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1

POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the technical progress achieved from October 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental test procedures and the results related to the processing of coal fines originating from process streams generated at the Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant, owned and operated by the Drummond Company Inc. of Alabama, are described. Two samples of coal fines, namely Cyclone Overflow and Pond Fines were investigated. The batch test results showed that by applying the Aglofloat technology a significant ash removal might be achieved at a very high combustible matter recovery: · for the Cyclone Overflow sample the ash reduction was in the range 50 to 55% at combustible matter recovery about 98% · for the Pond Fines sample the ash reduction was up to 48% at combustible matter recovery up to 85%. Additional tests were carried out with the Alberta origin Luscar Mine coal, which will be used for the parametric studies of agglomeration equipment at the 250 kg/h pilot plant. The Luscar coal is very similar to the Mary Lee Coal Group (processed at Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant) in terms of rank and chemical composition.

NONE

1998-01-01

2

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOEpatents

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

1991-01-01

3

Pyrite suppression in oil agglomeration of coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oleophilicity of pyrite frequently interferes with the separation of coal and pyrite in aqueous suspensions by selective agglomeration with oil. To solve this problem, a search has been conducted for suitable agglomeration suppressants for oleophilic ...

J. Drzymala R. Markuszewski T. D. Wheelock

1991-01-01

4

Oil agglomeration and pelletizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the normal cleaning of ultrafine coal sizes (generally below 0.5 millimeter) is by various froth flotation techniques, there are many situations where inferior results are obtained. These occur particularly where the coal has poor floatability characteristics and\\/or contains excessive amounts of extremely fine sizes (minus 0.075 millimeter) of clay minerals. To overcome these situations, other methods of cleaning have

1979-01-01

5

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOEpatents

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

1991-07-16

6

Selective oil agglomeration of lignite  

SciTech Connect

In this study, desulfurization and deashing of Adiyaman-Glbai lignite by the agglomeration method were studied. For this purpose, three groups of agglomeration experiments were made. The effects of solid concentration, bridging liquid type and dosage, pH, and screen size on the agglomeration after desliming were investigated in the first group of experiments. The effects of lake water and sea water (the Mediterranean Sea water, the Aegean Sea water, and the Black Sea water) on the agglomeration were investigated in the second group of experiments. The effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3}) on the agglomeration were investigated in the third group of experiments. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of sea waters and soda lake water in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the reduction of total sulfur content of agglomerates. In addition, the usage of NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3} in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the ash content reduction of the agglomerates. 27 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Halime Abakay Temel; Volkan Bozkurt; Arun Kumar Majumder [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Department of Mining Engineering

2009-01-15

7

Coal-Oil Agglomeration and Combustion Studies for a Bituminous Coal Pond Tailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor quality of coal tailings used as one of the feeds in a coal-power generation station can lead to combustion problems. A coal-oil agglomeration technique has been tested as a possible option to treat the feed in order to improve the quality. The recovered coal from this agglomeration \\/ flotation treatment had a significantly reduced ash content and increased

K. L. KASPERSKI; Y. BRIKER; D. P. DESHPANDE; B. ÖZÜM

1996-01-01

8

Adapting agglomeration techniques to today's needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

New industries and economic trends have created new problems and opportunities for which applications of agglomeration have been developed. These applications are presented and discussed briefly. The areas include sintering of finely divided ores, briquetting feed stocks, agglomerate forms for air pollution control, hazardous waste immobilization, briquetting solid fuels for energy conservation, manufacturing synfuel charges, biomass densification, and agglomerate forms

1984-01-01

9

Adapting agglomeration techniques to today's needs  

SciTech Connect

New industries and economic trends have created new problems and opportunities for which applications of agglomeration have been developed. These applications are presented and discussed briefly. The areas include sintering of finely divided ores, briquetting feed stocks, agglomerate forms for air pollution control, hazardous waste immobilization, briquetting solid fuels for energy conservation, manufacturing synfuel charges, biomass densification, and agglomerate forms for metallurgical coke.

Brown, D.C.

1984-07-01

10

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process  

DOEpatents

A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

1992-11-10

11

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process  

DOEpatents

A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND)

1992-01-01

12

Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process  

SciTech Connect

Two series of agglomeration tests were conducted as part of an effort to find a suitable basis for size scale-up of the mixing system used for a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. In the first series of tests the agitator impeller diameter and speed were varied among runs so as to vary impeller tip speed and agitator power independently while keeping other conditions constant. In the second series of tests the mixing tank size and agitator speed were varied while the ratio of tank diameter to impeller diameter were held constant. All tests were conducted with finely ground Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with i-octane as the agglomerant. The results of these tests showed that the minimum time te required to produce spherical agglomerates was predominantly a function of the agitator power input per unit volume. In addition, the size of the agglomerates produced in a given time was also strongly dependent on power input. At lower power input levels, the mean size rose as power input increased until a point was reached where agglomerate breakage became important and the mean size decreased. The results also showed that the ash content of the agglomerates produced in a given time tended to decrease with increasing power input. On the other hand, the recovery of clean coal on a dry, ash-free basis was not greatly affected by power input.

M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

1998-10-30

13

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective is to determine the basic principles and mechanisms which underlie a number of selective oil agglomeration processes that have been proposed for beneficiating fine-size coal. An understanding of the basic principles and mechanisms will greatly facilitate technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.C.; Tyson, D.; Ziaoping, Qiu, Lessa, A.

1990-04-01

14

Evaluation of response of brown coal to selective oil agglomeration by zeta potential measurements of the agglomerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of suspension pH, concentration of surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and concentrations of electrolytes (FeCl3, CaCl2 and NaCl) on the recovery of agglomerate and on the reductions in ash and pyritic sulfur in selective oil agglomeration were investigated. The correlation between recovery and reductions in ash and pyritic sulfur and the zeta potential of the agglomerates was also studied.

Ahmet Gürses; Kemal Doymu?; Samih Bayrakçeken

1997-01-01

15

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this work is to determine the important principles and basic mechanisms which underlie various selective oil agglomeration processes for beneficiating fine-size coal in order to facilitate the technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. The recent work described herein has involved a more detailed study of the effects of mild oxidation on the surface properties of different types of coal and the relationship between the agglomerability of oxidized coals and their surface properties. In addition, the work has involved developing more effective means for separating coal and pyrite by finding and applying selective depressants for pyrite.

Wheelock, T.D.

1994-07-01

16

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

Numerous measurements of the heat of immersion of coal were conducting using several different particle size fractions of No. 2 Gas Seam coal from Raleigh County, West Virginia. The heat of immersion was determined in water, methanol, heptane, hexadecane and neohexane (2,2-dimethybutane). A comparison of the results with those determined previously for Illinois No. 6 coal is discussed. A number of potential pyrite depressants for use in oil agglomeration of coal were screened by testing the response of sulfidized mineral pyrite to agglomeration with heptane in the presence of the potential depressant. The following were tested; sodium dithionite, sodium thiosulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, titanous chloride, hydrogen peroxide, Oxone (a form of potassium monopersulfate), pyrogallol, quebracho (colloidal dispersant derived from tree bark), milk whey, and several organic thiols. Ferric chloride was applied to mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and sulfidized mineral pyrite before subjecting the mixtures to agglomeration with heptane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

1990-01-01

17

Beneficiation of a bituminous coal and a lignite coal by agglomeration using novel binding oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illinois number6 and both as received and hot water dried Zap (Indianhead) North Dakota lignite were agglomerated with Mandan refinery decant oil containing either p-xylene or deodorized rectisol naphtha from the Great Plains Gasification Plant. The effectiveness of each of the binding oils on agglomeration was determined from ash reduction and organic recovery as a function of mixing speed, mixing

R. C. Timpe; C. L. Knudson; P. Mack

1988-01-01

18

Beneficiation of a bituminous coals and a lignite coal by agglomeration using novel binding oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illinois No. 6 and both as received and hot water dried Zap (IndianHead) North Dakota lignite were agglomerated with Mandan refinery decant oil containing either p-xylene or deodorized rectisol naphtha from the Great Plains Gasification Plant. The effectiveness of each of the binding oils on agglomeration was determined from ash reduction and organic recovery as a function of mixing speed,

R. C. Timpe; C. L. Knudson; P. Mack

1988-01-01

19

Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

During the first year of the project two model mixing systems, which differed in size but were similar in design, were constructed and tested. The systems were equipped for measuring agitator speed and torque and for measuring the turbidity of coal particle suspensions undergoing agglomeration. Preliminary measurements of aqueous suspensions of coal particles showed that the Beer-Lambert law applies to such suspensions at least for low concentrations. Therefore, the measured turbidity can be used as an indicator of particle concentration and a means for monitoring the progress of oil agglomeration. However, the method is not applicable for large particle concentrations so a different technique was tested for monitoring the agglomeration of large concentrations. This technique involves measuring agitator torque and observing changes in torque while agitator speed is held constant. The results of preliminary tests of the technique were encouraging. In these tests significant changes in agitator torque were observed when particle agglomeration took place as long as solids concentration of 25 w/v % or more were utilized. A number of agglomeration tests were conducted using either one or the other of the two monitoring techniques. Both methods showed that even very small amounts of air can promote the oil agglomeration of coal particles suspended in water. Even the amount of air dissolved in water at room temperature and pressure can affect the process providing the air is displaced from the solution by a slightly soluble agglomerant such as heptane. The apparent rate of agglomeration was observed to increase as more air was introduced and also as agitator speed was increased.

Wheelock, T.D.

1994-10-01

20

TEM and HRTEM of Soot-in-oil particles and agglomerates from internal combustion engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over time, the performance of lubricating oil in a diesel engine is affected by the build-up of carbon soot produced by the combustion process. TEM and HRTEM are commonly used to investigate the characteristics of individual and agglomerated particles from diesel exhaust, to understand the structure and distribution of the carbon sheets in the primary particles and the nanostructure morphology. However, high resolution imaging of soot-in-oil is more challenging, as mineral oil is a contaminant for the electron microscope and leads to instability under the electron beam. In this work we compare solvent extraction and centrifugation techniques for removing the mineral oil contaminant, and the effect on particle size distribution.

Fay, M. W.; La Rocca, A.; Shayler, P. J.

2014-06-01

21

Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process  

SciTech Connect

Further agglomeration tests were conducted in a series of tests designed to determine the effects of various parameters on the size and structure of the agglomerates formed, the rate of agglomeration, coal recovery, and ash rejection. For this series of tests, finely ground Pittsburgh No. 8 coal has been agglomerated with i-octane in a closed mixing system with a controlled amount of air present to promote particle agglomeration. The present results provide further evidence of the role played by air. As the concentration of air in the system was increased from 4.5 to 18 v/w% based on the weight of coal, coal recovery and ash rejection both increased. The results also show that coal recovery and ash rejection were improved by increasing agitator speed. On the other hand, coal recovery was not affected by a change in solids concentration from 20 to 30 w/w%.

M. Shen; T. D. Wheelock

1998-10-30

22

Study of surface and liberation characteristics in coal beneficiation by oil agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three high volatile bituminous Ohio coals of varying ash contents were beneficiated by oil agglomeration using No. 2 fuel oil, Varsol, and pentane. The degree of mineral matter removal varied with the different coal-oil combinations. To explain these differences, both surface and liberation characteristics were examined. The Washburn method for surface characterization was modified so as to remove the limitations

Tampy

1988-01-01

23

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION FOR RECOVERY OF FINE COAL REFUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the economics of an oil-agglomeration process (with and without an oil recovery system) for recovering coal fines from a fine refuse stream of 105 ton/hr from a coal preparation plant. The two base case processes studied are oil-agglom...

24

Remediation of heavy metal contaminated solid wastes using agglomeration techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process has been developed for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated, fine textured; solid wastes so that the treated material will meet EPA's TCLP and Total Extractable Metal Limits. The process involves the formation of strong aggregates using dry agglomeration methods. Remediation is achieved either by incorporating metal fixation agents into the agglomerates, or by leaching of heavy metal

A. Majid; S. Argue

2001-01-01

25

New surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration in hydrocarbon flowlines and seabed oil capture.  

PubMed

Anti-agglomeration is a promising solution for gas hydrate risks in deepsea hydrocarbon flowlines and oil leak captures. Currently ineffectiveness at high water to oil ratios limits such applications. We present experimental results of a new surfactant in rocking cell tests, which show high efficiency at a full range of water to oil ratios; there is no need for presence of the oil phase. We find that our surfactant at a very low concentration (0.2 wt.% of water) keeps the hydrate particles in anti-agglomeration state. We propose a mechanism different from the established water-in-oil emulsion theory in the literature that the process is effective without the oil phase. There is no need to emulsify the water phase in the oil phase for hydrate anti-agglomeration; with oil-in-water emulsion and without emulsion hydrate anti-agglomeration is presented in our research. We expect our work to pave the way for broad applications in offshore natural gas production and seabed oil capture with very small quantities of an eco-friendly surfactant. PMID:23660023

Sun, Minwei; Firoozabadi, Abbas

2013-07-15

26

Beneficiation of a bituminous coals and a lignite coal by agglomeration using novel binding oils  

SciTech Connect

Illinois No. 6 and both as received and hot water dried Zap (IndianHead) North Dakota lignite were agglomerated with Mandan refinery decant oil containing either p-xylene or deodorized rectisol naphtha from the Great Plains Gasification Plant. The effectiveness of each of the binding oils on agglomeration was determined from ash reduction and organic recovery as a function of mixing speed, mixing time, particle size, and oil-to-coal ratio. Results indicated that, although the ash reduction was significant in the Mandan decant/rectisol naphtha binder for both coals, greater reduction was achieved with the Mandan decant/p-xylene. Higher mixing speeds, longer mixing times, smaller particle size, and binder to coal ratio of 0.35 gave the greatest ash reductions. Agglomeration time was shortened substantially when either p-xylene or rectisol naphtha was added to the Mandan decant in place of using Mandan decant alone as binder.

Timpe, R.C.; Knudson, C.L.; Mack, P. (Univ. of North Dakota Energy and Mineral Research Center, Grand Forks (USA))

1988-01-01

27

Beneficiation of a bituminous coal and a lignite coal by agglomeration using novel binding oils  

SciTech Connect

Illinois number6 and both as received and hot water dried Zap (Indianhead) North Dakota lignite were agglomerated with Mandan refinery decant oil containing either p-xylene or deodorized rectisol naphtha from the Great Plains Gasification Plant. The effectiveness of each of the binding oils on agglomeration was determined from ash reduction and organic recovery as a function of mixing speed, mixing time, particle size, and oil-to-coal ratio. Results indicated that, although the ash reduction was significant in the Mandan decant/rectisol naphtha binder for both coals, greater reduction was achieved with the Mandan decant/p-xylene. Higher mixing speeds, longer mixing times, smaller particle size, and binder to coal ratio of 0.35 gave the greatest ash reductions. Agglomeration time was shortened substantially when either p-xylene or rectisol naphtha was added to the Mandan decant in place of using Mandan decant alone as binder.

Timpe, R.C.; Knudson, C.L.; Mack, P. (Univ. of North Dakota Energy and Mineral Research Center, P.O. Box 8213, University Station, Grand Forks, ND (US))

1988-06-01

28

Remediation of oil-contaminated sand by coal agglomeration using ball milling.  

PubMed

The mechanical shear force provided by a less energy intensive device (usually operating at 20-200 rpm), a ball mill, was used toperform coal agglomeration and its effects on remediation of a model fuel oil-contaminated sand were evaluated. Important process parameters such as the amount of coal added, milling time, milling speed and the size of milling elements are discussed. The results suggested that highly hydrophobic oil-coal agglomerates, formed by adding suitable amounts of coal into the oil-contaminated sand, could be mechanically liberated from cleaned sand during ball milling and recovered as a surface coating on the steel balls. Over 90% removal of oil from oil-contaminated sand was achieved with 6 wt% of coal addition and an optimum ball milling time of 20 min and speed of 200 rpm. This novel process has considerable potential for cleaning oil-contaminated sands. PMID:22329146

Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

2011-10-01

29

FUEL CONTAMINANTS: VOLUME 4. APPLICATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TO COAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the application of oil agglomeration to coal wastes. There are an estimated 3000-5000 sizeable active and abandoned coal waste piles and impoundments in the eastern U.S. coal fields alone, containing 3 billion tons of refuse, part of which a...

30

Method for producing distillable hydrocarbonaceous fuels and carbonaceous agglomerates from a heavy crude oil  

SciTech Connect

In a method for producing a distillable hydrocarbonaceous stream and carbonaceous agglomerates from a heavy crude oil by charging the crude oil and finely divided carbonaceous solids to a rotary kiln with the crude oil and carbonaceous solids being charged in a weight ratio from about 0.6 to about 1.5; tumbling the crude oil and finely divided carbonaceous solids in the rotary kiln at a temperature from about 850/sup 0/ to about 1000/sup 0/ F. for up to about 30 minutes to produce a vaporous stream and agglomerate particles containing a residual portion of the crude oil and finely divided carbonaceous solids; separating the agglomerate particles into a product portion of a desired particle size range and a recycle portion; grinding the recycle portion to produce the finely divided carbonaceous solids and heating the finely divided carbonaceous solids prior to recycling the carbonaceous solids to mixture with the crude oil, an improvement comprising: supplying at least a major portion of the heat required in said rotary kiln by heating the crude oil charged to the rotary kiln thereby eliminating the heating of the finely divided carbonaceous solids prior to recycling.

Boyer, L. D.; Sage, F. E.; Sooter, M. C.

1984-09-25

31

Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Several scale model mixing systems have been built and are being utilized to study the gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal. Numerous batch agglomeration tests have been conducted with these systems. During an individual test the progress of agglomeration has been monitored by observing either changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated particle suspensions or changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. A mathematical model has been developed for relating the rate of agglomeration of coal particles to the rate of change of turbidity of a dilute particle suspension undergoing agglomeration. The model has been utilized for analyzing and interpreting the results of a number of oil agglomeration tests in which several different system parameters were varied.

Wheelock, T.D.

1995-12-01

32

Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of this research project is to carry out the preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal using model mixing systems. Specific objectives include determining the nature of the gas promotion mechanism, the effects of hydrodynamic factors and key parameters on process performance, and a suitable basis for size scale-up of the mixing system. Further analysis of the results of a series of oil agglomeration tests reported previously showed that the time required to produce spherical agglomerates depends on both the power input per unit volume and the concentration of air in the coal suspension. A subsequent series of tests has shown that extending the time of agitation beyond the point where spherical agglomeration seems to occur produces larger agglomerates which are recovered more easily and the separation efficiency of the process is improved.

Wheelock, T.D.

1996-07-01

33

Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. [Quarterly] technical progress report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of this research project is to carry out the preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal using model mixing systems. Previous research showed that having a gas present in an agitated system used for the agglomeration of an aqueous suspension of coal particles with oil would reduce greatly the required mixing shear rate and power input. To take advantage of this discovery, the present research project was initiated. The project will involve building and testing two model mixing systems which differ in scale but are representative of standard industrial mixing systems used for mixing solid particles, liquid, and gas. These systems will be tested by conducting oil agglomeration tests under various conditions and measuring agitator torque and power as well as agglomeration performance. Special attention will be given to the effects produced by having gas present in the system.

Wheelock, T.D.

1993-12-31

34

Directional Agglomeration Multigrid Techniques for High-Reynolds Number Viscous Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preconditioned directional-implicit agglomeration algorithm is developed for solving two- and three-dimensional viscous flows on highly anisotropic unstructured meshes of mixed-element types. The multigrid smoother consists of a pre-conditioned point- or line-implicit solver which operates on lines constructed in the unstructured mesh using a weighted graph algorithm. Directional coarsening or agglomeration is achieved using a similar weighted graph algorithm. A tight coupling of the line construction and directional agglomeration algorithms enables the use of aggressive coarsening ratios in the multigrid algorithm, which in turn reduces the cost of a multigrid cycle. Convergence rates which are independent of the degree of grid stretching are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions. Further improvement of the three-dimensional convergence rates through a GMRES technique is also demonstrated.

Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

1998-01-01

35

Directional Agglomeration Multigrid Techniques for High Reynolds Number Viscous Flow Solvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preconditioned directional-implicit agglomeration algorithm is developed for solving two- and three-dimensional viscous flows on highly anisotropic unstructured meshes of mixed-element types. The multigrid smoother consists of a pre-conditioned point- or line-implicit solver which operates on lines constructed in the unstructured mesh using a weighted graph algorithm. Directional coarsening or agglomeration is achieved using a similar weighted graph algorithm. A tight coupling of the line construction and directional agglomeration algorithms enables the use of aggressive coarsening ratios in the multigrid algorithm, which in turn reduces the cost of a multigrid cycle. Convergence rates which are independent of the degree of grid stretching are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions. Further improvement of the three-dimensional convergence rates through a GMRES technique is also demonstrated.

1998-01-01

36

Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3 years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these “surface residual balls” (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results.

Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joesph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.

2014-01-01

37

Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone.  

PubMed

Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these "surface residual balls" (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results. PMID:24503377

Dalyander, P Soupy; Long, Joseph W; Plant, Nathaniel G; Thompson, David M

2014-03-15

38

Preparation of Agglomerated Crystals for Direct Tabletting and Microencapsulation by the Spherical Crystallization Technique with a Continuous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesive and cohesive properties of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CP) crystals were modified to improve their powder processing, e.g., direct tabletting and microencapsulation, by agglomeration. Moreover, sustained-released gelling microcapsules of CP were devised to prolong the pharmacological effect. The spherical crystallization technique was applied to prepare agglomerates for direct tabletting and microencapsulation to use them as core materials. The ethanolic solution dissolving

Toshiyuki Niwa; Hirofumi Takeuchi; Tomoaki Hino; Akira Itoh; Yoshiaki Kawashima; Katsumi Kiuchi

1994-01-01

39

Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-11-15

40

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration. Fossil energy interim report, October 1, 1983--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with several types of low-ash coal and graphite, high grade mineral pyrite, and other materials. Relatively pure hydrocarbons, including heptane and hexadecane, were used as agglomerants. Access of air to the system was controlled. Particle recovery by agglomeration was observed to depend on a number of system parameters. Among the most important parameters are the hydrophobicity of the particles and the oil dosage, so that the, recovery of solids per unit of oil administered is proportional to the hydrophobicity. The pH and ionic strength of the aqueous suspension affect particle recovery in different ways depending on the surface properties of the particles. On the other hand, the presence of air in the system generally improves particle recovery. The greatest effect of air was observed in a closely related study which showed that air had to be present to produce good agglomerates from a moderately hydrophobic coal in a mixer producing a lower shear rate. The rate of agglomeration was found to be much greater for a strongly hydrophobic coal than for a moderately hydrophobic coal, and the rate was observed to be proportional to the oil dosage. Also the rate was enhanced by the presence of air in the, system. For hydrophobic coals, the rate increased with increasing ionic strength of the aqueous medium, but it was not affected greatly by pH over a wide range. The separation of coal and pyrite particles by selective agglomeration was found to depend on the relative hydrophobicity of the materials, the oil dosage, and the properties of the aqueous medium.

Wheelock, T.D.

1992-12-31

41

The use of starch to enhance sulfur and ash removal from coal by selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

We have found that the use of starch or gelatin, as an additive in the Otisca T-Process of selective oil agglomeration of coal, leads to a considerable improvement in the reduction of pyritic sulfur and of ash-forming minerals. A patent application has been filed; (Good Badgugar). Improvement in rejection of pyritic sulfur by up to 55% has been found, and improvement in ash rejection by up to 28%. Carbon recovery of 97.5 to 99.1% was obtained when the starch concentration was in the range, 30 to 200 ppM in the water. Three different bituminous coals were used: Upper Freeport, Kentucky No. 9, and Illinois No. 6.

Good, R.J.; Badgujar, M.N.

1990-01-01

42

Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of this research project is to carry out the preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal using model mixing systems. Specific objectives include determining the nature of the gas promotion mechanism, the effects of hydrodynamic factors and key parameters on process performance, and a suitable basis for size scale-up of the mixing system. An investigation of the phenomena which occur during the oil agglomeration of coal particle suspensions showed that the process of agglomeration involves several step which can be identified by changes in agitator torque and by application of optical microscopy. During one of these steps, aggregation of hydrophobic particles and microflocs takes place on the surface of gas bubbles dispersed in the suspension with the result that large flocs or flakes are produced which subsequently evolve into agglomerates. The time required to produce spherical agglomerates appears to be a function of the power input per unit volume with the time decreasing as the power input increases.

Wheelock, T.D.

1996-07-01

43

Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of this research project is to carry out the preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal using model mixing systems. The design and construction of a model mixing system for conducting oil agglomeration tests were reported previously as well as the results of a series of calibration and shakedown tests. The system consists of a flat bottom tank which is fitted with four vertical baffles, a cover, and a turbine agitator. The tank has an inside diameter of 15.24 cm (6.0 in.), height of 15.24 cm (6.0 in.), and net volume of 2.87 L. The tank is connected to a photometric dispersion analyzer so that the turbidity of a coal particle suspension undergoing agglomeration can be monitored. Measuring the turbidity of a particle suspension requires application of the Beer-Lambert law. However, since this law applies for dilute suspensions, it is questionable whether or not it applies to the somewhat more concentrated coal suspensions required for the present project. Therefore, to determine the law`s applicability, a series of turbidity measurements was conducted on particle suspensions which varied in particle concentration over a wide range, and the results were analyzed to see how well they agreed with the law. To determine the effect of air in promoting the oil agglomeration of coal particles in an aqueous suspension, a number of agglomeration tests were conducted with the model mixing system. Finely ground Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was used for these tests, and the amount of air present was controlled carefully. The agglomeration process was monitored by observing the change in turbidity of the system.

Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Zhang, F.; Nelson, C.

1994-09-01

44

Preparation of agglomerated crystals for direct tabletting and microencapsulation by the spherical crystallization technique with a continuous system.  

PubMed

Adhesive and cohesive properties of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CP) crystals were modified to improve their powder processing, e.g., direct tabletting and microencapsulation, by agglomeration. Moreover, sustained-released gelling microcapsules of CP were devised to prolong the pharmacological effect. The spherical crystallization technique was applied to prepare agglomerates for direct tabletting and microencapsulation to use them as core materials. The ethanolic solution dissolving CP was poured into a stirred cyclohexane, yielding spherically agglomerated crystals. The resultant agglomerates were free-flowing and easily packable spheres with average diameters of 200 to 1000 microns. The agglomerates reserved the high compressibility of the original powder having a small particle size (14 microns). The compression behavior represented by Heckel's equation suggested that the agglomerates were disintegrated to individual primary crystals at low compression pressures, and then they were closely repacked and plastically deformed at higher pressures. After agglomeration, microencapsulation was continuously performed in the same batch by a phase separation method. Coacervate droplets produced by pouring cyclohexane into a dichloromethane solution, dissolving polyvinyl acetate as a coating polymer, were added to the crystallization system under stirring, to prepare the microcapsules. By filling the microcapsules in gelatin hard capsules or tabletting them, their drug release rates became retarded compared with the physical mixture treated in the same way, having the same formulation as the microcapsules. This phenomenon was due to the gelation of polyvinyl acetate of the microcapsules in the dissolution medium, whose glass transition temperature is very low. This novel sustained-release dosage form is termed "gelled microcapsules." PMID:8058601

Niwa, T; Takeuchi, H; Hino, T; Itoh, A; Kawashima, Y; Kiuchi, K

1994-04-01

45

Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The series of agglomeration tests designed to study the agglomeration characteristics of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal with i-octane was continued using a larger agitated tank. This series is designed to determine the effects of various parameters on the size and structure of the agglomerates formed, the rate of agglomeration, coal recovery, and ash rejection. The results reported here show that once spherical agglomerates are formed they continue to grow at almost a constant rate which is proportional to the concentration of i-octane. The constant growth rate is interrupted when spherical agglomerates combine to form large clusters. This only seems to occur with a large concentration of i-octane (e.g., 30 v/w%) and limited agitator power. The present results also show that coal recovery and ash rejection are highly dependent on agglomerate size when the mean agglomerate diameter is less than the size of the openings in the screen used for recovering the agglomerates.

Wheelock, T.D.

1996-09-01

46

Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

A number of agglomeration tests were conducted with finely ground Pittsburgh No. 8 coal to study the effects of various parameters on the size and structure of the agglomerates formed, the rate of agglomeration, coal recovery, and ash rejection. In these tests, concentrated suspensions were treated with i-octane and a limited amount of air in a small laboratory mixing unit. Conditions were identified which affected either the rate of agglomeration or the type of product produced. Some conditions led to the formation of unconsolidated flocs while others led to the production of compact agglomerates. Since the product was recovered by screening, the largest recovery of coal and cleanest product were realized when the product was in the form of compact agglomerates rather than in the form of unconsolidated flocs.

Wheelock, T.D.

1996-06-01

47

Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Further agglomeration tests were conducted in a series of tests designed to determine the effects of various parameters on the size and structure of the agglomerates formed, the rate of agglomeration, coal recovery, and ash rejection. For this series of tests, finely ground Pittsburgh No. 8 coal has been agglomerated with i-octane in a closed mixing system with a controlled amount of air present to promote particle agglomeration. The present results provide further evidence of the role played by air. As the concentration of air in the system was increased from 4.5 to 18 v/w% based on the weight of coal, coal recovery and ash rejection both increased. The results also show that coal recovery and ash rejection were improved by increasing agitator speed. On the other hand, coal recovery was not affected by a change in solids concentration from 20 to 30 w/w%.

Wheelock, T.D.

1996-12-01

48

Selective agglomeration during pipelining of slurries  

SciTech Connect

Agglomeration of coals in a pipeline, using bridging liquids comprised mainly of bitumen, heavy oils and some inexpensive additives, has been investigated. Very encouraging results were obtained for low rank thermal coals. The potential of the pipeline agglomeration method for simultaneous beneficiation and hydraulic transportation of coal agglomerates is discussed in the context of immense Alberta reserves of subbituminous coals and low quality oils. 6 references.

Janiak, J.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.

1985-01-01

49

Unstructured multigrid through agglomeration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this work the compressible Euler equations are solved using finite volume techniques on unstructured grids. The spatial discretization employs a central difference approximation augmented by dissipative terms. Temporal discretization is done using a multistage Runge-Kutta scheme. A multigrid technique is used to accelerate convergence to steady state. The coarse grids are derived directly from the given fine grid through agglomeration of the control volumes. This agglomeration is accomplished by using a greedy-type algorithm and is done in such a way that the load, which is proportional to the number of edges, goes down by nearly a factor of 4 when moving from a fine to a coarse grid. The agglomeration algorithm has been implemented and the grids have been tested in a multigrid code. An area-weighted restriction is applied when moving from fine to coarse grids while a trivial injection is used for prolongation. Across a range of geometries and flows, it is shown that the agglomeration multigrid scheme compares very favorably with an unstructured multigrid algorithm that makes use of independent coarse meshes, both in terms of convergence and elapsed times.

Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, D. J.; Berger, M. J.

1993-01-01

50

New production techniques for Alberta oil sands  

SciTech Connect

Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and up-grading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir. The history of oil sands technology development, the new drilling technology, and synthetic crude oil conversion are briefly described. 17 references.

Carrigy, M.A.

1986-12-19

51

The use of starch to enhance sulfur and ash removal from coal by selective oil agglomeration. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, July 1--September 30, 1990  

SciTech Connect

We have found that the use of starch or gelatin, as an additive in the Otisca T-Process of selective oil agglomeration of coal, leads to a considerable improvement in the reduction of pyritic sulfur and of ash-forming minerals. A patent application has been filed; (Good & Badgugar). Improvement in rejection of pyritic sulfur by up to 55% has been found, and improvement in ash rejection by up to 28%. Carbon recovery of 97.5 to 99.1% was obtained when the starch concentration was in the range, 30 to 200 ppM in the water. Three different bituminous coals were used: Upper Freeport, Kentucky No. 9, and Illinois No. 6.

Good, R.J.; Badgujar, M.N.

1990-12-31

52

Fuel agglomerates and method of agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

Solid fuel agglomerates are prepared of particulate coal or other carbonaceous material with a binder having a high humic acid or humate salt content. The humic acid is extracted from oxidized carbonaceous material with a mild aqueous alkali solution of, for instance, ammonia. The particulate material is blended with the extract which serves as the binder for the agglomerates. The water-resistant agglomerates are formed such as by pelletizing, followed by drying to remove moisture and solidify the humic acid binder throughout the agglomerate. 1 fig., 7 tabs.

Wen, W.W.

1985-08-09

53

Fuel agglomerates and method of agglomeration  

DOEpatents

Solid fuel agglomerates are prepared of particulate coal or other carbonaceous material with a binder having a high humic acid or humate salt content. The humic acid is extracted from oxidized carbonaceous material with a mild aqueous alkali solution of, for instance, ammonia. The particulate material is blended with the extract which serves as the binder for the agglomerates. The water-resistant agglomerates are formed such as by pelletizing, followed by drying to remove moisture and solidify the humic acid binder throughout the agglomerate.

Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA)

1986-01-01

54

Spatio-temporal variability of surface water quality of fresh water resources in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration, India using geospatial techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study was conducted in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration (RUA) to assess the surface water quality of major rivers and reservoirs during pre- and post-monsoon periods. Study indicated increase in chemical contaminants and decrease in biological contaminants during monsoon periods and a positive correlation with built-up land within the catchment of surface water sources. The remote sensing-based approach indicated Swarnrekha river and tributaries as more encroached by built-up land (0.73 km2 within 50 m buffer) than Jumar river and its tributaries (0.21 km2). For the proper management of the surface water sources in RUA, government attention and interventions are required to minimize the contamination and safeguard the health of local residents.

Pandey, Arvind Chandra; Kumar, Amit

2014-03-01

55

Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study

Zhimin Yu

1999-01-01

56

Development and Application of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Complex Geometries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report progress in the development of agglomerated multigrid techniques for fully un- structured grids in three dimensions, building upon two previous studies focused on efficiently solving a model diffusion equation. We demonstrate a robust fully-coarsened agglomerated multigrid technique for 3D complex geometries, incorporating the following key developments: consistent and stable coarse-grid discretizations, a hierarchical agglomeration scheme, and line-agglomeration/relaxation using prismatic-cell discretizations in the highly-stretched grid regions. A signi cant speed-up in computer time is demonstrated for a model diffusion problem, the Euler equations, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for 3D realistic complex geometries.

Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

2010-01-01

57

Agglomeration of ceramic powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program directed at a critical comparison of numerical models for power agglomeration with experimental observations is currently underway. Central to this program is the quantitative characterization of the distribution of mass within an agglomerate as a function of time. Current experiments are designed to restrict agglomeration to a surface, which is oriented perpendicular to the force of gravity. These experiments are discussed with reference to: their significance to ceramic processing; artifacts which may be avoided in microgravity experiments; and the comparison of information available in real space (from optical microscopy) to that in reciprocal space (from light scattering). The principle machine requirement appears to be a need to obtain information at small scattering angles.

Cawley, James D.; Larosa, Judith; Dirkse, Fredrick

1989-01-01

58

New technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the large size and the number of diffusion pumps, space simulation chambers cannot be easily calibrated by the usual test dome method for measuring backstreaming from oil diffusion pumps. In addition, location dependent contamination may be an important parameter of the test. The backstreaming contamination in the Space Power Facility (SPF) near Sandusky, Ohio, the largest space simulation vacuum test chamber in the U.S.A. was measured. Small size clean silicon wafers as contamination sensors placed at all desired measurement sites were used. The facility used diffusion pumps with DC 705 oil. The thickness of the contamination oil film was measured using ellipsometry. Since the oil did not wet uniformly the silicon substrate, two analysis models were developed to measure the oil film: continuous, homogeneous film and islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. In both cases, the contamination film refractive index was assumed to be that of DC 705. The second model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude, especially for the low coverage cases. Comparison of the two models for our case shows that the continuous film model overestimates the oil volume by less than 50 percent. Absolute numbers for backstreaming are in good agreement with published results for diffusion pumps. Good agreement was also found between the ellipsometric results and measurements done by x ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on samples exposed to the same vacuum runs.

Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

1993-01-01

59

New technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The backstreaming contamination in the Space Power Facility, Ohio, was measured using small size clean silicon wafers as contamination sensors placed at all measurement sites. Two ellipsometric models were developed to measure the oil film with the contamination film refractive index of DC 705: a continuous, homogeneous film and islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. The island model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude. The continuous film model overestimated the oil volume by about 50 percent.

Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

1992-01-01

60

A new shock wave assisted sandalwood oil extraction technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new shock wave assisted oil extraction technique from sandalwood has been developed in the Shock Waves Lab, IISc, Bangalore. The fragrant oil extracted from sandalwood finds variety of applications in medicine and perfumery industries. In the present method sandal wood specimens (2.5mm diameter and 25mm in length)are subjected to shock wave loading (over pressure 15 bar)in a constant area shock tube, before extracting the sandal oil using non-destructive oil extraction technique. The results from the study indicates that both the rate of extraction as well as the quantity of oil obtained from sandal wood samples exposed to shock waves are higher (15-40 percent) compared to non-destructive oil extraction technique. The compressive squeezing of the interior oil pockets in the sandalwood specimen due to shock wave loading appears to be the main reason for enhancement in the oil extraction rate. This is confirmed by the presence of warty structures in the cross-section and micro-fissures in the radial direction of the wood samples exposed to shock waves in the scanning electron microscopic investigation. In addition the gas chromatographic studies do not show any change in the q uality of sandal oil extracted from samples exposed to shock waves.

Arunkumar, A. N.; Srinivasa, Y. B.; Ravikumar, G.; Shankaranarayana, K. H.; Rao, K. S.; Jagadeesh, G.

61

Oil Pollution Detection and Discrimination by Remot Sensing Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Airborne remote sensing techniques were applied to the detection and discrimination of pollution by oil on the ocean surface. The tests were performed in the Gulf of Mexico during April, 1970. Pollutants investigated included No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oi...

J. C. Aukland D. T. Trexler

1970-01-01

62

Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating the use of a hybrid process, Micro-agglomerate flotation, which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30--50 [mu]m in size) rather than individual coal particles (1--10 [mu]m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated.Micro-agglomerate flotation has considerable potential for the practical deep cleaning of coal on a commercial scale. In principle, it should be possible to achieve both high selectivity and high yield at reasonable cost. The process requires only conventional, off-the-shelf equipment and reagent usage (oil, surfactants, etc.) should be small. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases in order to promote the interfacial reactions and interactions between phases necessary to ensure selectivity. Kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors may be critical in determining overall system response.

Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

1993-04-01

63

Experimental and theoretical study on the agglomeration arising from fluidization of cohesive particles—effects of mechanical vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique that can prevent the disruption of agglomerates when sampling the agglomerates from a fluidized bed has been developed and has been applied to the investigation of the agglomeration behaviour of cohesive particles during fluidization with and without mechanical vibration. A new model for the prediction of agglomerate size has also been established on the basis of the

Chunbao Xu; Jesse Zhu

2005-01-01

64

Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

2013-01-01

65

Bioremediation Techniques of Oil Contaminated Soils in Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective remediation techniques for crude oil contaminated soils. By providing a guidance manual to oil and gas operators, the Ohio Division of Oil and Gas regulatory authority hopes to reduce remediation costs while improving voluntary compliance with soil clean-up requirements. This shall be accomplished by conducting a series of field tests to define the optimum range for nutrient and organic enhancement to biologically remediate soils contaminated with brines and crude oil having a wide rage of viscosity.

