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Sample records for oil affects blood

  1. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. PMID:18391475

  2. Blood alcohol concentrations: factors affecting predictions.

    PubMed

    Winek, C L; Esposito, F M

    1985-01-01

    As a result of extensive alcohol research conducted on both humans and animals, it is possible to predict a BAC, given pertinent data. In addition, it is possible to estimate from a given BAC the quantity of alcohol consumed. Caution must be used in these predictions, for certain factors will affect the final estimation. Absorption of alcohol is influenced by gastrointestinal contents and motility, and also the composition and quantity of the alcoholic beverage. The vascularity of tissues influences the distribution of alcohol, and their water content will determine the amount of alcohol present after equilibrium. Elimination of alcohol begins immediately after absorption. The elimination rate varies for individuals but falls between .015 percent to .020 percent per hour, with an average of .018 percent per hour. In addition to these factors, a BAC will depend on the subject's weight, percentage of alcohol in the beverage, and the rate of drinking. The principal effect of alcohol in the body is on the central nervous system. Its depressant effect consists of impairment to sensory, motor and learned functions. When combined with some other drugs, a more intoxicated state occurs. Although tolerance to alcohol at low blood concentrations is possible, the tolerance most noted is a learned tolerance among chronic drinkers. contamination of antemortem blood samples collected for alcohol analysis is minimal when swabbing with an ethanolic antiseptic is performed with routine clinical technique; sloppy swabbing has been shown to increase the BAC determination significantly. The alcoholic content of blood used for transfusion does not contribute significantly to the BAC of the recipient, since extensive dilution occurs; nor does the alcohol present in injectable medication contribute significantly. Although many factors may alter the concentration of alcohol present in autopsy specimens, postmortem synthesis of alcohol receives the most attention. The microorganisms that

  3. Does Schumann resonance affect our blood pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mitsutake, G.; Otsuka, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether Schumann resonance (SR) affects blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and depression and, if so, whether the putative BP reactivity to SR (BPR-SR) is associated with health-related lifestyle (HLS), disease-related illnesses (DRI), and depression. Methods A sample of 56 adults in Urausu, Hokkaido, Japan, wore an ambulatory BP monitor, except for the time in the shower, for seven consecutive days. They completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and a health survey questionnaire on HLS and DRI. Group mean differences and within-individual differences in systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), double product (DP), and HR were, respectively, compared between normal and enhanced SR days, using Student’s t-test. Correlations between BPR-SR and other characteristics (i.e. age, gender, HLS, DRI, subjective health, and depression) were analyzed, using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results and discussion Group mean SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP for enhanced SR days were lower than those for normal days (P = 0.005-0.036). DRI was negatively associated with BPR-SR in SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP (P = 0.003-0.024), suggesting a better health status for those who showed lower BP on enhanced SR days. HLS was negatively associated with BPR-SR in DBP and MAP (P = 0.016-0.029). Males showed higher BPR-SR in DBP and MAP than females (P = 0.0044-0.016). Neither subjective health nor depression was significantly associated with BPR-SR. Future studies based on larger sample sizes are planned to see whether possible health effects can be generalized. PMID:16275477

  4. Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, P; Schuhmacher, A; Astani, A; Reichling, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon balm oil, the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, on herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of balm oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at high dilutions of 0.0004% and 0.00008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil,plaque formation was significantly reduced by 98.8% for HSV-1 and 97.2% for HSV-2, higher concentrations of lemon balm oil abolished viral infectivity nearly completely. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of this essential oil, time-on-addition assays were performed. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with balm oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Melissa oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus lemon balm oil is capable of exerting a direct antiviral effect on herpesviruses. Considering the lipophilic nature of lemon balm essential oil, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Melissa officinalis oil might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections. PMID:18693101

  5. Application of dried blood spot cards to determine olive oil phenols (hydroxytyrosol metabolites) in human blood.

    PubMed

    de Las Hazas, María Carmen López; Motilva, Maria José; Piñol, Carme; Macià, Alba

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a fast and simple blood sampling and sample pre-treatment method based on the use of the dried blood spot (DBS) cards and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the quantification of olive oil phenolic metabolites in human blood was developed and validated. After validation, the method was applied to determine hydroxytyrosol metabolites in human blood samples after the acute intake of an olive oil phenolic extract. Using the FTA DMPK-A DBS card under optimum conditions, with 20µL as the blood solution volume, 100µL of methanol/Milli-Q water (50/50, v/v) as the extraction solvent and 7 disks punched out from the card, the main hydroxytyrosol metabolites (hydroxytyrosol-3-O-sulphate and hydroxytyrosol acetate sulphate) were identified and quantified. The developed methodology allowed detecting and quantifying the generated metabolites at low μM levels. The proposed method is a significant improvement over existing methods to determine phenolic metabolites circulating in blood and plasma samples, thus making blood sampling possible with the volunteer pricking their own finger, and the subsequent storage of the blood in the DBS cards prior to chromatographic analysis. PMID:27474297

  6. How gelation affects oil well cements

    SciTech Connect

    Kieffer, J.; Rae, P.

    1987-05-01

    One of the most common problems seen in the oil industry is that of cement gelation. Gelation can be defined as a premature viscosification or a gel-strength buildup of the cement slurry. This can have important consequences in field operations and may be so severe as to cause job failure. One of the principal difficulties encountered in dealing with cement gelation is the unpredictable nature of the phenomenon and the fact that it may manifest itself under a variety of field conditions. Thus, it may occur immediately after mixing or during the displacement when the slurry has reached circulating temperature; it occasionally is seen only during shutdowns, when the slurry is in static condition, but may appear during pumping when the slurry is under continual shear. The fact that the physico-chemical bases of gelation are complex probably accounts for the broad spectrum of conditions under which gelation can occur. Factors involved include the chemical composition of the cement powder itself, its fineness, its microstructure, the mixwater quality, the types (if any) of additive used, the rate of heat flux into the slurry as well as the final temperature to which the slurry is exposed.

  7. Use of oil-affected habitats by birds after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.H.; Murphy, S.M.; Smith, L.N.; Wiens, J.A.; Hayward, G.D.; Harner, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigated the effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill o the use of oil-affected habitats by birds during 1989--1991. The authors measured densities of birds in bays that had been subjected to various levels of oiling from the spill during survey cruises that were conducted throughout the year in Prince William Sound (PWS) and during summer along the Kenai Peninsula. Overall, 23 of 42 (55%) species in PWS and 22 of 34 (65%) species on the Kenai showed no evidence of oiling impacts on their use of habitats. Most species that did not show initial negative impacts had recovered by late summer 1991 when the study concluded, although 6 of the 19 species initially impacted in PWS and 6 of the 12 species initially impacted along the Kenai did not exhibit clear signs of recovery by this time. A Principal Components Analysis of species examined from PWS revealed extensive overlap in ecological attributes among species that were and were not negatively impacted in their use of oil-affected habitats. Species that did not show clear evidence of recovery tended to be intertidal feeders and residents of PWS, but other ecologically similar species evidenced either no initial impacts or rapid recovery. These similarities suggest that the prognosis is good for the species for which they were unable to document recovery in habitat use. These findings, together with the rapid rates of recovery in habitat features reported in other studies, suggest that impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on avian use of oil-affected habitats generally were not persistent. 48 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Does topical phenylephrine, tropicamide, or proparacaine affect macular blood flow?

    PubMed

    Robinson, F; Petrig, B L; Sinclair, S H; Riva, C E; Grunwald, J E

    1985-08-01

    The acute effect of topical phenylephrine HCl 10%, tropicamide 1% and proparacaine HCl 0.5% on macular capillary blood flow was studied in six healthy human volunteers using the blue field simulation technique. This technique provides a method for quantifying the velocity of leukocytes flowing in one's own retinal macular capillaries. Patients adjusted the velocity of computer simulated leukocytes moving on a CRT screen to match that of their own entoptically perceived leukocytes before instillation of each of the tested preparations and for 35 minutes immediately thereafter A 5% NaCl solution was used as a control. We found no significant difference in leukocyte velocity between the control drop and any of the tested drugs. With the six subjects tested, the calculated average minimum percentage change in leukocyte velocity detectable with this technique (P less than 0.05, paired t-test) was 9%. None of the tested drugs affected macular leukocyte velocity, and presumably blood flow, by more than this amount. PMID:4047607

  9. In vitro red blood cell assay for oxidant toxicity of petroleum oil

    SciTech Connect

    Couillard, C.M.; Leighton, F.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Petroleum oil has caused hemolytic anemia in birds and mammals. In birds, an oxidant damage on circulating red cells has been identified as the primary toxic effect of ingested petroleum oils. An in vitro red blood cell assay was developed to discriminate among the oxidant activities of different petroleum oils. The assay used rabbit red blood cells with a rat liver enzyme system and formation of methemoglobin was measured as an indicator of oxidant damage to the red cells. The assay was applied to five different petroleum oils and to naphthalene, a petroleum hydrocarbon known to cause hemolytic anemia. Different petroleum oils differed in their capacity to induce methemoglobin formation. Methemoglobin levels varied from 2.9% with Arabian light crude oil to 6.2% with South Louisiana crude oil. Naphthalene induced formation of up to 37% methemoglobin. Naphthalene and the five petroleum oils generated methemoglobin only in the presence of liver enzymes.

  10. Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM

  11. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  12. Factors affecting contamination of blood samples for ethanol determinations.

    PubMed

    Winek, C L; Eastly, T

    1977-01-01

    Contamination of blood samples collected for alcohol analysis from swabbing with an ethanolic antiseptic is minimal (less than 0.6 mg/100 ml or 0.0006 percent ethanol) when routine clinical technique is followed. When technicians were told to be deliberately sloppy, considerable contamination (89 mg/100 ml or 0.09 percent ethanol) occurred. The incidence and extent of contamination from banked blood intended for transfusions are minimal. Two percent of the 1,450 samples analyzed contained alcohol. The average blood alcohol concentration was 26 mg/100 ml or 0.03 percent ethanol. One microliter of rubbing alcohol per milliliter of whole blood, or one-tenth of a drop of rubbing alcohol per milliliter of whole blood, increases the BAC 56.5 mg/100 ml (0.06 percent ethanol) and 67.5 mg/100 ml (0.07 percent ethanol), respectively. PMID:865218

  13. Factors affecting postoperative blood loss in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Faraoni, David; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that the influence of cyanotic disease on postoperative blood loss is closely related to age in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of a cyanotic disease is associated with increased postoperative blood loss in children aged 1 to 6 months. Children with cyanotic disease and aged<1 month who received fresh frozen plasma during cardiopulmonary bypass had less postoperative blood loss and higher maximal clot firmness on FIBTEM than cyanotic children from all other groups. Additional studies are needed to define optimal pathophysiology-based management in children undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:24512988

  14. Factors affecting the forensic examination of automotive lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Ryan; Goodpaster, John V; Evans, Michelle R

    2011-05-01

    Lubricating oil comparisons impact a variety of forensic investigations, including cases where oil was transferred from a suspect vehicle to the crime scene or victim. In this study, high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to examine the influence of oil mixtures and oil changes over time on the comparison of known and questioned lubricating oils. Varying concentrations of oil mixtures were prepared and showed the potential for identifying individual components. Motor oils from 18 automobiles monitored over a 2-month period did not demonstrate significant changes in the chromatographic data. Chemometric analysis of motor oil mass spectral data provided little information regarding differentiation of, or changes in, the samples. Power steering fluid (PSF) from a naturally occurring leak collected from several locations was consistent with the PSF in the automobile's reservoir, and the PSF composition did not change over time. PMID:21361948

  15. Acupuncture affects regional blood flow in various organs.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae; Hotta, Harumi

    2008-06-01

    In this review, our recent studies using anesthetized animals concerning the neural mechanisms of vasodilative effect of acupuncture-like stimulation in various organs are briefly summarized. Responses of cortical cerebral blood flow and uterine blood flow are characterized as non-segmental and segmental reflexes. Among acupuncture-like stimuli delivered to five different segmental areas of the body; afferent inputs to the brain stem (face) and to the spinal cord at the cervical (forepaw), thoracic (chest or abdomen), lumbar (hindpaw) and sacral (perineum) levels, cortical cerebral blood flow was increased by stimuli to face, forepaw and hindpaw. The afferent pathway of the responses is composed of somatic groups III and IV afferent nerves and whose efferent nerve pathway includes intrinsic cholinergic vasodilators originating in the basal forebrain. Uterine blood flow was increased by cutaneous stimulation of the hindpaw and perineal area, with perineal predominance. The afferent pathway of the response is composed of somatic group II, III and IV afferent nerves and the efferent nerve pathway includes the pelvic parasympathetic cholinergic vasodilator nerves. Furthermore, we briefly summarize vasodilative regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow via a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) induced by antidromic activation of group IV somatic afferent nerves. These findings in healthy but anesthetized animals may be applicable to understanding the neural mechanisms improving blood flow in various organs following clinical acupuncture. PMID:18604254

  16. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  17. Virgin Coconut Oil Prevents Blood Pressure Elevation and Improves Endothelial Functions in Rats Fed with Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i) control (basal diet), (ii) VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral), (iii) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) (5HPO), and (iv) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral) (5HPO + VCO). Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil. PMID:23861707

  18. Virgin coconut oil prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i) control (basal diet), (ii) VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral), (iii) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) (5HPO), and (iv) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral) (5HPO + VCO). Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil. PMID:23861707

  19. Concentrations in human blood of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Stephan R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    During/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, cleanup workers, fisherpersons, SCUBA divers, and coastal residents were exposed to crude oil and dispersants. These people experienced acute physiological and behavioral symptoms and consulted a physician. They were diagnosed with petroleum hydrocarbon poisoning and had blood analyses analyzed for volatile organic compounds; samples were drawn 5-19 months after the spill had been capped. We examined the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the blood. The aromatic compounds m,p-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, o-xylene, and styrene, and the alkanes hexane, 3-methylpentane, 2-methylpentane, and iso-octane were detected. Concentrations of the first four aromatics were not significantly different from US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey/US National Institute of Standards and Technology 95th percentiles, indicating high concentrations of contaminants. The other two aromatics and the alkanes yielded equivocal results or significantly low concentrations. The data suggest that single-ring aromatic compounds are more persistent in the blood than alkanes and may be responsible for the observed symptoms. People should avoid exposure to crude oil through avoidance of the affected region, or utilizing hazardous materials suits if involved in cleanup, or wearing hazardous waste operations and emergency response suits if SCUBA diving. Concentrations of alkanes and PAHs in the blood of coastal residents and workers should be monitored through time well after the spill has been controlled. PMID:25998020

  20. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Haggag, Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed; Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. Conclusions The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. PMID:24144131

  1. Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Herman, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The high concentrations of essential oils are generally required to receive microbial purity of the products (cosmetics, medicine). On the other hand, their application due to the high concentration of essential oils may be limited by changes in organoleptic and textural quality of the products, as well as they cause irritation and allergies in users. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The aim of the study was to compare antimicrobial activity of essential oil alone and in combination with linalool. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus bergamia, Citrus grandis, Lavandula angustifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum, linalool and their combination was investigated against bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. The addition of linalool to S. aromaticum oil in a synergistic manner enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis. Moreover, the additive interaction between this oil and linalool was observed against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. It was also found that linalool in an additive manner increased the antimicrobial effectiveness of T. vulgaris oil against P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial properties of mixture of essential oils with their active constituents may be used for creating new strategies to maintain microbiological purity of products. PMID:26553262

  2. Role of dietary fish oil on nitric oxide synthase activity and oxidative status in mice red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marcela A; Moss, Monique B; Mendes, Iara K S; Águila, Márcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio Cláudio

    2014-12-01

    The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from fish oil concomitant with a reduced intake of saturated fats is associated with cardiovascular benefits, which may result from the participation of nitric oxide (NO). In contrast, PUFAs are vulnerable to peroxidation, which could affect the oxidative stability of the cell and reduce NO bioavailability. Therefore, we investigated the effects of high fat diets with increasing amounts of fish oil (0-40% of energy) in place of lard on the l-arginine-NO pathway, the arginase pathway and oxidative status in mice red blood cells (RBC). We found that l-arginine transport, as well as NO synthase (NOS) expression and activity, was enhanced by the highest doses of fish oil (30 and 40%). In contrast, diets rich in lard led to NOS expression and activity impairment. Arginase expression was not significantly affected by any of the dietary regimens. No significant difference in protein and lipid oxidative markers was observed among any of the fish-oil fed mice; only lard feeding induced protein damage in addition to a decreased superoxide dismutase activity. These data suggest that a substantial dose of fish oil, but not low doses, activates the RBC l-arginine-NO pathway without resulting in oxidative damage. PMID:25317541

  3. Perilla oil improves blood flow through inhibition of platelet aggregation and thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang-Sei; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of perilla oil on the platelet aggregation in vitro and thrombosis in vivo were investigated in comparison with aspirin, a well-known blood flow enhancer. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with perilla oil and aggregation inducers collagen or thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Perilla oil significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations, in which the thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were administered once daily by gavage with perilla oil for 1 week, carotid arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Perilla oil delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 0.5 mL/kg. In addition, a high dose (2 mL/kg) of perilla oil greatly prevented the occlusion, comparable to the effect of aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that perilla oil inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is proposed that perilla oil could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow. PMID:24707301

  4. Blood oxygenation level-dependent response to intragastric load of corn oil emulsion in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Uematsu, Akira; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Torii, Kunio

    2009-12-01

    The postingestive actions after intragastric or oronasal stimulation of fat have been well investigated. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes, however, after intragastric load of corn oil emulsion have yet to be elucidated. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the BOLD signal response to gut corn oil emulsion in nonanesthetized rats. Intragastrically infused 7% corn oil emulsion induced a BOLD signal increase in several brain regions, including the bilateral amygdala, hippocampus and the ventral tegmental area. These results indicate that the limbic system responds to gut corn oil emulsion and that activation of this system could promote the reinforcing action for food with high fat content. PMID:19918206

  5. Factors Affecting Blood Glucose Monitoring: Sources of Errors in Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Barry H.

    2009-01-01

    Glucose monitoring has become an integral part of diabetes care but has some limitations in accuracy. Accuracy may be limited due to strip manufacturing variances, strip storage, and aging. They may also be due to limitations on the environment such as temperature or altitude or to patient factors such as improper coding, incorrect hand washing, altered hematocrit, or naturally occurring interfering substances. Finally, exogenous interfering substances may contribute errors to the system evaluation of blood glucose. In this review, I discuss the measurement of error in blood glucose, the sources of error, and their mechanism and potential solutions to improve accuracy in the hands of the patient. I also discuss the clinical measurement of system accuracy and methods of judging the suitability of clinical trials and finally some methods of overcoming the inaccuracies. I have included comments about additional information or education that could be done today by manufacturers in the appropriate sections. Areas that require additional work are discussed in the final section. PMID:20144340

  6. Genetic Mapping of Novel Loci Affecting Canine Blood Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    White, Michelle E.; Hayward, Jessica J.; Stokol, Tracy; Boyko, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the dog genome and the construction of high-quality genome-wide SNP arrays, thousands of dogs have been genotyped for disease studies. For many of these dogs, additional clinical phenotypes are available, such as hematological and clinical chemistry results collected during routine veterinary care. Little is known about the genetic basis of variation in blood phenotypes, but this variation may play an important role in the etiology and progression of many diseases. From a cohort of dogs that had been previously genotyped on a semi-custom Illumina CanineHD array for various genome-wide association studies (GWAS) at Cornell University Hospital for Animals, we chose 353 clinically healthy, adult dogs for our analysis of clinical pathologic test results (14 hematological tests and 25 clinical chemistry tests). After correcting for age, body weight and sex, genetic associations were identified for amylase, segmented neutrophils, urea nitrogen, glucose, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Additionally, a strong genetic association (P = 8.1×10−13) was evident between a region of canine chromosome 13 (CFA13) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), explaining 23% of the variation in ALT levels. This region of CFA13 encompasses the GPT gene that encodes the transferase. Dogs homozygous for the derived allele exhibit lower ALT activity, making increased ALT activity a less useful marker of hepatic injury in these individuals. Overall, these associations provide a roadmap for identifying causal variants that could improve interpretation of clinical blood tests and understanding of genetic risk factors associated with diseases such as canine diabetes and anemia, and demonstrate the utility of holistic phenotyping of dogs genotyped for disease mapping studies. PMID:26683458

  7. Targeting of blood safety measures to affected areas with ongoing local transmission of malaria.

    PubMed

    Domanović, D; Kitchen, A; Politis, C; Panagiotopoulos, T; Bluemel, J; Van Bortel, W; Overbosch, D; Lieshout-Krikke, R; Fabra, C; Facco, G; Zeller, H

    2016-06-01

    An outbreak of locally acquired Plasmodium vivax malaria in Greece started in 2009 and peaked in 2011. Targeting of blood safety measures to affected areas with ongoing transmission of malaria raised questions of how to define spatial boundaries of such an area and when to trigger any specific blood safety measures, including whether and which blood donation screening strategy to apply. To provide scientific advice the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) organised expert meetings in 2013. The outcomes of these consultations are expert opinions covering spatial targeting of blood safety measures to affected areas with ongoing local transmission of malaria and blood donation screening strategy for evidence of malaria infection in these areas. Opinions could help EU national blood safety authorities in developing a preventive strategy during malaria outbreaks. PMID:27238883

  8. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  9. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

    1984-10-01

    Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

  10. Intake of repeatedly heated palm oil causes elevation in blood pressure with impaired vasorelaxation in rats.

    PubMed

    Leong, Xin-Fang; Najib, Mohd Nadzri Mohd; Das, Srijit; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2009-09-01

    Oxidization of dietary cooking oil increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension by increasing the formation oxidative oxygen radicals. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitrites, and vascular reactivity. Nitrites were measured, as an indirect marker for nitric oxide production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control group fed with basal diet and other three groups fortified with 15% weight/weight fresh palm oil (FPO), palm oil heated five times (5HPO) or palm oil heated ten times (10HPO) for 24 weeks. The oil was heated to 180 degrees C for 10 min. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and at intervals of four weeks for 24 weeks using non-invasive tail-cuff method. Following 24 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and thoracic aortas were dissected for measurement of vascular reactivity. Blood pressure was elevated significantly (p < 0.05) in 5HPO and 10HPO groups, with the 10HPO group showing higher values. Aortic rings from animals fed with heated oil showed diminished relaxation in response to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside, and greater contraction to phenylephrine. Acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside cause endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation, respectively. Relaxation responses remained unaltered in the FPO group, with the attenuated contractile response to phenylephrine, compared to control group. FPO increased plasma nitrites by 28%, whereas 5HPO and 10HPO reduced them by 25% and 33%, respectively. Intake of repeatedly heated palm oil causes an increase in blood pressure, which may be accounted for by the attenuated endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant response. PMID:19713687

  11. Chronic effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on blood and enzyme chemistry of river otters

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, L.K.; Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W. ); Faro, J.B. )

    1994-04-01

    River otters (Lutra canadensis) living in marine environments of Prince William Sound, Alaska, and exposed to crude oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in March 1989 showed elevated levels of blood haptoglobins, and interleukin-6 ir, as well as elevated activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and creatine kinase in summer 1991. Stepwise logistic regression, using a subset of these and other blood proteins and enzyme activities as potential independent variables, correctly classified 86.4% of 22 otters as inhabiting oiled or nonoiled areas. River otters abandoned latrine sites (an index to their abundance) over three times more often in oiled than in nonoiled areas, suggesting there may have been a delayed response in river otter populations to exposure to crude oil. This is the first clear model for the long-term effects of an oil spill on blood parameters of a free-ranging mammal using a nonlethal methodology. These effects occurred two years after the spill and following a major effort to clean oil from the shorelines of Prince William Sound.

  12. Fabrication of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Sites on Polypropylene Nonwoven for Oil Spill Cleanup: Two Dilemmas Affecting Oil Sorption.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Wang, Feifei; Ji, Yali; Chen, Weiting; Wei, Junfu

    2016-04-01

    This article mainly deals with the following dilemmas, which affect oil sorption and sorbent preparation: (1) hydrophobization could facilitate oil sorption but has adverse impacts on emulsion sorption; (2) micropores of conventional oil sorbent do not exhibit effective emulsion sorption. To solve the above contradictions, hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites were fabricated onto polypropylene (PP) nonwoven through electron beam radiation and subsequent ring-opening reaction. Further, a similar structure without a hydrophilic site was constructed as comparison to verify the dilemmas. An oil sorption and emulsion adsorption experiment revealed that the PP nonwoven with specific hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites is more suitable for oil cleanup. The hydrophobic site preserved its hydrophobicity and sorption capacity, and the hydrophilic site on PP surface effectively increased the affinity between the hydrophilic interface of emulsion and sorbent. The overlapped and intertwined structures could provide spaces large enough to accommodate oil and emulsion. In addition, the oil and emulsion sorption behaviors were systematically analyzed. The PP nonwoven fabricated in this study may find practical application in the cleanup of oil spills and the removal of organic pollutants from water surfaces. PMID:26918267

  13. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g ...

  14. Palm oil and ground nut oil supplementation effects on blood glucose and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Adewale, Olabiyi Folorunso; Isaac, OlatunjiOlusola; Tunmise, Makinwa Temitope; Omoniyi, OguntibejuOluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two common cooking oils (palm oil, PO) and (groundnut oil, GO) supplementation on the antioxidant status and diabetic indices in Alloxan (100mg/kg) induced diabetic Wistar rats. A total of forty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. They were divided into four groups of 12 animals each as: control, diabetic non-supplemented, diabetic supplemented with PO (200mg/kg/day) and diabetic supplemented with GO (200mg/kg/day) rats. Blood glucose, plasma vitamin E, SOD, Total Protein and Albumin levels were measured using standard laboratory procedures. After three weeks of supplementation there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose of supplemented groups compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. Plasma Vitamins C and E, SOD, and Albumin levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the supplemented groups when compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. However, the plasma levels of these parameters were found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in the GO supplemented rats compared with the PO supplemented group. The plasma vitamin C levels in the diabetic groups were lower than in other groups while increased levels in the plasma total protein were not significant. There was no significant difference in the measured parameters in reference to the gender of the animals. It was concluded from this study that GO exhibited superior antioxidant activities and that the supplementation of red palm oil and ground nut oil as a source of antioxidant was beneficial in diabetic state as it reduced blood glucose and enhance antioxidant status. PMID:26826842

  15. Some factors affecting the oil-spill risk to sea otters in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, R.T.

    1984-10-01

    Sea otters in California, with their limited range and numbers, are exposed to the threat of oil spills from a number of sources including offshore oil and gas development, transportation of crude oil and refined products, and the bunker fuel of vessels transiting the otter range. This report explores some of the direct and indirect ways otters may be affected by oil spills, including hypothermia, pneumonia, toxic effects, and destruction of preferred prey. The report also examines the possibility of mitigating the effects of oil spills through spill containment and cleanup, otter capture, cleaning and rehabilitation, and otter relocation. The report concludes with a description of the amount of shoreline affected by some major spills in various parts of the world.

  16. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  17. Comparison of pigeon guillemot, Cepphus columba, blood parameters from oiled and unoiled areas of Alaska eight years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiser, P.E.; Duffy, L.K.; McGuire, David A.; Roby, D.D.; Golet, G.H.; Litzow, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, we compared the haematological and plasma biochemical profiles among populations of pigeon guillemots, Cepphus columba, in areas oiled and not oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) that occurred in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Pigeon guillemot populations in PWS were injured by EVOS and have not returned to pre-spill levels. If oil contamination is limiting recovery of pigeon guillemots in PWS, then we expected that blood parameters of pigeon guillemots would differ between oiled and unoiled areas and that these differences would be consistent with either toxic responses or lower fitness. We collected blood samples from chicks at approximately 20 and 30 days after hatching. Physiological changes associated with chick growth were noted in several blood parameters. We found that only calcium and mean cell volume were significantly different between the chicks in oiled and unoiled areas. Despite these differences, blood biomarkers provided little evidence of continuing oil injury to pigeon guillemot chicks, eight years after the EVOS. Preliminary data from adults indicated elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity in the adults from the oiled area, which is consistent with hepatocellular injury. Because adults have greater opportunities for exposure to residual oil than nestlings, we recommend studies that fully evaluate the health of adults residing in oiled areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Soil moisture affects fatty acids and oil quality parameters in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought affects yield of peanut, but its effect on oleic and linoleic acids that influence its oil quality of peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance has not been clearly investigated. Therefore, the aims of this research were to determine whether soil water levels could affect...

