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1

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOEpatents

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

1991-01-01

2

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOEpatents

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

1991-07-16

3

Hydroliquefaction of coal-oil agglomerates  

SciTech Connect

A novel coal hydroliquefaction process has been developed at PETC that employs a low-solvent-to-coal (S/C = 0.35) feed with a water-soluble dispersed catalyst. The effectiveness of liquefaction catalysts, iron and molybdenum, when loaded on the outside surface of coal-oil agglomerates is compared to that of aqueous impregnation. In the presence of 1 wt% iron and 5 vol% hydrogen sulfide, the iron-impregnated coal gave higher conversions than an agglomerated feed. Iron catalyst must be in intimate contact with individual coal particles for highest reactivity. Aqueous impregnation is, therefore, the best catalyst-loading method for dispersed iron. In the presence of 0.1 wt% molybdenum, higher conversions were, however, achieved with the coal-oil agglomerates than with molybdenum-impregnated coal. Oil agglomeration of feed coal eliminated the need for impregnation of molybdenum catalyst on the coal to achieve high conversions at low solvent-to-coal ratio of 0.35. In the absence of catalyst, higher conversions were also achieved with coal-oil agglomerates compared to a simple mixture of coal and oil at S/C = 0.35. The improved reactivity of agglomerates is thought to be due to the complete wetting of individual coal particles by binder oil, a hydrogen donor solvent, which was effected during the oil agglomeration step.

Ha, B.C.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.; Mima, J.A.

1988-01-01

4

Selective oil agglomeration of lignite  

SciTech Connect

In this study, desulfurization and deashing of Adiyaman-Glbai lignite by the agglomeration method were studied. For this purpose, three groups of agglomeration experiments were made. The effects of solid concentration, bridging liquid type and dosage, pH, and screen size on the agglomeration after desliming were investigated in the first group of experiments. The effects of lake water and sea water (the Mediterranean Sea water, the Aegean Sea water, and the Black Sea water) on the agglomeration were investigated in the second group of experiments. The effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3}) on the agglomeration were investigated in the third group of experiments. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of sea waters and soda lake water in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the reduction of total sulfur content of agglomerates. In addition, the usage of NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3} in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the ash content reduction of the agglomerates. 27 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Halime Abakay Temel; Volkan Bozkurt; Arun Kumar Majumder [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Department of Mining Engineering

2009-01-15

5

Factors affecting the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi Ulucayir lignite  

SciTech Connect

In the coal industry, the coal particles need to be decreased to a very fine size because of the need of removing inorganic materials from coal. Oil agglomeration is a kind of coal cleaning technique that is used for separation of organic and inorganic parts of fine sized coal. In this study, the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi (S-D) Ulucayir lignite was carried out by using kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil, poppy oil, and sunflower oil. The amount of bridging oil was varied from 5% to 25% of the amount of lignite. The effect of oil amount, oil type, solid content, agitation rate and time, pH on agglomeration performance was investigated. Maximum recovery value of 98.18% was observed by using poppy oil. In order to investigate the effect of pH on agglomeration NaOH and HCl is added to the slurry in various amounts. It is decided that the best agglomeration condition is obtained at low pH values. The effect of nonionic surface active agent (Igepal-CA 630) on agglomeration is investigated by adding to the slurry and it is observed that the grade is increased with the amount of surface active agent.

Unal, I.; Gorgun Ersan, M. [Cumhuriyet University, Sivas (Turkey)

2007-07-01

6

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process  

DOEpatents

A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

1992-11-10

7

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process  

DOEpatents

A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND)

1992-01-01

8

POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.

1997-12-31

9

Preliminary characterization of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process  

SciTech Connect

The agglomeration of aqueous suspensions of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal particles with i-octane was studied by employing a scale model mixing system which measured both agitator speed and torque. The progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque and was confirmed by examining samples of the suspension with an optical microscope. When a suspension containing 30 w/w% solids was degassed and then conditioned with 20 v/w% i-octane (20 ml i-octane/100 g coal), no agglomeration took place until a small amount of air (e.g., 9 v/w%) was introduced. Subsequent changes in agitator torque indicated that the ensuing process of agglomeration was complex and consisted of several stages involving various interactions between coal particles, oil drops, and gas bubbles. The time required to produce spherical agglomerates was determined for different experimental conditions by conducting a number of agglomeration tests involving different mixing tank sizes and different impeller sizes and speeds. The results indicate that agglomeration time decreases with increasing power input per unit volume and increasing gas concentration.

Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1996-12-31

10

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective is to determine the basic principles and mechanisms which underlie a number of selective oil agglomeration processes that have been proposed for beneficiating fine-size coal. An understanding of the basic principles and mechanisms will greatly facilitate technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.C.; Tyson, D.; Ziaoping, Qiu, Lessa, A.

1990-04-01

11

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this work is to determine the important principles and basic mechanisms which underlie various selective oil agglomeration processes for beneficiating fine-size coal in order to facilitate the technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. The recent work described herein has involved a more detailed study of the effects of mild oxidation on the surface properties of different types of coal and the relationship between the agglomerability of oxidized coals and their surface properties. In addition, the work has involved developing more effective means for separating coal and pyrite by finding and applying selective depressants for pyrite.

Wheelock, T.D.

1994-07-01

12

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

Numerous measurements of the heat of immersion of coal were conducting using several different particle size fractions of No. 2 Gas Seam coal from Raleigh County, West Virginia. The heat of immersion was determined in water, methanol, heptane, hexadecane and neohexane (2,2-dimethybutane). A comparison of the results with those determined previously for Illinois No. 6 coal is discussed. A number of potential pyrite depressants for use in oil agglomeration of coal were screened by testing the response of sulfidized mineral pyrite to agglomeration with heptane in the presence of the potential depressant. The following were tested; sodium dithionite, sodium thiosulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, titanous chloride, hydrogen peroxide, Oxone (a form of potassium monopersulfate), pyrogallol, quebracho (colloidal dispersant derived from tree bark), milk whey, and several organic thiols. Ferric chloride was applied to mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and sulfidized mineral pyrite before subjecting the mixtures to agglomeration with heptane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

1990-01-01

13

Development of a full scale selective oil agglomeration plant  

SciTech Connect

A research and development program managed by Australian Mining Investments Limited (AMI) on behalf of an investment syndicate was conducted with the objective of improving the efficiency and economy of the Selective Oil Agglomeration Process (SOAP), and developing viable commercial sized operating plants. Fewer than half the coal preparation plants in Australia beneficiate fine coal by froth flotation, the only viable alternative to SOAP for the recovery of low ash, fine and ultra fine coal. Those plants without flotation generally dispose of the ultra fine material, approximately {minus}100{micro}m in size, as tailings to waste. In the majority of cases this ultra fine waste contains more than 50% relatively low ash coal of saleable quality. It is believed that this coal constitutes a loss of 8--10 million tonnes per annum and that the coal mining industry would welcome a recovery process which has low capital and operating costs and will function automatically with minimal operator attention. The authors carried out a comprehensive literature study of selective oil agglomeration in order to gain a full understanding of the process and to plan the research program. Extensive studies were then undertaken on oil dispersion in the water phase, formation of oil water emulsions with surfactants and the optimization of surfactant selection. Oil and emulsion properties were investigated including stability, viscosity, temperature, concentration of components, time of formation, and cost. This work was followed by characterization studies on coals from the Gunnedah Basin and agglomeration test work on these coals. These agglomeration studies were performed firstly at bench level and then by using a small, 200 kg/hr continuous process development unit. The results were sufficiently encouraging to justify the design and construction of a fully instrumented, PLC controlled, 2 tph pilot plant at Gunnedah Colliery Coal Preparation Plant. Extensive trials were carried out on Hoskisson and Melville Seam coals with the 2 tph plant, during which period various design modifications were made as the process was developed and improved.

Donnelly, J.C.; Cooney, B. [James C. Donnelly and Associates (Australia); Hoare, I.; Waugh, B. [CSIRO, Bangor, New South Wales (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology; Robinson, R. [Australian Mining Investments Ltd. (Australia)

1998-12-31

14

Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process: Air-promoted oil agglomeration of moderately hydrophobic coals. 2: Effect of air dosage in a model mixing system  

SciTech Connect

In a selective oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal, fine-size particles are suspended in water and treated with a water-immiscible hydrocarbon which can range from pentane to heavy fuel oil. Vigorous agitation is applied to disperse the oil and to produce frequent contacts between oil-coated particles. In Part 1 of this series of papers, it was shown that a definite amount of air had to be present in a laboratory mixing unit which produced a moderate shear rate in order to form compact, spherical agglomerates in an aqueous suspension of moderately hydrophobic coal using heptane or hexadecane as an agglomerate. In this paper, the effects of different amounts of air including dissolved air are discussed. The results indicate that a small amount of air will trigger the process of agglomeration, and even the air dissolved in water under equilibrium conditions at room temperature and pressure is sufficient to promote agglomeration provided it is released from solution.

Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D.

1996-07-01

15

TEM and HRTEM of Soot-in-oil particles and agglomerates from internal combustion engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over time, the performance of lubricating oil in a diesel engine is affected by the build-up of carbon soot produced by the combustion process. TEM and HRTEM are commonly used to investigate the characteristics of individual and agglomerated particles from diesel exhaust, to understand the structure and distribution of the carbon sheets in the primary particles and the nanostructure morphology. However, high resolution imaging of soot-in-oil is more challenging, as mineral oil is a contaminant for the electron microscope and leads to instability under the electron beam. In this work we compare solvent extraction and centrifugation techniques for removing the mineral oil contaminant, and the effect on particle size distribution.

Fay, M. W.; La Rocca, A.; Shayler, P. J.

2014-06-01

16

Desulfurization and deashing of Hazro coal by selective oil agglomeration in various water mediums  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to study the effects of various water mediums on desulfurization and deashing of Hazro coal by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, three groups of agglomeration experiments were made. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, bridging liquid concentration, and pH, on the agglomeration were investigated in the first group of experiments. The effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3}) on the agglomeration were investigated in the second group of experiments. The effects of lake water and sea water on the agglomeration were investigated in the third group of experiments. The influences of the Mediterranean Sea water and Aegean Sea water on the removal of ash and total sulfur were found to be important. 22 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Halime Abakay Temel; Fatma Deniz Ayhan [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Department of Mining Engineering

2006-10-15

17

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION FOR RECOVERY OF FINE COAL REFUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the economics of an oil-agglomeration process (with and without an oil recovery system) for recovering coal fines from a fine refuse stream of 105 ton/hr from a coal preparation plant. The two base case processes studied are oil-agglom...

18

Geographical proximity and innovation: Evidences from the Campos Basin oil & gas industrial agglomeration—Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the results of an empirical study involving 10 firms located in the Campos Basin oil & gas industrial agglomeration in Brazil. Within the last 20 years, this region has emerged from limited oil & gas competencies to a leading center for deep and ultra-deep offshore exploration and production capabilities, resulting in Brazilian energy self-sufficiency. Firms operate under

Bruno dos Santos Silvestre; Paulo Roberto Tavares Dalcol

2009-01-01

19

APPLICATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION FOR EFFLUENT CONTROL FROM COAL CLEANING PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the potential applicability of oil agglomeration for the control of black water effluents from coal cleaning plants processing four different coals. Removal and recovery of the coal from each of the black waters produced aqueous suspensions of mineral matter ...

20

FUEL CONTAMINANTS: VOLUME 4. APPLICATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TO COAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the application of oil agglomeration to coal wastes. There are an estimated 3000-5000 sizeable active and abandoned coal waste piles and impoundments in the eastern U.S. coal fields alone, containing 3 billion tons of refuse, part of which a...

21

Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Several scale model mixing systems have been built and are being utilized to study the gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal. Numerous batch agglomeration tests have been conducted with these systems. During an individual test the progress of agglomeration has been monitored by observing either changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated particle suspensions or changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. A mathematical model has been developed for relating the rate of agglomeration of coal particles to the rate of change of turbidity of a dilute particle suspension undergoing agglomeration. The model has been utilized for analyzing and interpreting the results of a number of oil agglomeration tests in which several different system parameters were varied.

Wheelock, T.D.