Hodges, David

1996-10-03

66

In vitro dosimetry of agglomerates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agglomeration of nanoparticles in biological fluids is a pervasive phenomenon that leads to difficulty in the interpretation of results from in vitro exposure, primarily due to differing particokinetics of agglomerates to nanoparticles. Therefore, well-defined small agglomerates were designed that possessed different particokinetic profiles, and their cellular uptake was compared to a computational model of dosimetry. The approach used here paves the way for a better understanding of the impact of agglomeration on the nanoparticle-cell interaction.Agglomeration of nanoparticles in biological fluids is a pervasive phenomenon that leads to difficulty in the interpretation of results from in vitro exposure, primarily due to differing particokinetics of agglomerates to nanoparticles. Therefore, well-defined small agglomerates were designed that possessed different particokinetic profiles, and their cellular uptake was compared to a computational model of dosimetry. The approach used here paves the way for a better understanding of the impact of agglomeration on the nanoparticle-cell interaction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: ITC data for tiopronin/Au-NP interactions, agglomeration kinetics at different pHs for tiopronin-coated Au-NPs, UV-Vis spectra in water, PBS and DMEM and temporal correlation functions for single Au-NPs and corresponding agglomerates, calculation of diffusion and sedimentation parameters, modelling of relative cell uptake based on the ISDD model and cytotoxicity of single Au-NPs and their agglomerates, and synthesis and cell uptake of large spherical Au-NPs. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00460d

Hirsch, V.; Kinnear, C.; Rodriguez-Lorenzo, L.; Monnier, C. A.; Rothen-Rutishauser, B.; Balog, S.; Petri-Fink, A.

2014-06-01

67

Detecting Oil on Water: A Comparison of Known Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews new developments in oil pollution detection and compares available techniques according to their effectiveness. Emphasis is on in situ and remote sensing techniques, with a potential for real-time, automated operation. No mention is made of traditional methods, requiring that a sample be taken to a laboratory for tests of solubility, chemical reactions, or other properties.

Klemas, Vytautas

1971-01-01

68

Nondestructive analysis of oil shales with PGNAA technique  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of nondestructive analysis of oil shales using the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique was studied. The PGNAA technique, developed originally for continuous analysis of coal on the belt, was applied to the analysis of eight oil-shale samples, containing between 9 and 60 gallons of oil per ton and 0.8% to 3.4% hydrogen. The PGNAA technique was modified using four neutron moderation conditions: non-moderated neutrons; non-moderated and partially moderated neutrons reflected from a water box behind the source; neutrons moderated in a water box behind and in front of the source; and neutrons strongly moderated in a polyethylene block placed in front of the source and with reflected neutrons from a water box behind the source. The studied oil shales were measured in their aluminum or wooden (masonite) boxes. The obtained Ge-Li spectra were processed by LSI-11/23 computer, using the modified programs previously developed by SAI for continuous coal analysis. The results of such processing (the peak areas for several gamma lines) were corrected and plotted against the weight percent of each analyzed element (from the chemical analysis). Response curves developed for H, C, N, S, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Ca, Fe and K show generally good linear proportions of peak area to the weight percent of the element. For hydrogen determination, NMD conditions had to be used where the response curve was not linear, but followed a curve whose slope rose with hydrogen concentration. This effect is caused by improving neutron self-moderation in sample boxes of rich oil shales, as compared to poor self-moderation of neutrons in very lean oil shales. The moisture in oil shales was measured by microwave absorption technique in small masonite boxes. This method was calibrated four times using oil-shale samples mixed gradually with larger and larger amounts of water.

Maly, J.; Bozorgmanesh, H.

1984-02-01

69

Agglomeration multigrid for the three-dimensional Euler equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multigrid procedure that makes use of coarse grids generated by the agglomeration of control volumes is advocated as a practical approach for solving the three dimensional Euler equations on unstructured grids about complex configurations. It is shown that the agglomeration procedure can be tailored to achieve certain coarse grid properties such as the sizes of the coarse grids and aspect ratios of the coarse grid cells. The agglomeration is done as a preprocessing step and runs in linear time. The implications for multigrid of using arbitrary polyhedral coarse grids are discussed. The agglomeration multigrid technique compares very favorably with existing multigrid procedures both in terms of convergence rates and elapsed times. The main advantage of the present approach is the ease with which coarse grids of any desired degree of coarseness may be generated in three dimensions, without being constrained by considerations of geometry. Inviscid flows over a variety of complex configurations are computed using the agglomeration multigrid strategy.

Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, D. J.

1994-01-01

70

Agglomeration, integration and tax harmonisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of agglomeration reverses standard theoretical propositions in international tax competition. We show greater economic integration may lead to a ‘race to the top’ rather than a race to the bottom. Also, ‘split the difference’ tax harmonisation may harm both nations, a result that may explain why real-world tax harmonisation is rare. The key is that industrial concentration creates ‘agglomeration

Richard E. Baldwin; Paul Krugman

2004-01-01

71

Geography, Industrial Organization, and Agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper makes two contributions to the empirical literature on agglomeration economies. First, the paper uses a unique and rich database in conjunction with mapping software to measure the geographic extent of agglomerative externalities. Previous papers have been forced to assume that agglomeration economies are club goods that operate at a metropolitan scale. Second, the paper tests for the existence

Stuart S. Rosenthal; William C. Strange

2003-01-01

72

Agglomeration of struvite crystals.  

PubMed

Struvite crystallisation is widely studied as a way to remove phosphorus from wastewater effluents and simultaneously generates a valuable product for the fertiliser industry. However, to date, some crystallisation processes experimented at either pilot/or full scale face problems linked to the formation of fines. This paper presents results on the investigation of struvite agglomerative properties and the possible application of coagulants and/or flocculants to remove fines. Coagulants investigated were hydrolysing metals salts (Al(3+) and Fe(3+)), calcium compounds and a cationic polymer, polydiallyldimethylammoniumchloride (polyDADMAC). The effects of a natural flocculant (alginate) have also been tested. Results demonstrated that destabilisation of struvite particles by chemical addition was feasible and identified polyDADMAC as a good option for the agglomeration of struvite particles. However, optimisation of its dosage under typical pH conditions for struvite formation showed floc formation to be very pH sensitive. PMID:17140618

Le Corre, Kristell S; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Hobbs, Phil; Jefferson, Bruce; Parsons, Simon A

2007-01-01

73

The Application of Fluorescence Techniques for Mudlogging Analysis of Oil Drilled With Oil-Based Muds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Texaco E and P Technology Div. has developed two fluorescence techniques to enhance the detection of crude oil extracted from formation samples and to improve mud logging as a formation evaluation tool. The quantitative fluorescence technique (QFT) is a portable field method that uses a single excitation wavelength and measures fluorescence at a narrow emission range. When plotted vs.

M. V. Reyes

1994-01-01

74

Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, thermal lens and open cell photoacoustic techniques are used to measure the thermal properties of biodiesel oils. The absolute values of the thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were determined for samples obtained from soy, castor bean, sunflower and turnip. The results suggest that the employed techniques may be useful as complementary methods for biodiesel certification.

Castro, M. P. P.; Andrade, A. A.; Franco, R. W. A.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Sthel, M.; Vargas, H.; Constantino, R.; Baesso, M. L.

2005-08-01

75

Equilibrium gas-oil ratio measurements using a microfluidic technique.  

PubMed

A method for measuring the equilibrium GOR (gas-oil ratio) of reservoir fluids using microfluidic technology is developed. Live crude oils (crude oil with dissolved gas) are injected into a long serpentine microchannel at reservoir pressure. The fluid forms a segmented flow as it travels through the channel. Gas and liquid phases are produced from the exit port of the channel that is maintained at atmospheric conditions. The process is analogous to the production of crude oil from a formation. By using compositional analysis and thermodynamic principles of hydrocarbon fluids, we show excellent equilibrium between the produced gas and liquid phases is achieved. The GOR of a reservoir fluid is a key parameter in determining the equation of state of a crude oil. Equations of state that are commonly used in petroleum engineering and reservoir simulations describe the phase behaviour of a fluid at equilibrium state. Therefore, to accurately determine the coefficients of an equation of state, the produced gas and liquid phases have to be as close to the thermodynamic equilibrium as possible. In the examples presented here, the GORs measured with the microfluidic technique agreed with GOR values obtained from conventional methods. Furthermore, when compared to conventional methods, the microfluidic technique was simpler to perform, required less equipment, and yielded better repeatability. PMID:23657610

Fisher, Robert; Shah, Mohammad Khalid; Eskin, Dmitry; Schmidt, Kurt; Singh, Anil; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

2013-07-01

76

Fragmentation and bond strength of airborne diesel soot agglomerates  

PubMed Central

Background The potential of diesel soot aerosol particles to break up into smaller units under mechanical stress was investigated by a direct impaction technique which measures the degree of fragmentation of individual agglomerates vs. impact energy. Diesel aerosol was generated by an idling diesel engine used for passenger vehicles. Both the aerosol emitted directly and aerosol that had undergone additional growth by Brownian coagulation ("aging") was investigated. Optionally a thermo-desoption technique at 280°C was used to remove all high-volatility and the majority of low-volatility HC adsorbates from the aerosol before aging. Results It was found that the primary soot agglomerates emitted directly from the engine could not be fragmented at all. Soot agglomerates permitted to grow additionally by Brownian coagulation of the primary emitted particles could be fragmented to a maximum of 75% and 60% respectively, depending on whether adsorbates were removed from their surface prior to aging or not. At most, these aged agglomerates could be broken down to roughly the size of the agglomerates from the primary emission. The energy required for a 50% fragmentation probability of all bonds within an agglomerate was reduced by roughly a factor of 2 when aging "dry" agglomerates. Average bond energies derived from the data were 0.52*10-16 and 1.2*10-16 J, respectively. This is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than estimates for pure van-der-Waals agglomerates, but agrees quite well with other observations. Conclusion Although direct conclusions regarding the behavior of inhaled diesel aerosol in contact with body fluids cannot be drawn from such measurements, the results imply that highly agglomerated soot aerosol particles are unlikely to break up into units smaller than roughly the size distribution emitted as tail pipe soot.

Rothenbacher, Sonja; Messerer, Armin; Kasper, Gerhard

2008-01-01

77

Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method

Meiyu Shen

1999-01-01

78

Hydrophobic Agglomeration of Mineral Fines in Aqueous Suspensions and its Application in Flotation: a Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrophobic agglomeration is originated from the hydrophobic attraction between particles, which is essentially different from electrolyte coagulation and polymer flocculation. It is applied to mineral processing in floc-flotation process to improve the recovery of mineral fines. In this paper, the applications of this phenomenon in mineral fines were summarized, including the origin of hydrophobic agglomeration, the main factors affect hydrophobic agglomeration (particle hydrophobicity, shear rate and duration, nonpolar oil and tank geometry), as well as hydrophobic agglomeration based separation processes (carrier flotation and floc-flotation).

Yang, Bingqiao; Song, Shaoxian

2014-05-01

79

Coal Cleaning by Gas Agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The gas agglomeration method of coal cleaning was demonstrated with laboratory scale mixing equipment which made it possible to generate microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions of coal particles. A small amount of i-octane was introduced to enhance the hydrophobicity of the coal. Between 1.0 and 2.5 v/w% i-octane was sufficient based on coal weight. Coal agglomerates or aggregates were produced which were bound together by small gas bubbles.

Meiyu Shen; Royce Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

1998-03-01

80

Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method for agglomerating coal particles with microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions. In Part I, the development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During batch agglomeration tests the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspension. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. It was shown that gas bubbles trigger the process of agglomeration and participate in a very complex mechanism involving the interaction of particles, oil droplets, and gas bubbles. The process takes place in stages involving dispersion of oil and gas, flocculation, coagulation, and agglomerate building. Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with two kinds of coal in concentrated suspensions to determine the important characteristics of the process and to study the effects of the following operating parameters: i-octane concentration, air concentration, particle concentration, tank diameter, impeller diameter, and impeller speed. Several excellent correlations between the minimum time required to produce spherical agglomerates or a final agglomerate diameter and the operating parameters were obtained by using the general linear regression method. In addition, the results provided a basis for size scale up of an agglomeration system. In Part II, the technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultrafine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was produced by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this method in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt. % ash, it was shown that the ash content could be reduced to 6--7 wt. % while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis by using a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w %, air saturation of 5 to 15 psig, and i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w % based on the coal weight. It was also shown that the process of agglomeration can be reversed by subjecting an aqueous suspension of agglomerates to a pressure sufficient to redissolve the microbubbles.

Shen, Meiyu

81

Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs.

Hersman, L.

1995-11-01

82

Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over 99.9% coal recovery could be obtained in a one-stage separation by screening the agglomerated product. If a conventional oil agglomeration process is used instead, oil consumption as high as 30% is needed to obtain comparable results. In the tests on filtration and dewatering of ultrafine and fine coals, the effect of chemical additives and coal surface properties was investigated. The tests revealed very significant differences in the filtration of ultrafine (-45 mum) and fine (-500 mum) coals. The moisture contents in the filter cakes in the tests with ultrafine coal were around 40% (irrespective of the coal surface properties), while for the fine coal the moisture content fluctuated around 18% (Ford-4) and 30% (Ford-13). The results revealed that the hydrophobic latex and the emulsified oils could not only successfully beneficiate the ultrafine coal but also significantly increase filtration rate and/or reduce moisture content of the filter cake. Among the chemicals tested, the emulsified oils were found to be the most promising not only for the beneficiation but also for filtration and dewatering processes. Surfactants were found to only slightly affect the filtration of fine coal. However, they can influence filtration very profoundly if utilized to emulsify the oil which is used to agglomerate coal prior to its filtration.

Yu, Zhimin

83

Robust satellite techniques for oil spill detection and monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discharge of oil into the sea is one of the most dangerous, among technological hazards, for the maritime environment. In the last years maritime transport and exploitation of marine resources continued to increase; as a result, tanker accidents are nowadays increasingly frequent, continuously menacing the maritime security and safety. Satellite remote sensing could contribute in multiple ways, in particular for what concerns early warning and real-time (or near real-time) monitoring. Several satellite techniques exist, mainly based on the use of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology, which are able to recognise, with sufficient accuracy, oil spills discharged into the sea. Unfortunately, such methods cannot be profitably used for real-time detection, because of the low observational frequency assured by present satellite platforms carrying SAR sensors (the mean repetition rate is something like 30 days). On the other hand, potential of optical sensors aboard meteorological satellites, was not yet fully exploited and no reliable techniques have been developed until now for this purpose. Main limit of proposed techniques can be found in the ``fixed threshold'' approach which makes such techniques difficult to implement without operator supervision and, generally, without an independent information on the oil spill presence that could drive the choice of the best threshold. A different methodological approach (RAT, Robust AVHRR Techniques) proposed by Tramutoli (1998) and already successfully applied to several natural and environmental emergencies related to volcanic eruptions, forest fires and seismic activity. In this paper its extension to near real-time detection and monitoring of oil spills by means of NOAA-AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) records will be described. Briefly, RAT approach is an automatic change-detection scheme that considers a satellite image as a space-time process, described at each place (x,y) and time t, by the value of the satellite derived measurements V(x,y,t). Generally speaking an Absolute Local Index of Change of the Environment (ALICE) is computed and this index permits to identify signal anomalies, in the space-time domain, as deviations from a normal state preliminarily defined, for each image pixel, (e.g. in terms of time average and standard deviation) on the base only of satellite observations collected during several year in the past, in similar observational conditions (same time of the day, same month of the year). By this way local (i.e. specific for the place and the time of observation) instead than fixed thresholds are automatically set by RAT which permit to discriminate signal anomalies from those variations due to natural or observational condition variability. Using AVHRR observations in the Thermal (TIR) and Middle (MIR) Infrared region, such an approach has been applied to the extended oil spill event, occurred at the end of January 1991 in the Persian Gulf. Preliminary results will be analysed that confirm as the suggested technique is able to detect and monitoring oil spills also in the most difficult observational conditions. Automatic implementation, intrinsic exportability on whatever geographic zone and/or satellite package, high sensitivity also to low intensity signals (i.e. small or thin spills), no need for ancillary information (different form satellite data at hand), seem the most promising merits of the proposed technique. Although these results should be confirmed by further analyses on different events and extended also to other AVHRR spectral bands (VIS, NIR), this work surely encourages to continue the research in this field. Moreover, the complete independence of the RAT approach on the specific sensor and/or satellite system, will ensure its full exportability on the new generation of Earth observation satellite sensors (e.g. SEVIRI-Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager onboard Meteosat Second generation satellite, with a repetition rate of 15 minutes and 12 spectral bands) which, thanks to their improved capabilities, could

Casciello, D.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

84

COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION  

SciTech Connect

The agglomeration of ultrafine-size coal particles in an aqueous suspension by means of microscopic gas bubbles was demonstrated in numerous experiments with a scale model mixing system. Coal samples from both the Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam and the Upper Freeport Seam were used for these experiments. A small amount of i-octane was added to facilitate the process. Microscopic gas bubbles were generated by saturating the water used for suspending coal particles with gas under pressure and then reducing the pressure. Microagglomerates were produced which appeared to consist of gas bubbles encapsulated in coal particles. Since dilute particle suspensions were employed, it was possible to monitor the progress of agglomeration by observing changes in turbidity. By such means it became apparent that the rate of agglomeration depends on the concentration of microscopic gas bubbles and to a lesser extent on the concentration of i-octane. Similar results were obtained with both Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Upper Freeport coal.

MEIYU SHEN; ROYCE ABBOTT; T.D. WHEELOCK

1998-09-30

85

Fluid bed hydrogenation of agglomerating bituminous coals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique was developed and demonstrated at Union Carbide Corporation in 1977 for the processing of raw caking coals in a fluidized bed without preprocessing, and under severe conditions of high hydrogen partial pressure and low injection-gas/coal ratio. Fluid bed operating limits were explored by sequential dynamic testing of the key operating variables, and it was determined that the energy required to sustain fluid bed operation is less than 1%. The process represents an economically viable and technically feasible approach to processing agglomerating coals such as Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8.

Liss, B.; Welter, C.

86

Agglomeration, Integration and Tax Harmonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper considers tax competition and tax harmonization in the presence of agglomeration forces and falling trade costs. With agglomerative forces operating, industry is not indifferent to location in equilibrium, so perfectly mobile capital becomes a quasi-fixed factor. This suggests that the tax game is something subtler than a race to the bottom. Advanced 'core' nations may act like limit-pricing

Richard E. Baldwin; Paul Krugman

2000-01-01

87

A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and highly stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Actual cycle results are verified using quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.

Thomas, James L.; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris

2009-01-01

88

A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Convergence rates of multigrid cycles are verified with quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the two-grid cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.

Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

2011-01-01

89

Oblique impact simulations of high strength agglomerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of particle compounds like concrete particles can be considered as a model material of high strength agglomerates. It is necessary to investigate and understand fracture behaviour of these agglomerates in order to avoid breakage during storage, handling and transportation. The aim of the research is to examine the comminution behaviour of high strength agglomerates during oblique impact loadings.A

Manoj Khanal; Jürgen Tomas

2009-01-01

90

Cleaning of Indian coals by agglomeration with xylene and hexane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory scale agglomeration process has been undertaken for cleaning Indian coals using oils namely, xylene and hexane. Maximum organic matter recovery for xylene has been found to be 91.9% whereas with hexane, the value is 54.7% on a dry basis. The highest ash rejection values with xylene (90.7%) and with hexane (89.7%) are almost same. Promising results for rejection

Mrinal K Baruah; Probhat Kotoky; Jyotish Baruah; Gobin C Bora

2000-01-01

91

Metabolic Responses of Fish Following Exposure to Two Different Oil Spill Remediation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the impacts of two oil spill remediation techniques on fish metabolism, change in aerobic and anaerobic enzyme activities in juvenile Australian Bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, was examined. Changes in cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were investigated following exposure to the crude oil water accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically dispersed crude oil WAF. There was a

Adam Cohen; Dayanthi Nugegoda; Marthe Monique Gagnon

2001-01-01

92

Use of vegetable oils and fatty acid methyl esters in the production of spherical activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using vegetable oils, i.e., rapeseed oil, soybean oil, linseed oil, tung oil, castor oil and dehydroxylated castor oil, and the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained from them, for the agglomeration of bituminous coals was investigated. Both vegetable oils and FAMEs were found to be suitable bridging liquids for the production of spherical agglomerates-precursor of spherical activated

S Gryglewicz; K Grabas; G Gryglewicz

2000-01-01

93

Chemical Influence on the Formation, Agglomeration, and Natural Transportability of Gas Hydrates. A Multivariate Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has focused on chemical components in two paraffinic oil phases, expected to have an influence on the properties of gas hydrates regarding formation, agglomeration, and natural transportability. Crude oil, toluene, wax, and naphtenic acids were selected for this purpose. Two paraffinic phases were used; n?decane and Exxsol D?80, the latter containing surface active material. The experiments were performed

Linn Bergflødt; Lars Henrik Gjertsen; Johan Sjöblom; Harald Kallevik; Gisle Øye

2004-01-01

94

An analysis of oil and gas supply modeling techniques and a survey of offshore supply models  

SciTech Connect

This report surveys the literature on empirical oil and gas supply modeling techniques. These techniques are categorized as either geologic/engineering, econometric, or hybrid - the last being a combination of geologic and econometric techniques. The geologic/ engineering models are further disaggregated into play analysis models and discovery process models. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the models are discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of how these techniques have been applied to offshore oil and gas supply.

Walls, M.A.

1990-01-01

95

Impact of excavation technique on strength of oil shale pillars  

SciTech Connect

The load carrying capacity of oil shale pillars excavated by conventional blasting, presplit blasting, and mechanical mining is evaluated. The study was based on a comparison of in-situ vertical stresses and fractures obtained from overcoring horizontal holes in the Colony Mine, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. Results indicate that conventional blasting causes a zone of damage approximately 3 m (10 ft) thick with low stress distributions. Presplit blasting reduces damage significantly, and increases the load carrying capacity in the 3 m (10 ft) thick zone by 5.93 MPa (860 psi). Mechanical mining causes little or no rock damage, and an increase of 9.83 MPa (1425 psi) in strength in the same 3 m (10 ft) thick zone. An example of pillar design is given showing that the use of presplit blasting and mechanical mining techniques can increase the extraction ratio by at least three and five percent, respectively, as compared to conventional blasting. It is speculated that comparable increases in extraction should also occur due to increases in span dimensions.

Agapito, J.F.T.; Aggson, J.R.; Maleki, H.N.

1984-02-01

96

Powder agglomeration in a microgravity environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report for NASA Grant NAG3-755 entitled 'Powder Agglomeration in a Microgravity Environment.' The research program included both two types of numerical models and two types of experiments. The numerical modeling included the use of Monte Carlo type simulations of agglomerate growth including hydrodynamic screening and molecular dynamics type simulations of the rearrangement of particles within an agglomerate under a gravitational field. Experiments included direct observation of the agglomeration of submicron alumina and indirect observation, using small angle light scattering, of the agglomeration of colloidal silica and aluminum monohydroxide. In the former class of experiments, the powders were constrained to move on a two-dimensional surface oriented to minimize the effect of gravity. In the latter, some experiments involved mixture of suspensions containing particles of opposite charge which resulted in agglomeration on a very short time scale relative to settling under gravity.

Cawley, James D.

1994-01-01

97

Sustainable Management Techniques for Offshore Oil and Gas Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the present environmental misconceptions common in the oil and gas development sector. Some innovative solutions are proposed to solve the problems caused by oil and gas development activities in the marine environment. These solutions are based on the holistic environmental approach, which takes into account the complexity of natural processes and also takes advantage of these processes,

M. I. Khan; M. R. Islam

2008-01-01

98

Aircraft Engine Oil Analysis by Neutron Activation Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the present time all three military services use the Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program (SOAP) for the routine analysis of engine oil samples. The purpose of this program is to continually monitor the amounts of wear metal contaminants found in engine ...

T. A. Menard

1978-01-01

99

A new technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the large size and the number of diffusion pumps, space simulation chambers cannot be easily calibrated by the usual test dome method for measuring backstreaming from oil diffusion pumps. In addition, location dependent contamination may be an important parameter of the test. The backstreaming contamination was measured in the Space Power Facility (SPF) near Sandusky, OH, the largest space simulation vacuum test chamber in the U.S.. Small clean silicon wafers placed at all desired measurement sites were used as contamination sensors. The facility used diffusion pumps with DC 705 oil. The thickness of the contamination oil film was measured using ellipsometry. Since the oil did not wet the silicon substrate uniformly, two analysis models were developed to measure the oil film: (1) continuous, homogeneous film; and (2) islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. In both cases, the contamination film refractive index was assumed to be that of DC 705. The second model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude, especially for the low coverage cases. Comparison of the two models shows that the continuous film model overestimates the oil volume by less than 50 percent. Absolute numbers for backstreaming are in good agreement with published results for diffusion pumps. Good agreement was also found between the ellipsometric results and measurements done by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on examples exposed to the same vacuum runs.

Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

1991-01-01

100

On the mechanism of agglomeration in suspension  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Agglomeration in suspension is a size enlargement method that facilitates operation of solid processing and preserves the solubilization properties of fine particles. A small quantity of binder liquid is added into a suspension of microparticles, directly in the stirred vessel where the precipitation or crystallization took place. This study deals with the evaluation of the effect of agitation time before and after addition of binder liquid on agglomerates properties in order to give some insights into the mechanism of the formation of the agglomerates. Methods: Carbamazepine is used as a model drug and isopropyl acetate is used as binder liquid. The agglomerates characterization includes the particle size, morphology and density. Results: The results showed that, by increasing the agitation time before addition of binder liquid, smaller agglomerates with less density and irregular forms composed of larger crystals were obtained. However, with increasing agitation time after addition of binder liquid the agglomerates size and density increases and morphology improves. Indeed, by continuing agitation along the course of agglomeration the properties of the particles change gradually but substantially. Conclusion: With optimized agitation time before and after addition of binder liquid, spherical and dense agglomerates can be obtained.

maghsoodi, maryam; Derakhshandeh, Katayoun; Yari, Zahra

2012-01-01

101

Toward a Molecular Understanding of Crystal Agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A predictive model of the effect of crystal agglomeration on particle form and size distribution requires the quantification of various process parameters that depend on the microscopic properties of specific crystal faces and their interaction with the solvent. In this article, we discuss the various stages in the agglomeration process, using the results of recent experiments on breaking the agglomerative

Michael Brunsteiner; Alan G. Jones; Federica Pratola; Sarah L. Price; Stefaan J. R. Simons

2005-01-01

102

Agglomeration of SRC Residues. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EPRI contracted with CCDC to agglomerate Kerr-McGee ash concentrate and determine whether the agglomerates could be used as a fixed-bed gasifier feed. Briquettes were produced from Kerr-McGee ash concentrate which met CCDC's strength criteria for handling...

F. W. Theodore G. E. Wasson

1982-01-01

103

Analysis of Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Agglomerates. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical and textural studies of AFBC agglomerates have revealed detailed information regarding the mechanisms of agglomeration. The formation of agglomerates in a silica sand bed can be described by a four step process: initial ash coatings of quartz gra...

D. Perkins D. W. Brekke F. R. Karner

1984-01-01

104

Oil spill classification from multi-spectral satellite images: exploring different machine learning techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the potential of oil spill classification from optical satellite images, as investigated by applying different machine learning techniques to a dataset of more than 300 oil spill candidates, which have been detected from multi-spectral satellite sensors during the years 2008 and 2009, over the entire area of the Mediterranean Sea. A set of geometrical and grey level

Linda Corucci; Fabio Nardelli; Marco Cococcioni

2010-01-01

105

Zirconia nanoceramic via redispersion of highly agglomerated nanopowder and spark plasma sintering.  

PubMed

A 2.7 mol% yttria stabilizing tetragonal zirconia (2.7Y-TZP) nanopowder was synthesized and stored for five years. Humidity and unsatisfactory storage conditions gradually caused heavy agglomeration. Within a few months, 2.7Y-TZP nanopowder became useless for any technological application. A bead-milling deagglomeration technique was applied to recover the heavily agglomerated yttria-stabilized zirconia nanopowder. Low-temperature sintering and spark plasma sintering (SPS) were performed, resulting in fully dense nanostructured ceramics. Compacts formed with heavily agglomerated powder present low sinterability and poor mechanical properties. Bead-milling suspension formed compacts exhibit mechanical properties in the range of the values reported for nanostructured zirconia. This observation confirms the effectiveness of bead-milling in the deagglomeration of highly agglomerated nanopowders. The high value of Vickers hardness of 13.6 GPa demonstrates the success of the processing technique for recovering long-time-stored oxide nanopowders. PMID:21137774

Suárez, Gustavo; Borodianska, Hanna; Sakka, Yoshio; Aglietti, Esteban F; Vasylkiv, Oleg

2010-10-01

106

Modeling of Particle Agglomeration in Nanofluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nano sized particles (<100nm in diameter) in dispersion mediums. They are of great interest in industrial applications as heat transfer fluids owing to their enhanced thermal conductivities. Stability of nanofluids is a major problem hindering their industrial application. Agglomeration and then sedimentation are some reasons, which drastically decrease the shelf life of these nanofluids. Current research addresses the agglomeration effect and how it can affect the shelf life of a nanofluid. The reasons for agglomeration in nanofluids are attributable to the interparticle interactions which are quantified by the various theories. By altering the governing properties like volume fraction, pH and electrolyte concentration different nanofluids with instant agglomeration, slow agglomeration and no agglomeration can be produced. A numerical model is created based on the discretized population balance equations which analyses the particle size distribution at different times. Agglomeration effects have been analyzed for alumina nanoparticles with average particle size of 150nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the particle size distribution became broader and moved to bigger sizes rapidly with time. Particle size distributions became broader and moved to bigger sizes more quickly with time with increase in the electrolyte concentration. The two effects together can be used to create different temporal trends in the particle size distributions. Faster agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces which is due to decrease in the induced charge and the double layer thickness around the particle. Bigger particle clusters show lesser agglomeration due to reaching the equilibrium size. The procedures and processes described in this work can be used to generate more stable nanofluids.

Kanagala, Hari Krishna

107

Boundary-layer transition and global skin friction measurement with an oil-fringe imaging technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new oil-fringe imaging system skin friction (FISF) technique to measure skin friction on wind tunnel models is presented. In the method used to demonstrate the technique, lines of oil are applied on surfaces that connect the intended sets of measurement points, and then a wind tunnel is run so that the oil thins and forms interference fringes that are spaced in proportion to local skin friction. After a run the fringe spacings are imaged with a CCD-array digital camera and measured on a computer. Skin friction and transition measurements on a two-dimensional wing are presented and compared with computational predictions.

Monson, Daryl J.; Mateer, George G.; Menter, Florian R.

1993-01-01

108

Electrostatic formation of liquid marbles and agglomerates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report observations of a sudden, explosive release of electrostatically charged 100 ?m glass beads from a particle bed. These cross an air gap of several millimeters, are engulfed by an approaching pendant water drop, and form a metastable spherical agglomerate on the bed surface. The stability transition of the particle bed is explained by promotion of internal friction by in-plane electrostatic stresses. The novel agglomerates formed this way resemble the ``liquid marbles'' formed by coating a drop with hydrophobic particles. Complex multi-layered agglomerates may also be produced by this method, with potential industrial, pharmaceutical, environmental, and biological applications.

Liyanaarachchi, K. R.; Ireland, P. M.; Webber, G. B.; Galvin, K. P.

2013-07-01

109

A Novel Application of CCSEM for Studying Agglomeration in Fluidised Bed Combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CCSEM-technique is a valuable method when characterizing the bed material coatings and agglomerates. It is comparatively easy to carry out more than a thousand point analyses and obtain valid statistical information by using automated image processing. The use of quasi-ternary diagrams provides a good insight into the nature of the sample and can even reveal the phases present in a coating or an agglomerate.

Virtanen, Mika E.; Heikkinen, Ritva E. A.; Patrikainen, H. Tapio; Laitinen, Risto S.; Skrifvars, Bengt-Johan; Hupa, Mikko

110

Percolative fragmentation and spontaneous agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

Captive particle imaging experiments were performed on over 200 coal and char particles in the pulverized size range from four coals of various rank at oxygen concentration from 3--19 mol% and at gas temperatures of about 1250 K. Despite wide variations in single-particle behavior, the data set reveals two clear trends that provide new information on the nature of char combustion. First, the low-rank coal chars are observed to maintain their high reactivity through the late stages of combustion, thus avoiding the near-extinction events and long burnout tails observed for bituminous coal chars. Secondly, percolative fragmentation in the late stages of combustion is a rare event under these conditions. Some particles reach a percolation threshold rate in combustion, but typically undergo spontaneous agglomeration rather than liberation of the incipient fragments. It is concluded that percolative fragmentation behavior in the pulverized size range is determined not only by solid-phase connectivity, but also by a real competition between disruptive and cohesive forces present at the time of formation of the colloidal-sized incipient fragments.

Hurt, R.; Davis, K. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1999-03-01

111

Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort  

DOEpatents

A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO)

1983-01-01

112

Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This three-year project had two technical objectives. The first objective was to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes were compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, particulates, and microorganisms. The ultimate goals of these comparisons were to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments were performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project was to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. A capacity to reduce water permeability much more than oil or gas permeability is critical to the success of gel treatments in production wells if zones cannot be isolated during gel placement. Topics covered in this report include (1) determination of gel properties in fractures, (2) investigation of schemes to optimize gel placement in fractured systems, (3) an investigation of why some polymers and gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability, (4) consideration of whether microorganisms and particulates can exhibit placement properties that are superior to those of gels, and (5) examination of when foams may show placement properties that are superior to those of gels.

Seright, R.

1996-01-01

113

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

1993-02-01

114

Successfully use agglomeration for size enlargement  

SciTech Connect

The processing of fine and ultrafine particles by size enlargement finds an ever increasing application. At the same time, undesirable agglomeration such as buildup, caking, bridging, and uncontrolled aggregation of fine particles can occur during processing and handling of these particulate solids. This article will provide a survey of the phenomena of agglomeration and discuss the unit operation of size enlargement by agglomeration. This article is also an invitation, particularly to young engineers, to become interested in agglomeration. Considering that mechanical process technologies are requiring more energy every year than any other group of consumers and efficiencies are typically in the single digits or teens at best, considerable rewards can be expected from the development of scientifically modified, more energy-efficient methods and equipment.

Pietsch, W. [COMPACTCONSULT, Inc., Naples, FL (United States)

1996-04-01

115

Advances in food powder agglomeration engineering.  

PubMed

Food powders are used in everyday life in many ways and offer technological solutions to the problem of food production. The natural origin of food powders, diversity in their chemical composition, variability of the raw materials, heterogeneity of the native structures, and physicochemical reactivity under hydrothermal stresses contribute to the complexity in their behavior. Food powder agglomeration has recently been considered according to a multiscale approach, which is followed in the chapter layout: (i) at the particle scale, by a presentation of particle properties and surface reactivity in connection with the agglomeration mechanisms, (ii) at the mechanisms scale, by describing the structuration dynamics of agglomerates, (iii) at the process scale, by a presentation of agglomeration technologies and sensors and by studying the stress transmission mode in the powder bed, and finally (iv) by an integration of the acquired knowledge, thanks to a dimensional analysis carried out at each scale. PMID:23522795

Cuq, B; Gaiani, C; Turchiuli, C; Galet, L; Scher, J; Jeantet, R; Mandato, S; Petit, J; Murrieta-Pazos, I; Barkouti, A; Schuck, P; Rondet, E; Delalonde, M; Dumoulin, E; Delaplace, G; Ruiz, T

2013-01-01

116

Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an ...

A. Guloy

1992-01-01

117

Agglomerated CNTs synthesized in a fluidized bed reactor: Agglomerate structure and formation mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agglomerated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of propylene on Fe\\/Mo\\/Al2O3 catalysts in a nano-agglomerate fluidized-bed reactor (NAFBR) of 196 mm I.D. The macroscopic properties and microstructure of the CNTs and their evolution were systematically characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The CNTs from the NAFBR are sub-agglomerates entangled with

Yu Hao; Zhang Qunfeng; Wei Fei; Qian Weizhong; Luo Guohua

2003-01-01

118

A new technique for collecting ambient diesel particles for bioassays.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new application of a viable aerosol sampler, the Liquid Electrostatic Aerosol Precipitator (LEAP), for the collection of diesel particles for bioassays of pulmonary toxicity and mutagenicity or carcinogenicity. Currently used methods (filtration, dry electrostatic precipitation) cause agglomeration of particles and increases in particle size up to twenty-fold, which may alter particle toxicity significantly. Collection of diesel particles with the LEAP preserved submicronic particle size. Differences in chemical composition of extracts of surface adsorbents as compared to particles collected on filters also were observed. This technique may be applicable for collection of other types of combustion products or oil mists that agglomerate when collected by filtration. PMID:2438921

Hallock, M F; Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Beck, B D; Brain, J D

1987-05-01

119

Structural Properties and Filter Loading Characteristics of Soot Agglomerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticle agglomerates are pervasive in atmospheric sciences, air pollution, and manufacturing of powdered materials, yet studies for filtration of nanoparticle agglomerates are still scarce compared to those for spherical particles. We investigated loading of soot nanoparticle agglomerates on fibrous air filter media. The soot agglomerates were generated from a diffusion burner with propane gas as fuel and compressed air as

Seong C. Kim; Jing Wang; Weon Gyu Shin; Jacob H. Scheckman; David Y. H. Pui

2009-01-01

120

Upgrading of coal liquefaction feedstock by selective agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The technical feasibility study of using selective agglomeration (with coal-derived oil) to upgrade Illinois No. 6 coal for a liquefaction feedstock was completed. Effects of coal particle size, slurry pH, oil-to-coal ratio, and operating temperature on mineral matter reduction, clean coal weight recovery, and clean coal moisture content were studied. The addition of coal-derived naphtha or kerosene as conditioners to increase hydrophobicity and recovery of coal was also investigated. Results showed that approximately 70% of the mineral matter could be removed from this coal at a clean coal weight recovery of over 85% by grinding the coal to a mean volume diameter of about 10 microns and properly selecting of the operation variables.

Lai, R.; Sinha, K.; Richardson, A.; Killmeyer, R.; Utz, B.; Hickey, R.; Cillo, D.

1994-03-01

121

Preparation of submicron-sized gold particles using laser-induced agglomeration-fusion process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, laser irradiation (LI) of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) using a non-focused laser beam at moderate fluence attracts much attention as a novel and simple technique to obtain submicron-sized spherical particles. In the present study, we applied this technique to prepare gold SMPs. It was revealed that agglomeration of the source nanoparticles prior to laser irradiation is necessary to produce SMPs. However, when the agglomeration occurred in too much extent, significant amount of the source particles remained as the sediment after LI, leading to the lowering of the formation efficiency of SMPs. Therefore, the control of the agglomeration conditions of the source NPs is necessary to obtain SMPs efficiently. In the present study, we tried to adjust the agglomeration conditions of the source NPs by adjusting the concentration of citrate that was used as the stabilizing reagent of the source NPs. It was revealed that SMPs were obtained efficiently while the sedimentation of the source NPs were suppressed when the concentration of citrate was adjusted around 0.01-0.005 mM. In addition, observation of the temporal change in the shape of the colloidal particles during LI revealed that there is an induction period in which no formation of SMPs is brought about by LI. This finding suggested that LI removes the citrate ligands from the source NPs and induces the agglomeration of the source NPs, i.e. the agglomeration condition of the source NPs is also controlled by LI.

