoshi; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Yahagi, Naoki

    2014-12-01

    As a type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), vascular EDs (vEDS) is typified by a number of characteristic facial features (eg, large eyes, small chin, sunken cheeks, thin nose and lips, lobeless ears). However, vEDs does not typically display hypermobility of the large joints and skin hyperextensibility, which are features typical of the more common forms of EDS. Thus, colonic perforation or aneurysm rupture may be the first presentation of the disease. Because both complications are associated with a reduced life expectancy for individuals with this condition, an awareness of the clinical features of vEDS is important. Here, we describe the treatment of vEDS lacking the characteristic facial attributes in a 24-year-old healthy man who presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain. Enhanced computed tomography revealed diverticula and perforation in the sigmoid colon. The lesion of the sigmoid colon perforation was removed, and Hartmann procedure was performed. During the surgery, the control of bleeding was required because of vascular fragility. Subsequent molecular and genetic analysis was performed based on the suspected diagnosis of vEDS. These analyses revealed reduced type III collagen synthesis in cultured skin fibroblasts and identified a previously undocumented mutation in the gene for a1 type III collagen, confirming the diagnosis of vEDS. After eliciting a detailed medical profile, we learned his mother had a history of extensive bruising since childhood and idiopathic hematothorax. Both were prescribed oral celiprolol. One year after admission, the patient was free of recurrent perforation. This case illustrates an awareness of the clinical characteristics of vEDS and the family history is important because of the high mortality from this condition even in young people. Importantly, genetic assays could help in determining the surgical procedure and offer benefits to relatives since this condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. PMID

  2. Total pleural covering technique for intractable pneumothorax in patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yoshihisa; Fukui, Eriko; Kitahara, Naoto; Okura, Eiji; Ohta, Mitsunori

    2016-07-01

    We report a patient with vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) who developed pneumothorax and was treated with a total pleural covering technique (TPC). A 24-year-old man developed repeat pneumothorax with intermittent hemo-sputum. Based on unusual radiological manifestations of lung lesions and physical findings, EDS was suspected as an underlying cause of the pneumothorax. Surgical treatment was performed using a mediastinal fat pad and TPC, and no relapse was seen up to 2 years after surgery. TPC is a less invasive surgical approach for selected patients with vEDS. Accurate underlying diagnosis of vEDS and systemic evaluation of vascular complications are necessary before planning surgery. PMID:25512090

  3. Vessel enhancing diffusion: a scale space representation of vessel structures.

    PubMed

    Manniesing, Rashindra; Viergever, Max A; Niessen, Wiro J

    2006-12-01

    A method is proposed to enhance vascular structures within the framework of scale space theory. We combine a smooth vessel filter which is based on a geometrical analysis of the Hessian's eigensystem, with a non-linear anisotropic diffusion scheme. The amount and orientation of diffusion depend on the local vessel likeliness. Vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) is applied to patient and phantom data and compared to linear, regularized Perona-Malik, edge and coherence enhancing diffusion. The method performs better than most of the existing techniques in visualizing vessels with varying radii and in enhancing vessel appearance. A diameter study on phantom data shows that VED least affects the accuracy of diameter measurements. It is shown that using VED as a preprocessing step improves level set based segmentation of the cerebral vasculature, in particular segmentation of the smaller vessels of the vasculature. PMID:16876462

  4. Spontaneous Dissection of the Renal Artery in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Filipa; Cardoso, Teresa; Sá, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders. The vascular type (vEDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the COL3A1 gene predisposing to premature arterial, intestinal, or uterine rupture. We report a case of a 38-year-old woman with a recent diagnosis of vEDS admitted in the Emergency Department with a suspicion of a pyelonephritis that evolved to a cardiopulmonary arrest. A fatal retroperitoneal hematoma related with a haemorrhagic dissection of the right renal artery was found after emergency surgery. This case highlights the need to be aware of the particular characteristics of vEDS, such as a severe vascular complication that can lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:26175915

  5. Spontaneous Dissection of the Renal Artery in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Filipa; Cardoso, Teresa; Sá, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders. The vascular type (vEDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the COL3A1 gene predisposing to premature arterial, intestinal, or uterine rupture. We report a case of a 38-year-old woman with a recent diagnosis of vEDS admitted in the Emergency Department with a suspicion of a pyelonephritis that evolved to a cardiopulmonary arrest. A fatal retroperitoneal hematoma related with a haemorrhagic dissection of the right renal artery was found after emergency surgery. This case highlights the need to be aware of the particular characteristics of vEDS, such as a severe vascular complication that can lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:26175915

  6. The 2-oxoglutarate supply exerts significant control on the lysine synthesis flux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Héctor; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Rumjanek, Franklin D; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma

    2013-11-01

    To determine the extent to which the supply of the precursor 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) controls the synthesis of lysine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing exponentially in high glucose, top-down elasticity analysis was used. Three groups of reactions linked by 2-OG were defined. The 2-OG supply group comprised all metabolic steps leading to its formation, and the two 2-OG consumer groups comprised the enzymes and transporters involved in 2-OG transformation into lysine and glutamate and their further utilization for protein synthesis and storage. Various 2-OG steady-state concentrations that produced different fluxes to lysine and glutamate were attained using yeast mutants with increasing activities of Krebs cycle enzymes and decreased activities of Lys synthesis enzymes. The elasticity coefficients of the three enzyme groups were determined from the dependence of the amino acid fluxes on the 2-OG concentration. The respective degrees of control on the flux towards lysine (flux control coefficients) were determined from their elasticities, and were 1.1, 0.41 and -0.52 for the 2-OG producer group and the Lys and Glu branches, respectively. Thus, the predominant control exerted by the 2-OG supply on the rate of lysine synthesis suggests that over-expression of 2-OG producer enzymes may be a highly effective strategy to enhance Lys production. PMID:24034837

  7. Effect of rosiglitazone in sodium arsenite-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tajpreet; Goel, Rajesh Kumar; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2010-04-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonist in sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. The rats were administered sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) to induce VED. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Further, the integrity of the aortic endothelium was assessed histologically using haematoxylin-eosin staining. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, aortic reactive oxygen species and reduced form of glutathione. The administration of sodium arsenite produced VED by impairing acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation, diminishing the integrity of vascular endothelium and decreasing the serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. In addition, sodium arsenite was noted to produce oxidative stress as it increased serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and aortic reactive oxygen species and consequently decreased glutathione. Treatment with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg/day, p.o., 2 weeks and 5 mg/kg/day, p.o., 2 weeks) significantly prevented sodium arsenite-induced VED by enhancing acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation, improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the nitrite/nitrate concentration and decreasing the oxidative stress. However, the vascular protective effect of rosiglitazone was markedly abolished by co-administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-Omega-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) (25 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks). Thus, it may be concluded that rosiglitazone reduces oxidative stress, activates eNOS and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent sodium arsenite-induced VED in rats. PMID:20422371

  8. Benfotiamine attenuates nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Sharma, Ramica; Singh, Manjeet

    2008-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative, in nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 4 weeks) and uric acid (150 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 3 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of thoracic aorta. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion generation. The administration of nicotine and uric acid produced VED by impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine and uric acid produced oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with benfotiamine (70 mg kg(-1)day(-1), p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1)day(-1) p.o., a standard agent) markedly prevented nicotine and uric acid-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Thus, it may be concluded that benfotiamine reduces the oxidative stress and consequently improves the integrity of vascular endothelium and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent nicotine and uric acid-induced experimental VED. PMID:18951979

  9. Vitamin E deficiency ataxia associated with adenoma.

    PubMed

    Benomar, A; Yahyaoui, M; Marzouki, N; Birouk, N; Bouslam, N; Belaidi, H; Amarti, A; Ouazzani, R; Chkili, T

    1999-01-01

    Vitamin E is one of the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant nutrient. Severe vitamin E deficiency (VED) can have a profound effect on the central nervous system. VED causes ataxia and peripheral neuropathy that resembles Friedreich's ataxia. We report here a patient presenting this syndrome, but also a prolactin and FSH adenoma. Both the neurological syndromes and the adenoma regressed after treatment with alpha-tocopherol. Although, the presence of the prolactinoma in this patient may not be related to his vitamin E deficiency, alpha-tocopherol treatment seems to be beneficial and might usefully be tested in patients with hypophyseal secreting other forms of adenoma. PMID:10064178

  10. Cervical artery dissections and type A aortic dissection in a family with a novel missense COL3A1 mutation of vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Makrygiannis, Georgios; Loeys, Bart; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2015-11-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CeAD) is a rare condition. One of the causes is the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS). A novel missense mutation in COL3A1 was found in a young patient with CeAD as the single manifestation of vEDS. This is a heterozygous c.953G > A mutation in exon 14, disrupting the normal Gly-X-Y repeats of type III procollagen, by converting glycine to aspartic acid. PMID:26497932

  11. Rickettsia Phylogenomics: Unwinding the Intricacies of Obligate Intracellular Life

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Williams, Kelly; Shukla, Maulik; Snyder, Eric E.; Nordberg, Eric K.; Ceraul, Shane M.; Dharmanolla, Chitti; Rainey, Daphne; Soneja, Jeetendra; Shallom, Joshua M.; Vishnubhat, Nataraj Dongre; Wattam, Rebecca; Purkayastha, Anjan; Czar, Michael; Crasta, Oswald; Setubal, Joao C.; Azad, Abdu F.; Sobral, Bruno S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Completed genome sequences are rapidly increasing for Rickettsia, obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria responsible for various human diseases, including epidemic typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In light of phylogeny, the establishment of orthologous groups (OGs) of open reading frames (ORFs) will distinguish the core rickettsial genes and other group specific genes (class 1 OGs or C1OGs) from those distributed indiscriminately throughout the rickettsial tree (class 2 OG or C2OGs). Methodology/Principal Findings We present 1823 representative (no gene duplications) and 259 non-representative (at least one gene duplication) rickettsial OGs. While the highly reductive (∼1.2 MB) Rickettsia genomes range in predicted ORFs from 872 to 1512, a core of 752 OGs was identified, depicting the essential Rickettsia genes. Unsurprisingly, this core lacks many metabolic genes, reflecting the dependence on host resources for growth and survival. Additionally, we bolster our recent reclassification of Rickettsia by identifying OGs that define the AG (ancestral group), TG (typhus group), TRG (transitional group), and SFG (spotted fever group) rickettsiae. OGs for insect-associated species, tick-associated species and species that harbor plasmids were also predicted. Through superimposition of all OGs over robust phylogeny estimation, we discern between C1OGs and C2OGs, the latter depicting genes either decaying from the conserved C1OGs or acquired laterally. Finally, scrutiny of non-representative OGs revealed high levels of split genes versus gene duplications, with both phenomena confounding gene orthology assignment. Interestingly, non-representative OGs, as well as OGs comprised of several gene families typically involved in microbial pathogenicity and/or the acquisition of virulence factors, fall predominantly within C2OG distributions. Conclusion/Significance Collectively, we determined the relative conservation and distribution of 14354 predicted

  12. Smaborns Dagpasning: Et Problem for Foraeldre og Kommuner. (Day-Care of Pre-School Children: A Problem to Parents and Local Authorities. With an English Summary). Publication No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Bodil

    Survey data were collected for the purposes of describing and comparing various forms of day care provision for preschool children within Danish municipalities with different day care provision and different degrees of urbanization. Information concerning the family background of subjects, parental assessment of different aspects of day care and…

  13. Nouveaux restes aviens du Néogène de la Sperrgebiet (Namibie): Complément à la biostratigraphie avienne des éolianites du désert de Namib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senut, Brigitte; Dauphin, Yannicke; Pickford, Martin

    1998-11-01

    Two new types of fossil ratite eggshells discovered in aeolianites at Karingarab (Sperrgebiet, Namibia) exhibit morphologies intermediate between those of types already described. They help to refine the biochronology of the aeolianites of the Namib Desert.

  14. Différenciation paléogéographique à l'Ordovicien supérieur dans le Tafilalt (Anti-Atlas oriental, Maroc) sous l'interaction de la glaciation et de la tectonique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Maazouz, Brahim; Hamoumi, Naima

    2007-07-01

    The Tafilalt domain, which corresponded, during the Lower and Middle Ordovician, to a storm and/or tide-dominated epeiric shelf with east-west- to ENE-WSW-trending isopachs, such as the whole 'Anti-Atlasic basin', recorded major palaeogeographical changes during the Upper Ordovician. An extensional tectonic event resulted in the individualization of two sub-basins: the 'Khabt-El-Hejar sub-basin' and the 'western Tafilalt sub-basin', where new environments developed under the interplay between tectonics and glaciation. In the northeastern Tafilalt sub-basin took place an isolated carbonate platform, where Bryozoan mounds nucleated, and a mixed siliciclastic carbonate high-energy peritidal littoral. In the 'western Tafilalt sub-basin', the siliciclastic shelf was structured in half-graben, where sediments from the Saharan glacier and the carbonate platform of the Khabt-El-Hejar sub-basin accumulated in fan deltas.

  15. L'Arenig Llanvirn du Haut Atlas occidental et central (Maroc). Environnements sédimentaires, paléogéographie et contrôle de la sédimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacrone, Choukri; Hamoumi, Naïma

    2005-09-01

    The sedimentological study of Arenig-Llanvirn successions of Aït Lahsen (western High Atlas), Tizi-n-Tichka and Imini (central High Atlas) allow us to recognise two independent epeiric seas. In the western High Atlas, the sedimentation occurred in a wave- and storm-influenced delta, alimented by a source situated at the present-day location of the Argana corridor, under the control of sea-level fluctuations and subsidence. In the central High Atlas, the sedimentation occurred in an influenced tide and episodic storm delta, alimented by sources situated at the present-day location of the Siroua and Ouzellagh Massifs under the control of sea-level fluctuations and tectonics. To cite this article: C. Chacrone, N. Hamoumi, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  16. Nonselective and polarization effects in time-resolved optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhechev, D.; Steflekova, V.

    2016-02-01

    Three interfering effects in optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy are identified in a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) - OG detector. The laser beam is found to generate two nonselective processes, namely photoelectron emission (PE) from the cathode surface with a sub-breakdown bias applied, and nonresonant space ionization. The convolution of these galvanic contributions was determined experimentally as an instrumental function and a deconvolution procedure to determine the actual OG signal was developed. Specific plasma conductance is detected dependent on the polarization of the laser beam irradiating. Linearly/circularly polarized light beam is found to induce OG signals differ in amplitude (and their shape parameters in the time-resolved OG signals (TROGS)). The phenomena coherence and specific conductance are found to be in causal relationship. The additional conductance due to coherent states of atoms manifests itself as an intrinsic instrumental property of OG detector.

  17. Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression.