  19. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil

    PubMed Central

    Terés, S.; Barceló-Coblijn, G.; Benet, M.; Álvarez, R.; Bressani, R.; Halver, J. E.; Escribá, P. V.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as α-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (≈70–80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (HII phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA. PMID:18772370

  20. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  1. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  2. Argan (Argania spinosa) oil lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Pérez-Guerrero, Concepción; Ettaib, Abdelkader; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Marhuenda, Elisa; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Traditionally hand-pressed argan oil, obtained from Argania spinosa seeds, is eaten raw in south-west Morocco; its rich composition of tocopherols, MUFA and PUFA make a study of its actions on risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, interesting. The effects of 7 weeks of treatment with argan oil (10 ml/kg) on the blood pressure and endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were investigated. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured every week by the tail-cuff method and endothelial function was assessed by carbachol (10(-8) to 10(-4) M)-induced relaxations of aortic rings and small mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Argan-oil administration reduced the mean blood pressure of SHR after the fifth week of treatment (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.01) the endothelial responses of arteries from SHR. The NO synthase inhibitor, L-N-omega-nitroarginine (3 x 10(-5) M) revealed a greater participation of NO in the relaxant effect after the treatment. When cyclooxygenase (COX) was blocked with indomethacin (10(-5) M), an involvement of COX products in the endothelium-dependent response was characterized. Enzyme immunoassay of thromboxane B2 showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the release of thromboxane A2 in both aorta and small mesenteric artery after argan-oil treatment of SHR. Experiments in the presence of the thromboxane A2-prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist ICI 192,605 (10(-5) M) confirmed this result. Results after incubation with the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase suggested that a decreased oxidative stress might contribute to explain the beneficial effects of argan-oil treatment. PMID:15613254

  3. Potential anti-inflammatory effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Caldefie-Chézet, F; Fusillier, C; Jarde, T; Laroye, H; Damez, M; Vasson, M-P; Guillot, J

    2006-05-01

    The fungicidal and bactericidal actions of the essential oil (EO) of Melaleuca alternifolia seem well established, but their anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects remain unclear. This study investigated in vitro the possible role of whole Melaleuca alternifolia EO as a modulator of the inflammatory/non-specific immune response by exploring the chemotaxis and kinetic radical oxygen species (ROS) production of leukocytes and cytokine secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in humans. The influence of Melaleuca alternifolia EO on the chemotaxis under agarose of isolated neutrophils (PMNs) was evaluated. The kinetics of ROS production by stimulated total circulating leukocytes was followed over 2 h by recording the fluorescence intensity of oxidized dihydrorhodamine 123. The effects of this EO on pro-(interleukin IL-2) and anti-(IL-4 and IL10) inflammatory cytokine secretions were determined by ELISA following incubation of PBMCs with the EO for 24 h. Melaleuca alternifolia EO was inefficient on the chemotaxis of PMNs. It exerted an antioxidant effect, reducing ROS production throughout the kinetic study. Melaleuca alternifolia EO inhibited PBMC proliferation, as revealed by a reduction in IL-2 secretion by stimulated lymphocytes. This EO at 0.1% directly increased the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 compared with IL-4 secretion without EO (18.5 +/- 10.0 vs 3.3 +/- 1, p < 0.05), and also increased IL-10 secretion at 0.01% (94.9 +/- 38.7 vs 44.1 +/- 18, ns). Melaleuca alternifolia EO may not only act as an anti-inflammatory mediator through its antioxidant activity but may also efficiently protect the organism by reducing the proliferation of inflammatory cells without affecting their capacity to secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:16619364

  4. Colorimetric Method for Identifying Plant Essential Oil Components That Affect Biofilm Formation and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Niu, C.; Gilbert, E. S.

    2004-01-01

    The specific biofilm formation (SBF) assay, a technique based on crystal violet staining, was developed to locate plant essential oils and their components that affect biofilm formation. SBF analysis determined that cinnamon, cassia, and citronella oils differentially affected growth-normalized biofilm formation by Escherichia coli. Examination of the corresponding essential oil principal components by the SBF assay revealed that cinnamaldehyde decreased biofilm formation compared to biofilms grown in Luria-Bertani broth, eugenol did not result in a change, and citronellol increased the SBF. To evaluate these results, two microscopy-based assays were employed. First, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to examine E. coli biofilms cultivated in flow cells, which were quantitatively analyzed by COMSTAT, an image analysis program. The overall trend for five parameters that characterize biofilm development corroborated the findings of the SBF assay. Second, the results of an assay measuring growth-normalized adhesion by direct microscopy concurred with the results of the SBF assay and CLSM imaging. Viability staining indicated that there was reduced toxicity of the essential oil components to cells in biofilms compared to the toxicity to planktonic cells but revealed morphological damage to E. coli after cinnamaldehyde exposure. Cinnamaldehyde also inhibited the swimming motility of E. coli. SBF analysis of three Pseudomonas species exposed to cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, or citronellol revealed diverse responses. The SBF assay could be useful as an initial step for finding plant essential oils and their components that affect biofilm formation and structure. PMID:15574886

  5. Current developments affecting future availability of oil and gas in the free world

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1981-03-17

    This review focuses on developments during the last 18 months likely to affect the availability of oil and gas in coming decades. These developments include new discoveries (Hibernia, Beaufort Sea, Ivory Coast, the Western and Eastern Overthrust Belts, and the Gulf of Suez). They also include new energy policies of both producer and consumer nations that will ultimately affect supply. New policies and a rapidly increasing domestic demand may stabilize Mexico's exports at their present level, even if production reaches 4 to 5 million barrels per day (b/d). Canada's new policy toward foreign oil companies operating within her borders may well stifle exploration and investment in both oil and tar sand deposits. OPEC contract and pricing schemes are profoundly altering distribution systems and markets. OPEC plans to allocate oil arbitrarily in times of shortage could disrupt the industrial world. Inability to reassign oil contracted for from OPEC nations is forcing buyers to increase storage capacity. The oil inventories reported are not equivalent to availability, since 50 to 90% is essentially unavailable. Thus, stock equivalent to 110 days of imports may include only a few weeks of primary usable stocks. Only Sweden and South Africa have federally owned oil reserves that could meet demand for periods of months or years. Natural gas from the USSR will probably comprise 30% of Western Europe's total supply in the 1990s, if plans to import gas from the Yamal Peninsula come to fruition. Soviet gas is seen as an acceptable alternative to undependable OPEC oil supplies and similarly unreliable gas supplies from North Africa. However, the proposed, increased dependency on the USSR may add a new dimension to Soviet and Western European politics.

  6. Water-triacylglycerol interactions affect oil body structure and seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are investigating interactions between water and triacylglycerols (TAG) that appear to affect oil body stability and viability of seeds. Dried seeds are usually stored at freezer temperatures (-20oC) for long-term conservation of genetic resources. This globally accepted genebanking practice is...

  7. Overview of U.S. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the legislative and regulatory regime that affects natural gas and oil exploration and production in offshore regions of the United States. It discusses the role and importance of these areas as well as the competing interests surrounding ownership, production, exploration and conservation.

  8. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes. PMID:24924647

  9. Detection and expression of bovine papillomavirus in blood of healthy and papillomatosis-affected cattle.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A R; De Albuquerque, B M F; Pontes, N E; Coutinho, L C A; Leitão, M C G; Reis, M C; Castro, R S; Freitas, A C

    2013-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PV) are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause benignant and malignant tumors in amniotes. There are 13 types of bovine papillomavirus (BPV-1 to -13); they have been found in reproductive tissues and body fluids. Normally these viruses are detected in epithelial tissue. We looked for BPV in the blood of healthy cattle and cattle with papillomatosis, using PCR and RT-PCR. BPV types 1 and 2 were detected in 8/12 blood samples of asymptomatic bovines and in 8/9 samples from cattle with papillomatosis. Six of 8 asymptomatic samples positive for BPV also showed expression for BPV. Five of 6 samples were positive for E2 expression, while 3/6 samples were positive for E5 expression. Five of 8 symptomatic samples positive for BPV also showed BPV expression. Five of 5 were positive for E2 expression, while 1/5 was positive for E5 expression. Two of 6 blood samples of asymptomatic cattle and 1/5 symptomatic blood samples scored positive for both E2 and E5 expression. This is the first study showing expression of BPV genes in the blood of asymptomatic and papillomatosis-affected animals. PMID:23479176

  10. Factors affecting regional pulmonary blood flow in chronic ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pistolesi, M.; Miniati, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Andreotti, F.; Di Ricco, G.; Marini, C.; Rindi, M.; Biagini, A.; Milne, E.N.; Giuntini, C.

    1988-07-01

    To assess the effect of left heart disease on pulmonary blood flow distribution, we measured mean pulmonary arterial and wedge pressures, cardiac output, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary blood volume, and arterial oxygen tension before and after treatment in 13 patients with longstanding ischemic heart failure and pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema was evaluated by a radiographic score, and regional lung perfusion was quantified on a lung scan by the upper to lower third ratio (U:L ratio) of pulmonary blood flow per unit of lung volume. In all cases, redistribution of lung perfusion toward the apical regions was observed; this pattern was not affected by treatment. After treatment, pulmonary vascular pressures, resistance, and edema were reduced, while pulmonary blood volume did not change. At this time, pulmonary vascular resistance showed a positive correlation with the U:L ratio (r = 0.78; P less than 0.01), whereas no correlation was observed between U:L ratio and wedge pressure, pulmonary edema, or arterial oxygen tension. Hence, redistribution of pulmonary blood flow, in these patients, reflects chronic structural vascular changes prevailing in the dependent lung regions.

  11. Baseline and reactivity measures of blood pressure and negative affect in borderline hypertension.

    PubMed

    Waked, E G; Jutai, J W

    1990-02-01

    Measures of blood pressure (BP) and negative affect were taken prior to, immediately following, and ten minutes after a cognitive stressor in groups of normotensive (group N; n = 15) and borderline hypertensive (group B; n = 15) young adults. Two testing sessions, one week apart, involved performance of a simple, congruent color-word ("easy") and a cognitive stress-inducing, incongruent color-word ("difficult") version of the Stroop test. In both sessions, group B showed significantly higher baseline systolic and diastolic BP, higher systolic responses to the difficult Stroop task, and higher recovery measures of systolic and diastolic BP than group N. In general, group B had significantly elevated baseline and reactivity scores on state measures of negative affect in both sessions. Correlations revealed strong positive associations between blood pressure and mood reactivity only for borderline subjects. Depressed mood was more strongly and consistently related to blood pressure reactivity than was hostility. Borderline hypertension appears to be associated with stable, perhaps clinically significant elevations in negative affect, and with dysphoric response to mild cognitive stress. PMID:2333341

  12. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  13. Evaluation of the blood level duration properties of procaine benzylpenicillin in oil with aluminium monostearate (PAM)*

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Jillian M.; Lightbown, J. W.; Mussett, Marjorie V.; Woodward, Patricia M.

    1965-01-01

    The study of procaine benzylpenicillin in oil with aluminium monostearate (PAM) described in this paper was undertaken to devise laboratory assay methods, based on animal tests, to evaluate those properties of PAM responsible for the persistence of penicillin in the circulation, as a preferable substitute for the existing test in man. Comparative studies of a number of batches of PAM in man proved, with statistical certainty, that the duration of the blood level of penicillin which they produced varied from batch to batch. The chemical and physical properties of the batches gave inadequate characterization and were of no value in assessing material for clinical use. A blood level duration test in rabbits was developed which reflected the blood level duration properties shown in man. The test was incorporated in the Requirements for Procaine Benzylpenicillin in Oil with Aluminium Monostearate that were set up by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization to ensure the suitability of batches for clinical use. An International Reference Preparation was necessary and was established. Batches of PAM in use in the field by WHO in anti-yaws campaigns were examined by the test described and found to be satisfactory. ImagesFIG. 5 PMID:5295406

  14. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:26130050

  15. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  16. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices - How numerical implementation affects the results.

    PubMed

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-02-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed. PMID:26679833

  17. Preanalytical Conditions and DNA Isolation Methods Affect Telomere Length Quantification in Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Tolios, Alexander; Teupser, Daniel; Holdt, Lesca M

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are located at chromosome ends and their length (TL) has been associated with aging and human diseases such as cancer. Whole blood DNA is frequently used for TL measurements but the influence of preanalytical conditions and DNA isolation methods on TL quantification has not been thoroughly investigated. To evaluate potential preanalytical as well as methodological bias on TL, anonymized leftover EDTA-whole blood samples were pooled according to leukocyte counts and were incubated with and without actinomycin D to induce apoptosis as a prototype of sample degradation. DNA was isolated from fresh blood pools and after freezing at -80°C. Commercially available kits using beads (Invitrogen), spin columns (Qiagen, Macherey-Nagel and 5prime) or precipitation (Stratec/Invisorb) and a published isopropanol precipitation protocol (IPP) were used for DNA isolation. TL was assessed by qPCR, and normalized to the single copy reference gene 36B4 using two established single-plex and a new multiplex protocol. We show that the method of DNA isolation significantly affected TL (e.g. 1.86-fold longer TL when comparing IPP vs. Invitrogen). Sample degradation led to an average TL decrease of 22% when using all except for one DNA isolation method (5prime). Preanalytical storage conditions did not affect TL with exception of samples that were isolated with the 5prime kit, where a 27% increase in TL was observed after freezing. Finally, performance of the multiplex qPCR protocol was comparable to the single-plex assays, but showed superior time- and cost-effectiveness and required > 80% less DNA. Findings of the current study highlight the need for standardization of whole blood processing and DNA isolation in clinical study settings to avoid preanalytical bias of TL quantification and show that multiplex assays may improve TL/SCG measurements. PMID:26636575

  18. Preanalytical Conditions and DNA Isolation Methods Affect Telomere Length Quantification in Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Tolios, Alexander; Teupser, Daniel; Holdt, Lesca M.

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are located at chromosome ends and their length (TL) has been associated with aging and human diseases such as cancer. Whole blood DNA is frequently used for TL measurements but the influence of preanalytical conditions and DNA isolation methods on TL quantification has not been thoroughly investigated. To evaluate potential preanalytical as well as methodological bias on TL, anonymized leftover EDTA-whole blood samples were pooled according to leukocyte counts and were incubated with and without actinomycin D to induce apoptosis as a prototype of sample degradation. DNA was isolated from fresh blood pools and after freezing at -80°C. Commercially available kits using beads (Invitrogen), spin columns (Qiagen, Macherey-Nagel and 5prime) or precipitation (Stratec/Invisorb) and a published isopropanol precipitation protocol (IPP) were used for DNA isolation. TL was assessed by qPCR, and normalized to the single copy reference gene 36B4 using two established single-plex and a new multiplex protocol. We show that the method of DNA isolation significantly affected TL (e.g. 1.86-fold longer TL when comparing IPP vs. Invitrogen). Sample degradation led to an average TL decrease of 22% when using all except for one DNA isolation method (5prime). Preanalytical storage conditions did not affect TL with exception of samples that were isolated with the 5prime kit, where a 27% increase in TL was observed after freezing. Finally, performance of the multiplex qPCR protocol was comparable to the single-plex assays, but showed superior time- and cost-effectiveness and required > 80% less DNA. Findings of the current study highlight the need for standardization of whole blood processing and DNA isolation in clinical study settings to avoid preanalytical bias of TL quantification and show that multiplex assays may improve TL/SCG measurements. PMID:26636575

  19. A practical review on photooxidation of crude oil: laboratory lamp setup and factors affecting it.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Ravi; Shim, Won Joon; An, Joon Geon; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    After an oil spill, crude oil in the marine environment is affected by a variety of processes collectively called weathering. Photooxidation induced by ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun is one of the most significant processes of long-term weathering that changes the chemical nature of oil. Experimental studies on photooxidation in the natural environment are generally not practicable due to the variability of factors that are more readily controlled in a laboratory. The emission spectra and irradiance of artificial lamps are critical factors for simulating sunlight, and the process of acceleration should be differentiated from simulation. We present a comprehensive review of the exposure conditions affecting in vitro photooxidation studies, including the types of lamps, their spectra and irradiance levels and maintenance conditions. The importance of xenon arc, metal halide along with mercury–xenon, high-pressure mercury lamps and other lamps with respect to their spectral characteristics is discussed and the selection guide is provided. A brief discussion on other factors affecting photooxidation rates and outcomes, such as photosensitisers, photodegraders, solvents and the synergistic effects of compounds is also given. PMID:25462738

  20. Deletion of the Scl +19 enhancer increases the blood stem cell compartment without affecting the formation of mature blood lineages.

    PubMed

    Spensberger, Dominik; Kotsopoulou, Ekaterini; Ferreira, Rita; Broccardo, Cyril; Scott, Linda M; Fourouclas, Nasios; Ottersbach, Katrin; Green, Anthony R; Göttgens, Berthold

    2012-07-01

    The stem cell leukemia (Scl)/Tal1 gene is essential for normal blood and endothelial development, and is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), progenitors, erythroid, megakaryocytic, and mast cells. The Scl +19 enhancer is active in HSCs and progenitor cells, megakaryocytes, and mast cells, but not mature erythroid cells. Here we demonstrate that in vivo deletion of the Scl +19 enhancer (Scl(Δ19/Δ19)) results in viable mice with normal Scl expression in mature hematopoietic lineages. By contrast, Scl expression is reduced in the stem/progenitor compartment and flow cytometry analysis revealed that the HSC and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor populations are enlarged in Scl(Δ19/Δ19) mice. The increase in HSC numbers contributed to enhanced expansion in bone marrow transplantation assays, but did not affect multilineage repopulation or stress responses. These results affirm that the Scl +19 enhancer plays a key role in the development of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, but is not necessary for mature hematopoietic lineages. Moreover, active histone marks across the Scl locus were significantly reduced in Scl(Δ19/Δ19) fetal liver cells without major changes in steady-state messenger RNA levels, suggesting post-transcriptional compensation for loss of a regulatory element, a result that might be widely relevant given the frequent observation of mild phenotypes after deletion of regulatory elements. PMID:22401818

  1. Do peat amendments to oil sands wet sediments affect Carex aquatilis biomass for reclamation success?

    PubMed

    Roy, Marie-Claude; Mollard, Federico P O; Foote, A Lee

    2014-06-15

    The oil sands industries of Alberta (Canada) have reclamation objectives to return the mined landscape to equivalent pre-disturbance land capability. Industrial operators are charged with reclaiming a vast landscape of newly exposed sediments on saline-sodic marine-shales sediments. Incorporated in these sediments are by-products resulting from bitumen extraction (consolidated tailings (CT), tailings-sand (TS), and oil sands processed water (OSPW)). A sedge community dominated by Carex aquatilis was identified as a desirable and representative late-succession community for wet-meadow zones of oil sands-created marshes. However, the physical and chemical conditions, including high salinity and low nutrient content of CT and TS sediments suppress plant growth and performance. We experimentally tested the response of C. aquatilis to amendments with peat-mineral-mix (PM) on oil sand sediments (CT and TS). In a two factorial design experiment, we also tested the effects of OSPW on C. aquatilis. We assessed survival, below- and aboveground biomass, and physiology (chlorophyll a fluorescence). We demonstrated that PM amendments to oil sands sediments significantly increased C. aquatilis survival as well as below and aboveground biomass. The use of OSPW significantly reduced C. aquatilis belowground biomass and affected its physiological performance. Due to its tolerance and performance, we verified that C. aquatilis was a good candidate for use in reclaiming the wet-meadow zones of oil sands-created marshes. Ultimately, amending CT and TS with PM expedited the reclamation of the wetland to a C. aquatilis-community which was similar in gross structure to undisturbed wetlands of the region. PMID:24694323

  2. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li’an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5 ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  3. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li'an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5 ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  4. von Willebrand Factor Propeptide: A Potential Disease Biomarker Not Affected by ABO Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Marianor, Mahat; Zaidah, Abdullah Wan; Maraina, CH Che

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that vascular-related disorders are associated with high von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) and VWF propeptide (VWFpp). VWFpp is secreted together with VWF:Ag upon endothelial cell activation, hence it could be a potential biomarker. This study was conducted to compare between VWF:Ag and VWFpp levels among 30 healthy individuals and 42 patients with high levels of VWF:Ag in different medical conditions and ABO blood groups. VWFpp levels were strongly correlated with VWF:Ag. VWF:Ag and VWFpp levels were significantly increased in patients compared to healthy individuals. VWFpp is not affected by ABO blood group in both healthy individual and patient groups unlike VWF:Ag. As expected, this study showed that VWFpp levels increased in parallel with VWF:Ag levels in patients with diseases associated with endothelial activation. VWFpp though nonspecific is a potential biomarker reflecting underlying pathophysiological changes in various medical conditions with an additional advantage of not being influenced by ABO blood groups. PMID:26339184

  5. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity. PMID:24706518

  6. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats. PMID:24496299

  7. Bioremediation potential of microorganisms from a sandy beach affected by a major oil spill.

    PubMed

    Reis, Izabela; Almeida, C Marisa R; Magalhães, Catarina M; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Guedes, Paula; Basto, M Clara P; Bordalo, Adriano A; Mucha, Ana P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioremediation potential of microorganisms from intertidal sediments of a sandy beach affected by a major oil spill 7 years before and subject to chronic petroleum contamination since then. For that, the response of microorganisms to a new oil contamination was assessed in terms of community structure, abundance, and capacity to degrade hydrocarbons. Experiments were carried out under laboratory-controlled conditions by mixing sediment with crude oil with three different nitrogen supplementations in 50 ml serum bottles under constant shake for 15 days. Autochthonous microorganisms were able to respond to the new oil contamination by increasing their abundance (quantified by DAPI) and changing the community structure (evaluated by DGGE). This response was particularly clear for some specific bacterial groups such as Pseudomonas, Actinomycetales, and Betaproteobacteria. These communities presented an important potential for hydrocarbon degradation (up to 85 % for TPHs and 70 % for total PAHs), being the biodegradation stimulated by addition of an appropriate amount of nitrogen. PMID:24271736

  8. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent ...

  9. Toxic polyneuropathy due to gingili oil contaminated with tri-cresyl phosphate affecting adolescent girls in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, N; Jeyaratnam, J

    1981-01-10

    An outbreak of acute polyneuropathy affected over 20 young females in Sri Lanka during 1977-78. The illness was restricted to girls attaining menarche and to women after childbirth. The cause of the neuropathy could be traced to tri-cresyl phosphate found as a contaminant in gingili oil. Contamination probably occurred during transport of the oil in containers previously used for storing mineral oils. PMID:6109132

  10. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight infection and are part of your body's defense system. Platelets help blood to clot when you have a cut or wound. Bone marrow, the spongy material inside your bones, makes new blood cells. Blood cells ...

  11. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible. PMID:26467150

  12. Higher whole-blood selenium is associated with improved immune responses in footrot-affected sheep

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We reported previously that sheep affected with footrot (FR) have lower whole-blood selenium (WB-Se) concentrations and that parenteral Se-supplementation in conjunction with routine control practices accelerates recovery from FR. The purpose of this follow-up study was to investigate the mechanisms by which Se facilitates recovery from FR. Sheep affected with FR (n = 38) were injected monthly for 15 months with either 5 mg Se (FR-Se) or saline (FR-Sal), whereas 19 healthy sheep received no treatment. Adaptive immune function was evaluated after 3 months of Se supplementation by immunizing all sheep with a novel protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test to KLH were used to assess humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Innate immunity was evaluated after 3 months of Se supplementation by measuring intradermal responses to histamine 30 min after injection compared to KLH and saline, and after 15 months of Se supplementation by isolating neutrophils and measuring their bacterial killing ability and relative abundance of mRNA for genes associated with neutrophil migration. Compared to healthy sheep, immune responses to a novel protein were suppressed in FR-affected sheep with smaller decreases in FR-affected sheep that received Se or had WB-Se concentrations above 250 ng/mL at the time of the immune assays. Neutrophil function was suppressed in FR-affected sheep, but was not changed by Se supplementation or WB-Se status. Sheep FR is associated with depressed immune responses to a novel protein, which may be partly restored by improving WB-Se status (> 250 ng/mL). PMID:21896161

  13. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

    2011-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium. PMID:21735935

  14. Retaining biodiversity in intensive farmland: epiphyte removal in oil palm plantations does not affect yield.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Graham W; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A

    2015-05-01

    The expansion of agriculture into tropical forest frontiers is one of the primary drivers of the global extinction crisis, resulting in calls to intensify tropical agriculture to reduce demand for more forest land and thus spare land for nature. Intensification is likely to reduce habitat complexity, with profound consequences for biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. Understanding which features of habitat complexity are essential for maintaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services within agricultural landscapes without compromising productivity is therefore key to limiting the environmental damage associated with producing food intensively. Here, we focus on oil palm, a rapidly expanding crop in the tropics and subject to frequent calls for increased intensification. One promoted strategy is to remove epiphytes that cover the trunks of oil palms, and we ask whether this treatment affects either biodiversity or yield. We experimentally tested this by removing epiphytes from four-hectare plots and seeing if the biodiversity and production of fruit bunches 2 months and 16 months later differed from equivalent control plots where epiphytes were left uncut. We found a species-rich and taxonomically diverse epiphyte community of 58 species from 31 families. Epiphyte removal did not affect the production of fresh fruit bunches, or the species richness and community composition of birds and ants, although the impact on other components of biodiversity remains unknown. We conclude that as they do not adversely affect palm oil production, the diverse epiphyte flora should be left uncut. Our results underscore the importance of experimentally determining the effects of habitat complexity on yield before introducing intensive methods with no discernible benefits. PMID:26045947

  15. Retaining biodiversity in intensive farmland: epiphyte removal in oil palm plantations does not affect yield

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Graham W; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of agriculture into tropical forest frontiers is one of the primary drivers of the global extinction crisis, resulting in calls to intensify tropical agriculture to reduce demand for more forest land and thus spare land for nature. Intensification is likely to reduce habitat complexity, with profound consequences for biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. Understanding which features of habitat complexity are essential for maintaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services within agricultural landscapes without compromising productivity is therefore key to limiting the environmental damage associated with producing food intensively. Here, we focus on oil palm, a rapidly expanding crop in the tropics and subject to frequent calls for increased intensification. One promoted strategy is to remove epiphytes that cover the trunks of oil palms, and we ask whether this treatment affects either biodiversity or yield. We experimentally tested this by removing epiphytes from four-hectare plots and seeing if the biodiversity and production of fruit bunches 2 months and 16 months later differed from equivalent control plots where epiphytes were left uncut. We found a species-rich and taxonomically diverse epiphyte community of 58 species from 31 families. Epiphyte removal did not affect the production of fresh fruit bunches, or the species richness and community composition of birds and ants, although the impact on other components of biodiversity remains unknown. We conclude that as they do not adversely affect palm oil production, the diverse epiphyte flora should be left uncut. Our results underscore the importance of experimentally determining the effects of habitat complexity on yield before introducing intensive methods with no discernible benefits. PMID:26045947

  16. Bacterial communities from shoreline environments (costa da morte, northwestern Spain) affected by the prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Albaigés, Joan; Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, Anna M; Novoa, Beatriz

    2009-06-01

    The bacterial communities in two different shoreline matrices, rocks and sand, from the Costa da Morte, northwestern Spain, were investigated 12 months after being affected by the Prestige oil spill. Culture-based and culture-independent approaches were used to compare the bacterial diversity present in these environments with that at a nonoiled site. A long-term effect of fuel on the microbial communities in the oiled sand and rock was suggested by the higher proportion of alkane and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and the differences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns compared with those of the reference site. Members of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the prevailing groups of bacteria detected in both matrices, although the sand bacterial community exhibited higher species richness than the rock bacterial community did. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches suggested that the genus Rhodococcus could play a key role in the in situ degradation of the alkane fraction of the Prestige fuel together with other members of the suborder Corynebacterineae. Moreover, other members of this suborder, such as Mycobacterium spp., together with Sphingomonadaceae bacteria (mainly Lutibacterium anuloederans), were related as well to the degradation of the aromatic fraction of the Prestige fuel. The multiapproach methodology applied in the present study allowed us to assess the complexity of autochthonous microbial communities related to the degradation of heavy fuel from the Prestige and to isolate some of their components for a further physiological study. Since several Corynebacterineae members related to the degradation of alkanes and PAHs were frequently detected in this and other supralittoral environments affected by the Prestige oil spill along the northwestern Spanish coast, the addition of mycolic acids to bioremediation amendments is proposed to favor the presence of these degraders in long-term fuel pollution-affected

  17. Launch conditions might affect the formation of blood vessels in the quail chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Henry, M K; Unsworth, B R; Sychev, V; Guryeva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Piert, S J; Lagel, K E; Dubrovin, L C; Jahns, G C; Boda, K; Sabo, V; Samet, M M; Lelkes, P I

    1998-01-01

    As a part of the first joint USA-Russian MIR/Shuttle program, fertilized quail eggs were flown on the MIR 18 mission. Post-flight examination indicated impaired survival of both the embryos in space and also of control embryo exposed to vibrational and g-forces simulating the condition experienced during the launch of Progress 227. We hypothesized that excess mechanical forces and/or other conditions during the launch might cause abnormal development or the blood supply in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) leading to the impaired survival of the embryos. The CAM, a highly vascularized extraembryonic organ, provides for the oxygen exchange across the egg shell and is thus pivotal for proper embryonic development. To test our hypothesis, we compared angiogenesis in CAMs of eggs which were either exposed to the vibration and g-force profile simulating the conditions at launch of Progress 227 (synchronous controls), or kept under routine conditions in a laboratory incubator (laboratory controls). At various time points during incubation, the eggs were fixed in paraformaldehyde for subsequent dissection. At the time of dissection, the CAM was carefully lifted from the egg shell and examined as whole mounts by bright-field and fluorescent microscopy. The development of the vasculature (angiogenesis) was assessed from the density of blood vessels per viewing field and evaluated by computer aided image analysis. We observed a significant decrease in blood-vessel density in the synchronous controls versus "normal" laboratory controls beginning from day 10 of incubation. The decrease in vascular density was restricted to the smallest vessels only, suggesting that conditions during the launch and/or during the subsequent incubation of the eggs may affect the normal progress of angiogenesis in the CAM. Abnormal angiogensis in the CAM might contribute to the impaired survival of the embryos observed in synchronous controls as well as in space. PMID:11543304

  18. Launch Conditions Might Affect the Formation of Blood Vessel in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. K.; Unsworth, B. R.; Sychev, B. R.; Guryeva, T. S.; Dadasheva, O. A.; Piert, S. J.; Lagel, K. E.; Dubrovin, L. C.; Jahns, G. C.; Boda, K.; Sabo, V.; Samet, M. M.; Lelkes, P. I.