Tsuji, T.; Higashi, Y.; Tsuji, M.; Ishikawa, Y.; Koshizaki, N.

2014-03-01

122

Preparation of chitosan microparticles by water-in-vegetable oil emulsion coalescence technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop an implantable vehicle for enhanced control of drug release into the body, chitosan (CS) microparticles were prepared where CS was chelated by a metal ion using the emulsion coalescence technique. Aqueous solutions of CS and metal ion were separately emulsified in vegetable oil containing lecithin. After both the water-in-oil (w\\/o) emulsions were mixed and stirred, CS

Kyoko Kofuji; Chun-Jun Qian; Yoshifumi Murata; Susumu Kawashima

2005-01-01

123

Rapid and nondestructive determination of seed oil by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulsed NMR technique for rapid and nondestructive determination of oil in oilseeds has been developed. The effects of\\u000a spin-lattice relaxation time, spin-spin relaxation time, seed moisture, angular position of the seeds, sample tube thickness,\\u000a and sample height upon the magnitude and reproducibility of the NMR signal were studied. Based upon these studies, various\\u000a parameters for seed oil analysis have

P. N. Tiwari; P. N. Gambhir; T. S. Rajan

1974-01-01

124

Molecular biologic techniques applied to the microbial prospecting of oil and gas in the Ban 876 gas and oil field in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, molecular biologic techniques achieve a great development in studies of soil samples. The objective of this research\\u000a is to improve methods for microbial prospecting of oil and gas by applying culture-independent techniques to soil sampled\\u000a from above a known oil and gas field. Firstly, the community structure of soil bacteria above the Ban 876 Gas and Oil Field\\u000a was

Fan Zhang; Yuehui She; Yong Zheng; Zhifeng Zhou; Shuqiong Kong; Dujie Hou

2010-01-01

125

Diffusion and reaction in microbead agglomerates.  

PubMed

Scanning electrochemical microscopy has been used to analyze the flux of p-aminonophenol (PAP) produced by agglomerates of polymeric microbeads modified with galactosidase as a model system for the bead-based heterogeneous immunoassays. With the use of mixtures of enzyme-modified and bare beads in defined ratio, agglomerates with different saturation levels of the enzyme modification were produced. The PAP flux depends on the intrinsic kinetics of the galactosidase, the local availability of the substrate p-aminophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (PAPG), and the external mass transport conditions in the surrounding of the agglomerate and the internal mass transport within the bead agglomerate. The internal mass transport is influenced by the diffusional shielding of the modified beads by unmodified beads. SECM in combination with optical microscopy was used to determine experimentally the external flux. These data are in quantitative agreement with boundary element simulation considering the SECM microelectrode as an interacting probe and treating the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzyme as nonlinear boundary conditions with two independent concentration variables [PAP] and [PAPG]. The PAPG concentration at the surface of the bead agglomerate was taken as a boundary condition for the analysis of the internal mass transport condition as a function of the enzyme saturation in the bead agglomerate. The results of this analysis are represented as PAP flux per contributing modified bead and the flux from freely suspended galactosidase-modified beads. These numbers are compared to the same number from the SECM experiments. It is shown that depending on the enzyme saturation level a different situation can arise where either beads located at the outer surface of the agglomerate dominate the contribution to the measured external flux or where the contribution of buried beads cannot be neglected for explaining the measured external flux. PMID:20222673

Nunes Kirchner, Carolina; Träuble, Markus; Wittstock, Gunther

2010-04-01

126

Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

Terralog Technologies

2002-11-25

127

Enhancement of anti-cholinesterase activity of Zingiber cassumunar essential oil using a microemulsion technique.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to enhance the cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Zingiber cassumunar (ZC) oil using a microemulsion (ME) technique. Pseudoternary phase diagrams of the oil, water, and surfactant/co-surfactant mixture were constructed using a water titration method. Effects of co-surfactant, surfactant/co-surfactant ratio, ionic strength, and pH were examined by means of the microemulsion region which existed in the phase diagrams. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were tested by Ellman's colorimetric assay. It was found that ZC oil possesses inhibitory activity against not only AChE but also BChE. Formulation of ZC oil as ME revealed that alkyl chain length and number of hydroxyl groups of co-surfactant exhibited a remarkable effect on the pseudoternary phase diagram. Longer alkyl chains and more hydroxyl groups gave smaller regions of MEs. Ionic strength also affected the ME region. However, the phase behavior was hardly influenced by pH. The suitable ZC oil ME was composed of Triton X-114 in combination with propylene glycol. The anti-cholinesterase activity of this ME was much higher than that of native ZC oil. It exhibited twenty times and twenty five times higher inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE, respectively. ZC oil loaded ME is an attractive formulation for further characterization and an in vivo study in an animal model with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23229145

Okonogi, S; Chaiyana, W

2012-10-01

128

Investigation of self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment  

SciTech Connect

The US Coast Guard commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct this study of 45 self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment for oceangoing tankers and inland tank barges to assess the potential effectiveness of the proposed countermeasure categories. This study considers the hypothetical outflow of oil in the case of side damage and bottom damage to single-hull designs. The results will be considered by the Coast Guard in drafting regulations pertaining to the requirement for tanker vessels to carry oil pollution response equipment (i.e., in response to the oil Pollution Act of 1990). PNL's approach to this investigation included: assessing time-dependent oil outflow in the cases of collision and grounding of both tankers and barges; identifying environmental constraints on self-help countermeasure operation; identifying human factor issues, such as crew performance, safety, and training requirements for the self-help countermeasures considered; and assessing each self-help countermeasure with respect to its potential for minimizing oil loss to the environment. Results from the time-dependent oil outflow, environmental limitations, and human factors requirements were input into a simulation model.

Enderlin, W I; Downing, J P; Enderlin, C W; Sanquist, T F; Pope, W S

1992-06-01

129

Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles; Lynch, F. Leo

2003-02-10

130

Bioremediation Techniques on Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in Ohio. Quarterly Report, July 1, 1996-September 30, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective remediation techniques for crude oil contaminated soils. By providing a guidance manual to oil and gas operators, the Ohio Division of Oil and Gas regulatory authority ho...

D. Hodges

1996-01-01

131

Instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used by Los Alamos National Laboratory in fragmentation experiments in oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Discussed are the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used to evaluate the explosive fragmentation experiments in oil shale at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines in Colorado. These experiments were conducted to investigate some of the many parameters that control the fragmenting or rubblizing of oil shale in preparation for subsurface retorting. Framing and TV cameras were used to study the size and speed of the ejected shale fragments. Stress and accelerometer gauges provided quantitative data about the explosively induced stress field in the rock. The CORRTEX technique was used to determine the detonation velocity of the explosive and the induced fracture velocity in the oil shale. Postshot measurements included the crater dimensions and rubble size distribution. In addition preshot and postshot geological mapping was done to relate fractures and joints to crater size and shape.

Edwards, C.L.; Adams, T.F.; Dick, R.D.

1981-01-01

132

Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

133

Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

134

Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

135

Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

136

Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

137

Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 180 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-09-01

138

Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

139

Study on the Instrument Detecting Water in Oil Based on the Optoacoustic Spectroscopy Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optoacoustic spectroscopy detection is one of the newest detection methods. It can detect the weak-absorbed specimen with high-sensitivity. In this treatise, the technique is applied to detect the water quantity in oil. There are two spectral absorbing wave bands of water, so the innovation of this project lies in adopting laser sources with two different wave bands. This can effectively

Yang Yu; Shuo Wu; Liang Chen

2010-01-01

140

Phytosterol Enrichment of Rice Bran Oil by a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fractionation Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

ARSTRACT~ Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-COzJ fractionation technique&as evaluated as anaRemative;~process ,for reducingthefreeTfattyyacid (FFAJ contentandminbnizing the.phytosterolJossofrice bran oil (RR01 dtiring the process. The effects of pressure (20.5 to 32;tJ MPa) and temperature\\

N. T. Dunford; J. W. King

2000-01-01

141

Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using

Giancarlo Cravotto; Carlo Bicchi; Stefano Mantegna; Arianna Binello; Valérie Tomao; Farid Chemat

2011-01-01

142

Selective agglomeration of a Pittsburgh Seam coal with isooctane  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center initiated a research program in 1989 to investigate the fundamentals of selective agglomeration as applied to the cleaning of coals. The results of the initial study with Bruceton mine, Pittsburgh seam coal, using isooctane as an agglomerant, have been published. Subsequent to the successful reduction of the ash content of Bruceton coal to less than 0.9% after two cleaning stages, the study was extended to compare a coal from the same seam, but from Ohio. In the previous parameter optimization tests with Bruceton coal, particle size and slurry pH were found to be important parameters governing coal cleanability. Other researchers have obtained similar conclusions of the effects of particle size and coal slurry pH on the cleanability of various coals. In this study, the effects of these parameters on the cleanability of Powhatan coal were examined. Particle size reduction kinetics was examined first. Effects of size reduction (degree of mineral matter liberation), oil (isooctane)-to-coal ratio, and slurry pH on mineral matter rejection and combustible recovery were also examined. A petrographic comparison was conducted on the Powhatan and Bruceton coals to examine the degree of pyrite liberation as a function of particle size to elucidate why one coal from the same seam can be cleaned significantly better than another. (VC)

Lai, R.; Killmeyer, R.; Utz, B. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States). Coal Preparation Div.; Richardson, A.; Sinha, K. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

1992-01-01

143

DETERMINATION OF STOKES SHAPE FACTOR FOR SINGLE PARTICLES AND AGGLOMERATES  

SciTech Connect

The large octahedral crystals of spinel can precipitate from glass during the high-level waste vitrification process and potentially block the glass discharge riser of electrically heated ceramic melters. To help predict the settling behavior of spinel in the riser, the settling of single particles and agglomerates was studied in stagnant and transparent viscosity oils at room temperature with developed optical particle-dynamics-analyzer. Determined dimensions and terminal settling velocities of particles were used for calculation of their Stokes shape factors. Calculated shape factor for the glass beads was almost identical with the theoretical shape factor of 2/9 for a perfect sphere. The shape factor for single spinel crystal was about 7.6 % higher compare to the theoretically predicted value for octahedron. Stokes shape factor of irregularly shaped multi-particle agglomerates was lower than that of the glass beads and individual spinel crystals because of the higher surface drag caused by the larger surface area to volume ratio.

Matyas, Josef; Schaible, Micah J.; Vienna, John D.

2011-09-01

144

Oil spill classification from multi-spectral satellite images: exploring different machine learning techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the potential of oil spill classification from optical satellite images, as investigated by applying different machine learning techniques to a dataset of more than 300 oil spill candidates, which have been detected from multi-spectral satellite sensors during the years 2008 and 2009, over the entire area of the Mediterranean Sea. A set of geometrical and grey level features from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) literature has been extracted from the regions of interest in order to characterize possible oil spills and feed the classification system. Results obtained by applying different machine learning classifiers to the dataset, and the achieved performance are discussed. In particular, as a first approach to oil spill classification, simple statistical classifiers and neural networks were used. Then, a more interpretable fuzzy rule-based classifier was employed, and performance evaluation was refined by exploiting Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Finally, since oil spill dataset collection happens incrementally, a suitable technique for online classification was proposed, encompassing at the same time cost-oriented classification, in order to allow for a dynamic change of the misclassification costs. This latter goal has been achieved by building an ensemble of cost-oriented, incremental and decremental support vector machines, exploiting the concept of the ROC convex hull.

Corucci, Linda; Nardelli, Fabio; Cococcioni, Marco

2010-10-01

145

Ibuprofen agglomerates preparation by phase separation.  

PubMed

The compression ability and dissolution rate of ibuprofen are poor. There are many processes to optimize these properties through adapted formulations. However, it would be more satisfactory to obtain directly during the crystallization step crystalline particles that can be directly compressed and quickly dissolved. This was the aim of this work. Ibuprofen spherical agglomerates were obtained using a very simple method based on the difference of solubility of ibuprofen in ethanol and in water. By cooling down an ibuprofen-saturated solution in an ethanol/water 50/50 mixture from 60 degrees C to room temperature under stirring, a phase separation occurs. Ibuprofen crystallizes in separated water droplets. After separation by sieving and drying, spherical agglomerates were obtained. A study of the physical properties of ibuprofen agglomerates was carried out using electron scanning microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The compression ability was tested using an instrumented tablet machine, and the dissolution rate was measured using continuous flow cells. An improvement in compression and dissolution properties of the spherical agglomerates produced was observed. The process of crystallization in a separated dispersed phase could be envisaged each time a drug exhibits opposite solubilities in two miscible solvents. PMID:10071822

Jbilou, M; Ettabia, A; Guyot-Hermann, A M; Guyot, J C

1999-03-01

146

Search for Free Fractional Electric Charge Elementary Particles Using an Automated Millikan Oil Drop Technique  

SciTech Connect

We have carried out a direct search in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied--about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0.16e (e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71x10{sup -22} particles per nucleon with 95% confidence. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Halyo, V.; Kim, P.; Lee, E. R.; Lee, I. T.; Loomba, D.; Perl, M. L.

2000-03-20

147

Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques.  

PubMed

Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using classic Soxhlet as well as under power ultrasound (US), microwaves (MWs; closed vessel) and MW-integrated Soxhlet. Supercritical CO? was also employed and compared to the other techniques in term of yield, extraction time, fatty acid profiles and organoleptic properties. All these non-conventional techniques are fast, effective and safe. A sensory evaluation test showed the presence of off-flavours in oil samples extracted by Soxhlet and US, an indicator of partial degradation. PMID:21644177

Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bicchi, Carlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Binello, Arianna; Tomao, Valerie; Chemat, Farid

2011-06-01

148

Control of agglomerate attributes in a continuous binder-agglomeration process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of agglomeration processing includes many different materials over wide scales of production, from specialty materials and pharmaceuticals made in kg\\/day batches to continuous processes for detergents and fertilizers measured in tons\\/h. Agglomeration adds value to the product, for example, producing free-flowing, dust-free particles that are optimized for uses such as tableting, dispersion\\/dissolution and compact delivery (i.e., increase the

Paul R Mort; Scott W Capeci; James W Holder

2001-01-01

149

State-of-the-ART Report Summarizing Techniques to Determine Residual Oil Saturation and Recommendations on the Requirements for Residual Oil Saturation Research and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was conducted on the residual oil saturation (ROS) measurement techniques developed during the last fifteen years. Knowledge of precise ROS measurements is required for EOR project planning. The advantages, limitations, and problems of ea...

M. M. Chang N. L. Maerefat

1986-01-01

150

A die pressing test for the estimation of agglomerate strength  

SciTech Connect

A die pressing test was developed for quick and inexpensive estimation of the agglomerate strength of ceramic powders. The critical nominal pressure (p[sub c]) at which contact areas between agglomerates start to increase rapidly was found from the relationship between change in sample height and applied pressure in uniaxial single-ended die pressing. A quantitative microscopic method was used for measuring the area fraction ([psi]) of agglomerates which transmits the force through the assembly. A die pressing agglomerate strength, [sigma][sub d], is defined as [sigma][sub d] = 0.7 p[sub c]/[Psi]. This strength was compared with the agglomerate tensile strength obtained from single agglomerate diametral compression tests and found to be 50% higher than the latter because of multipoint loading. A suggested guideline is that the mean agglomerate tensile strength is approximately 52% of p[sub c] determined in a die pressing test for spherical agglomerates. In addition to agglomerate tensile strength, the mean agglomerate size, the interior macropore structure of agglomerates, as well as the packing efficiencies between and inside agglomerates can be estimated by the procedure.

Song, Jia Hua; Evans, J.R.G. (Brunel Univ., Uxbridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Technology)

1994-03-01

151

Analysis of Urban Agglomeration and Its Meaning for Rural People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agglomeration--the clustering of people, businesses, or structures within an area--is investigated for two purposes: (1) defining the nature of agglomeration and erecting a suitable agglomeration theory, and (2) suggesting further research. These two objectives are seen as being vital to help improve the economic well-being of rural people by…

Spiegelman, Robert G.

152

Method for providing improved solid fuels from agglomerated subbituminous coal  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for separating agglomerated subbituminous coal and the heavy bridging liquid used to form the agglomerates. The separation is performed by contacting the agglomerates with inert gas or steam at a temperature in the range of 250.degree. to 350.degree. C. at substantially atmospheric pressure.

Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

1989-01-01

153

Urban Agglomeration and Dispersion: A Synthesis of Alonso and Krugman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban agglomeration becomes increasingly important because of the globalization of world economies. This paper is a general equilibrium analysis of urban agglomeration economies due to product variety, and agglomeration diseconomies due to intra-city congestion in a two-city system framework. Special attention is paid to the impacts of transportation cost decrease on urban concentration and dispersion. Our main result is that

Takatoshi Tabuchi

1998-01-01

154

Effect of temperature on wet agglomeration of crystals  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): This study dealt with the wet agglomeration process in which a small quantity of binder liquid was added into a suspension of crystals, directly in the stirring vessel where the crystallization took place. The purpose of this investigation was evaluation of the effect of temperature on the agglomeration process in order to gain insight into the mechanism of the formation of the agglomerates. Materials and Methods: Carbamazepine was used as a model drug and water/ethanol and isopropyl acetate were used as crystallization system and binder liquid, respectively. The agglomeration of crystals was carried out at various temperatures and the agglomerates were characterized in terms of size, morphology, density and mechanical strength. Results: Evaluation of the agglomerates along the course of agglomeration shows that the properties of the particles change gradually but substantially. Higher temperature of the system during agglomeration process favors the formation of more regular agglomerates with mechanically stronger and denser structure; this can be explained by the promotion effect of temperature on the agglomeration process. Conclusion: With optimized wet agglomeration temperature, spherical, dense, and strong agglomerates can be obtained.

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Yari, Zahra

2014-01-01

155

A New Screening Methodology for Improved Oil Recovery Processes Using Soft-Computing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first stage of production of any oil reservoir involves oil displacement by natural drive mechanisms such as solution gas drive, gas cap drive and gravity drainage. Typically, improved oil recovery (IOR) methods are applied to oil reservoirs that have been depleted naturally. In more recent years, IOR techniques are applied to reservoirs even before their natural energy drive is exhausted by primary depletion. Descriptive screening criteria for IOR methods are used to select the appropriate recovery technique according to the fluid and rock properties. This methodology helps in assessing the most suitable recovery process for field deployment of a candidate reservoir. However, the already published screening guidelines neither provide information about the expected reservoir performance nor suggest a set of project design parameters, which can be used towards the optimization of the process. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN) are used to build a high-performance neuro-simulation tool for screening different improved oil recovery techniques: miscible injection (CO2 and N2), waterflooding and steam injection processes. The simulation tool consists of proxy models that implement a multilayer cascade feedforward back propagation network algorithm. The tool is intended to narrow the ranges of possible scenarios to be modeled using conventional simulation, reducing the extensive time and energy spent in dynamic reservoir modeling. A commercial reservoir simulator is used to generate the data to train and validate the artificial neural networks. The proxy models are built considering four different well patterns with different well operating conditions as the field design parameters. Different expert systems are developed for each well pattern. The screening networks predict oil production rate and cumulative oil production profiles for a given set of rock and fluid properties, and design parameters. The results of this study show that the networks are able to recognize the strong correlation between the displacement mechanism and the reservoir characteristics as they effectively forecast hydrocarbon production for different types of reservoir undergoing diverse recovery processes. The artificial neuron networks are able to capture the similarities between different displacement mechanisms as same network architecture is successfully applied in both CO2 and N2 injection. The neuro-simulation application tool is built within a graphical user interface to facilitate the display of the results. The developed soft-computing tool offers an innovative approach to design a variety of efficient and feasible IOR processes by using artificial intelligence. The tool provides appropriate guidelines to the reservoir engineer, it facilitates the appraisal of diverse field development strategies for oil reservoirs, and it helps to reduce the number of scenarios evaluated with conventional reservoir simulation.

Parada, Claudia; Ertekin, Turgay

2010-05-01

156

Comparing Parameter Estimation Techniques for an Electrical Power Transformer Oil Temperature Prediction Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines various sources of error in MIT's improved top oil temperature rise over ambient temperature model and estimation process. The sources of error are the current parameter estimation technique, quantization noise, and post-processing of the transformer data. Results from this paper will show that an output error parameter estimation technique should be selected to replace the current least squares estimation technique. The output error technique obtained accurate predictions of transformer behavior, revealed the best error covariance, obtained consistent parameter estimates, and provided for valid and sensible parameters. This paper will also show that the output error technique should be used to minimize errors attributed to post-processing (decimation) of the transformer data. Models used in this paper are validated using data from a large transformer in service.

Morris, A. Terry

1999-01-01

157

Comparing effectiveness of rhamnolipid biosurfactant with a quaternary ammonium salt surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration.  

PubMed

Natural gas is projected to be the premium fuel of the 21st century because of availability, as well as economical and environmental considerations. Natural gas is coproduced with water from the subsurface forming gas hydrates. Hydrate formation may result in shutdown of onshore and offshore operations. Industry practice has been usage of alcohols--which have undesirable environmental impacts--to affect bulk-phase properties and inhibit hydrate formation. An alternative to alcohols is changing the surface properties through usage of polymers and surfactants, effective at 0.5-3 wt % of coproduced water. One group of low-dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI) are kinetic inhibitors, which affect nucleation rate and growth. A second group of LDHI are anti-agglomerants, which prevent agglomeration of small hydrate crystallites. Despite great potential, reported work on hydrate anti-agglomeration is very limited. In this paper, our focus is on the use of two vastly different surfactants as anti-agglomerants. We use a model oil, water, and tetrahydrofuran as a hydrate-forming species. We examine the effectiveness of a quaternary ammonium salt (i.e., quat). Visual observation measurements show that a small concentration of the quat (0.01%) can prevent agglomeration. However, a quat is not a green chemical and therefore may be undesirable. We show that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant can be effective to a concentration of 0.05 wt %. One difference between the two surfactants is the stability of the water-in-oil emulsions created. The biosurfactant forms a less stable emulsion, which makes it very desirable for hydrate application. PMID:18171051

York, J Dalton; Firoozabadi, Abbas

2008-01-24

158

Technical constraints limiting application of enhanced oil recovery techniques to petroleum production in the United States  

SciTech Connect

In the interval since the publication in September 1980 of the technical constraints that inhibit the application of enhanced oil recovery techniques in the United States, there has been a large number of successful field trials of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. The Department of Energy has shared the costs of 28 field demonstrations of EOR with industry, and the results have been made available to the public through DOE documents, symposiums and the technical literature. This report reexamines the constraints listed in 1980, evaluates the state-of-the-art and outlines the areas where more research is needed. Comparison of the 1980 constraints with the present state-of-the-art indicates that most of the constraints have remained the same; however, the constraints have become more specific. 26 references, 6 tables.

Not Available

1984-01-01

159

Agglomerating fluidization of nanoparticles in the vibration or magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agglomerate characteristics of SiO2, TiO2, ZnO nanoparticles in the vibration or magnetic field are studied with respect to bed pressure drop and the average agglomerate sizes. The results showed that slugging of the bed disappeared and the measured agglomerate sizes decreased, so that the fluidization quality of nanoparticles was significantly improved due to introduction of vibration or magnetic field. A model of energy balance is proposed to estimate the agglomerate sizes in the vibration or magnetic field, respectively. The equilibrium agglomerate sizes calculated by this model are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

Zhou, Tao; Duan, Hao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Feng; Kage, Hiroyuki; Mawatari, Yoshihide

2013-06-01

160

Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from fluidex). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and assessment of techniques and equipment used to control and remove oil spills. Chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers are reviewed. Topics include recovery operations, emergency response, frogmat systems, bioremediation, and environmental monitoring. The effects of spills on marine life and fishing industries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-06-01

161

Atomic absorption techniques for determining vanadium and nickel in crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different techniques for sample preparation were evaluated for determining vanadium and nickel in crude oils by atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy: (1) The flame-analyzed dilution method which consists of direct-flame AA analysis after diluting the sample with a suitable organic solvent; (2) the flame-analyzed, wet-ashing method in which the sample is combusted and the residue is then dissolved before flame

P. L. Grizzle; C. A. Wilson; E. P. Ferrero; H. J. Coleman

1977-01-01

162

Agglomeration of mesoscopic particles in plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We disclose the basic mechanism of agglomeration of nano-sized particles. While for weakly coupled, mono-dispersed particles the electrostatic agglomeration has always been found to be unlikely, in strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasmas the occupation of positive states for small particles is relevant, leading to electrostatic attraction between differently charged particles. The occupation of positively charged states is further enhanced by dispersed distribution of size. The smaller particles are trapped by the larger, the accretion of which gives a positive feedback on the probability of positively charged small grains and then further accretion. Experiments on growth of carbon particles from sputtered graphite in RF and dc Argon plasma confirm the general theoretical prediction when the energy of the ions corresponds to plasma boundaries.

Annaratone, B. M.; Elskens, Y.; Arnas, C.; Antonova, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

2009-10-01

163

Modeling Agglomeration of Dust Particles in Plasma  

SciTech Connect

The charge on an aggregate immersed in a plasma environment distributes itself over the aggregate's surface; this can be approximated theoretically by assuming a multipole distribution. The dipole-dipole (or higher order) charge interactions between fractal aggregates lead to rotations of the grains as they interact. Other properties of the dust grains also influence the agglomeration process, such as the monomer shape (spherical or ellipsoidal) or the presence of magnetic material. Finally, the plasma and grain properties also determine the morphology of the resultant aggregates. Porous and fluffy aggregates are more strongly coupled to the gas, leading to reduced collisional velocities, and greater collisional cross sections. These factors in turn can determine the growth rate of the aggregates and evolution of the dust cloud. This paper gives an overview of the numerical and experimental methods used to study dust agglomeration at CASPER and highlights some recent results.

Matthews, Lorin S.; Land, Victor; Ma Qianyu; Perry, Jonathan D.; Hyde, Truell W. [Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics, and Engineering Research Baylor University, One Bear Place 97310, Waco, Texas 76798-7310 (United States)

2011-11-29

164

Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of the Phase 1 test program is to confirm the feasibility of the Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc. bimodal particle size approach to enhance particulate control by acoustic ash agglomeration. An ancillary objective of the Phase 1 effort is to demonstrate and confirm the feasibility of an acoustic field to enhance sulfur capture by increasing sorbent reactivity. Phase 1 tests are designed to cover the frequency range between 50 and 1400 Hz, establish monomodal baseline performance as a benchmark from which to measure the degree of enhancement expected from the bimodal approach, and, finally, to confirm the effectiveness of low-frequency fields over high-frequency fields for realistic particulate streams. The program will demonstrate the effectiveness of a unique approach which uses a bimodal distribution composed of large sorbent particles and fine fly ash particles to enhance ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions found in direct coal-fired turbines. Under the impact of high-intensity sound waves, sorbent reactivity and utilization, it is theorized, will increase while agglomerates of fly ash and sorbents are formed which are readily collected in commercial cyclones. The work will extend the concept from the demonstration of feasibility (Phase 1), through proof-of-concept (Phase 2) to the construction (Phase 3) of a coal-fired pulsed combustor with in-furnace sorbent injection. For Phase 1, Pennsylvania State University will conduct studies for enhanced sulfur capture in The Combustion Laboratory and agglomeration tests in the High Intensity Acoustic Laboratory. 2 refs., 43 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1991-01-01

165

Development of spherical crystal agglomerates of an aspartic acid salt for direct tablet making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agglomerates of an aspartic acid salt were developed by means of a non-typical spherical crystallization technique. The aspartic acid salt was crystallized by a salting-out method combined with cooling. Traditional mechanical stirring crystallization (samples A and B) and the recirculation process (sample C) were used. The control material was commercial aspartic acid salt with very poor flowability and compressibility. The

P Szabó-Révész; H Göczõ; K Pintye-Hódi; P Kása; I Erõs; M Hasznos-Nezdei; B Farkas

2001-01-01

166

Get more out of your data: a new approach to agglomeration and aggregation studies using nanoparticle impact experiments.  

PubMed

Anodic particle coloumetry is used to size silver nanoparticles impacting a carbon microelectrode in a potassium chloride/citrate solution. Besides their size, their agglomeration state in solution is also investigated solely by electrochemical means and subsequent data analysis. Validation of this new approach to nanoparticle agglomeration studies is performed by comparison with the results of a commercially available nanoparticle tracking analysis system, which shows excellent agreement. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the electrochemical technique has the advantage of directly yielding the number of atoms per impacting nanoparticle irrespective of its shape. This is not true for the optical nanoparticle tracking system, which requires a correction for the nonspherical shape of agglomerated nanoparticles to derive reasonable information on the agglomeration state. PMID:24551537

Ellison, Joanna; Tschulik, Kristina; Stuart, Emma J E; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Omanovi?, Dario; Uhlemann, Margitta; Crossley, Alison; Compton, Richard G

2013-04-01

167

Get More Out of Your Data: A New Approach to Agglomeration and Aggregation Studies Using Nanoparticle Impact Experiments  

PubMed Central

Anodic particle coloumetry is used to size silver nanoparticles impacting a carbon microelectrode in a potassium chloride/citrate solution. Besides their size, their agglomeration state in solution is also investigated solely by electrochemical means and subsequent data analysis. Validation of this new approach to nanoparticle agglomeration studies is performed by comparison with the results of a commercially available nanoparticle tracking analysis system, which shows excellent agreement. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the electrochemical technique has the advantage of directly yielding the number of atoms per impacting nanoparticle irrespective of its shape. This is not true for the optical nanoparticle tracking system, which requires a correction for the nonspherical shape of agglomerated nanoparticles to derive reasonable information on the agglomeration state.

Ellison, Joanna; Tschulik, Kristina; Stuart, Emma J E; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Omanovic, Dario; Uhlemann, Margitta; Crossley, Alison; Compton, Richard G

2013-01-01

168

Authentication of pure camellia oil by using near infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition techniques.  

PubMed

Total of 4 pattern recognition methods for the authentication of pure camellia oil applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy were evaluated in this study. Total of 115 samples were collected and their authenticities were confirmed by gas chromatography (GC) in according to China Natl. Standard (GB). A preliminary study of NIR spectral data was analyzed by unsupervised methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Total of 2 supervised classification techniques based on discriminant analysis (DA) and radical basis function neural network (RBFNN) were utilized to build calibration model and predict unknown samples. In the wavenumber range of 6000 to 5750 cm?¹, correct classification rate of both supervised and unsupervised solutions all can reach 98.3% when smoothing, first derivative, and autoscaling were used. The good performance showed that NIR spectroscopy with multivariate calibration models could be successfully used as a rapid, simple, and nondestructive method to discriminate pure camellia oil. PMID:22429109

Li, Shuifang; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zhang, Juhua; Li, Gaoyang; Su, Donglin; Shan, Yang

2012-04-01

169

Comparison of soft computing techniques for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.  

SciTech Connect

In this work we compare fuzzy techniques to neural network techniques for building a soft sensor for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The soft sensor is used in a feed-forward control system that augments a feedback control system. Two approaches were used to develop the soft sensor. The first approach was to use a fuzzy rule based system based upon the experience of an expert operator. The expert operator's experience was supplemented using a computer model of the system. The second approach was to use a neural network to build the inverse of the computer model. The pros and cons of both techniques are discussed. KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic, neural networks, soft sensor, soft computing

Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.); Parkinson, w; Miller, N. (Neal)

2002-01-01

170

Agglomeration defects on irradiated carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) were irradiated in the longitudinal and perpendicular directions, with low energy carbon and helium ions in order to observe the formation of defects in the atomic structure. Analysis through Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated bundle rupture and ion track formation on nanotube bundles. Aligned CNT presented a kind of defect comprising ravine formation and tube agglomeration on top of the substrate. The latter structure is possibly caused by static charge accumulation induced by the incoming ions. Fluence plays a role on the short range order. Higher fluence irradiation transforms CNT into amorphous carbon nanowires.

Steini Moura, Cassio [Faculty of Physics, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, 90619-900, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Balzaretti, Naira Maria; Amaral, Livio [Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, C.P.: 15051, 91501-070, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gribel Lacerda, Rodrigo; Pimenta, Marcos A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, C.P.: 702, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2012-03-15

171

Apparatus and method for compacting, degassing and carbonizing carbonaceous agglomerates  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for compacting, degassing and carbonizing carbonaceous agglomerates is described. The apparatus comprises a rotary kiln having an agglomerate inlet means for introducing green agglomerates into the kiln near the inlet of the kiln and a heating medium inlet for introducing a heating medium comprising a finely divided solid into the kiln at a preselected location intermediate the inlet end of the kiln and the outlet end of the kiln to produce a mixture at a temperature above the carbonizing temperature of the agglomerates and a sieve positioned to receive the products from the rotary kiln and separate the heating medium and the compacted, degassed, carbonized agglomerate product. A method for producing compacted, degassed, carbonized carbonaceous agglomerates by the use of the apparatus is also disclosed.

Theodore, F.W.

1980-08-19

172

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Uinta Basin, Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that stage-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance. In the first demonstration well (Michelle Ute well discussed in the previous technical report), dipole shear anisotropy (anisotropy) and dual-burst thermal decay time (TDT) logs were run before and isotope tracer log was run after the treatment. The logs were very helpful in characterizing the remaining hydrocarbon potential in the well. But, mechanical failure resulted in a poor recompletion and did not result in a significant improvement in the oil production from the well.

Deo, M.D.; Morgan, C.D.

1999-04-28

173

The seismic method in the search for oil and gas: Current techniques and future developments  

SciTech Connect

In applying seismic echo techniques to oil and gas exploration, the underground is ''illuminated'' from the surface by acoustic waves. The incident wavefield is reflected at the geologic layer boundaries and is registered at the surface, yielding detailed information on earth's upper structure. An important aspect of the seismic method is that an unprocessed seismic image does not represent the actual picture. Each reflection has been distorted during its propagation through earth. These distortions have to be corrected before an accurate picture can be developed. This is in most cases accomplished by ''seismic inversion.'' In this paper, current seismic techniques for oil and gas search, and their further development, are reviewed, with emphasis on seismic inversion. It is shown that important new developments in theory, software, and hardware have yielded significant improvements in wave theory solutions. Most research results presented are general and apply equally well to other echo technique applications, such as ultrasonic medical imaging, nondestructive testing, acoustic microscopy, sonar, and ground radar.

Berkhout, A.J.

1986-08-01

174

The Fluorescent-Oil Film Method and Other Techniques for Boundary-Layer Flow Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flow-visualization technique, known as the fluorescent-oil film method, has been developed which appears to be generally simpler and to require less experience and development of technique than previously published methods. The method is especially adapted to use in the large high-powered wind tunnels which require considerable time to reach the desired test conditions. The method consists of smearing a film of fluorescent oil over a surface and observing where the thickness is affected by the shearing action of the boundary layer. These films are detected and identified, and their relative thicknesses are determined by use of ultraviolet light. Examples are given of the use of this technique. Other methods that show promise in the study of boundary-layer conditions are described. These methods include the use of a temperature-sensitive fluorescent paint and the use of a radiometer that is sensitive to the heat radiation from a surface. Some attention is also given to methods that can be used with a spray apparatus in front of the test model.

Loving, Donald L.; Katzoff, S.

1959-01-01

175

Calculations of the drag on linear chain agglomerates  

SciTech Connect

Two analytical methods are applied to the problem of a linear chain of prolate spheroids translating through a quiescent fluid. The methods take advantage of the linearity of the problem by using superposition of a general solution for the flow generated by a point force in the fluid to satisfy the boundary conditions. The first method, slender body theory, produces an analytic result valid for cases of large aspect ratio particles. This solution indicates that the proper scaling for the drag on a chain agglomerate is the product of the length and the inverse logarithm of the aspect ratio. The other technique employed here, the boundary integral method, results in a system of integral equations which were solved numerically. These numerical results are accurate for chains of any aspect ratio and show good agreement with experimental data on straight chains. We are currently applying the boundary integral method to more complex geometries. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Geller, A.S.; Mondy, L.A.; Rader, D.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Ingber, M.S. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1991-01-01

176

Optical Characterization of Crude Oils and Dispersant Used in the Northern Gulf of Mexico by Fluorescence EEM Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the unprecedented oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico between April and July 2010, ~8 x 108 liters of crude oil and ~7 x 106 liters of dispersant were released into the water column in the Gulf of Mexico. Fluorescence excitation and emission matrix (EEM) techniques and CDOM measurements have been used in many studies to examine the fate, transport and transformation of oil components in the Gulf of Mexico in addition to direct determination of total hydrocarbon and its speciation. Here, optical properties of end-member crude oils and dispersant were characterized using fluorescence EEM spectroscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. EEM spectra for oil samples from the Deepwater Horizon show a broad elevated region with a maximum fluorescence excitation at ~226 nm and emission at ~340 nm, while the dispersant had a maximum EEM at 340/425 nm. Spectral slope coefficient derived from UV-vis absorbance was low for oil samples, showing its high molecular weight nature compared to natural organic matter in seawater. The spectral slope coefficient decreased from dispersant to wellhead oil to weathered oil, suggesting preferential degradation of low molecular weight oil fraction. Combining optical properties and EEM spectra index, the fate and transformation of soils can be effectively traced.

Guo, L.; Zhuo, Z.; Shiller, A. M.; Lohrenz, S. E.

2010-12-01

177

Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery: Fourth Semi-Annual Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered...

L. R. Brown C. U. Pittman F. L. Lynch

2001-01-01

178

Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery: A Search for Synergy. Third Semi-Annual Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered...

L. R. Brown A. A. Vadie C. U. Pittman F. L. Lynch

2000-01-01

179

Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery: A Search for Synergy. Fifth Semi-Annual Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered...

L. R. Brown C. U. Pittman F. L. Lynch A. A. Vadie

2002-01-01

180

A die pressing test for the estimation of agglomerate strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

A die pressing test was developed for quick and inexpensive estimation of the agglomerate strength of ceramic powders. The critical nominal pressure (p[sub c]) at which contact areas between agglomerates start to increase rapidly was found from the relationship between change in sample height and applied pressure in uniaxial single-ended die pressing. A quantitative microscopic method was used for measuring

Jin-Hua Song; Julian R. G. Evans

1994-01-01

181

Cork agglomerates as an ideal core material in lightweight structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiments carried out in this investigation were oriented in order to optimize the properties of cork-based agglomerates as an ideal core material for sandwich components of lightweight structures, such as those used in aerospace applications. Static bending tests were performed in order to characterize the mechanical strength of different types of cork agglomerates which were obtained considering distinct production

Osvaldo Castro; José M. Silva; Tessaleno Devezas; Arlindo Silva; Luís Gil

2010-01-01

182

Soot agglomeration in isolated, free droplet combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the conditions of an isolated, free droplet experiment, hollow, carbonaceous structures, called soot spheres, were observed to form during the atmospheric pressure, low Reynolds number combustion of 1-methylnaphthalene. These structures which are agglomerates composed of smaller spheroidal units result from both thermophoretic effects induced by the envelope flame surrounding each drop and aerodynamic effects caused by changes in the relative gas/drop velocities. A chemically reacting flow model was used to analyze the process of sootshell formation during microgravity droplet combustion. The time-dependent temperature and gas property field surrounding the droplet was determined, and the soot cloud location for microgravity combustion of n-heptane droplets was predicted. Experiments showed that the sooting propensity of n-alkane fuel droplets can be varied through diluent substitution, oxygen-index variations, and ambient pressure reductions.