    PubMed

    Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

    2014-01-01

    G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.) PMID:24575366

  18. Structural Underpinnings of Nitrogen Regulation by the Prototypical Nitrogen-Responsive Transcriptional Factor NrpR

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Dranow, David M.; Lie, Thomas J.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Patskovsky, Yury; Ozyurt, Sinem A.; Sauder, J. Michael; Almo, Steven C.; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Burley, Stephen K.; Leigh, John A.; Gonen, Tamir

    2010-11-29

    Plants and microorganisms reduce environmental inorganic nitrogen to ammonium, which then enters various metabolic pathways solely via conversion of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) to glutamate and glutamine. Cellular 2OG concentrations increase during nitrogen starvation. We recently identified a family of 2OG-sensing proteins - the nitrogen regulatory protein NrpR - that bind DNA and repress transcription of nitrogen assimilation genes. We used X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of NrpR regulatory domain. We identified the NrpR 2OG-binding cleft and show that residues predicted to interact directly with 2OG are conserved among diverse classes of 2OG-binding proteins. We show that high levels of 2OG inhibit NrpRs ability to bind DNA. Electron microscopy analyses document that NrpR adopts different quaternary structures in its inhibited 2OG-bound state compared with its active apo state. Our results indicate that upon 2OG release, NrpR repositions its DNA-binding domains correctly for optimal interaction with DNA thereby enabling gene repression.

  19. A reporter ligand NMR screening method for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Demetriades, Marina; Hardy, Adam P.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Smart, Tristan J.; Szöllössi, Andrea; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The human 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases belong to a family of structurally related enzymes that play important roles in many biological processes. We report that competition-based NMR methods, using 2OG as a reporter ligand, can be used for quantitative and site-specific screening of ligand binding to 2OG oxygenases. The method was demonstrated using hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases and histone demethylases, and KD values were determined for inhibitors that compete with 2OG at the metal centre. This technique is also useful as a screening or validation tool for inhibitor discovery, as exemplified by work with protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC). PMID:23234607

  20. Exploring the Meaningful Learning of Students in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki; Pyykko, Elli; Ruokamo, Heli

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a case study in which a pedagogical model, namely the Global Virtual Education (GloVEd) model, which is based on the teaching-studying-learning process (TSL process) and the characteristics of meaningful learning, is developed and used to evaluate students' meaningful learning experiences during the Global Virtual Collaboration…

  1. Performance of an array of vertical dipoles over an inhomogeneous ground system

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.J.; Mathur, N.C.

    1983-03-01

    The elevation radiation patterns of a stacked array of vertical electric dipoles (VEDs) over several different azimuthally symmetric inhomogeneous ground systems are studied using an integral formulation. As the ground influences the pattern of each VED differently, there is no known optimum array excitation which can be used to achieve desired beam shaping and steering. Patterns in an array of 21 VEDs spaced 0.1 lambda apart are computed and compared to HF (10 MHz) for three excitation functions: (a) conventional linear spacial phasing, (b) phasing according to the complex conjugate of the field produced by each VED in the direction of steering, and (c) spacially sinusoidal excitation with constant phasing. Results are given for grounds consisting of homogeneous earth, a perfectly conducting ground plane, a perfectly conducting disk on homogeneous earth and 2 lambda long radial wire ground systems on well- and poorly-conducting earth. It is found that the radiation pattern cannot be steered below about 9/sup 0/ in elevation for any of the excitation functions or the ground systems used. For low-angle steering conjugate excitation produces a slightly narrower beam with smaller sidelobes. Highly conducting grounds tend to permit steering to slightly higher elevations with narrower beams.

  2. Embolization of Life-Threatening Arterial Rupture in Patients with Vascular Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takuya; Frank, Michael; Pellerin, Olivier Primio, Massimiliano Di Angelopoulos, Georgios; Boughenou, Marie-Fazia; Pagny, Jean-Yves; Messas, Emmanuel; Sapoval, Marc

    2013-05-09

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of transarterial embolization of life-threatening arterial rupture in patients with vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) in a single tertiary referral center.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed transarterial embolization for vEDS performed at our institution from 2000 to 2012. The indication of embolization was spontaneous arterial rupture or pseudoaneurysm with acute bleeding. All interventions used a percutaneous approach through a 5F or less introducer sheath. Embolic agents were microcoils and glue in 3 procedures, glue alone in 2, and microcoils alone in 2.ResultsFive consecutive vEDS patients were treated by 7 embolization procedures (4 women, mean age 29.8 years). All procedures were successfully performed. Two patients required a second procedure for newly arterial lesions at a different site from the first procedure. Four of the five patients were still alive after a mean follow-up of 19.4 (range 1–74.7) months. One patient died of multiple organ failure 2 days after procedure. Minor procedural complications were observed in 3 procedures (43 %), all directly managed during the same session. Remote arterial lesions occurred after 3 procedures (43 %); one underwent a second embolization, and the other 2 were observed conservatively. Puncture site complication was observed in only one procedure (14 %).ConclusionEmbolization for vEDS is a safe and effective method to manage life-threatening arterial rupture.

  3. A Culture-Based Model for Strategic Implementation of Virtual Education Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Janice; Thongprasert, Nalinee

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the critical success factors for implementing Virtual Education Delivery (VED) in Thailand, and to identify ways to facilitate such adoption and lead to effective outcomes. The study incorporated an analysis of three specific factors related to Thai culture: high power distance "Bhun Khun", uncertainty…

  4. Types of Empathy and Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale (VEDS) and an…

  5. Hearings on Reauthorization of the Vocational Education Act of 1963. Part 10: Vocational Education Data System. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives. Ninety-Seventh Congress. First Session (December 10, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This is a report of a hearing on December 10, 1981, before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, regarding reauthorization of the Vocational Education Act of 1963. It focuses on the vocational education data system known as VEDS. Testimony includes…

  6. Community College Journal for Research and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edith H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    This journal, designed as a forum for the exchange of ideas among research and planning professionals, offers articles of research studies and practices. After Timothy Lightfield highlights upcoming professional association events, Janice S. Ancarrow's article, "The National Vocational Education Data Reporting and Accounting System (VEDS): Its…

  7. Vocational Education. Report by the Secretary of Education to the Congress, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This annual report provides an overview of the status of vocational education during school year 1980-81. It includes final data for school year 1979-80 obtained through the Vocational Education Data System (VEDS), the national vocational education reporting and accounting system. Part 1 of the report describes the status of vocational education…

  8. Aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum improves hematological parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats via its antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Shehu-Tijani Toyin; Oyeyemi, Wahab A; Lasisi, Taye J; Shittu, Seyid Alli-Siise; Lawal, Temitope T; Olujobi, Samuel T

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) on hematological parameters and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five male rats (150–200 g) were randomly grouped into five as control, normal + OG, diabetic untreated, diabetic + OG, and diabetic + glibenclamide groups. Diabetes was induced by 100 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate in the diabetic untreated and diabetic + OG groups followed by treatment with distilled water and 400 mg/kg OG, respectively, whereas control, normal + OG, and diabetic + glibenclamide groups were treated with distilled water, 400 mg/kg OG, and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, respectively. Body weight and fasting blood glucose level were monitored weekly. After 28 days of treatments, under anesthesia induced by 50 mg/kg sodium thiopental i.p., blood samples were obtained for hematological analysis, malondialdehyde (MDA) level determination, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Data were compared using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: There was a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose of the diabetic + OG animals compared to the diabetic untreated and the initial reduction in weight observed in this group was reversed at the end of the experiments. Packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin concentration were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the diabetic + OG when compared with the untreated group. The MDA concentration was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) in the diabetic + OG group when compared with diabetic untreated while SOD activity was significantly reduced in the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: It was concluded that OG reverses anemia secondary to alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats probably via its antioxidant activity. PMID:27127737

  9. Treadmill walking is not equivalent to overground walking for the study of walking smoothness and rhythmicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Row Lazzarini, Brandi S; Kataras, Theodore J

    2016-05-01

    Treadmills are appealing for gait studies, but some gait mechanics are disrupted during treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of speed and treadmill walking on walking smoothness and rhythmicity of 40 men and women between the ages of 70-96 years. Gait smoothness was examined during overground (OG) and treadmill (TM) walking by calculating the harmonic ratio from linear accelerations measured at the level of the lumbar spine. Rhythmicity was quantified as the stride time standard deviation. TM walking was performed at two speeds: a speed matching the natural OG walk speed (TM-OG), and a preferred TM speed (PTM). A dual-task OG condition (OG-DT) was evaluated to determine if TM walking posed a similar cognitive challenge. Statistical analysis included a one-way Analysis of Variance with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for non-normally distributed variables. Average PTM speed was slower than OG. Compared to OG, those who could reach the TM-OG speed (74.3% of sample) exhibited improved ML smoothness and rhythmicity, and the slower PTM caused worsened vertical and AP smoothness, but did not affect rhythmicity. PTM disrupted smoothness and rhythmicity differently than the OG-DT condition, likely due to reduced speed. The use of treadmills for gait smoothness and rhythmicity studies in older adults is problematic; some participants will not achieve OG speed during TM walking, walking at the TM-OG speed artificially improves rhythmicity and ML smoothness, and walking at the slower PTM speed worsens vertical and AP gait smoothness. PMID:27131175

  10. Fenofibrate attenuates nicotine-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Chakkarwar, Vishal Arvind

    2011-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of fenofibrate on nicotine-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) was administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy of thoracic aorta. The expression of mRNA for p22phox and eNOS was assessed by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion concentration were estimated to assess oxidative stress. Moreover, the serum lipid profile was assessed by estimating serum cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein. The administration of nicotine induces VED by increased oxidative stress, altered lipid profile and impaired the integrity of vascular endothelium as assessed in terms of decrease in expression of mRNA for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine produced oxidative stress, assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation and increase in expression of mRNA for p22phox. Nicotine altered the lipid profile by increasing the serum cholesterol, triglycerides and decreasing the high density lipoprotein. However, treatment with fenofibrate (32 mg/kg, p.o.) markedly prevented nicotine-induced VED by decreasing oxidative stress and improving integrity of vascular endothelium, normalising the altered lipid profile, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic

  11. Electrical activity of corpus cavernosum in vasculogenic and non-vasculogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Atahan, O; Kayigil, O; Metin, A

    1997-12-01

    We aimed to compare the electrical activity of corpus cavernosum before and after intracavernous papaverine injection and to determine the blood lipid profile in vascular and non-vascular erectile dysfunction, and also to assess whether vascular pathology and abnormal blood lipid levels impair cavernosal smooth-muscle relaxation. We determined total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in peripheral and cavernosal blood in 39 patients with erectile dysfunction. Electromyography of the corpus cavernosum was performed before and after an intracavernous injection with 60 mg of papaverine in all patients. Thirty-nine impotent patients have been divided into two groups: vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED) and non-vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (NVED), according to colour Doppler ultrasonic flowmetry, dynamic infusion cavernosometry and the pressure difference between the brachial arterial systolic pressure and cavernosal arterial systolic pressure measurements. Biochemical values and amplitude changes were compared in both groups. The TC level was higher in both peripheral and cavernosal samples of the VED group than in the NVED group (p = 0.000), with no differences between peripheral and cavernosal blood levels within the same groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant changes in TG and HDL levels in any of the groups (p > 0.05). The mean amplitude differences before and after papaverine injection (delta A) were found to be 2.05 +/- 0.78 microV in the VED group and 4.68 +/- 2.53 microV in the NVED group, showing that the relaxation response to papaverine was more significant in the NVED than in the VED group (p = 0.003). The moderate decreases in the amplitude of electrical activity of corpus cavernosum and the higher TC levels found in the VED group can be accepted as the parameters of impairment in the relaxation of corpus cavernosum, showing the role of hypercholesterolaemia and vascular pathologies in erectile

  12. Involvement of Rho-kinase in experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dhvanit I; Singh, Manjeet

    2006-02-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of fasudil (Rho-kinase inhibitor) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperhomocyteinemia (HHcy) induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). Streptozotocin (55 mg kg(-1), i.v., once only) and methionine (1.7% w/w, p.o., daily for 4 weeks) were administered to rats to produce DM (serum glucose >140 mg dl(-1)) and HHcy (serum homocysteine >10 microM) respectively. VED was assessed using isolated aortic ring, electron microscopy of thoracic aorta, and serum concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration was estimated to assess oxidative stress. Atorvastatin has been employed in the present study as standard agent to improve vascular endothelial dysfunction. Fasudil (15 mg kg(-1) and 30 mg kg(-1), p.o., daily) and atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1), p.o., daily) treatments significantly attenuated increase in serum glucose and homocysteine but their concentrations remained markedly higher than sham control value. Fasudil and atorvastatin treatments markedly prevented DM and HHcy-induced (i) attenuation of acetylcholine induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, (ii) impairment of vascular endothelial lining, (iii) decrease in serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, and (iv) increase in serum TBARS. It may be concluded that fasudil prevented DM and HHcy-induced VED partially by decreasing serum glucose and homocysteine concentration due to inhibition of Rho-kinase. Moreover, inhibition of Rho-kinase by fasudil and consequent prevention of oxidative stress may have directly improved VED in diabetic and hyperhomocysteinemic rats. The Rho-kinase appears to be a pivotal target site involved in DM and HHcy-induced VED. PMID:16444602

  13. Is early measles vaccination better than later measles vaccination?

    PubMed

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2015-01-01

    WHO recommends delaying measles vaccination (MV) until maternal antibody has waned. However, early MV may improve child survival by reducing mortality from conditions other than measles infection. We tested whether early MV improves child survival compared with later MV. We found 43 studies comparing measles-vaccinated and measles-unvaccinated children; however, only 16 studies had specific information that MV had been provided at 4-13 months of age, many before 9 months of age. In the 10 best studies (4 randomized trials and 6 observational studies) control children did not receive MV during follow-up. In eight of these studies the vaccine efficacy against death (VED) was 60% or more. In four studies with information on MV provided both before and after 12 months of age, the all-cause mortality reduction was significantly larger for children vaccinated in infancy (VED=74%; 95% CI 51-86%) than for children vaccinated after 12 months of age (VED=29%; CI 8-46%). Prevention of measles explained little of the reduction in mortality. In five studies with information on measles infection, VED was 67% (51-78%) and when measles deaths were excluded, VED was only reduced to 65% (47-77%). One natural experiment compared MV at 4-8 months versus MV at 9-11 months of age and found significantly lower all-cause mortality with early vaccination, the difference being 39% (8-60%). Child mortality may be reduced if MV is given earlier than currently recommended by international organizations. PMID:25573106

  14. Interleukin-27 inhibits vaccine-enhanced pulmonary disease following respiratory syncytial virus infection by regulating cellular memory responses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ruihong; Zhang, Huixian; Hai, Yan; Cui, Yuxiu; Wei, Lin; Li, Na; Liu, Jianxun; Li, Caixia; Liu, Ying

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young children. In the 1960s, infants vaccinated with formalin-inactivated RSV developed a more severe disease characterized by excessive inflammatory immunopathology in lungs upon natural RSV infection. The fear of causing the vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) is an important obstacle for development of safe and effective RSV vaccines. The recombinant vaccine candidate G1F/M2 immunization also led to VED. It has been proved that cellular memory induced by RSV vaccines contributed to VED. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-23 regulate Th1, Th17, and/or Th2 cellular immune responses. In this study, mice coimmunized with pcDNA3-IL-27 and G1F/M2 were fully protected and, importantly, did not develop vaccine-enhanced inflammatory responses and immunopathology in lungs after RSV challenge, which was correlated with moderate Th1-, suppressed Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses activated by RSV. In contrast, G1F/M2- or pcDNA3-IL-23+G1F/M2-immunized mice, in which robust Th2- and Th17-like memory responses were induced, developed enhanced pulmonary inflammation and severe immunopathology. Mice coimmunized with G1F/M2 and the two cytokine plasmids exhibited mild inflammatory responses as well as remarkable Th1-, suppressed Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses. These results suggested that Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses and, in particular, excessive Th2- and Th17-like memory responses were closely associated with VED; IL-27 may inhibit VED following respiratory syncytial virus infection by regulating cellular memory responses. PMID:22301139

  15. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400.... 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20...