    1998-01-01

    AS 2 part of the first joint USA-Russian MIR/Shuttle program, fertilized quail eggs were flown on the MIR 18 mission. Post-flight examination indicated impaired survival of both the embryos in space and also of control embryos exposed to vibrational and g-forces simulating the conditions experienced during the launch of Progress 227. We hypothesized that excess mechanical forces and/or other conditions during the launch might cause abnormal development of the blood supply in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) leading to the impaired survival of the embryos. The CAM, a highly vascularized extraembryonic organ, provides for the oxygen exchange across the egg shell and is thus pivotal for proper embryonic development. To test our hypothesis, we compared angiogenesis In CAMS of eggs which were either exposed to the vibration and g-force profile simulating the conditions at launch of Progress 227 (synchronous controls), or kept under routine conditions in a laboratory Incubator (laboratory controls). At various time points during Incubation, the eggs were fixed in paraformaldehyde for subsequent dissection. At the time of dissection, the CAM was carefully lifted from the egg shell and examined as whole mounts by bright-field and fluorescent microscopy. The development or the vasculature (angiogenesis) was assessed from the density of blood vessels per viewing field and evaluated by computer aided image analysis. We observed a significant decrease In blood-vessel density in the synchronous controls versus "normal" laboratory controls beginning from day 10 of Incubation. The decrease in vascular density was restricted to the smallest vessels only, suggesting that conditions during the launch and/or during the subsequent Incubation of the eggs may affect the normal progress of angiogenesis in the CAM. Abnormal angiogenesis In the CAM might contribute to the impaired survival of the embryos observed in synchronous controls as well as in space.

  19. Pre-analytical factors affecting the results of laboratory blood analyses in farm animal veterinary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Humann-Ziehank, E; Ganter, M

    2012-07-01

    The quality of the laboratory diagnostic approach in farm animals can be severely affected by pre-analytical factors of variation. They induce increase/decrease of biochemical and hematological analyte concentrations and, as a consequence, they may cause unsuitable conclusions and decisions for animal health management and research projects. The pre-analytical period covers the preparation of sampling, the sampling procedure itself, as well as all specimen handling until the beginning of the specific laboratory analysis. Pre-analytical factors may have either an animal-related or a technique-related background. Animal-related factors cover daytime/season, meals/fasting, age, gender, altitude, drugs/anesthesia, physical exercise/stress or coinfection. Technique-related factors are the choice of the tube including serum v. plasma, effects of anticoagulants/gel separators, the anticoagulant/blood ratio, the blood collection procedure itself, specimen handling, contamination, labeling, storage and serum/plasma separation, transportation of the specimen, as well as sample preparation before analysis in the laboratory. It is essential to have proper knowledge about the importance and source of pre-analytical factors to alter the entire diagnostic process. Utmost efforts should be made to minimize controllable factors. Analytical results have to be evaluated with care considering that pre-analytical factors of variation are possible causes of misinterpretation. PMID:23031472

  20. How dietary arachidonic- and docosahexaenoic- acid rich oils differentially affect the murine hepatic transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Alvin; Roberts, Matthew A; Hoff, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    transcriptomic, signaling cascades, and predicted affects on murine liver metabolism have been elucidated for 20:4n6-rich dietary oils, 22:6n3-rich oils, and a surprisingly distinct set of genes were affected by the combination of the two. Our results emphasize that the balance of dietary n6 and n3 LC-PUFA provided for infants and in nutritional and neutraceutical applications could have profoundly different affects on metabolism and cell signaling, beyond that previously recognized. PMID:16623957

  1. Palm Oil

    MedlinePlus

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  2. Quantitative trait loci affecting oil content, oil composition, and other agronomically important traits in Oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groat oil content and composition are important determinants of oat quality. We investigated these traits in a population of 146 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between 'Dal' (high oil) and 'Exeter' (low oil). A linkage map consisting of 475 DArT markers spanning 1271.8 cM across 40 linkage gr...

  3. Application of forward osmosis membrane technology for oil sands process-affected water desalination.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yaxin; Liang, Jiaming; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The extraction process used to obtain bitumen from the oil sands produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As a newly emerging desalination technology, forward osmosis (FO) has shown great promise in saving electrical power requirements, increasing water recovery, and minimizing brine discharge. With the support of this funding, a FO system was constructed using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane to test the feasibility of OSPW desalination and contaminant removal. The FO systems were optimized using different types and concentrations of draw solution. The FO system using 4 M NH4HCO3 as a draw solution achieved 85% water recovery from OSPW, and 80 to 100% contaminant rejection for most metals and ions. A water backwash cleaning method was applied to clean the fouled membrane, and the cleaned membrane achieved 77% water recovery, a performance comparable to that of new FO membranes. This suggests that the membrane fouling was reversible. The FO system developed in this project provides a novel and energy efficient strategy to remediate the tailings waters generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and processing. PMID:27120634

  4. Grapefruit gland oil composition is affected by wax application, storage temperature, and storage time.

    PubMed

    Sun, D; Petracek, P D

    1999-05-01

    The effect of wax application, storage temperature (4 or 21 degrees C), and storage time (14 or 28 days after wax application) on grapefruit gland oil composition was examined by capillary gas chromatography. Wax application decreases nonanal and nootkatone levels. beta-Pinene, alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, octanol, trans-linalool oxide, and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol levels increase, but limonene levels decrease, with temperature. Levels of alpha-pinene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, alpha-terpineol, neral, dodecanal, and alpha-humulene decrease with time. Levels of alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, and trans-linalool oxide increase with time. No compound level was affected by the interactive action of temperature and wax application, suggesting that these two factors cause grapefruit oil gland collapse (postharvest pitting) through means other than changing gland oil composition. Compounds that are toxic to the Caribbean fruit fly (alpha-pinene, limonene, alpha-terpineol, and some aldehydes) decrease with time, thus suggesting grapefruit becomes increasingly susceptible to the fly during storage. PMID:10552497

  5. Are intertidal soft sediment assemblages affected by repeated oil spill events? A field-based experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Martins, César C; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the impact of repeated diesel spills on the structure of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages of a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Repeated oil spills dramatically altered the overall structure of assemblages and reduced the total density of macrofauna and densities of dominant taxa. Increasing the frequency of oil spills negatively affected macrofauna. In general, frequent low-dosage oil spills were more deleterious than infrequent high-dosage ones. However, increases in densities of some taxa, mainly the gastropod Heleobia australis, were observed in response to infrequent spills. Our results highlight the importance of repeated exposure events in determining the extent of oil impacts. PMID:26890483

  6. Fish oil source differentially affects rat immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration.

    PubMed

    McGuire, S O; Alexander, D W; Fritsche, K L

    1997-07-01

    We have previously reported that both the source of dietary fish oil and the chemical form of vitamin E supplied in the diet affect the vitamin E status of immune cells in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate further the effect of fish oil source on immune cell vitamin E status using free alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) at the AIN recommended level as the sole source of vitamin E. Sixty weanling female rats were fed semipurified, high fat (20 g/100 g) diets containing either tocopherol-stripped lard (LRD), menhaden fish oil (MFO), sardine fish oil (SRD) or cod liver oil (CLO) as the primary lipid source. Endogenous alpha-T concentration was measured and equalized to 150 mg/kg oil by addition of free RRR-alpha-T to each lipid source, allowing for a final concentration of alpha-T in the mixed diet of 30 mg/kg. An additional group of rats was fed LRD without supplemental vitamin E (LRD-) as a negative control. After feeding experimental diets for 5 or 10 wk, tissues were collected for alpha-T analysis by HPLC. After 5 wk, plasma and liver alpha-T (micromol alpha-T/g lipid) were significantly lower in SRD- and CLO-fed rats compared with LRD-fed rats. At 10 wk, only plasma alpha-T in CLO-fed rats remained significantly depressed. Plasma and liver alpha-T concentrations (micromol alpha-T/g lipid) were not significantly lower in MFO-fed rats than LRD-fed rats at either time point. Compared with LRD, feeding MFO to rats for 5 or 10 wk resulted in significantly greater alpha-T content of immune cells. In similar fashion, SRD-fed rats, compared with LRD-fed rats, also had significantly greater alpha-T content in splenocytes at both time points and greater thymocyte alpha-T at 10 wk. In all instances, the alpha-T status of rats fed CLO was indistinguishable from that of rats fed the vitamin E-free diet (LRD-). These data further demonstrate the complexity of the relationship between vitamin E status and dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). PMID:9202096

  7. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status. The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. Methods During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Results Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. Conclusions The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective

  8. The structural and functional effects of fine particulate matter from cooking oil fumes on rat umbilical cord blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Hou, Lijuan; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Cijiang; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Yachun; Cao, Jiyu

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of epidemiological evidence has supported the association between maternal exposure to airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the specific biological mechanisms implicated in the causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes are not well defined. In this study, a pregnant rat model of exposure to different doses of cooking oil fumes (COFs)-derived PM2.5 by tail intravenous injection in different pregnant stages was established. The results indicated that exposure to COFs-derived PM2.5 was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, changed the structure of umbilical cord blood vessels, decreased the diameter and lumen area, and increased wall thickness. What's more, a significant increase of maximum contraction tension was observed in the early pregnancy high-dose exposure group and pregnant low-dose exposure group compared to the control group. Based on the maximum contraction tension, acetylcholine (ACh) did not induce vasodilation but caused a dose-dependent constriction, and there were significant differences in the two groups compared to the control group. Exposure to COFs-derived PM2.5 impaired the vasomotor function of umbilical veins by affecting the expression of NO and ET-1. This is the first study that evaluated the association of risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and pregnant rats exposed to COFs-derived PM2.5 and primarily explored the potential mechanisms of umbilical cord blood vessels injury on a rat model. More detailed vitro and vivo studies are needed to further explore the mechanism in the future. PMID:27178289

  9. Genome-wide association study identifies loci affecting blood copper, selenium and zinc

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David M.; Zhu, Gu; Dy, Veronica; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Kemp, John P.; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Golding, Jean; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Steer, Colin; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Smith, George Davey; Whitfield, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation affecting absorption, distribution or excretion of essential trace elements may lead to health effects related to sub-clinical deficiency. We have tested for allelic effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on blood copper, selenium and zinc in a genome-wide association study using two adult cohorts from Australia and the UK. Participants were recruited in Australia from twins and their families and in the UK from pregnant women. We measured erythrocyte Cu, Se and Zn (Australian samples) or whole blood Se (UK samples) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Genotyping was performed with Illumina chips and >2.5 m SNPs were imputed from HapMap data. Genome-wide significant associations were found for each element. For Cu, there were two loci on chromosome 1 (most significant SNPs rs1175550, P = 5.03 × 10−10, and rs2769264, P = 2.63 × 10−20); for Se, a locus on chromosome 5 was significant in both cohorts (combined P = 9.40 × 10−28 at rs921943); and for Zn three loci on chromosomes 8, 15 and X showed significant results (rs1532423, P = 6.40 × 10−12; rs2120019, P = 1.55 × 10−18; and rs4826508, P = 1.40 × 10−12, respectively). The Se locus covers three genes involved in metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids and potentially of the analogous Se compounds; the chromosome 8 locus for Zn contains multiple genes for the Zn-containing enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Where potentially relevant genes were identified, they relate to metabolism of the element (Se) or to the presence at high concentration of a metal-containing protein (Cu). PMID:23720494

  10. The plasma dilution factor: predicting how concentrations in plasma and serum are affected by blood volume variations and blood loss.

    PubMed

    Flordal, A

    1995-10-01

    To determine the effects of therapeutic interventions on plasma protein concentrations, it is often desirable to rule out nonspecific effects of hemodilution. Because red cells are restricted to the vascular space, the hematocrit (Hct) is a convenient marker. At the bedside--and even in scientific reports--a simple ratio of Hcts (obtained before and after the change in plasma volume) is often used to "correct" the value of interest. This is incorrect, and it may introduce a sizeable error. A new method, the plasma dilution factor (PDF), has been mathematically deduced. It accounts for the influence of any blood loss, plasma osmolality changes, and blood volume variations on plasma and serum concentrations. In an in vitro experiment, blood loss and osmolality and blood volume changes were simulated through the withdrawal of various volumes of blood, which were replaced with smaller, identical, or larger volumes of hypotonic, isotonic, or hypertonic solutions. The PDF accurately predicted changes in concentrations of albumin, fibrinogen, and antithrombin III. In contrast, the Hct ratio significantly underestimated the effects of dilution. Von Willebrand factor concentrations after hemodilution through dextran infusion in volunteers were the same as predicted by the PDF. In patients undergoing orthopedic surgery who were also given dextran, the postdilution von Willebrand factor concentrations were higher than predicted by the PDF. The Hct gave a false impression of a decrease in the volunteers that was not explained by hemodilution, and it failed to detect the von Willebrand factor response to trauma in the surgical patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7561443

  11. Chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong Min; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2012-12-01

    The chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide [SC-CO(2)], mechanical press, and solvent extraction) were studied. The SC-CO(2) extraction at 420 bar and 50 °C and hexane extraction showed significantly higher oil yield than mechanical press extraction (P < 0.05). The fatty acid compositions in the oils were virtually identical regardless of the extraction methods. The contents of tocopherol, sterol, policosanol, and phosphorus in the perilla oils greatly varied with the extraction methods. The SC-CO(2) -extracted perilla oils contained significantly higher contents of tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols than the mechanical press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils (P < 0.05). The SC-CO(2) -extracted oil showed the greatly lower oxidative stability than press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils during the storage in the oven under dark at 60 °C. However, the photooxidative stabilities of the oils were not considerably different with extraction methods. PMID:23106331

  12. Differences in blood haptoglobin and length-mass relationships in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duffy, L K; Bowyer, R T; Testa, J W; Faro, J B

    1993-04-01

    Significant differences in levels of blood haptoglobin occurred between river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled (mean = 361 mg/100 ml, SD = 38, n = 6) and nonoiled (mean = 306 mg/100 ml, SD = 87, n = 8) areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Additionally, male river otters from oiled areas had significantly lower body mass (1.13 kg) than male otters from nonoiled areas. We propose oil-related causes for these differences. PMID:8487390

  13. Differences in blood haptoglobin and length-mass relationships in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, L.K.; Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Faro, J.B. )

    1993-04-01

    Significant differences in levels of blood haptoglobin occurred between river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled (mean = 361 mg/100 ml, SD = 38, n = 6) and nonoiled (mean = 306 mg/100 ml, SD = 87, n = 8) areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Additionally, male river otters from oiled areas had significantly lower body mass (1.13 kg) than male otters from nonoiled areas. We propose oil-related causes for these differences.

  14. Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau K; Jones, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). Because AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned. PMID:21399536

  15. Does exposure to an artificial ULF magnetic field affect blood pressure, heart rate variability and mood?

    PubMed

    Mitsutake, Gen; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Oinuma, Sachiko; Ferguson, Ian; Cornélissen, Germaine; Wanliss, James; Halberg, Franz

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an artificial magnetic field with an amplitude and frequency equivalent to those of geomagnetic pulsations during geomagnetic storms could affect physiology and psychology. Three healthy volunteers wore anambulatory BP monitor and an ECG recorder around the clock for 12 consecutive weekends in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. In a room shielded against ELF and VLF waves, they were exposed for 8 hours per week to either a 50 nT 0.0016 Hz or a sham magnetic field at one of six circadian stages. Real exposure randomly alternated with sham exposure. They provided saliva and recorded mood and reaction time every 4 hours while awake. Systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded every 30 minutes. Spectral analysis of HR variability (HRV) was performed using the maximum entropy method and a complex demodulation method. For these variables, daily means were compared between real and sham exposure, using paired t-tests. Their circadian MESOR, amplitude, and acrophase were analyzed and summarized using single cosinor and population-mean cosinor. Circadian rhythms were demonstrated for HR, SBP, DBP for sham exposure, salivary flow rate, positive affect, vigor, and subjective alertness (p < 0.001, -0.02). One participant showed higher HR, lower LF, HF, and VLF powers, and a steeper power-law slope (p < 0.005, -0.0001) in an early night exposure to the real magnetic field, but not in other circadian stages. There was no significant difference between circadian responses to real and sham exposure in any variable at any circadian stage. PMID:15754834

  16. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation[S

    PubMed Central

    Stephensen, Charles B.; Armstrong, Patrice; Newman, John W.; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Legault, Jillian; Schuster, Gertrud U.; Kelley, Darshan; Vikman, Susanna; Hartiala, Jaana; Nassir, Rami; Seldin, Michael F.; Allayee, Hooman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g of eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.0 g of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or placebo oil (5.0 g of corn/soy mixture). A total of 116 subjects (68% female, 20–59 years old) of African American ancestry enrolled, and 98 subjects completed the study. Neither ALOX5 protein nor arachidonic acid-derived LTB4, LTD4, and LTE4 varied by genotype, but 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoate (5-HETE), 6-trans-LTB4, 5-oxo-ETE, 15-HETE, and 5,15-diHETE levels were higher in subjects homozygous for the ALOX5 promoter allele containing five Sp1 element tandem repeats (“55” genotype) than in subjects with one deletion (d) (three or four repeats) and one common (“d5” genotype) allele or with two deletion (“dd”) alleles. The EPA-derived metabolites 5-HEPE and 15-HEPE and the DHA-derived metabolite 17-HDoHE had similar associations with genotype and increased with supplementation; 5-HEPE and 15-HEPE increased, and 5-oxo-ETE decreased to a greater degree in the 55 than in the other genotypes. This differential eicosanoid response is consistent with the previously observed interaction of these variants with dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids in predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:21296957

  17. Thyroid Hormone Disruption by Water-Accommodated Fractions of Crude Oil and Sediments Affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in Zebrafish and GH3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sujin; Sohn, Ju Hae; Ha, Sung Yong; Kang, Habyeong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Khim, Jong Seong; Jung, Dawoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2016-06-01

    A crude oil and the coastal sediments that were affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill (HSOS) of Taean, Korea were investigated for thyroid hormone disruption potentials. Water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of Iranian Heavy crude oil, the major oil type of HSOS, and the porewater or leachate of sediment samples collected along the coast line of Taean were tested for thyroid disruption using developing zebrafish and/or rat pituitary GH3 cells. Major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated forms were also measured from the test samples. In zebrafish larvae, significant decreases in whole-body thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, along with transcriptional changes of thyroid regulating genes, were observed following 5 day exposure to WAFs. In GH3 cells, transcriptions of thyroid regulating genes were influenced following the exposure to the sediment samples, but the pattern of the regulatory change was different from those observed from the WAFs. Composition of PAHs and their alkylated homologues in the WAFs could partly explain this difference. Our results clearly demonstrate that WAFs of crude oil can disrupt thyroid function of larval zebrafish. Sediment samples also showed thyroid disrupting potentials in the GH3 cell, even several years after the oil spill. Long-term ecosystem consequences of thyroid hormone disruption due to oil spill deserve further investigation. PMID:27144452

  18. Impact of negative affectivity and trait forgiveness on aortic blood pressure and coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; May, Ross W; Koutnik, Andrew P; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-02-01

    Prior research suggests that negative affectivity (NA) may have a direct adverse effect on coronary circulation, whereas forgiveness may provide cardioprotection. This study examined whether NA and forgiveness were independently related to aortic hemodynamics and the subendocardial viability index (SVI), a marker of coronary perfusion. A sample of 131 adults (M = 21.11 years, SD = 2.52) were evaluated for NA (depression, anxiety, and anger symptoms) and forgiveness (Tendency to Forgive Scale; TTF). Aortic hemodynamic parameters via applanation tonometry were assessed at rest and during sympathostimulation (cold pressor test; CPT). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses of resting values showed that NA was related to higher aortic blood pressure (ABP) and lower SVI. After controlling for demographics and for NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with decreased ABP, but increased SVI. CPT changes from baseline indicated that, after controlling for demographics and NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with SVI. Results indicate that NA significantly predicts ABP and decreased SVI. Conversely, forgiveness seems to provide cardioprotection by evoking decreased ABP while improving SVI. PMID:25195798

  19. Systematic Functional Dissection of Common Genetic Variation Affecting Red Blood Cell Traits.

    PubMed

    Ulirsch, Jacob C; Nandakumar, Satish K; Wang, Li; Giani, Felix C; Zhang, Xiaolan; Rogov, Peter; Melnikov, Alexandre; McDonel, Patrick; Do, Ron; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of associations between common genetic variants and human disease phenotypes, but the majority of these variants are non-coding, often requiring genetic fine-mapping, epigenomic profiling, and individual reporter assays to delineate potential causal variants. We employ a massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) to simultaneously screen 2,756 variants in strong linkage disequilibrium with 75 sentinel variants associated with red blood cell traits. We show that this assay identifies elements with endogenous erythroid regulatory activity. Across 23 sentinel variants, we conservatively identified 32 MPRA functional variants (MFVs). We used targeted genome editing to demonstrate endogenous enhancer activity across 3 MFVs that predominantly affect the transcription of SMIM1, RBM38, and CD164. Functional follow-up of RBM38 delineates a key role for this gene in the alternative splicing program occurring during terminal erythropoiesis. Finally, we provide evidence for how common GWAS-nominated variants can disrupt cell-type-specific transcriptional regulatory pathways. PMID:27259154

  20. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated. PMID:27534114

  1. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish. PMID:26424256

  2. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish. PMID:26424256

  3. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

  4. Solar photocatalytic degradation of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Leshuk, Tim; Wong, Timothy; Linley, Stuart; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Gu, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Bitumen mining in the Canadian oil sands creates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), the toxicity of which is due in part to naphthenic acids (NAs) and other acid extractable organics (AEO). The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of solar photocatalysis over TiO2 to remove AEO from OSPW. One day of photocatalytic treatment under natural sunlight (25 MJ/m(2) over ∼14 h daylight) eradicated AEO from raw OSPW, and acute toxicity of the OSPW toward Vibrio fischeri was eliminated. Nearly complete mineralization of organic carbon was achieved within 1-7 day equivalents of sunlight exposure, and degradation was shown to proceed through a superoxide-mediated oxidation pathway. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis of oxidized intermediate compounds indicated preferential degradation of the heavier and more cyclic NAs (higher number of double bond equivalents), which are the most environmentally persistent fractions. The photocatalyst was shown to be recyclable for multiple uses, and thus solar photocatalysis may be a promising "green" advanced oxidation process (AOP) for OSPW treatment. PMID:26539710

  5. Effects-Directed Analysis of Dissolved Organic Compounds in Oil Sands Process-Affected Water.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Garrett D; Wiseman, Steve B; Pereira, Alberto; Mankidy, Rishikesh; Gault, Ian G M; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P

    2015-10-20

    Acute toxicity of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is caused by its complex mixture of bitumen-derived organics, but the specific chemical classes that are most toxic have not been demonstrated. Here, effects-directed analysis was used to determine the most acutely toxic chemical classes in OSPW collected from the world's first oil sands end-pit lake. Three sequential rounds of fractionation, chemical analysis (ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry), and acute toxicity testing (96 h fathead minnow embryo lethality and 15 min Microtox bioassay) were conducted. Following primary fractionation, toxicity was primarily attributable to the neutral extractable fraction (F1-NE), containing 27% of original organics mass. In secondary fractionation, F1-NE was subfractionated by alkaline water washing, and toxicity was primarily isolated to the ionizable fraction (F2-NE2), containing 18.5% of the original organic mass. In the final round, chromatographic subfractionation of F2-NE2 resulted in two toxic fractions, with the most potent (F3-NE2a, 11% of original organic mass) containing predominantly naphthenic acids (O2(-)). The less-toxic fraction (F3-NE2b, 8% of original organic mass) contained predominantly nonacid species (O(+), O2(+), SO(+), NO(+)). Evidence supports naphthenic acids as among the most acutely toxic chemical classes in OSPW, but nonacidic species also contribute to acute toxicity of OSPW. PMID:26381019

  6. Steroidal aromatic 'naphthenic acids' in oil sands process-affected water: structural comparisons with environmental estrogens.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Steven J; West, Charles E; Jones, David; Scarlett, Alan G; Frank, Richard A; Hewitt, L Mark

    2011-11-15

    The large volumes, acute toxicity, estrogenicity, and antiandrogenicity of process-affected waters accruing in tailings ponds from the operations of the Alberta oil sands industries pose a significant task for environmental reclamation. Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) suggest that oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) may contain aromatic carboxylic acids, which are among the potentially environmentally important toxicants, but no such acids have yet been identified, limiting interpretations of the results of estrogenicity and other assays. Here we show that multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) of methyl esters of acids in an OSPW sample produces mass spectra consistent with their assignment as C(19) and C(20) C-ring monoaromatic hydroxy steroid acids, D-ring opened hydroxy and nonhydroxy polyhydrophenanthroic acids with one aromatic and two alicyclic rings and A-ring opened steroidal keto acids. High resolution MS data support the assignment of several of the so-called 'O3' species. When fractions of distilled, esterified, OSPW acid-extractable organics were examined, the putative aromatics were mainly present in a high boiling fraction; when examined by argentation thin layer chromatography, some were present in a fraction with a retardation factor between that of the methyl esters of synthetic monoalicyclic and monoaromatic acids. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of these fractions indicated the presence of benzenoid moieties. SFS of model octahydro- and tetrahydrophenanthroic acids produced emissions at the characteristic excitation wavelengths observed in some OSPW extracts, consistent with the postulations from ultraviolet spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data. We suggest the acids originate from extensive biodegradation of C-ring monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons and offer a means of differentiating residues at different biodegradation stages in tailings ponds. Structural similarities with estrone and

  7. The effect of citrus-derived oil on bovine blood neutrophil function and gene expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Elsasser, T H; Biswas, D; Moyes, K M

    2015-02-01

    Research on the use of natural products to treat or prevent microbial invasion as alternatives to antibiotic use is growing. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) play a vital role with regard to the innate immune response that affects severity or duration of mastitis. To our knowledge, effect of cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (TCO) on bovine PMNL function has not been elucidated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of TCO on bovine blood PMNL chemotaxis and phagocytosis capabilities and the expression of genes involved in inflammatory response in vitro. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from jugular blood of 12 Holstein cows in mid-lactation and were incubated with 0.0 or 0.01% TCO for 120min at 37°C and 5% CO2, and phagocytosis (2×10(6) PMNL) and chemotaxis (6×10(6) PMNL) assays were then performed in vitro. For gene expression, RNA was extracted from incubated PMNL (6×10(6) PMNL), and gene expression was analyzed using quantitative PCR. The supernatant was stored at -80°C for analysis of tumor necrosis factor-α. Data were analyzed using a general linear mixed model with cow and treatment (i.e., control or TCO) in the model statement. In vitro supplementation of 0.01% of TCO increased the chemotactic ability to IL-8 by 47%; however, migration of PMNL to complement 5a was not altered. Treatment did not affect the production of tumor necrosis factor-α by PMNL. Expression of proinflammatory genes (i.e., SELL, TLR4, IRAK1, TRAF6, and LYZ) coding for proteins was not altered by incubation of PMNL with TCO. However, downregulation of TLR2 [fold change (FC=treatment/control)=-2.14], NFKBIA (FC=1.82), IL1B (FC=-2.16), TNFA (FC=-9.43), and SOD2 (FC=-1.57) was observed for PMNL incubated with TCO when compared with controls. Interestingly, expression of IL10, a well-known antiinflammatory cytokine, was also downregulated (FC=-3.78), whereas expression of IL8 (FC=1.93), a gene coding for the cytokine IL-8 known

  8. Gene expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells is affected by cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Reynés, Bàrbara; García-Ruiz, Estefanía; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2015-10-15

    Because of the discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans, there is increased interest in the study of induction of this thermogenic tissue as a basis to combat obesity and related complications. Cold exposure is one of the strongest stimuli able to activate BAT and to induce the appearance of brown-like (brite) adipocytes in white fat depots (browning process). We analyzed the potential of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to reflect BAT and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rWAT) response to 1-wk cold acclimation (4°C) at different ages of rat development (1, 2, 4, and 6 mo). As expected, cold exposure increased fatty acid β-oxidation capacity in BAT and rWAT (increased Cpt1a expression), explaining increased circulating nonesterified free fatty acids and decreased adiposity. Cold exposure increased expression of the key thermogenic gene, Ucp1, in BAT and rWAT, but only in 1-mo-old animals. Additionally, other brown/brite markers were affected by cold during the whole developmental period studied in BAT. However, in rWAT, cold exposure increased studied markers mainly at early age. PBMCs did not express Ucp1, but expressed other brown/brite markers, which were cold regulated. Of particular interest, PBMCs reflected adipose tissue-increased Cpt1a mRNA expression in response to cold (in older animals) and browning induction occurring in rWAT of young animals (1 mo) characterized by increased Cidea expression and by the appearance of a high number of multilocular CIDE-A positive adipocytes. These results provide evidence pointing to PBMCs as an easily obtainable biological material to be considered to perform browning studies with minimum invasiveness. PMID:26246506

  9. Vasovagal Syncope and Blood Donor Return: Examination of the Role of Experience and Affective Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Etzel, Erin N.; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    Vasovagal sensations (e.g., dizziness, nausea, and fainting) are one of the main reasons people find blood donation unpleasant. A better understanding of predictors of vasovagal sensations during blood donation could inform interventions designed to increase donor return rates. The present investigation examined the extent to which experience with…

  10. [Characteristics of amaranth oil effect on the antioxidant system of the liver and blood in mice with malignant lymphoma growth].