Choi, M. Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Green, G. J.; Sangiovanni, J. J.

1993-01-01

183

Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore  

SciTech Connect

Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching.

S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

2006-09-30

184

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion of coal and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with deposits most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Three general types of mineralogic reactions were observed to occur in the agglomerates and deposits. Although alkalies may play a role with some {open_quotes}high alkali{close_quotes} lignites, we found agglomeration was initiated due to fluxing reactions between iron (II) from pyrites and aluminosilicates from clays. This is indicated by the high amounts of iron, silica, and alumina in the agglomerates and the mineralogy of the agglomerates. Agglomeration likely originated in the dense phase of the FBC bed within the volatile plume which forms when coal is introduced to the boiler. Secondary mineral reactions appear to occur after the agglomerates have formed and tend to strengthen the agglomerates. When calcium is present in high amounts, most of the minerals in the resulting deposits are in the melilite group (gehlenite, melilite, and akermanite) and pyroxene group (diopside and augite). During these solid-phase reactions, the temperature of formation of the melilite minerals can be lowered by a reduction of the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (Diopside + Calcite {r_arrow}Akermanite).

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

1996-01-01

185

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

186

Oil whip instability control using ?-synthesis technique on a magnetic actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotating machines have a wide application range and since those machines have high trust levels, several rotor vibrations control methods are investigated in order to avoid sudden cracks, improve rotor performance or even to reach higher operation speeds by controlling some instabilities, critical speeds resonances or oil whip effect. Rotor instabilities are associated to the operation speed and can have structural or dynamic sources from the shaft, bearings and foundation or even from an actuator external force. This work focuses on a strategy that uses the ?-synthesis control technique to attenuate the oil whip instability effect of flexible hydrodynamically supported rotors and allows the rotor to operate in higher speeds. For the identified rotor model and the synthesized controller applied on a magnetic actuator, the control system stability and performance specifications are analyzed with regard to the model uncertainties and ?-synthesis controlled vibration levels are compared to PID controller in vertical and horizontal directions. The performance specifications within the ?-synthesis are optimized to suppress unbalance vibration and, in order to contribute to industrial acceptance, the controller design is presented as a strategy which focuses on a design at reduced effort.

Riemann, Bernd; Araujo Perini, Efrain; Lucchesi Cavalca, Katia; Fiori de Castro, Helio; Rinderknecht, Stephan

2013-02-01

187

Increased Oil Production and Reserves From Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Colton (Wasatch) Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in the ancestral Lake Uinta. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1000 to 3000 vertical ft (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. Completion techniques used in the Bluebell field were discussed in detail in the Second Annual Report (Curtice, 1996). The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more beds for stimulation. These recompletion will show which logs are most effective in identifying productive beds and what scale of completion is most cost effective. The third demonstration will be the logging and completion of a new well using the logs and completion scale or technique, most effective in the previous demonstrations.

Morgan, C.D.; Deo, M.D.

1998-04-01

188

Impact of agglomeration state of nano- and submicron sized gold particles on pulmonary inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Nanoparticle (NP) toxicity testing comes with many challenges. Characterization of the test substance is of crucial importance and in the case of NPs, agglomeration/aggregation state in physiological media needs to be considered. In this study, we have addressed the effect of agglomerated versus single particle suspensions of nano- and submicron sized gold on the inflammatory response in the lung. Rats were exposed to a single dose of 1.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) of spherical gold particles with geometric diameters of 50 nm or 250 nm diluted either by ultrapure water or by adding phosphate buffered saline (PBS). A single dose of 1.6 mg/kg bw DQ12 quartz was used as a positive control for pulmonary inflammation. Extensive characterization of the particle suspensions has been performed by determining the zetapotential, pH, gold concentration and particle size distribution. Primary particle size and particle purity has been verified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Pulmonary inflammation (total cell number, differential cell count and pro-inflammatory cytokines), cell damage (total protein and albumin) and cytotoxicity (alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase) were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and acute systemic effects in blood (total cell number, differential cell counts, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein) 3 and 24 hours post exposure. Uptake of gold particles in alveolar macrophages has been determined by TEM. Results Particles diluted in ultrapure water are well dispersed, while agglomerates are formed when diluting in PBS. The particle size of the 50 nm particles was confirmed, while the 250 nm particles appear to be 200 nm using tracking analysis and 210 nm using TEM. No major differences in pulmonary and systemic toxicity markers were observed after instillation of agglomerated versus single gold particles of different sizes. Both agglomerated as well as single nanoparticles were taken up by macrophages. Conclusion Primary particle size, gold concentration and particle purity are important features to check, since these characteristics may deviate from the manufacturer's description. Suspensions of well dispersed 50 nm and 250 nm particles as well as their agglomerates produced very mild pulmonary inflammation at the same mass based dose. We conclude that single 50 nm gold particles do not pose a greater acute hazard than their agglomerates or slightly larger gold particles when using pulmonary inflammation as a marker for toxicity.

2010-01-01

189

A Novel Application of CCSEM for Studying Agglomeration in Fluidised Bed Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

CCSEM-technique is a valuable method when characterizing the bed material coatings and agglomerates. It is comparatively easy\\u000a to carry out more than a thousand point analyses and obtain valid statistical information by using automated image processing.\\u000a The use of quasi-ternary diagrams provides a good insight into the nature of the sample and can even reveal the phases present\\u000a in a

Mika E. Virtanen; Ritva E. A. Heikkinen; H. Tapio Patrikainen; Risto S. Laitinen; Bengt-Johan Skrifvars; Mikko Hupa

190

Analysis of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion agglomerates. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and textural studies of AFBC agglomerates have revealed detailed information regarding the mechanisms of agglomeration. The formation of agglomerates in a silica sand bed can be described by a four step process: initial ash coatings of quartz grains; thickening of ash coatings and the formation of nodules; cementation of nodules to each other by a sulfated aluminosilicate matrix; and partial or complete melting of eutectic compositions to produce a sticky glass phase between grains and along fractures. Once agglomeration has begun, large scale solidification and restricted flow within the bed will lead to hot spots, wholesale melting and further agglomeration which ultimately forces a shutdown. Standard operating temperatures during normal AFBC runs come quite close to, or may actually exceed, the minimum temperatures for eutectic melting of the silicate phases in the coal and standard bed materials. The partially melted material may be expected to lead to the formation of dense, sticky areas within the bed, and the formation of hot spots which further exacerbate the problem. Ultimately, large scale bed agglomeration will result. Attempts to eliminate agglomeration by removal of sodium via an ion exchange process have yielded encouraging results. A second approach, used to raise melting temperatures within the bed, has been to use bed materials that may react with low-temperature minerals to produce high-temperature refractory phases such as mullite or other alkali and alkali-earth alumino-silicates.

Perkins, D. III; Brekke, D.W.; Karner, F.R.

1984-04-01

191

Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore  

SciTech Connect

Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

2005-09-30

192

Direct optical techniques for the measurement of water content in oil-paper insulation in power transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paper-oil insulation in power transformers is degraded and gradually damaged due to electrical, chemical, mechanical and moisture factors. It is well established from several studies that moisture is a major source of insulation failure in high voltage power transformers. Measurement and monitoring of moisture is essential to predict life and operation condition for power transformers. This paper presents direct optical measurement of water content at paper insulation immersed in transformer oil inside a test cell, which contains a water source, and a capillary paper bridge to transfer water to the paper inside an oil reservoir. Optical measurement of water content was carried out in the near infrared from 900 to 1500 nm band. Experimental studies of light transmission in transformer oil and water are discussed. The criteria to establish the best optical bands for maximum sensitivities are given. The measurement limitations, calibration procedures and an error analysis are presented. The resulting technique can be used for on-line measurements in electrical apparatus that use oil-paper insulation under large electrical field gradients. The presented method has advantages, since it is a direct and fast technique to measure the water transfer to paper immersed in oil, and it could be applied in compact portable equipment at a low cost.

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Joaquín H.; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando; Álvarez-Chávez, José A.; Jaramillo-Vigueras, David; Robles-Pimentel, Edgar G.

2011-06-01

193

[Measurement of moisture and oil content in gross cottonseed based on near-infrared reflectance technique by open detecting mode].  

PubMed

In the present paper, the moisture and oil content in gross cottonseed analyzed by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technique was studied. Including the basic theory of NIRS and advantage of open detecting mode. The calibrations of the moisture and oil content in gross cottonseed were performed. The precision and accuracy of the moisture and oil content were clarified by random sampling. The correlation coefficient is high: 0.965 for moisture and 0.953 for oil. The calibration errors (SECV) for the moisture and oil content in gross cottonseed are 0.226 and 0.391 repectively. The result of NIRS prediction has been proved that the NIRS method can replace the normal analysis method completely. Further studies on the calibration of oil content in nucleus and rate of nucleus in gross cottonseed were carrced out with part of samples. It has been proved that NIRS method can be applied to detect the oil content in nucleus and rate of nucleus in gross cottonseed. PMID:17554901

Zhang, Xiao-fang; Yu, Xin; Yan, Ji-xiang; Ni, Yong

2007-03-01

194

Direct Observation of Oil Consumption Mechanisms in a Production Spark Ignition Engine Using Fluorescence Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oil consumption characteristics of a four cylinder, normally aspirated spark-ignition engine were investigated for different piston ring end-gap configurations. A radiotracer was used to perform direct measurement of the oil consumption while Laser-in...

R. M. Lusted

1994-01-01

195

Agglomeration and dispersion: a synthesis of Alonso and Krugman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Urban agglomeration,becomes,increasingly important,due to the globaliza- tion of world economies.,This paper,is a general equilibrium,analysis of urban agglomeration,economies,due to product,variety and agglomeration,diseconomies due to intra-city congestion in a two-city system,framework.,Special attention is paid to the impacts,of transportation,cost decrease on urban,concentration,and dispersion. Our main,result is that dispersion necessarily takes place when,the trans- portation,cost is sufficiently low. We also conduct,numerical,calculations using specific

T Tabuchi

1998-01-01

196

Skin friction measurement in complex flows using thin oil film techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Grant NAG2-261 was initiated to support a program of research to study complex flows that occur in flight and laboratory experiments by building, testing and optimizing an on-board technique for direct measurement of surface shear stress using thin oil film techniques. The program of research has proceeded under the supervision of the NASA Ames Research Center and with further cooperation from the NASA Ames-Dryden and NASA Langley Research Centers. In accordance with the original statement of work, the following research milestones were accomplished: (1) design and testing of an internally mounted one-directional skin friction meter to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept; (2) design and construction of a compact instrument capable of measuring skin friction in two directions; (3) study of transitional and fully turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with and without longitudinal pressure gradients utilizing the compact two-directional skin friction meter; (4) study of the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer and a shock wave generated by a compression corner using the two-directional meter; and (5) flight qualification of the compact meter and accompanying electronic and pneumatic systems, preliminary installation into flight test fixture.

1994-01-01

197

Comparison of Retorting and Supercritical Extraction Techniques on Gaining Liquid Products from Goynuk Oil Shale (Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, conversion of Goynuk oil shale to liquid products was investigated. In the first part of the study, pyrolysis of organic compounds called kerogen, which is the majority of organic material in oil shale, was performed and amounts of residue char, tar, water and gas were determined. After that, oil shale samples were extracted by toluene in an

A. SINAG; M. CANEL

2004-01-01

198

Development of acoustic agglomerator. Test plan for high temperature high pressure acoustic agglomerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design specifications for the HTHP AA Facility are listed. The facility is an open-loop, air flow system with subsystems and components to provide the high temperature, high pressure, residence time, dust loading and acoustic irradiation to simulate the aerosol and Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) AA system of a Pressurized Fluid Bed Combustor (PFBC), Combined Cycle Power Plant. Data sampling, instrumentation, and automatic controls and data analysis systems are also provided. This test plan describes the testing to be done on the high temperature, high pressure acoustic agglomerator (HTHP AA) at Pen State University's High Intensity Acoustic Laboratory.

1985-08-01

199

Comparison between headspace and vacuum gas extraction techniques for the gas chromatographic determination of dissolved gases from transformer insulating oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional headspace sampling technique is highly efficient for analyzing dissolved gases in transformer oil apart from the relatively long time that the analytes take to equilibrate between the sample and vapor phases. By mixing the sample during the equilibration period, the equilibration time was shortened by a factor of 15. Under these conditions, analysis of the gases of the

Jocelyn Jalbert; Roland Gilbert

1994-01-01

200

Separation of oil from oily wastewater by sorption and coalescence technique using ethanol grafted polyacrylonitrile.  

PubMed

Polyacrylonitrile fiber (PANF) was modified by alcoholysis reaction and the efficiencies of the PANF and the modified polyacrylonitrile fiber (MPANF) for oil removal were investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that new organophilic functional groups were grafted on the fiber surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the alcoholysis process made the surface of the MPANF rougher than that of the PANF. Oil sorption tests of the PANF and the MPANF for motor oil SAE 30, motor oil SAE 50, and multigrade engine oil (MEO) were carried out in batch tank (in water and in oil without water), and the MPANF showed higher oil sorption capacity compared to the PANF. Dynamic sorption of diesel oil-in-water emulsion (initial oil concentration of 630 mg/dm(3)) was investigated in coalescing bed. The experiments in the coalescing bed indicated that the MPANF could resist higher interstitial velocity, as compared to the PANF. More than 97% of oil content in the influent stream could be removed by the MPANF bed under the optimum condition. The results indicated that reuse of the PANF as oil sorbent was quite feasible. PMID:19022567

Ji, Fei; Li, Chaolin; Dong, Xiaoqing; Li, Yang; Wang, Dandan

2009-05-30

201

Direct observation of oil consumption mechanisms in a production spark ignition engine using fluorescence techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oil consumption characteristics of a four cylinder, normally aspirated spark-ignition engine were investigated for different piston ring end-gap configurations. A radiotracer was used to perform direct measurement of the oil consumption while Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) was used to perform the oil film thickness measurements for consumption predictions using the 'Puddle Theory of Oil Consumption,' which relates oil consumption to second land film thickness and reverse flow through top ring gap. The consumption data was evaluated to determine the impact of top ring end-gap azimuthal location on oil consumption. The film thickness data was used to evaluate the extent to which the oil Puddle Theory predicts variations seen in the actual oil consumption. A tritium radiotracer oil consumption measurement system with an accuracy of 94.6 percent was designed and constructed. This was used to perform direct measurements of the test engine oil consumption in two different test matrices. The first evaluated a piston ring configuration with the rings free to rotate. The second evaluated configurations with the top ring and second piston rings pinned to fix the azimuthal location of the end-gap; the azimuth of the top ring was varied. In the second test matrix, the oil film thickness on the piston's second land was measured, and predictions were made on the basis of that measurement.

Lusted, Roderick M.

1994-05-01

202

Industrial agglomeration and transport accessibility in metropolitan Seoul  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to reveal the relationship between industrial agglomeration and transport accessibility in the Seoul metropolitan area. Our study suggests that in spite of the rapid expansion of the Seoul metropolitan area, central business districts still function as centers of the industry and transportation system; the agglomeration of most industrial subsectors are occurring in central areas and only primary and manufacturing sectors' clusters are located out of these areas; both of subway and road networks show higher level of accessibility in central Seoul and big cities. This implies a strong relationship between the industrial agglomeration and the transport accessibility, and such hypothetical relationship is tested for every industrial subsector using logit analysis. Our findings indicate that although there are industrial variations in the magnitude of impacts and the significance level, transport networks are, in general, positively associated with industrial agglomeration and this is especially true for service sectors.

Song, Yena; Lee, Keumsook; Anderson, William P.; Lakshmanan, T. R.

2012-07-01

203

Overpopulated, Underdeveloped Urban Agglomerations: Tomorrow's 'Unstable' Operating Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper asserts that a unique future operational environment is developing: overpopulated, underdeveloped, urban agglomerations. A proposed definition for this operating environment is as follows: an overpopulated urban area that is located within a de...

M. A. Stoker

2012-01-01

204

Fractionation of Coking Coals by Spherical Agglomeration Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments with some selected Nova Scotia coals and a single sample of American anthracite, reconstituted in granular form with lower sulphur and ash contents by spherical agglomeration methods, are described. The effect of different bridging liquids, gr...

F. W. Meadus G. Paillard A. F. Sirianni I. E. Puddington

1968-01-01

205

Agglomerate of early-type Hipparcos stars (Caballero+, 2008)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spatial structure and sub-structure of regions rich in Hipparcos stars with blue BT-VT colours. These regions, which comprise large stellar complexes, OB associations, and young open clusters, are tracers of on-going star formation in the Galaxy. The DBSCAN (Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise) data clustering algorithm is used to look for spatial overdensities of early-type stars. Once an overdensity, "agglomerate", is identified, we carry out a data and bibliographic compilation of their star member candidates. The actual membership in agglomerate of each early-type star is studied based on its heliocentric distance, proper motion, and previous spectro-photometric information. We identify 35 agglomerates of early-type Hipparcos stars. Most of them are associated to previously known clusters and OB associations. The previously unknown P Puppis agglomerate is subject of a dedicated study with Virtual Observatory tools. (2 data files).

Caballero, J. A.; Dinis, L.

2009-01-01

206

Acoustic agglomeration of power plant fly ash. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The work has shown that acoustic agglomeration at practical acoustic intensities and frequencies is technically and most likely economically viable. The following studies were performed with the listed results: The physics of acoustic agglomeration is complex particularly at the needed high acoustic intensities in the range of 150 to 160 dB and frequencies in the 2500 Hz range. The analytical model which we developed, although not including nonlinear acoustic efforts, agreed with the trends observed. We concentrated our efforts on clarifying the impact of high acoustic intensities on the generation of turbulence. Results from a special set of tests show that although some acoustically generated turbulence of sorts exists in the 150 to 170 dB range with acoustic streaming present, such turbulence will not be a significant factor in acoustic agglomeration compared to the dominant effect of the acoustic velocities at the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. Studies of the robustness of the agglomerated particles using the Anderson Mark III impactor as the source of the shear stresses on the particles show that the agglomerates should be able to withstand the rigors of flow through commercial cyclones without significant break-up. We designed and developed a 700/sup 0/F tubular agglomerator of 8'' internal diameter. The electrically heated system functioned well and provided very encouraging agglomeration results at acoustic levels in the 150 to 160 dB and 2000 to 3000 Hz ranges. We confirmed earlier results that an optimum frequency exists at about 2500 Hz and that larger dust loadings will give better results. Studies of the absorption of acoustic energy by various common gases as a function of temperature and humidity showed the need to pursue such an investigation for flue gas constituents in order to provide necessary data for the design of agglomerators. 65 references, 56 figures, 4 tables.

Reethof, G.; McDaniel, O.H.

1982-01-01

207

Industrial agglomeration and transport accessibility in metropolitan Seoul  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to reveal the relationship between industrial agglomeration and transport accessibility in the Seoul metropolitan\\u000a area. Our study suggests that in spite of the rapid expansion of the Seoul metropolitan area, central business districts still\\u000a function as centers of the industry and transportation system; the agglomeration of most industrial subsectors are occurring\\u000a in central areas and only primary

Yena Song; Keumsook Lee; William P. Anderson; T. R. Lakshmanan

2012-01-01

208

Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore  

SciTech Connect

Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of acidic heap-leach facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of other agglomeration applications, particularly advanced primary ironmaking.

S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler

2004-03-31

209

NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE  

SciTech Connect

Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

2004-04-01

210

NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE  

SciTech Connect

Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not breakdown during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of many facilities see large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching.

S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

2005-04-01

211

Bioremediation techniques on crude oil contaminated soils in Ohio. First quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop environmentally-sound and cost-effective remediation techniques for crude oil contaminated soils. By providing a guidance manual to oil and gas operators, the Ohio Division of Oil and Gas regulatory authority hopes to reduce remediation costs while improving voluntary compliance with soil clean-up requirements. This shall be accomplished by conducting a series of field tests to define the optimum range for nutrient, oxygen and organic enhancement to biologically remediate soils contaminated with brines and crude oil having a wide range of viscosity. Task one of the bioremediation project began on July 3, 1995 with the selection and preparation of a site in Smith township. Mahoning County. The plots were arranged and parameters were varied. Plots, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal. ) of Corning grade crude oil and plots 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal.) of Pennsylvania grade crude oil. Plots 13 through 21 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal.) of Pennsylvania grade crude oil and 477 liters (126 gal.) of Clinton sandstone brine with a 160,000 mg/liter concentration of chloride. Treatment and administration of variables were conducted from August 17, 1995 to October 26, 1995. During this period samples were collected twice from each plot and analyzed for the parameters specified in the contract. Results from both sampling events of total petroleum hydrocarbons suggest that crude oil spread on surface is not easily mixed into soils as tillage depth, resulting in considerably variable composite samples from plot to plot.

Hodges, D.

1996-03-27

212

Agglomeration processes sustained by dust density waves in Ar/C2H2 plasma: From C2H2 injection to the formation of an organized structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an experimental investigation of dust particle agglomeration in a capacitively coupled RF discharge is reported. Carbonaceous particles are produced in an argon plasma using acetylene. As soon as the particle density becomes sufficient, dust density waves (DDWs) are spontaneously excited within the cathode sheath. Recently, it was proven that DDWs can significantly enhance the agglomeration rate between particles by transferring them a significant kinetic energy. Thus, it helps them to overcome Coulomb repulsion. The influence of this mechanism is studied from acetylene injection to the formation of very large agglomerates forming an organized structure after a few dozens of seconds. For this purpose, three diagnostic tools are used: extinction measurements to probe nanometer-sized particles, fast imaging for large agglomerates and a dust extraction technique developed for ex-situ analysis.

Dap, Simon; Hugon, Robert; Lacroix, David; de Poucques, Ludovic; Briancon, Jean-Luc; Bougdira, Jamal

2013-03-01

213

Comparison between classical and innovative class-modelling techniques for the characterisation of a PDO olive oil.  

PubMed

An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) olive oil Chianti Classico, based on near-infrared and UV-Visible spectroscopy, an artificial nose and an artificial tongue, with a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production and a considerable number of samples from a close production area (Maremma) was performed. The non-specific signals provided by the four fingerprinting analytical techniques, after a proper pre-processing, were used for building class models for Chianti Classico oils. The outcomes of classical class-modelling techniques like soft independent modelling of class analogy and quadratic discriminant analysis-unequal dispersed classes were compared with those of two techniques recently introduced into Chemometrics: multivariate range modelling and CAIMAN analogues modelling methods. PMID:21058013

Oliveri, Paolo; Casale, Monica; Casolino, M Chiara; Baldo, M Antonietta; Grifi, Fiammetta Nizzi; Forina, Michele

2011-02-01

214

Simple techniques to increase the production yield and enhance the quality of organic rice bran oils.  

PubMed

This study develops simple techniques for increasing production yield and refining of crude RBO (CRBO). It was found that pre-heating of rice bran by hot air oven to reach 60°C before being extracted by screw press machine increased the yield from 4.8 to 8.3%w/w. This paper suggested three simple steps for refining of organic CRBO: (1) filtering using filter papers (2) sedimentation by adding 4%w/v fuller's earth and (3) bleaching by running through a packed column of activated carbon. These steps significantly enhanced the qualities of RBO when compared to CRBO before treatment. It was found that the lightness of oil as indicated by color value (L*) increased from 22.8 to 28.7, gum and wax decreased from 3.6 to 1.3%w/w. However, the simple refining method had no effect on peroxide value and free fatty acid content. Moreover, it slightly induced the loss of oryzanol content from 2.8 to 2.2%w/w. PMID:21178310

Srikaeo, Khongsak; Pradit, Maythawinee

2011-01-01

215

Molecular biologic techniques applied to the microbial prospecting of oil and gas in the Ban 876 gas and oil field in China.  

PubMed

Currently, molecular biologic techniques achieve a great development in studies of soil samples. The objective of this research is to improve methods for microbial prospecting of oil and gas by applying culture-independent techniques to soil sampled from above a known oil and gas field. Firstly, the community structure of soil bacteria above the Ban 876 Gas and Oil Field was analyzed based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The soil bacteria communities were consistently different along the depth; however, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes were predominant and methanotrophs were minor in both bacteria libraries (DGS1 and DGS2). Secondly, the numbers of methane-oxidizing bacteria, quantified using a culture-dependent procedure and culture-independent group-specific real-time PCR (RT-PCR), respectively, were inconsistent with a quantify variance of one or two orders of magnitude. Special emphasis was given to the counting advantages of RT-PCR based on the methanotrophic pmoA gene. Finally, the diversity and distribution of methanotrophic communities in the soil samples were analyzed by constructing clone libraries of functional gene. All 508-bp inserts in clones phylogenetically belonged to the methanotrophic pmoA gene with similarities from 83% to 100%. However, most of the similarities were below 96%. Five clone libraries of methanotrophs clearly showed that the anomalous methanotrophs (Methylosinus and Methylocystis) occupy the studied area. PMID:20107985

Zhang, Fan; She, Yuehui; Zheng, Yong; Zhou, Zhifeng; Kong, Shuqiong; Hou, Dujie

2010-04-01

216

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah, Class I  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Unita Basin Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that staged-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance.

Morgan, Craig D.; Gwynn, Wallace; Deo, Milind D.; Jarrard, Richard; Curtice, Richard; Morris, Thomas H.; Smouse, DeForrest; Tripp, Carol N.

2000-01-20

217

Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore  

SciTech Connect

Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore processing which are intended to improve the performance of pellet binders, and have directly saved energy by increasing filtration rates of the pelletization feed by as much as 23%.

S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

2006-12-31

218

Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment used for the containment and removal of oil as a result of oil spill mishaps. Dispersants, separators, skimmers and absorbants are discussed. Related studies regarding film spreading and dispersion are presented. Studies pertaining to shipboard ballast and bilgewater cleaning are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

219

Multiphase Flow Metering Technique Based on Passive Fiber Optic Components for Oil Producing Wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring oil fields reservoirs for optimizing the production have been satisfied by wellhead sampling and test separator metering. Development and research work have been taking place to develop smaller size and lower cost multiphase flow meters that improve well testing and replace the large and expensive test separators. Recently some commercial multiphase flow meters were introduced that measure gas, oil

M. MAHMOUD

220

Authentication and traceability of Italian extra-virgin olive oils by means of stable isotopes techniques.  

PubMed

Authentication of food origin is relevant to avoid food fraud. This work aimed to explore the variation of isotopic compositions (?(13)C, ?(18)O) of extra-virgin olive oils from Italy growing in different environmental conditions. A total of 387 oil samples from nine different regions (from North to South), produced on 2009, 2010 and 2011, were analysed. Statistical analysis showed correlations among oil isotope compositions and latitude, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation and xerothermic index. No correlation was found comparing isotope compositions with elevation and longitude. An observed shift of the oil ?(18)O per centigrade degree of the mean annual temperature is congruent with literature. The year effect was significant for both ?(18)O and ?(13)C. Samples from Sicilia and Sardegna were higher in (13)C and (18)O than oils from northern regions. PMID:24996298

Portarena, S; Gavrichkova, O; Lauteri, M; Brugnoli, E

2014-12-01

221

Differentiation of lemon essential oil based on volatile and non-volatile fractions with various analytical techniques: a metabolomic approach.  

PubMed

Due to the importance of citrus lemon oil for the industry, fast and reliable analytical methods that allow the authentication and/or classification of such oil, using the origin of production or extraction process, are necessary. To evaluate the potential of volatile and non-volatile fractions for classification purposes, volatile compounds of cold-pressed lemon oils were analyzed, using GC-FID/MS and FT-MIR, while the non-volatile residues were studied, using FT-MIR, (1)H-NMR and UHPLC-TOF-MS. 64 Lemon oil samples from Argentina, Spain and Italy were considered. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses were sequentially performed on various data blocks obtained by the above techniques. Successful data treatments led to statistically significant models that discriminated and classified cold-pressed lemon oils according to their geographic origin, as well as their production processes. Studying the loadings allowed highlighting of important classes of discriminant variables that corresponded to putative or identified chemical functions and compounds. PMID:24054247

Mehl, Florence; Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Debrus, Benjamin; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Raymo, Vilfredo; Velazco, Maria Inés; Sommer, Horst; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Rudaz, Serge

2014-01-15

222

Deep hydrodesulfurization of atmospheric gas oil; Effects of operating conditions and modelling by artificial neural network techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial neural networks (ANN) are currently being explored in various engineering fields as valuable tools for automatic model-building and knowledge acquisition. This technique was applied to model hydrodesulfurization of atmospheric gas oil in a mini-pilot trickle-bed reactor. Sulfur removal was measured as a function of temperature, pressure and liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) for three sulfur feed concentrations. The potential

D. Berger; M. V. Landau; M. Herskowitz; Z. Boger

1996-01-01

223

The development of a technique for determining the oil content of medical compressed air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum permissible concentration of oil droplet contamination in medical compressed air is 0.5 mg\\/m3. Because of the increasing use of compressed air in hospitals, a rapid and straightforward test is required which will enable a hospital engineer to establish whether the air supply is free from oil. A jet of air is impacted onto the surface of a porous

J. Dyment; G. D. Ludbrook

1980-01-01

224

Compendium of scattering matrix element profiles for soot agglomerates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of size and structures of soot agglomerates within dynamic flame environment is possible only via nonintrusive laser diagnostics. Elliptically polarized light scattering is the most versatile approach for this purpose; however, it requires a priori knowledge of scattering characteristics of agglomerates. In this paper, a compendium of results is presented for the scattering matrix elements of different fractal-like aggregates. The effects of monomer size (dp), number of monomers in agglomerate (N), fractal dimension (Df), fractal prefactor (Kf) as well as wavelength (l) are considered. The results show that S12 and S34 profiles are more sensitive to fractal structure parameters than the S11. By using these three profiles simultaneously, the parameters of fractal structures can be obtained from carefully conducted experiments.

Klusek, C.; Manickavasagam, S.; Menguc, P.

2003-09-01

225

Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation  

DOEpatents

The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA) [Pittsburgh, PA; Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA) [Monongahela, PA; Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA) [Pittsburgh, PA

2000-01-01

226

Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction  

SciTech Connect

A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

1999-08-01

227

Use of essential oil of Laurus nobilis obtained by means of a supercritical carbon dioxide technique against post harvest spoilage fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aspects of the antifungal activity of essential oil of laurel (Laurus nobilis) obtained by means of a supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) technique against post harvest spoilage fungi, have been studied in this research work by tests performed under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The measurement of antifungal activity of the oil, for its potential application as botanical fungicide,

Ugo De Corato; Oliviero Maccioni; Mario Trupo; Giuseppe Di Sanzo

2010-01-01

228

Potential of spectroscopic techniques and chemometric analysis for rapid measurement of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in algal oil.  

PubMed

Developing rapid methods for measuring long-chain ?-3 (n-3) poly-unsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) contents has been a crucial request from the algal oil industry. In this study, four spectroscopy techniques, namely visible and short-wave near infra-red (Vis-SNIR), long-wave near infra-red (LNIR), mid-infra-red (MIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, were exploited for determining the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) contents in algal oil. The best prediction for both DHA and EPA were achieved by NMR spectroscopy, in which the determination coefficients of cross-validation (rCV(2)) values were 0.963 and 0.967 for two LCPUFAs. The performances of Vis-SNIR and LNIR spectroscopy were also accepted. The variable selection was proved as an efficient and necessary step for the spectral analysis in this study. The results were promising and implied that spectroscopy techniques have a great potential for assessment of DHA and EPA in algal oil. PMID:24731319

Wu, Di; He, Yong

2014-09-01

229

DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUE FOR THE UPSTREAM OIL INDUSTRY  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research and development work reported in this document was to develop a Virtual Intelligence Technique for optimization of the Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) for the upstream oil industry. The work included the development of a software tool for identification and optimization of the most influential parameters in upstream common practices as well as geological, geophysical and reservoir engineering studies. The work was performed in cooperation with three independent producing companies--Newfield Exploration, Chesapeake Energy, and Triad Energy--operating in the Golden Trend, Oklahoma. In order to protect data confidentiality, these companies are referred to as Company One, Two, Three in a randomly selected order. These producing companies provided geological, completion, and production data on 320 wells and participated in frequent technical discussions throughout the project. Research and development work was performed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI), West Virginia University (WVU), and Intelligent Solutions Inc. (ISI). Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association (OIPA) participated in technology transfer and data acquisition efforts. Deliverables from the project are the present final report and a user-friendly software package (Appendix D) with two distinct functions: a characterization tool that identifies the most influential parameters in the upstream operations, and an optimization tool that seeks optimization by varying a number of influential parameters and investigating the coupled effects of these variations. The electronic version of this report is also included in Appendix D. The Golden Trend data were used for the first cut optimization of completion procedures. In the subsequent step, results from soft computing runs were used as the guide for detailed geophysical and reservoir engineering studies that characterize the cause-and-effect relationships between various parameters. The general workflow and the main performing units were as follows: (1) Data acquisition. (GTI, OIPA, Participating producers.) (2) Development of the virtual intelligence software. (WVU, ISI); (3) Application of the software on the acquired data. (GTI, ISI); (4) Detailed production analysis using conventional engineering techniques and the DECICE neural network software. (GTI) and (5) Detailed seismic analysis using Inspect spectral decomposition package and Hapmson-Russell's EMERGE inversion package. (GTI) Technology transfer took place through several workshops held at offices of the participating companies, at OIPA offices, and presentations at the SPE panel on soft computing applications and at the 2003 annual meeting of Texas Independent Producers and Royalty Owners Association (TIPRO). In addition, results were exhibited at the SPE annual meeting, published in GasTips, and placed on the GTI web page. Results from the research and development work were presented to the producing companies as a list of recommended recompletion wells and the corresponding optimized operations parameters. By the end of the project, 16 of the recommendations have been implemented the majority of which resulted in increased production rates to several folds. This constituted a comprehensive field demonstration with positive results.

Iraj A. Salehi; Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Samuel Ameri

2004-09-01

230

Frequency comparative study of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration.  

PubMed

Particulate pollution is main kind of atmospheric pollution. The fine particles are seriously harmful to human health and environment. Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a promising pretreatment technology for fine particle agglomeration. The mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration are very complex and the agglomeration efficiency is affected by many factors. The most important and controversial factor is frequency. Comparative studies between high-frequency and low-frequency sound source to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash were carried out to investigate the influence of frequency on agglomeration efficiency. Acoustic agglomeration theoretical analysis, experimental particle size distributions (PSDs) and orthogonal design were examined. The results showed that the 20 kHz high-frequency sound source was not suitable to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash. Only within the size ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 microm the particles agglomerated to adhere together, and the agglomerated particles were smaller than 2.5 microm. The application of low-frequency (1000-1800 Hz) sound source was proved as an advisable pretreatment with the highest agglomeration efficiency of 75.3%, and all the number concentrations within the measuring range decreased. Orthogonal design L16 (4)3 was introduced to determine the optimum frequency and optimize acoustic agglomeration condition. According to the results of orthogonal analysis, frequency was the dominant factor of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration and the optimum frequency was 1400 Hz. PMID:22432309

Liu, Jianzhong; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Guangxue; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

2011-01-01

231

Novel techniques for the denitrogenation of shale oil. Final report, January 1, 1982-March 31, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to test the feasibility of a novel process to denitrogenate shale oil and selected distillate fractions by mild catalytic hydrogenation followed by ion exchange. Emphasis is directed toward the study of the ion exchange portion of the process. Using both bench- and pilot-scale units, research was first undertaken to produce a series of samples of mildly hydrogenated shale oils which were then distilled into naphtha, jet fuel, diesel fuel, gas oil and residue. Experiments were performed to determine the relative thermal stability (at somewhat elevated temperatures) of various hydrogenated and ion-exchange treated jet and diesel fuels. Ion exchange markedly improved the stability of raw shale oil. However, the stability of the mildly hydrotreated shale-derived jet fuel was made worse by adding ion-exchange treatment, presumably as a result of removing some of the lower level stabilizers (i.e., phenolics). All samples of shale-derived jet fuel, except the highly hydrogenated P67-154 jet fuel, were less stable than petroleum-derived jet A. In contrast to the above, the raw shale-derived diesel fuel was more stable than petroleum-derived No. 2 heating oil. Mild hydrotreating effected some improvement in stability. A study of the results with Amberlyst-15 resin shows that the process economics are most favorable for the ion exchange of jet fuel when the shale oil hydrotreating severity is high and the nitrogen content of the charge to ion exchange is relatively low. Although ion exchange is not economical in these cases, it appears to be economical when the weight percent nitrogen in the charge to the ion exchange is below 0.05 wt %. Significant savings are possible by minimizing the amount of resin used and by maximizing the number of cycles before discarding the resin. This appears to be realizable using Rohm and Haas XE-397 resin. 14 references, 46 figures, 28 tables.

Cronauer, D.C.

1985-02-01

232

Application of Rosenbrock search technique to reduce the drilling cost of a well in Bai-Hassan oil field  

SciTech Connect

The powerful Rosenbrock search technique, which optimizes both the search directions using the Gram-Schmidt procedure and the step size using the Fibonacci line search method, has been used to optimize the drilling program of an oil well drilled in Bai-Hassan oil field in Kirkuk, Iran, using the twodimensional drilling model of Galle and Woods. This model shows the effect of the two major controllable variables, weight on bit and rotary speed, on the drilling rate, while considering other controllable variables such as the mud properties, hydrostatic pressure, hydraulic design, and bit selection. The effect of tooth dullness on the drilling rate is also considered. Increasing the weight on the drill bit with a small increase or decrease in ratary speed resulted in a significant decrease in the drilling cost for most bit runs. It was found that a 48% reduction in this cost and a 97-hour savings in the total drilling time was possible under certain conditions.

Aswad, Z.A.R.; Al-Hadad, S.M.S.

1983-03-01

233

Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

1999-11-02

234

Round Robin Testing of Advanced Selective Agglomeration and Flotation Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the 28 mesh by 0 coal, the emerging selective agglomeration and flotation technologies (mainly C1, D1, F1, E1) show the following: (1) The various processes have similar efficiencies with regard to yield/ash relationships at high Btu recoveries. (2) M...