  16. 40 CFR 432.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the corresponding limitations specified in... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in §...

  17. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400.... 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20...

  18. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400.... 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20...

  19. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C.; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de. PMID:26582926

  20. VERTICAL STRATIFICATION OF SOIL WATER STORAGE AND RELEASE DYNAMICS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST CONIFEROUS FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract for journal article We characterized vertical variation in the seasonal depletion of stored soil moisture in old-growth ponderosa pine (OG-PP, xeric), and young and old-growth Douglas-fir (Y-DF, OG-DF, mesic) forests to evaluate changes in water availability for root up...

  1. Reading and Spelling Gains Following One Year of Orton-Gillingham Intervention in Singaporean Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Lois; Oei, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of Orton-Gillingham (OG) based approaches to dyslexia remediation, empirical support documenting its effectiveness is lacking. Recently, Chia and Houghton demonstrated the effectiveness of the OG approach for remediation of dyslexia in Singapore. As a conceptual replication and extension of that research, we report…

  2. The low temperature oxidation of lithium thin films on HOPG by O2 and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfsberg, Steven M.; Koel, Bruce E.; Bernasek, Steven L.

    2016-09-01

    Lithiated graphite and lithium thin films have been used in fusion devices. In this environment, lithiated graphite will undergo oxidation by background gases. In order to gain insight into this oxidation process, thin (< 15 monolayer (ML)) lithium films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were exposed to O2(g) and H2O(g) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to identify the surface species formed during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain the relative oxidation rates during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. AES showed that as the lithium film thickness decreased from 15 to 5 to 1 ML, the oxidation rate decreased for both O2(g) and H2O(g). HREELS showed that a 15 ML lithium film was fully oxidized after 9.7 L (L) of O2(g) exposure and Li2O was formed. HREELS also showed that during initial exposure (< 0.5 L) H2O(g), lithium hydride and lithium hydroxide were formed on the surface of a 15 ML lithium film. After 0.5 L of H2O(g) exposure, the H2O(g) began to physisorb, and after 15 L of H2O(g) exposure, the 15 ML lithium film was not fully oxidized.

  3. 40 CFR 432.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the..., fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the corresponding limitations specified in § 432.12(a)(1... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in §...

  4. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1...

  5. 40 CFR 432.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the..., fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the corresponding limitations specified in § 432.12(a)(1... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in §...

  6. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1...

  7. 40 CFR 432.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the..., fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.42(a)(1); and standards... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  8. 40 CFR 432.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the..., fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.42(a)(1); and standards... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  9. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de. PMID:26582926

  10. Detection of induced seismicity due to oil and gas extraction in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadugba, Oluwaseun Idowu

    Drilling operations and extraction of oil and gas (O&G) may lead to subsurface slumping or compression of sediments due to reduced vertical principal stress which may lead to small earthquakes at the drilling site. O&G extraction is common in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGM) and only thirty-five earthquakes of magnitudes between 2.3 and 6.0 have been recorded in the area from 1974 to the present. The purpose of this research is to detect more earthquakes using stacks of seismic data from the Transportable USArray (TA) from 2011 to 2013, and determine the spatiotemporal relationship between the detected earthquakes and O&G extraction. Five new small offshore earthquakes, that may be associated with the offshore O&G production, have been detected in the data. Spatial correlation of the epicenters with offshore drilling sites shows that the earthquakes may be due to the O&G extraction.

  11. The use of the osmole gap as a screening test for the presence of exogenous substances.

    PubMed

    Purssell, Roy A; Lynd, Larry D; Koga, Yoshikata

    2004-01-01

    The rapid and accurate diagnosis of toxic alcohol poisoning due to methanol (methyl alcohol) [MeOH] and ethylene glycol (EG), is paramount in preventing serious adverse outcomes. The quantitative measurement of specific serum levels of these substances using gas chromatography is expensive, time consuming and generally only available at major tertiary-care facilities. Therefore, because these toxic substances are osmotically active and the measurement of serum osmolality is easily performed and more readily available, the presence of an osmole gap (OG) has been adopted as an alternative screening test. By definition, the OG is the difference between the measured serum osmolality determined using the freezing point depression (Osm(m)) and the calculated serum molarity (Mc), which is estimated from the known and readily measurable osmotically active substances in the serum, in particular sodium, urea, glucose, and potassium and ethanol (alcohol). Thus, the OG=Osm(m)-Mc, and an OG above a specific threshold (the threshold of positivity) suggests the presence of unmeasured osmotically active substances, which could be indicative of a toxic exposure. The objectives of this study were to review the principles of evaluating screening tests, the theory behind the OG as a screening test and the literature upon which the adoption of the OG as a screening test has been based. This review revealed that there have been numerous equations derived and proposed for the estimation of the Mc, with the objective of developing empirical evidence of the best equation for the determination of the OG and ultimately the utility of OG as a screening test. However, the methods and statistical analysis employed have generally been inconsistent with recommended guidelines for screening test evaluation and although many equations have been derived, they have not been appropriately validated. Specific evidence of the clinical utility of the OG requires that a threshold of positivity be

  12. Molecular diagnosis in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Predicts Pattern of Arterial Involvement and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shalhub, Sherene; Black, James H; Cecchi, Alana C.; Xu, Zhi; Griswold, Ben F; Safi, Hazim J; Milewicz, Dianna M.; McDonnell, Nazli B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The management of arterial pathology in individuals with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) remains a challenge. Here we describe the correlation between COL3A1 gene mutation type and the clinical phenotype in individuals with vEDS. METHODS Individuals with confirmed molecular diagnoses of vEDS were enrolled in a multi institutional natural history study. Data collected included demographics, clinical and family histories, arterial pathology (aneurysm, dissection, and rupture), operative details, and autopsy reports. Individuals were classified into two cohorts based on the type of COL3A1 mutations and their effect on the amount of normal collagen produced: MIN group had mutations that lead to minimal (10–15%) production of normal type III collagen and HI group had haploinsufficiency mutations that lead to production of half the normal type III collagen. RESULTS A cohort of 68 (72%) individuals from 56 families had arterial pathology (44% male, 13% HI). The HI group was older at the time of their first vascular event (mean 42 years, range 26–58 vs. 33 years, range 8–62, P = .016). The HI group had a higher incidence of aortic pathology compared to the MIN group (56% vs. 21%. P = .025). Visceral arterial pathology was seen in 43 arteries in 23 individuals in the MIN group versus only a single artery in 5 individuals in the HI group. Emergent surgical procedures were more likely to be undertaken when vEDS diagnosis was not known (81% vs. 41%, P = .005) and the majority of these procedures were open surgical repair compared to endovascular repair (81% vs. 19%, P = .019). In the elective setting, there was equal use of open and endovascular repair. Post-operative complications were highest when the diagnosis of vEDS was not known (62% vs. 14%, P < .001) and when procedures were undertaken in an emergency setting (5% vs. 55% P < .001). There was no mortality due to arterial complications in the HI cohort and 21% in the MIN cohort (P = .132

  13. A comparison of surgical procedures and postoperative cares for minimally invasive laparoscopic gastrectomy and open gastrectomy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong-Na; Hu, Jun-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive, laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) has assumed an ever-expanding role in gastric cancer treatment. Accumulating data so far seem to suggest that LG is at least a viable alternative of conventional open gastrectomy (OG) in different contexts. However, even though reviews and meta-analyses have compared the advantages and limitations of each option, it is still controversial whether LG is a better alternative to OG, especially in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). The major goal of this study is to evaluate the readouts of LG, in comparison with OG. A literature search was performed for studies published from 2009 to 2013. Medical records of 20868 gastric cancer patients from 32 independent studies were reviewed and analyzed. All 32 studies concluded that LG is at least comparable with OG. LG is superior to OG in offering less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and lower risk of complications, although LG is probably inferior in operative time, and not different from OG in mortality. Considering the merits and the potential future technical improvement, it is reasonable to speculate that LG may eventually replace OG in most clinical contexts. PMID:26379823

  14. Decolourization of the azo dye Orange G in aqueous solution via a heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction catalysed by goethite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Honghai; Dou, Xiaowen; Deng, Dayi; Guan, Yufeng; Zhang, Liguo; He, Guangping

    2012-01-01

    Decolourization of the azo dye Orange G (OG) was investigated by using goethite/H2O2 as a heterogeneous Fenton-like reagent. Five principle operational parameters, namely pH, ion strength, concentrations ofgoethite (alpha-FeOOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and reaction temperature, were taken into account to investigate how these controlling factors mediated OG decolourization. Goethite surfaces catalysed a Fenton-like reaction responsible for decolourizing OG following pseudo-first-order kinetics (R2 > 0.964). This process was effective but seriously impacted by the medium pH and the dosages of both alpha-FeOOH and H2O2. The decolourization efficiencies of OG increased with the decrease of solution pH and NaCl (chloride ion) concentration and/or the increase of H2O2. The acidic aqueous medium conditions were likely favourable due to the surface adsorption of the negatively charged OG leading to the promotion of decolourizing OG. The apparent activation energy (E) for this reaction was 42.18 kJ mol(-1), a relatively low value. This is consistent with the OG decolourization being enhanced with the reaction temperature increase. PMID:22988614

  15. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of MCF10ADCIS.com xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity. PMID:23380593

  16. Land-use change effects on soil quality in Montilla-Moriles DO, Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Carrillo, M.; Parras-Alcántara, L.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-02-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last few decades, a significant number of AC has a land use change (LUC) to olive grove cultivations (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 yr) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (DO), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the thickness horizon, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C:N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG, respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG, respectively). With respect to the soil quality, the effect was opposite; 46 yr after LUC improved the soil quality, increasing the stratification ratio (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C:N ratio.

  17. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, L.; Martín-Carrillo, M.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-05-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC) to olive grove (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O.), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the horizon thickness, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C : N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). With respect to the stratification ratios (SRs), the effects were opposite; 46 years after LUC increased the SRs (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C : N ratio.

  18. Morphology and structure of extremely red objects at z ∼ 1 in the CANDELS-COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Guan-Wen; Ma, Zhong-Yang; Chen, Yang; Kong, Xu

    2015-06-01

    Using high-resolution HST/Wide Field Camera 3 F125W imaging from the CANDELS-COSMOS field, we report the structural and morphological properties of extremely red objects (EROs) at z ∼ 1. Based on the UVJ color criteria, we separate EROs into two types: old passive galaxies (OGs) and dusty star-forming galaxies (DGs). For a given stellar mass, we find that the mean size of OGs (DGs) is smaller by a factor of ∼ 2 (1.5) than that of present-day early-type (late-type) galaxies at a rest-frame optical wavelength. We derive the average effective radii of OGs and DGs, corresponding to 2.09 ± 1.13 kpc and 3.27 ± 1.14 kpc, respectively. Generally, the DGs are heterogeneous, with mixed features including bulges, disks and irregular structures, with relatively high M20, large size and low G. By contrast, OGs have elliptical-like compact morphologies with lower M20, smaller size and higher G, indicating a more concentrated and symmetric spatial extent of the stellar population distribution in OGs than DGs. These findings imply that OGs and DGs have different evolutionary processes, and that the minor merger scenario is the most likely mechanism for the structural properties of OGs. However, the size evolution of DGs is possibly due to the secular evolution of galaxies. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  19. Nanopore Detection of 8-Oxoguanine in the Human Telomere Repeat Sequence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The human telomere repeat sequence 5′-TTAGGG-3′ is a hot spot for oxidation at guanine, yielding 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), a biomarker of oxidative stress. Telomere shortening resulting from oxidation will ultimately induce cellular senescence. In this study, α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore technology was applied to detect and quantify OG in the human telomeric DNA sequence. This repeat sequence adopts a basket G-quadruplex in the NaCl electrolyte used for analysis that enters the α-HL channel, slowly unfolds, and translocates. The basket fold containing OG disrupts the structure, leading to >10× increase in the unfolding kinetics without yielding a detectable current pattern. Therefore, detection of OG with α-HL required labeling of OG with aminomethyl-[18-crown-6] using a mild oxidant. The labeled OG yielded a pulse-like signal in the current vs time trace when the DNA strand was electrophoretically passed through α-HL in NaCl electrolyte. However, the rate of translocation was too slow using NaCl salts, leading us to further refine the method. A mixture of NH4Cl and LiCl electrolytes induced the propeller fold that unravels quickly outside the α-HL channel. This electrolyte allowed observation of the labeled OG, while providing a faster recording of the currents. Lastly, OG distributions were probed with this method in a 120-mer stretch of the human telomere sequence exposed to the cellular oxidant 1O2. Single-molecule profiles determined the OG distributions to be random in this context. Application of the method in nanomedicine can potentially address many questions surrounding oxidative stress and telomere attrition observed in various disease phenotypes including prostate cancer and diabetes. PMID:25768204

  20. Studies of DNA Aptamer OliGreen and PicoGreen Fluorescence Interactions in Buffer and Serum.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John G; Sivils, Jeffrey C

    2016-07-01

    Spectrofluorometric and emission peak titration and timed studies of OliGreen (OG) and PicoGreen (PG) were conducted in Tris EDTA (TE) buffer, pooled rat and fetal bovine serum with two different aptamers of 72 and 192 bases in length to determine if OG or PG were suitable for aptamer pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in sera. Results indicated that OG and PG detected the single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) stem-loop structures of the two aptamers quite well in TE with reliable standard curves having exponential character (or several linear detection regions) up to 1 μg/ml of aptamer DNA with detection limits of ~1 ng/ml. The intensity of OG and PG staining appeared to correlate with the number and percentage of ss and ds bases in each aptamer. OG and PG fluorescence in pooled rat serum or fetal bovine serum (FBS) did not titer as a function of DNA aptamer concentration from 1 μg/ml to 1 ng/ml. This lack of OG or PG aptamer assays in serum is contrary to most published reports of OG or PG assays for ss antisense oligonucleotides, ds PCR amplicons or other types of DNA in serum or plasma. Further studies suggested that the lack of OG and PG assay titration in serum might not be entirely due to aptamer degradation from nucleases in serum since the fluorescence signals in serum appeared relatively stable over time from 30 min to 4 hours. A hypothesis is presented which attributes the inability of OG or PG to assay aptamers in serum to a combination of high blue-green autofluorescence in serum with possible serum nuclease degradation of aptamers over time and the changing aptamer to serum protein ratio coupled to nonspecific binding of serum proteins to aptamers thereby possibly changing aptamer conformations as a function of aptamer concentration during titration experiments. PMID:27209004

  1. Mechanism of 2-oxoglutarate signaling by the Synechococcus elongatus PII signal transduction protein

    PubMed Central

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Chellamuthu, Vasuki-Ranjani; Forchhammer, Karl; Zeth, Kornelius