    PubMed

    Ielisieieva, O P; Kamins'kyĭ, D V; Cherkas, A P; Ambarova, L I; Vyshemyrs'ka, L D; Dzhura, O R; Semen, Kh O; Makhotina, O O

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of functioning of the lipid peroxidation <--> antioxidant activity system was studied during the tumor growth in the blood, liver and NK/Ly cells in mice fed with amaranth oil (100 microL/100 g, once a day, 10 days before inoculation and during tumor growth for 14 days). Different effects on antioxidant activity were demonstrated. Activity of the antioxidant enzymes in hepatocytes of mice fed with amaranth oil was aimed at maintenance of antioxidant defence in tumor growth. This effect was achieved owing to the marked increase in superoxide dismutase, preserved catalase and decreased glutathione peroxidase activities with simultaneous increase in hydroperoxides levels and decrease of thiobarbituric acid-reactive subspecies. Changes observed in NK/Ly lymphoma cells were directed to providing a higher prooxidant activity than in the liver cells. Modification of antioxidant activity induced by amaranth oil can maintain oxygen homeostasis, morphofunctional state and inhibit tumor cells proliferation. PMID:17147274

  11. Performance, egg quality, and blood plasma chemistry of laying hens fed hempseed and hempseed oil.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Gakhar, N; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hens (feed intake, rate of lay, egg weight, and BW gain), egg quality and blood biochemistry (enzymes, electrolytes, proteins, and other plasma constituents) of laying hens fed diets containing hemp products. Forty-eight Lohmann LSL-Classic (white-egg layers; 19 wk of age) were individually caged and fed 1 of 6 wheat-barley-soybean-based diets for a period of 12 wk. The diets consisted of hempseed (HS; 10, 20, or 30%), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 or 9.0%), or a control diet (corn oil-based). All diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude fat (11%), energy (2,800 kcal/kg), and CP (17%). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the repeated measure analysis of the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. The results indicated that the inclusion of up to 30 and 9.0% HS and HO, respectively, to diets of laying hens had no significant effects on hen performance, egg quality, or plasma level of metabolites (proteins, glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol) and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P, and Ca). Overall plasma enzyme concentrations, particularly gamma-glutamyl transferase, were significantly (P < 0.01) lowest at the 10 and 20% levels of HS inclusion, or at the 4.5% HO level of inclusion of the hempseed products compared with the higher levels or control fed hens. Similar effects were also observed for plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels but with the HS enriched diets only (P < 0.05), particularly being lowest at the inclusion levels of 10 and 20% HS compared with the control. The results may imply a possible protective effect of HS- and HO-containing diets, particularly at 10% HS, 20% HS, and 4.5% HO levels, on liver damage/injury. In summary, both HO and HS appear to be well tolerated by laying hens as judged by markers of plasma clinical chemistry supporting the safety and efficacy of hemp products for use in laying hen rations. PMID:25239534

  12. Microstructures of oil roasted peanuts as affected by initial moisture content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil roasting of peanuts is a unit operation equal to that of deep frying of higher moisture foods. Retention of the oil taken up by the peanuts from oil roasting during the shelf life of the packaged product is necessary to prevent an unappealing greasy appearance. Properties of the end product we...

  13. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is widely used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv...

  14. MORTALITY DURING TREATMENT: FACTORS AFFECTING THE SURVIVAL OF OILED, REHABILITATED COMMON MURRES (URIA AALGE).

    PubMed

    Duerr, Rebecca S; Ziccardi, Michael H; Massey, J Gregory

    2016-07-01

    After major oil spills, hundreds to thousands of live stranded birds enter rehabilitative care. To target aspects of rehabilitative efforts for improvement and to evaluate which initial physical examination and biomedical parameters most effectively predict survival to release, medical records were examined from 913 Common Murres ( Uria aalge ; COMUs) oiled during the November 2001-January 2003 oil spill associated with the sunken S.S. Jacob Luckenbach off San Francisco, California, US. Results showed that 52% of all deaths occurred during the first 2 days of treatment. Birds stranding closest to the wreck had greater amounts of oil on their bodies than birds stranding farther away. More heavily oiled birds were in better clinical condition than birds with lesser amounts of oil, as shown by higher body mass (BM), packed cell volumes (PCV), total plasma protein (TP), and higher survival proportions. Additionally, BM, PCV, TP, and body temperature were positively correlated. For comparison, medical records from all nonoiled COMUs admitted for rehabilitation at the same facility during 2007-09 (n=468) were examined, and these variables were also found to be positively correlated. Oiled birds with BM under 750 g had approximately 5% lower PCV than BM-matched nonoiled COMUs. More heavily oiled COMUs may be in better condition than less oiled birds because heavily oiled birds must beach themselves immediately to avoid drowning and hypothermia, whereas lightly oiled birds may postpone beaching until exhausted due to extreme body catabolism. The strong relationship of PCV to BM regardless of oiling provides evidence that anemia commonly encountered in oiled seabirds may be a sequela to overall loss of body condition rather than solely due to toxic effects of oiling. Clinical information garnered in this study provides guidance for triage decisions during oil spills. PMID:27187030

  15. Anti-inflammatory and blood stasis activities of essential oil extracted from Artemisia argyi leaf in animals.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yue-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Xian-Ju; Mei, Zhi-Nan; Hong, Zong-Guo

    2016-07-01

    Artemisia argyi leaf is a well-known species in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the anti-inflammatory and activating blood stasis activities of its essential oil (AAEO) have not been explored in vivo. The present study measured the contents of three chemical components by gas chromatography (GC). The anti-acute inflammatory effects of AAEO were investigated in dimethyl benzene, glacial acetic acid and carrageenan-induced animals through skin administration or by oral gavage, respectively. The effects of AAEO on haemorheology were studied in a rat acute blood stasis model. The contents of eucalyptol, camphor and borneol in AAEO were 254.4, 51.6 and 58.7 mg/g, respectively. All dosages of AAEO by skin administration significantly decreased the swelling in dimethyl benzene-induced ear oedema and carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and reduced the permeability in glacial acetic acid-induced abdominal blood capillary (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, haemorheology indexes such as whole blood viscosity and the erythrocyte aggregation index significantly decreased only in the high dosage group. In addition, the effects of AAEO by oral gavage were weaker than skin administration at the medium dose in the experiments. It suggests that AAEO has better absorption bioavailability and pharmacological effects through skin administration due to the better skin permeability of essential oil than gastrointestinal absorption. PMID:26894818

  16. Metabolic fate (absorption, β-oxidation and deposition) of long-chain n-3 fatty acids is affected by sex and by the oil source (krill oil or fish oil) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ghasemifard, Samaneh; Hermon, Karen; Turchini, Giovanni M; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2015-09-14

    The effects of krill oil as an alternative source of n-3 long-chain PUFA have been investigated recently. There are conflicting results from the few available studies comparing fish oil and krill oil. The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability and metabolic fate (absorption, β-oxidation and tissue deposition) of n-3 fatty acids originating from krill oil (phospholipid-rich) or fish oil (TAG-rich) in rats of both sexes using the whole-body fatty acid balance method. Sprague-Dawley rats (thirty-six male, thirty-six female) were randomly assigned to be fed either a krill oil diet (EPA+DHA+DPA=1·38 mg/g of diet) or a fish oil diet (EPA+DHA+DPA=1·61 mg/g of diet) to constant ration for 6 weeks. The faeces, whole body and individual tissues were analysed for fatty acid content. Absorption of fatty acids was significantly greater in female rats and was only minimally affected by the oil type. It was estimated that most of EPA (>90 %) and more than half of DHA (>60 %) were β-oxidised in both diet groups. Most of the DPA was β-oxidised (57 and 67 % for female and male rats, respectively) in the fish oil group; however, for the krill oil group, the majority of DPA was deposited (82-83 %). There was a significantly greater deposition of DPA and DHA in rats fed krill oil compared with those fed fish oil, not due to a difference in bioavailability (absorption) but rather due to a difference in metabolic fate (anabolism v. catabolism). PMID:26234617

  17. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, A. R.; Khorrami, B.; Mesgaran, M. Danesh; Parand, E.

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY) and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive), 2-THY (5 g/d/calf) and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf). Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites. PMID:25049871

  18. Increased cerebral blood flow during hypercapnia is not affected by lesion of the nucleus locus ceruleus

    SciTech Connect

    Harik, S.I.; Prado, R.; Busto, R.; Ginsberg, M.D.

    1986-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the putative noradrenergic innervation of intraparenchymal cerebral blood vessels from the nucleus locus ceruleus mediates the vasodilatory response to hypercapnia, regional cerebral blood flow was measured by iodo-(/sup 14/C)antipyrine autoradiography in awake and restrained rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nucleus locus ceruleus and in unlesioned control rats. Hypercapnia, induced by the inhalation of 5% or 8% CO/sub 2/ in air for 8 minutes caused a 2 to 5-fold increase in regional cerebral blood flow. However, despite a marked reduction of about 90% in cortical norepinephrine levels ipsilateral to the lesion, blood flow to the frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum increased to the same extent in ipsilateral and contralateral regions. Thus, lesion of the locus ceruleus and the resultant depletion of endogenous cortical and hippocampal norepinephrine, does not influence the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia.

  19. Factors affecting the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi Ulucayir lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, I.; Gorgun Ersan, M.

    2007-07-01

    In the coal industry, the coal particles need to be decreased to a very fine size because of the need of removing inorganic materials from coal. Oil agglomeration is a kind of coal cleaning technique that is used for separation of organic and inorganic parts of fine sized coal. In this study, the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi (S-D) Ulucayir lignite was carried out by using kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil, poppy oil, and sunflower oil. The amount of bridging oil was varied from 5% to 25% of the amount of lignite. The effect of oil amount, oil type, solid content, agitation rate and time, pH on agglomeration performance was investigated. Maximum recovery value of 98.18% was observed by using poppy oil. In order to investigate the effect of pH on agglomeration NaOH and HCl is added to the slurry in various amounts. It is decided that the best agglomeration condition is obtained at low pH values. The effect of nonionic surface active agent (Igepal-CA 630) on agglomeration is investigated by adding to the slurry and it is observed that the grade is increased with the amount of surface active agent.

  20. Oxidation of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water by Potassium Ferrate(VI).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengjin; Klamerth, Nikolaus; Huang, Rongfu; Elnakar, Haitham; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-04-19

    This paper investigates the oxidation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) by potassium ferrate(VI). Due to the selectivity of ferrate(VI) oxidation, two-ring and three-ring fluorescing aromatics were preferentially removed at doses <100 mg/L Fe(VI), and one-ring aromatics were removed only at doses ≥100 mg/L Fe(VI). Ferrate(VI) oxidation achieved 64.0% and 78.4% removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) at the dose of 200 mg/L and 400 mg/L Fe(VI) respectively, and NAs with high carbon number and ring number were removed preferentially. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra indicated that the oxidation of fluorescing aromatics resulted in the opening of some aromatic rings. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis detected signals of organic radical intermediates, indicating that one-electron transfer is one of the probable mechanisms in the oxidation of NAs. The inhibition effect of OSPW on Vibrio fischeri and the toxicity effect on goldfish primary kidney macrophages (PKMs) were both reduced after ferrate(VI) oxidation. The fluorescing aromatics in OSPW were proposed to be an important contributor to this acute toxicity. Degradation of model compounds with ferrate(VI) was also investigated and the results confirmed our findings in OSPW study. PMID:27008571

  1. Modelling how incorporation of divalent cations affects calcite wettability-implications for biomineralisation and oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M P; Dideriksen, K; Sakuma, H; Stipp, S L S

    2016-01-01

    Using density functional theory and geochemical speciation modelling, we predicted how solid-fluid interfacial energy is changed, when divalent cations substitute into a calcite surface. The effect on wettability can be dramatic. Trace metal uptake can impact organic compound adsorption, with effects for example, on the ability of organisms to control crystal growth and our ability to predict the wettability of pore surfaces. Wettability influences how easily an organic phase can be removed from a surface, either organic compounds from contaminated soil or crude oil from a reservoir. In our simulations, transition metals substituted exothermically into calcite and more favourably into sites at the surface than in the bulk, meaning that surface properties are more strongly affected than results from bulk experiments imply. As a result of divalent cation substitution, calcite-fluid interfacial energy is significantly altered, enough to change macroscopic contact angle by tens of degrees. Substitution of Sr, Ba and Pb makes surfaces more hydrophobic. With substitution of Mg and the transition metals, calcite becomes more hydrophilic, weakening organic compound adsorption. For biomineralisation, this provides a switch for turning on and off the activity of organic crystal growth inhibitors, thereby controlling the shape of the associated mineral phase. PMID:27352933

  2. Modelling how incorporation of divalent cations affects calcite wettability–implications for biomineralisation and oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, M. P.; Dideriksen, K.; Sakuma, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-06-01

    Using density functional theory and geochemical speciation modelling, we predicted how solid-fluid interfacial energy is changed, when divalent cations substitute into a calcite surface. The effect on wettability can be dramatic. Trace metal uptake can impact organic compound adsorption, with effects for example, on the ability of organisms to control crystal growth and our ability to predict the wettability of pore surfaces. Wettability influences how easily an organic phase can be removed from a surface, either organic compounds from contaminated soil or crude oil from a reservoir. In our simulations, transition metals substituted exothermically into calcite and more favourably into sites at the surface than in the bulk, meaning that surface properties are more strongly affected than results from bulk experiments imply. As a result of divalent cation substitution, calcite-fluid interfacial energy is significantly altered, enough to change macroscopic contact angle by tens of degrees. Substitution of Sr, Ba and Pb makes surfaces more hydrophobic. With substitution of Mg and the transition metals, calcite becomes more hydrophilic, weakening organic compound adsorption. For biomineralisation, this provides a switch for turning on and off the activity of organic crystal growth inhibitors, thereby controlling the shape of the associated mineral phase.

  3. Pseudomonads biodegradation of aromatic compounds in oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-07-15

    Aromatic naphthenic acids (NAs) have been shown to be more toxic than the classical NAs found in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). To reduce this toxicity, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida were used to determine their ability to biodegrade aromatic compounds including treatments considering the impacts of external carbon and iron addition. Results showed that with added carbon P. fluorescens and P. putida have the capability of biodegrading these aromatics. In the presence of external carbon, gene expression of a functional PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) was determined through reverse transcription real-time PCR, suggesting active degradation of OSPW aromatic compounds. Although no significant classical NAs removal was observed during this process, toxicity was reduced by 49.3% under optimal conditions. OSPW toxicity was eliminated with the combination of ozonation at a dose of 80 mg/L followed by biodegradation, indicating that it is a promising combined OSPW treatment approach for the safe discharge to the aquatic environment. PMID:25828413

  4. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. PMID:26204047

  5. Toxicity and composition profiles of solid phase extracts of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Yue, Siqing; Ramsay, Bruce A; Wang, Jiaxi; Ramsay, Juliana

    2015-12-15

    After fractionation using sequential solid phase extraction, the presence of toxic components in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) was detected by the Microtox® acute toxicity assay using effect-directed analysis. The composition of each fraction was determined by high-resolution electrospray ionization-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to determine which chemical constituents in all seven fractions co-varied most strongly with toxicity. Although O2 compounds with double bond equivalence (DBE) between 3 and 9 positively correlated with toxicity, C15-C18 O2-NAs with DBE=4 (tricyclic structure), as well as C14-C17 O2-NAs with DBE=3 (bicyclic structure), were found to be most likely associated with OSPW toxicity, consistent with published toxicity studies of surrogate NAs. O4, many O3 (i.e. possibly hydroxylated O2 c-NAs) and a few O2 compounds were found to negatively correlate with toxicity. The results demonstrate the utility of the fractionation and the PLS-DA approach for evaluating composition-response relationships in a complex mixture and also contribute to a better understanding of the toxic compounds in OSPW. These findings will help to focus study on the most environmentally significant components in OSPW. PMID:26318810

  6. Modelling how incorporation of divalent cations affects calcite wettability–implications for biomineralisation and oil recovery

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, M. P.; Dideriksen, K.; Sakuma, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Using density functional theory and geochemical speciation modelling, we predicted how solid-fluid interfacial energy is changed, when divalent cations substitute into a calcite surface. The effect on wettability can be dramatic. Trace metal uptake can impact organic compound adsorption, with effects for example, on the ability of organisms to control crystal growth and our ability to predict the wettability of pore surfaces. Wettability influences how easily an organic phase can be removed from a surface, either organic compounds from contaminated soil or crude oil from a reservoir. In our simulations, transition metals substituted exothermically into calcite and more favourably into sites at the surface than in the bulk, meaning that surface properties are more strongly affected than results from bulk experiments imply. As a result of divalent cation substitution, calcite-fluid interfacial energy is significantly altered, enough to change macroscopic contact angle by tens of degrees. Substitution of Sr, Ba and Pb makes surfaces more hydrophobic. With substitution of Mg and the transition metals, calcite becomes more hydrophilic, weakening organic compound adsorption. For biomineralisation, this provides a switch for turning on and off the activity of organic crystal growth inhibitors, thereby controlling the shape of the associated mineral phase. PMID:27352933

  7. Does hormone therapy affect blood pressure changes in the Diabetes Prevention Program?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Golden, Sherita H.; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Mather, Kieren J.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether blood pressure reductions differ by estrogen use among overweight glucose-intolerant women. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of postmenopausal Diabetes Prevention Program participants who used oral estrogen with or without progestogen at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (n=324) vs. those who did not use at either time point (n=382). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) changes were examined by randomization arm (intensive lifestyle change (ILS), metformin 850 mg twice daily, or placebo). Associations between changes in blood pressure with changes in sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were also examined. Results Estrogen users and non-users had similar prevalences of baseline hypertension (33% vs. 34%, p=0.82) and use of blood pressure medications at baseline (p=0.25) and follow-up (p=0.10). Estrogen users and non-users randomized to ILS had similar decreases in SBP (-3.3 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.45) and DBP (-3.1 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.16). Among estrogen users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in SBP (p=0.016) and DBP (p=0.009) vs. placebo. Among non-users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in DBP (p=0.001) vs. placebo, but declines in SBP were not significant (p=0.11). Metformin was not associated with blood pressure reductions vs. placebo regardless of estrogen therapy. Blood pressure changes were not associated with changes in sex hormones regardless of estrogen therapy. Conclusions Among overweight women with dysglycemia, the magnitude of blood pressure reductions after ILS was unrelated to postmenopausal estrogen use. PMID:23942251

  8. Skin blood flow differentially affects near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation and blood volume at rest and during dynamic leg exercise.

    PubMed

    Tew, Garry A; Ruddock, Alan D; Saxton, John M

    2010-11-01

    The impact of skin blood flow changes on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO(2)) and blood volume has not been fully established. We measured SmO(2) and total hemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) responses of the right vastus lateralis during rest and dynamic knee extension exercise in ten young, healthy males. The protocol was repeated four times: twice without thigh heating for reliability, and twice with different grades of thigh heating for assessing the impact of cutaneous vasodilation on SmO(2) and Δ[tHb]. The reliability of our SmO(2) and [tHb] measurements was good. Thigh heating at 37 and 42°C caused marked increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during rest and exercise (P < 0.001 between each condition), and small increases in SmO(2) during rest (from 69 ± 8% to 71 ± 7% and 73 ± 6%, respectively; P < 0.05 between each condition), but not during exercise (e.g. 1 min exercise: 51 ± 11% vs. 51 ± 11% and 52 ± 11%, respectively; P > 0.05 at all time points). In contrast, heating-induced increases in %CVC(peak) were accompanied by increases in [tHb] at rest and during exercise and a decrease in Δ[tHb] during exercise (all P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that NIRS-derived measures of SmO(2) and blood volume are differentially affected by skin blood flow at rest and during exercise. The findings from this study should be considered in NIRS experiments where skin blood flow can change markedly (e.g. high-intensity and/or prolonged exercise). PMID:20700602

  9. Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, G.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Kynard, B.; Shi, X.; Duan, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were studied. MS-222 caused higher glucose (GLU) concentrations in anaesthetic test groups than for the control group. Triglyceride (TGL) concentrations of fish in the 140 and 160mgL-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of other groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than the level in 80, 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than those in the 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Levels of total protein (TP), cholesterol (CHOL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in anaesthetic test groups were not significantly influenced by MS-222. Clove oil did not have significant effects on levels of GLU, TP, CHOL, ALT and ALP. TGL concentration of fish exposed to 180mgL-1 clove oil was significantly higher than those of the rest anaesthetic groups. AST activities of fish exposed to 120, 150 and 180mgL-1 were significantly higher than those of 60 and 90mgL-1. Overall, TGL and AST could be potentially used as indicators of anaesthetic stress for juvenile Siberian sturgeon. Based on blood biochemical parameters, the appropriate anaesthetic concentrations of MS-222 and clove oil were 80-120mgL-1 and 60-90mgL-1, respectively. Clove oil was a promising alternative to MS-222. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  10. Formation of vitamin E emulsion stabilized by octenylsuccinic starch: factors affecting particle size and oil load.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Dan; Yang, Lei; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin E (VE) emulsions were formed by adding VE acetate in an octenylsuccinic (OS) starch solution with distilled water and homogenizing with a microfluidizer at 20000 psi. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total concentration of starch and oil, ratio of oil to starch, pH value, and free OS content on emulsion properties. A method using HPLC was developed to analyze VE in emulsion, and the results were used to estimate the amount of surface VE oil. Lower total concentration of starch and oil and lower ratio of oil to starch resulted in more stable emulsions, whereas differences in the pH between 3 and 8 had little effect. Free OS content increased with greater particle size and decreased oil load. Increasing the number of passes reduced the initial particle size of the emulsion but increased free OS content. PMID:25808448

  11. Fish oil supplementation decreases oxidative stress but does not affect platelet-activating factor bioactivity in lungs of asthmatic rats.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, A L; Miranda, D T S Z; Dias, B C L; Campos, R M; Massaro, M C; Michelotto, P V; West, A L; Miles, E A; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A

    2014-07-01

    Dietary fish oil supplementation increases the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in cellular membranes. The highly unsaturated nature of n-3 PUFA could result in an enhanced lipid peroxidation in the oxidative environment characteristic of asthma. The oxidative reaction cascade culminates in an increased production of components associated to oxidative stress and of an important proinflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF)-like lipid. We evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats upon the PAF bioactivity and parameters related to oxidative stress in the lung. Fish oil supplementation of asthmatic rats resulted in lower concentrations of nitrite (1.719 ± 0.137 vs. 2.454 ± 0.163 nmol/mL) and lipid hydroperoxide (72.190 ± 7.327 vs. 120.200 ± 11.270 nmol/mg protein). In asthmatic animals, fish oil increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) (33.910 ± 2.325 vs. 24.110 ± 0.618 U/mg protein) and glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) (164.100 ± 31.250 vs. 12.590 ± 5.234 U/mg protein). However, fish oil did not affect PAF bioactivity in lung tissue of asthmatic rats (0.545 ± 0.098 340/380 vs. 0.669 ± 0.101 340/380 nm ratio). Considering the two-step process--oxidative stress and PAF bioactivity--fish oil exhibited a divergent action on these aspects of asthmatic inflammation, since the supplement lowered oxidative stress in the lungs of asthmatic rats, presenting an antioxidant effect, but did not affect PAF bioactivity. This suggests a dual effect of fish oil on oxidative stress and inflammation in asthma. PMID:24858941

  12. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention. PMID:18361907

  13. Factors affecting emulsion stability and quality of oil recovered from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans.

    PubMed

    Jung, S; Maurer, D; Johnson, L A

    2009-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess how the stability of the emulsion recovered from aqueous extraction processing of soybeans was affected by characteristics of the starting material and extraction and demulsification conditions. Adding endopeptidase Protex 6L during enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) of extruded soybean flakes was vital to obtaining emulsions that were easily demulsified with enzymes. Adding salt (up to 1.5 mM NaCl or MgCl(2)) during extraction and storing extruded flakes before extraction at 4 and 30 degrees C for up to 3 months did not affect the stabilities of emulsions recovered from EAEP of soy flour, flakes and extruded flakes. After demulsification, highest free oil yield was obtained with EAEP of extruded flakes, followed by flour and then flakes. The same protease used for the extraction step was used to demulsify the EAEP cream emulsion from extruded full-fat soy flakes at concentrations ranging from 0.03% to 2.50% w/w, incubation times ranging from 2 to 90 min, and temperatures of 25, 50 or 65 degrees C. Highest free oil recoveries were achieved at high enzyme concentrations, mild temperatures, and short incubation times. Both the nature of enzyme (i.e., protease and phospholipase), added alone or as a cocktail, concentration of enzymes (0.5% vs. 2.5%) and incubation time (1 vs. 3 h), use during the extraction step, and nature of enzyme added for demulsifying affected free oil yield. The free oil recovered from EAEP of extruded flakes contained less phosphorus compared with conventional hexane-extracted oil. The present study identified conditions rendering the emulsion less stable, which is critical to increasing free oil yield recovered during EAEP of soybeans, an environmentally friendly alternative processing method to hexane extraction. PMID:19570674

  14. Factors affecting radioactive microsphere measurement of blood flow in pregnant guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.; Sparks, J.W.; Makowski, E.L.

    1986-10-01

    Comparative blood flow studies were performed in pregnant guinea pigs using radioactive microspheres to test the effects of different sphere sizes on blood flow measurements and the relationship between flows obtained intraoperatively and those performed after 5 days of recovery from anesthesia and surgery. We observed that 1.5% of the cardiac output was shunted through the microcirculation of the carcass, gut, skin and endomyometrium when 15 mu microspheres were used. Intraoperative measurements of heart rate, cardiac output and placental blood flow are significantly lower than measurements made after 5 days recovery. These reductions were ameliorated with the addition of a continuous infusion of isoproterenol and the deletion of atropine from the anesthetic.

  15. Antibiotics in ingested human blood affect the mosquito microbiota and capacity to transmit malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gendrin, Mathilde; Rodgers, Faye H.; Yerbanga, Rakiswendé S.; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Cohuet, Anna; Christophides, George K.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria reduction is most efficiently achieved by vector control whereby human populations at high risk of contracting and transmitting the disease are protected from mosquito bites. Here, we identify the presence of antibiotics in the blood of malaria-infected people as a new risk of increasing disease transmission. We show that antibiotics in ingested blood enhance the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to malaria infection by disturbing their gut microbiota. This effect is confirmed in a semi-natural setting by feeding mosquitoes with blood of children naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Antibiotic exposure additionally increases mosquito survival and fecundity, which are known to augment vectorial capacity. These findings suggest that malaria transmission may be exacerbated in areas of high antibiotic usage, and that regions targeted by mass drug administration programs against communicable diseases may necessitate increased vector control. PMID:25562286

  16. Does tropicamide affect choroidal blood flow in humans? a laser Doppler flowmetry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, Nithiyanantham; Riva, Charles E.; Rovati, Luigi; Cellini, Mauro; Gizzi, Corrado; Strobbe, Ernesto; Campos, Emilio C.

    2012-03-01

    The measurement of blood flow in the ocular fundus is of scientific and clinical interest. Investigating ocular blood flow in the choroid may be important to understand the pathogenesis of numerous ocular diseases, such as glaucoma or agerelated macular degeneration (AMD). Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) was applied to measure relative velocity, volume and flux of red blood cells in the tissues of human eye. Its main application lies in the possibility of assessing alterations in blood flow early in the course of diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of pupil dilatation with one drop of 1% tropicamide on blood flow in the foveal region of the choroid of the human fundus. The blood flow parameters were measured in 24 eyes during 30 minutes (one measurement in every 3 minutes) after the application of the drop. Since the Doppler parameters depend on the scattering geometry, which may change as the pupil dilates; an artificial pupil of 4mm in diameter was placed directly in front the eye. Following the administration of tropicamide the mean pupil diameter was increased from 3.29 mm to 8.25 mm (P<0.0001, Paired student t-test). In comparison to the baseline values, the data shows no significant increases were observed in velocity, volume, and flow with 4 mm artificial pupil (0.2%, 1.3%, 0.8% respectively) and a statistically significant increases were observed without artificial pupil (10.7%, 13.9%, 12.8% respectively) following the application of tropicamide.