R. P. Killmeyer

1985-01-01

235

Universities' Entrepreneurial Performance: The Role of Agglomeration Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of the extensive research on universities' entrepreneurship, whether research strength fosters or dampens their entrepreneurial performance remains controversial. Much research claims an influential role of research universities in regional economy, however, little has been said about what a part that the agglomeration economies may play…

Chen, Ping Penny

2011-01-01

236

The Spread of Industry: Spatial Agglomeration in Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the spread of industry from country to country as a region grows. All industrial sectors are initially agglomerated in one country, tied together by input–output links between firms. Growth expands industry more than other sectors, bidding up wages in the country in which industry is clustered. At some point firms start to move away, and when a

Diego Puga; Anthony J. Venables

1996-01-01

237

Alternating electric field induced agglomeration of carbon black filled resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter reports on our observation that an alternating electric field is able to induce the formation of an electrically conducting network in carbon black (CB) filled resins well below the zero-field percolation threshold. Compared with the recently presented dc method, the ac agglomeration is more efficient in two respects: it proceeds significantly faster under equivalent conditions and is still

Matthias-Klaus Schwarz; Wolfgang Bauhofer; Karl Schulte

2002-01-01

238

Experimental evaluation and modeling of agglomerating fine powder fluidized beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fines on the behavior of a fluidized-bed reactor have been investigated using a commercial catalyst for propylene ammoxidation. Experimental studies show that the catalyst powder agglomerates and that there exists a critical level of fines in the bed (around 30%) for which the fluid-bed behavior in terms of bed expansion, aeratability, and cluster size is optimum. The

N. K. Yadav; B. D. Kulkarni; L. K. Doraiswamy

1994-01-01

239

Pattern formation in the agglomeration of conducting particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the agglomeration of conducting particles in a viscous medium under the influence of strong electric fields. We find that the emergent tree-like patterns are stable, statistically reproducible for a given set of parameters, and exhibit a class of behavior common to branching systems such as avoidance of closed loops and local and global reordering. We conclude that such

Joseph Jun; Alfred Hubler

2003-01-01

240

Effects of Temperature, Time, and Solution on Nanoparticle Agglomeration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the environment nanomaterials are in can alter nanoproperties. Therefore, prior to nanotoxicity studies, we need to address how different solvents and temperatures can impact nanoparticle behavior. This study examines the effect of increased temperature and time on nanoparticle agglomeration. The nanoparticles used in this study were: SiO2 35nm, 51nm, 110nm, and 420nm, Cu 40nm, 60nm, and 80nm, and Ag 25nm, 55nm, and 80nm. TEM analysis showed that the primary size distributions for the SiO2 nanoparticles were similar to the manufacturer's size. For the Cu nanoparticles, the ranges were Cu 40nm 70.3+/-17.8, Cu 60nm 79.7+/-21.3, and Cu 80nm 110.6+/-26.6. For the Ag nanoparticles the only particle not similar to the manufacturer's range was Ag 80nm with a size of 122.32+/-60.366. The nanoparticles were dispersed in sterile water or exposure media (EM) (media without serum) and stored at 4C or 37C. Using dynamic light scattering, agglomeration was measured at 0, 8, 14, 22, 32, and 48 h to determine if the magnitude of agglomeration was temperature or time dependent. Based on this data, time in solution and temperature appears to impact nanoparticle agglomeration in no predictable or reproducible pattern which should be taken into account in nanotoxicity studies.

Moulton, Michael; Yu, Kyung; Braydich-Stolle, Laura; Schlager, John; Schrand, Amanda; Hussain, Saber

2008-03-01

241

Agglomeration Economies, Technology Spillovers and Company Productivity Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some of the determinants of total factor productivity growth using a sample of 216 large UK firms observed over the period 1974–90, and then using three further samples which were used to check the robustness of the results. The main focus of the paper is on identifying the size of agglomeration economies and technology spillovers between firms.

Paul A Geroski; Hossein Samiei

1998-01-01

242

Agglomeration and the Geography of Localization Economies in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baldwin J. R., Beckstead D., Brown W. M. and Rigby D. L. Agglomeration and the geography of localization economies in Canada, Regional Studies.?This paper maps the spatial variation in productivity levels across Canadian cities and models the underlying determinants of that variation. There are two main goals. The first is to confirm the existence, the nature and the size of

John R. Baldwin; Desmond Beckstead; W. Mark Brown; David L. Rigby

2008-01-01

243

Agglomeration in Suspension: A Study of Mechanisms and Kinetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growth kinetics and mechanisms of batch agglomerations in suspension were studied. A light backscatter method was developed, which enabled the increase of an average particle size from 1-50000 micrometers to be followed in situ. Growth curves, i.e., devel...

G. G. Bemer

1979-01-01

244

Improving the de-agglomeration and dissolution of a poorly water soluble drug by decreasing the agglomerate strength of the cohesive powder.  

PubMed

Influence of ternary, poorly water-soluble components on the agglomerate strength of cohesive indomethacin mixtures during dissolution was studied to explore the relationship between agglomerate strength and extent of de-agglomeration and dissolution of indomethacin (Ind). Dissolution profiles of Ind from 20% Ind-lactose binary mixtures, and ternary mixtures containing additional dibasic calcium phosphate (1% or 10%; DCP), calcium sulphate (10%) and talc (10%) were determined. Agglomerate strength distributions were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation of particle size, work of cohesion and packing fraction distributions. The agglomerate strength of Ind decreased from 1.19 MPa for the binary Ind mixture to 0.84 MPa for 1DCP:20Ind mixture and to 0.42 MPa for 1DCP:2Ind mixture. Both extent of de-agglomeration, demonstrated by the concentration of the dispersed indomethacin distribution, and extent of dispersion, demonstrated by the particle size of the dispersed indomethacin, were in descending order of 1DCP:2Ind>1DCP:20Ind>binary Ind. The addition of calcium sulphate dihydrate and talc also reduced the agglomerate strength and improved de-agglomeration and dispersion of indomethacin. While not definitively causal, the improved de-agglomeration and dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug by poorly water soluble components was related to the agglomerate strength of the cohesive matrix during dissolution. PMID:24080334

Allahham, Ayman; Stewart, Peter J; Das, Shyamal C

2013-11-30

245

Experimental study on static and impact strength of sintered agglomerates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous internal structure is common among small bodies in the planetary systems and possible range of porosity, strength, and scale of in-homogeneity is wide. Icy agglomerates, such as icy dust aggregates in the proto-planetary disks or icy re-accumulated bodies of fragments from impact disruption beyond snow-line would have stronger bulk strength once the component particles physically connect each other due to sintering. In this study, in order to get better understanding of impact disruption process of such bodies, we first investigated the critical tensile (normal) and bending (tangential) forces to break a single neck, the connected part of the sintered particles, using sintered dimer of macro glass particles of ˜5 mm in diameter. We found that the critical tensile force is proportional to the cross-section of the neck when the neck grows sufficiently larger than the surface roughness of the original particles. We also found that smaller force is required to break a neck when the force is applied tangentially to the neck than normally applied. Then we measured the bulk tensile strength of sintered glass agglomerates consisting of 90 particles and showed that the average tensile stress to break a neck of agglomerates in static loading is consistent with the measured value for dimers. Impact experiments with velocity from 40 to 280 m/s were performed for the sintered agglomerates with ˜40% porosity, of two different bulk tensile strengths. The size ratio of the beads to the target was 0.19. The energy density required to catastrophically break the agglomerate was shown to be much less than those required for previously investigated sintered glass beads targets with ˜40% porosity, of which the size of component bead is 10 -2 times smaller and the size ratio of the bead to target is also ˜10 -2 times smaller than the agglomerates in this study. This is probably due to much smaller number of necks for the stress wave to travel through the agglomerates and therefore the energy dissipation at the necks is minimal. Also, the much larger fraction of the surface particles enables the particles to move more freely and thus be broken more easily. The catastrophic disruption of the agglomerates is shown to occur when the projectile kinetic energy is a few times of the total energy to break all of the necks of the agglomerates. The result implies that finer fragments from sintered agglomerates may have smaller catastrophic disruption energy threshold for shattering (QS?) than other larger fragments with similar porosity and bulk tensile strength but much larger number of constituent particles. If this is the case, size-dependence of QS? (smaller is weaker) is opposite to those usually considered for the bodies in the strength regime.

Machii, Nagisa; Nakamura, Akiko M.

2011-01-01

246

Novel Techniques for the Denitrogenation of Shale Oil. Final Report, January 1, 1982-March 31, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to test the feasibility of a novel process to denitrogenate shale oil and selected distillate fractions by mild catalytic hydrogenation followed by ion exchange. Emphasis is directed toward the study of the ion exchange po...

D. C. Cronauer

1985-01-01

247

Characterization of triacylglycerol composition of fish oils by using chromatographic techniques.  

PubMed

Triacylglycerols (TAG) of two different refined fish oils from sardine and a mixture of tuna and sardine oil were separated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with a binary solvent gradient of acetone/acetonitrile. Different fractions were observed in the chromatogram and TAG species were tentatively identified by subsequent analysis of the fatty acid (FA) profile in each fraction by capillary Gas Chromatography (GC). Peak identities were assigned on the basis of a multiple linear regression analysis by using factors such as carbon number, number of double bonds, number of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and number of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the molecule as predictors for TAG retention time. A successful correlation was obtained between retention times and the equivalent carbon number (ECN) of triacylglycerols. Regiospecific analysis of fatty acids in the TAG has been conducted by ethanolysis of the fish oil by using an immobilized lipase. The subsequent separation of 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) by TLC (thin layer chromatography) analysis showed that ethanolysis system is effective for analysis of FA composition at the 2-position in oils containing PUFA. Principal components analysis (PCA) has been also applied to establish correlations between the different fatty acids in the TAG. PMID:24770476

Solaesa, Ángela García; Bucio, Silvia Liliana; Sanz, María Teresa; Beltrán, Sagrario; Rebolleda, Sara

2014-01-01

248

Determination of Trace Elements in Vegetable Oils and Biodiesel by Atomic Spectrometric Techniques---A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of trace elements in edible oils and biodiesel using atomic spectrometric methods is reviewed. Problems related to sample pretreatment for appropriate sample introduction and calibration are addressed as well as the strategies to overcome them. Recent trends aimed at simplifying sample manipulation are presented. The applications and scope of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), flame optical emission spectrometry (F-OES),

Fábio G. Lepri; Eduardo S. Chaves; Mariana A. Vieira; Anderson S. Ribeiro; Adilson J. Curtius; Lígia C. C. DeOliveira; Reinaldo C. DeCampos

2011-01-01

249

Effect of Agglomerates in Zr02 Powder Compacts on Microstructural Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrafine zirconia powders were prepared by a coprecipitation and spray-drying method. Agglomerates may be fragmented or present in green bodies after compaction. The effect of agglomerates on sintering and microstructural development was studied and it w...

J. L. Shi J. H. Gao Z. X. Lin D. S. Yan

1994-01-01

250

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and depos...

R. C. Brown M. R. Dawson S. D. Noble

1993-01-01

251

Reaction Kinetics and Physical Mechanisms of Ash Agglomeration. Progress Report, February 24-May 23, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research addresses the key issues of ash particle contact, conditions and rates of reaction of mineral matter, and agglomeration conditions in fluidized-bed gasification. To obtain coals with properties of interest in the ash agglomeration studies, a ...

R. H. Carty D. M. Mason S. P. Babu

1985-01-01

252

The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates. V. Multiple Impacts of Dusty Agglomerates at Velocities Above the Fragmentation Threshold  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a number of new experiments have advanced our knowledge on the early growth phases of protoplanetary dust aggregates. Some of these experiments have shown that collisions between porous and compacted agglomerates at velocities above the fragmentation threshold velocity can lead to growth of the compact body, when the porous collision partner fragments upon impact and transfers mass

Stefan Kothe; Carsten Guettler; Juergen Blum

2010-01-01

253

Effect of the impact angle on the breakage of agglomerates: a numerical study using DEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of agglomerate strength is of vital importance in several industrial applications such as pharmaceutical, detergent and food manufacturing. Agglomerates could experience a size reduction during the production and handling processes due to collisions with other agglomerates or with the moving components and walls as well as during bulk flow due to shear deformation. In this analysis, we focus

R. Moreno; M. Ghadiri; S. J. Antony

2003-01-01

254

Reaction kinetics and physical mechanisms of ash agglomeration. Progress report, November 24, 1984-February 23, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research program is to provide a fundamental understanding of the reaction mechanisms and rates that lead to ash agglomeration and to the deposition of ash on reactor surfaces in ash agglomerating coal gasifiers. This program addresses the key issues of ash particle contact, chemical reactions of mineral matter, and agglomeration conditions.

Carty, R.H.; Mason, D.M.; Babu, S.P.

1985-10-01

255

Stochastical modeling of the granule size distribution in the agglomeration processes of powdered materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powders with the correct amount of a liquid binder can be formed into agglomerates by vibrating, shaking or paddle mixing. Rotating drums or disks are commonly used in industry. The break-up process of the drops of the binding liquid and the kinetics of the powder agglomeration affect the granule size distribution in the agglomerate. Generally, mathematical procedures are required to

K Ceylan; G Kelbal?yev

2001-01-01

256

Quantitative analyses of polar components in frying oils by the iatroscan thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detection technique.  

PubMed

Frying oils collected in restaurants were fractionated into a polar and a non-polar fraction by the Iatroscan thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detection (TLC-FID) system on Chromarod S II using hexane-diethyl ether-acetic acid (97:3:1) as the solvent system. The FID responses for Iatroscan analyses of the polar and the non-polar fraction isolated from a frying oil by column chromatography on a 5% hydrated silicic acid were studied at Chromarod load levels ranging from 1 to 16 micrograms, relative to methyl heptadecanoate as the internal standard. The correction factors were relatively constant in the range 10-16 micrograms, but increased in the range 1-5 micrograms. The amount of polar material in ten commercial frying oil samples was quantitated by the Iatroscan TLC-FID technique. Good correlations were found between the results and data obtained by column chromatography and silica gel Sep-Pak cartridges. PMID:3693474

Sébédio, J L; Astorg, P O; Septier, C; Grandgirard, A

1987-09-18

257

Continuous subcritical water extraction of medicinal plant essential oil: comparison with conventional techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subcritical extractor equipped with a three-way inlet valve and an on\\/off outlet valve has been used for performing subcritical water extractions (SWE) in a continuous manner for the isolation of the essential oil of fennel, a medicinal plant. The target compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by a single extraction with 5 ml hexane, determined by gas-chromatography-flame ionization

L Gámiz-Gracia; M. D Luque de Castro

2000-01-01

258

Application of chemical, physical and chemometric analytical techniques to the study of ancient ceramic oil lamps.  

PubMed

A chemical, mineralogical and morphological characterization of 54 fragments of oil lamps found in two Spanish archaeological sites (Cordoba and Herrera de Pisuerga (Palencia)) has been performed. Flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry were used for the determination of Al(2)O(3), CaO, Fe(2)O(3), K(2)O, MgO, MnO, Na(2)O and TiO(2) as major constituents and Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn as minor and trace selected elements. Physical, mineralogical and morphological analyses were made by using dilatometry at constant heating rate for the thermal behaviour, X-ray diffraction spectrometry for the mineralogical composition and, in a group of selected samples, scanning electron microscopy and polarizing petrographic microscopy for the observation of thin layers and mineral identification. Separations of light and heavy minerals were carried out with bromoform and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied to both fractions. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to establish correlations between variables and to deduce factors which allow the gathering of oil lamp samples in groups as a function of their composition. The results of these analyses allow the comparison among pieces and the establishment of conclusions about several aspects of their manufacture, the origin of the raw materials and the provenance of the oil lamps (local or imported). They provide information supporting certain archaeological hypothesis. For example, some oil lamps found in Herrera de Pisuerga showed a clearly different physicochemical composition. They were probably brought from Italy by the Roman Legions together with their initial furniture household. PMID:18970455

García Giménez, R; Vigil de la Villa, R; Petit Domínguez, M D; Rucandio, M I

2006-02-15

259

Combustion characteristics of lignite and oil shale samples by thermal analysis techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research thermal analysis and kinetics of ten lignite's and two oil shale samples of different origin were performed\\u000a using a TA 2960 thermal analysis system with thermogravimetry (TG\\/DTG) and differential al analysis (DTA) modules. Experiments\\u000a were performed with a sample size of ~10 mg, heating rate of 10C min-1. Flow rate was kept constant (10 L h-1) in

M. V. Kök; G. Pokol; C. Keskin; J. Madarász; S. Bagci

2004-01-01

260

PC and mainframe computer-graphics techniques applied to volumetric evaluation of a mature oil field  

SciTech Connect

Mapping and volumetric analysis of large reservoirs are important steps in evaluating mature oil fields for secondary and tertiary development. This paper describes how a research group mapped and conducted an extensive volumetric analysis on the Zenith pool, a large, mature oil field in central Kansas, with a Data General MV20000 minicomputer with Surface III mapping software and a PC with Surfer and spreadsheet software. A step-by-step procedure was developed to generate structure, isopach, and porosity maps for the five main reservoirs in the field. Lotus 123{sup TM} spreadsheets were developed to compile locations, formation tops, and other critical data for more than 500 wells. These data were sent to the minicomputer to generate contour maps depicting structure, isopachs, and porosities with output directed to an electrostatic color plotter. Grid-to-grid manipulation and cross multiplication of these contour maps allowed construction of a porosity-foot map for each reservoir. The final contour maps incorporated the effects of oil/water contact (OWC) with a porosity cutoff determined from porosity/permeability crossplots. Integration of the porosity-foot maps facilitated volumetric and spatial comparison with historic production data.

Newell, K.D.; Schoeling, L.G.; Wong, J.C. (Univ. of Kansas, KS (US))

1990-11-01

261

Optical absorption under total internal reflection in the characterization of soot in diesel engine oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical absorption of infrared radiation under total internal reflection in a novel sensor has been utilized to investigate the soot contamination of diesel engine oil by response surface methodology in factorial experiments. Sensor response showed highly significant dependence on oil soot concentration and temperature, in which the effect of the soot was greatest. The soot contamination of the optical rod in engine oil was found to be a surface phenomenon which showed little or no dependence on bulk oil shearing displacement below 500 rpm. The quadratic effect of sensor response to soot concentration was very high due to the agglomeration of soot particles, derived from the high surface energy of carbon soot. Test results of this optical absorption technique were in conformance with those other oil analysis techniques such as UV spectrophotometry, total acid number, viscosimetry, optical microscopy and EPMA. The technique proved to be more reliable than RDE emission spectrometry which showed ambiguous results due to colloidal suspension of soot particles in oil. Optical absorption proved to be an effective criterion in characterizing the soot contamination of diesel engine oil.

Ossia, C. V.; Kong, H.; Markova, L. V.; Myshkin, N. K.

2009-01-01

262

Oscillatory Dynamics of Single Bubbles and Agglomeration in a Sound Field in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual-frequency acoustic levitator containing water was developed for studying bubble and drop dynamics in low gravity. It was flown on USML-1 where it was used in the Glovebox facility. High frequency (21 or 63 kHz) ultrasonic waves were modulated by low frequencies to excite shape oscillations on bubbles and oil drops ultrasonically trapped in the water. Bubble diameters were typically close to 1 cm or larger. When such large bubbles are acoustically trapped on the Earth, the acoustic radiation pressure needed to overcome buoyancy tends to shift the natural frequency for quadrupole (n = 2) oscillations above the prediction of Lamb's equation. In low gravity, a much weaker trapping force was used and measurements of n = 2 and 3 mode frequencies were closer to the ideal case. Other video observations in low gravity include: (i) the transient reappearance of a bulge where a small bubble has coalesced with a large one, (ii) observations of the dynamics of bubbles coated by oil indicating that shape oscillations can shift a coated bubble away from the oil-water interface of the coating giving a centering of the core, and (iii) the agglomeration of bubbles induced by the sound field.

Marston, Philip L.; Trinh, Eugene H.; Depew, Jon; Asaki, Thomas J.

1994-01-01

263

Evaluation of several techniques and additives to de-moisturise vegetable oils and bench mark the moisture content level of vegetable oil-based dielectric fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly biodegradable and renewable seed-based oils can be an alternative source of dielectric fluids to replace the non-friendly mineral oil-based dielectric fluids. However, the high moisture content of vegetable oils is not suitable for a viable dielectric fluid formulation for safe, economic and trouble free operation of power and distribution transformers. The reduction of the moisture level of vegetable oils

M. Amanullah; S. M. Islam; S. Chami; G. Ienco

2008-01-01

264

Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study  

SciTech Connect

Southern Company Services, Inc., (SCS) was contracted in 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a commercially acceptable selective agglomeration technology to enhance the use of high-sulfur coals by 1993. The project scope involved development of a bench-scale process and components, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of a proof-of-concept (POC) facility. To that end, a two-ton-per-hour facility was constructed and tested near Wilsonville, Alabama. Although it was not the primary focus of the test program, SCS also measured the ability of selective agglomeration to remove trace elements from coal. This document describes the results of that program.

Not Available

1993-09-01

265

Innovative Techniques of Multiphase Flow in Pipeline System for Oil-Gas Gathering and Transportation with Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphase flow measurement, desanding, dehumidification and heat furnace are critical techniques for the oil and gas gathering and transportation, which influnce intensively the energy-saving and emission-reduction in the petroleum industry. Some innovative techniques were developed for the first time by the present research team, including an online recognation instrument of multiphase flow regime, a water fraction instrument for multuphase flow, a coiled tube desanding separator with low pressure loss and high efficiency, a supersonic swirling natural gas dehumifier, and a vacuum phase-change boiler. With an integration of the above techniques, a new oil gas gathering and transpotation system was proposed, which reduced the establishment of one metering station and several transfer stations compared with the tranditional system. The oil and gas mixture transpotation in single pipes was realized. The improved techniques were applied in the oilfields in China and promoted the productivity of the oilfields by low energy consumption, low emissions, high efficiency and great security.

Bai, Bofeng; Guo, Liejin; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhang, Ximin; Gu, Hanyang

2010-03-01

266

Modeling agglomeration processes in fluid-bed granulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many agrochemicals are formulated as water dispersive granules through agglomeration, beginning with a fine powder (â¼1 μm) and ending with granules on the order of 500 μm. Powders are charged into a granulation system with a liquid binding agent, and granules are subsequently grown to an appropriate size. Granulation in fluid beds is presented using a mass conserving discretized population

Steven A. Cryer

1999-01-01

267

A numerical/empirical technique for history matching and predicting cyclic steam performance in Canadian oil sands reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oil sands of Alberta contain some one trillion barrels of bitumen-in-place, most contained in the McMurray, Wabiskaw, Clearwater, and Grand Rapids formations. Depth of burial is 0--550 m, 10% of which is surface mineable, the rest recoverable by in-situ technology-driven enhanced oil recovery schemes. To date, significant commercial recovery has been attributed to Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) using vertical wellbores. Other techniques, such as Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are proving superior to other recovery methods for increasing early oil production but at initial higher development and/or operating costs. Successful optimization of bitumen production rates from the entire reservoir is ultimately decided by the operator's understanding of the reservoir in its original state and/or the positive and negative changes which occur in oil sands and heavy oil deposits upon heat stimulation. Reservoir description is the single most important factor in attaining satisfactory history matches and forecasts for optimized production of the commercially-operated processes. Reservoir characterization which lacks understanding can destroy a project. For example, incorrect assumptions in the geological model for the Wolf Lake Project in northeast Alberta resulted in only about one-half of the predicted recovery by the original field process. It will be shown here why the presence of thin calcite streaks within oil sands can determine the success or failure of a commercial cyclic steam project. A vast amount of field data, mostly from the Primrose Heavy Oil Project (PHOP) near Cold Lake, Alberta, enabled the development a simple set of correlation curves for predicting bitumen production using CSS. A previously calibtrated thermal numerical simulation model was used in its simplist form, that is, a single layer, radial grid blocks, "fingering" or " dilation" adjusted permeability curves, and no simulated fracture, to generate the first cycle production correlation curves. The key reservoir property used to develop a specific curve was to vary the initial mobile water saturation. Individual pilot wells were then history-matched using these correlation curves, adjusting for thermal net pay using perforation height and a fundamentally derived "net pay factor". Operating days (injection plus production) were required to complete the history matching calculations. Subsequent cycles were then history-matched by applying an Efficiency Multiplication Factor (EMF) to the original first cycle prediction method as well as selecting the proper correlation curve for the specific cycle under analysis by using the appropriate steam injection rates and slug sizes. History matches were performed on eight PHOP wells (two back-to-back, five-spot patterns) completed in the Wabiskaw and, three single-well tests completed just below in the McMurray Formation. Predictions for the PHOP Wabiskaw Formation first cycle bitumen production averaged within 1% of the actual pilot total. Bitumen recovery from individual wells for second cycle onwards, was within 20% of actual values. For testing the correlations, matching was also performed on cyclic steam data from British Petroleum's Wolf Lake Project, the Esso Cold Lake Project, and the PCEJ Fort McMurray Pilot, a joint venture of Petro-Canada, Cities Services (Canadian Occidental), Esso, and Japan-Canada Oil Sands with reasonable results.

Leshchyshyn, Theodore Henry

268

Applying monitoring, verification, and accounting techniques to a real-world, enhanced oil recovery operational CO2 leak  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being tested for oil fields in the Illinois Basin, USA. While this technology has shown promise for improving oil production, it has raised some issues about the safety of CO2 injection and storage. The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) organized a Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) team to develop and deploy monitoring programs at three EOR sites in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, USA. MVA goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. This paper focuses on the use of MVA techniques in monitoring a small CO2 leak from a supply line at an EOR facility under real-world conditions. The ability of shallow monitoring techniques to detect and quantify a CO2 leak under real-world conditions has been largely unproven. In July of 2009, a leak in the pipe supplying pressurized CO2 to an injection well was observed at an MGSC EOR site located in west-central Kentucky. Carbon dioxide was escaping from the supply pipe located approximately 1 m underground. The leak was discovered visually by site personnel and injection was halted immediately. At its largest extent, the hole created by the leak was approximately 1.9 m long by 1.7 m wide and 0.7 m deep in the land surface. This circumstance provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate the performance of several monitoring techniques including soil CO2 flux measurements, portable infrared gas analysis, thermal infrared imagery, and aerial hyperspectral imagery. Valuable experience was gained during this effort. Lessons learned included determining 1) hyperspectral imagery was not effective in detecting this relatively small, short-term CO2 leak, 2) even though injection was halted, the leak remained dynamic and presented a safety risk concern during monitoring activities and, 3) the atmospheric and soil monitoring techniques used were relatively cost-effective, easily and rapidly deployable, and required minimal manpower to set up and maintain for short-term assessments. However, characterization of CO2 distribution near the land surface resulting from a dynamic leak with widely variable concentrations and fluxes was challenging. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Wimmer, B. T.; Krapac, I. G.; Locke, R.; Iranmanesh, A.

2011-01-01

269

The role of particle engineering in relation to formulation and de-agglomeration principle in the development of a dry powder formulation for inhalation of cetrorelix  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulated cetrorelix acetate, as an adhesive mixture for use in dry powder inhalation. To achieve the highest possible deposition efficiency we investigated both the influence of different micronization techniques and different inhalers. The Novolizer with an air classifier as the powder de-agglomeration principle and the ISF inhaler were used for in vitro deposition experiments (cascade impaction). Micronization by milling

Gerrit S. Zijlstra; Wouter L. J. Hinrichs; Anne H. de Boer; Henderik W. Frijlink

2004-01-01

270

On the flexibility of agglomeration based physical space discontinuous Galerkin discretizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we show that the flexibility of the discontinuous Galerkin (dG) discretization can be fruitfully exploited to implement numerical solution strategies based on the use of elements with very general shapes. Thanks to the freedom in defining the mesh topology, we propose a new h-adaptive technique based on agglomeration coarsening of a fine mesh. The possibility to enhance the error distribution over the computational domain is investigated on a Poisson problem with the goal of obtaining a mesh independent discretization. The main building block of our dG method consists of defining discrete polynomial spaces directly on physical frame elements. For this purpose we orthonormalize with respect to the L2-product a set of monomials relocated in a specific element frame and we introduce an easy way to reduce the cost related to numerical integration on agglomerated meshes. To complete the dG formulation for second order problems, two extensions of the BR2 scheme to arbitrary polyhedral grids, including an estimate of the stabilization parameter ensuring the coercivity property, are here proposed.

Bassi, F.; Botti, L.; Colombo, A.; Di Pietro, D. A.; Tesini, P.

2012-01-01

271

Ignition, combustion, and agglomeration of encapsulated aluminum particles in a composite solid propellant. II. Experimental studies of agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion characteristics of propellants containing AP, HMX, an energetic binder, and aluminum particles with various\\u000a polymer coatings are studied at pressures of 0.15 and 4.6 MPa. It is found that the coatings influence the burning rate, the\\u000a particle size distribution of condensed combustion products, and the completeness of aluminum combustion. It is shown that\\u000a the agglomeration can be reduced

O. G. Glotov; D. A. Yagodnikov; V. S. Vorob’ev; V. E. Zarko; V. N. Simonenko

2007-01-01

272

Experimental Study on Optimization of the Agglomeration Process for Producing Instant Sugar by Conical Fluidized Bed Agglomerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the optimal processing conditions for manufacturing instant sugar. The instant sugar was produced with a batch fluid bed agglomerator under the following conditions: inlet air temperature 60–90°C; water flow rate 1–3 mL min; and spraying time 1–10 min. The optimal conditions were estimated using response surface methodology as follows: inlet air temperature of 74.4°C, water flow

Hadi Mahdavian Mehr; Mohammad Elahi; Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi

2012-01-01

273

Continuous subcritical water extraction of medicinal plant essential oil: comparison with conventional techniques.  

PubMed

A subcritical extractor equipped with a three-way inlet valve and an on/off outlet valve has been used for performing subcritical water extractions (SWE) in a continuous manner for the isolation of the essential oil of fennel, a medicinal plant. The target compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by a single extraction with 5 ml hexane, determined by gas-chromatography-flame ionization (GC-FID) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). The proposed extraction method has been compared with both hydrodistillation and dichloromethane manual extraction. Better results have been obtained with the proposed method in terms of rapidity, efficiency, cleanliness and possibility of manipulating the composition of the extract. PMID:18967949

Gámiz-Gracia, L; Luque de Castro, M D

2000-05-01

274

Genetic modification of cotton seed oil using inverted-repeat gene-silencing techniques.  

PubMed

Inverted-repeat-based gene constructs targeted against two key cotton seed-specific fatty acid desaturase genes, ghSAD-1, encoding stearoylacvl carrier protein delta9-desaturase and ghFAD2-1, encoding microsomal omega-6 desaturase, were transformed into cotton. The expression of ghSAD-1 and ghFAD2-1 in the inverted-repeat orientation resulted in increased levels of stearic and oleic acids, respectively. Interestingly, the content of palmitic acid in both high-stearic and high-oleic lines was substantially reduced. These materials offer the promise of developing cotton seed oil products with greatly improved nutritional appeal to consumers. PMID:11288706

Liu, Q; Singh, S; Green, A

2000-12-01

275

Emission characteristics of organic and heavy metal pollutants in fluidized bed incineration during the agglomeration\\/defluidization process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of adhesive materials may generate agglomerates during incineration. These agglomerates affect fluidization behavior and cause the formation of secondary pollutants. However, the impact of agglomeration on the emission of organics and heavy metals has seldom been investigated. Accordingly, this work focuses on the preparation of different synthetic wastes to simulate the generation of agglomerates, as well as the

Chiou-Liang Lin; Ming-Yen Wey; Wu-Jung Yu

2005-01-01

276

FACET; Oil and gas production facilities cost-estimating and-control techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merits of using commercially available software packages vs. in-house software and data bases are frequently assessed by cost engineers in consulting, contracting, and operating companies alike. There is no consensus on which approach is better; each company has individual requirements that are better met by one or another alternative. This paper describes FACET (facilities cost estimating techniques) programs and

C. W. Cole; I. J. Banszky

2009-01-01

277

Using Essential Oils to Teach Advanced-Level Organic Chemistry Separation Techniques and Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students sometimes have difficulty grasping the importance of when and how basic distillation techniques, column chromatography, TLC, and basic spectroscopy (IR and NMR) can be used to identify unknown compounds within a mixture. This two-part experiment uses mixtures of pleasant-smelling, readily available terpenoid compounds as unknowns to…

Bott, Tina M.; Wan, Hayley

2013-01-01

278

Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. First annual report  

SciTech Connect

This three-year project has two general objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application, and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. Another objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. This report describes work performed during the first year of the project. Following the introduction, Chapters 2 through 5 present several surveys concerning field applications of gel treatments. Based on the results of the surveys, guidelines are proposed in Chapter 5 for the selection of candidates for gel treatments (both injection wells and production wells). Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 11 discuss theoretical work that was performed during the project. Chapter 6 examines whether Hall plots indicated selectivity during gelant placement. Chapter 7 discusses several important theoretical aspects of gel treatments in production wells with water-coning problems. Chapter 8 considers exploitation of density differences during gelant placement. Chapter 11 presents a preliminary consideration of the use of precipitates as blocking agents. Chapters 9 and 10 detail the experimental work for the project. Chapter 9 describes an experimental investigation of gelant placement in fractured systems. Chapter 10 describes experiments that probe the mechanisms for disproportionate permeability reduction by gels.

Seright, R.S.

1993-12-01

279

Correlation of Emission and Atomic Absorption Techniques for Accuracy and Precision in Relation to Lubricating Oil Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the spectrometric oil analysis programs being used, mainly emission and atomic absorption equipment are used. Fifty lubricating oil samples were sent to 12 laboratories for analysis. The data collected from these 50 samples were evaluated for accuracy,...

D. C. Kittinger

1968-01-01

280

Effects of operating conditions on agglomeration and habit of paracetamol crystals in anti-solvent crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of agitation speed and feeding rate on agglomeration and habit of paracetamol crystals in anti-solvent crystallization from water–acetone mixture are reported. Water is used as anti-solvent and is added in a semi-batch manner to a baffled 1-l crystallizer equipped with a marine-type impeller. A simple new method to characterize agglomeration degree has been proposed. Results show that agglomeration degree

Z. Q. Yu; R. B. H. Tan; P. S. Chow

2005-01-01

281

Effects of operating conditions on agglomeration and habit of paracetamol crystals in anti-solvent crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of agitation speed and feeding rate on agglomeration and habit of paracetamol crystals in anti-solvent crystallization from water acetone mixture are reported. Water is used as anti-solvent and is added in a semi-batch manner to a baffled 1-l crystallizer equipped with a marine-type impeller. A simple new method to characterize agglomeration degree has been proposed. Results show that agglomeration

Z. Q. Yu; R. B. H. Tan; P. S. Chow

2005-01-01

282

Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process  

DOEpatents

A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

1994-01-01

283

The flavor problem of soybean oil. I. A test of the water washing-citric acid refining technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The future of the soybean oil industry depends in part upon increasing the flavor stability of edible soybean oil. A procedure,\\u000a which is reported to have been used by the German soybean oil refiners for combating flavor instability, has been tested on\\u000a laboratory scale and appears to have distinct merit. Oils subjected to a particularly thorough degumming operation and to

Herbert J. Dutton; Helen A. Moser; John C. Cowan

1947-01-01

284

Predicting oil quality from sidewall cores using PFID, TEC, and NIR analytical techniques in sandstone reservoirs, Offshore Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cameroon reservoirs contain oil and gas that have migrated vertically from deeper buried thermally mature marine shales. Several shallow reservoirs also contain biogenic gas. Generally, lower gravity oils found in the shallow reservoirs have undergone various degrees of biodegradation. Deeper accumulations are higher gravity {open_quote}primary{close_quote} oils. The biodegraded oils are characterized by lower gravities, higher acid numbers, higher sulfur contents,

W. O. Bement; R. I. McNeil; R. G. Lippincott

1996-01-01

285

Using freezing and drying techniques of emulsions for the microencapsulation of fish oil to improve oxidation stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological investigations show that n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a protective effect with respect to coronary heart disease. For a long time fish oil has been known as a source of PUFA. The successful incorporation of fish oil into the normal food components offers an opportunity to increase the intake of PUFA, but fish oil has to be protected against

Katrin Heinzelmann; Knut Franke

1999-01-01

286

Applying monitoring, verification, and accounting techniques to a real-world, enhanced oil recovery operational CO 2 leak  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being tested for oil fields in the Illinois Basin, USA. While this technology has shown promise for improving oil production, it has raised some issues about the safety of CO2 injection and storage. The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) organized a Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) team to

Bracken T. Wimmer; Ivan G. Krapac; Randy Locke; Abbas Iranmanesh

2011-01-01

287

Study and Application of the Directional Drilling Technique in Long-Distance Crude Oil Pipeline River-Crossing Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-distance oil pipeline has characteristics of big pipe diameter and long transportation distance. It has gradually become the main method of long-distance crude oil transportation of oil industry in the world because of its advantages, such as high safety, low energy consumption, great throughput, low cost and good economic benefit. It is inevitable to cross some rivers, lakes and

Lixin Wei; Renshan Pang; Zhihua Wang; Peng Li

2011-01-01

288

Antidiuretic effect of desmopressin chimera agglomerates by nasal administration in rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, a nasal powder of the antidiuretic peptide desmopressin (DDAVP) formulated as chimera agglomerates was studied to improve drug bioavailability and provide a flexible drug product. Firstly, DDAVP was spray-dried along with mannitol and lecithin to produce primary microparticles capable of instantaneous dissolution in water. The chimera agglomerates were spontaneously formed by mechanically vibrating the microparticles on two stacked sieves. Agglomerate formation and strength were favored by the presence of lecithin. Drug content and dissolution rate remained unmodified after agglomeration. However, owing to the agglomerate larger size, powder flowability was greatly improved in comparison with the original microparticles, allowing accurate powder dosing into the nasal delivery device. DDAVP in vitro permeation across excised rabbit nasal mucosa from the agglomerates was significantly higher than that obtained from a commercial liquid nasal spray. In rats, intranasal DDAVP agglomerates allowed for efficient administration with almost 80% of the loaded powder emitted from the device into the animal nose. The administration of DDAVP agglomerates induced a significant reduction in urine production. Moreover, the antidiuretic effect of agglomerates did not significantly differ from the one induced by an intravenous injection of DDAVP at a ten-fold lower dose. PMID:23046665

Balducci, Anna Giulia; Ferraro, Luca; Bortolotti, Fabrizio; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Colombo, Paolo; Sonvico, Fabio; Russo, Paola; Colombo, Gaia

2013-01-20

289

Pharmacokinetics evaluation of soft agglomerates for prompt delivery of enteric pantoprazole-loaded microparticles.  