    2010-01-01

    PII proteins control key processes of nitrogen metabolism in bacteria, archaea, and plants in response to the central metabolites ATP, ADP, and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), signaling cellular energy and carbon and nitrogen abundance. This metabolic information is integrated by PII and transmitted to regulatory targets (key enzymes, transporters, and transcription factors), modulating their activity. In oxygenic phototrophs, the controlling enzyme of arginine synthesis, N-acetyl-glutamate kinase (NAGK), is a major PII target, whose activity responds to 2-OG via PII. Here we show structures of the Synechococcus elongatus PII protein in complex with ATP, Mg2+, and 2-OG, which clarify how 2-OG affects PII–NAGK interaction. PII trimers with all three sites fully occupied were obtained as well as structures with one or two 2-OG molecules per PII trimer. These structures identify the site of 2-OG located in the vicinity between the subunit clefts and the base of the T loop. The 2-OG is bound to a Mg2+ ion, which is coordinated by three phosphates of ATP, and by ionic interactions with the highly conserved residues K58 and Q39 together with B- and T-loop backbone interactions. These interactions impose a unique T-loop conformation that affects the interactions with the PII target. Structures of PII trimers with one or two bound 2-OG molecules reveal the basis for anticooperative 2-OG binding and shed light on the intersubunit signaling mechanism by which PII senses effectors in a wide range of concentrations. PMID:21041661

  2. Mechanism of 2-oxoglutarate signaling by the Synechococcus elongatus PII signal transduction protein.

    PubMed

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Chellamuthu, Vasuki-Ranjani; Forchhammer, Karl; Zeth, Kornelius

    2010-11-16

    P(II) proteins control key processes of nitrogen metabolism in bacteria, archaea, and plants in response to the central metabolites ATP, ADP, and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), signaling cellular energy and carbon and nitrogen abundance. This metabolic information is integrated by P(II) and transmitted to regulatory targets (key enzymes, transporters, and transcription factors), modulating their activity. In oxygenic phototrophs, the controlling enzyme of arginine synthesis, N-acetyl-glutamate kinase (NAGK), is a major P(II) target, whose activity responds to 2-OG via P(II). Here we show structures of the Synechococcus elongatus P(II) protein in complex with ATP, Mg(2+), and 2-OG, which clarify how 2-OG affects P(II)-NAGK interaction. P(II) trimers with all three sites fully occupied were obtained as well as structures with one or two 2-OG molecules per P(II) trimer. These structures identify the site of 2-OG located in the vicinity between the subunit clefts and the base of the T loop. The 2-OG is bound to a Mg(2+) ion, which is coordinated by three phosphates of ATP, and by ionic interactions with the highly conserved residues K58 and Q39 together with B- and T-loop backbone interactions. These interactions impose a unique T-loop conformation that affects the interactions with the P(II) target. Structures of P(II) trimers with one or two bound 2-OG molecules reveal the basis for anticooperative 2-OG binding and shed light on the intersubunit signaling mechanism by which P(II) senses effectors in a wide range of concentrations. PMID:21041661

  3. Use of benzo analogs to enhance antimycotic activity of kresoxim methyl for control of aflatoxigenic fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Mahoney, Noreen; Chan, Kathleen L.; Campbell, Bruce C.; Haff, Ronald P.; Stanker, Larry H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine two benzo analogs, octylgallate (OG) and veratraldehyde (VT), as antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus parasiticus and A.flavus (toxigenic or atoxigenic). Both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains used were capable of producing kojic acid, another cellular secondary product. A. fumigatus was used as a genetic model for this study. When applied independently, OG exhibits considerably higher antifungal activity compared to VT. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of OG were 0.3–0.5 mM, while that of VT were 3.0–5.0 mM in agar plate-bioassays. OG or VT in concert with the fungicide kresoxim methyl (Kre-Me; strobilurin) greatly enhanced sensitivity of Aspergillus strains to Kre-Me. The combination with OG also overcame the tolerance of A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants to Kre-Me. The degree of compound interaction resulting from chemosensitization of the fungi by OG was determined using checkerboard bioassays, where synergistic activity greatly lowered MICs or minimum fungicidal concentrations. However, the control chemosensitizer benzohydroxamic acid, an alternative oxidase inhibitor conventionally applied in concert with strobilurin, did not achieve synergism. The level of antifungal or chemosensitizing activity was also “compound—strain” specific, indicating differential susceptibility of tested strains to OG or VT, and/or heat stress. Besides targeting the antioxidant system, OG also negatively affected the cell wall-integrity pathway, as determined by the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall-integrity MAPK pathway mutants. We concluded that certain benzo analogs effectively inhibit fungal growth. They possess chemosensitizing capability to increase efficacy of Kre-Me and thus, could reduce effective dosages of strobilurins and alleviate negative side effects associated with current antifungal practices. OG also exhibits moderate antiaflatoxigenic activity. PMID

  4. [Vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome incidentally diagnosed at surgical treatment for hemothorax; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kazunori; Yoshizu, Akira; Kashizaki, Fumihiro

    2013-02-01

    Vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(vEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder of the connective tissue, which often causes arterial ruptures and surgical complications. We report the case of a vEDS patient who was incidentally diagnosed at surgical treatment for hemothorax. A 64-year-old woman with a past history of hysterectomy due to excessive bleeding during childbirth visited our hospital complaining of chest pain. Chest computed tomography revealed right pleural effusion suspected of hemothorax and a high density area behind the right anterior chest wall. Emergency thoracoscopy revealed bloody spots throughout the mediastinal pleura, suggestive of bleeding from the right internal thoracic artery. During thoracoscopy, easy bruising of the tissue by surgical manipulation was noted which led us to suspect connective tissue disease. A biochemical analysis by cultured dermal fibroblasts and molecular biological examination established the diagnosis of vEDS. PMID:23381370

  5. Micromachined TWTs for THz Radiation Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booske, John H.; vanderWeide, Daniel W.; Kory, Carol L.; Limbach, S.; Downey, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum (about 300 - 3000 GHz in frequency or about 0.1 - 1 mm free space wavelength) has enormous potential for high-data-rate communications, spectroscopy, astronomy, space research, medicine, biology, surveillance, remote sensing, industrial process control, etc. It has been characterized as the most scientifically rich, yet under-utilized, region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The most critical roadblock to full exploitation of the THz band is lack of coherent radiation sources that are powerful (0.001 - 1.0 W continuous wave), efficient (> 1%), frequency agile (instantaneously tunable over 1% bandwidths or more), reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. To develop vacuum electron device (VED) radiation sources satisfying these requirements, fabrication and packaging approaches must be heavily considered to minimize costs, in addition to the basic interaction physics and circuit design. To minimize size of the prime power supply, beam voltage must be minimized, preferably 10 kV. Solid state sources satisfy the low voltage requirement, but are many orders of magnitude below power, efficiency, and bandwidth requirements. On the other hand, typical fast-wave VED sources in this regime (e.g., gyrotrons, FELs) tend to be large, expensive, high voltage and very high power devices unsuitable for most of the applications cited above. VEDs based on grating or inter-digital (ID) circuits have been researched and developed. However, achieving forward-wave amplifier operation with instantaneous fractional bandwidths > 1% is problematic for these devices with low-energy (< 15 kV) electron beams. Moreover, the interaction impedance is quite low unless the beam-circuit spacing is kept particularly narrow, often leading to significant beam interception. One solution to satisfy the THz source requirements mentioned above is to develop micromachined VEDs, or "micro-VEDs". Among other benefits, micro-machining technologies

  6. Severe suppression of Frzb/sFRP3 transcription in osteogenic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Deendayal; Srivastava, Alok; Mahlum, Eric; Desai, Dinakar; Maran, Avudaiappan; Yaszemski, Michael; Jalal, Syed M; Gitelis, Steven; Bertoni, Franco; Damron, Tim; Irwin, Ronald; O'connor, Mary; Schwartz, Herbert; Bolander, Mark E; Sarkar, Gobinda

    2007-01-15

    Deciphering the molecular basis of cancer is critical for developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. To better understand the early molecular events involving osteogenic sarcoma (OGS), we have initiated a program to identify potential tumor suppressor genes. Expression profiling of total RNA from ten normal bone cell lines and eleven OGS-derived cell lines by microarray showed 135-fold lower expression of FRZB/sFRP3 mRNA in OGS cells compared to bone cells; this down-regulation of Frzb/sFRP3 mRNA expression was found to be serum-independent. Subsequently, fourteen OGS biopsy specimens showed nine-fold down-regulation of Frzb/sFRP3 mRNA expression compared to expression in eight normal bone specimens as determined by microarray. FRZB /sFRP3 protein level was also found to be at a very low level in 4/4 OGS cell lines examined. Quantitation by RT-PCR indicated approximately 70% and approximately 90% loss of Frzb/sFRP3 mRNA expression in OGS biopsy specimens and OGS-derived cell lines respectively, compared to expression in bone (p<0.0001). Hybridization experiments of a cDNA microarray containing paired normal and tumor specimens from nineteen different organs did not show any significant difference in the level of Frzb/sFRP3 mRNA expression between the normal and the corresponding tumor tissues. Exogenous expression of FRZB/sFRP3 mRNA in two OGS-derived cell lines lacking endogenous expression of the mRNA produced abundant mRNA from the exogenous gene, eliminating degradation as a possibility for very low level of FRZB/sFRP3 mRNA in OGS specimens. Results from PCR-based experiments suggest that the FRZB/sFRP3 gene is not deleted in OGS cell lines, however, karyotyping shows gross abnormalities involving chromosome 2 (location of the FRZB gene) in five of twelve OGS-derived cell lines. Together, these data suggest a tumor-suppressive potential for FRZB/sFRP3 in OGS. PMID:17079093

  7. Overview of Ground Station 1 of the NASA space communications and navigation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, W. T.; Antsos, D.; Croonquist, A.; Piazzolla, S.; Roberts, L. C.; Garkanian, V.; Trinh, T.; Wright, M. W.; Rogalin, R.; Wu, J.; Clare, L.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Ground Station 1 (OGS1) is the first of a new breed of dedicated ground terminals to support NASA's developing space-based optical communications infrastructure. It is based at NASA's Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at the Table Mountain Observatory near Wrightwood, CA. The system will serve as the primary ground station for NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) experiment. This paper presents an overview of the OCTL telescope facility, the OGS1 ground-based optical communications systems, and the networking and control infrastructure currently under development. The OGS1 laser safety systems and atmospheric monitoring systems are also briefly described.

  8. Melatonin ameliorates vascular endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and atherosclerosis by suppressing the TLR4/NF-κB system in high-fat-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ze-Ping; Fang, Xiao-Ling; Fang, Nan; Wang, Xiao-Bian; Qian, Hai-Yan; Cao, Zhong; Cheng, Yuan; Wang, Bang-Ning; Wang, Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and inflammation contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Melatonin (MLT) normalizes lipid profile, improves endothelial function, and possesses anti-inflammatory properties. However, the precise mechanisms are still unclear. This study investigated whether MLT could ameliorate VED, inflammation, and atherosclerosis by suppressing the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) system in high-fat-fed rabbits. Rabbits were randomly divided into three groups that received a standard diet (control group), high-cholesterol diet (atherosclerosis group), or high-cholesterol diet plus 10 mg/kg/day MLT (MLT group) for 12 wk. After treatment, high-fat diet significantly increased serum lipid and inflammatory markers in rabbits in atherosclerosis group compared with that in control group. In addition, high-fat diet also induced VED and typical atherosclerotic plaque formation and increased intima/media thickness ratio, which were significantly improved by MLT therapy as demonstrated in MLT group. Histological and immunoblot analysis further showed that high-fat diet enhanced the expressions of TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88), and NF-κB p65, but decreased inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) expression. By contrast, MLT therapy decreased the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 and increased IκB expression. This study has demonstrated that MLT ameliorates lipid metabolism, VED, and inflammation and inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis in high-fat-fed rabbits. Moreover, our study indicates for the first time that suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB system in local vasculature with atherosclerotic damage is important for the protective effects of MLT. PMID:24006943

  9. Optimum connecting dampers to reduce the seismic responses of parallel structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. P.; Ge, D. D.; Huang, X.

    2011-04-01

    Parameters of connecting dampers between two adjacent structures and twin-tower structure with large podium are optimized through theoretical analysis. The connecting visco-elastic damper (VED) is represented by the Kelvin model and the connecting viscous fluid damper (VFD) is represented by the Maxwell model. Two optimization criteria are selected to minimize the vibration energy of the primary structure and to minimize the vibration energy of both structures. Two representative numerical examples of adjacent structures and one three-dimensional finite element model of a twin-tower with podium structure are used to verify the correctness of the theoretical approach. On the one hand, by means of theoretical analysis, the first natural circular frequencies and total mass of the two structures can be taken as parameters in the general formula to get the optimal parameters of the coupling dampers. On the other hand, using the Kanai-Tajimi filtered white-noise ground motion model and several actual earthquake records, the appropriate parameters of two types of linking dampers are obtained through extensive parametric studies. By comparison, it can be found that the results of parametric studies are consistent with the results of theoretical studies for the two types of dampers under the two optimization criteria. The effectiveness of VED and VFD is investigated in terms of the seismic response reduction of the neighboring structures. The numerical results demonstrate that the seismic response and vibration energy of parallel structures are mitigated significantly. The performances of VED and VFD are comparable to one another. The explicit formula of VED and VFD can help engineers in application of coupled structure control strategies.

  10. The novel role of fenofibrate in preventing nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Reddy, Krishna; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated the effect of fenofibrate, an agonist of PPAR-alpha, in nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) and sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The scanning electron microscopy study in thoracic aorta revealed that administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite impaired the integrity of vascular endothelium. Further, administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite significantly decreased serum and aortic concentrations of nitrite/nitrate and subsequently reduced acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Moreover, nicotine or sodium arsenite produced oxidative stress by increasing serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg/kg/day p.o., a standard agent) significantly prevented nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentrations of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Conversely, co-administration of L-NAME (25 mg/kg/day, i.p.), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, markedly attenuated these vascular protective effects of fenofibrate. The administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite altered the lipid profile by increasing serum cholesterol and triglycerides and consequently decreasing high-density lipoprotein levels, which were significantly prevented by treatment with fenofibrate or atorvastatin. It may be concluded that fenofibrate improves the integrity and function of vascular endothelium, and the vascular protecting potential of fenofibrate in preventing the development of nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced VED may be attributed to its

  11. Reduction in visceral adiposity is highly related to improvement in vascular endothelial dysfunction among obese women: an assessment of endothelial function by radial artery pulse wave analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Hoon; Shim, Kyung-Won

    2005-08-31

    Because obesity is frequently complicated by other cardiovascular risk factors, the impact of a reduction in visceral adiposity on vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in obese patients is difficult to determine. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a reduction in visceral adiposity on VED in obese women. Thirty-six premenopausal obese women (BMI >/= 25 kg/m2) without complications were enrolled in the study. VED was evaluated by determining the augmentation index (AIx) from radial artery pulse waves obtained by applanation tonometry. Changes in AIx in response to nitroglycerin- induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation (DeltaAIx-NTG) and in response to salbutamol administration (DeltaAIx-Salb) were determined before and after weight reduction. After a 12-week weight reduction program, the average weight loss was 7.96 +/- 3.47 kg, with losses of 21.88 +/- 20.39 cm2 in visceral fat areas (p < 0.001). Pulse wave analysis combined with provocative pharmacological testing demonstrated preserved endothelium-independent vasodilation in healthy premenopausal obese women (DeltaAIx-NTG: 31.36 +/- 9.80% before weight reduction vs. 28.25 +/- 11.21% after weight reduction, p > 0.1) and an improvement in endothelial-dependent vasodilation following weight reduction (DeltaAIx-Salb: 10.03 +/- 6.49% before weight reduction vs. 19.33 +/- 9.28% after reduction, p < 0.001). A reduction in visceral adipose tissue was found to be most significantly related to an increase in DeltaAIx-Salb (beta=-0.57, p < 0.001). A reduction in visceral adiposity was significantly related to an improvement in VED. This finding suggests that reduction of visceral adiposity may be as important as the control of other major risk factors in the prevention of atherosclerosis in obese women. PMID:16127776

  12. Astronomy of the Vedic Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ôhashi, Yukio

    Aryans who produced Vedic literature migrated to India in the middle of the second millennium BC. After this, they gradually developed astronomical knowledge which was associated with local climate, agriculture, and their predecessors' culture. Toward the end of the Vedic period, sometime around the middle of the first millennium BC, the Vedic calendrical astronomy text entitled Jyotiṣa-vedāṅga was created.