  17. Reduced cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics during sustained affective stimulation in young women with chronic low blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Cellini, Nicola; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Covassin, Naima; Gallicchio, Germano; Stegagno, Luciano; Sarlo, Michela

    2015-05-01

    Although low blood pressure has been associated with lower affect and higher depressive symptoms in the elderly, the presence of possible impairment in emotional reactivity in chronic hypotensive individuals in early adulthood remains largely unexplored. Using a combination of transcranial Doppler sonography, beat-to-beat blood pressure recording and impedance cardiography we assessed central and peripheral hemodynamic changes in 15 undergraduate women with chronic hypotension (Age: 23.9 ± 2.7 years) and 15 normotensive controls (Age: 23.7 ± 3.1 years) during sustained exposure to pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures. Overall, systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in normotensives and decreased in hypotensives during picture viewing as compared to baseline. Also, compared to normotensives, in hypotensives mean cerebral blood flow velocity increased to a lesser extent during the viewing of pleasant pictures and the magnitude of this increase was negatively associated with subjective emotional arousal. In addition, in hypotensives screening SBP was positively associated with valence rating of pleasant contents. These findings indicate a close association between chronic low blood pressure and reduced processing of pleasant stimuli in young adulthood. PMID:25727023

  18. Nitric oxide-mediated blood flow regulation as affected by smoking and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Toda, Noboru; Toda, Hiroshi

    2010-12-15

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, cerebral and coronary vascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Chronic smoking impairs endothelial function by decreasing the formation of nitric oxide and increasing the degradation of nitric oxide via generation of oxygen free radicals. Nitric oxide liberated from efferent nitrergic nerves is also involved in vasodilatation, increased regional blood flow, and hypotension that are impaired through nitric oxide sequestering by smoking-induced factors. Influence of smoking on nitric oxide-induced blood flow regulation is not necessarily the same in all organs and tissues. However, human studies are limited mainly to the forearm blood flow measurement that assesses endothelial function under basal and stimulated conditions and also determination of penile tumescence and erection in response to endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide. Therefore, information about blood flow regulation in other organs, such as the brain and placenta, has been provided mainly from studies on experimental animals. Nicotine, a major constituent of cigarette smoke, acutely dilates cerebral arteries and arterioles through nitric oxide liberated from nitrergic neurons, but chronically interferes with endothelial function in various vasculatures, both being noted in studies on experimental animals. Cigarette smoke constituents other than nicotine also have some vascular actions. Not only active but also passive smoking is undoubtedly harmful for both the smokers themselves and their neighbors, who should bear in mind that they can face serious diseases in the future, which may result in lengthy hospitalization, and a shortened lifespan. PMID:20868673

  19. Processes affecting the fate of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in an aquifer contaminated by crude oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Dorsey, T.F.; Phinney, C.S.; Westcott, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Crude oil spilled from a subsurface pipeline in north-central Minnesota has dissolved in the groundwater, resulting in the formation of a plume of aliphatic, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons. Comparison of paired oil and groundwater samples collected along the central axis of the residual oil body shows that the trailing edge of the oil is depleted in the more soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene, toluene, etc.) when compared with the leading edge. At the same time, concentrations of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater beneath the oil increase as the water moves toward the leading edge of the oil. Immediately downgradient from the leading edge of the oil body, certain aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene) are found at concentrations near those expected of a system at equilibrium, and the concentrations exhibit little variation over time (???8-20%). Other compounds (e.g., toluene) appear to be undersaturated, and their concentrations show considerably more temporal variation (???20-130%). The former are persistent within the anoxic zone downgradient from the oil, whereas concentrations of the latter decrease rapidly. Together, these observations suggest that the volatile hydrocarbon composition of the anoxic groundwater near the oil body is controlled by a balance between dissolution and removal rates with only the most persistent compounds reaching saturation. Examination of the distributions of homologous series and isomeric assemblages of alkylbenzenes reveals that microbial degradation is the dominant process controlling the fate of these compounds once groundwater moves away from the oil. For all but the most persistent compounds, the distal boundary of the plume at the water table extends no more than 10-15 m down-gradient from the oxic/anoxic transition zone. Thus, transport of the monoaromatic hydrocarbons is limited by redox conditions that are tightly coupled to biological degradation processes.

  20. Toxic effects of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil on red blood cells of Sprague-Dawley rats*

    PubMed Central

    Taib, Izatus Shima; Budin, Siti Balkis; Siti Nor Ain, Seri Maseran; Mohamed, Jamaludin; Louis, Santhana Raj; Das, Srijit; Sallehudin, Sulaiman; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Hidayatulfathi, Othman

    2009-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume leaves have been traditionally used as medicinal herbs because of its antimutagenicity, chemopreventative and insecticidal properties. In this study, the toxic effects of L. elliptica essential oil against Sprague-Dawley rat’s red blood cells (RBCs) were evaluated. L. elliptica essential oil was given by oral gavage 5 times per week for 3 treated groups in the doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/(kg body weight), respectively, and the control group received distilled water. Full blood count, RBC osmotic fragility, RBC morphological changes, and RBC membrane lipid were analyzed 28 d after the treatment. Although L. elliptica essential oil administration had significantly different effects on hemoglobin (Hb), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean cell volume (MCV), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) in the experimental groups as compared to the control group (P<0.05), the values were still within the normal range. L. elliptica induced morphological changes of RBC into the form of echinocyte. The percentage of echinocyte increased significantly among the treated groups in a dose-response manner (P<0.001). The concentrations of RBC membrane phospholipids and cholesterol of all treated groups were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.001). However, the RBC membrane osmotic fragility and total proteins of RBC membrane findings did not differ significantly between control and treated groups (P>0.05). It is concluded that structural changes in the RBC membrane due to L. elliptica essential oil administration did not cause severe membrane damage. PMID:19882755

  1. Inhibition of ABC transport proteins by oil sands process affected water.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Saunders, David M V; Al-Mousa, Ahmed; Alcorn, Jane; Pereira, Alberto S; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporter proteins is important for detoxification of xenobiotics. For example, ABC transporters from the multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) subfamily are important for excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites. Effects of chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of relatively fresh oil sands process affected water (OSPW) from Base Mine Lake (BML-OSPW) and aged OSPW from Pond 9 (P9-OSPW) on the activity of MRP transporters were investigated in vivo by use of Japanese medaka at the fry stage of development. Activities of MRPs were monitored by use of the lipophilic dye calcein, which is transported from cells by ABC proteins, including MRPs. To begin to identify chemicals that might inhibit activity of MRPs, BML-OSPW and P9-OSPW were fractionated into acidic, basic, and neutral fractions by use of mixed-mode sorbents. Chemical compositions of fractions were determined by use of ultrahigh resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry in ESI(+) and ESI(-) mode. Greater amounts of calcein were retained in fry exposed to BML-OSPW at concentration equivalents greater than 1× (i.e., full strength). The neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW, but not the acidic fraction, caused greater retention of calcein. Exposure to P9-OSPW did not affect the amount of calcein in fry. Neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW contained relatively greater amounts of several oxygen-, sulfur, and nitrogen-containing chemical species that might inhibit MRPs, such as O(+), SO(+), and NO(+) chemical species, although secondary fractionation will be required to conclusively identify the most potent inhibitors. Naphthenic acids (O2(-)), which were dominant in the acidic fraction, did not appear to be the cause of the inhibition. This is the first study to demonstrate that chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of OSPW inhibit activity of this important class of proteins. However, aging of OSPW attenuates

  2. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint ( P > 0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR ( P = 0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed ( P < 0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased ( P < 0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  3. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint (P>0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR (P=0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed (P<0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased (P<0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group (P<0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions. PMID:24096939

  4. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    PubMed

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies. PMID:27297000

  5. Do GSM 900MHz signals affect cerebral blood circulation? A near-infrared spectrophotometry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Martin; Haensse, Daniel; Morren, Geert; Froehlich, Juerg

    2006-06-01

    Effects of GSM 900MHz signals (EMF) typical for a handheld mobile phone on the cerebral blood circulation were investigated using near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) in a three armed (12W/kg, 1.2W/kg, sham), double blind, randomized crossover trial in 16 healthy volunteers. During exposure we observed borderline significant short term responses of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration, which correspond to a decrease of cerebral blood flow and volume and were smaller than regular physiological changes. Due to the relatively high number of statistical tests, these responses may be spurious and require further studies. There was no detectable dose-response relation or long term response within 20min. The detection limit was a fraction of the regular physiological changes elicited by functional activation. Compared to previous studies using PET, NIRS provides a much higher time resolution, which allowed investigating the short term effects efficiently, noninvasively, without the use of radioactive tracers and with high sensitivity.

  6. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert W.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Guillette, Matthew P.; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J.; Smit, Willem J.; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S. P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various “outbreaks” of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River. PMID:27115488

  7. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Bowden, John A; Cantu, Theresa M; Chapman, Robert W; Somerville, Stephen E; Guillette, Matthew P; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Smit, Willem J; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S P; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various "outbreaks" of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River. PMID:27115488

  8. Understanding How Space Travel Affects Blood Vessels: Arterial Remodeling and Functional Adaptations Induced by Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, Michael; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ever rise quickly from the couch to get something from the kitchen and suddenly feel dizzy? With a low heart rate and relaxed muscles, the cardiovascular system does not immediately provide the resistance necessary to keep enough blood going to your head. Gravity wins, at least for a short time, before your heart and blood vessels can respond to the sudden change in position and correct the situation. Actually, the human cardiovascular system is quite well adapted to the constant gravitational force of the Earth. When standing, vessels in the legs constrict to prevent blood from collecting in the lower extremities. In the space environment, the usual head-to-foot blood pressure and tissue fluid gradients that exist during the upright posture on Earth are removed. The subsequent shift in fluids from the lower to the upper portions of the body triggers adaptations within the cardiovascular system to accommodate the new pressure and fluid gradients. In animal models that simulate microgravity, the vessels in the head become more robust while those in the lower limbs become thin and lax. Similar changes may also occur in humans during spaceflight and while these adaptations are appropriate for a microgravity environment, they can cause problems when the astronauts return to Earth or perhaps another planet. Astronauts often develop orthostatic intolerance which means they become dizzy or faint when standing upright. This dizziness can persist for a number of days making routine activities difficult. In an effort to understand the physiological details of these cardiovascular adaptations, Dr. Michael Delp at Texas A&M University, uses the rat as a model for his studies. For the experiment flown on STS-107, he will test the hypothesis that blood vessels in the rats' hindlimbs become thinner, weaker, and constrict less in response to pressure changes and to chemical signals when exposed to microgravity. In addition, he will test the hypothesis that arteries in the brain

  9. Inhibition of local blood flow control systems in the mammary glands of lactating cows affects uptakes of energy metabolites from blood.

    PubMed

    Madsen, T G; Cieslar, S R L; Trout, D R; Nielsen, M O; Cant, J P

    2015-05-01

    To test the effect of mammary blood flow on net uptakes of milk precursors by the mammary glands, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) were infused into the mammary circulation of 4 lactating cows. Inhibitors were infused in a 4×4 Latin square design, where treatments were infusion for 1 h of saline, NOS inhibitor (Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride), COX inhibitor (indomethacin), or both NOS + COX inhibitors into one external iliac artery. Para-aminohippuric acid was also infused to allow for estimation of iliac plasma flow (IPF), of which approximately 80% flows to the mammary glands. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after inhibitor infusion from the contralateral external iliac artery and ipsilateral mammary vein. Inhibition of COX and NOS each produced a decrease in IPF, although the NOS effect was smaller and IPF continued to be depressed throughout the recovery period. The combination of COX and NOS inhibition produced a 50% depression in IPF and there was no carryover into the recovery period. Treatments that depressed IPF also increased arterial concentrations of acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and glucose. Similarly, arteriovenous differences of acetate, BHBA, and glucose were all increased during IPF depression. To correct for a potential effect of arterial concentration, arteriovenous differences were normalized to arterial concentration, producing an extraction percentage. Inhibition of COX increased glucose extraction and tended to increase acetate and BHBA extraction. Dual inhibition only increased BHBA extraction and had no effect on mammary extraction of other metabolites. These extractions did not increase because clearances of glucose and TAG decreased as IPF decreased, and clearances of acetate and BHBA tended to decrease. Net uptake of TAG was depressed by dual NOS/COX inhibition, whereas uptakes of acetate, BHBA, and glucose were not affected by any of the treatments. To separate

  10. The effect of facial blood flow on ratings of blushing and negative affect during an embarrassing task: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Peter D; Lazaroo, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Expecting to blush is a common source of social anxiety, and is associated with heightened perceptions of blushing and embarrassment. To assess whether sensory cues associated with heightened facial blood flow are an additional source of anxiety, the vasodilator niacin (100mg) or placebo was administered double-blind to 33 participants, and facial blood flow was investigated when they sang a children's song. Vasodilatation during singing was greater in the niacin than placebo condition, and niacin-evoked flushing and increases in pulse rate were greater in participants with high than low fear of negative evaluation. Nevertheless, ratings of embarrassment, anxiety, blushing and facial heat were similar in both drug conditions. This dissociation implies that cognitive appraisals or negative affect overrode more subtle physiological cues of blushing during embarrassment. Clarifying how judgments about blushing are made could be crucial for correcting faulty assumptions about blushing in people who are frightened of this response. PMID:22257642

  11. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko D

    2014-01-01

    Possible appliance of effective and safe alkalizing agent in the treatment of metabolic acidosis could be of particular interest to humans experiencing an increase in plasma acidity, such as exercise-induced acidosis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the daily oral intake of 2L of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) for 14 days would increase arterial blood alkalinity at baseline and post-exercise as compared with the placebo. This study was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 52 presumably healthy physically active male volunteers. Twenty-six participants received HRW and 26 a placebo (tap water) for 14 days. Arterial blood pH, partial pressure for carbon dioxide (pCO2), and bicarbonates were measured at baseline and postexercise at the start (day 0) and at the end of the intervention period (day 14). Intake of HRW significantly increased fasting arterial blood pH by 0.04 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.08; p < 0.001), and postexercise pH by 0.07 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.10; p = 0.03) after 14 days of intervention. Fasting bicarbonates were significantly higher in the HRW trial after the administration regimen as compared with the preadministration (30.5 ± 1.9 mEq/L vs. 28.3 ± 2.3 mEq/L; p < 0.0001). No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study, and no participant reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. These results support the hypothesis that HRW administration is safe and may have an alkalizing effect in young physically active men. PMID:24392771

  12. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  13. DNA Methylation of Lipid-Related Genes Affects Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Liliane; Wahl, Simone; Pilling, Luke C.; Reischl, Eva; Sandling, Johanna K.; Kunze, Sonja; Holdt, Lesca M.; Kretschmer, Anja; Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Hedman, Åsa K.; Roden, Michael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Teupser, Daniel; Meisinger, Christa; Spector, Timothy D.; Kronenberg, Florian; Prokisch, Holger; Melzer, David; Peters, Annette; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of interindividual lipid level variability and thus may contribute to the cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genome-wide DNA methylation and blood lipid levels high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Observed DNA methylation changes were also further analyzed to examine their relationship with previous hospitalized myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were determined in whole blood samples of 1776 subjects of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). Ten novel lipid-related CpG sites annotated to various genes including ABCG1, MIR33B/SREBF1, and TNIP1 were identified. CpG cg06500161, located in ABCG1, was associated in opposite directions with both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β coefficient=−0.049; P=8.26E-17) and triglyceride levels (β=0.070; P=1.21E-27). Eight associations were confirmed by replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F3 study (n=499) and in the Invecchiare in Chianti, Aging in the Chianti Area study (n=472). Associations between triglyceride levels and SREBF1 and ABCG1 were also found in adipose tissue of the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort (n=634). Expression analysis revealed an association between ABCG1 methylation and lipid levels that might be partly mediated by ABCG1 expression. DNA methylation of ABCG1 might also play a role in previous hospitalized myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval=1.06–1.25). Conclusions Epigenetic modifications of the newly identified loci might regulate disturbed blood lipid levels and thus contribute to the development of complex lipid-related diseases. PMID:25583993

  14. Cytokine profiles during delivery affect cord blood hematopoietic stem and progenitors cells.

    PubMed

    Szaryńska, Magdalena; Myśliwski, Andrzej; Myśliwska, Jolanta; Kmieć, Zbigniew; Preis, Krzysztof; Zabul, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    The study was aimed to determine the correlations between serum levels of cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-10 and TNF) in maternal (MB) and cord blood (CB) and some features of cord blood hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (CB HSPCs). Study material was MB and concomitant CB samples collected from 98 volunteers at the moment of delivery. The IL-4, IL-10, TNF and GM-CSF concentrations in serum and in supernatants from PMA-stimulated mononuclear cells isolated from both blood types were measured using BD Cytometric Bead Array Flex Set System. CB HSPCs (CD34(+)CD45(low)) proportion was also estimated by flow cytometry. The most relevant results concerned the tendency to down regulation of CB HSPCs number with an increase of IL-4, IL-10 and GM-CSF levels, only the TNF concentration seems to have no influence on HSPCs pole size. The strongest positive correlations were found between CD34(+)CD45(low) HSPCs number and IL-10 and GM-CSF in MB serum and GM-CSF and TNF from CB supernatants. The strongest negative correlations were found between CD34(+)CD45(low) HSPCs number and IL-4 and GM-CSF in CB serum and IL-10 in MB supernatants. Interestingly, we observed 'opposite correlation' between serum and supernatant from CB and MB. We concluded that elevated serum levels of IL-4, IL-10 and GM-CSF in CB are indicative of enhanced differentiation of HSPCs and characterize a normal perinatal development. Elevated levels of cytokines seem to stimulate differentiation of HSPCs what is advantageous for neonates during perinatal period. PMID:25638579

  15. Cytapheresis in the treatment of cell-affected blood disorders and abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Balint, Bela; Ostojic, Gordana; Pavlovic, Mirjana; Hrvacevic, Rajko; Pavlovic, Miodrag; Tukic, Ljiljana; Radovic, Milan

    2006-08-01

    This report presents our experience with cytaphereses performed in treatment of 476 patients. Leukapheresis was used in management of 68 patients with hyperleukocytosis leukostasis (WBC > or = 150 x 10(9)L(-1)). Average decrease in cell count after treatment was 73.3%. Plateletapheresis for 32 patients (platelets > or = 1500 x 10(9)L(-1)) was applied in order to prevent the thrombotic-hemorrhagic syndrome and resulted in a moderate platelet count reduction (84.3%). Erythrocytaphereses performed in treatment of 376 patients by manual or automated technique resulted in a rapid blood viscosity drop (42.4+/-7.1%). Patients with red blood cell exchanges (severe malaria and autoimmune hemolytic crisis) were in life-threatening situations and resulted in a prompt reduction of parasitized or antibody-coated RBCs and anemia correction. This study indicates that "conventional" TCs resulted in considerable cytoreduction only in patients with especially high cell count. This effect was not associated with bone marrow remission. The best clinical effect and long-term benefits were obtained using RBCX and antimalarial drugs in malaria patients who have had high-level parasitized-RBCs with multiorgan dysfunction. PMID:16935563

  16. Cervical dilatation and grade of doctor affects the interval between decision and result of fetal scalp blood sampling in labour.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Stephanie; Roberts, Stephen A; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2016-08-01

    Fetal scalp blood sampling (FSBS) is used to provide information regarding fetal acid-base status during labour. This study assessed the interval between the decision to perform the procedure and obtaining the result and evaluated whether it is affected by cervical dilatation or the experience of the doctor. The median time for FSBS was 10 min. When cervical dilatation was ≤4 cm samples took approximately 30% longer to obtain. After adjustment for dilation, there were no significant differences between different grades of doctors. FSBS is shorter than previously reported; clinicians should be aware that procedures in early labour take longer to complete. PMID:26399279

  17. Factors affecting the yield of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of coconut shell.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun; Yang, Yi; Qin, Zhanbin; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Coconut is a high-quality agricultural product of the Asia-Pacific region. In this paper, coconut shell which mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin was used as a raw material for coconut shell oil from coconut shell pyrolysis. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on coconut oil yield was investigated, and the effect of heating rate on coconut oil components was discussed. Experimental results show that the maximum oil yield of 75.74 wt% (including water) were obtained under the conditions that the final pyrolysis temperature 575 °C, heating rate 20 °C/min, coconut shell diameter about 5 mm. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used and it can be seen that coconut shell pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages: water loss, pyrolysis and pyrocondensation. The main components of coconut-shell oil are water (about 50 wt%), aromatic, phenolic, acid, ketone and ether containing compounds. PMID:27066356

  18. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. FY 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    Evaluation of oil and gas properties for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) involves a high degree of risk, especially when the fields are old and well past their prime. The purpose of this project is to provide the small-to-medium size oil field operator with the tools necessary to do an EOR evaluation of the same quality and sophistication that only large international oil companies have been able to afford to date. This approach utilizes readily available, affordable computer software and analytical services. This project will provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for EOR operations utilizing data typically available in a field which has undergone primary development. After reviewing PC-based software from most major vendors, the authors decided that the most effective way to provide a user-friendly, state-of-the-art package to the independent producers who are primary clients is to link the best modules from four different systems: a commercial database, a wireline log analysis program, a mapping program, and a 2D and 3D visualization program, into a flexible, user-friendly unit. This would result in a product that could be used by small oil and gas companies to perform computerized reservoir studies. Progress to date is described.

  19. Blood withdrawal affects iron store dynamics in primates with consequences on monoaminergic system function.

    PubMed

    Hyacinthe, C; De Deurwaerdere, P; Thiollier, T; Li, Q; Bezard, E; Ghorayeb, I

    2015-04-01

    Iron homeostasis is essential for the integrity of brain monoaminergic functions and its deregulation might be involved in neurological movement disorders such as the restless legs syndrome (RLS). Although iron metabolism breakdown concomitantly appears with monoaminergic system dysfunction in iron-deficient rodents and in RLS patients, the direct consequences of peripheral iron deficiency in the central nervous system (CNS) of non-human primates have received little attention. Here, we evaluated the peripheral iron-depletion impact on brain monoamine levels in macaque monkeys. After documenting circadian variations of iron and iron-related proteins (hemoglobin, ferritin and transferrin) in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal macaques, repeated blood withdrawals (RBW) were used to reduce peripheral iron-related parameter levels. Decreased serum iron levels were paradoxically associated with increased CSF iron concentrations. Despite limited consequences on tissue monoamine contents (dopamine - DA, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid - DOPAC, homovanillic acid, L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine - L-DOPA, 5-8 hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid - 5-HIAA and noradrenaline) measured with post-mortem chromatography, we found distinct and region-dependent relationships of these tissue concentrations with CSF iron and/or serum iron and/or blood hemoglobin. Additionally, striatal extracellular DA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA levels evaluated by in vivo microdialysis showed a substantial increase, suggesting an overall increase in both DA and 5-HT tones. Finally, a trending increase in general locomotor activity, measured by actimetry, was observed in the most serum iron-depleted macaques. Taken together, our data are compatible with an increase in nigrostriatal DAergic function in the event of iron deficiency and point to a specific alteration of the 5-HT/DA interaction in the CNS that is possibly involved in the etiology of RLS. PMID:25662508

  20. Racial Differences Affecting Night Time Blood Pressure Dipping Groups in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, LH; Elaine, Huang; Kong, RT

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal blood pressure (BP) follows a circadian rhythm, with dipping of BP at night. However, little has been done to show how the dipping groups vary amongst the White and Asian population at different periods of the year. This study aims to examine the pattern of nocturnal dipping between the White and Asian population, as well as to compare it to the different timings of the year, between summer and winter. Methods Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor recordings were obtained from 220 patients, half were White patients obtained from Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland and half were Asian patients from National Heart Centre, Singapore during the summer period from May to June and the winter period from October to December. Results Both the Irish and Singaporeans exhibit a decrease in total number of reverse dipper from summer to winter. However, the redistribution of reverse dipper was mainly to the dippers in Singapore, while in Ireland it was to both the extreme dipper and dipper. Irish seasonal changes also resulted in an increase in nocturnal diastolic pressure (95% CI, 0.72 to 6.03, 3.37 mm Hg; p<0.05) and a change in the duration of dipping at night (95% CI, 0.045 to 1.01, 0.53 Hours; p<0.05). Conclusion Regardless of race or temperature, reverse dippers seem to decrease in winter. However, the racial differences dictate the redistribution of the fall in number of dippers. This has implications on how reverse dippers should be treated at different periods of the year. PMID:26989605

  1. Key Immune Cell Cytokines Affects the Telomere Activity of Cord Blood Cells In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Brazvan, Balal; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Mohammadi, Seyede Momeneh; Montazer Saheb, Soheila; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Schmied, Laurent; Soleimani Rad, Jafar; Darabi, Masoud; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Telomere is a nucleoprotein complex at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes and its length is regulated by telomerase. The number of DNA repeat sequence (TTAGGG)n is reduced with each cell division in differentiated cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SCF (Stem Cell Factor), Flt3 (Fms- Like tyrosine kinase-3), Interleukin-2, 7 and 15 on telomere length and hTERT gene expression in mononuclear and umbilical cord blood stem cells (CD34+ cells) during development to lymphoid cells. Methods: The mononuclear cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood by Ficoll-Paque density gradient. Then cells were cultured for 21 days in the presence of different cytokines. Telomere length and hTERT gene expression were evaluated in freshly isolated cells, 7, 14 and 21 days of culture by real-time PCR. The same condition had been done for CD34+ cells but telomere length and hTERT gene expression were measured at initial and day 21 of the experiment. Results: Highest hTERT gene expression and maximum telomere length were measured at day14 of MNCs in the presence of IL-7 and IL-15. Also, there was a significant correlation between telomere length and telomerase gene expression in MNCs at 14 days in a combination of IL-7 and IL-15 (r = 0.998, p =0.04). In contrast, IL-2 showed no distinct effect on telomere length and hTERT gene expression in cells. Conclusion: Taken together, IL-7 and IL-15 increased telomere length and hTERT gene expression at 14 day of the experiment. In conclusion, it seems likely that cells maintain naïve phenotype due to prolonged exposure of IL-7 and IL-15. PMID:27478776

  2. Melanoma Affects the Composition of Blood Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Koliha, Nina; Heider, Ute; Ozimkowski, Tobias; Wiemann, Martin; Bosio, Andreas; Wild, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are specifically loaded with nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins from their parental cell. Therefore, the constitution of EVs reflects the type and status of the originating cell and EVs in melanoma patient’s plasma could be indicative for the tumor. Likewise, EVs might influence tumor progression by regulating immune responses. We performed a broad protein characterization of EVs from plasma of melanoma patients and healthy donors as well as from T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), and platelets using a multiplex bead-based platform. Using this method, we succeeded in analyzing 58 proteins that were differentially displayed on EVs. Hierarchical clustering of protein intensity patterns grouped EVs according to their originating cell type. The analysis of EVs from stimulated B cells and moDCs revealed the transfer of surface proteins to vesicles depending on the cell status. The protein profiles of plasma vesicles resembled the protein profiles of EVs from platelets, antigen-presenting cells and NK cells as shown by platelet markers, co-stimulatory proteins, and a NK cell subpopulation marker. In comparison to healthy plasma vesicles, melanoma plasma vesicles showed altered signals for platelet markers, indicating a changed vesicle secretion or protein loading of EVs by platelets and a lower CD8 signal that might be associated with a diminished activity of NK cells or T cells. As we hardly detected melanoma-derived vesicles in patient’s plasma, we concluded that blood cells induced the observed differences. In summary, our results question a direct effect of melanoma cells on the composition of EVs in melanoma plasma, but rather argue for an indirect influence of melanoma cells on the vesicle secretion or vesicle protein loading by blood cells. PMID:27507971

  3. Protective Effect of Pulp Oil Extracted from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit on Blood Lipids, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Status in Healthy Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shakirin, Faridah Hanim; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Amom, Zulkhairi; Cheng Yuon, Lau

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of pulp and kernel oils of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO) on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress of healthy rabbits. The oils are rich in SFAs and MUFAs (mainly palmitic and oleic acids). The pulp oil is rich in polyphenols. Male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were fed for 4 weeks on a normal diet containing pulp (NP) or kernel oil (NK) of CO while corn oil was used as control (NC). Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-c and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured in this paper. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidise), thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARSs), and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were also evaluated. Supplementation of CO pulp oil resulted in favorable changes in blood lipid and lipid peroxidation (increased HDL-C, reduced LDL-C, TG, TBARS levels) with enhancement of SOD, GPx, and plasma TAS levels. Meanwhile, supplementation of kernel oil caused lowering of plasma TC and LDL-C as well as enhancement of SOD and TAS levels. These changes showed that oils of CO could be beneficial in improving lipid profile and antioxidant status as when using part of normal diet. The oils can be used as alternative to present vegetable oil. PMID:22685623

  4. Feeding milk replacer instead of whole milk affects blood plasma proteome and lipid profile in preruminant calves.

    PubMed

    Lepczyński, A; Herosimczyk, A; Ożgo, M; Skrzypczak, W F

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of feeding milk or milk-replacer on the blood plasma proteome and lipid profile in calves during the second week of life. Feeding milk-replacer significantly decreased the expression of plasma apoA-I. Age of calves affected apoA-I expression, which was higher on the 8th than on the 11th and 14th day of life. A significant effect of interaction between diet and age was also observed. The expression of apoA-IV, was significantly affected by diet and was lower in calves fed milk replacer. Expression of this protein was significantly lower at the 8th day of life and was up-regulated in the calves fed milk-replacer at the second week of life. Calves fed milk-replacer had greater expression of haptoglobin, which differed significantly between days of blood sampling, being higher on the 8th than on the 11th and 14th day. The interactive effect of diet and age affected haptoglobin expression, which was successively down-regulated in calves fed milk re- placer. Diet had a significant effect on the plasma lipid profile. Animals fed milk had a greater concentration of TC, HDLC and LDLC. The composition of milk-replacer, especially fat source, is probably the main factor that affects expression of proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism and level of components of lipid profile in calves fed formula. We claim that the initially increased level of haptoglobin, followed by its decrease during the second week of life in calves fed milk-replacer may indicate the presence of short-term stress induced by changes in the feeding system. PMID:25928915

  5. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress. PMID:26780148

  6. Evidence of low toxicity of oil sands process-affected water to birds invites re-evaluation of avian protection strategies

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Elizabeth M.; Smits, Judit E. G.; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to water containing petroleum waste products can generate both overt and subtle toxicological responses in wildlife, including birds. Such exposure can occur in the tailings ponds of the mineable oil sands, which are located in Alberta, Canada, under a major continental flyway for waterfowl. Over the 40 year history of the industry, a few thousand bird deaths have been reported following contact with bitumen on the ponds, but a new monitoring programme demonstrated that many thousands of birds land annually without apparent harm. This new insight creates an urgent need for more information on the sublethal effects on birds from non-bitumen toxicants that occur in the water, including naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and salts. Ten studies have addressed the effects of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), and none reported acute or substantial adverse health effects. Interpretive caution is warranted, however, because nine of the studies addressed reclaimed wetlands that received OSPW, not OSPW ponds per se, and differences between experimental and reference sites may have been reduced by shared sources of pollution in the surrounding air and water. Two studies examined eggs of birds nesting >100 km from the mine sites. Only one study exposed birds directly and repeatedly to OSPW and found no consistent differences between treated and control birds in blood-based health metrics. If it is true that aged forms of OSPW do not markedly affect the health of birds that land briefly on the ponds, then the extensiveness of current bird-deterrent programmes is unwarranted and could exert negative net environmental effects. More directed research on bird health is urgently needed, partly because birds that land on these ponds subsequently migrate to destinations throughout North America where they are consumed by both humans and wildlife predators. PMID:27293723

  7. Evidence of low toxicity of oil sands process-affected water to birds invites re-evaluation of avian protection strategies.