PubMed

Soft agglomerates containing pantoprazole-loaded microparticles were developed with the aim of prompt delivery of gastro-resistant particles. The objective was to evaluate the relative bioavailability in dogs after the oral administration of soft agglomerates. Gastro-resistant pantoprazole-loaded microparticles prepared by spray drying were mixed with mannitol/lecithin spray-dried powder and agglomerated by vibration. One single oral dose (40mg) was administered to dogs. Each dog received either a reference tablet or hard gelatin capsules containing the agglomerates. The plasma profiles were evaluated by non-compartmental and compartmental approaches, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. The agglomerates presented 100% of drug particle loading and a production yield of 80.5%. The amount of drug absorbed after oral dosing was similar after reference or agglomerate administration, leading to a relative bioavailability of 108%. The absorption lag-time was significantly reduced after agglomerate administration (from 135.5+/-50.6 to 15.0+/-2.5min). The agglomerated gastro-resistant pantoprazole-loaded microparticles reduced time to peak plasma. The agglomerates were equivalent to the reference tablets in terms of extent but not in terms of rate of absorption, showing that this formulation is an alternative to single-unit oral dosing with enteric coating and with the advantage of reducing time to effect. PMID:19969078

Raffin, Renata P; Colomé, Letícia M; Hoffmeister, Cristiane R D; Colombo, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandra; Sonvico, Fabio; Colomé, Lucas M; Natalini, Claudio C; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Costa, Teresa Dalla; Guterres, Silvia S

2010-02-01

290

A novel multi-band SAR data technique for fully automatic oil spill detection in the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the launch of the Italian constellation of small satellites for the Mediterranean basin observation COSMO-SkyMed and the German TerraSAR-X missions, the delivery of very high-resolution SAR data to observe the Earth day or night has remarkably increased. In particular, also taking into account other ongoing missions such as Radarsat or those no longer working such as ALOS PALSAR, ERS-SAR and ENVISAT the amount of information, at different bands, available for users interested in oil spill analysis has become highly massive. Moreover, future SAR missions such as Sentinel-1 are scheduled for launch in the very next years while additional support can be provided by Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) SAR systems. Considering the opportunity represented by all these missions, the challenge is to find suitable and adequate image processing multi-band procedures able to fully exploit the huge amount of data available. In this paper we present a new fast, robust and effective automated approach for oil-spill monitoring starting from data collected at different bands, polarizations and spatial resolutions. A combination of Weibull Multiplicative Model (WMM), Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) techniques is proposed for achieving the aforementioned goals. One of the most innovative ideas is to separate the dark spot detection process into two main steps, WMM enhancement and PCNN segmentation. The complete processing chain has been applied to a data set containing C-band (ERS-SAR, ENVISAT ASAR), X-band images (Cosmo-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X) and L-band images (UAVSAR) for an overall number of more than 200 images considered.

Del Frate, Fabio; Latini, Daniele; Taravat, Alireza; Jones, Cathleen E.

2013-10-01

291

Planetary Rings: Statistical Description of Fragmentation of Ring-agglomerates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the fragmentation dynamics of a two-dimensional agglomerate, hold together by adhesive bonds, caused by an impacting projectile of given mass and impact speed/energy. The agglomerate is made of identical adhering spheres (constituents) forming a regular cubic lattice. A rather simple "random walk model" of a crack propagation has been studied numerically and analytically, where subsequent breaking of adhesive bonds (defining the crack path) is organized randomly and the breakage continues until the impact energy of the projectile is exhausted. A large number of repeated numerical breakage experiments have yielded a surprising agreement with egg-shell crushing experiments (Hermann et al., Physica A 371 (2006), 59) - i.e. the size distribution of the fragments obeys a power law, p(s) sa with a = -3/2. This distribution can theoretically described by a one-dimensional random walk model to mimick the propagation of the crack. With this prerequisite the fragment sizes can be mapped to the mean time of two distant cracks to meet (mean free passage time) in this way justifying the above distribution. These studies will serve as an input for a kinetic description (Spahn et al. 2004, Europhys. Lett. 67 (2004), 545) of a balance between coagulation and fragmentation to describe the "meso-scopic" dynamics of dense planetary rings.

Spahn, Frank; Vieira Neto, E.; Guimaraes, A. H. F.; Brilliantov, N. V.; Gorban, A. N.

2009-09-01

292

Einsatz der Oelanstrichtechnik bei Profilmessungen im Transsonischen Windkanal Braunschweig (TWB) (Use of the Film-of-Oil Technique for Profile Measurements in the Transonic Wind Tunnel Brunswick (TWB)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The film-of-oil technique is applied in the TWB to support and interpret pressure distribution measurements on profiles in difficult flow conditions as well as for the investigation of sidewall effects on the profile flow. The film consists of silicone oi...

W. Puffert-Meissner

1988-01-01

293

Synthesis of glycylglycine-imprinted silica microspheres through different water-in-oil emulsion techniques.  

PubMed

Sol-gel molecularly imprinted materials (MIMs) are traditionally obtained by grinding and sieving of a monolith formed by bulk polymerization. However, this process has several drawbacks that can be overcome if these materials are synthesized directly in the spherical format. This work aimed at the development of two efficient methods to prepare spherical glycylglycine-templated silica ("whole-imprinted" and surface-imprinted) through a combination of sol-gel and emulsion techniques. The synthesis of the microspheres was optimized regarding emulsion and sol-gel parameters. Imprinting efficiency of the prepared materials was studied by solid phase extraction and flow microcalorimetry. The particles prepared with glycylglycine and functional monomer, in basic medium (using cyclohexane as non-polar continuous medium) presented the highest imprinting factor - 2.5 - and the respective surface-imprinted material presented an imprinting factor of 1.5. The results of flow microcalorimetry confirmed the action of different mechanisms of glycylglycine adsorption: entropically-controlled interactions were present for the "whole-imprinted" material, indicating adsorption inside small imprinted pores; enthalpically-controlled interactions were observed for the surface-imprinted material, a behaviour more compatible with a template/surface-only interaction. Globally, the two approaches allowed for a successful imprinting effect which was more extensive for the "whole-imprinted" material, whereas the surface-imprinting feature confers to the surface-imprinted xerogel advantages regarding mass transfer kinetics. Overall, the spherical particles obtained by both approaches presented characteristics, such as sphericity, mesoporosity, easy/fast accessibility to imprinted sites, important indicators that these materials may be candidates for stationary phases for efficient, selective chromatographic separation. PMID:23706547

Ornelas, Mariana; Loureiro, Dianne; Araújo, Maria João; Marques, Eduardo; Dias-Cabral, Cristina; Azenha, Manuel; Silva, Fernando

2013-07-01

294

Macrokinetics of Combustion of Monodisperse Agglomerates in the Flame of a Model Solid Propellant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a procedure for studying the macrokinetics of combustion of agglomerates in a solid propellant flame using special samples of a model propellant generating monodisperse agglomerates. Empirical dependences of the incompleteness of aluminum combustion in the combustion products of a propellant based on ammonium perchlorate and HMX on time and pressure were established. The mass fraction of oxide

O. G. Glotov; V. E. Zarko; V. V. Karasev; T. D. Fedotova; A. D. Rychkov

2003-01-01

295

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993March 31, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed boilers is in progress. Preliminary results indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some

R. C. Brown; M. R. Dawson; S. D. Noble

1993-01-01

296

Agglomeration characteristics of river sand and wheat stalk ash mixture at high temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agglomeration characteristics of river sand and wheat stalk ash mixture at various temperatures are investigated using a muffle furnace. The surface structural changes, as well as the elemental makeup of the surface and cross-section of the agglomerates, are analyzed by polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Multi-phase equilibrium calculation is performed with FactSage in identifying the melting behavior of the river sand-wheat stalk ash mixture at high temperatures. No indication of agglomeration is detected below 850°C. At a temperature of 900-1000°C, however, obvious agglomeration is observed and the agglomerates solidify further as temperature increases. The presence of potassium and calcium enrichment causes the formation of a sticky sand surface that induces agglomeration. The main component of the agglomerate surface is K2O-CaO-SiO2, which melts at low temperatures. The formation of molten silicates causes particle cohesion. The main ingredient of the binding phase in the cross-section is K2O-SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO; the agglomeration is not the result of the melting behavior of wheat stalk ash itself but the comprehensive results of chemical reaction and the melting behavior at high temperatures. The multi-phase equilibrium calculations agree well with the experimental results.

Shang, Linlin; Li, Shiyuan; Lu, Qinggang

2013-02-01

297

Crystal agglomeration is a major element in calcium oxalate urinary stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystal agglomeration is a major element in calcium oxalate urinary stone formation. The effects of urines from 36 healthy subjects and 86 calcium oxalate renal stone formers on calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization kinetics were studied using a seeded crystal growth method in which the solubility, the growth and the agglomeration of the crystals are measured as three separate and system-independent

Dik J Kok; Socrates E Papapoulos; Olav L M Bijvoet

1990-01-01

298

[Classification of oils by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry combined with pattern recognition techniques].  

PubMed

In the present work, the combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and pattern recognition, including principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), is used as a fast and convenient analytical tool to classify oil samples. Twenty five samples including crude oils and fuel oils with different total contents of n-alkanes were analyzed. It was found that multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) as a pretreatment method could improve the classification results of pattern recognition. The classification results were proved to be in agreement with the origin of the oil samples. The oils with high content of n-alkanes and those with low content were classified clearly by this developed method, but it still had some constraint to differentiating oils with little difference. The present work provides a feasible method for quick classification of oils, which can be used for the initial identification of spill oils and afford useful information for the further identification of the oils. PMID:20496682

Liu, Qian; Sun, Pei-Yan; Gao, Zhen-Hui; Cai, Wen-Sheng; Shao, Xue-Guang

2010-03-01

299

Influence of the pan pelletizer rotational velocity and the particles size on the agglomeration of alumina oxide granules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High fraction of agglomerates and better agglomerate strength are main purpose for every agglomeration process. For optimizing the agglomeration process of industrial produced granules, using liquid binders, it is necessary to understand the microinteractions between primary particles and binder and the marcointeractions between the agglomerates themselves. In order to investigate the influence of the rotational velocity of the pan pelletizer and the primary particle size on the fraction of agglomerates and the mechanical properties of the produced agglomerates, the obtained structures have to be basically analyzed. Agglomeration of industrial produced Alumina Oxide (?-Al2O3) granules is carried out in a rotating pan pelletizer. A 6 mass-% solution of viscoelastic polymer - hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is used as binder. The rotational velocity of the pelletizer pan is previously measured and calibrated. By changing the rotational velocity of the process chamber it was found that there are critical speed limits for the pan. The minimum critical velocity of the pelletizer plate does not provide enough contact collisions between the particles and the necessary kinetic level for agglomeration cannot be reached. The maximum critical velocity leads to higher rotational kinetic energy and this causes breakages of the agglomerates. It was also proven that the breakage strength of the agglomerates decreases with the reduction of the agglomerate size. The conclusions from the experimental work help us to understand the basics of agglomeration process and tend to develop and facilitate the operating with particle collectives in science and industry.

Radeva, Zheni; Müller, Peter; Tomas, Juergen

2013-06-01

300

Intensive drying and the related microstructure features in agglomerate spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most metal ore concentrates are fine particulates with a wide particle-size distribution. Industrially they are pelletized by tumbling in balling discs or drums into spheres, an operation which requires the addition of typically up to 10% by weight of water. Further processing of these agglomerates involves first drying and then induration by heating up to 1250°C. The main objective of this thesis was the study of the interrelationship between the microstructure of the agglomerates with, on the one hand, the mechanical and physical properties of the pellets and their behaviour during intensive drying, on the other. The previously developed model of the drying process identified the loss of capillarity, resulting from the vapour lock, to be a critical component of the mechanism of intense as opposed to 'classical' drying. It was shown that the absence of the constant-rate drying period is a natural consequence of this effect. Several significant shortcomings of the previous model have been identified. This model treats the period of transition between surface- and shrinking-core drying as an instantaneous event. The new extended model, which overcomes the original model limitations, was developed in this project. In its formalism, the new model includes the pore-size distribution and thus simulates a gradual surface/shrinking-core transition. It was shown that the nature of the transition between the surface- and shrinking-core drying regimes during intensive drying is fundamentally different from that of classical drying, i.e. carried out at mild temperatures. In the latter case, liquid is being delivered to the surface through the network of interconnected small pores reaching the surface. The transition occurs when the larger pores, also reaching the surface, are being drained. On the other hand, under intense-drying conditions, the rate-limiting factor is the vapour lock. The latter phenomenon will occur in the smaller pores first, as they have smaller liquid pressure. Hence, they will be the first to become dry, while surface drying continues through the system of interconnected larger pores reaching the surface. Experimental research to be described validates the extended model for the drying of agglomerates that have a wide range of particle size and have been dried under wide range of drying conditions. New insights have been gained by applying this new drying model. Critical aspects of microstructure of agglomerates were investigated more specifically in the light of these new insights. They include pore-matrix expansion during drying due to the engulfment of fine particles into the contacts between the larger, structure-creating ones. Experimental results validate the matrix-expansion hypothesis developed in this study. Although this study focused on a specific industrial process, the pelletizing of iron-ore concentrates, the interrelationship between microstructure and drying behaviour has important implications in understanding the nature of soils, rocks, ceramics and processed foods.

Kudlyk, Rostyslav

301

Effect of precipitation conditions on the morphology of strontium molybdate agglomerates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary experimental results about precipitation of strontium molybdate particles show that they have morphology as hierarchical agglomerates [A. Cameirão, R. David, F. Espitalier, F. Gruy, Multiple agglomeration in strontium molybdate precipitation, 16th ISIC, 2005, pp. 355-360]. The precipitation of strontium molybdate was studied and monitored in a batch reactor. The precipitation parameters, i.e. initial concentration of strontium molybdate, temperature and stirring rate, have an effect on the particles and agglomerates morphology. The shapes of the crystals were observed by SEM, and the PSD was measured at the end of precipitation by laser diffraction. The powders were also analysed by XRD, surface area (BET) and porosity measurements. Finally, a model of agglomeration was designed in order to predict the morphology of the observed agglomerates.

Cameirão, A.; David, R.; Espitalier, F.; Gruy, F.

2008-08-01

302

Acoustic agglomeration of power-plant fly ash. A comprehensive semi-annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

Results obtained during the reporting period are presented. The agglomeration of submicron fly ash particles has been studied as a function of sound pressure level, sound frequency, loading, and exposure time. A second generation model of the agglomeration process is being developed. A high-frequency, high-intensity variable speed siren delivering at least 600 W at frequencies up to 4000 Hz has been developed and tested. Details on the design and operation are presented. The agglomeration chamber has been completely cleaned and the aerosol generating system has been rebuilt. A mathematical model of the acoustics of agglomeration is being developed. Preliminary results of computerized electron microscopic scanning of fly ash particles during agglomeration are presented. (DMC)

Reethof, G.

1980-02-01

303

Effect of particle agglomeration on heavy metals adsorption by Al and Ca-based sorbents during fluidized bed incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al- and Ca-based materials can serve as metal sorbents or agglomeration inhibitors in fluidized beds. Although particle agglomeration could affect the adsorption efficiency of metal sorbents, Al- and Ca-based materials have been found to inhibit the particle agglomeration phenomenon during the incineration process. Accordingly, this study emphasizes the effect of particle agglomeration on heavy metal adsorption by Al- and Ca-based

Jia-Hong Kuo; Chiou-Liang Lin; Ming-Yen Wey

2011-01-01

304

Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. First quarterly technical progress report, September 30, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase the oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin, Utah, by demonstration of improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field. Low productivity is attributed to gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Tertiary Green River and Wasatch Formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This phase will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project. Technical progress is described for: outcrop studies of the Green River Formation; subsurface studies of the Bluebell field; and engineering studies of the reservoirs in the Green River Formation and the Wasatch Formation.

Morgan, C.D.

1994-01-10

305

Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin wells is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project. Technical progress for this quarter are discussed for subsurface and engineering studies.

Morgan, C.D.

1995-09-01

306

Modifying drug release and tablet properties of starch acetate tablets by dry powder agglomeration.  

PubMed

In this study three model drugs (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG), anhydrous caffeine, and propranolol hydrochloride) were agglomerated with starch acetate (SA) by mixing the binary powders on a stainless steel (SS) plate. Agglomeration was induced by triboelectrification of the particles during mixing, and it was evaluated as a method to achieve controlled drug release rate. These agglomerates, mixed with different amounts of a disintegrant, were compressed into tablets whose dissolution characteristics were determined. Triboelectric measurements showed that when the drugs were in contact with SS, charges of the opposite polarity were generated to SA (+) and caffeine and NAG (-) promoting adhesion. Instead, propranolol HCl was charged with the same polarity as SA. SEM micrographs showed that smaller caffeine particles, in spite of their larger negative charge, agglomerated less efficiently with SA than larger NAG particles. This emphasizes the importance of particle size in the agglomeration process. Propranolol HCl did not form agglomerates with SA since their particle sizes and charges were identical. As a result, agglomeration of powders prior to tablet compression allows for modification and control of the release rate of the drugs from the SA matrix tablets as well as the tensile strength of the tablets. PMID:17075868

Mäki, Riikka; Suihko, Eero; Rost, Susanne; Heiskanen, Minna; Murtomaa, Matti; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko

2007-02-01

307

A numerical\\/empirical technique for history matching and predicting cyclic steam performance in Canadian oil sands reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil sands of Alberta contain some one trillion barrels of bitumen-in-place, most contained in the McMurray, Wabiskaw, Clearwater, and Grand Rapids formations. Depth of burial is 0--550 m, 10% of which is surface mineable, the rest recoverable by in-situ technology-driven enhanced oil recovery schemes. To date, significant commercial recovery has been attributed to Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) using vertical

Theodore Henry Leshchyshyn

1999-01-01

308

Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing  

SciTech Connect

Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,`` there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

Not Available

1991-09-01

309

Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing  

SciTech Connect

Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,'' there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

Not Available

1991-09-01

310

Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles  

DOEpatents

A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-07-05

311

Radiation-induced silver agglomeration in molecular sieves: A comparison between A and X zeolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stabilization conditions of silver atoms and clusters in hydrated and dehydrated AgNa-A and AgNa-X zeolites ?-irradiated at 77 K have been studied by ESR. It was found that silver agglomeration mechanisms in hydrated A and X zeolites are very similar and are controlled by the migration of silver atoms into the ?-cages. In dehydrated zeolites agglomeration leads to completely different silver clusters in A and X zeolites. Small cationic clusters are stabilized in A zeolites and metallic clusters in X zeolites. Various factors affecting the agglomeration process in A and X zeolites are discussed.

Sad?o, Jaros?aw; Wa¸sowicz, Tomasz; Michalik, Jacek

1995-06-01

312

Reducing adhesion and agglomeration within a cloud of combustible particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of combustible particle clouds inside flame tubes is of fundamental scientific interest as well as a practical concern. Only the suspended concentration is important to the combustion process, so that assurances must be provided that a minimum of particles adheres to the tube wall. This paper demonstrates experimentally the ability to minimize adhesion and agglomeration of acoustically-mixed lycopodium particles within a 5-cm diameter lexan flame tube. The area density of particles (ADP) adhering to the wall of bare lexan tubes was measured at greater than 100 particles/sq mm. The nature of adhesion was found to be clearly electrostatic, with the ADP level aggravated by increased mixing time, vigor, and the concentration of particles. Increases in the conductivity of the air and the tube wall did not affect ADP levels substantially. However, the observed adhesion was reduced to less than 10 p/sq mm when the air was ionized by use of an alpha emitter mounted on the inner walls of the flame tube.

Ross, Howard D.

1988-01-01

313

Agglomeration Multigrid for an Unstructured-Grid Flow Solver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An agglomeration multigrid scheme has been implemented into the sequential version of the NASA code USM3Dns, tetrahedral cell-centered finite volume Euler/Navier-Stokes flow solver. Efficiency and robustness of the multigrid-enhanced flow solver have been assessed for three configurations assuming an inviscid flow and one configuration assuming a viscous fully turbulent flow. The inviscid studies include a transonic flow over the ONERA M6 wing and a generic business jet with flow-through nacelles and a low subsonic flow over a high-lift trapezoidal wing. The viscous case includes a fully turbulent flow over the RAE 2822 rectangular wing. The multigrid solutions converged with 12%-33% of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) time required by the solutions obtained without multigrid. For all of the inviscid cases, multigrid in conjunction with an explicit time-stepping scheme performed the best with regard to the run time memory and CPU time requirements. However, for the viscous case multigrid had to be used with an implicit backward Euler time-stepping scheme that increased the run time memory requirement by 22% as compared to the run made without multigrid.

Frink, Neal; Pandya, Mohagna J.

2004-01-01

314

Constraints on chondrule agglomeration from fine-grained chondrule rims  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fine-grained rims around chondrules, Ca,Al-rich inclusions, and other coarse-grained components occur in most types of unequilibrated chondrites, most prominently in carbonaceous chondrites of the CM group. Based on mineralogical and petrographic investigations, it was suggested that rim structures in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites could have formed in the solar nebula by accretion of dust on the surfaces of the chondrules. Dust mantles in CM chondrites seem to have formed by accretion of dust on the surfaces of chondrules and other components during their passage through dust-rich regions in the solar nebula. Concentric mantles with compositionally different layers prove the existence of various distinct dust reservoirs in the vicinity of the accreting parent body. Despite mineralogical and chemical differences, fine-grained rims from other chondrite groups principally show striking similarities to dust mantle textures in CM chondrite. This implies that the formation of dust mantles was a cosmically significant event like the chondrule formation itself. Dust mantles seem to have formed chronologically between chondrule-producing transient heating events and the agglomeration of chondritic parent bodies. For this reason the investigation of dust mantle structures may help to answer the question of how a dusty solar nebula was transformed into a planetary system.

Metzler, K.; Bischoff, A.

1994-01-01

315

Branched-linear and agglomerate protein polymers as vaccine platforms.  

PubMed

Many viral structural proteins and their truncated domains share a common feature of homotypic interaction forming dimers, trimers, and/or oligomers with various valences. We reported previously a simple strategy for construction of linear and network polymers through the dimerization feature of viral proteins for vaccine development. In this study, technologies were developed to produce more sophisticated polyvalent complexes through both the dimerization and oligomerization natures of viral antigens. As proof of concept, branched-linear and agglomerate polymers were made via fusions of the dimeric glutathione-s-transferase (GST) with either a tetrameric hepatitis E virus (HEV) protruding protein or a 24-meric norovirus (NoV) protruding protein. Furthermore, a monomeric antigen, either the M2e epitope of influenza A virus or the VP8* antigen of rotavirus, was inserted and displayed by the polymer platform. All resulting polymers were easily produced in Escherichia coli at high yields. Immunization of mice showed that the polymer vaccines induced significantly higher specific humoral and T cell responses than those induced by the dimeric antigens. Additional evidence in supporting use of polymer vaccines included the significantly higher neutralization activity and protective immunity of the polymer vaccines against the corresponding viruses than those of the dimer vaccines. Thus, our technology for production of polymers containing different viral antigens offers a strategy for vaccine development against infectious pathogens and their associated diseases. PMID:24985736

Wang, Leyi; Xia, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Fang, Hao; Cao, Dianjun; Meng, Xiang-Jin; McNeal, Monica; Jiang, Xi; Tan, Ming

2014-09-01

316

Magnetoviscosity and thread-like agglomerations in ferrofluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on experiments and simulations performed on small non-magnetic glass balls falling under gravity through a magnetized ferrofluid. The applied magnetic field is oriented horizontally, normal to the fall, and is uniform but its magnitude can be adjusted over a wide range. Using the Advanced Photon Source x-ray beamline at Argonne, we were able to achieve sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to track the dynamics of these 500 ?m diameter spheres simultaneously with an array of magnetic particle macro-chains -- thread-like agglomerations each several mm long and 2-10 ?m thick. The enhanced drag induced by the macro-chains is enormous: up to four times larger than for unmagnetized fluid, a value greater than is predicted by the prevailing magneto-viscosity model. We provide direct visualization of a possible mechanism by which macro-chains impede the transverse motion of spheres. Numerical simulations can reproduce the observed drag, without modeling it physically, by implementing a simple magnetization dependent anisotropic viscosity.

Yecko, Philip; Cali, A.; Lee, W.-K.; Nunez, S.; Prescod, J.; Smith, R.; Trubatch, A. D.; Vieira, M.

2011-11-01

317

The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates. V. Multiple Impacts of Dusty Agglomerates at Velocities Above the Fragmentation Threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, a number of new experiments have advanced our knowledge on the early growth phases of protoplanetary dust aggregates. Some of these experiments have shown that collisions between porous and compacted agglomerates at velocities above the fragmentation threshold velocity can lead to growth of the compact body, when the porous collision partner fragments upon impact and transfers mass to the compact agglomerate. To obtain a deeper understanding of this potentially important growth process, we performed laboratory and drop tower experiments to study multiple impacts of small, highly porous dust-aggregate projectiles onto sintered dust targets. The projectile and target consisted of 1.5 ?m monodisperse, spherical SiO2 monomers with volume filling factors of 0.15 ± 0.01 and 0.45 ± 0.05, respectively. The fragile projectiles were accelerated by a solenoid magnet and combined with a projectile magazine with which 25 impacts onto the same spot on the target could be performed in vacuum. We measured the mass-accretion efficiency and the volume filling factor for different impact velocities between 1.5 and 6.0 m s^{-1}. The experiments at the lowest impact speeds were performed in the Bremen drop tower under microgravity conditions to allow partial mass transfer also for the lowest adhesion case. Within this velocity range, we found a linear increase of the accretion efficiency with increasing velocity. In the laboratory experiments, the accretion efficiency increases from 0.12 to 0.21 in units of the projectile mass. The recorded images of the impacts showed that the mass transfer from the projectile to the target leads to the growth of a conical structure on the target after less than 100 impacts. From the images, we also measured the volume filling factors of the grown structures, which ranged from 0.15 (uncompacted) to 0.40 (significantly compacted) with increasing impact speed. The velocity dependency of the mass-transfer efficiency and the packing density of the resulting aggregates augment our knowledge of the aggregate growth in protoplanetary disks and should be taken into account for future models of protoplanetary dust growth.

Kothe, Stefan; Güttler, Carsten; Blum, Jürgen

2010-12-01

318

Crude Oil Price Forecasting Based on Hybridizing Wavelet Multiple Linear Regression Model, Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques, and Principal Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR) is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series.

Shabri, Ani; Samsudin, Ruhaidah

2014-01-01

319

Crude oil price forecasting based on hybridizing wavelet multiple linear regression model, particle swarm optimization techniques, and principal component analysis.  

PubMed

Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR) is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series. PMID:24895666

Shabri, Ani; Samsudin, Ruhaidah

2014-01-01

320

Development of acoustic agglomerator. Monthly technical progress report for April 1-30, 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report is a monthly technical progress statement of the devlopment of an acoustic agglomerator. The report is divided into two parts including the establishment of performance criteria and a sound source evaluation.

Not Available

1984-05-20

321

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

1993-02-01

322

Mitigation of Copper Corrosion and Agglomeration in APS Process Water Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Copper corrosion has been observed in process water (PW) systems at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) dating to the early postcommissioning phase of the project. In time, copper corrosion products agglomerated significantly in certain preferred locations. ...

R. Dortwegt C. Putman E. Swetin

2002-01-01

323

Evaluation of acoustic agglomerator for high temperature, high pressure particulate control. Task 13 final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical report gives a description of the high temperature, high pressure acoustic agglomerator (HPHT AA) project at Penn State University's High Intensity Acoustic Laboratory. The basic purpose of Task Order 13 was to demonstrate the effectiveness...

G. H. Koopmann G. Reethof

1989-01-01

324

Analysis of river pollution data from low-flow period by means of multivariate techniques: a case study from the oil-shale industry region, northeastern Estonia.  

PubMed

The oil-shale industry has created serious pollution problems in northeastern Estonia. Untreated, phenol-rich leachate from semi-coke mounds formed as a by-product of oil-shale processing is discharged into the Baltic Sea via channels and rivers. An exploratory analysis of water chemical and microbiological data sets from the low-flow period was carried out using different multivariate analysis techniques. Principal component analysis allowed us to distinguish different locations in the river system. The riverine microbial community response to water chemical parameters was assessed by co-inertia analysis. Water pH, COD and total nitrogen were negatively related to the number of biodegradative bacteria, while oxygen concentration promoted the abundance of these bacteria. The results demonstrate the utility of multivariate statistical techniques as tools for estimating the magnitude and extent of pollution based on river water chemical and microbiological parameters. An evaluation of river chemical and microbiological data suggests that the ambient natural attenuation mechanisms only partly eliminate pollutants from river water, and that a sufficient reduction of more recalcitrant compounds could be achieved through the reduction of wastewater discharge from the oil-shale chemical industry into the rivers. PMID:12638742

Truu, Jaak; Heinaru, Eeva; Talpsep, Ene; Heinaru, Ain

2002-01-01

325

The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates. VII. The Low-velocity Collision Behavior of Large Dust Agglomerates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed micro-gravity collision experiments in our laboratory drop tower using 5 cm sized dust agglomerates with volume filling factors of 0.3 and 0.4, respectively. This work is an extension of our previous experiments reported in Beitz et al. to aggregates of more than one order of magnitude higher masses. The dust aggregates consisted of micrometer-sized silica particles and were macroscopically homogeneous. We measured the coefficient of restitution for collision velocities ranging from 1 cm s-1 to 0.5 m s-1, and determined the fragmentation velocity. For low velocities, the coefficient of restitution decreases with increasing impact velocity, in contrast to findings by Beitz et al. At higher velocities, the value of the coefficient of restitution becomes constant, before the aggregates break at the onset of fragmentation. We interpret the qualitative change in the coefficient of restitution as the transition from a solid-body-dominated to a granular-medium-dominated behavior. We complement our experiments by molecular-dynamics simulations of porous aggregates and obtain a reasonable match to the experimental data. We discuss the importance of our experiments for protoplanetary disks, debris disks, and planetary rings. This work is an extension to the previous work of our group and gives new insight into the velocity dependency of the coefficient of restitution due to improved measurements, better statistics, and a theoretical approach.

Schräpler, Rainer; Blum, Jürgen; Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm

2012-10-01

326

Reduced bed agglomeration by co-combustion biomass with peat fuels in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion is an energy conversion technology that is very suitable for biomass combustion because of its fuel flexibility and low process temperatures. However, agglomeration of bed material may cause severe operating problems. To prevent or at least reduce this, peat has been suggested as an additive to the main fuels. Nevertheless, the characteristics of peat fuels vary and there is limited information of the effect of different peat fuels and of the mechanisms behind the agglomeration prevention. The objectives of the present work were therefore to: (I) quantify the potential positive effect by co-combustion peat with forest fuels in terms of initial agglomeration temperatures; (ii) determine the amount of peat fuel that is needed to significantly reduce the agglomeration tendencies; and, if possible, (iii) elucidate the governing mechanisms. The results showed that all peat fuels prevented agglomeration in the studied interval of 760-1020{sup o}C and even as little as 5% peat fuel was found to have significant effects. The results also indicated that the mechanism of the agglomeration prevention varies between different peat fuels. Possible mechanisms are the minerals in the peat fuel retain alkali, which then is either elutriated up from the bed or captured in the bed; calcium and other refractory elements increase the melting temperature and thereby counteract the melting of alkali; and sulfur reacts with alkali metals and the alkali sulfates is either elutriated up from the bed or prevents agglomeration by increased melting temperature and lowered viscosity. Results from elemental analysis of the coating on bed particles showed that all mixtures with peat fuel resulted in a decreased or unchanged fraction of potassium and an increased fraction of aluminum in the coatings. The results also indicated a complex relationship between the fuel inorganic contents and the agglomeration process. 21 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Karin Lundholm; Anders Nordin; Marcus Oehman; Dan Bostroem [Umeaa University, Umeaa (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry

2005-12-01

327

Mitigation of copper corrosion and agglomeration in APS process water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper corrosion has been observed in process water (PW) systems at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) dating to the early postcommissioning phase of the project. In time, copper corrosion products agglomerated significantly in certain preferred locations. Significant agglomerations (or deposits) can occur in copper cooling passages such as magnet conductors and x-ray absorbers having relatively large length-to-diameter ratios and where

R. Dortwegt; C. Putnam; E. Swetin

2002-01-01

328

Effect of precipitation conditions on the morphology of strontium molybdate agglomerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary experimental results about precipitation of strontium molybdate particles show that they have morphology as hierarchical agglomerates [A. Cameirão, R. David, F. Espitalier, F. Gruy, Multiple agglomeration in strontium molybdate precipitation, 16th ISIC, 2005, pp. 355–360]. The precipitation of strontium molybdate was studied and monitored in a batch reactor. The precipitation parameters, i.e. initial concentration of strontium molybdate, temperature and

A. Cameirão; R. David; F. Espitalier; F. Gruy

2008-01-01

329

Radiation-induced silver agglomeration in molecular sieves: A comparison between A and X zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilization conditions of silver atoms and clusters in hydrated and dehydrated AgNa-A and AgNa-X zeolites ?-irradiated at 77 K have been studied by ESR. It was found that silver agglomeration mechanisms in hydrated A and X zeolites are very similar and are controlled by the migration of silver atoms into the ?-cages. In dehydrated zeolites agglomeration leads to completely

Jaros?aw Sad?o; Jacek Michalik

1995-01-01

330

Radiation-induced silver agglomeration in molecular sieves: a comparison between A and X zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilization conditions of silver atoms and clusters in hydrated and dehydrated AgNa-A and AgNa-X zeolites gamma-irradiated at 77 K have been studied by ESR. It was found that silver agglomeration mechanisms in hydrated A and X zeolites are very similar and are controlled by the migration of silver atoms into the alpha-cages. In dehydrated zeolites agglomeration leads to completely

Jaroslaw Sadlo; Tomasz Wasowicz; Jacek Michalik

1995-01-01

331

Effect of the Additives on the Desulphurization Rate of Flash Hydrated and Agglomerated CFB Fly Ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CFB fly ash from separators was mixed with water or the mixture of water and additives under the temperature of 363K by use of a blender. Then, this compound of fly ash and water or additives was pumped into a CFB combustion chamber by a sludge pump. Because the temperature of flue gas was high in CFB, the fly ash was hydrated fast and agglomerated in the same time. Through this process, the size of agglomerating fly ash is larger than the original particle and the relative residence time of agglomerated fly ash in CFB becomes longer. Therefore, the rate of utility of calcium in fly ash improves and the content of carbon in fly ash decreases. This results in a low Ca/S and low operational cost for CFB boiler. The additive is one key factor, which affects the rate of desulfurization of agglomerated fly ash. Effect of different additives on rate of desulfurization is not same. Cement and limestone are beneficiated to sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash, but sodium silicate does not devote to the rate of sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash.

Li, D. X.; Li, H. L.; Xu, M.; Lu, J. F.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, J. S.; Yue, G. X.

332

Search for the contamination source of butyltin compounds in wine: agglomerated cork stoppers.  

PubMed

A possible butyltin contamination source in wine was studied in this paper. Agglomerated cork stoppers, which were produced in Portugal, Spain, and Italy, used in wine bottles were examined. The domestic cork products, cork granules, and mucus used for cork products were also analyzed. The levels of mono- and dibutyltin compounds in corks were found in the range from <0.0024 to 3.3 and from <0.0029 to 6.7 microg of Sn/g, respectively. A low level of tributyltin contamination was also found in 2 of 31 tested samples. The presence of butyltin compounds in agglomerated cork stoppers was confirmed by GC-MS. Experimental results indicated that all overseas agglomerated cork stoppers studied contained mono- and/or dibutyltins. Butyltins were not detected in cork granules, mucus, most of the natural cork stoppers, and domestic agglomerated cork products. The concentrations of mono- and dibutyltins increased with the time in a 30-day experiment, showing that butyltin compounds can leach from agglomerated cork to the wine. When the butyltin concentrations in wine samples were compared with their levels in the corresponding agglomerated cork stoppers, a correlation was found. The potential harm of such food contamination was evaluated by the toxic research of butyltin compounds using Daphnia sp. as the experimental model. PMID:15382863

Jiang, Gui-Bin; Liu, Ji-Yan; Zhou, Qun-Fang

2004-08-15

333

Ultrasonic cavitation induced water in vegetable oil emulsion droplets--a simple and easy technique to synthesize manganese zinc ferrite nanocrystals with improved magnetization.  

PubMed

In the present investigation, synthesis of manganese zinc ferrite (Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4)) nanoparticles with narrow size distribution have been prepared using ultrasound assisted emulsion (consisting of rapeseed oil as an oil phase and aqueous solution of Mn(2+), Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) acetates) and evaporation processes. The as-prepared ferrite was nanocrystalline. In order to remove the small amount of oil present on the surface of the ferrite, it was subjected to heat treatment at 300 °C for 3h. Both the as-prepared and heat treated ferrites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), TGA/DTA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. As-prepared ferrite is of 20 nm, whereas the heat treated ferrite shows the size of 33 nm. In addition, magnetic properties of the as-prepared as well as the heat treated ferrites have also been carried out and the results of which show that the spontaneous magnetization (?(s)) of the heat treated sample (24.1 emu/g) is significantly higher than that of the as-synthesized sample (1.81 emu/g). The key features of this method are avoiding (a) the cumbersome conditions that exist in the conventional methods; (b) usage of necessary additive components (stabilizers or surfactants, precipitants) and (c) calcination requirements. In addition, rapeseed oil as an oil phase has been used for the first time, replacing the toxic and troublesome organic nonpolar solvents. As a whole, this simple straightforward sonochemical approach results in more phase pure system with improved magnetization. PMID:22113061

Sivakumar, Manickam; Towata, Atsuya; Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Iida, Yasuo; Maiorov, Michail M; Blums, Elmars; Bhattacharya, Dipten; Sivakumar, Neelagesi; Ashok, M

2012-05-01

334

INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH  

SciTech Connect

The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which exhibits a characteristic set of reservoir properties obtained from outcrop analogs, cores, and geophysical logs. The Anasazi and Runway fields were selected for geostatistical modeling and reservoir compositional simulations. Models and simulations incorporated variations in carbonate lithotypes, porosity, and permeability to accurately predict reservoir responses. History matches tied previous production and reservoir pressure histories so that future reservoir performances could be confidently predicted. The simulation studies showed that despite most of the production being from the mound-core intervals, there were no corresponding decreases in the oil in place in these intervals. This behavior indicates gravity drainage of oil from the supra-mound intervals into the lower mound-core intervals from which the producing wells' major share of production arises. The key to increasing ultimate recovery from these fields (and similar fields in the basin) is to design either waterflood or CO{sub 2}-miscible flood projects capable of forcing oil from high-storage-capacity but low-recovery supra-mound units into the high-recovery mound-core units. Simulation of Anasazi field shows that a CO{sub 2} flood is technically superior to a waterflood and economically feasible. For Anasazi field, an optimized CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total 4.21 million barrels (0.67 million m3) of oil representing in excess of 89 percent of the original oil in place. For Runway field, the best CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total of 2.4 million barrels (0.38 million m3) of oil representing 71 percent of the original oil in place. If the CO{sub 2} flood performed as predicted, it is a financially robust process for increasing the reserves in the many small fields in the Paradox Basin. The results can be applied to other fields in the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent.

Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

2002-11-01

335

NDT of on and offshore oil and gas installations using the alternating current field measurement (ACFM) technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore inspection has been carried out in the UK waters for the last 25 years, but the techniques used have until recently remained stagnant. Innovative work carried out by University College London produced the mathematical modeling of the alternating current field measurement technique, which was then further developed and commercialized into a field usable technique. During detection and sizing trials,

G. A. Raine; N. Smith

1996-01-01

336

A kinetic study of the mechanism of radiation induced agglomeration of ovalbumin in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of concentration on the protein radiolytic damage resulting in a change in molecular mass was measured in the concentration range from 0.2 to 2 mmol×dm -3 ovalbumin in phosphate buffered solutions saturated with N 2O. The electrophoretic analysis of samples on discontinuous SDS-polyacrylamide gels in the presence or absence of 5% ?-mercaptoethanol showed an expected result, i.e. that the protein scission did not take place in the absence of oxygen. Only ovalbumin agglomerates, bonded by covalent bonds other than S-S bridges, were observed. The G-value for the formation of ovalbumin agglomerates increased linearly from 1.1 to 2.4 by increasing the ovalbumin concentration from 0.2 to 2 mmol×dm -3. The result is interpreted as to be owing to the competition between ovalbumin agglomeration and some intramolecular reactions which did not lead to the change in the molecular mass. It was also found that the G-value is independent of irradiation dose rate. The result was rationalized as a kinetic evidence that the agglomeration is not a cross-linking process, i.e. it does not occur via recombination of the protein radicals produced in the interaction of ovalbumin and rad OH radical. The result suggested that the agglomeration takes place via the process of grafting, i.e. it occurs in the reaction of ovalbumin radical and an intact ovalbumin molecule. The time-resolved light scattering experiments provided an additional proof, supporting the reaction scheme of radiation-induced protein agglomeration. The biological consequences of the proposed mechanism of protein agglomeration are also discussed.