  13. The Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis in Mice Is Modulated by Dietary Vitamin E12

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Patricia A.; Beck, Melinda A.

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is the most common fatal sporadic encephalitis in humans. HSE is primarily caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 infection of the brain. HSE results in increased levels of oxidative stress, including the production of reactive oxygen species, free radicals, and neuroinflammation. The most biologically active form of vitamin E (VE) is α-tocopherol (α-TOC). In cellular membranes, α-TOC prevents lipid peroxidation by scavenging free radicals and functioning as an antioxidant. Supplementation with VE has been shown to decrease immunosenescence, improve immune function, and may be neuroprotective. To determine how VE deficiency and VE supplementation would alter the pathogenesis of HSE, we placed weanling male BALB/cByJ mice on VE-deficient (VE-D), VE-adequate (VE-A), or 10× VE-supplemented diets for 4 wk, and then infected the mice intranasally with HSV-1. VE-D mice had more severe symptoms of encephalitis than VE-A mice, including weight loss, keratitis, hunched posture, and morbidity. VE-D mice had increased cytokine and chemokine expression in the brain and increased viral titers. In contrast, VE supplementation failed to decrease cytokine production and had no effect on viral titer. We demonstrated that adequate levels of VE are important in limiting HSE pathology and that 10× supplementation does not enhance protection. PMID:18156415

  14. Estimation of skin concentrations of topically applied lidocaine at each depth profile.

    PubMed

    Oshizaka, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Kadhum, Wesam R; Todo, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Tomomi; Wierzba, Konstanty; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2014-11-20

    Skin concentrations of topically administered compounds need to be considered in order to evaluate their efficacies and toxicities. This study investigated the relationship between the skin permeation and concentrations of compounds, and also predicted the skin concentrations of these compounds using their permeation parameters. Full-thickness skin or stripped skin from pig ears was set on a vertical-type diffusion cell, and lidocaine (LID) solution was applied to the stratum corneum (SC) in order to determine in vitro skin permeability. Permeation parameters were obtained based on Fick's second law of diffusion. LID concentrations at each depth of the SC were measured using tape-stripping. Concentration-depth profiles were obtained from viable epidermis and dermis (VED) by analyzing horizontal sections. The corresponding skin concentration at each depth was calculated based on Fick's law using permeation parameters and then compared with the observed value. The steady state LID concentrations decreased linearly as the site became deeper in SC or VED. The calculated concentration-depth profiles of the SC and VED were almost identical to the observed profiles. The compound concentration at each depth could be easily predicted in the skin using diffusion equations and skin permeation data. Thus, this method was considered to be useful for promoting the efficient preparation of topically applied drugs and cosmetics. PMID:25158219

  15. A Recombinant G Protein Plus Cyclosporine A-Based Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Elicits Humoral and Regulatory T Cell Responses against Infection without Vaccine-Enhanced Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaofan; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Yiwei; Li, Changgui; Dong, Aihua; He, Zhonghuai; Zhang, Shuren; Wang, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause severe disease in the lower respiratory tract of infants and older people. Vaccination with a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine (FI-RSV) and subsequent RSV infection has led to mild to severe pneumonia with two deaths among vaccinees. The vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) was recently demonstrated to be due to an elevated level of Th2 cell responses following loss of regulatory T (Treg) cells from the lungs. To induce high levels of neutralizing Abs and minimize pathogenic T cell responses, we developed a novel strategy of immunizing animals with a recombinant RSV G protein together with cyclosporine A. This novel vaccine induced not only a higher level of neutralizing Abs against RSV infection, but, most importantly, also significantly higher levels of Treg cells that suppressed VED in the lung after RSV infection. The induced responses provided protection against RSV challenge with no sign of pneumonia or bronchitis. Treg cell production of IL-10 was one of the key factors to suppress VED. These finding indicate that G protein plus cyclosporine A could be a promising vaccine against RSV infection in children and older people. PMID:26792805

  16. Resistance of nanofill and nanohybrid resin composites to toothbrush abrasion with calcium carbonate slurry.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu; Kyoizumi, Hideaki; Finger, Werner J; Kanehira, Masafumi; Endo, Tatsuo; Utterodt, Andreas; Hisamitsu, Hisashi; Komatsu, Masashi

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the wear of four nanofilled resin composites using simulated toothbrushing for 50,000 cycles with calcium carbonate slurry. The depth of abrasion and roughness (Ra) were measured after each 10,000 brushing cycle. The surface texture of the worn samples was examined by SEM.The wear depths of the nanofill Filtek Supreme XT (FIL), the nanohybrides Grandio (GRA), Tetric EvoCeram (TET), and Venus Diamond (VED) increased linearly with numbers of brushing cycles or approximately 80, 12, 600, and 60 mum, respectively after 50,000 strokes. Surface roughness showed virtually no change between 10,000 and 50,000 brushing cycles; the ranking order was TET < FIL < GRA < VED. FIL showed rather uniform abrasion with nanoclusters protruding from the surface. TET was very smoothly abraded without signs of debonding of the prepolymerized particles, whereas GRA and VED showed pronounced wear of the matrix polymer surrounding larger glass filler particles. PMID:20019422

  17. Transvenous Embolization for Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in a Patient with Vascular Type of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome—Direct Superior Ophthalmic Vein Approach: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Teppei; HAYAKAWA, Motoharu; SADATO, Akiyo; ADACHI, Kazuhide; WATABE, Takeya; MAEDA, Shingo; OHMURA, Masahiro; HIROSE, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease characterized by connective tissue fragility throughout the body, including the arteries, viscera, and gastrointestinal tract. We report a case in which we performed transvenous embolization (TVE) via direct superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) approach to treat a direct carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The patient was a 37-year-old woman who developed tinnitus in her left ear and a headache during examination in the outpatient clinic of another hospital in order to make a definitive diagnosis of vEDS, and she was referred to our hospital and examined. Based on the results of all of the studies she was diagnosed with a CCF. Conservative treatment was attempted, but was not very effective. Because of progressing aphasia, TVE was performed via the SOV direct cut. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. It has been reported that cerebral angiography is generally contraindicated in vEDS and that the morbimortality associated with endovascular treatment is very high. When performing treatment it is necessary to be sufficiently aware of the risks it entails. PMID:24418783

  18. 40 CFR 432.117 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, TSS, O&G (as HEM), and fecal coliform are the same as the corresponding limitation specified...

  19. 40 CFR 432.127 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, TSS, O&G (as HEM), and fecal coliform are the same as the corresponding limitation specified...

  20. Protein Hydroxylation Catalyzed by 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Oxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Markolovic, Suzana; Wilkins, Sarah E.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The post-translational hydroxylation of prolyl and lysyl residues, as catalyzed by 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases, was first identified in collagen biosynthesis. 2OG oxygenases also catalyze prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation of the hypoxia-inducible factors that play important roles in the adaptive response to hypoxia. Subsequently, they have been shown to catalyze N-demethylation (via hydroxylation) of Nϵ-methylated histone lysyl residues, as well as hydroxylation of multiple other residues. Recent work has identified roles for 2OG oxygenases in the modification of translation-associated proteins, which in some cases appears to be conserved from microorganisms through to humans. Here we give an overview of protein hydroxylation catalyzed by 2OG oxygenases, focusing on recent discoveries. PMID:26152730

  1. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  2. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols – Nh, Mc, Ts and Og – after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  3. What Is Coronary Angiography?

    MedlinePlus

    ... OG-rah-fee) is a test that uses dye and special x rays to show the insides ... the coronary arteries. Overview During coronary angiography, special dye is released into the bloodstream. The dye makes ...

  4. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  5. Rapid Oligo-Galacturonide Induced Changes in Protein Phosphorylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kohorn, Bruce D; Hoon, Divya; Minkoff, Benjamin B; Sussman, Michael R; Kohorn, Susan L

    2016-04-01

    The wall-associated kinases (WAKs)(1)are receptor protein kinases that bind to long polymers of cross-linked pectin in the cell wall. These plasma-membrane-associated protein kinases also bind soluble pectin fragments called oligo-galacturonides (OGs) released from the wall after pathogen attack and damage. WAKs are required for cell expansion during development but bind water soluble OGs generated from walls with a higher affinity than the wall-associated polysaccharides. OGs activate a WAK-dependent, distinct stress-like response pathway to help plants resist pathogen attack. In this report, a quantitative mass-spectrometric-based phosphoproteomic analysis was used to identify Arabidopsis cellular events rapidly induced by OGsin planta Using N(14/)N(15)isotopicin vivometabolic labeling, we screened 1,000 phosphoproteins for rapid OG-induced changes and found 50 proteins with increased phosphorylation, while there were none that decreased significantly. Seven of the phosphosites within these proteins overlap with those altered by another signaling molecule plants use to indicate the presence of pathogens (the bacterial "elicitor" peptide Flg22), indicating distinct but overlapping pathways activated by these two types of chemicals. Genetic analysis of genes encoding 10 OG-specific and two Flg22/OG-induced phosphoproteins reveals that null mutations in eight proteins compromise the OG response. These phosphorylated proteins with genetic evidence supporting their role in the OG response include two cytoplasmic kinases, two membrane-associated scaffold proteins, a phospholipase C, a CDPK, an unknown cadmium response protein, and a motor protein. Null mutants in two proteins, the putative scaffold protein REM1.3, and a cytoplasmic receptor like kinase ROG2, enhance and suppress, respectively, a dominantWAKallele. Altogether, the results of these chemical and genetic experiments reveal the identity of several phosphorylated proteins involved in the kinase

  6. 40 CFR 432.82 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.22 0.11 TSS 0.74 0.37 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs (or g/kg) of finished product... pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and...

  7. 40 CFR 432.82 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.22 0.11 TSS 0.74 0.37 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs (or g/kg) of finished product... pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and...

  8. 40 CFR 432.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.22... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.22(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  9. 40 CFR 432.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.22... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.22(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  10. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  11. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... animals on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in paragraph (a)(1)...

  12. 40 CFR 432.82 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.22 0.11 TSS 0.74 0.37 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs (or g/kg) of finished product... pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and...

  13. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  14. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... animals on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in paragraph (a)(1)...

  15. 40 CFR 432.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.32... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.32(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  16. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  17. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  18. 40 CFR 432.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.42(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  19. 40 CFR 432.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.32... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.32(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  20. 40 CFR 432.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.42(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  1. Orcinol glucoside produces antidepressant effects by blocking the behavioural and neuronal deficits caused by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Gao, Wen-Chao; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Lu, Wei-Li; Tang, Jie; Peng, Lei; Li, Ning; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the antidepressant potential of orcinol glucoside (OG) and its possible mechanisms of action. We established a depressed rat model using 3 consecutive weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The antidepressant-like effect of OG was revealed using the sucrose preference test, the open field test, the forced swimming test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST). The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the serum corticosterone (CORT) concentrations and mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus. The protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and total phosphorylated-ERK1/2 were detected by western blot. The results showed that OG treatment (1.5, 3, or 6mg/kg) alleviated the depression-like behaviour of rats under CUMS, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobility in both the FST and TST, although the rearing frequency in the open field test increased only in the group that received the lowest dose (1.5mg/kg OG). Rats that received OG treatment exhibited reduced serum CORT levels and CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by OG treatment. Moreover, OG treatment upregulated the protein levels of BDNF and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus, even above control levels. Our findings suggest that OG improved depressive behaviour in CUMS rats by downregulating HPA axis hyperactivity and increasing BDNF expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. PMID:23838013

  2. Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Das, Subhasis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (ME-Og) was tested against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro. Phytochemical analysis of ME-Og shown high amount of flavonoid and phenolic compound present in it. The cytotoxic effect of ME-Og was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 µg/ml) using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To establish the protective role of ME-Og against nicotine toxicity, peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10 mM), nicotine + ME-Og (1 to 25 µg/ml) for 12 h in culture media. The significantly (p < 0.05) increased super oxide anion generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in ME-Og supplemented groups in concentration dependent manner. More over, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status due to nicotine exposure was effectively ameliorated by ME-Og supplementation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Among the different concentration of ME-Og, maximum protective effect was observed by 25 µg/ml, which does not produce significant cell cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced free radical generation, lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in important immune cell, peritoneal macrophages. PMID:20716908

  3. The opposite roles of agdA and glaA on citric acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Zhanglei; Hou, Li; Yin, Liuhua; Wang, Dawei; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Depei

    2016-07-01

    Citric acid is produced by an industrial-scale process of fermentation using Aspergillus niger as a microbial cell factory. However, citric acid production was hindered by the non-fermentable isomaltose and insufficient saccharification ability in A. niger when liquefied corn starch was used as a raw material. In this study, A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA was constructed by deletion of the α-glucosidase-encoding agdA gene in A. niger CGMCC 10142 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformants A. niger OG 1, OG 17, and OG 31 then underwent overexpression of glucoamylase in A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA. The results showed that the α-glucosidase activity of TNA 101ΔagdA was decreased by 62.5 % compared with CGMCC 10142, and isomaltose was almost undetectable in the fermentation broth. The glucoamylase activity of the transformants OG 1 and OG 17 increased by 34.5 and 16.89 % compared with that of TNA 101ΔagdA, respectively. In addition, for the recombinants TNA 101ΔagdA, OG 1 and OG 17, there were no apparent defects in the growth development. Consequently, in comparison with CGMCC 10142, TNA 101ΔagdA and OG 1 decreased the residual reducing sugar by 52.95 and 88.24 %, respectively, and correspondingly increased citric acid production at the end of fermentation by 8.68 and 16.87 %. Citric acid production was further improved by decreasing the non-fermentable residual sugar and increasing utilization rate of corn starch material in A. niger. Besides, the successive saccharification and citric acid fermentation processes were successfully integrated into one step. PMID:26837219

  4. Investigation into the High Voltage Shutdown of the Oxygen Generator System in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Golden, John L.; VanKeuren, Steve; Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony J.; Varsik, Jerome D.; Montefusco, Daniel J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Worthy, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen Dome Assembly Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) serial number 00001 suffered a cell stack high-voltage shutdown on July 5, 2010. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was removed and replaced with the on-board spare ORU serial number 00002 to maintain OGS operation. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was returned from ISS on STS-133/ULF-5 in March 2011 with test, teardown and evaluation (TT&E) and failure analysis to follow.