    PubMed

    Beck, Elizabeth M; Smits, Judit E G; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to water containing petroleum waste products can generate both overt and subtle toxicological responses in wildlife, including birds. Such exposure can occur in the tailings ponds of the mineable oil sands, which are located in Alberta, Canada, under a major continental flyway for waterfowl. Over the 40 year history of the industry, a few thousand bird deaths have been reported following contact with bitumen on the ponds, but a new monitoring programme demonstrated that many thousands of birds land annually without apparent harm. This new insight creates an urgent need for more information on the sublethal effects on birds from non-bitumen toxicants that occur in the water, including naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and salts. Ten studies have addressed the effects of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), and none reported acute or substantial adverse health effects. Interpretive caution is warranted, however, because nine of the studies addressed reclaimed wetlands that received OSPW, not OSPW ponds per se, and differences between experimental and reference sites may have been reduced by shared sources of pollution in the surrounding air and water. Two studies examined eggs of birds nesting >100 km from the mine sites. Only one study exposed birds directly and repeatedly to OSPW and found no consistent differences between treated and control birds in blood-based health metrics. If it is true that aged forms of OSPW do not markedly affect the health of birds that land briefly on the ponds, then the extensiveness of current bird-deterrent programmes is unwarranted and could exert negative net environmental effects. More directed research on bird health is urgently needed, partly because birds that land on these ponds subsequently migrate to destinations throughout North America where they are consumed by both humans and wildlife predators. PMID:27293723

  8. Differential effects of natural palm oil, chemically- and enzymatically-modified palm oil on weight gain, blood lipid metabolites and fat deposition in a pediatric pig model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Western world, continue to be a major health threat and is responsible for increased health care costs. Dietary intervention studies show a strong positive association between saturated fat intake and the development of obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of positional distribution of palmitic acid (Sn-1, 2 & 3) of palm oil on cardiovascular health and development of obesity, using weaner pigs as a model for young children. Methods Male and female weaner piglets were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatment groups: 1) pork lard (LRD); 2) natural palm olein (NPO); 3) chemically inter-esterified PO (CPO) and 4) enzymatically inter-esterified PO (EnPO) as the fat source. Diets were formulated with 11% lard or with palm olein in order to provide 31% of digestible energy from fat in the diet and were balanced for cholesterol, protein and energy across treatments. Results From 8 weeks onwards, pigs on EnPO diet gained (P < 0.05) more weight than all other groups. Feed conversion efficiency (feed to gain) over the 12 week experimental period did not vary between treatment groups. Plasma LDL-C content and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio in pigs fed natural PO tended to be lower compared to all other diets. The natural PO lowered (P < 0.02) the plasma triglyceride (TG) content relative to the lard or EnPO diets, but was not different from the CPO diet. The natural PO diet was associated with lower (P < 0.05) saturated fat levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue than the CPO and EnPO diets that had lower saturated fat levels than the lard diet. Female pigs had lower lean and higher fat and fat:lean ratio in the body compared with male pigs. No difference in weight gain or blood lipid parameters was observed between sexes. Conclusions The observations on plasma TG, muscle and adipose tissue saturated fatty acid contents and back fat (subcutaneous) thickness suggest that natural palm oil may

  9. Nocturnal Blood Pressure Pattern Affects Left Ventricular Remodeling and Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Patients with Hypertension and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Hajime; Imai, Yasuko; Tsuboko, Yusuke; Tokumaru, Aya M.; Fujimoto, Hajime; Harada, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent predictor of cardiac mortality, regardless of its etiology. Previous studies have shown that high nocturnal blood pressure (BP) affects LV geometry in hypertensive patients. It has been suggested that continuous pressure overload affects the development of LVH, but it is unknown whether persistent pressure influences myocardial fibrosis or whether the etiology of LVH is associated with myocardial fibrosis. Comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) including the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique can evaluate both the severity of changes in LV geometry and myocardial fibrosis. We tested the hypothesis that the nocturnal non-dipper BP pattern causes LV remodeling and fibrosis in patients with hypertension and LVH. Methods Forty-seven hypertensive patients with LVH evaluated by echocardiography (29 men, age 73.0±10.4 years) were examined by comprehensive CMR and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Results and Conclusions Among the 47 patients, twenty-four had nocturnal non-dipper BP patterns. Patients with nocturnal non-dipper BP patterns had larger LV masses and scar volumes independent of etiologies than those in patients with dipper BP patterns (p = 0.035 and p = 0.015, respectively). There was no significant difference in mean 24-h systolic BP between patients with and without nocturnal dipper BP patterns (p = 0.367). Among hypertensive patients with LVH, the nocturnal non-dipper blood pressure pattern is associated with both LV remodeling and myocardial fibrosis independent of LVH etiology. PMID:23840777

  10. Dietary sodium intake deleteriously affects blood pressure in a normotensive population.

    PubMed

    Chateau-Degat, M L; Ferland, A; Déry, S; Dewailly, E

    2012-04-01

    Western dietary pattern, and particularly high dietary sodium intake (DSI), is recognized for its detrimental impact on blood pressure (BP). This paper examined the association of DSI with BP in Nunavik Inuit (Québec), a population known to have an optimal BP on average. In a population-based study, we recruited 421 normotensive participants aged 18-74 years from 14 coastal villages, situated north of the 55th parallel. BP, biochemistry and anthropometry were obtained. DSI was assessed by a 24-h dietary recall. Mean (s.e.) DSI was higher in men than in women (2358 (101) vs. 1702 (100) mg/d, P<0.0001). Similar gender difference was found in systolic BP (118 (0.7) vs. 111 (0.6) mm Hg; P<0.0001). After adjustment for confounders, we found a positive association between BP and DSI (all P<0.05). In a normotensive population, BP shows a linear relationship with DSI. Our results emphasize the potent deleterious impact of DSI on BP. PMID:22333870

  11. Does Magnetic Field Affect Malaria Parasite Replication in Human Red Blood Cells?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanturiya, Alexandr N.; Glushakova, Svetlana; Yin, Dan; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Digestion of red blood cell (RBC) hemoglobin by the malaria parasite results in the formation of paramagnetic hemazoin crystals inside the parasite body. A number of reports suggest that magnetic field interaction with hamazoin crystals significantly reduces the number of infected cells in culture, and thus magnetic field can be used to combat malaria. We studies the effects of magnetic filed on the Plasmodium falciparum asexual life cycle inside RBCs under various experimental conditions. No effect was found during prolonged exposure of infected RBCs to constant magnetic fields up to 6000 Gauss. Infected RBCs were also exposed, under temperature-controlled conditions, to oscillating magnetic fields with frequencies in the range of 500-20000 kHz, and field strength 30-600 Gauss. This exposure often changed the proportion of different parasite stages in treated culture compared to controls. However, no significant effect on parasitemia was observed in treated cultures. This result indicates that the magnetic field effect on Plasmodium falciparum is negligible, or that hypothetical negative and positive effects on different stages within one 48-hour compensate each other.

  12. Perfectionism Affects Blood Pressure in Response to Repeated Exposure to Stress.

    PubMed

    Albert, Phebe; Rice, Kenneth G; Caffee, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of perfectionism on blood pressure (BP) in response to repeated exposure to mental arithmetic stressors. College students (N = 30) in a laboratory setting were administered a series of challenging mathematical tasks. BP was measured at baseline and after each task. Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that BP tended to decline over the course of the mathematical tasks. However, higher levels of performance standards predicted relatively stable levels of systolic BP, whereas moderate and lower levels of standards predicted declines in systolic BP. Higher levels of self-critical perfectionism predicted generally sustained levels of diastolic BP, with moderate and low self-criticism predicting declines in diastolic BP during the repeated stressors. These preliminary results suggest that students with higher levels of perfectionism may be at risk for physiological problems associated with stress reactivity, perhaps especially so in situations in which they experience persistent stress. Although results were qualified by a relatively small sample size, effects were statistically significant and supported the importance of examining the short-term and long-term implications of the effects of perfectionism on cardiovascular function and the different implications of elevations in systolic and diastolic BP. PMID:24966018

  13. Radiation from wireless technology affects the blood, the heart, and the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Havas, Magda

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to electrosmog generated by electric, electronic, and wireless technology is accelerating to the point that a portion of the population is experiencing adverse reactions when they are exposed. The symptoms of electrohypersensitivity (EHS), best described as rapid aging syndrome, experienced by adults and children resemble symptoms experienced by radar operators in the 1940s to the 1960s and are well described in the literature. An increasingly common response includes clumping (rouleau formation) of the red blood cells, heart palpitations, pain or pressure in the chest accompanied by anxiety, and an upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system coincident with a downregulation of the parasympathetic nervous system typical of the "fight-or-flight" response. Provocation studies presented in this article demonstrate that the response to electrosmog is physiologic and not psychosomatic. Those who experience prolonged and severe EHS may develop psychologic problems as a consequence of their inability to work, their limited ability to travel in our highly technologic environment, and the social stigma that their symptoms are imagined rather than real. PMID:24192494

  14. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  15. MicroRNA-155 negatively affects blood-brain barrier function during neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ramirez, Miguel Alejandro; Wu, Dongsheng; Pryce, Gareth; Simpson, Julie E; Reijerkerk, Arie; King-Robson, Josh; Kay, Oliver; de Vries, Helga E; Hirst, Mark C; Sharrack, Basil; Baker, David; Male, David Kingsley; Michael, Gregory J; Romero, Ignacio Andres

    2014-06-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a hallmark of neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neurovascular dysfunction during BBB breakdown remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as key regulators of pathogenic responses, although their role in central nervous system (CNS) microvascular disorders is largely unknown. We have identified miR-155 as a critical miRNA in neuroinflammation at the BBB. miR-155 is expressed at the neurovascular unit of individuals with MS and of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In mice, loss of miR-155 reduced CNS extravasation of systemic tracers, both in EAE and in an acute systemic inflammation model induced by lipopolysaccharide. In cultured human brain endothelium, miR-155 was strongly and rapidly upregulated by inflammatory cytokines. miR-155 up-regulation mimicked cytokine-induced alterations in junctional organization and permeability, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-155 partially prevented a cytokine-induced increase in permeability. Furthermore, miR-155 modulated brain endothelial barrier function by targeting not only cell-cell complex molecules such as annexin-2 and claudin-1, but also focal adhesion components such as DOCK-1 and syntenin-1. We propose that brain endothelial miR-155 is a negative regulator of BBB function that may constitute a novel therapeutic target for CNS neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:24604078

  16. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene variants affect response to fish oil supplementation by healthy African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the effects of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene (ALOX5) variants on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and changes in response to fish oil supplementation. We hypothesized that Sp1 variants in the ALOX5 promoter, which have previously been associated with cardiovascu...

  17. Pathological features in marine birds affected by the prestige's oil spill in the north of Spain.

    PubMed

    Balseiro, A; Espí, A; Márquez, I; Pérez, V; Ferreras, M C; Marín, J F García; Prieto, J M

    2005-04-01

    A total of 2,465 seabirds, mainly common murres (Uria aalge), razorbills (Alca torda), and puffins (Fratercula arctica) that beached in the northwestern part of Spain after the "Prestige" oil spill on 19 November 2002 were examined by pathological methods. Birds were divided into three groups: dead birds with the body covered (group 1) or uncovered (group 2) by oil and birds recovered alive but which died after being treated at a rescue center (group 3). The main gross lesions were severe dehydration and emaciation. Microscopically, hemosiderin deposits, related to cachexia and/or hemolytic anemia, were observed in those birds harboring oil in the intestine. Severe aspergillosis and ulcers in the ventriculus were found only in group 3 birds, probably because of stress associated with attempted rehabilitation at the rescue center. The mild character of the pathological changes suggests that petroleum oil toxicosis causes multiple sublethal changes that have an effect on the ability of the birds to survive at sea, especially weak and young, inexperienced animals. Dehydration and exhaustion seem to be the most likely cause of death. PMID:16107672

  18. RETARDATION OF FLOW IN OIL SHALE RESIDUES AFFECTED BY IN SITU HYDRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leachate may be generated from piles of oil shale solid waste as a result of drainage of waters emplaced with the solid upon disposal and from net infiltration of incident precipitation. The rate and quantity of leachate that may be generated depends heavily on the capillary hydr...

  19. Hydrodynamic factors affecting the persistence of the Exxon Valdez oil in a shallow bedrock beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yuqiang; Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Sharifi, Youness

    2010-10-01

    We report a field study and numerical modeling of multicomponent flow in a tidal gravel beach in Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska, where oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill persisted. Field measurements of water table, salinity, and tracer (lithium) concentration were obtained for around a week during the summer of 2008. The numerical model MARUN was used to simulate the field observations. On the basis of field experiments and numerical simulations, the beach was identified to have a two-layered hydraulic structure: a high-permeability surface layer underlain by a low-permeability lower layer. The hydraulic conductivity was found to be 5 × 10-2 m s-1 for the surface layer and 7 × 10-6 m s-1 for the lower layer. The simulations reproduced the observed water table, salinity, and lithium concentrations accurately. The small flow entering the beach from the land side resulted in a beach water table dropping below the interface of the two layers. This seems to be the major reason for the presence of oil in the lower layer. The exchange flow between the beach and the sea due to tidal influence was ˜2.12 m3 d-1 m-1. The patterns of inflow and outflow rates showed that the maximum seawater-groundwater exchange occurred in the middle to high intertidal zone, which explains the persistence of oil in the lower intertidal zone. To explore bioremediation of the beach with nutrient amendment, a numerical simulation of nutrient application on the beach surface was conducted, where the applied nutrient concentration was 5,000 mg L-1. The results showed that the nutrient concentration remaining in oiled areas after a week was larger than 50 mg L-1, which is larger than that needed for maximum microbial growth (2-10 mg L-1). This implies that the bioremediation via nutrient application on the beach surface could be adopted if nutrients were the only limiting factor.

  20. Tissue PAH, blood cell and tissue changes following exposure to water accommodated fractions of crude oil in alligator gar, Atractosteus spatula.

    PubMed

    Omar-Ali, Ahmad; Hohn, Claudia; Allen, Peter J; Rodriguez, Jose; Petrie-Hanson, Lora

    2015-07-01

    Alligator gar Atractosteus spatula acclimated to brackish water (9 ppt) were exposed to water accommodated fraction oil loadings (surrogate to Macondo Deepwater Horizon, northern Gulf of Mexico) of 0.5 and 4.0 gm oil/L tank water for 48 h. The surrogate oil was approximately 98% alkanes and alkynes and 2% petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons. The 2% petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons were predominately naphthalene. After 48 h, naphthalene levels in fish liver exposed to 0.5 or 4 gm oil/L were 547.79 and 910.68 ppb, while muscle levels were 214.11 and 253.84 ppb. There was a significant decrease in peripheral blood lymphocyte numbers and a significant reduction of granulocytes in the kidney marrow of the same fish. Tissue changes included hepatocellular vacuolization and necrosis, necrotizing pancreatitis, renal eosinophilia, and splenic congestion. After 7 days recovery, liver naphthalene levels decreased to 43.59 and 43.20 ppb, while muscle levels decreased to 9.74, and 16.78 ppb for oil exposures of 0, 0.5 or 4 g/L. In peripheral blood and kidney marrow, blood cell counts returned to normal. The severity of liver and kidney lesions lessened after 7 days recovery in non-oiled water, but splenic congestion remained in all gar. PMID:25956543

  1. Country of birth affects blood pressure in the French hypertensive diabetic population

    PubMed Central

    Aoun Bahous, Sola; Thomas, Frédérique; Pannier, Bruno; Danchin, Nicolas; Safar, Michel E.

    2015-01-01

    In a population of 56,242 individuals living in France, we showed that individuals born in France have significantly different levels of blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors than African and Asian populations born in their own country but living long-term in France (average duration of stay, 5–10 years). The objective of our study was to investigate the impact of country of birth on BP and CV risk factors in a subpopulation of 9245 patients selected solely on the diagnosis of hypertension, either alone or with simultaneous type 2 diabetes. In the subgroup of individuals with hypertension alone, brachial systolic, diastolic, mean and pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR), augmentation index and PP amplification were significantly higher in African-born than French- and Asian-born populations. In the subgroup of individuals with both hypertension and diabetes, only augmentation index, PP amplification and brachial and central PP, but not brachial systolic, diastolic, mean BP, and HR, were elevated when the African-born subgroup was compared to the French- and Asian-born populations. Increased body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and deprivation scores, but not increased plasma lipids or glycemia, were consistently associated with the African-born population. The combination of diabetes and hypertension in African populations was associated with increased aortic stiffness and PP, together with greater body weight and WHR. In individuals with increased PP and hence systolic hypertension, increased PP requires systolic BP to be reduced whereas notable reductions in diastolic BP may have deleterious consequences. PMID:26388785

  2. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F J; Dierckx, Rudi A; Klein, Hans C

    2014-10-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inflammation and pharmacotherapy. We therefore investigated the effect of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment on P-glycoprotein activity. Rats were inoculated with HSV-1 or PBS (control) on day 0 and treated with saline, clozapine or risperidone from day 0 up until day 4 post-inoculation. Positron emission tomography with the P-glycoprotein substrate [11C]verapamil was used to assess P-glycoprotein activity at day 6 post-inoculation. Disease symptoms in HSV-1 inoculated rats increased over time and were not significantly affected by treatment. The volume of distribution (VT) of [11C]verapamil was significantly lower (10-22%) in HSV-1 inoculated rats than in control rats. In addition, antipsychotic treatment significantly affected the VT of [11C]verapamil in all brain regions, although this effect was drug dependent. In fact, VT of [11C]verapamil was significantly increased (22-39%) in risperidone treated rats in most brain regions when compared to clozapine treated rats and in midbrain when compared to saline treated rats. No interaction between HSV-1 inoculation and antipsychotic treatment on VT of [11C]verapamil was found. In this study we demonstrated that HSV-1 induced neuroinflammation increased and risperidone treatment decreased P-glycoprotein activity. This finding is of importance for the understanding of treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and warrants further investigation of the underlying mechanism and the importance in clinical practice. PMID:24973705

  3. Prepartal dietary energy level affects peripartal bovine blood neutrophil metabolic, antioxidant, and inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Bu, D P; Vailati Riboni, M; Khan, M J; Graugnard, D E; Luo, J; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2015-08-01

    During the dry period, cows can easily overconsume higher-grain diets, a scenario that could impair immune function during the peripartal period. Objectives were to investigate the effects of energy overfeeding on expression profile of genes associated with inflammation, lipid metabolism, and neutrophil function, in 12 multiparous Holstein cows (n=6/dietary group) fed control [CON, 1.34 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or higher-energy (HE, 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets during the last 45 d of pregnancy. Blood was collected to evaluate 43 genes in polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) isolated at -14, 7, and 14 d relative to parturition. We detected greater expression of inflammatory-related cytokines (IL1B, STAT3, NFKB1) and eicosanoid synthesis (ALOX5AP and PLA2G4A) in HE cows than in CON cows. Around parturition, all cows had a close balance in mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory IL1B and the anti-inflammatory IL10, with greater expression of both in cows fed HE than CON. The expression of CCL2, LEPR, TLR4, IL6, and LTC4S was undetectable. Cows in the HE group had greater expression of genes involved in PMNL adhesion, motility, migration, and phagocytosis, which was similar to expression of genes related to the pro-inflammatory cytokine. This response suggests that HE cows experienced a chronic state of inflammation. The greater expression of G6PD in HE cows could have been associated with the greater plasma insulin, which would have diverted glucose to other tissues. Cows fed the HE diet also had greater expression of transcription factors involved in metabolism of long-chain fatty acids (PPARD, RXRA), suggesting that immune cells might be predisposed to use endogenous ligands such as nonesterified fatty acids available in the circulation when glucose is in high demand for milk synthesis. The lower overall expression of SLC2A1 postpartum than prepartum supports this suggestion. Targeting interleukin-1β signaling might be of value in terms of controlling

  4. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628

  5. Does the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. (pepper-rosmarin) affect its endophytic microbial community?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lippia sidoides Cham., also known as pepper-rosmarin, produces an essential oil in its leaves that is currently used by the pharmaceutical, perfumery and cosmetic industries for its antimicrobial and aromatic properties. Because of the antimicrobial compounds (mainly thymol and carvacrol) found in the essential oil, we believe that the endophytic microorganisms found in L. sidoides are selected to live in different parts of the plant. Results In this study, the endophytic microbial communities from the stems and leaves of four L. sidoides genotypes were determined using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches. In total, 145 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated and further grouped using either ERIC-PCR or BOX-PCR, resulting in 76 groups composed of different genera predominantly belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria. The endophytic microbial diversity was also analyzed by PCR-DGGE using 16S rRNA-based universal and group-specific primers for total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria and 18S rRNA-based primers for fungi. PCR-DGGE profile analysis and principal component analysis showed that the total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and fungi were influenced not only by the location within the plant (leaf vs. stem) but also by the presence of the main components of the L. sidoides essential oil (thymol and/or carvacrol) in the leaves. However, the same could not be observed within the Actinobacteria. Conclusion The data presented here are the first step to begin shedding light on the impact of the essential oil in the endophytic microorganisms in pepper-rosmarin. PMID:23387945

  6. Impact of hurricane Isaac on recovery of saltmarshes affected by the BP oil spill in Barataria Bay in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, S.; Haverkamp, P. J.; Santos, M. J.; Shapiro, K.; Lay, M.; Koltunov, A.; Ustin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Saltmarshes of the Gulf of Mexico have a long history of being impacted by oil spills. The Deep Water Horizon BP Oil spill was the biggest spill in US history. Its effects are still noticeable on these coastal wetlands. While it is expected that over time these ecosystems will recover from oil spill impacts, disturbances can alter the pathway to recovery. In August 2012, hurricane Isaac traced the same path as the 2010 oil spill. We questioned whether the hurricane had a detrimental effect on the recovery of wetland communities previously affected by the oil spill. We analyzed AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery acquired over Bay Jimmy in Barataria Bay in September of 2010, in August of 2011, and after hurricane Isaac in October of 2012. We estimated oil and hurricane impact extent, and effects on plant stress based on change detection and trajectories of narrow band vegetation indexes. In September 2010, the oil impact extended 14m inland from the shore. Four plant stress indexes (NDVI, mNDVI, ANIR, ARed) and three water content indexes (NDII, WA980, WA1240) consistently showed that plant stress was significantly negatively correlated with distance from the shore. A year after the oil spill, in August 2011, we found that the vegetation was regenerating rapidly in more than 80% of the affected area. However, after hurricane Isaac, in October 2012, 24% of the 14-m green vegetation belt next to the shore disappeared under water in regions previously impacted by oil and 21% of the oil-free shoreline also lost its land to water. In the first 7 m adjacent to the shore, 38.5% of the land disappeared in oil-impacted zones and 32% in the oil-free zones. These results suggest that post-oil disturbance events can delay vegetation recovery in an already fragile wetland community.

  7. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men. PMID:27044854

  8. Fertilization and Colors of Plastic Mulch Affect Biomass and Essential Oil of Sweet-Scented Geranium

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2014-01-01

    Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure; 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure + 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

  9. Plant essential oils affect the toxicities of carbaryl and permethrin against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Tong, Fan; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2013-07-01

    ABSTRACT Phytochemicals have been considered as alternatives for conventional pesticides because of their low mammalian toxicity and environmental safety. They usually display less potent insecticidal effects than synthetic compounds, but may express as yet unknown modes of action. In the current study, we evaluated 14 plant essential oils for their toxicities and synergistic effects with carbaryl and permethrin against fourth instars of Aedes aegypti (L.) as well as 5-7-d-old adults. Six essential oils showed significant synergistic effects with carbaryl at 10-50 mg/liter, but paradoxically all of them decreased the toxicity of permethrin against Ae. aegypti larvae. None showed toxicity or synergistic effects on Ae. aegypti adults, at doses up to 2,000 ng/ insect. The six essential oils displaying synergistic effects in Ae. aegypti larvae inhibited the in vitro activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and carboxylesterases in the low milligram per liter range. The data indicated that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and carboxylesterase were probably targets for these natural synergists. Thus, the mechanism of synergism was most likely inhibition of metabolism and not interacting target site effects. PMID:23926781

  10. Sublethal effects of aged oil sands-affected water on white sucker (Catostomus commersonii).

    PubMed

    Arens, Collin J; Hogan, Natacha S; Kavanagh, Richard J; Mercer, Angella G; Kraak, Glen J Van Der; van den Heuvel, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    To investigate impacts of proposed oil sands aquatic reclamation techniques on benthic fish, white sucker (Catostomus commersonii Lacépède, 1803) were stocked in 2 experimental ponds-Demonstration Pond, containing aged fine tailings capped with fresh water, consistent with proposed end-pit lake designs, and South Bison Pond, containing aged unextracted oil sands material-to examine the effects of unmodified hydrocarbons. White sucker were stocked from a nearby reservoir at both sites in May 2010 and sampled 4 mo later to measure indicators of energy storage and utilization. Comparisons were then made with the source population and 2 reference lakes in the region. After exposure to aged tailings, white sucker had smaller testes and ovaries and reduced growth compared with the source population. Fish introduced to aged unextracted oil sands material showed an increase in growth over the same period. Limited available energy, endocrine disruption, and chronic stress likely contributed to the effects observed, corresponding to elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids, aromatic compounds in bile, and increased CYP1A activity. Because of the chemical and biological complexity of these systems, direct cause-effect relationships could not be identified; however, effects were associated with naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ammonia, and high pH. Impacts on growth have not been previously observed in pelagic fishes examined in these systems, and may be related to differences in sediment interaction. PMID:25545538

  11. Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.

    PubMed

    Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure; 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure + 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

  12. The effects of oil exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes and splenic melano-macrophage centers of Gulf of Mexico fishes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad Omar; Hohn, Claudia; Allen, Peter J; Ford, Lorelei; Dail, Mary Beth; Pruett, Stephen; Petrie-Hanson, Lora

    2014-02-15

    In August and November 2010 we collected and examined peripheral blood and tissues from three species of Gulf of Mexico fish. Findings were compared to non-exposed control fish. The leukocyte counts of exposed alligator gar were not significantly different from controls, while exposed Gulf killifish and sea trout had significantly decreased lymphocyte counts. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) values from sea trout were significantly greater than control sea trout EROD values, suggesting poly aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Splenic melano-macrophage centers (MMCs) from exposed sea trout and Gulf killifish showed a significant increase in number compared to non-exposed fish. Sea trout splenic MMCs were also significantly greater in size. These findings suggest that Gulf fish sampled were exposed to crude oil from the Macondo well and were in a lymphopenic or immuno-compromised state. PMID:24405733

  13. Palm Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... A deficiency, cancer, brain disease, aging; and treating malaria, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. ... oils, such as soybean, canola, or sunflower oil. Malaria. Some research suggests that dietary consumption of palm ...

  14. Fish oil supplementation induces expression of genes related to cell cycle, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a transcriptomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Myhrstad, M C W; Ulven, S M; Günther, C-C; Ottestad, I; Holden, M; Ryeng, E; Borge, G I; Kohler, A; Brønner, K W; Thoresen, M; Holven, K B

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish oil supplementation has been shown to alter gene expression of mononuclear cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the total transcriptome profile in healthy subjects after intake of fish oil. We therefore investigated the gene expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after intake of fish oil for 7 weeks using transcriptome analyses. Design In a 7-week, double-blinded, randomized, controlled, parallel-group study, healthy subjects received 8 g day−1 fish oil (1.6 g day−1 eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid) (n = 17) or 8 g day−1 high oleic sunflower oil (n = 19). Microarray analyses of RNA isolated from PBMCs were performed at baseline and after 7 weeks of intervention. Results Cell cycle, DNA packaging and chromosome organization are biological processes found to be upregulated after intake of fish oil compared to high oleic sunflower oil using a moderated t-test. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis identified several enriched gene sets after intake of fish oil. The genes contributing to the significantly different gene sets in the subjects given fish oil compared with the control group are involved in cell cycle, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis. Gene transcripts with common motifs for 35 known transcription factors including E2F, TP53 and ATF4 were upregulated after intake of fish oil. Conclusion We have shown that intake of fish oil for 7 weeks modulates gene expression in PBMCs of healthy subjects. The increased expression of genes related to cell cycle, ER stress and apoptosis suggests that intake of fish oil may modulate basic cellular processes involved in normal cellular function. PMID:24641624

  15. Essential oils affect populations of some rumen bacteria in vitro as revealed by microarray (RumenBactArray) analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Amlan K.; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study origanum oil (ORO), garlic oil (GAO), and peppermint oil (PEO) were shown to effectively lower methane production, decrease abundance of methanogens, and change abundances of several bacterial populations important to feed digestion in vitro. In this study, the impact of these essential oils (EOs, at 0.50 g/L) on the rumen bacterial community composition and population was further examined using the recently developed RumenBactArray. Species richness (expressed as number of operational taxonomic units, OTUs) in the phylum Firmicutes, especially those in the class Clostridia, was decreased by ORO and GAO, but increased by PEO, while that in the phylum Bacteroidetes was increased by ORO and PEO. Species richness in the genus Butyrivibrio was lowered by all the EOs. Increases of Bacteroidetes OTUs mainly resulted from increases of Prevotella OTUs. Overall, 67 individual OTUs showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in relative abundance across the EO treatments. The predominant OTUs affected by EOs were diverse, including those related to Syntrophococcus sucromutans, Succiniclasticum ruminis, and Lachnobacterium bovis, and those classified to Prevotella, Clostridium, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales. In total, 60 OTUs were found significantly (P ≤ 0.05) correlated with feed degradability, ammonia concentration, and molar percentage of volatile fatty acids. Taken together, this study demonstrated extensive impact of EOs on rumen bacterial communities in an EO type-dependent manner, especially those in the predominant families Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. The information from this study may aid in understanding the effect of EOs on feed digestion and fermentation by rumen bacteria. PMID:25914694

  16. Essential oils affect populations of some rumen bacteria in vitro as revealed by microarray (RumenBactArray) analysis.