Tuce, Zorana; Janata, Eberhard; Radojcic, Marija; Milosavljevic, Bratoljub H.

2001-10-01

337

Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry fingerprinting of complex hydrocarbon mixtures: application to crude oils using data mining techniques.  

PubMed

Crude oil fingerprints were obtained from four crude oils by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) using a silver nitrate cationization reagent. Replicate analyses produced spectral data with a large number of features for each sample (>11,000 m/z values) which were statistically analyzed to extract useful information for their differentiation. Individual characteristic features from the data set were identified by a false discovery rate based feature selection procedure based on the analysis of variance models. The selected features were, in turn, evaluated using classification models. A substantially reduced set of 23 features was obtained through this procedure. One oil sample containing a high ratio of saturated/aromatic hydrocarbon content was easily distinguished from the others using this reduced set. The other three samples were more difficult to distinguish by LDI-MS using a silver cationization reagent; however, a minimal number of significant features were still identified for this purpose. Focus is placed on presenting this multivariate statistical method as a rapid and simple analytical procedure for classifying and distinguishing complex mixtures. PMID:18546088

Nguyen, Hien P; Ortiz, Israel P; Temiyasathit, Chivalai; Kim, Seoung Bum; Schug, Kevin A

2008-07-01

338

Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical ft, them stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more beds for stimulation. These recompletion will show which logs are most effective in identifying productive beds and what scale of completion is most cost effective. The third demonstration will be the logging and completion of a new well using the logs and completion scale or technique most effective in the previous demonstrations.

Deo, M.D.; Morgan, C.D.

1998-05-01

339

NDT of on and offshore oil and gas installations using the alternating current field measurement (ACFM) technique  

SciTech Connect

Offshore inspection has been carried out in the UK waters for the last 25 years, but the techniques used have until recently remained stagnant. Innovative work carried out by University College London produced the mathematical modeling of the alternating current field measurement technique, which was then further developed and commercialized into a field usable technique. During detection and sizing trials, this technique proved to be better than even MPI for detection and as good as the existing sizing techniques. This was a major advance in NDT technology, a technique that could detect surface breaking defects through paint and other coatings of various thickness, then accurately size them in terms of length and depth. The technique was adopted for subsea inspection of welds and was then used for topside applications of numerous types. The adaptability of the technique to different materials and coatings has made it acceptable to not only the offshore industry, but it is now widely used in the petrochemical industry, the power generation industry, and in aerospace and outer space. A range of equipment and probes has allowed this new technology to be used where other techniques could not be applied.

Raine, G.A. [Technical Software Consultants Ltd., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); Smith, N. [IESCO Inc., San Pedro, CA (United States)

1996-04-01

340

Experimental development of a two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting an experimental program to develop and test through pilot-plant scale of operation, IGT's two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator (TSI). The TSI is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration/gasification technology and the cyclonic combustion/incineration technology, which have been developed at IGT over many years. The TSI is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration) including gasification of high-Btu wastes. The TSI can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid and gaseous organic wastes, while containing solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill. This paper presents the results of tests conducted in a batch, fluidized-bed bench-scale unit (BSU) with commercially available clean'' top soil and the same soil spiked with lead and chromium compounds. The objectives of these tests were to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve soil agglomeration and to evaluate the leaching characteristics of the soil agglomerates formed. 7 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.; Bryan, B.G.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Shearer, T.L. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Duggan, P.A. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))

1991-01-01

341

Experimental investigation on agglomeration of coal-fired PM10 in uniform magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agglomeration experiments on fly ash particles in the size range of 0.023-9.314 ?m were conducted in a uniform magnetic field. The fly particles were produced from combustion of bituminous coal originated in Dongshen, China. A dedicated fluidized bed aerosol generator was developed to disperse particles to generate aerosol with constant rate. The aerosol particles from the generator underwent agglomeration during passing through the magnetic field. The variation in particles number concentration induced by agglomeration was measured in real time by Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The effects of the particle size, the magnetic flux density, the particle residence time in the magnetic field, the total particle mass concentration and the average gas velocity on particle agglomeration were examined. Experimental results indicate that the removal efficiencies for the midsized particles are higher than those for the smaller and the bigger ones. Single-sized and total particle removal efficiencies can be enhanced by rasing the magnetic flux density, the total particle mass concentration, the particle residence time in the magnetic field or reducing the average gas velocity. When particles are satuatedly magnetized, the magnetic flux density has no effect on their agglomeration.

Li, Yongwang; Zhao, Changsui; Wu, Xin; Lu, Duanfeng; Han, Song

2007-06-01

342

Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Second annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project is directed at reducing water production and increasing oil recovery efficiency. Today, the cost of water disposal is typically between $0.25 and $0.50 per bbl. Therefore, there is a tremendous economic incentive to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without sacrificing hydrocarbon production. Environmental considerations also provide a significant incentive to reduce water production during oilfield operations. This three-year project has two technical objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. Topics covered in this report include (1) comparisons of the use of gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates as blocking agents; (2) propagation of aluminum-citrate-HPAM gels through porous rock; (3) gel properties in fractured systems; (4) gel placement in unfractured anisotropic flow systems; and (5) an investigation of why some gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability.

Seright, R.S.

1995-03-01

343

Shipboard Oil in Water Monitor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of the flame emission technique for the monitoring of oil in water samples. The technique is useful for the detection of high vapor pressure oils; however, the lower vapor pressure materials w...

1974-01-01

344

Dry powdered aerosols of diatrizoic acid nanoparticle agglomerates as a lung contrast agent  

PubMed Central

Aerosolized contrast agents may improve the resolution of biomedical imaging modalities and enable more accurate diagnosis of lung diseases. Many iodinated compounds, such as diatrizoic acid, have been shown to be safe and useful for radiographic examination of the airways. Formulations of such compounds must be improved in order to allow imaging of the smallest airways. Here, diatrizoic acid nanoparticle agglomerates were created by assembling nanoparticles into inhalable microparticles that may augment deposition in the lung periphery. Nanoparticle agglomerates were fully characterized and safety was determined in vivo. After dry powder insufflation to rats, no acute alveolar tissue damage was observed 2 h post dose. Diatrizoic acid nanoparticle agglomerates possess the characteristics of an efficient and safe inhalable lung contrast agent.

El-Gendy, Nashwa; Aillon, Kristin L.; Berkland, Cory

2010-01-01

345

Mitigation of copper corrosion and agglomeration in APS process water systems.  

SciTech Connect

Copper corrosion has been observed in process water (PW) systems at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) dating to the early postcommissioning phase of the project. In time, copper corrosion products agglomerated significantly in certain preferred locations. Significant agglomerations (or deposits) can occur in copper cooling passages such as magnet conductors and x-ray absorbers having relatively large length-to-diameter ratios and where heat is removed by water cooling. Such agglomerations also occur at restrictions found in noncopper system components such as valve seats, fixed orifices, pump seal faces, etc. Modifications to the APS process water system that significantly reduce the rate of copper corrosion are discussed. These modifications have not prevented corrosion altogether. Other means used to prevent component clogging and malfunction as a result of current copper corrosion rates are listed.

Dortwegt, R.; Putnam, C.; Swetin, E.

2002-10-10

346

Crystallization and agglomeration kinetics in the batch precipitation of strontium molybdate  

SciTech Connect

Kinetic processes were studied during the batch precipitation of SrMoO/sub 4/ (mixing equimolar solutions of SrCl/sub 2/ and Na/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ at 25/sup 0/C) over a range of supersaturations and under different stirring modes. Primary heterogenous nucleation was predominant, with homogeneous nucleation becoming significant at S > 27, following which diffusion-controlled growth became dominant. Secondary nucleation was not detected under the conditions studied. Soon after the induction period, the small individual crystals agglomerated orthokinetically and the agglomerate size depended on both the intensity of stirring and the initial supersaturation. Toward the end of the precipitation, the agglomerate particle size distribution stabilized and was no longer affected by prolonged agitation.

Sohnel, O.; Mullin, J.W.; Jones, A.G.

1988-09-01

347

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Experiments performed support the hypothesis that a reducing atmosphere during fluidized bed coal combustion contributes to the formation of agglomerates. Reducing conditions are imposed by controlling the amount of combustion air supplied to the combustor, 50% of theoretical in these experiments. These localized reducing conditions may arise from either poor lateral bed mixing or oxygen-starved conditions due to the coal feed locations. Deviations from steady-state operating conditions in bed pressure drop may be used to detect agglomerate formation. Interpretation of the bed pressure drop was made more straightforward by employing a moving average difference method. During steady-state operation, the difference between the moving point averages should be close to zero, within {plus_minus}0.03 inches of water. Instability within the combustor, experienced once agglomerates begin to form, can be recognized as larger deviations from zero, on the magnitude of {plus_minus}0.15 inches of water.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

1995-04-01

348

Molecular dynamics study of self-agglomeration of charged fullerenes in solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agglomeration of fullerenes in solvents is an important phenomenon that is relevant to controlled synthesis of fullerene-based nanowires as well as fullerene-based composites. The molecular aggregation in solvents depends on the atomistic interactions of fullerene with the solvent and is made complicated by the fact that fullerenes accrue negative surface charges when present in solvents such as water. In the present work, we simulated fullerenes of varying size and shape (C60, C180, C240, and C540) with and without surface charges in polar protic (water), polar aprotic (acetone), and nonpolar (toluene) solvents using molecular dynamics method. Our results demonstrate that uncharged fullerenes form agglomerates in polar solvents such as water and acetone and remain relatively dispersed in nonpolar toluene. The presence of surface charge significantly reduces agglomerate size in water and acetone. Additionally, the relative influence of surface charge on fullerene agglomeration depends on the size and geometry of the fullerene with larger fullerenes forming relatively smaller agglomerates. We evaluated the diffusion coefficients of solvent molecules within the solvation shell of fullerenes and observed that they are much lower than the bulk solvent and are strongly associated with the fullerenes as seen in the corresponding radial distribution functions. To correlate agglomerate size with the binding energy between fullerenes, we evaluated the potential of mean force between fullerenes in each solvent. Consistent with the solubility of fullerenes, binding energy between fullerenes is the greatest in water followed by acetone and toluene. The presence of charge decreases the binding energy of fullerenes in water and thus results in dispersed fullerenes.

Banerjee, Soumik

2013-01-01

349

Morphology and agglomeration control of LiMnPO4 micro- and nanocrystals.  

PubMed

Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis was used to grow LiMnPO4 micro- and nanocrystals from acetate precursors. By appropriate adjustment of the precursor concentration and the pH-value of the reactant, the product composition and purity along with the crystal size can be manipulated, resulting in particle-dimensions from around 10 ?m down to a few 100 nm. Prisms and plates with hexagonal basal faces as well as cuboid and rod-like particles were produced. The effects on the crystal morphology as well as on the materials texture and agglomeration tendency are discussed and a comprehensive agglomeration phase diagram is constructed. PMID:23691973

Neef, Christoph; Jähne, Carsten; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Klingeler, Rüdiger

2013-06-25

350

Barber tackles heavy oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barber Oil Corp. is using a combination of mining and oil recovery techniques to recover heavy oil in the Kern River field near Bakersfield, California. The approach involves drilling 8 near-horizontal shafts from a cavern at the bottom of an 84-in. hole drilled to approximately 700 ft. The hole is cased with 60-in. pipe, and the cavern is cement lined.

Bleakley

1980-01-01

351

Microbial enhanced oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book focuses on a variety of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes in various stages of development. Perhaps the youngest of these techniques is microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), which has only recently been accepted as a viable alternative to other EOR processes. Because a large percentage of original oil in place (â¼ 70%) is left in a reservoir at

Yen

1990-01-01

352

OIL SLICK DISPERSAL MECHANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigates the spreading and dissolution behavior of small oil slicks formed from spills of 12 oils. The increases in area covered by the oils during spreading experiments were determined using photographic techniques. Spreading equations were derived and used to cor...

353

Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/teritiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Four activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization: (1) interpretation of outcrop analogues; (2) reservoir mapping, (3) reservoir engineering analysis of the five project fields; and (4) technology transfer.

Allison, M.L.

1996-10-01

354

Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

Allison, M.L.

1995-05-30

355

Quantification of the intensity of virgin olive oil sensory attributes by direct coupling headspace-mass spectrometry and multivariate calibration techniques.  

PubMed

The main sensory defects of virgin olive oils (rancid, vinegary, winey, muddy sediment, musty and vegetable water) and one positive attribute (fruity) characteristic of three monovarietal extra virgin olive oils (Arbequina, Picual and Frantoio) have been quantified using the direct coupling headspace-mass spectrometry. The results obtained were compared with those provided by the panel test for the same samples. Taking into account that no chromatographic separation exists, multivariate calibration techniques (partial least squares, PLS, and principal components regression, PCR) were used to create the appropriate models. The best results, in terms of standard error of prediction and prediction residual error sum of squares were obtained by PLS and therefore it was used for the prediction of a new set of samples with the above-mentioned positive and negative attributes at different concentration levels. The samples were also assessed by the panel test and good correlations were obtained in all cases. In order to extend the applicability of the model with the time, a multiplicative calibration transfer was used. The benefit of this approach was found to be more marked for the negative than the positive attributes. PMID:17376461

López-Feria, S; Cárdenas, S; García-Mesa, J A; Fernández-Hernández, A; Valcárcel, M

2007-04-20

356

Getty: producing oil from diatomite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Getty Oil Company has developed unconventional oil production techniques which will yield oil from diatomaceous earth. They propose to mine oil-saturated diatomite using open-pit mining methods. Getty's diatomite deposit in the McKittrick field of California is unique because it is cocoa brown and saturated with crude oil. It is classified also as a tightly packed deposit, and oil cannot be

Zublin

1981-01-01

357

Characterization of Pressure Signals in Fluidized Beds Loaded with Large Particles Using Wigner Distribution Analysis: Feasibility of Diagnosis of Agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental verification is reported on the early predicting index of agglomeration in bubbling fluidized bed. Coarse quartz sand, which has the same density but larger diameter than the bed material, was used to simulate the initial agglomerated particle. Wigner distribution was used to analyze the pressure fluctuation of the tested bed, and the average amplitude of local domain frequency

ZHANG Jiansheng; LÜ Junfu; WANG Xin; ZHANG Hai; YUE Guangxi; SUDA Toshiyuki; SATO Junichi

2007-01-01

358

Industrial Agglomeration and Development: A Survey of Spatial Economic Issues in East Asia and a Statistical Analysis of Chinese Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we explore the issue of industrial agglomeration and its relationship to economic development and growth in the less-developed countries of East Asia. We present theoretical arguments and secondary empirical evidence as to why we should have strong expectations about finding a positive relationship between agglomeration and economic performance. We also review evidence from the literature on the

C. Cindy Fan; Allen J. Scott

2003-01-01

359

Population balance modelling for a flow induced phase inversion based granulation in a two-dimensional rotating agglomerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel two-dimensional rotating agglomerator was developed to carry out the flow induced phase inversion (FIPI) based granulation. The process in this agglomerator shows that a continuous paste flow (mixed with liquid binder and primary particles) is extruded into the interstice of two relatively rotating disks, as the paste becomes solidified due to the loss of heat to the disks,

L. Liu; G. Akay; L. Tong

2011-01-01

360

Emission characteristics of organic and heavy metal pollutants in fluidized bed incineration during the agglomeration/defluidization process  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of adhesive materials may generate agglomerates during incineration. These agglomerates affect fluidization behavior and cause the formation of secondary pollutants. However, the impact of agglomeration on the emission of organics and heavy metals has seldom been investigated. Accordingly, this work focuses on the preparation of different synthetic wastes to simulate the generation of agglomerates, as well as the effects of various alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and operating temperatures on the formation of pollutants. The experimental results indicate that defluidization time declines as the concentration of sodium increases, and that alkaline earth metals (Mg and Ca) inhibit agglomeration. Concentrations of organic pollutants gradually increase with operating time, indicating that the size of the agglomerate gradually increases, reducing the quality of fluidization and the efficiency of combustion. After defluidization, the temperature on the surface of the sand bed increases, thereby reducing the concentrations of organics, but it remains higher than that of blank operation (without Na addition). Furthermore, concentrations of three volatile metals (Cd, Pb, Cr) follow similar trends with operating time. Independent of whether the agglomerate is formed, the concentrations of emitted heavy metals are similar. After defluidization, the emitted concentration increases, because the system is transformed to the phase of the fixed bed. The abundant silica sand does not capture the heavy metals released from waste combustion. The increasing temperature of the surface of the sand bed significantly enhances the emission of heavy metals. Accordingly, the emitted organic and heavy metal pollutants behave differently during agglomeration and defluidization.

Lin, Chiou-Liang; Wey, Ming-Yen; Yu, Wu-Jung [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (ROC)

2005-11-01

361

Composite propellant aluminum agglomeration reduction using tailored Al/PTFE particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micron aluminum is widely used in propellants; however, performance could be significantly improved if ignition barriers could be disrupted and combustion tailored. In solid propellants for example, aluminum increases theoretical specific impulse performance, yet theoretical levels cannot be achieved largely because of two-phase flow losses. These losses could be reduced if particles quickly ignited, more gaseous products were produced, and if particle breakup occurred during combustion. To achieve altered aluminum ignition and particle combustion, this work explores the use of low level (10-30 wt.%) fluorocarbon (polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or poly(carbon monofluoride) (PMF)) inclusion inside of aluminum via low or high energy mechanical activation. Aluminum/PTFE particles are found to be amenable to use in binder based energetics, having average particle sizes ranging from 15 to 78 ?m, ~2-7 m2/g, specific surface area, and combustion enthalpies as high as 20.2 kJ/g. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments indicate high energy MA reduces both reaction and oxidation onset to ~440 °C that is far below aluminum alone. Safety testing shows these particles have high electrostatic discharge (ESD) (89.9-108 mJ), impact (> 213 cm), and friction (> 360 N) ignition thresholds. The idea of further increasing reactivity and increasing particle combustion enthalpy is explored by reducing fluorocarbon inclusion content to 10 wt.% and through the use of the strained fluorocarbon PMF. Combustion enthalpy and average particle size range from 18.9 to 28.5 kJ/g and 23.0 to 67.5 ?m, respectively and depend on MA intensity, duration, and inclusion level. Specific surface areas are high (5.3 to 34.8 m2/g) and as such, Al/PMF particles are appropriate for energetic applications not requiring a curable liquid binder. Mechanical activation reduces oxidation onset (DSC) from 555 to 480 °C (70/30 wt.%). Aluminum/PMF particles are sensitive to ESD (11.5-47.5 mJ) and some can be ignited via optical flash. Propellant aluminum agglomeration is assessed through replacement of reference aluminum powders (spherical, flake, or nanoscale) with Al/PTFE (90/10 or 70/30 wt.%) particles. The effects on burning rate, pressure dependence, and aluminum ignition, combustion, and agglomeration are quantified. Microscopic imaging shows tailored particles promptly ignite at the burning surface and appear to breakup into smaller particles. Replacement of spherical aluminum with Al/PTFE 70/30 wt.% also increases the pressure exponent from 0.36 to 0.58, which results in a 50% increase in propellant burning rate at 13.8 MPa. Combustion products were quench collected using a liquid-free technique at 2.1 and 6.9 MPa. Sizing of products indicates that composite particles result in nominally 25 ?m coarse products, which are smaller than the original, average particle size and are also 66% smaller in diameter (96% by volume) than the 76 ?m products collected from reference spherical aluminized propellant. Smaller diameter condensed phase products and more gaseous products will likely decrease two-phase flow loss and reduce slag accumulation in solid rocket motors.

Sippel, Travis R.

362

Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (40-80 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvania (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performances, and report associated validation activities.

Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laura L.

2001-04-19

363

Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities.

Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laural L.

2001-11-26

364

Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Wasatch Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in a fluvial-dominated lacustrine environment. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical feet (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval. This completion technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. Geologic and engineering characterization has been used to define improved completion techniques. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The characterization study resulted in recommendations for improved completion techniques and a field-demonstration program to test those techniques. The results of the characterization study and the proposed demonstration program are discussed in the second annual technical progress report. The operator of the wells was unable to begin the field demonstration this project year (October 1, 1995 to September 20, 1996). Correlation and thickness mapping of individual beds in the Wasatch Formation was completed and resulted in a. series of maps of each of the individual beds. These data were used in constructing the reservoir models. Non-fractured and fractured geostatistical models and reservoir simulations were generated for a 20-square-mile (51.8-km{sup 2}) portion of the Bluebell field. The modeling provides insights into the effects of fracture porosity and permeability in the Green River and Wasatch reservoirs.

Morgan, C.D.; Allison, M.L.

1997-08-01

365

Agglomerated Large Particles under Various Slurry Preparation Conditions and Their Influence on Shallow Trench Isolation Chemical Mechanical Polishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of various slurry manufacturing conditions, such as suspension pH, abrasive contents, and the calcination temperature of abrasive ceramic particles on the formation of agglomerated large particles of ceria slurry were investigated. The agglomerated large particles in slurry have much influence on the micro-scratches on the wafer surface in shallow trench isolation chemical mechanical polishing (STI CMP). The formation of large agglomerated particles is affected by the conformation of the organic additives in the slurry as a function of the suspension pH and the specific surface area of the abrasive particle. Regarding the solid content, abrasive particles are more easily dispersed at lower solid loading, which prevents additional agglomeration even under acidic conditions. The influence of agglomerated large particles on STI CMP was investigated through a polishing experiment with plasma-enhanced tetra-ethyl-ortho-silicate (PETEOS) and a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) nitride layer.

Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Kang, Hyun-Goo; Kim, Sang-Kyun; Paik, Ungyu; Park, Jea-Gun

2005-11-01

366

Influence of the wetting properties of polymeric adhesives on the mechanical behaviour of cork agglomerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of adhesives, polyurethane prepolymers with alkane chains of different functionalities, were used in the production of cork agglomerates. The polymeric structure varied from long, linear chains in adhesive M1 (14% isocyanate groups) to short, branched chains in adhesive M4 (30% isocyanate groups). The wetting properties of the adhesives were studied through surface tension and contact angle measurements of

M. Joao Teixeira; Anabela C. Fernandes; Benilde Saramago; M. Emilia Rosa; Joao C. Bordado

1996-01-01

367

Influence of humidity on the electrical charging properties of cork agglomerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cork is a natural cellular and electrically insulating material which may have the capacity to store electric charges on or in its cell walls. Since natural cork has many voids, it is difficult to obtain uniform samples with the required dimensions. Therefore, a more uniform material, namely commercial cork agglomerate, usually used for floor and wall coverings, is employed in

M. C. Lança; W. Wirges; E. R. Neagu; R. Gerhard; J. Maratmendes

2007-01-01

368

A PROM element based on salicide agglomeration of poly fuses in a CMOS logic process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel programmable element has been developed and evaluated for state of the art CMOS processes. This element is based on agglomeration of the Ti-silicide layer on top of poly fuses. Various aspects of this programmable device including characterization and optimization of physical and electrical aspects of the element, programming yield, and reliability have been studied. Development of a novel

Mohsen Alavi; Mark Bohr; Jeff Hicks; Martin Denham; Allen Cassens; Dave Douglas; Min-Chun Tsai

1997-01-01

369

Development of Systematic Models for Aerosol Agglomeration and Spray Removal under Severe Accident Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide behavior during various severe accident conditions has been addressed as one of the important issues to discuss environmental safety in nuclear power plants. The present paper deals with the development of analytical models and their validations for the agglomeration of multiple-component aerosol and spray removal that controls source terms to the environment of both aerosols and gaseous radionuclides during

Mitsuhiro KAJIMOTO

2008-01-01

370

Agglomeration of pharmaceutical, detergent, chemical and food powders — Similarities and differences of materials and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product developers tend to make a distinction between different types of agglomerated powders depending on whether they are produced by the pharmaceutical, detergent, chemical or food industry. This is perfectly valid for the hygiene, quality, safety or economical aspects of processes and products. However, from a process engineering point of view a different classification is needed in order to identify

St. Palzer

2011-01-01

371

Simulation of the agglomeration in a spray using Lagrangian particle tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to explore the possibility of simulating the agglomeration process in a spray using CFD methods. The model system consists of a spray nozzle within a uniform airflow in a square-section chamber. The CFD simulations are performed using a mixed Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. The flow is modelled by solving the usual Eulerian equations, and then representative droplets are tracked

Baoyu Guo; David F. Fletcher; Tim A. G. Langrish

2004-01-01

372

Do Universities Generate Agglomeration Spillovers? Evidence from Endowment Value Shocks. NBER Working Paper No. 15299  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we quantify the extent and magnitude of agglomeration spillovers from a formal institution whose sole mission is the creation and dissemination of knowledge--the research university. We use the fact that universities follow a fixed endowment spending policy based on the market value of their endowments to identify the causal effect…

Kantor, Shawn; Whalley, Alexander

2009-01-01

373

Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'Disposal of millions of gallons of existing radioactive wastes is a major remediation problem for the Department of Energy (DOE). Although radionuclides are the most hazardous waste con- stituents. the components of greatest concern from a waste processing standpoint are insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles. Depending on processing conditions, these colloidal particles can form agglomerate networks that could clog transfer lines or interfere with solid-liquid separations such as settle-decant operations. Under different conditions, the particles can be dispersed to form very fine suspended particles that will not create sediment in settle- decant steps and that can foul and contaminate downstream treatment components including ion exchangers or filtrations systems. Given the wide range of tank chemistries present at Hanford and other DOE sites, it is impractical to measure the properties of all potential processing conditions to design effective treatment procedures. Instead. a framework needs to be established to allow sludge property trends to be predicted on a sound scientific basis. The scientific principles of greatest utility in characterizing, understanding, and controlling the physical properties of sludge fall in the realm of colloid chemistry. The objectives of this work are to accomplish the following: understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation. and filtration develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena.'

Virden, J.W.

1997-06-01

374

Primary particles and their agglomerate formation as modifying risk factors of nonfibrous nanosized dust.  

PubMed

The incidence of certain cancers correlates with the number of dust particles in the air. Nanosized particles differ from coarser particles by their increasing tendency to form agglomerates. The dissociation of biodurable agglomerates after deposition in the alveolar region resulted in a higher toxic potential. Biodurable dusts in the urban and workplace environment were analyzed to determine an effect-relevant exposure parameter. The characterization of the dusts relating to their number of primary particles (P(p)) and agglomerates and aggregates (A + A) was performed by electron microscopy. Diesel soot, toner material, and seven further dust samples in the workplace environment are composed of high numbers of nanosized primary particles (<100 nm) per unit mass occurring as larger agglomerates. Primary particles of rock, kaoline, and seven further dusts sampled in the workplace are not nanosized. In a multivariate analysis that predicted lung tumor risk, the mass, volume, and numbers of A + A and P(p) per milligram dust were shown to be relevant parameters. Dose-response relationships revealed an increased tumor risk in rats with higher numbers of P(p) in nanosized dust, which occurs unintentionally in the environment. PMID:23294301

Schneider, J; Walter, D; Brückel, B; Rödelsperger, K

2013-01-01

375

Factors Governing the Development of High Tech Industry Agglomerations: A Tale of Three Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

GLASMEIER A. (1988) Factors governing the development of high tech industry agglomerations: a tale of three cities, Reg. Studies22, 287–301. High tech industries are thought to precipitate structural change in local economies through the creation of backward and forward linkages and new firm spinoffs. Case studies of high tech firms and products indicate interindustry linkage development is closely associated with

Amy Glasmeier

1988-01-01

376

Determination of aerodynamic diameters of pollen grains and their agglomerates for Western Siberia plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of determination of aerodynamic characteristics of 17 plants dominating the ecosystem of Western Siberia are reported. Pollen of cereals and woody plants was examined. The sedimentation velocities of single pollen grains and their agglomerates were determined. The data obtained were used to calculate the aerodynamic diameters of pollen grains of all investigated plants.

Istomin, V. L.; Koutsenogii, K. P.; Golovko, V. V.

2012-12-01

377

Agglomerates and granules of nanoparticles as filter media for submicron particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on filtration of submicron solid and liquid aerosol particles by using a filter media composed of agglomerates or granules of nanoparticles is described. Fumed silica nanoagglomerates, carbon black granules, silica shells, activated carbon granules, glass beads and nanoporous hydrophobic aerogel were among the granular filter media tested and compared to a commercially available HEPA fiber-based filter. Other

Jose Quevedo; Gaurav Patel; Robert Pfeffer; Rajesh Dave

2008-01-01

378

Agglomeration benefits and location choice: Evidence from Japanese manufacturing investments in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theories of economic geography suggest that firms in the same industry may be drawn to the same locations because proximity generates positive externalities or ‘agglomeration effects’. Under this view, chance events and government inducements can have a lasting influence on the geographical pattern of manufacturing. However, most evidence on the causes and magnitude of industry localization has been based

Keith Head; John Ries; Deborah Swenson

1995-01-01

379

Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

This program is focused on the process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture for the development of coal fired combustion gas turbines. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering materials. During this period, further dismantling of the existing bimodal test unit was performed. The design of a revised process development unit and hot gas cleanup unit have been completed.

NONE

1995-07-01

380

Dynamic axial crushing of short to long circular aluminium tubes with agglomerate cork filler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cork is a complex natural cellular material with quite unknown or not well understood properties. It is available in the natural and in the agglomerate form and it is an ecological and very durable material. That is why it is used today as thermal and acoustic insulator, as a seal and as an energy-absorbing medium in flooring, shoes and packaging,

C. P. Gameiro; J. Cirne

2007-01-01

381

Innovative resources within industrial clusters: How they are agglomerated and diffused  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the definition of innovative enterprises, innovative clusters and innovation resources. Then it develops four mechanisms about the impact of innovative enterprises to innovative clusters on the agglomeration of innovative resources. It also analyzes four pathways for innovative enterprises to affect the diffusion of innovative resources. Finally, it proposes three policy recommendations to help to foster the development

Yin-jie Xu; Jian-zhuang Zheng

2011-01-01

382

The Dynamics of Agglomerated Ferrofluid in Steady and Pulsatile Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic Drug Targeting (MDT) is a promising technique to deliver medication via functionalized magnetic particles to target sites in the treatment of diseases. In this work, the physics of steady and pulsatile flows laden with superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a square channel under the influence of a magnetic field induced by a 0.6 Tesla permanent magnet is studied. Herein, the dynamics

Alicia Williams; Kelley Stewart; Pavlos Vlachos

2007-01-01

383

Pre and Post-agglomerations for LTL Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most e-cient analysis technique is to reduce an original model into a simpler one such that the reduced model has the same proper- ties than the original one. G. Berthelot deflned in this thesis some reductions of Petri nets that are based on local structural conditions and that simplify signiflcantly the net. However, the author focused only

Denis Poitrenaud; Jean-françois Pradat-peyre

2000-01-01

384

Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Agglomeration Influences Dose-Rates and Modulates Oxidative Stress Mediated Dose-Response Profiles In Vitro  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous agglomeration of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is a common problem in cell culture media which can confound interpretation of in vitro nanotoxicity studies. The authors created stable agglomerates of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in conventional culture medium, which varied in hydrodynamic size (276 nm-1.5 ?m) but were composed of identical primary particles with similar surface potentials and protein coatings. Studies using C10 lung epithelial cells show that the dose rate effects of agglomeration can be substantial, varying by over an order of magnitude difference in cellular dose in some cases. Quantification by magnetic particle detection showed that small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs induced greater cytotoxicity and redox-regulated gene expression when compared with large agglomerates on an equivalent total cellular IONP mass dose basis, whereas agglomerates of amine-modified IONPs failed to induce cytotoxicity or redox-regulated gene expression despite delivery of similar cellular doses. Dosimetry modelling and experimental measurements reveal that on a delivered surface area basis, large and small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs have similar inherent potency for the generation of ROS, induction of stress-related genes and eventual cytotoxicity. The results suggest that reactive moieties on the agglomerate surface are more efficient in catalysing cellular ROS production than molecules buried within the agglomerate core. Because of the dynamic, size and density-dependent nature of ENP delivery to cells in vitro, the biological consequences of agglomeration are not discernible from static measures of exposure concentration (?g/ml) alone, highlighting the central importance of integrated physical characterisation and quantitative dosimetry for in vitro studies. The combined experimental and computational approach provides a quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between the biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their physical and chemical characteristics.

Sharma, Gaurav; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Wang, Wei; Minard, Kevin R.; Karin, Norman J.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Thrall, Brian D.

2013-07-31

385

Identification of oil–gas two-phase flow pattern based on SVM and electrical capacitance tomography technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correct identification of two-phase flow patterns is the basis for the accurate measurement of other flow parameters in two-phase flow measurement. Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a new visualization measurement technique for two-phase\\/multi-phase flows. The capacitance measurements obtained from the ECT system contain flow pattern information, and then six feature parameters are extracted. The support vector machine (SVM) has

Lifeng Zhang; Huaxiang Wang

2010-01-01

386

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed boilers is in progress. Preliminary results indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. In these instances it was observed that large particles were forming within the bed which were larger that the feed. Four operators could confirm that the larger bed particles had formed due to bed particles sticking together or agglomerating. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with these deposits being found most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Examples of these agglomerates and deposits have been received from five of the surveyed facilities. Also during this quarter, a bulk sample of Illinois No. 6 coal was obtained from the Fossil Energy Program at Ames Laboratory here at Iowa State University and prepared for combustion tests. This sample was first ground to a top-size of 3/8`` using a jaw crusher then a size fraction of 3/8`` {times} 8 (US mesh) was then obtained by sieving using a Gilson Test-Master. This size fraction was selected for the preliminary laboratory-scale experiments designed to simulate the dense bed conditions that exist in the bottom of CFB combustors. To ensure uniformity of fuel composition among combustion runs, the sized coal was riffled using, a cone and long row method and stored in bags for each experiment. During this quarter additional modifications were made to achieve better control of fluidization regimes and to aid in monitoring the hydrodynamic and chemical conditions within the reactor.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.D.

1993-04-01

387

Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a {open_quotes}hot flue gas cleanup{close_quotes} subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process. The goal of the program is to support the DOE mission in developing coal-fired combustion gas turbines. In particular, the MTCI proprietary process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture will be evaluated and developed. The technology embodiment of the invention provides for the use of standard grind, moderately beneficiated coal and WEM for firing the gas turbine with efficient sulfur capture and particulate emission control upstream of the turbine. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering material if necessary. The proposed technology provides for practical, reliable, and capital (and O&M) cost-effective means of protection for the gas turbine from impurities in the coal combustor effluent.

NONE

1995-08-01

388

CONSOLIDATION OF K BASIN SLUDGE DATA AND EXPERIENCES ON AGGLOMERATE FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

The formation of high sludge strength agglomerates is a key concern to the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) to ensure the sludge can be retrieved after planned storage for up to 10 years in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) at T Plant. This report addresses observations of agglomerate formation, conditions that the data shows lead to agglomeration, the frequency of agglomerate formation and postulated physiochemical mechanisms that may lead to agglomeration. Although the exact underlying chemistry of K Basin sludge agglomerate formation is not known, the factors that lead to agglomeration formation, based on observations, are as follows: (1) High Total Uranium Content (i.e., sample homogeneity and influence from other constituents); (2) Distribution of Uranium Phases (i.e., extent of conversion from uraninite to uranium oxide hydroxide compounds); (3) Sample Dry-out (loss of cover water); (4) Elevated temperature; (5) Solubility ofU(IV) phases vs. U(VI) phases; and (6) Long storage times. Agglomerated sludge has occurred infrequently and has only been observed in four laboratory samples, five samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (performed for 7 to 10 hours at {approx}185 C and 225 psig), and indirectly during six sampling events in the KE Basin. In the four laboratory samples where agglomerates were observed, the agglomerates exhibited high shear strength and the sample container typically had to be broken to remove the solids. The total uranium content (dry basis) for the four samples (KE Pit, KC-2/3 SS, KC-2/3 M250 and 96-13) were {approx}8 wt%, {approx}59.0 wt%, 68.3 wt% and 82 wt%. The agglomerates that were present during the six sampling events were undoubtedly disturbed and easily broken apart during sample collection, thus no agglomerates were observed in subsequent laboratory analyses. The highest shear strengths measured for K Basin sludge samples were obtained after hydrothermal treatment (7 to 10 hr at 185 C) of high-uranium-content KE canister sludge. The unconfined compressive strength of samples from this testing, measured by a pocket penetrometer, infers that their shear strength may be between 120 kPa and 170 kPa (PNNL-16496). These short-duration hydrothermal tests were conducted at temperatures much greater than the temperature of the T Plant canyon cells (-7 C to 33 C); however, the strength results provide an initial bounding target for sludge stored for many years, and an upper range for simulants (042910-53451-TP02 Rev 1). Sampling and characterization activities conducted in 2009 have measured the total uranium content and speciation for sludge stored in Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260 (PNNL-19035). Based on on-going testing that has measured the shear strength of uranium samples containing varying uranium (IV) to uranium (VI) ratios and the characterization of the Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260, it is unlikely that agglomerates will form on a large scale in this sludge. The highest measured total uranium concentration in the Engineered Container SCS-CON-220 sludge is 35.2 wt% and only 4 wt% to 6 wt% (dry) in Engineered Containers SCS-CON -240, -250, and -260. The uranium concentrations in Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260 sludge are below the threshold for agglomerate formation. Settler sludge however is estimated to contain {approx} 80 wt% (dry) total uranium, which could lead to the formation of high strength agglomerates depending on the relative concentrations of U(IV) and U(VI) compounds. One of the chief concerns of the STP is sludge dry-out. Samples archived in PNNL hot cells have been known to dry out and form hard clods of material, which are then difficult to reconstitute (HNF-6705). In 1996, all but one of the samples archived at the 222-S Laboratory dried out. These samples were composed of sludge collected from the KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit. However, in the STP's current design plans for sludge stored in STSCs at T Plant, there are provisions for continual water level observation and periodic

HILL SR

2010-06-10

389

Outcome after silicone oil removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDCombined with vitreoretinal surgery, silicone oil injection has become a standard technique and improves the prognosis of complex retinal detachment. As silicone oil leads to long term complications, removal of silicone oil from the eye is recommended. To evaluate the outcome after silicone oil removal, retinal redetachment, visual acuity, and complications were analysed.METHODSThe authors analysed 115 consecutive cases of silicone

Christiane I Falkner; Susanne Binder; Andreas Kruger

2001-01-01

390

Interventional oncology: new options for interstitial treatments and intravascular approaches: superselective TACE using iodized oil for HCC: rationale, technique and outcome.  