  5. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever ISRU payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP. Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  6. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever In situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  7. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... animals on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in paragraph (a)(1)...

  8. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... animals on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in paragraph (a)(1)...

  9. 40 CFR 432.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.32..., fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.32(a)(1) and the... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  10. 40 CFR 432.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.22..., fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.22(a)(1), and the... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  11. 40 CFR 432.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.22..., fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.22(a)(1), and the... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  12. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.50 0.25 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  13. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.50 0.25 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  14. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  15. 40 CFR 432.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.32..., fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.32(a)(1) and the... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  16. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  17. Foot-Ground Reaction Force During Resistance Exercise in Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Cobb, Kendall; Loehr, James A.; Nguyen, Daniel; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    An interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED) was designed to provide resistive exercise as a countermeasure to space flight-induced loss of muscle strength and endurance as well as decreased bone mineral density. The purpose of this project was to compare foot-ground reaction force during iRED exercise in normal gravity (l-g) versus micro gravity (O-g) achieved during parabolic flight. METHODS: Four subjects performed three exercises using the iRED (squat, heel raise, and deadlift) during I-g and O-g at a moderate intensity (60% of maximum strength during deadlift exercise). Foot-ground reaction force was measured in three axes (x,y,z) using a force plate, and the magnitude of the resultant force vector was calculated (r = X 2 + y2 + Z2 ). Range of motion (ROM) was measured using a linear encoder. Peak force (PkF) and total work (TW) were calculated using a customized computer program. Paired t-tests were used to test if significant differences (p.::::0.05) were observed between I-g and O-g exercise. RESULTS: PkF and TW measured in the resultant axis were significantly less in O-g for each of the exercises tested. During O-g, PkF was 42-46% and TW was 33- 37% of that measured during I-g. ROM and average time to complete each repetition were not different from I-g to O-g. CONCLUSIONS: When performing exercises in which body mass is a portion of the resistance during I-g, PkF and TW measured during resistive exercise were reduced approximately 60-70% during O-g. Thus, a resistive exercise device during O-g will be required to provided higher resistances to induce a similar training stimulus to that on Earth.

  18. Explosion and/or fire risk assessment methodology: a common approach, structured for underground coalmine environments / Metoda szacowania ryzyka wybuchu i pożarów: podejście ogólne, dostosowane do środowiska kopalni podziemnej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioca, Ionel-Lucian; Moraru, Roland Iosif

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet statutory requirements concerning the workers health and safety, it is necessary for mine managers within Valea Jiului coal basin in Romania to address the potential for underground fires and explosions and their impact on the workforce and the mine ventilation systems. Highlighting the need for a unified and systematic approach of the specific risks, the authors are developing a general framework for fire/explosion risk assessment in gassy mines, based on the quantification of the likelihood of occurrence and gravity of the consequences of such undesired events and employing Root-Cause analysis method. It is emphasized that even a small fire should be regarded as being a major hazard from the point of view of explosion initiation, should a combustible atmosphere arise. The developed methodology, for the assessment of underground fire and explosion risks, is based on the known underground explosion hazards, fire engineering principles and fire test criteria for potentially combustible materials employed in mines.

  19. Répartition des dépôts carbonatés du Lias inférieur et moyen le long de la côte atlantique du Maroc: conséquences sur la paléogéographie de l'Atlantique naissant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresnay, Renaud Du

    Along the Atlantic coast of Morocco a series of embayments or basins including the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène and Tarfaya-Laayoune basins, contain marine sediments which may attain considerable thickness and whose Early Jurassic (Liassic) age has been well documented. This paper describes Liassic deposits from six exposures or drill holes between the Saharan coast of Tarfaya and the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène region. These Atlantic basins do not connect with the marine troughs of the High and Middle Atlas, which follow a Mediterranean Tethys trend, but are separated from them by a SSW-NNE trending threshold made up of the axial portion of the central Hercynian Massif (Moroccan Meseta). Their opening to the ancestral Mediterranean must have been farther north, probably by means of interconnecting, WSW-ENE trending rift-related graben trenches, possibly starting with the Rharb (Kenitra) basin. More likely, however, openingsexisted beneath the present nappes of the Rif and along the undoubtedly wide fracture zone represented by the Azores-Gibraltar line separating the Rif terrain from that of the Betic Cordilleras (both of which contain well dated marine Hettangian). Farther SW, probably hidden by the sedimentary prism of the African continental shelf, connections may exist with the Liassic occurrence of Central America, as already suggested by Avias (1953. Sci. Terre1 (1), 1-276; 1956. 20° Congr. géol. Intern Mexico, Secc. II, 1-5), shown in a figure by Erben (1956b. Neues Jb. geol. paläontol. Abh., Stuttgart 103, 28-79), and subsequently upheld by Hallam (1971a. J. Geol. Chicago79 (2), 129-157; 1983. Palaeogeogr. P. clim. P. ecol.43, 181-193) and Thierry (1982. Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., Sér. 7, 24, 1053-1067). These lines of communication would have centered on a "Panamanian Strait" ("Panama Strasse") and would have permitted faunal migrations, in particular towards South America. Migrations of certain European and Mesogean faunal species have recently been proposed by Schmidt-Effing (1976a. Münster Forsch. Géol. Paläont.38-39, 201-217; 1976b. Publ. geol. ICAITI, Guatemala, 5, 22-23; 1980. In: The Origin of the Gulf of Mexico and the Early Opening of the Central North Atlantic Ocean (Edited by Pilger, R. H., Jr), pp. 79-86, Von Hillebrandt (1981b. Geol. Rdsch.70 (2), 570-582; 1984. Int. Symp. Jurassic Stratigraphy3, 716-729) and Riccardi (1983. In: The Phanerozoic Geology of the World (Edited by Moullade, M. and Nairn, A. E. M.), II. B, 201-264). Unless one believes that in all localities cosmopolitan faunas arrived from a universal ocean, these relationships lead to the model of an "Atlantic corridor", starting in the Middle, and perhaps even the Early Liassic (the "Paleotethys" of Bernoulli and Lemoine, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 168-179; or the "proto-Atlantic" or "Atlantic Tethys" of Lancelot, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 215-223; and Lancelot and Winterer, 1980 Initial Report of the Deep Sea Drilling Project50, 801-821; although the latter authors postulate such a connection only from Late Liassic time on). This model raises the specific question whether or not Early Jurassic deposits are present in the Senegal basin (Guieu, 1976. Rapp. Dépt. Géol. Fac. Sci. Univ. Dakar32, 1-87).

  20. "Dieu a cree la femelle, l'homme a fait la femme." En rekognoscering i dansk og undenlandsk konssprogsforskning ("God Created the Female, Man Created Woman." A Reconnaissance in Danish and Foreign Research on Sex Differences and Language). ROLIG papir 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennicke, Annette

    Research on sex differences and language includes the following (many titles are English translations): "Language--The Child, the Women, the Family"; "Woman and Man"; "In Society's Words"; "The Life of Words"; "Verbs and Women"; "Lines from a Ladies Luncheon"; "The History of the Danish Language"; "How Sex Roles Are Represented and Conserved in…

  1. Le graben de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) : contrôle tectonique de la paléogéographie et des séquences au Cambrien inférieurThe Lower-Cambrian western Anti-Atlasic graben: tectonic control of palaeogeography and sequential organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benssaou, Mohammed; Hamoumi, Naı̈ma

    2003-03-01

    In the Moroccan western Anti-Atlas, the combined extensive tectonic events with a long-term sea-level rise is the main factor on building vertical stacking transgressive-regressive sequences. In the Ait Abdallah-Boussafene axis, the subsidence processes, relayed by a brutal platform tilting generated an elongated NE-SW graben. This is an evidence of the persistence of the Anti-Atlasic rifting process during the last part of the Lower-Cambrian succession.

  2. Activités volcaniques sous-marines à la limite Jurassique-Crétacé dans le Rif externe (Maroc). Âge et relation avec la sédimentation et la paléogéographie du sillon rifain externe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzaggagh, Mohamed

    2011-04-01

    Following the recent stratigraphic works carried out on the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the external Rif chain (Mesorif area and Bou Haddoud nappe), numerous submarine volcanism traces have been discovered in Upper Oxfordian to Upper Berriasian deposits. These traces display various aspects: volcaniclastic complexes incorporated within Upper Berriasian marls; volcanic lavas and basalt clasts included in the breccias with clay matrix of Upper Oxfordian to Lower Berriasian age, or in brecciated Lower Tothonian calcareous beds of the Early Tithonian. These submarine volcanic activities took place in a carbonate platform environment during the Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian interval or in a pelagic basin from Late Tithonian onwards. They caused an intense brecciation of Upper Jurassic carbonate formations and a general dismantling of marly calcareous alternations of Upper Tithonian-Lower Berriasian. Therefore, the Upper Tithonian-Lower Berriasian deposits are marked by frequent stratigraphic gaps in many outcrops of Mesorif, Prerif areas and in the Bou Haddoud nappe.

  3. La coupe d'Ouled Haddou (Rif externe oriental) : un affleurement continu de la transition Crétacé Paléogène au Maroc, révélé par les Foraminifères planctoniquesThe Ouled Haddou section (oriental external Rif): a continuous outcrop of the Cretaceous Palaeogene transition in Morocco, revealed by planktonic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toufiq, Abdelkabir; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Feinberg, Hugues

    2002-10-01

    In the Ouled Haddou section, deposits of the Uppermost Maastrichtian correspond to the Abathomphalus mayaroensis Biozone. The index species is regularly present until the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary, which is marked by a mass extinction affecting 41 species (large and complex). Some Cretaceous small species persist in the Lowermost Danian. The first levels of the Danian are assigned to the Guembelitria cretacea Biozone, in which the species index persist without being affected, and the first species of the Tertiary appear. The upper part of the Lower Danian corresponds to the succession of Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina, Parasubbotina pseudobulloides, and Subbotina triloculinoides Biozones. From the P. eugubina Biozone, associations of Danian vary to undergo a complete renewal in the upper zones. The Ouled Haddou section, described for the first time, presents, according to planktonic Foraminifera, a complete record of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene transition. To cite this article: A. Toufiq et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 995-1001.

  4. PII signal transduction proteins are ATPases whose activity is regulated by 2-oxoglutarate

    PubMed Central

    Radchenko, Martha V.; Thornton, Jeremy; Merrick, Mike

    2013-01-01

    PII proteins are one of the most widespread families of signal transduction proteins in nature, being ubiquitous throughout bacteria, archaea, and plants. In all these organisms, PII proteins coordinate many facets of nitrogen metabolism by interacting with and regulating the activities of enzymes, transcription factors, and membrane transport proteins. The primary mode of signal perception by PII proteins derives from their ability to bind the effector molecules 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) and ATP or ADP. The role of 2-OG as an indicator of cellular nitrogen status is well understood, but the function of ATP/ADP binding has remained unresolved. We have now shown that the Escherichia coli PII protein, GlnK, has an ATPase activity that is inhibited by 2-OG. Hence, when a drop in the cellular 2-OG pool signals nitrogen sufficiency, 2-OG depletion of GlnK causes bound ATP to be hydrolyzed to ADP, leading to a conformational change in the protein. We propose that the role of ATP/ADP binding in E. coli GlnK is to effect a 2-OG-dependent molecular switch that drives a conformational change in the T loops of the PII protein. We have further shown that two other PII proteins, Azospirillum brasilense GlnZ and Arabidopsis thaliana PII, have a similar ATPase activity, and we therefore suggest that this switch mechanism is likely to be a general property of most members of the PII protein family. PMID:23818625

  5. Decolorization of azo dye Orange G by aluminum powder enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei Qiang; Wei, Xiao Qin; Song, Zhi Jun; Jin, Mi Cong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the decolorization of azo dye Orange G (OG) in aqueous solution by aluminum powder enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation (AlP-UI) was investigated. The effects of various operating operational parameters such as the initial pH, initial OG concentration, AlP dosage, ultrasound power and added hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration were studied. The results showed that the decolorization rate was enhanced when the aqueous OG was irradiated simultaneously by ultrasound in the AlP-acid systems. The decolorization rate decreased with the increase of both initial pH values of 2.0-4.0 and OG initial concentrations of 10-80mg/L, increased with the ultrasound power enhancing from 500 to 900W. An optimum value was reached at 2.0g/L of the AlP dosage in the range of 0.5-2.5g/L. The decolorization rate enhanced significantly by the addition of hydrogen peroxide in the range of 10-100mM to AlP-UI system reached an optimum value of 0.1491min(-1). The decolorization of OG appears to involve primarily oxidative steps, the cleavage of NN bond, which were verificated by the intermediate products of OG under the optimal tested degradation system, aniline and 1-amino-2-naphthol-6,8-disulfonate detected by the LC-MS. PMID:25132495

  6. Three Years of on Orbit ISS Oxygen Generation System Operation 2007-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diderich, Greg S.; Polis, Pete; VanKeuren, Steven P.; Erickson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) has accumulated 240 days of continuous operation at varied oxygen production rates within the US Laboratory Module (LAB) since it was first activated in July 2007. OGS relocated from the ISS LAB to Node 3 during 20A Flight (February 2010). The OGS rack delivery was accelerated for on-orbit checkout in the LAB, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006. During the on-orbit checkout interval within the LAB from July 2007 to October 2008, OGS operational times were limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Longer runtimes are now achievable due to the continuous feedwater availability after ULF2 delivery and activation of the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. OGS is considered a critical function to maintaining six crew capability. There have been a number of failures which interrupted or threatened to interrupt oxygen production. Filters in the recirculation loop have clogged and have been replaced, Hydrogen sensors have fallen out of specifications, a pump delta pressure sensor failed, a pump failed to start, and the voltage on the cell stack increased out of tolerance. This paper will discuss the operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  7. Development of reactive transport features within the OpenGeoSys project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Zolfaghari, R.; Centler, F.; Maier, U.; He, W.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    The numerical modeling of reactive transport processes has wide applications in different disciplines of earth sciences. In contaminant hydrogeology, it was often utilized to predict the degradation of chemical pollutants in the groundwater. For the waste repositories, it is one of the tools to evaluate long term behaviors of hazardous materials' migration. In geothermal research, it is also helpful in the understanding of geochemical water-rock reactions and accessing its impact on the performance of deep geothermal reservoirs. To simulate the above mentioned reactive transport problems, the sequential non-iterative approach (SNIA) has been implemented. Previously, this approach has been adopted. In the resulting coupled codes, namely OGS-PhreeqC, OGS-GEMS and OGS-BRNS, the mass transport part is simulated by OGS in each time step, and a chemical solver is then employed to handle the local chemical systems. Recently, the Global Implicit Approach (GIA) with reduction scheme proposed by Kräutel et al (2010) has been implemented into OGS6. The new method allows a separation of linearly transported components and chemically coupled nonlinear ones. Through the separation, it reduces the number of primary unknowns in the nonlinearly coupled partial differential equation system, thus alleviated the memory and computational demand of the simulation. This newly developed reactive transport feature of OGS has been verified by a set of benchmarks. For mineral equilibrium reactions, the OGS6 code is verified against the OGS-PhreeqC result using the calcite example, in which calcite in a column slowly dissolves under the flushing of MgCl2 solution and dolomite is temporarily precipitated. For kinetic reactions, a sequential degradation benchmark has been simulated. In it, benzene is degraded through both aerobic oxidation and anaerobic sulfate reduction pathways. Three different codes, namely MIN3P, OGS-BRNS, and the newly implemented reduction scheme in OGS6 have produced