    PubMed

    Patra, Amlan K; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study origanum oil (ORO), garlic oil (GAO), and peppermint oil (PEO) were shown to effectively lower methane production, decrease abundance of methanogens, and change abundances of several bacterial populations important to feed digestion in vitro. In this study, the impact of these essential oils (EOs, at 0.50 g/L) on the rumen bacterial community composition and population was further examined using the recently developed RumenBactArray. Species richness (expressed as number of operational taxonomic units, OTUs) in the phylum Firmicutes, especially those in the class Clostridia, was decreased by ORO and GAO, but increased by PEO, while that in the phylum Bacteroidetes was increased by ORO and PEO. Species richness in the genus Butyrivibrio was lowered by all the EOs. Increases of Bacteroidetes OTUs mainly resulted from increases of Prevotella OTUs. Overall, 67 individual OTUs showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in relative abundance across the EO treatments. The predominant OTUs affected by EOs were diverse, including those related to Syntrophococcus sucromutans, Succiniclasticum ruminis, and Lachnobacterium bovis, and those classified to Prevotella, Clostridium, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales. In total, 60 OTUs were found significantly (P ≤ 0.05) correlated with feed degradability, ammonia concentration, and molar percentage of volatile fatty acids. Taken together, this study demonstrated extensive impact of EOs on rumen bacterial communities in an EO type-dependent manner, especially those in the predominant families Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. The information from this study may aid in understanding the effect of EOs on feed digestion and fermentation by rumen bacteria. PMID:25914694

  17. Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Dupuis, Jérôme A; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M; Aven, Allen M; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I; Carmichael, Ruth H; Fagan, Daniel E; Ross, Monica A; Reinert, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation. PMID:24670971

  18. Estimating Upper Bounds for Occupancy and Number of Manatees in Areas Potentially Affected by Oil from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H.; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Dupuis, Jérôme A.; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M.; Aven, Allen M.; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; Fagan, Daniel E.; Ross, Monica A.; Reinert, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation. PMID:24670971

  19. Microbial Community Analysis of a Coastal Salt Marsh Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (p<0.05) once hydrocarbon concentrations decreased. A greater decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations among marsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass) suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems. PMID:22815990

  20. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG (P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased (P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C (P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA (P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition. PMID:25336108

  1. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  2. Polarimetric Retrievals of Surface and Cirrus Clouds Properties in the Region Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottaviani, Matteo; Cairns, Brian; Chowdhary, Jacek; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Rich; Burton, Sharon; Hair, John; Obland, Michael D.; Rogers, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) performed several aerial surveys over the region affected by the oil spill caused by the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon offshore platform. The instrument was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 aircraft together with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), which provides information on the distribution of the aerosol layers beneath the aircraft, including an accurate estimate of aerosol optical depth. This work illustrates the merits of polarization measurements in detecting variations of ocean surface properties linked to the presence of an oil slick. In particular, we make use of the degree of linear polarization in the glint region, which is severely affected by variations in the refractive index but insensitive to the waviness of the water surface. Alterations in the surface optical properties are therefore expected to directly affect the polarization response of the RSP channel at 2264 nm, where both molecular and aerosol scattering are negligible and virtually all of the observed signal is generated via Fresnel reflection at the surface. The glint profile at this wavelength is fitted with a model which can optimally estimate refractive index, wind speed and direction, together with aircraft attitude variations affecting the viewing geometry. The retrieved refractive index markedly increases over oil-contaminated waters, while the apparent wind speed is significantly lower than in adjacent uncontaminated areas, suggesting that the slick dampens high-frequency components of the ocean wave spectrum. The constraint on surface reflectance provided by the short-wave infrared channels is a cornerstone of established procedures to retrieve atmospheric aerosol microphysical parameters based on the inversion of the RSP multispectral measurements. This retrieval, which benefits from the ancillary information provided by the HSRL, was in this specific case hampered by

  3. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709

  4. Long-term intake of edible oils benefits blood pressure and myocardial structure in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and streptozotocin diabetic SHR.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Fernanda Jurema; Mothé, Cheila Gonçalves; Aguila, Márcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2005-12-01

    The beneficial effects of edible oils long-term supplementation in blood pressure (BP) and cardiac structure were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and streptozotocin diabetic (Db) SHR (45 mg/rat i.p.). Twenty-five 12-week old male SHR were divided into four SHR-Db groups and one SHR group, SHR-Db groups each receiving, respectively, olive oil, palm oil and fish oil, and another SHR-Db group with placebo by gavage on a daily basis for 6 weeks. Myocardial structures were analyzed through light microscopy and stereology. In SHR-Db, the BP and the myocardium were significantly altered by oil supplementation. The BP, the interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte size showed a significant decrease in treated SHR-Db than in SHR or untreated SHR-Db. The myocardial microvasculature and number of cardiomyocytes were higher in all treated groups, especially in fish oil group. Long-term edible oil supplementation showed beneficial effects decreasing BP levels and offsetting adverse myocardial remodeling in diabetic SHR. PMID:16303619

  5. Degradation and aquatic toxicity of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using simulated wetlands.

    PubMed

    Toor, Navdeep S; Franz, Eric D; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Liber, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) produced during the extraction of bitumen at the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, are toxic to many aquatic organisms. Much of this toxicity is related to a group of dissolved organic acids known as naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are a natural component of bitumen and are released into process water during the separation of bitumen from the oil sand ore by a caustic hot water extraction process. Using laboratory microcosms as an analogue of a proposed constructed wetland reclamation strategy for OSPW, we evaluated the effectiveness of these microcosms in degrading NAs and reducing the aquatic toxicity of OSPW over a 52-week test period. Experimental manipulations included two sources of OSPW (one from Syncrude Canada Ltd. and one from Suncor Energy Inc.), two different hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 40 and 400 d), and increased nutrient availability (added nitrate and phosphate). Microcosms with a longer HRT (for both OSPWs) showed higher reductions in total NAs concentrations (64-74% NAs reduction, p<0.05) over the test period, while nutrient enrichment appeared to have little effect. A 96 h static acute rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioassay showed that the initial acute toxicity of Syncrude OSPW (LC50=67% v/v) was reduced (LC50>100% v/v) independent of HRT. However, EC20s from separate Microtox® bioassays were relatively unchanged when comparing the input and microcosm waters at both HRTs over the 52-week study period (p>0.05), indicating that some sub-lethal toxicity persisted under these experimental conditions. The present study demonstrated that given sufficiently long HRTs, simulated wetland microcosms containing OSPW significantly reduced total NAs concentrations and acute toxicity, but left behind a persistent component of the NAs mixture that appeared to be associated with residual chronic toxicity. PMID:23000048

  6. Consumption of Oxidized Soybean Oil Increased Intestinal Oxidative Stress and Affected Intestinal Immune Variables in Yellow-feathered Broilers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shouqun; Mo, Yi; Zhou, Guilian; Yang, Lin

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of oxidized soybean oil in the diet of young chickens on growth performance and intestinal oxidative stress, and indices of intestinal immune function. Corn-soybean-based diets containing 2% mixtures of fresh and oxidized soybean oil provided 6 levels (0.15, 1.01, 3.14, 4.95, 7.05, and 8.97 meqO2/kg) of peroxide value (POV) in the diets. Each dietary treatment, fed for 22 d, had 6 replicates, each containing 30 birds (n = 1,080). Increasing POV levels reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI) of the broilers during d 1 to 10, body weight and average daily gain at d 22 but did not affect overall ADFI. Concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in plasma and jejunum as POV increased but total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) declined in plasma and jejunum. Catalase (CAT) activity declined in plasma and jejunum as did plasma glutathione S-transferase (GST). Effects were apparent at POV exceeding 3.14 meqO2/kg for early ADFI and MDA in jejunum, and POV exceeding 1.01 meqO2/kg for CAT in plasma and jejunum, GST in plasma and T-AOC in jejunum. Relative jejunal abundance of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) P50 and NF-κB P65 increased as dietary POV increased. Increasing POV levels reduced the jejunal concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 and CD8 molecules with differences from controls apparent at dietary POV of 3.14 to 4.95 meqO2/kg. These findings indicated that growth performance, feed intake, and the local immune system of the small intestine were compromised by oxidative stress when young broilers were fed moderately oxidized soybean oil. PMID:26104529

  7. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Third quarterly report, [April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    This project will provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations utilizing data typically available in a filed that has undergone primary development. The approach will utilize readily available, affordable computer software and analytical services. The GeoGraphix Exploration System (GES) software package was acquired this quarter and installed. Well logging, formation tops and other data are being loaded into the program. We also acquired and installed GeoGraphix`s well-log evaluation package, QLA2. Miocene tops for the entire Pioneer Anticline were loaded into the GES system and contour maps and 3D surface visualizations were constructed. Fault data have been digitized and will soon be loaded into the GeoGraphix mapping module and combined with formation-top data to produce structure maps which will display all fault traces. The versatile program MatLab can be used to perform time series analysis and to produce spatial displays of data. MatLab now has a 3D volume visualization package. In the coming quarter we will test MatLab using Pioneer data set.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhiza differentially affects synthesis of essential oils in coriander and dill.

    PubMed

    Rydlová, Jana; Jelínková, Marcela; Dušek, Karel; Dušková, Elena; Vosátka, Miroslav; Püschel, David

    2016-02-01

    Research on the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the synthesis of essential oils (EOs) by aromatic plants has seldom been conducted in field-relevant conditions, and then, only limited spectra of EO constituents have been analyzed. The effect was investigated of inoculation with AMF on the synthesis of a wide range of EO in two aromatic species, coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and dill (Anethum graveolens), in a garden experiment under outdoor conditions. Plants were grown in 4-l pots filled with soil, which was either γ-irradiated (eliminating native AMF) or left non-sterile (containing native AMF), and inoculated or not with an isolate of Rhizophagus irregularis. AMF inoculation significantly stimulated EO synthesis in both plant species. EO synthesis (total EO and several individual constituents) was increased in dill in all mycorrhizal treatments (containing native and/or inoculated AMF) compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. In contrast, EO concentrations in coriander (total EO and most constituents) were increased only in the treatment combining both inoculated and native AMF. A clear positive effect of AMF on EO synthesis was found for both aromatic plants, which was, however, specific for each plant species and modified by the pool of AMF present in the soil. PMID:26070450

  9. How the multiple antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid affect lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Uluata, Sibel; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-02-18

    Lipid oxidation is a serious problem for oil-containing food products because it negatively affects shelf life and nutritional composition. An antioxidant strategy commonly employed to prevent or delay oxidation in foods is to remove oxygen from the closed food-packaging system. An alternative technique is use of an edible oxygen scavenger to remove oxygen within the food. Ascorbic acid (AA) is a particularly promising antioxidant because of its natural label and multiple antioxidative functions. In this study, AA was tested as an oxygen scavenger in buffer and an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. The effects of transition metals on the ability of AA to scavenge oxygen were determined. Headspace oxygen decrease less than 1% in the medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) O/W emulsion system (pH 3 and 7). AA was able to almost completely remove dissolved oxygen (DO) in a buffered solution. Transition metals (Fe(2+) and Cu(+)) significantly accelerated the degradation of AA; however, iron and copper only increased DO depletion rates, by 10.6-16.4% from day 1 to 7, compared to the control. AA (2.5-20 mM) decreased DO in a 1% O/W emulsion system 32.0-64.0% and delayed the formation of headspace hexanal in the emulsion from 7 to over 20 days. This research shows that, when AA is used in an O/W emulsion system, oxidation of the emulsion system can be delay by multiple mechanisms. PMID:25650525

  10. Oxidative stability of virgin olive oil as affected by the bene unsaponifiable matters and tertiary-butylhydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Farhoosh, Reza; Haddad Khodaparast, Mohammad Hossein; Sharif, Ali; Zamani-Ghalehshahi, Atefeh; Hoseini-Yazdi, Seyedeh-Zohreh

    2012-06-01

    During 16 h heating at 180 °C, the oxidative stability (OS) of virgin olive oil (VOO) as affected by the same concentrations (200 ppm) of tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and unsaponifiable matters of bene kernel (UKO) and hull (UHO) oils in terms of the inhibitory effect on the formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxides (OS(CDV)) and off-flavor carbonyl compounds (OS(CV)) was investigated. TBHQ was not able to considerably increase the OS(CDV) (7.51) of the VOO (7.2) and showed no synergistic effect with indigenous antioxidative compounds of the VOO (IOV) in this respect. However, it could significantly improve the OS(CV) (from 2.49 to 4.52), which was mainly due to its synergism with the IOV. The UKO increased considerably the OS(CDV) (to 11.8), and its OS(CV) (4.22) was nearly the same as that of TBHQ. The IOV still had marked contributions to the prevention of VOO oxidation but the majority of stabilizing effect was related to the UKO and its synergism with the IOV. The OS(CDV) in presence of the UHO was less than that of the VOO (5.96), although it significantly increased the OS(CV) (to 5.2), mainly due to the stabilizing effect of UHO and its synergism with the IOV. PMID:22591339

  11. Effectiveness of ozonation treatment in eliminating toxicity of oil sands process-affected water to Chironomus dilutus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J C; Wiseman, S B; Wang, N; Moustafa, A; Perez-Estrada, L; Gamal El-Din, M; Martin, J W; Liber, K; Giesy, J P

    2012-01-01

    Water soluble organic compounds (OCs), including naphthenic acids (NAs), are potentially toxic constituents of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that is generated during extraction of bitumen from Alberta oil sands. Ozonation can decrease concentrations of OCs in OSPW. However, effects of ozonated-OSPW on multicellular organisms are unknown. A 10-day and a chronic exposure of Chironomus dilutus to OSPW were conducted to assess effects on survival, growth, development, and behavior. Two separate batches of OSPW were treated with 30 or 80 mg ozone (O(3))/L. Wet body masses of larvae exposed to OSPW were 64 to 77% less than their respective controls (p < 0.001). However, both levels of ozonation significantly attenuated effects of OSPW on growth. Similarly, chronic exposure to untreated OSPW resulted in significantly less pupation than in the controls, with 31% and 71% less pupation of larvae exposed to the two batches of OSPW (p < 0.05). Emergence was significantly less for larvae exposed to OSPW, with 13% and 8% of larvae emerging, compared to 81% in controls (p < 0.0001). Both levels of ozonation of OSPW attenuated effects on emergence. These results suggest that OCs degraded by ozonation causes toxicity of OSPW toward C. dilutus, and that ozonation attenuates toxicity of OSPW. PMID:21992611

  12. Granular activated carbon for simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of toxic oil sands process-affected water organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) released into oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) during bitumen processing in Northern Alberta are problematic for oil sands industries due to their toxicity in the environment and resistance to degradation during conventional wastewater treatment processes. Granular activated carbon (GAC) has shown to be an effective media in removing biopersistent organics from wastewater using a combination of adsorption and biodegradation removal mechanisms. A simultaneous GAC (0.4 g GAC/L) adsorption and biodegradation (combined treatment) study was used for the treatment of raw and ozonated OSPW. After 28 days of batch treatment, classical and oxidized NAs removals for raw OSPW were 93.3% and 73.7%, and for ozonated OSPW were 96.2% and 77.1%, respectively. Synergetic effects of the combined treatment process were observed in removals of COD, the acid extractable fraction, and oxidized NAs, which indicated enhanced biodegradation and bioregeneration in GAC biofilms. A bacteria copy number >10(8) copies/g GAC on GAC surfaces was found using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction after treatment for both raw and ozonated OSPW. A Microtox(®) acute toxicity test (Vibrio fischeri) showed effective toxicity removal (>95.3%) for the combined treatments. Therefore, the simultaneous GAC adsorption and biodegradation treatment process is a promising technology for the elimination of toxic OSPW NAs. PMID:25617868

  13. Dietary strawberry seed oil affects metabolite formation in the distal intestine and ameliorates lipid metabolism in rats fed an obesogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To answer the question whether dietary strawberry seed oil rich in α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid (29.3 and 47.2% of total fatty acids, respectively) can beneficially affect disorders induced by the consumption of an obesogenic diet. Design Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and fed with a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fiber) diet that contained either strawberry seed oil or an edible rapeseed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. Results After 8 weeks of feeding, the obesogenic diet increased the body weight and the liver mass and fat content, whereas decreased the cecal acetate and butyrate concentration. This diet also altered the plasma lipid profile and decreased the liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) content. However, the lowest liver SREBP-1c content was observed in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Moreover, dietary strawberry seed oil decreased the cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) regardless of the diet type, whereas the cecal β-glucuronidase activity was considerably increased only in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Dietary strawberry seed oil also lowered the liver fat content, the plasma triglyceride level and the atherogenic index of plasma. Conclusions Strawberry seed oil has a potent lipid-lowering activity but can unfavorably affect microbial metabolism in the distal intestine. The observed effects are partly due to the synergistic action of the oil and the obesogenic diet. PMID:25636326

  14. Effects of natural blend of essential oil on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Khattak, F.; Ronchi, A.; Castelli, P.; Sparks, N.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of a novel commercial preparation of natural blend of essential oils from basil, caraway, laurel, lemon, oregano, sage, tea, and thyme (Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL) on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broilers. Six nutritionally adequate wheat and soybean-based diets were generated by the addition of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 g/t of feed. The diets were fed as crumbs in the starter phase (d 0–10) and as pellets during the grower (d 10–24) and finisher (d 24–42) phases. Nine hundred sixty 1-d-old chicks were allocated to the 6 dietary treatments each having 8 replicate pens with 20 birds per pen. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA with a P < 0.05 level of significance. Birds fed diets supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL had significantly heavier BW and higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and had improved (P < 0.05) feed to gain ratio compared with the control group during grower phase and overall performance. The blood biochemistry results showed no differences (P > 0.05) between treatments. The carcass weight, breast weight, and relative percentage of breast meat increased (P < 0.05) when diets were supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL compared with that from birds fed the control diet. The inclusion level of 300 g of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL/t of feed was optimum for enhancing breast meat yield and nutrient utilization as indicated by increased (P < 0.05) cecal villus surface area. PMID:24570432

  15. Effects of natural blend of essential oil on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Khattak, F; Ronchi, A; Castelli, P; Sparks, N

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of a novel commercial preparation of natural blend of essential oils from basil, caraway, laurel, lemon, oregano, sage, tea, and thyme (Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL) on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broilers. Six nutritionally adequate wheat and soybean-based diets were generated by the addition of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 g/t of feed. The diets were fed as crumbs in the starter phase (d 0-10) and as pellets during the grower (d 10-24) and finisher (d 24-42) phases. Nine hundred sixty 1-d-old chicks were allocated to the 6 dietary treatments each having 8 replicate pens with 20 birds per pen. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA with a P < 0.05 level of significance. Birds fed diets supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL had significantly heavier BW and higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and had improved (P < 0.05) feed to gain ratio compared with the control group during grower phase and overall performance. The blood biochemistry results showed no differences (P > 0.05) between treatments. The carcass weight, breast weight, and relative percentage of breast meat increased (P < 0.05) when diets were supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL compared with that from birds fed the control diet. The inclusion level of 300 g of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL/t of feed was optimum for enhancing breast meat yield and nutrient utilization as indicated by increased (P < 0.05) cecal villus surface area. PMID:24570432

  16. The impacts of ozonation on oil sands process-affected water biodegradability and biofilm formation characteristics in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geelsu; Dong, Tao; Islam, Md Sahinoor; Sheng, Zhiya; Pérez-Estrada, Leónidas A; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    To examine the effects of the ozonation process (as an oxidation treatment for water and wastewater treatment applications) on microbial biofilm formation and biodegradability of organic compounds present in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), biofilm reactors were operated continuously for 6weeks. Two types of biofilm substrate materials: polyethylene (PE) and polyvinylchloride (PVC), and two types of OSPW-fresh and ozonated OSPWs-were tested. Endogenous microorganisms, in OSPW, quickly formed biofilms in the reactors. Without ozonation, the bioreactor (using endogenous microorganisms) removed 13.8% of the total acid-extractable organics (TAO) and 18.5% of the parent naphthenic acids (NAs) from fresh OSPW. The combined ozonation and biodegradation process removed 87.2% of the OSPW TAO and over 99% of the OSPW parent NAs. Further UPLC/HRMS analysis showed that NA biodegradability decreased as the NA cyclization number increased. Microbial biofilm formation was found to depend on the biofilm substrate type. PMID:23313671

  17. Reclamation of peat-based wetlands affected by Alberta, Canada's oil sands development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan; Dixon, D. George; Liber, Karsten; Smits, Judit

    2013-04-01

    The ability to construct or reclaim functional peat-based wetlands as a replacement for those lost to development activity is uncertain. Oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada will ultimately result in the removal of over 85 km2 of peat-based wetlands. To examine potential replacement of these lost peatlands we compared four treatments assigned to 16 known-age wetlands where we followed plant community, carbon dynamics, water quality, invertebrates and top predators for 5 years. Key questions followed by a synopsis of findings include: (1) Will wetland communities become more natural with age? - Yes, however industrial effluents of salinity and napthenates will slow succession and may truncate development compared to natural systems; (2) Can community succession be accelerated? - Yes, the addition of carbon-rich soils can facilitate development in some zones but cautions are raised about a "green desert" of vigorous plant stands with low insect and vertebrate diversity; (3) Is productivity sustainable? - Maybe, limitations of water chemistry (salinity and napthenates) and hydrologic regime appear to play large roles; (4) Will production support top predators? Sometimes; insectivorous birds, some small fish and a few amphibians persisted under all except the most saline and napthenate-enriched sites; (5) What is the role of the compromised water quality in reclamation? - Reduced diversity of plants, insects and vertebrates, reduced plant physiological efficiency and thus slower rates of reclamation. It is axiomatic and well demonstrated throughout Europe that it is easier and more cost effective to protect peatlands than it is to reclaim or create them. This is complicated, though, where mineral or property values soar to over 1 million per hectare. Industrial planners, governments and the public need to understand the options, possibilities, time frames and costs of peatland replacement to make the best land use decisions possible. Our research provides

  18. Oxidative status assessment of the endemic bivalve Pinna nobilis affected by the oil spill from the sinking of the Don Pedro.

    PubMed

    Capó, Xavier; Tejada, Silvia; Box, Antonio; Deudero, Salud; Sureda, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Several biomarkers were determined to evaluate the effects of the Don Pedro spillage on the digestive gland of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis (Linnaeus, 1758). Two areas in the southeast of Ibiza Island (Western Mediterranean) were selected; one affected by the oil spill (Talamanca) and one did not affected (Espardell). Mussels were sampled one, six and twelve months after the accident. PAH levels were elevated in P. nobilis from the affected area one month after the accident and, although they were decreasing gradually, they were always higher than in the control area. An increase in enzyme activities, reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation were evidenced one month after the spillage, with no changes in acetylcholinesterase. All biomarkers progressively returned to basal levels one year after the oil spill. In conclusion, the Don Pedro oil spill induced an acute situation of oxidative stress on P. nobilis that were recovered twelve months later. PMID:26254583

  19. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Cod liver oil might slow blood clotting. Taking cod liver oil along with medications that ...

  20. Do blood contamination and haemostatic agents affect microtensile bond strength of dual cured resin cement to dentin?

    PubMed Central

    KİLİC, Kerem; ARSLAN, Soley; DEMETOGLU, Goknil Alkan; ZARARSIZ, Gokmen; KESİM, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination and haemostatic agents such as Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the microtensile bond strength between dual cured resin cement-dentin interface. Material and Methods: Twelve pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramics were luted to flat occlusal dentin surfaces with Panavia F under the following conditions: Control Group: no contamination, Group Blood: blood contamination, Group ABS: ABS contamination Group H2O2: H2O2 contamination. The specimens were sectioned to the beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Failure modes were classified under stereomicroscope. Two specimens were randomly selected from each group, and SEM analyses were performed. Results: There were significant differences in microtensile bond strengths (µTBS) between the control and blood-contaminated groups (p<0.05), whereas there were no significant differences found between the control and the other groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Contamination by blood of dentin surface prior to bonding reduced the bond strength between resin cement and the dentin. Ankaferd Blood Stoper and H2O2 could be used safely as blood stopping agents during cementation of all-ceramics to dentin to prevent bond failure due to blood contamination. PMID:23559118

  1. Identification and characterization of large DNA deletions affecting oil quality traits in soybean seeds through transcriptome sequencing analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying variation in seed composition and contents among different genotypes is important for soybean oil quality improvement. We designed a bioinformatics approach to compare seed transcriptomes of 9 soybean genotypes varying in oil composition ...

  2. Do Sustained Lung Inflations during Neonatal Resuscitation Affect Cerebral Blood Volume in Preterm Infants? A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwaberger, Bernhard; Pichler, Gerhard; Avian, Alexander; Binder-Heschl, Corinna; Baik, Nariae; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustained lung inflations (SLI) during neonatal resuscitation may promote alveolar recruitment in preterm infants. While most of the studies focus on respiratory outcome, the impact of SLI on the brain hasn’t been investigated yet. Objective Do SLI affect cerebral blood volume (CBV) in preterm infants? Methods Preterm infants of gestation 28 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days with requirement for respiratory support (RS) were included in this randomized controlled pilot trial. Within the first 15 minutes after birth near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements using ‘NIRO-200-NX’ (Hamamatsu, Japan) were performed to evaluate changes in CBV and cerebral tissue oxygenation. Two groups were compared based on RS: In SLI group RS was given by applying 1–3 SLI (30 cmH2O for 15 s) continued by respiratory standard care. Control group received respiratory standard care only. Results 40 infants (20 in each group) with mean gestational age of 32 weeks one day (±2 days) and birth weight of 1707 (±470) g were included. In the control group ΔCBV was significantly decreasing, whereas in SLI group ΔCBV showed similar values during the whole period of 15 minutes. Comparing both groups within the first 15 minutes ΔCBV showed a tendency toward different overall courses (p = 0.051). Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating an impact of SLI on CBV. Further studies are warranted including reconfirmation of the present findings in infants with lower gestational age. Future investigations on SLI should not only focus on respiratory outcome but also on the consequences on the developing brain. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005161 https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/setLocale_EN.do PMID:26406467

  3. Naphthenic acids speciation and removal during petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Fu, Hongjing; Wang, Nan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Pérez-Estrada, Leonidas; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Martin, Jonathan W; Zubot, Warren; Smith, Daniel W

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands industry produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) as a result of bitumen extraction and upgrading processes. Constituents of OSPW include chloride, naphthenic acids (NAs), aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace heavy metals, among other inorganic and organic compounds. To address the environmental issues associated with the recycling and/or safe return of OSPW into the environment, water treatment technologies are required. This study examined, for the first time, the impacts of pretreatment steps, including filtration and petroleum-coke adsorption, on ozonation requirements and performance. The effect of the initial OSPW pH on treatment performance, and the evolution of ozonation and its impact on OSPW toxicity and biodegradability were also examined. The degradation of more than 76% of total acid-extractable organics was achieved using a semi-batch ozonation system at a utilized ozone dose of 150 mg/L. With a utilized ozone dose of 100 mg/L, the treated OSPW became more biodegradable and showed no toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri. Changes in the NA profiles in terms of carbon number and number of rings were observed after ozonation. The filtration of the OSPW did not improve the ozonation performance. Petroleum-coke adsorption was found to be effective in reducing total acid-extractable organics by a 91%, NA content by an 84%, and OSPW toxicity from 4.3 to 1.1 toxicity units. The results of this study indicate that the combination of petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation is a promising treatment approach to treat OSPW. PMID:21907388

  4. Effects of exposure to oil sands process-affected water from experimental reclamation ponds on Chironomus dilutus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Julie; Wiseman, Steve B; Moustafa, Ahmed; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P

    2012-04-15

    Effective detoxification of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is one issue associated with bitumen extraction in the Alberta oil sands. It has been suggested that reclamation ponds can be used to passively treat OSPW, potentially allowing for its safe return to the environment. In this study, OSPW was sampled in two batches (A and B) from the Syncrude Canada Ltd. West In-Pit (WIP) settling pond and from three experimental reclamation ponds - Big Pit, FE5, and TPW. Acute (10 d) and chronic (until adult emergence) exposures of Chironomus dilutus larvae to OSPW were conducted and survival, growth, development, and behavior were assessed. Masses of larvae exposed to WIP-OSPW were 64-77% less than the freshwater control (p < 0.001). Similarly, chronic exposure to WIP-OSPW resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) less pupation than in the freshwater control, with 31% (A) and 71% (B) less pupation of larvae exposed to WIP-OSPW. Rates of emergence were significantly less for larvae exposed to WIP-OSPW, with only 13% (A) and 8% (B) of larvae emerging as adults when exposed to WIP-OSPW, compared to 81% in the freshwater control (p < 0.0001). Pupation and emergence rates were significantly less in TPW than freshwater control (p < 0.05), but there were no differences observed in Big Pit or FE5. Lesser toxicity was observed in reclaimed OSPW compared to fresh OSPW and this coincided with lesser concentrations of NAs. The results presented are consistent with the hypothesis that an organic fraction is the cause of the toxicity of OSPW toward C. dilutus and that OSPW aged in reclamation ponds retains toxicity and therefore, more aggressive, targeted treatment of OSPW is required to accelerate decreases. PMID:22265614

  5. Short communication: A nanoemulsified form of oil blends positively affects the fatty acid proportion in ruminal batch cultures.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbiny, M; Cieslak, A; Pers-Kamczyc, E; Szczechowiak, J; Kowalczyk, D; Szumacher-Strabel, M

    2016-01-01

    Two consecutive rumen batch cultures were used to study the effect of nanoemulsified oils as a new type of supplement, on the in vitro fatty acid proportion and vaccenic acid formation. Three levels (3, 5, and 7%) of 2 different oil blends [soybean:fish oil (SF) or rapeseed-fish oil (RF)] were used. Both oil blends were used either in the raw form (SF or RF, respectively) or in the nanoemulsified form (NSF or NRF, respectively). The diets were the control (0%), which consisted of a dry total mixed ration without any supplements, the control plus 3, 5, or 7% of the SF or RF oil blend in appropriate form (raw or nanoemulsified). For each treatment, 6 incubation vessels were used. Each batch culture was incubated for 24h and conducted twice in 2 consecutive days. All supplements were calculated as a percentage of the substrate dry matter (400mg). Nanoemulsified supplements were recalculated to make sure the oil amount was equal to the raw oil supplementation levels. The results from both experiments indicated that the proportions of vaccenic acid and cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 increased when a raw oil blend was supplemented; on the other hand, no influence of nanoemulsified form of oil blend was observed on the proportion cis-9,trans-11 C18:2. Generally, supplementation with the nanoemulsified oil blends had less effect on biohydrogenation intermediates than the raw form of oil blends. However, the nanoemulsified form had a greater effect on the increase of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Nanoemulsified oil blends had a positive effect on decreasing the transformation rate of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in the biohydrogenation environment. Supplements of nanoemulsified oil blends tended to be more effective than supplements of raw oils in preserving a greater proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation culture. PMID:26547647

  6. Stereology of the myocardium and blood biochemistry in aged rats fed with a cholesterol-rich and canola oil diet (n-3 fatty acid rich).