PubMed

Superselective TACE is defined as TACE from the distal portion of the feeding subsegmental hepatic artery to evoke strong ischemic effects on a small area of the liver, thus avoiding damage to liver function. Lipiodol (iodized oil) is semi-fluid, and it can flow into the surrounding portal venules and hepatic sinusoids through peribiliary plexus (PBP) and the drainage route from the hypervascular HCC. Therefore, the reversed flow from the hepatic sinusoids and portal venules to the peripheral portion of the tumor and daughter nodules can be blocked by Lipiodol injected before a particulate embolus (such as gelatin sponge particles). Common complications of superselective TACE are mild local pain and fever and temporary minimal changes of liver function. Reported CR ratio of definitely hypervascular HCC are around 30-60% by superselective TACE with Lipiodol for hypervascular HCC less than 5 cm. According to a nationwide survey by the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (LCSGJ), overall 5-year survival rate was 26% in patients with HCCs not indicated for surgery or RFA (PEI), mainly treated by segmental or subsegmental TACE using Lipiodol. Therefore, this TACE technique should be widely introduced as the first line technique for TACE therapy of HCC. PMID:19885639

Matsui, Osamu; Miyayama, Shiro; Sanada, Jyun-ichiro; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Khoda, Wataru; Minami, Tetsuya; Kozaka, Kazuto; Gabata, Toshifumi

2010-07-01

391

Predicting oil quality from sidewall cores using PFID, TEC, and NIR analytical techniques in sandstone reservoirs, Rio Del Rey Basin, Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expense and uncertainty of obtaining fluid samples from MDT tools provide a strong incentive for an alternative method for assessing oil character. Sidewall cores, which are inexpensive and easy to obtain, contain sufficient oil for microanalyses that can provide indications of oil quality (degree of degradation), API gravity, and numerous additional characteristics, including sulfur content, acid number, and viscosity.The

W. O. Bement; R. I. Mcneil; R. G. Lippincott

1996-01-01

392

Stable nanoparticle aggregates/agglomerates of different sizes and the effect of their size on hemolytic cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

To study the toxicity of nanoparticles under relevant conditions, it is critical to disperse nanoparticles reproducibly in different agglomeration states in aqueous solutions compatible with cell-based assays. Here, we disperse gold, silver, cerium oxide, and positively-charged polystyrene nanoparticles in cell culture media, using the timing between mixing steps to control agglomerate size in otherwise identical media. These protein-stabilized dispersions are generally stable for at least two days, with mean agglomerate sizes of ?23 nm silver nanoparticles ranging from 43-1400 nm and average relative standard deviations of less than 10%. Mixing rate, timing between mixing steps and nanoparticle concentration are shown to be critical for achieving reproducible dispersions. We characterize the size distributions of agglomerated nanoparticles by further developing dynamic light scattering theory and diffusion limited colloidal aggregation theory. These theories frequently affect the estimated size by a factor of two or more. Finally, we demonstrate the importance of controlling agglomeration by showing that large agglomerates of silver nanoparticles cause significantly less hemolytic toxicity than small agglomerates. PMID:21142841

Zook, Justin M; Maccuspie, Robert I; Locascio, Laurie E; Halter, Melissa D; Elliott, John T

2011-12-01

393

The impact of agglomeration and storage on flavor and flavor stability of whey protein concentrate 80% and whey protein isolate.  

PubMed

The impact of agglomeration on flavor and flavor stability of whey protein concentrates 80% (WPC80) and whey protein isolates (WPI) has not been widely addressed. This study examined the impact of agglomeration on the flavor and flavor stability of commercial WPC80 and WPI across 18 mo of storage. Duplicate agglomerated and nonagglomerated WPC80 and WPI were collected from 4 facilities and stored at 21 degrees C, 50% relative humidity. Volatile analysis using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and descriptive sensory analysis were conducted every 2 mo. Solubility index, bulk volume, dispersibility, moisture, and color (L, a, b) were tested every 3 or 6 mo. Consumer acceptance testing with protein beverages was conducted with fresh and stored whey proteins. Higher intensities and more rapid development of lipid oxidation flavors (cardboard, raisin/brothy, cucumber, and fatty) were noted in agglomerated powders compared to nonagglomerated powders (P < 0.05). Volatile analysis results confirmed sensory results, which indicated increased formation of aldehydes and ketones in agglomerated products compared to nonagglomerated powders (P < 0.05). Consumer acceptance scores for protein beverages were lower for beverages made with agglomerated WPC80 stored for 12 mo and agglomerated or nonagglomerated WPI stored for 18 mo compared to fresh products while trained panelists detected differences among beverages and rehydrated proteins earlier. Agglomeration with or without lecithin decreased the storage stability of whey proteins. These results indicate that the optimum shelf life at 21 degrees C for nonagglomerated whey proteins is 12 to 15 mo and 8 to 12 mo for agglomerated whey proteins. PMID:19200117

Wright, B J; Zevchak, S E; Wright, J M; Drake, M A

2009-01-01

394

In Situ Observations of Interaction Between Particulate Agglomerates and an Advancing Planar Solid/Liquid Interface: Microgravity Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported of directional solidification experiments on particulate agglomerate pushing and engulfment by a planar solid/liquid (s/l) interface. These experiments were conducted on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) Mission. It was found that the pushing to engulfment transition velocity, V(sub cr) for agglomerates depends not only on their effective size but also their orientation with respect to the s,1 interface. The analytical model for predicting V(sub cr) of a single particle was subsequently enhanced to predict V(sub cr) of the agglomerates by considering their shape factor and orientation.

Sen, S.; Juretzko, F.; Stafanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.

1999-01-01

395

In-Situ Observations of Interaction Between Particulate Agglomerates and an Advancing Planar Solid/Liquid Interface: Microgravity Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported of directional solidification experiments on particulate agglomerate pushing and engulfment by a planar solid/liquid (s/1) interface. These experiments were conducted on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) Mission. It was found that the pushing to engulfment transition velocity, V(sub ct),, for agglomerates depends not only on their effective size but also their orientation with respect to the s/l interface. The analytical model for predicting V(sub cr) of a single particle was subsequently enhanced to predict V(sub cr) of the agglomerates by considering their shape factor and orientation.

Sen, S.; Juretzko, F.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.

1999-01-01

396

Shale oil cracking. 2. Effect on oil composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from spectroscopic investigations are presented that demonstrate the effect of oil cracking on shale oil composition. Techniques used include infrared spectroscopy, capillary column gas chromatography\\/mass spectroscopy and ¹³C nuclear magnetic resonance. We show that cracking causes an increase in aromatic and alkene content of the oil. We compare our results for oils prepared in the laboratory with oils prepared

A. K. Burnham; R. H. Sanborn; R. W. Crawford; J. C. Newton; J. A. Happe

1980-01-01

397

Structure and mechanical properties of high-porosity macroscopic agglomerates formed by random ballistic deposition.  

PubMed

We present experimental results on the mechanical properties of macroscopic agglomerates formed by ballistic hit-and-stick deposition. The agglomerates, produced with a new experimental method, consist of monodisperse SiO2 spheres with 1.5 microm diameter and have a volume filling factor of phi=0.15, matching very closely the theoretical value for random ballistic deposition. They are mechanically stable against unidirectional compression of up to 500 Pa. For pressures above that value, the volume filling factor increases to a maximum of phi=0.33 for pressures above 10(5) Pa. The tensile strength of slightly compressed samples (phi=0.2) is 1000 Pa. PMID:15447352

Blum, Jürgen; Schräpler, Rainer

2004-09-10

398

Synthesis of zinc sulfide multi-scale agglomerates by homogeneous precipitation-parametric study and mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When zinc sulfide is prepared by homogeneous precipitation from an acid solution of zinc sulfate and thioacetamide in a stirred reactor, it is generally obtained in the form of four-scale agglomerates. This paper is intended to progress in the understanding of the nature of the construction stages of these agglomerates. For this, successive size scales are studied as a function of several operating parameters: pH, concentration in reactants, temperature and stirring rate. Microscopic characterization is performed at different times of the precipitation process. The successive steps of construction of the multi-scale structure aggregates are discussed in the context of the model of Eshuis and Koning, Coll. Polymer Sci. 272 (1994) 1240 and Eshuis et al. Colloid and Surfaces, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 151 (1999) 505.

Mekki Berrada, M. K.; Gruy, F.; Cournil, M.

2009-04-01

399

Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Technical progress report: January 1993--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

This 15th Quarterly Technical Progress Report presents the results of work accomplished during the period January 4, 193 through March 28, 1993 under Contract No. DE-AC21-88MC26288 entitled {open_quotes}Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture.{close_quotes} The fundamental studies conducted by West Virginia University and Pennsylvania State University are provided in subsections of this report. Shakedown testing continued through this period resulting in a series of required modifications for the coal-feed system, coal injector, installation of a water-cooling jacket at the bottom of the agglomeration chamber, and finally, the installation of an additional flow sensor and rate meter. Coal-fired bimodal tests were initiated at the end of the period. The unit was run at 2 atm pressure for 3 hours with steady-state operation for 2 hours. Then, the pressure was increased to 3 atm with steady-state operation for 2 hours.

Not Available

1993-12-31

400

The effect of wetting liquid droplet size on the growth of agglomerates during wet drum granulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of investigation of the effect of wetting liquid droplet size on the growth of agglomerates during wet drum granulation of dolomite flour of selected grain-size composition which guaranteed geometrical similarity were discussed.The process of granulation was carried out batch-wise in a drum granulator 0.5 m in diameter and 0.4 m long at rotational speed 0.33 s?1 and constant volumetric

Tadeusz Gluba

2003-01-01

401

Combustion of agglomerates formed by carbon slurry fuels. Final report Jul 81-Jun 82  

SciTech Connect

The reaction of carbon-black agglomerates, formed during the combustion of carbon slurry fuels, is considered. A monodisperse stream of agglomerates (10-75 micrometers initial diameter) was observed in the post-flame region of a flat-flame burner yielding particle size, mass, temperature and velocity as a function of time in the burner gases. Test considered burner fuel equivalence ratios of 0.2-1.4, and gas temperatures of 1620-1960 K at atmospheric pressure. Several carbon-black formulations were considered: monodisperse blacks having ultimate carbon black particle sizes of 70, 150 and 300 nm, and a blend involving 50% mass loadings (each) of carbon blacks having ultimate carbon particle sizes of 70 and 300 nm. The measurements were compared with a shrinking sphere model of the process using two alternative reaction mechanisms (carbon reaction with O/sub 2/ and OH or with O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O). Empirical transport enhancement and area/reactivity parameters were defined to allow for gas motion and reaction in agglomerate pores. These parameters were determined form the data. Both reaction mechanisms satisfactorily correlated the data using empirical parameters which were relatively independent of ambient conditions, particle size and extent of reaction--aside from an initial transient period where the pore structure of the agglomerate developed. The rate of combustion of monodisperse blacks increased slightly as the ultimate carbon-black particle size was reduced. The burning rate of the carbon-black blend was lower than the other fuels considered during the investigation yielding residence times for reaction 10-50% longer than monodisperse blacks at comparable conditions.

Szekely, G.A. Jr; Faeth, G.M.

1982-09-01

402

Luminescence Enhancement from Silica-Coated Gold Nanoparticle Agglomerates Following Multi-photon Excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-photon absorption induced luminescence (MAIL) from bare gold nanoparticles, silica-coated particles, as well as silica-coated\\u000a agglomerated gold nanoparticles suspended in aqueous solution was studied by using time-resolved and steady-state luminescence\\u000a spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were excited by femtosecond pulses of wavelengths ranging from 630 nm to 900 nm. The luminescence\\u000a from the particles exhibits a broad spectrum in the UV and VIS region.

Sviatlana Viarbitskaya; Linus Ryderfors; Therese Mikaelsson; Emad Mukhtar; Lennart B.-Å. Johansson

2011-01-01

403

Measurement and spatio-temporal distribution of urbanization development quality of urban agglomeration in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization development quality (UDQ) of urban agglomeration (UA) is one of the important indexes to evaluate if the UA urbanization\\u000a speed is reasonable, if the population urbanization process is sound, if the economic urbanization process is efficient, if\\u000a the social urbanization process is harmonious and fair, which is generally composed of three parts, including economic urbanization\\u000a development quality, social urbanization

Deli Wang; Chuanglin Fang; Boyang Gao; Jinchuan Huang; Qingshan Yang

404

Colloidal stability of suspended and agglomerate structures of settled carbon nanotubes in different aqueous matrices.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are often processed in suspended form and therefore a release of CNT-suspensions into the aquatic environment is plausible. In this study, the behaviour of two physico-chemically very different CNT types in the presence of varying, environmentally relevant calcium-containing media was investigated, including the long-term colloidal stability and the sedimentary structures of settled CNTs. Calcium induced CNT flocculation, however, the stability of the CNTs in the medium did not monotonously decrease with increasing calcium concentration. At intermediate calcium concentrations (0.5-1.5 mM Ca) pre-dispersed CNTs were stabilized in humic acid medium to similar, temporarily even to higher degree than in the absence of calcium. Between pH 5 and 8 only at the highest pH an influence on CNT stability was observed by either promoting flocculation or stabilisation depending on the CNT type. Humic acid stabilized CNTs much better than fulvic acid. Generally, the colloidal stability of the long, thick CNTs with higher surface oxygen content was less affected by the media composition. An investigation of the settled CNT material using analytical electron microscopy revealed the presence of spheroidal, bundle-like and net like CNT-agglomerate structures. Calcium possibly acted as bridging agent linking CNTs in a network like manner, temporarily increasing the CNT concentrations stabilized in the supernatants due to the low density of these structures. With increasing settling time the CNTs formed a fluffy sediment layer at the bottom of the reaction vessels. Bundle-like CNT agglomerates were also observed within that layer of settled CNTs, possibly caused by calcium neutralizing the surface charges. Furthermore, the CNT suspensions contained spheroidal CNT agglomerates, most likely residues from the original dry powder that were not disaggregated. The analysis of settled CNT material is a novelty and illustrates CNT agglomerate structures possibly accumulating in the sediments of aquatic systems subsequent to CNT emissions. PMID:23582307

Schwyzer, Irène; Kaegi, Ralf; Sigg, Laura; Nowack, Bernd

2013-08-01

405

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math meets ecology lesson provides hands-on experiences with mixing oil and water, provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives learners opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Cartwright, Lisa

2010-01-01

406

Visualizing powder de-agglomeration upon impact with simultaneous flowing charge behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of the dry powder inhaler (DPI) in treating respiratory diseases lies in its ability to deliver consistent and reliable drug dosage with each actuation. From aerosolization upon actuation to throat impaction, the deagglomeration with subsequent detachment of the drug from the carrier particles depend on the interaction forces, including electrostatic contributions, between the particles themselves or with the inhaler wall and the extent of which could depend on the surface roughness of the carrier particles. In this study, we have simultaneously investigated the contributions of the electrostatic forces while visualizing the de-agglomeration and impaction behaviours of carrier powders in an impaction throat model using a non-contact vibrating capacitive probe and a high speed camera respectively. Rough and smooth carrier particles were obtained by spray drying and then aerosolized at 60 L/min in the model. Higher flowing charges were observed for the rough aerosolized carrier particles while experiencing rebound or limited agglomerate fracture upon impaction. On the other hand, smooth particles were broken up upon impaction resulting in a 'plume-like' re-entrainment. Further analyses revealed that the increased moisture sorption on the larger specific surface area of the rough particles would have facilitated the accumulation of surface charges that could in turn contribute to the cohesiveness of the rough particles. Combined high speed imaging with electrostatic monitoring has proved to be useful in investigating the mechanisms of powder de-agglomeration upon impaction.

Kwek, Jin Wang; Heng, Desmond; Lee, Sie Huey; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Hak-Kim; Heng, Jerry; Tan, Reginald

2013-06-01

407

Integrated low emission cleanup system for direct coal-fueled turbines (electrostatic agglomeration)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract was to investigate the removal of SO[sub x] and particulate matter from direct coal fired combustion gas streams at high temperature and high pressure conditions. This investigation was to be accomplished through a bench scale testing and evaluation program for SO[sub x] removal and the innovative particulate collection concept of particulate growth through electrostatic agglomeration followed by high efficiency mechanical collection. The process goal was to achieve control better than that required by 1979 New Source Performance Standards. During Phase I, the designs of the combustor and gas cleanup apparatus were successfully completed. Hot gas cleanup was designed to be accomplished at temperature levels between 1800[degrees] and 2500[degrees]F at pressures up to 15 atmospheres. The combustor gas flow rate could be varied between 0.2--0.5 pounds per second. The electrostatic agglomerator residence time could be varied between 0.25 to 3 seconds. In Phase II, all components were fabricated, and erected successfully. Test data from shakedown testing was obtained. Unpredictable difficulties in pilot plant erection and shakedown consumed more budget resources than was estimated and as a consequence DOE, METC, decided ft was best to complete the contract at the end of Phase II. Parameters studied in shakedown testing revealed that high-temperature high pressure electrostatics offers an alternative to barrier filtration in hot gas cleanup but more research is needed in successful system integration between the combustor and electrostatic agglomerator.

Quimby, J.M.; Kumar, K.S.

1992-01-01

408

Sedimentation of agglomerated nanoparticles under cell culture conditions studied by image based analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic effects of nanoparticles can be analyzed with alveolar macrophages in vitro. To quantify exposure of cells to particles we analyzed the sedimentation of nanoparticle agglomerates in cell culture medium (MEM) by means of phase contrast microscopy. Particles were suspended by brief ultrasonication in MEM and pipetted into a glass bottom culture dish on the stage of a Nikon-Biostation under cell culture condition. Successive images were captured from the lowermost optical plane and were converted into binary images. The number of agglomerates (N) as well as the particle-covered area (A) were determined by image analyses. Typically, N increased to a maximum value before it partially decayed due to overlapping and/or optical interference of particles, and finally became constant. In contrast, A increased in a monophasic manner. By means of mathematical modeling we identified the endpoint of sedimentation of particle agglomerates, which is an important though a largely neglected event in most cell culture experiments. This endpoint could be calculated from an approximated model function. As the method can be employed in the presence of cells, a parallel evaluation of particle sedimentation and particle uptake appears possible.

Schippritt, Darius; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

2010-04-01

409

Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture. Technical progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The shakedown testing of the system proceeded on schedule. Some of the preliminary results were ambiguous in that they indicated a higher carbon concentration in the baghouse than in the cyclone. Apparently this was due to the use of the baghouse for tests on an integrated coal-fired boiler. This was remedied by installing a separate baghouse for the bimodal agglomeration testing. The testing with coal/dolomite mixture indicated that the sulfur is captured effectively with the present system configuration and that combustion efficiencies were greater than 99 percent. The coal/dolomite test was on-line for approximately 7 hours during which it achieved steady-state operation at 3 atmospheres for about 5 1/2 hours. The agglomeration chamber catch contained agglomerates ranging in size from 1/4 to 3/4 inches. West Virginia University developed some new aerovalve designs including a vortex design for the vitiated air pulse combustor. A set of modifications resulting from the initial shakedown tests were also completed.

Not Available

1993-12-31

410

Formulation techniques for nanofluids.  

PubMed

Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed. PMID:24330043

Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David

2013-11-01

411

Influence of olive ( cv Grignano) fruit ripening and oil extraction under different nitrogen regimes on volatile organic compound emissions studied by PTR-MS technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds of extra virgin olive oils obtained from the local Italian cultivar Grignano were measured by proton\\u000a transfer reaction–mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Oils were extracted by olives harvested at different ripening stages across\\u000a veraison, performing each extraction step and the whole extraction process in nitrogen atmosphere to observe the changes in the volatile\\u000a profiles of the oils. Principal component

Alice Vezzaro; Andrea Boschetti; Rossana Dell’Anna; Roberto Canteri; Mariano Dimauro; Angelo Ramina; Massimo Ferasin; Claudio Giulivo; Benedetto Ruperti

2011-01-01

412

Agglomeration inhibition reflected stone-forming activity during long–term potassium citrate therapy in calcium stone formers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The agglomeration of preformed crystals of calcium oxalate has been hypothesized to be the rate-limiting step in renal stone-forming activity (SFA). The effect of urine on the in vitro inhibition of agglomeration of seed crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate, designated [tm], has been used to monitor SFA in calcium oxalate stone formers (CaOxSF). The objective of the present study

Harold A Fuselier; Kenneth Moore; Jill Lindberg; Fred E Husserl; Francis E Cole; Dirk J Kok; David Whitehead; Dante J Galliano; Donald T Erwin

1998-01-01

413

Development of advanced fluid-bed agglomeration and cyclonic incineration for simultaneous waste disposal and energy recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is currently developing a two-stage fluidized-bed\\/cyclonic agglomerating incineration system for waste disposal that is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration\\/incineration and cyclonic combustion techologies. Both technologies have been developed individually at IGT over many years. This combination has resulted in a unique and extremely flexible incinerator for solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes including municipal

A. Rehmat; M. Khinkis

1991-01-01

414

Agglomerated oral dosage forms of artemisinin/?-cyclodextrin spray-dried primary microparticles showing increased dissolution rate and bioavailability.  

PubMed

Artemisinin, a poorly water-soluble antimalarial drug, presents a low and erratic bioavailability upon oral administration. The aim of this work was to study an agglomerated powder dosage form for oral administration of artemisinin based on the artemisinin/?-cyclodextrin primary microparticles. These primary microparticles were prepared by spray-drying a water-methanol solution of artemisinin/?-cyclodextrin. ?-Cyclodextrin in spray-dried microparticles increased artemisinin water apparent solubility approximately sixfold. The thermal analysis evidenced a reduction in the enthalpy value associated with drug melting, due to the decrease in drug crystallinity. The latter was also evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, while (13)C-NMR analysis indicated the partial complexation with ?-cyclodextrin. Agglomerates obtained by sieve vibration of spray-dried artemisinin/?-cyclodextrin primary microparticles exhibited free flowing and close packing properties compared with the non-flowing microparticulate powder. The in vitro dissolution rate determination of artemisinin from the agglomerates showed that in 10 min about 70% of drug was released from the agglomerates, whereas less than 10% of artemisinin was dissolved from raw material powder. Oral administration of agglomerates in rats yielded higher artemisinin plasma levels compared to those of pure drug. In the case of the agglomerated powder, a 3.2-fold increase in drug fraction absorbed was obtained. PMID:23703233

Balducci, Anna Giulia; Magosso, Enrico; Colombo, Gaia; Sonvico, Fabio; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Yuen, Kah Hay; Bettini, Ruggero; Colombo, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandra

2013-09-01

415

Qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oils as a function of the ripening degree of olive fruits by different analytical techniques.  

PubMed

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) can be effectively used as a fast screening tool to obtain qualitative and semiquantitative information about simple and complex phenolic compounds of extra virgin olive oil. Three simple phenols (tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and vanillic acid), a secoiridoid derivative (deacetoxy oleuropein aglycon), and two lignans (pinoresinol and acetoxypinoresinol) were detected as the main compounds in extra virgin olive oils by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Spectrophotometric indices, radical scavenging activity, and oxidative stability of extra virgin olive oil samples obtained from olives hand-picked at different ripening degrees were statistically correlated with the CZE and HPLC quantification. The concentration of phenols in extra virgin olive oil decreased with ripeness of olive fruits. The high correlations found between CZE and the other analytical results indicate that CE can be applied as a rapid and reliable tool to routinely determine phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oils. PMID:15537313

Bonoli, Matteo; Bendini, Alessandra; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Lercker, Giovanni; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

2004-11-17

416

Oil pollution signatures by remote sensing.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study of the possibility of developing an effective remote sensing system for oil pollution monitoring which would be capable of detecting oil films on water, mapping the areal extent of oil slicks, measuring slick thickness, and identifying the oil types. In the spectral regions considered (ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radar), the signatures were sufficiently unique when compared to the background so that it was possible to detect and map oil slicks. Both microwave and radar techniques are capable of operating in adverse weather. Fluorescence techniques show promise in identifying oil types. A multispectral system will be required to detect oil, map its distribution, estimate film thickness, and characterize the oil pollutant.

Catoe, C. E.; Mclean, J. T.

1972-01-01

417

Dust agglomeration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

John Marshall, an investigator at Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the microgravity fluid physics program, is studying the adhesion and cohesion of particles in order to shed light on how granular systems behave. These systems include everything from giant dust clouds that form planets to tiny compressed pellets, such as the ones you swallow as tablets. This knowledge should help us control the grains, dust, and powders that we encounter or use on a daily basis. Marshall investigated electrostatic charge in microgravity on the first and second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory shuttle missions to see how grains aggregate, or stick together. With gravity's effects eliminated on orbit, Marshall found that the grains of sand that behaved ever so freely on Earth now behaved like flour. They would just glom together in clumps and were quite difficult to disperse. That led to an understanding of the prevalence of the electrostatic forces. The granules wanted to aggregate as little chains, like little hairs, and stack end to end. Some of the chains had 20 or 30 grains. This phenomenon indicated that another force, what Marshall believes to be an electrostatic dipole, was at work.(The diagram on the right emphasizes the aggregating particles in the photo on the left, taken during the USML-2 mission in 1995.)

2000-01-01

418

Applied enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the complex problems of oil displacement in porous media using EOR methods. The paper describes and illustrates complex EOR methods, presents simplified procedures for thermal oil displacement using steam and in-situ combustion, explains petromining methods and flooding techniques, and covers recent developments in microorganism-enhanced recovery.

Carcoana, A.

1992-01-01

419

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan makes real world connections as students explore the ability to estimate the surface area of an oil spill. The lesson provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives students opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson includes two students activity sheets, one fractional amount overhead sheet, assessment and extension suggestions, and questions for reflection.

Cartwright, Lisa

2010-01-01

420

The Preparation and Characterization of Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Microparticles. II. The Entrapment of a Model Protein Using a (Water-in-Oil)inWater Emulsion Solvent Evaporation Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microparticles with entrapped antigens have recently been investigated as controlled-release vaccines. This paper describes the preparation of PLG microparticles with an entrapped model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), using a (water-in-oil)-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique. In a series of experiments, the effects of process parameters on particle size and OVA entrapment were investigated. It was found that smooth, spherical microparticles

Hayley Jeffery; Stanley S. Davis; Derek T. O'Hagan

1993-01-01

421

Reverse micelle synthesis of oxide nanopowders: mechanisms of precipitate formation and agglomeration effects.  

PubMed

We present an analysis of reverse micelle stability in four model systems. The first two systems, composed of unstable microemulsions of isooctane, water, and Na-AOT with additions of either iron sulfate or yttrium nitrate, were used for the synthesis of iron oxide or yttrium oxide powders. These oxide powders were of nanocrystalline character, but with some level of agglomeration that was dependent on calcination temperature and cleaning procedures. Results show that even though the reverse micellar solutions were unstable, nanocrystalline powders with very low levels of agglomeration could be obtained. This effect can be attributed to the protective action of the surfactant on the surfaces of the powders that prevents neck formation until after all the surfactant has volatilized. A striking feature of the IR spectra collected on the iron oxide powders is the absence of peaks in the ~1715 cm(-1) to 1750 cm(-1) region, where absorption due to the symmetric C=O (carbonyl) stretching occurs. The lack of such peaks strongly suggests the carbonyl group is no longer free, but is actively participating in the surfactant-precipitate interaction. The final two microemulsion systems, containing CTAB as the surfactant, showed that loss of control of the reverse micelle synthesis process can easily occur when the amount of salt in the water domains exceeds a critical concentration. Both model systems eventually resulted in agglomerated powders of broad size distributions or particles that were large compared to the sizes of the reverse micelles, consistent with the notion that the microemulsions were not stable and the powders were precipitated in an uncontrolled fashion. This has implications for the synthesis of nanopowders by reverse micelle synthesis and provides a benchmark for process control if powders of the highest quality are desired. PMID:23906861

Graeve, Olivia A; Fathi, Hoorshad; Kelly, James P; Saterlie, Michael S; Sinha, Kaustav; Rojas-George, Gabriel; Kanakala, Raghunath; Brown, David R; Lopez, Enrique A

2013-10-01

422

Nucleation, wetting and agglomeration of copper and copper-alloy thin films on metal liner surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key challenges in fabricating narrower and higher aspect ratio interconnects using damascene technology has been achieving an ultra-thin (˜2 nm) and continuous Cu seed coverage on trench sidewalls. The thin seed is prone to agglomeration because of poor Cu wetting on the Ta liner. Using in-situ conductance measurements, the effect of lowering the substrate temperature during Cu seed deposition has been studied on tantalum (Ta) and ruthenium (Ru) liner surfaces. On a Ta surface, it was found that lowering the deposition temperature to --65°C increases the nucleation rate of the Cu thin film, and reduces the minimum coalescing thickness for Cu on Ta liner from ˜4.5 nm (at room temperature) to ˜2 nm. On a Ru surface, Cu coalesces at < 1 nm at room temperature, and no further reduction in initial coalescing thickness was found at low temperature. For the Cu seed deposited at --65°C on a Ta liner on trench sidewalls, extensive thermal stress-induced grain growth was observed during warming up to room temperature. No grain growth was observed in the seed layer deposited at low temperatures on a Ru liner. Small feature size and high current densities make electromigration an important concern for on-chip Cu interconnects. Cu-alloy seeds or Cu-alloy interconnects are therefore needed for future technology. The wetting angle, coalescing thickness, and agglomeration resistance of thin Cu-3% Au, Cu-3% Mn, and Cu-3% Al layers on a Ta liner surface have been studied. It was found that the alloying increases the wetting angle of Cu on Ta at high temperature, as a result of either reduction in Cu alloy surface energy, solute surface segregation, or solute-liner interactions. In addition, the Cu alloys were found to be less agglomeration resistive as compared to pure Cu; their smaller grain size, interaction with the liner surface, and tendency to oxidize were found to accelerate their agglomeration. The coalescing thickness of the Cu alloys was found to be reduced from that of Cu (˜4.5 nm) to ˜2 nm.

LaBarbera, Stephanie Florence

423

Peculiarities of Lasing in Solutions of R6G with Agglomerated Metallic Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physical interpretation is given for the experimentally observed substantial lowering of the lasing thresholds and the blue shift of the peak of the stimulated emission spectrum of a solution of the laser dye rhodamine 6G (R6G) with agglomerated silver nanoparticles. Results of a study of the influence of nonlinear thermal processes on the lasing of a solution of R6G with silver nanoparticles are presented. The dynamic range of the pump energies at which breakdown of the working medium does not take place under the influence of thermal processes is determined.

Donchenko, V. A.; Edreev, I. A.; Zemlyanov, Al. A.; Kharenkov, V. A.

2013-12-01

424

Influence of the agglomeration in the initial suspension (ferrofluid) on the oriented magnetic structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process was studied of preparation of oriented BaFe12O19 films via deposition of BaFe12O19 nanoparticles from a suspension in a magnetic field. The films' structural, microstructural and magnetic properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and magnetic measurements. The influence was explored of the particles's agglomeration in the ferrofluid on the films' properties and microstructure. Using time delay deposition, we obtained thick films with a high degree of orientation and good density.

Kolev, S.; Koutzarova, T.

2014-05-01

425

Wear Metal Analysis of Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article concentrates on reviewing the literature related with wear metal analysis of oils. An overview on the existence of metals in oils and typical wearing situations is discussed briefly. Different pre-treatment methods of oil samples before wear metal analysis are presented with application remarks. Common measurement techniques of wear metal analysis, both qualitative and quantitative, are handled and compared

Pekka Vähäoja; Ilkka Välimäki; Katri Roppola; Toivo Kuokkanen; Sulo Lahdelma

2008-01-01

426

Offshore oil: Technology - and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling and search techniques used in the exploitation of off-shore oil reserves are discussed. An overview is given of major government policy statements regarding the use of the outer continental shelf for oil production. The risk of detrimental effects on the environment caused by oil spills from off-shore drilling or damage to benthic animals is considered.

K. O. Emery

1976-01-01

427

Application of ¹³C NMR, fluorescence, and light-scattering techniques for structural studies of oil-in-water microemulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the microdroplets present in oil-in-water microemulsions was examined by using the 4-component model system water-hexadecane-sodium hexadecyl sulfate-pentanol. Three compositions were selected corresponding to regions in the pahse diagram where the content of water, cosurfactant, and oil, respectively, approached the tolerable limit to yield clear isotropic solutions. In the water-side microemulsion, the radius of the droplets is 127A

Yves Tricot; John Kiwi; Werner Niederberger; Michael Graetzel

1981-01-01

428

Chromatographic techniques for the determination of alkyl-phenols, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds in raw and roasted cold pressed cashew nut oils.  

PubMed

Anacardium occidentale belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is principally grown in tropical America (Mexico, Peru, Brazil, etc.) and India. Cashew nuts contain low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols that come from an oily liquid present in their shell and that is known as cashew-nut shell liquid. This paper reports the alkyl phenols composition of cold pressed raw and roasted cashew nut oil. First of all, cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes by preparative TLC and definitively identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. Anacardic acids were the major alkylphenols contained in both oils followed by cardol, cardanol and 2-methylcardol compounds, respectively. Raw and roasted oils did not show different compositions except for cardanols. The oil produced from roasted cashew nut reported a higher concentration of cardanols. Furthermore, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds were determined by HPLC-FLD and HPLC-DAD-MS, respectively. Tocopherol content varied in a range of 171.48-29.56mg/100g from raw to roasted cashew nut oil, being ?-tocopherol the one which presented a higher decrease (93.68%). Also minor polar compounds in cashew oil decreased after roasting from 346.52 to 262.83mg/kg. PMID:20961547

Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

2010-11-19

429

Protein-mediated synthesis, pH-induced reversible agglomeration, toxicity and cellular interaction of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Casein, a milk protein, is used to produce biotolerable and highly stable silver nanoparticles with a fair control over their size without using any additional reducing agent. These silver nanoparticles undergo reversible agglomeration to form protein-silver nanoparticle composite agglomerates as pH approaches to the isoelectric point of casein protein (pI=4.6). These agglomerates can then easily be re-dispersed in alkaline aqueous media with no obvious change in their optical properties. The nanoparticles can withstand high salt concentration (~0.5M), and can also be freeze-dried, stored as dry powder and then dispersed in aqueous media whenever required. More interestingly, by controlling the concentration of casein protein and pH, it was also possible to control the self-assembly of silver nanoparticles to produce fairly uniform spherical agglomerates. The nanoparticles and their agglomerates were thoroughly characterized using UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, TEM, SEM and DLS, etc. Cytotoxicity of the hybrid materials was examined using a Resazurin based cytotoxicity assay. After determining the LD(50) using NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells, the cellular interaction of these hybrid nanoparticles was studied to examine the behavior of casein-coated nanoparticles for their potential bio-applications. PMID:23107938

Ashraf, Sumaira; Abbasi, Azhar Zahoor; Pfeiffer, Christian; Hussain, Syed Zajif; Khalid, Zafar Mahmood; Gil, Pilar Rivera; Parak, Wolfgang J; Hussain, Irshad

2013-02-01

430

Physical simulation of precipitation of radioactive element oxalates by using the harmless neodymium oxalate for studying the agglomeration phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxalic precipitation is usually applied in nuclear industry to process radioactive wastes or to recover actinides from a multicomponent solution. This paper deals with the development of methods adapted to a nuclear environment in order to study the agglomeration phenomena during actinide oxalic precipitation. These methods are previously setup with harmless elements that simulate the actinide behaviour: the lanthanides. A parametric study is carried out to quantify the influence of operating parameters on the agglomeration kernel and to determine a kinetic law for this mechanism. The experimental study is performed in a continuous-MSMPR precipitator at steady-state. The method is based on the resolution of two population balances using the moment approach, one for elementary crystals and the other for agglomerates. Provided that the kinetic rates of nucleation and growth are known, the agglomeration kernel can be obtained from a mathematical treatment of the experimental particle size distributions. Results point out that experimental crystal sizes are consistent with an independent kernel. It appears that the agglomeration kernel is directly proportional to supersaturation, increases with temperature but is limited by ionic strength and shear rate.

Lalleman, Sophie; Bertrand, Murielle; Plasari, Edouard

2012-03-01

431

Heavy oils: Their shear story  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Heavy oils are important unconventional,hydrocarbon,re- sources with huge reserves and are usually exploited through thermal recovery processes. These thermal recovery processes can be monitored using seismic techniques. Shear-wave proper- ties,inparticular,areexpectedtobemostsensitivetothechanges in the heavy-oil reservoir because heavy oils change from being solid-like at low temperatures to fluid-like at higher tempera- tures. To understand their behavior, we measure the complex shearmodulusandthusalsotheattenuationofaheavy-oil-satu-

Jyoti Behura; Mike Batzle; Ronny Hofmann; John Dorgan

2007-01-01

432

A comparison study of the agglomeration mechanism of nano- and micrometer aluminum particles  

SciTech Connect

The agglomeration mechanism of micro- and nanosize aluminum particles with a primary mean particle diameter of 4.5 {mu}m and 75 nm, respectively, was comparatively investigated under an incident shock wave. The morphology, particle size, and agglomeration process of micro- and nanometer alumina particles were comprehensibly compared by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Images of X-ray diffraction reveal that a varied of phases of alumina ({gamma}-, {delta}-, {epsilon}-, and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were simultaneously found in the nanosize alumina products, which may give some detail information of the wide variety of reacting temperature of aluminum nanoparticles, while Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was detected in micrometer alumina products, which also gives some dynamic information of aluminum to alumina, i.e., aluminas have actually reacted with the free active carbon atoms to produce their intermediates. The microstructure of aluminas induced by the incident shock waves was detected and analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum. These results are an additive evidence to support that the initial stage sintering of the alumina nanosize powders is dominated by grain boundary diffusion, while the volume diffusion is the main character for the initial stage sintering of the micrometer alumina powders.

Yan, Z.X., E-mail: zhengxinyan163@163.com [Key Laboratory of Western Mine Exploitation and Hazard Prevention of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, 710054 China (China); Deng, J.; Luo, Z.M. [Key Laboratory of Western Mine Exploitation and Hazard Prevention of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, 710054 China (China)

2010-02-15

433

Integrated low emission cleanup system for direct coal-fueled turbines (electrostatic agglomeration)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract is to investigate the removal of So{sub x} and particulate matter from direct coal-fired combustion gas streams at high temperature and high pressure conditions. This investigation will be accomplished through a bench-scale testing and evaluation program employing sorbent mixed with a coal-water slurry for So{sub x} removal, and an innovative particulate control concept. The particulate control device utilizes electrostatic agglomeration followed by a high efficiency mechanical collector (cyclone). The process goal is to achieve particulate collection efficiency better than that required by the 1979 new source performance standards. An additional goal is to demonstrate 70% So{sub x} removal efficiency. This research project is now in the second of a 3 phase (Phase II) project. Phase II is to fabricate the combustor and particulate control devices and install the system at a test facility located at Research-Cottrell's, KVB Western Laboratory, Santa Ana, CA. There are three functional categories, or tasks which are to be completed in sequence. These tasks are itemized as follows: Design, procurement, and installation; Shakedown and startup; Reporting. Attempts to validate the concept of electrostatic agglomeration were not possible in the shakedown program before budget constraints halted the program. What was learned was that electrostatic precipitation is feasible in the temperature