  8. Effects of Organogel Hardness and Formulation on Acceptance of Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A G

    2016-09-01

    Different organogel formulations used as beef fat (BF) replacement (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) were utilized to optimize the mechanical properties of frankfurters. Organogels, made of canola oil (CO), included different concentrations of ethyl cellulose (EC) and sorbitan monostearate (SMS). They consisted of: 8% EC + 1.5% SMS referred to as organogel-I (OG-I), 8% EC + 3.0% SMS (OG-II), and 10% EC + 1.5% SMS (OG-III), which were found promising in a previous study when used at 100% replacement. Replacement of BF with organogels at all levels could bring down the very high hardness values (texture profile analysis and sensory) of frankfurters prepared using CO by itself, relative to the BF control. OG-I and OG-II quantity had no significant effect on hardness and springiness, being similar in many cases to the BF and lower than the CO control. Shear force values of all organogel treatments were not significantly different from one another, and were between the BF and CO controls. Smokehouse yield showed a pattern of decreasing losses with increasing organogel replacement level. Sensory analysis revealed that using CO by itself significantly increased hardness, but structuring the oil (via organogelation), brought it down to the BF control value in all OG-I and OG-II formulations. Juiciness was significantly reduced by using liquid oil but increased with raising the amount of organogels. Oiliness sensation increased with higher organogel substitution and was actually higher than the beef control. The study demonstrates the potential use of vegetable oil structuring in replacing the more saturated BF in emulsion-type meat products. PMID:27514694

  9. The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Maayan; Libersat, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The jewel wasp stings cockroaches and injects venom into their cerebral ganglia, namely the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) and supraesophageal ganglion (SupOG). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state, during which the stung cockroach shows little or no spontaneous walking. It was shown that venom injection to the SOG reduces neuronal activity, thereby suggesting a similar effect of venom injection in the SupOG. Paradoxically, SupOG-ablated cockroaches show increased spontaneous walking in comparison with control. Yet most of the venom in the SupOG of cockroaches is primarily concentrated in and around the central complex (CX). Thus the venom could chiefly decrease activity in the CX to contribute to the hypokinetic state. Our first aim was to resolve this discrepancy by using a combination of behavioral and neuropharmacological tools. Our results show that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking, and that focal injection of procaine to the CX is sufficient to induce the decrease in spontaneous walking. Furthermore, it was shown that artificial venom injection to the SOG decreases walking. Hence our second aim was to test the interactions between the SupOG and SOG in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation. We show that, in the absence of the inhibitory control of the SupOG on walking initiation, injection of venom in the SOG alone by the wasp is sufficient to induce the hypokinetic state. To summarize, we show that venom injection to either the SOG or the CX of the SupOG is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking. PMID:25687435

  10. JBP1 and JBP2 Proteins Are Fe2+/2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Dioxygenases Regulating Hydroxylation of Thymidine Residues in Trypanosome DNA*

    PubMed Central

    Cliffe, Laura J.; Hirsch, Gwen; Wang, Jin; Ekanayake, Dilrukshi; Bullard, Whitney; Hu, Muhan; Wang, Yinsheng; Sabatini, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that O-linked glucosylation of thymine in trypanosome DNA (base J) regulates polymerase II transcription initiation. In vivo analysis has indicated that base J synthesis is initiated by the hydroxylation of thymidine by proteins (JBP1 and JBP2) homologous to the Fe2+/2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent dioxygenase superfamily where hydroxylation is driven by the oxidative decarboxylation of 2-OG, forming succinate and CO2. However, no direct evidence for hydroxylase activity has been reported for the JBP proteins. We now demonstrate recombinant JBP1 hydroxylates thymine specifically in the context of dsDNA in a Fe2+-, 2-OG-, and O2-dependent manner. Under anaerobic conditions, the addition of Fe2+ to JBP1/2-OG results in the formation of a broad absorption spectrum centered at 530 nm attributed to metal chelation of 2-OG bound to JBP, a spectroscopic signature of Fe2+/2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. The N-terminal thymidine hydroxylase domain of JBP1 is sufficient for full activity and mutation of residues involved in coordinating Fe2+ inhibit iron binding and thymidine hydroxylation. Hydroxylation in vitro and J synthesis in vivo is inhibited by known inhibitors of Fe2+/2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. The data clearly demonstrate the JBP enzymes are dioxygenases acting directly on dsDNA, confirming the two-step J synthesis model. Growth of trypanosomes in hypoxic conditions decreases JBP1 and -2 activity, resulting in reduced levels of J and changes in parasite virulence previously characterized in the JBP KO. The influence of environment upon J biosynthesis via oxygen-sensitive regulation of JBP1/2 has exciting implications for the regulation of gene expression and parasite adaptation to different host niches. PMID:22514282

  11. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Harriss, Robert; Palacios, Virginia; Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Lavoie, Tegan; Shepson, Paul; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Marchese, Anthony J; Zimmerle, Daniel; Robinson, Allen L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-07-01

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas industry (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region were estimated by constructing a spatially resolved emission inventory. Eighteen source categories were estimated using multiple data sets, including new empirical measurements at regional O&G sites and a national study of gathering and processing facilities. Spatially referenced activity data were compiled from federal and state databases and combined with O&G facility emission factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations that account for high emission sites representing the very upper portion, or fat-tail, in the observed emissions distributions. Total methane emissions in the 25-county Barnett Shale region in October 2013 were estimated to be 72,300 (63,400-82,400) kg CH4 h(-1). O&G emissions were estimated to be 46,200 (40,000-54,100) kg CH4 h(-1) with 19% of emissions from fat-tail sites representing less than 2% of sites. Our estimate of O&G emissions in the Barnett Shale region was higher than alternative inventories based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively. Gathering compressor stations, which accounted for 40% of O&G emissions in our inventory, had the largest difference from emission estimates based on EPA data sources. Our inventory's higher O&G emission estimate was due primarily to its more comprehensive activity factors and inclusion of emissions from fat-tail sites. PMID:26148553

  12. Streptobacillus ratti sp. nov., isolated from a black rat (Rattus rattus).

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Imaoka, Koichi; Kimura, Masanobu; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Ewers, Christa; Semmler, Torsten; Rau, Jörg; Nicklas, Werner; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Kämpfer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    An indole-, oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-motile bacterium, strain OGS16T, was isolated from an oral swab of a feral black rat (Rattus rattus) in 2007 in Japan. It stained Gram-negative and had pleomorphic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming cells. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, strain OGS16T was assigned to the genus Streptobacillus, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99.3, 99.0, 98.6 and 95.5 % to the type strains of Streptobacillus moniliformis, Streptobacillus notomytis, Streptobacillus felis and Streptobacillus hongkongensis, respectively. Strain OGS16T could also be differentiated clearly from other species of the genus Streptobacillus by rpoB, groEL and recA nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analysis. DNA-DNA relatedness as obtained by average nucleotide identity was 89.10 % between strain OGS16T and Streptobacillus moniliformis DSM 12112T. Chemotaxonomic and physiological data for strain OGS16T were congruent with results for other closely related members of the family Leptotrichiaceae, represented by highly similar enzyme profiles and fatty acid patterns. MALDI-TOF MS analysis also proved suitable in discriminating strain OGS16T unequivocally from all currently described taxa of the genus Streptobacillus. On the basis of these data, we propose the novel species Streptobacillus ratti sp. nov., with the type strain OGS16T ( = JCM 31098T = DSM 101843T). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 25.9 mol% and the genome size is 1.50 Mbp. PMID:26705259

  13. IMPACT OF DEFICIENT NUTRITION IN BONE MASS AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    COSTA, Tatiana Munhoz da Rocha Lemos; PAGANOTO, Mariana; RADOMINSKI, Rosana Bento; BORBA, Victoria Zeghbi Cochenski

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential nutrients are considered for the prevention of the bone loss that occurs after bariatric surgery. Aim: Evaluate nutrients involved in bone metabolism, and relate to serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone, and the use of supplements and sun exposure on the bone mass of patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery. Methods: An observational study, with patients who had undergone the surgery 12 or more months previously, operated group (OG), compared to a control group (CG). Results: Were included 56 in OG and 27 in the CG. The mean age was 36.4±8.5 years. The individuals in the OG, compared to CG, consumed inadequate amounts of protein and daily calcium. The OG had a higher prevalence of low sun exposure, lower levels of 25OH Vitamin D (21.3±10.9 vs. 32.1±11.8 ng/dl), and increased serum levels of parathyroid hormone (68.1±32.9 vs. 39.9±11.9 pg/ml, p<0.001). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was present only in the OG (41.7%). The mean lumbar spine bone mineral density was lower in the OG. Four individuals from the OG had low bone mineral density for chronological age, and no one from the CG. Conclusion: The dietary components that affect bone mass in patients undergoing bariatric surgery were inadequate. The supplementation was insufficient and the sun exposure was low. These changes were accompanied by secondary hyperparathyroidism and a high prevalence of low bone mass in lumbar spine in these subjects. PMID:27120738

  14. Enterococcus faecalis adhesin, ace, mediates attachment to extracellular matrix proteins collagen type IV and laminin as well as collagen type I.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, S R; Qin, X; Weinstock, G M; Höök, M; Murray, B E

    2000-09-01

    Adhesin-mediated binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is thought to be a crucial step in the pathogenic process of many bacterial infections. We have previously reported conditional adherence of most Enterococcus faecalis isolates, after growth at 46 degrees C, to ECM proteins collagen types I and IV and laminin; identified an E. faecalis-specific gene, ace, whose encoded protein has characteristics of a bacterial adhesin; and implicated Ace in binding to collagen type I. In this study, we constructed an ace disruption mutant from E. faecalis strain OG1RF that showed marked reduction in adherence to collagen types I and IV and laminin when compared to the parental OG1RF strain after growth at 46 degrees C. Polyclonal immune serum raised against the OG1RF-derived recombinant Ace A domain reacted with a single approximately 105-kDa band of mutanolysin extracts from OG1RF grown at 46 degrees C, while no band was detected in extracts from OG1RF grown at 37 degrees C, nor from the OG1RF ace mutant grown at 37 or 46 degrees C. IgGs purified from the anti-Ace A immune serum inhibited adherence of 46 degrees C-grown E. faecalis OG1RF to immobilized collagen type IV and laminin as well as collagen type I, at a concentration as low as 1 microg/ml, and also inhibited the 46 degrees C-evoked adherence of two clinical isolates tested. We also showed in vitro interaction of collagen type IV with Ace from OG1RF mutanolysin extracts on a far-Western blot. Binding of recombinant Ace A to immobilized collagen types I and IV and laminin was demonstrated in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and was shown to be concentration dependent. These results indicate that Ace A mediates the conditional binding of E. faecalis OG1RF to collagen type IV and laminin in addition to collagen type I. PMID:10948147

  15. Long-term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Clinical Stage I Gastric Cancer: The LOC-1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Michitaka; Hiki, Naoki; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Yabusaki, Hiroshi; Abe, Takayuki; Nunobe, Souya; Terada, Mitsumi; Matsuki, Atsushi; Sunagawa, Hideki; Aizawa, Masaki; Healy, Mark A.; Iwasaki, Manabu; Furukawa, Toshi A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical trials comparing laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus traditional open gastrectomy (OG) have been planned, their surgical outcomes reported but their oncologic outcomes are still pending. Consequently, we have conducted this large-scale historical cohort study to provide relevant information rapidly to guide our current practice. Methods: Through a consensus meeting involving surgeons, biostatisticians, and epidemiologists, 30 variables of preoperative information possibly influencing surgeons’ choice between LG versus OG and potentially associating with outcomes were identified to enable rigorous estimation of propensity scores. A total of 4235 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma were identified and their relevant data were gathered from the participating hospitals. After propensity score matching, 1848 patients (924 each for LG and OG) were selected for comparison of long-term outcomes. Results: In the propensity-matched population, the 5-year overall survival was 96.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 95.0–97.6] in the OG as compared with 97.1% (95% CI, 95.9–98.3) in LG. The number of all-cause death was 33/924 in the OG and 24/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio (LG/OG) for overall death was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.44–1.27; P = 0.290). The 3-year recurrence-free survival was 97.4% (95% CI, 96.4–98.5) in the OG and 97.7% (95% CI, 96.5–98.8) in the LG. The number of recurrence was 22/924 in the OG and 21/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.55–1.84; P = 0.981). Conclusions: This observational study adjusted for all-known confounding factors seems to provide strong enough evidence to suggest that LG is oncologically comparable to OG for gastric cancer. PMID:27115899

  16. Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the

  17. Laser-induced optogalvanic signal oscillations in miniature neon glow discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K

    2013-06-20

    Laser-induced optogalvanic (OG) signal oscillations detected in miniature neon glow discharge plasma are investigated using a discharge equivalent-circuit model. The damped oscillations in OG signal are generated when a pulsed dye laser is tuned to a specific neon transition (1s5→2p2) at 588.2 nm under the discharge conditions where dynamic resistance changes its sign. Penning ionization via quasi-resonant energy transfer collisions between neon gas atoms in metastable state and sputtered electrode atoms in ground state is discussed to explain the negative differential resistance properties of discharge plasma that are attributed to oscillations in the OG signal. The experimentally observed results are simulated by analyzing the behavior of an equivalent discharge-OG circuit. Good agreement between theoretically calculated and experimental results is observed. It is found that discharge plasma is more sensitive and less stable in close vicinity to dynamic resistance sign inversion, which can be useful for weak-optical-transition OG detection. PMID:23842186

  18. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa. PMID:25312603

  19. Effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li-Tao; Zhong, Kui; Liu, Liya; Zhou, Xianrong; Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Sumei

    2015-02-15

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan (HBG) on cholesterol metabolism in hamsters which were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. The hamsters were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental diets, containing 5‰ HBG or 5‰ oat β-glucan (OG), for 30days. The HBG, as well as OG, lowered the concentration of plasma LDL-cholesterol significantly. The excretion of total lipids and cholesterol in feces were increased in HBG and OG groups compared with the control group. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in liver was reduced significantly in the HBG group compared with the control and OG groups. The activity of cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver, in the HBG and OG groups, was significantly increased compared with the control group. The concentrations of acetate, propionate and total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were not significantly different between the HBG and control groups. These results indicate that dietary HBG reduces the concentration of plasma LDL cholesterol by promoting the excretion of fecal lipids, and regulating the activities of HMG-CoA reductase and CYP7A1 in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. PMID:25236236