    PubMed

    Aguila, M B; Rodrigues-Apfel, M I; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A

    1998-06-01

    The myocardial changes brought about by canola oil (n-3 fatty acid rich) and hyperlipidic diets were studied in 45 rats. Three groups each consisting of 15 animals was separated into (A) which receiving a normal balanced diet; and in groups (CHO) and (O) the animals receiving hyperlipidic and canola oil diet, respectively. These diets were fed to the animals from 21 days until 15 months old, then a blood analysis was performed, after which they were sacrificed and the hearts taken for light microscopic studies. The total lipids serum was extracted and the low density lipoproteins (LDL-C and VLDL-C) and chylomicron fractions were determined as well as the cholesterol concentration in the high density lipoprotein fraction (HDL-C). The myocardium was composed of myocytes and cardiac interstitium, which is made up of connective tissue and blood vessels. The following stereological parameters were determined: a) from myocyte: volume density of myocyte, total volume of myocytes surface density of myocyte, total surface of myocyte and cross sectional area of myocyte; b) from blood vessels: volume density of blood vessels, total volume of blood vessels, length density of blood vessels, surface density of blood vessels, total surface of blood vessels and cross sectional area of vessels; c) from connective tissue: volume density of connective tissue and total volume of connective tissue. The differences were tested by the analysis of variance and Tukey test. The Mantel-Haenezel test analyzed the survival curve test comparing the different groups. Many stereological parameters had significant differences: cardiac weight, thickness of the right and left ventricular wall, aorta and pulmonary artery inner diameters. HDL-C, LDL-C, volume density of myocyte, total surface of myocyte, surface density of myocyte, total surface of myocyte, total volume of blood vessel, length density of blood vessels, surface density of blood vessels, total surface of blood vessels, volume density of

  7. Unraveling the rat blood genome-wide transcriptome after oral administration of lavender oil by a two-color dye-swap DNA microarray approach.

    PubMed

    Hori, Motohide; Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Wakamori, Minoru; Masuo, Yoshinori; Shioda, Seiji; Rakwal, Randeep

    2016-06-01

    Lavender oil (LO) is a commonly used essential oil in aromatherapy as non-traditional medicine. With an aim to demonstrate LO effects on the body, we have recently established an animal model investigating the influence of orally administered LO in rat tissues, genome-wide. In this brief, we investigate the effect of LO ingestion in the blood of rat. Rats were administered LO at usual therapeutic dose (5 mg/kg) in humans, and following collection of the venous blood from the heart and extraction of total RNA, the differentially expressed genes were screened using a 4 × 44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) in conjunction with a two-color dye-swap approach. A total of 834 differentially expressed genes in the blood were identified: 362 up-regulated and 472 down-regulated. These genes were functionally categorized using bioinformatics tools. The gene expression inventory of rat blood transcriptome under LO, a first report, has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO): GSE67499. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation. PMID:27330992

  8. Polarimetric Retrievals of Surface and Aerosol Properties in the Region Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottaviani, M.; Cairns, B.; Chowdhary, J.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R.; Obland, M. D.; Zhai, P.; Hu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    In July 2010, the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) effectuated two flights in two consecutive days over the region affected by the oil spill of the Deepwater Horizon offshore platform. Integrated on the NASA Langley B-200 aircraft, the instrument is deployed together with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), which provides information on the distribution of the aerosol layers beneath the aircraft including an accurate estimate of aerosol optical depth. We present a sensitivity study to illustrate the merits of polarization measurements in detecting variations of ocean surface properties linked to the presence of an oil slick. In particular, the Degree of Linear Polarization (DoLP) in the glint region does not depend on the surface roughness, while is severely affected by variations in the refractive index of the ocean surface. Exploiting the RSP channel at 2250nm, where virtually all the signal is generated by the Fresnel reflection at the surface, the DoLP at any angle well into the glint region can therefore be used to detect alterations in the ocean surface. More specifically, the glint profile at this wavelength is fitted to the Cox-Munk model with a routine which can optimally estimate wind speed and direction, while taking into account aircraft attitude variations in determining the viewing geometry. The surveyed area also presents a complex mix of aerosol types. At least one major urban layer originating in the US Southeast mixes in the central portion of the flight trajectory with smoke caused by controlled burns around the damaged platform. The constrain on surface reflectance provided by the SWIR RSP channel, together with the aerosol optical depth provided by the HSRL, are used in Radiative Transfer computations to model the channels at shorter wavelengths and retrieve aerosol descriptive parameters such as aerosol size distribution and refractive index. Finally, the presence of smoke is ground for a discussion on the possibility to infer

  9. Fate and transport of oil sand process-affected water into the underlying clay till: a field study.

    PubMed

    Abolfazlzadehdoshanbehbazari, Mostafa; Birks, S Jean; Moncur, Michael C; Ulrich, Ania C

    2013-08-01

    The South Tailings Pond (STP) is a ~2300-ha tailing pond operated by Suncor Energy Inc. that has received oil sand process-affected (PA) water and mature fine tailings since 2006. The STP is underlain by a clay till, which is in turn underlain by the Wood Creek Sand Channel (WCSC). The sandy deposits of the WCSC provide greater geotechnical stability but could act as a potential flow pathway for PA water to migrate off site and into the Athabasca River. Preliminary modeling of the STP suggests that PA water from the pond will infiltrate into the underlying sand channel, but the extent and development of this impact is still poorly understood. Suncor Energy Inc. built interception wells and a cut-off-wall to control any potential seepage. Here we present the results of an investigation of the fate and transport of PA water in clay till underlying a 10 m × 10 m infiltration pond that was constructed on the southeastern portion of the STP. The geochemistry of pore water in the till underlying the infiltration pond was determined prior to filling with process-affected water (2008) and two years after the infiltration pond was filled with PA waters (2010). Pore water was analyzed for metals, cations, anions, and isotopes ((2)H and (18)O). The distribution of conservative tracers ((18)O and chloride) indicated migration of the PA waters to approximately 0.9 m, but the migrations of major ions and metals were significantly delayed relative to this depth. Uptake of Na and Mo and release of Ca, Mg, Mn, Ba, and Sr suggest that adsorption and ion exchange reactions are the foremost attenuation processes controlling inorganic solutes transport. PMID:23752067

  10. Assessing spatial and temporal variability of acid-extractable organics in oil sands process-affected waters.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard A; Milestone, Craig B; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Kavanagh, Richard J; Lengger, Sabine K; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Hewitt, L Mark

    2016-10-01

    The acid-extractable organic compounds (AEOs), including naphthenic acids (NAs), present within oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) receive great attention due to their known toxicity. While recent progress in advanced separation and analytical methodologies for AEOs has improved our understanding of the composition of these mixtures, little is known regarding any variability (i.e., spatial, temporal) inherent within, or between, tailings ponds. In this study, 5 samples were collected from the same location of one tailings pond over a 2-week period. In addition, 5 samples were collected simultaneously from different locations within a tailings pond from a different mine site, as well as its associated recycling pond. In both cases, the AEOs were analyzed using SFS, ESI-MS, HRMS, GC×GC-ToF/MS, and GC- & LC-QToF/MS (GC analyses following conversion to methyl esters). Principal component analysis of HRMS data was able to distinguish the ponds from each other, while data from GC×GC-ToF/MS, and LC- and GC-QToF/MS were used to differentiate samples from within the temporal and spatial sample sets, with the greater variability associated with the latter. Spatial differences could be attributed to pond dynamics, including differences in inputs of tailings and surface run-off. Application of novel chemometric data analyses of unknown compounds detected by LC- and GC-QToF/MS allowed further differentiation of samples both within and between data sets, providing an innovative approach for future fingerprinting studies. PMID:27391053

  11. A novel solid-state fractionation of naphthenic acid fraction components from oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed H; Wilson, Lee D; Shah, Jaimin R; Bailey, Jon; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

    2015-10-01

    Various sorbent materials were evaluated for the fractionation of naphthenic acid fraction components (NAFCs) from oil sand process-affected water (OSPW). The solid phase materials include activated carbon (AC), cellulose, iron oxides (magnetite and goethite), polyaniline (PANI) and three types of biochar derived from biomass (BC-1; rice husks, BC-2; acacia low temperature and BC-3; acacia high temperature). NAFCs were semi-quantified using electrospray ionization high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and the metals were assessed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average removal efficacy of NAFCs by AC was 95%. The removal efficacy decreased in the following order: AC, BC-1>BC-2, BC-3, goethite>PANI>cellulose, magnetite. The removal of metals did not follow a clear trend; however, there was notable leaching of potassium by AC and biochar samples. The bound NAFCs by AC were desorbed efficiently with methanol. Methanol regeneration and recycling of AC revealed 88% removal on the fourth cycle; a 4.4% decrease from the first cycle. This fractionation method represents a rapid, cost-effective, efficient, and green strategy for NAFCs from OSPW, as compared with conventional solvent extraction. PMID:26042363

  12. Estimates of Octanol-Water Partitioning for Thousands of Dissolved Organic Species in Oil Sands Process-Affected Water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Pereira, Alberto S; Martin, Jonathan W

    2015-07-21

    In this study, the octanol-water distribution ratios (DOW, that is, apparent KOW at pH 8.4) of 2114 organic species in oil sands process-affected water were estimated by partitioning to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated stir bars and analysis by ultrahigh resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry in electrospray positive ((+)) and negative ((-)) ionization modes. At equilibrium, the majority of species in OSPW showed negligible partitioning to PDMS (i.e., DOW <1), however estimated DOW's for some species ranged up to 100,000. Most organic acids detected in ESI- had negligible partitioning, although some naphthenic acids (O2(-) species) had estimated DOW ranging up to 100. Polar neutral and basic compounds detected in ESI+ generally partitioned to PDMS to a greater extent than organic acids. Among these species, DOW was greatest among 3 groups: up to 1000 for mono-oxygenated species (O(+) species), up to 127,000 for NO(+) species, and up to 203,000 for SO(+) species. A positive relationship was observed between DOW and carbon number, and a negative relationship was observed with the number of double bonds (or rings). The results highlight that nonacidic compounds in OSPW are generally more hydrophobic than naphthenic acids and that some may be highly bioaccumulative and contribute to toxicity. PMID:26098972

  13. Advanced analytical mass spectrometric techniques and bioassays to characterize untreated and ozonated oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Nian; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry N; Islam, Md Shahinoor; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Blunt, Brian J; Reichert, Megan; Hagen, Mariel; Tierney, Keith B; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is a toxic and poorly biodegradable mixture of sand, silt, heavy metals, and organics. In this study, qualitative and quantitative comparisons of naphthenic acids (NAs) were done using ultraperformance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC TOF-MS), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS, and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The unique combination of these analyses allowed for the determination and correlation of NAs, oxidized NAs, and heteroatom (sulfur or nitrogen) NAs. Despite its lower resolution, UPLC-TOF MS was shown to offer a comparable level of reliability and precision as the high resolution FT-ICR MS. Additionally, the impacts of ozonation (35 mg/L utilized ozone dose) and subsequent NAs degradation on OSPW toxicity were assessed via a collection of organisms and toxicity end points using Vibrio fischeri (nonspecific), specific fish macrophage antimicrobial responses, and fish olfactory responses. Fish macrophages exposed to ozonated OSPW for 1 week showed higher production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates; however, after 12 weeks the responses were reduced significantly. Fish olfactory tests suggested that OSPW interfered with their perception of odorants. Current results indicate that the quantification of NAs species, using novel analytical methods, can be combined with various toxicity methods to assess the efficiency of OSPW treatment processes. PMID:25211339

  14. Treatment of oil sands process-affected water using moving bed biofilm reactors: With and without ozone pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yijing; Huang, Chunkai; Rocha, Ketley Costa; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Liu, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Two moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) were operated to treat raw (untreated) and 30 mg/L ozone-treated oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). After 210 days, the MBBR process showed 18.3% of acid-extractable fraction (AEF) and 34.8% of naphthenic acids (NAs) removal, while the ozonation combined MBBR process showed higher removal of AEF (41.0%) and NAs (78.8%). Biodegradation of raw and ozone treated OSPW showed similar performance. UPLC/HRMS analysis showed a highest NAs removal efficiency with a carbon number of 14 and a -Z number of 4. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed thicker biofilms in the raw OSPW MBBR (97 ± 5 μm) than in the ozonated OSPW MBBR (71 ± 12 μm). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) results showed higher abundance of gene copies of total bacteria and nitrogen removal relevant bacteria in the ozonated OSPW MBBR, but no significant difference was found. MiSeq sequencing showed Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Acidobacteria were dominant. PMID:26038326

  15. Application of a solar UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process to oil sands process-affected water remediation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zengquan; Li, Chao; Belosevic, Miodrag; Bolton, James R; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2014-08-19

    The solar UV/chlorine process has emerged as a novel advanced oxidation process for industrial and municipal wastewaters. Currently, its practical application to oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) remediation has been studied to treat fresh OSPW retained in large tailings ponds, which can cause significant adverse environmental impacts on ground and surface waters in Northern Alberta, Canada. Degradation of naphthenic acids (NAs) and fluorophore organic compounds in OSPW was investigated. In a laboratory-scale UV/chlorine treatment, the NAs degradation was clearly structure-dependent and hydroxyl radical-based. In terms of the NAs degradation rate, the raw OSPW (pH ∼ 8.3) rates were higher than those at an alkaline condition (pH = 10). Under actual sunlight, direct solar photolysis partially degraded fluorophore organic compounds, as indicated by the qualitative synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) of the OSPW, but did not impact NAs degradation. The solar/chlorine process effectively removed NAs (75-84% removal) and fluorophore organic compounds in OSPW in the presence of 200 or 300 mg L(-1) OCl(-). The acute toxicity of OSPW toward Vibrio fischeri was reduced after the solar/chlorine treatment. However, the OSPW toxicity toward goldfish primary kidney macrophages after solar/chlorine treatment showed no obvious toxicity reduction versus that of untreated OSPW, which warrants further study for process optimization. PMID:25051215

  16. Biostimulation of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water with Phosphate Yields Removal of Sulfur-Containing Organics and Detoxification.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, Dean M; Oldenburg, Thomas B P; Larter, Stephen R; Gieg, Lisa M; Chua, Gordon

    2015-11-01

    The ability to mitigate toxicity of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) for return into the environment is an important issue for effective tailings management in Alberta, Canada. OSPW toxicity has been linked to classical naphthenic acids (NAs), but the toxic contribution of other acid-extractable organics (AEOs) remains unknown. Here, we examine the potential for in situ bioremediation of OSPW AEOs by indigenous algae. Phosphate biostimulation was performed in OSPW to promote the growth of indigenous photosynthetic microorganisms and subsequent toxicity and chemical changes were determined. After 12 weeks, the AEO fraction of phosphate-biostimulated OSPW was significantly less toxic to the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe than unstimulated OSPW. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) analysis of the AEO fraction in phosphate-biostimulated OSPW showed decreased levels of SO3 class compounds, including a subset that may represent linear arylsulfonates. A screen with S. pombe transcription factor mutant strains for growth sensitivity to the AEO fraction or sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate revealed a mode of toxic action consistent with oxidative stress and detrimental effects on cellular membranes. These findings demonstrate a potential algal-based in situ bioremediation strategy for OSPW AEOs and uncover a link between toxicity and AEOs other than classical NAs. PMID:26448451

  17. Treatment of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using ozonation combined with integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS).

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunkai; Shi, Yijing; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-15

    Two integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactors were operated continuously to treat raw (untreated) and ozonated (30 mg/L) oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). After 11 months, 12.1% of the acid extractable fraction (AEF) and 43.1% of the parent naphthenic acids (NAs) were removed in the raw OSPW IFAS, while 42.0% AEF and 80.2% of parent NAs were removed in the ozonated OSPW IFAS. UPLC/HRMS analysis showed that NA biodegradation significantly decreased as the NA cyclization number increased. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) results showed that the biofilm in the ozonated OSPW IFAS was significantly thicker (94 ± 1.6 μm) than the biofilm in the raw OSPW IFAS (72 ± 2.8 μm) after 283 days of cultivation. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) revealed that the abundance proportions of both nitrifier genes (AomA, NSR and Nitro) and denitrifier genes (narG, nirS, nirK and nosZ) within total bacteria were significantly higher in biofilms than in flocs in the raw OSPW IFAS system, but a different trend was observed in the ozonated OSPW IFAS system. PMID:26318649

  18. Characterization of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid variants from oil palm affected by orange spotting disease in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y H; Cheong, L C; Meon, S; Lau, W H; Kong, L L; Joseph, H; Vadamalai, G

    2013-06-01

    A 246-nt variant of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) has been identified and described from oil palms with orange spotting symptoms in Malaysia. Compared with the 246-nt form of CCCVd from coconut, the oil palm variant substituted C(31)→U in the pathogenicity domain and G(70)→C in the central conserved domain. This is the first sequence reported for a 246-nt variant of CCCVd in oil palms expressing orange spotting symptoms. PMID:23397332

  19. Factors that Affect Willingness to Donate Blood for the Purpose of Biospecimen Research in the Korean American Community

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Glorian P.; Davey, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Biorepositories have been key resources in examining genetically-linked diseases, particularly cancer. Asian Americans contribute to biorepositories at lower rates than other racial groups, but the reasons for this are unclear. We hypothesized that attitudes toward biospecimen research mediate the relationship between demographic and healthcare access factors, and willingness to donate blood for research purposes among individuals of Korean heritage. Methods: Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were utilized to characterize the sample with respect to demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral variables. Structural equation modeling with 5000 re-sample bootstrapping was used to assess each component of the proposed simple mediation models. Results: Attitudes towards biospecimen research fully mediate associations between age, income, number of years lived in the United States, and having a regular physician and willingness to donate blood for the purpose of research. Conclusion: Participants were willing to donate blood for the purpose of research despite having neutral feelings towards biospecimen research as a whole. Participants reported higher willingness to donate blood for research purposes when they were older, had lived in the United States longer, had higher income, and had a regular doctor that they visited. Many of the significant relationships between demographic and health care access factors, attitudes towards biospecimen research, and willingness to donate blood for the purpose of research may be explained by the extent of acculturation of the participants in the United States. PMID:25853387

  20. Reduction of oxidative stress does not affect recovery of myocardial function: warm continuous versus cold intermittent blood cardioplegia.

    PubMed Central

    Biagioli, B.; Borrelli, E.; Maccherini, M.; Bellomo, G.; Lisi, G.; Giomarelli, P.; Sani, G.; Toscano, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare oxidative stress after cardiac surgery in patients treated with two different methods of myocardial protection: warm continuous versus cold intermittent blood cardioplegia. To correlate oxidative stress with postoperative myocardial dysfunction. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, double blind, trial. SETTING: Institutional centre of cardiovascular surgery. PATIENTS: 20 patients were selected for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) on the following basis: stable angina, ejection fraction > 50%, double or triple vessel disease, no previous CABG or associated disease. Patients were randomised to two groups of 10 patients each. INTERVENTIONS: Patients underwent CABG with one of two different methods of myocardial protection and cardiopulmonary bypass. CBC group: intermittent cold blood antegrade-retrograde cardioplegia with moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass; WBC group: continuous warm blood antegrade-retrograde cardioplegia with mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The index of oxidative stress used was the alteration of whole blood and plasma glutathione redox status. Samples were collected from the coronary sinus and peripheral vein before anaesthesia (T1), before aortic unclamping (T2), 15 minutes (T3), and 30 minutes (T4) after unclamping. Haemodynamic parameters were measured with thermodilution techniques. RESULTS: Oxidised glutathione and glutathione-cysteine mixed disulphide significantly increased in the coronary sinus plasma in the CBC group, and the overall redox balance of glutathione was decreased (P < 0.01) at T2-T4 versus T1, and compared with the WBC group. Comparable results were obtained for coronary sinus blood. There was no correlation between postoperative haemodynamic measurements and oxidative stress markers. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress was significant in patients undergoing CABG using cold blood cardioplegia, while the warm technique minimised the effects of ischaemia. However

  1. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current artificial diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae is a semi-solid medium consisting of dry whole bovine blood, poultry egg powder and a milk substitute mixed with a bulking and solidifying agent and water. To reduce the mass r...

  2. Behavioral Self-Regulation in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Negative Affectivity and Blood Glucose Symptom Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Deborah J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents who were more internally focused were more able to discern which symptoms actually covaried with blood glucose (BG) fluctuations; those with higher trait anxiety tended to misattribute non-diabetes-related symptoms to BG levels. Interactions suggested those who both attend to internal physical sensations and experience-heightened…

  3. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B.; McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V.; Culty, M.; Zirkin, B.R.; Papadopoulos, V.

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  4. Fractions of calcium in the plant-soil system affected by the application of olive oil wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Lara, F; Azcón, M; Quesada, J L; Polo, A

    1998-09-01

    A pot experiment using calcareous soil was conducted in a growth chamber to examine the effects of olive oil wastewater applications on Ca fractions in the plant and on exchangeable Ca in soil after plant growth. The experimental treatments consisted of two rates of olive oil wastewater, two mineral fertilizer treatments including K, which supplied K in amounts equivalent to the K supplied by the olive oil wastewater treatments, a mineral fertilizer without K treatment (F), and a control. The pots were sown with ryegrass which was harvested 3 times at monthly intervals. The high rate of olive oil wastewater resulted in a prolonged increases in dry matter production. It also resulted in a reduction in the concentrations of soluble Ca, bound Ca, inorganic insoluble Ca and organic insoluble Ca in the plant shoots relative to the control and the F treatment. The low rate of olive oil wastewater produced similar but less marked effects, with decreases being observed in the soluble Ca and bound Ca fractions. After 3 months of plant growth, soil exchangeable Ca was higher in the control and F treatment soils than in the soils receiving olive oil wastewater or K fertilizer. At this time, there were no significant differences in exchangeable Ca between the soils receiving olive oil wastewater and those treated with K fertilizer. PMID:9731309

  5. Assessing accumulation and biliary excretion of naphthenic acids in yellow perch exposed to oil sands-affected waters.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Michael R; Hogan, Natacha S; MacDonald, Gillian Z; Berrue, Fabrice; Young, Rozlyn F; Arens, Collin J; Kerr, Russell G; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2014-01-01

    Naphthenic acids are known to be the most prevalent group of organic compounds in oil sands tailings-associated waters. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed for four months to oil sands-influenced waters in two experimental systems located on an oil sands lease 30 km north of Fort McMurray Alberta: the Demonstration Pond, containing oil sands tailings capped with natural surface water, and the South Bison Pond, integrating lean oil sands. Yellow perch were also sampled from three lakes: Mildred Lake that receives water from the Athabasca River, Sucker Lake, at the edge of oil sands extraction activity, and Kimowin Lake, a distant reference site. Naphthenic acids were measured in perch muscle tissue using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Bile metabolites were measured by GC-MS techniques and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection at phenanthrene wavelengths. A method was developed using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) to evaluate naphthenic acids in bile. Tissue analysis did not show a pattern of naphthenic acids accumulation in muscle tissue consistent with known concentrations in exposed waters. Bile fluorescence and LC-HRMS methods were capable of statistically distinguishing samples originating from oil sands-influenced waters versus reference lakes. Although the GC-MS and HPLC fluorescence methods were correlated, there were no significant correlations of these methods and the LC-HRMS method. In yellow perch, naphthenic acids from oil sands sources do not concentrate in tissue at a measurable amount and are excreted through a biliary route. LC-HRMS was shown to be a highly sensitive, selective and promising technique as an indicator of exposure of biota to oil sands-derived naphthenic acids. PMID:24182406

  6. Sensitivity of walleye (Sander vitreus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) early-life stages to naphthenic acid fraction components extracted from fresh oil sands process-affected waters.

    PubMed

    Marentette, Julie R; Frank, Richard A; Hewitt, L Mark; Gillis, Patricia L; Bartlett, Adrienne J; Brunswick, Pamela; Shang, Dayue; Parrott, Joanne L

    2015-12-01

    Unconventional oil production in Alberta's oil sands generates oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), which contains toxic constituents such as naphthenic acid fraction components (NAFCs). There have been few studies examining effects of NAFC exposure over long periods of early-life stage development in fish. Here we examined the effects of NAFCs extracted from OSPW to embryo-larval fathead minnow, exposed for 21 days. We compared the sensitivity of fathead minnow to walleye reared to 7 days post-hatch (18-20 days total). EC50s for hatch success, including deformities, and total survival were lower for walleye (10-11 mg/L) than fathead minnow (22-25 mg/L), with little post-hatch mortality observed in either species. NAFC exposure affected larval growth at concentrations below the EC50 in fathead minnow (total mass IC10 14-17 mg/L). These data contribute to an understanding of the developmental stages targeted by oil sands NAFCs, as well as their toxicity in a greater range of relevant taxa. PMID:26342575

  7. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  8. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Flint, Paul L; Schamber, Jason L; Trust, Kimberly A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill. PMID:22933448

  9. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills can also affect human health. These effects can depend on what kind of oil was spilled and where (on land, in a river, or in the ocean). Other factors include what kind of exposure and how much ...

  10. Effects of age and dietary soybean oil level on eggshell quality, bone strength and blood biochemistry in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Cui, L Y; Hou, J F; Shi, C; Ke, X; Yang, L C; Ma, X P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in eggshell quality, bone quality and serum bone biochemistry markers associated with changes in age and dietary soybean oil levels in laying hens. A total of 54, 19-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed in 18 battery cages (3 birds/cage) and randomly divided into three diet treatments for 90 d: control-fat (CF, 1.9% soybean oil), moderate-fat (MF, 7% soybean oil) and high-fat (HF, 10% soybean oil). The hens' body weights (BW), egg production, egg weights, eggshell thickness and femoral diameter were higher at d 90 than at d 60 or d 30. Meanwhile, feed intake, relative bone weights, all bone strength parameters and serum Ca were lower at d 90 or 60 than at d 30. Compared to the CF hens, the feed intake, BW, abdominal fat pad weights and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated in MF or HF hens. The eggshell thickness, relative femoral and tibial weight, femoral stiffness, femoral modulus, tibial mixed force and serum calcium and phosphorus levels were lower in MF or HF hens than CF hens. These findings suggest that bone loss in caged hens starts from an early stage of the laying period, and dietary oil (particularly with diets over 10% soybean oil) has harmful effects on eggshell quality, bone strength and bone mineralisation from an early stage of the laying period. PMID:25109942