  20. Characterization of the Effects of an rpoC Mutation That Confers Resistance to the Fst Peptide Toxin-Antitoxin System Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Cassandra L.; Bumgarner, Roger; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Dunman, Paul M.; Kuechenmeister, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the Fst toxin in Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1X leads to defects in chromosome segregation, cell division and, eventually, membrane integrity. The M7 mutant derivative of OG1X is resistant to most of these effects but shows a slight growth defect in the absence of Fst. Full-genome sequencing revealed two differences between M7 and its OG1X parent. First, OG1X contains a frameshift mutation that inactivates the etaR response regulator gene, while M7 is a wild-type revertant for etaR. Second, the M7 mutant contains a missense mutation in the rpoC gene, which encodes the β′ subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that the rpoC mutation was primarily responsible for the resistance phenotype. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of transporters were induced in OG1X when Fst was overexpressed. These transporters were not induced in M7 in response to Fst, and further experiments indicated that this had a direct protective effect on the mutant cells. Therefore, exposure of cells to Fst appears to have a cascading effect, first causing membrane stress and then potentiation of these effects by overexpression of certain transporters. PMID:23104812

  1. Cytotoxicity of obacunone and obacunone glucoside in human prostate cancer cells involves Akt-mediated programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Kotamballi N Chidambara; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2015-03-01

    Obacunone and obacunone glucoside (OG) are naturally occurring triterpenoids commonly found in citrus and other plants of the Rutaceae family. The current study reports the mechanism of cytotoxicity of citrus-derived obacunone and OG on human androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Both limonoids exhibited time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, with more than 60% inhibition of cell viability at 100 μM, after 24 and 48 h. Analysis of fragmentation of DNA, activity of caspase-3, and cytosolic cytochrome-c in the cells treated with limonoids provided evidence for activation of programmed cell death by limonoids. Treatment of LNCaP cells with obacunone and OG resulted in dose-dependent changes in expression of proteins responsible for the induction of programmed cell death through the intrinsic pathway and down-regulation of Akt, a key molecule in cell signaling pathways. In addition, obacunone and OG also negatively regulated an inflammation-associated transcription factor, androgen receptor, and prostate-specific antigen, and activated proteins related to the cell cycle, confirming the ability of limonoids to induce cytotoxicity through multiple pathways. The results of this study provided, for the first time, an evidence of the cytotoxicity of obacunone and OG in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cells. PMID:25592883

  2. Pectin Biosynthesis Is Critical for Cell Wall Integrity and Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bethke, Gerit; Thao, Amanda; Xiong, Guangyan; Li, Baohua; Soltis, Nicole E; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Hillmer, Rachel A; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Pauly, Markus; Glazebrook, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Plant cell walls are important barriers against microbial pathogens. Cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves contain three major types of polysaccharides: cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and pectins. UDP-d-galacturonic acid, the key building block of pectins, is produced from the precursor UDP-d-glucuronic acid by the action of glucuronate 4-epimerases (GAEs). Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) repressed expression of GAE1 and GAE6 in Arabidopsis, and immunity to Pma ES4326 was compromised in gae6 and gae1 gae6 mutant plants. These plants had brittle leaves and cell walls of leaves had less galacturonic acid. Resistance to specific Botrytis cinerea isolates was also compromised in gae1 gae6 double mutant plants. Although oligogalacturonide (OG)-induced immune signaling was unaltered in gae1 gae6 mutant plants, immune signaling induced by a commercial pectinase, macerozyme, was reduced. Macerozyme treatment or infection with B. cinerea released less soluble uronic acid, likely reflecting fewer OGs, from gae1 gae6 cell walls than from wild-type Col-0. Although both OGs and macerozyme-induced immunity to B. cinerea in Col-0, only OGs also induced immunity in gae1 gae6. Pectin is thus an important contributor to plant immunity, and this is due at least in part to the induction of immune responses by soluble pectin, likely OGs, that are released during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26813622

  3. Crystal Structure and Functional Analysis of Homocitrate Synthase, an Essential Enzyme in Lysine Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Scott, Erin M.; Couture, Jean-François; Pillus, Lorraine; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-01-12

    Homocitrate synthase (HCS) catalyzes the first and committed step in lysine biosynthesis in many fungi and certain Archaea and is a potential target for antifungal drugs. Here we report the crystal structure of the HCS apoenzyme from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and two distinct structures of the enzyme in complex with the substrate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). The structures reveal that HCS forms an intertwined homodimer stabilized by domain-swapping between the N- and C-terminal domains of each monomer. The N-terminal catalytic domain is composed of a TIM barrel fold in which 2-OG binds via hydrogen bonds and coordination to the active site divalent metal ion, whereas the C-terminal domain is composed of mixed {alpha}/{beta} topology. In the structures of the HCS apoenzyme and one of the 2-OG binary complexes, a lid motif from the C-terminal domain occludes the entrance to the active site of the neighboring monomer, whereas in the second 2-OG complex the lid is disordered, suggesting that it regulates substrate access to the active site through its apparent flexibility. Mutations of the active site residues involved in 2-OG binding or implicated in acid-base catalysis impair or abolish activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results yield new insights into the structure and catalytic mechanism of HCSs and furnish a platform for developing HCS-selective inhibitors.

  4. Evolution of food provision to athletes at the summer Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Pelly, Fiona E; O'Connor, Helen T; Denyer, Gareth S; Caterson, Ian D

    2011-06-01

    The history of food provision at the summer Olympic Games (OG) over the past century (1896-2008) provides insight into the evolution of sports nutrition research and the dietary strategies of athletes. Early research favoring protein as the main fuel for exercise was reflected in OG menus from 1932 to 1968. Despite conclusive research from the 1960s demonstrating the clear benefit of carbohydrate on exercise performance, a specific emphasis on carbohydrate-rich foods was not noted until the 1970s. Athlete food preferences and catering complexity evolved rapidly between 1970 and 2000, driven predominantly by a dramatic expansion of the OG and the emergence of systematic sports nutrition research. Nutritional advice by experts and sponsorship by food companies became increasingly important beginning with the 1984 Los Angeles OG. More recent developments include nutritional labeling of menu items and provision of a nutrition information desk (Barcelona 1992), demand for a "high-starch, low-fat menu" (Atlanta 1996), the addition of a dedicated menu website and the systematic gathering of information on athletes' apparent consumption (Sydney 2000), and appointment of the first international dietetic review committee (Beijing 2008). The history of catering at the OG tracks the evolution of sports nutrition practice from anecdotes and myth towards an established specialty in nutrition and dietetics grounded in evidence-based science. PMID:21631513

  5. Nonmetabolizable analogue of 2-oxoglutarate elicits heterocyst differentiation under repressive conditions in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Sophie; Chen, Han; Bédu, Sylvie; Ziarelli, Fabio; Peng, Ling; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2005-01-01

    In response to combined nitrogen starvation in the growth medium, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is able to develop a particular cell type, called a heterocyst, specialized in molecular nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts are regularly intercalated among vegetative cells and represent 5–10% of all cells along each filament. In unicellular cyanobacteria, the key Krebs cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), has been suggested as a nitrogen status signal, but in vivo evidence is still lacking. In this study we show that nitrogen starvation causes 2-OG to accumulate transiently within cells of Anabaena PCC 7120, reaching a maximal intracellular concentration of ≈0.1 mM 1 h after combined nitrogen starvation. A nonmetabolizable fluorinated 2-OG derivative, 2,2-difluoropentanedioic acid (DFPA), was synthesized and used to demonstrate the signaling function of 2-OG in vivo. DFPA is shown to be a structural analogue of 2-OG and the process of its uptake and accumulation in vivo can be followed by 19F magic angle spinning NMR because of the presence of the fluorine atom and its chemical stability. DFPA at a threshold concentration of 0.3 mM triggers heterocyst differentiation under repressing conditions. The multidisciplinary approaches using synthetic fluorinated analogues, magic angle spinning NMR for their analysis in vivo, and techniques of molecular biology provide a powerful means to identify the nature of the signals that remain unknown or poorly defined in many signaling pathways. PMID:15985552

  6. Impact of surgical approach on postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing gastrectomy: laparoscopic versus open approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium is a frequent complication in elderly patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and is associated with a poor outcome. We compared postoperative delirium in elderly patients following laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus open gastrectomy (OG). Methods In total, 130 patients aged ≥ 65 years with gastric cancer undergoing LG and OG were enrolled prospectively. Postoperative delirium and cognitive status were assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), respectively, for 3 days postoperatively. For CAM-positive patients, delirium severity was then assessed using the Delirium Index (DI). Results In total, 123 subjects (LG, n = 60; OG, n = 63) were included in the analysis. In both groups, the overall incidences of postoperative delirium were similar: 31.6% (19/60) in the LG group and 41.2% (26/63) in the OG group. When considering only those with delirium, the severity, expressed as the highest DI score, was similar between the groups. A decline in cognitive function (reduction in MMSE ≥ 2 points from baseline) during 3 days postoperatively was observed in 23 patients in the LG group (38.3%) and 27 patients in the OG group (42.9%) (P = 0.744). In both groups, postoperative cognitive decline was significantly associated with postoperative delirium (P < 0.001). Conclusions We found that, compared with traditional open gastrectomy, laparoscopic gastrectomy did not reduce either postoperative delirium or cognitive decline in elderly patients with gastric cancer. PMID:26257851

  7. Disruption of Microtubular Cytoskeleton Induced by Cryptogein, an Elicitor of Hypersensitive Response in Tobacco Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; Humbert, Claude; Lecourieux, David; Vantard, Marylin; Pugin, Alain

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of microtubular cytoskeleton were studied in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) cells in response to two different plant defense elicitors: cryptogein, a protein secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea and oligogalacturonides (OGs), derived from the plant cell wall. In tobacco plants cryptogein triggers a hypersensitive-like response and induces systemic resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, whereas OGs induce defense responses, but fail to trigger cell death. The comparison of the microtubule (MT) dynamics in response to cryptogein and OGs in tobacco cells indicates that MTs appear unaffected in OG-treated cells, whereas cryptogein treatment caused a rapid and severe disruption of microtubular network. When hyperstabilized by the MT depolymerization inhibitor, taxol, the MT network was still disrupted by cryptogein treatment. On the other hand, the MT-depolymerizing agent oryzalin and cryptogein had different and complementary effects. In addition to MT destabilization, cryptogein induced the death of tobacco cells, whereas OG-treated cells did not die. We demonstrated that MT destabilization and cell death induced by cryptogein depend on calcium influx and that MT destabilization occurs independently of active oxygen species production. The molecular basis of cryptogein-induced MT disruption and its potential significance with respect to cell death are discussed. PMID:11161014

  8. Possible involvement of PPARγ-associated eNOS signaling activation in rosuvastatin-mediated prevention of nicotine-induced experimental vascular endothelial abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Sonam; Mahadevan, Nanjaian; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2013-02-01

    Nicotine exposure via cigarette smoking and tobacco chewing is associated with vascular complications. The present study investigated the effect of rosuvastatin in nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Further, scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of thoracic aorta were performed to assess the vascular endothelial integrity. Moreover, oxidative stress was assessed by estimating aortic superoxide anion generation and serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. The nicotine administration produced VED by markedly reducing acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium, decreasing aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, increasing oxidative stress, and inducing lipid alteration. However, treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) markedly attenuated nicotine-induced vascular endothelial abnormalities, oxidative stress, and lipid alteration. Interestingly, the co-administration of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist, GW9662 (1 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) submaximally, significantly prevented rosuvastatin-induced improvement in vascular endothelial integrity, endothelium-dependent relaxation, and nitrite/nitrate concentration in rats administered nicotine. However, GW9662 co-administration did not affect rosuvastatin-associated vascular anti-oxidant and lipid-lowering effects. The incubation of aortic ring, isolated from rosuvastatin-treated nicotine-administered rats, with L-NAME (100 μM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), significantly attenuated rosuvastatin-induced improvement in acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Rosuvastatin prevents nicotine-induced vascular endothelial abnormalities by activating

  9. Usefulness of visceral obesity (waist/hip ratio) in predicting vascular endothelial function in healthy overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Brook, R D; Bard, R L; Rubenfire, M; Ridker, P M; Rajagopalan, S

    2001-12-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) is associated with obesity; however, its etiology remains controversial. By determining the predictors of fasting and postprandial endothelial function in overweight adults without other cardiovascular risk factors, we were able to investigate novel mechanisms directly linking obesity to VED. Thirty-two healthy adults (body mass index [BMI] > or =27 kg/m(2)) underwent determination of fasting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size, high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, anthropometric measurements, and endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Postprandial lipemia and FMD were measured 4 hours after ingestion of a high-fat meal. Blood pressures and fasting levels of lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and fatty acids were within normal limits in all subjects. An abdominal fat pattern, as determined by an increased waist/hip ratio (WHR), was the sole significant predictor of FMD (r = -0.58, p = 0.001), despite no significant correlation between whole body obesity (BMI) and FMD. At comparable levels of BMI, obese subjects with a WHR > or =0.85 had a significantly blunted FMD compared with those with a WHR <0.85 (3.93 +/- 2.85% vs 8.34 +/- 5.47%, p = 0.016). Traditional coronary risk factors, C-reactive protein, postprandial lipemia, and LDL particle size did not predict FMD. We found no appreciable alteration in the postprandial state from fasting FMD (6.31 +/- 4.62% vs 6.25 +/- 5.47%, p = 0.95). The same results were found when women were analyzed alone. Increased abdominal adiposity determined by a simple WHR is a strong independent predictor of VED even in healthy overweight adults; this is a finding unexplained by alterations in conventional risk factors, systemic inflammation, or the atherogenic lipoprotein pattern. PMID:11728354

  10. On the electromagnetic fields produced by marine frequency domain controlled sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chave, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, marine controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) has found increasing use in hydrocarbon exploration due to its ability to detect thin resistive zones beneath the seafloor. Although it must be recognized that the quantitative interpretation of marine CSEM data over petroleum-bearing formations will typically require 2-D surveys and 2-D or 3-D modelling, the use of the 1-D approximation is useful under some circumstances and provides considerable insight into the physics of marine CSEM. It is the purpose of this paper to thoroughly explore the 1-D solutions for all four fundamental source types-vertical and horizontal, electric and magnetic dipole (VED, HED, VMD and HMD)-using a set of canonical reservoir models that encompass brine to weak to strong hydrocarbon types. The paper introduces the formalism to solve the Maxwell equations for a 1-D structure in terms of independent and unique toroidal and poloidal magnetic modes that circumscribe the salient diffusion physics. Green's functions for the two modes from which solutions for arbitrary source current distributions can be constructed are derived and used to obtain the electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by finite VED, HED, VMD and HMD sources overlying an arbitrary 1-D electrical structure. Field behaviour is analysed using the Poynting vector that represents the time-averaged flow of energy through the structure and a polarization ellipse decomposition of the triaxial seafloor EM field that is a complete field description. The behaviour of the two EM modes using unimodal VED and VMD sources is presented. The paper closes by extending these results to the bimodal HED and HMD sources.