1995-12-01

22

Mechanisms for selective agglomeration of coals  

SciTech Connect

Work continued on the basic mechanisms which underlie various processes for beneficiating aqueous suspensions of coal by selective agglomeration with oil. A new method was demonstrated for characterizing the agglomerability of coal suspensions. This method utilizes a photometric dispersion analyzer to monitor changes in the turbidity of a particle suspension as increasing amounts of oil are added to the suspension in a batch agglomeration test. Agglomeration of the particles leads to a marked decrease in the turbidity of the suspension. Another experimental technique was also demonstrated for characterizing oil agglomeration. This technique involves measuring the rate of growth of agglomerates in a continuous flow system operating under stead-state conditions. The data are analyzed by means of a population balance. The results of a preliminary set of experiments in which Indiana V seam coal was agglomerated with tetralin seemed to fit a particular growth model very well. Equipment was also constructed for studying the kinetics of agglomeration in a batch process. While earlier work showed that quebracho (a commercially available dispersant) is a strong agglomeration depressant for pyrite, recent experiments with mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and mineral pyrite showed that quebracho does not appear to be sufficiently selective. Further consideration was given to the separation of mixtures of coal and pyrite agglomeration with heptane. 2 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

1989-05-01

23

Directional Agglomeration Multigrid Techniques for High Reynolds Number Viscous Flow Solvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preconditioned directional-implicit agglomeration algorithm is developed for solving two- and three-dimensional viscous flows on highly anisotropic unstructured meshes of mixed-element types. The multigrid smoother consists of a pre-conditioned point- or line-implicit solver which operates on lines constructed in the unstructured mesh using a weighted graph algorithm. Directional coarsening or agglomeration is achieved using a similar weighted graph algorithm. A tight coupling of the line construction and directional agglomeration algorithms enables the use of aggressive coarsening ratios in the multigrid algorithm, which in turn reduces the cost of a multigrid cycle. Convergence rates which are independent of the degree of grid stretching are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions. Further improvement of the three-dimensional convergence rates through a GMRES technique is also demonstrated.

1998-01-01

24

Directional Agglomeration Multigrid Techniques for High-Reynolds Number Viscous Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preconditioned directional-implicit agglomeration algorithm is developed for solving two- and three-dimensional viscous flows on highly anisotropic unstructured meshes of mixed-element types. The multigrid smoother consists of a pre-conditioned point- or line-implicit solver which operates on lines constructed in the unstructured mesh using a weighted graph algorithm. Directional coarsening or agglomeration is achieved using a similar weighted graph algorithm. A tight coupling of the line construction and directional agglomeration algorithms enables the use of aggressive coarsening ratios in the multigrid algorithm, which in turn reduces the cost of a multigrid cycle. Convergence rates which are independent of the degree of grid stretching are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions. Further improvement of the three-dimensional convergence rates through a GMRES technique is also demonstrated.

Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

1998-01-01

25

Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3 years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these “surface residual balls” (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results.

Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joesph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.

2014-01-01

26

Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-11-15

27

The use of starch to enhance sulfur and ash removal from coal by selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

We have found that the use of starch or gelatin, as an additive in the Otisca T-Process of selective oil agglomeration of coal, leads to a considerable improvement in the reduction of pyritic sulfur and of ash-forming minerals. A patent application has been filed; (Good Badgugar). Improvement in rejection of pyritic sulfur by up to 55% has been found, and improvement in ash rejection by up to 28%. Carbon recovery of 97.5 to 99.1% was obtained when the starch concentration was in the range, 30 to 200 ppM in the water. Three different bituminous coals were used: Upper Freeport, Kentucky No. 9, and Illinois No. 6.

Good, R.J.; Badgujar, M.N.

1990-01-01

28

Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of this research project is to carry out the preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal using model mixing systems. The design and construction of a model mixing system for conducting oil agglomeration tests were reported previously as well as the results of a series of calibration and shakedown tests. The system consists of a flat bottom tank which is fitted with four vertical baffles, a cover, and a turbine agitator. The tank has an inside diameter of 15.24 cm (6.0 in.), height of 15.24 cm (6.0 in.), and net volume of 2.87 L. The tank is connected to a photometric dispersion analyzer so that the turbidity of a coal particle suspension undergoing agglomeration can be monitored. Measuring the turbidity of a particle suspension requires application of the Beer-Lambert law. However, since this law applies for dilute suspensions, it is questionable whether or not it applies to the somewhat more concentrated coal suspensions required for the present project. Therefore, to determine the law`s applicability, a series of turbidity measurements was conducted on particle suspensions which varied in particle concentration over a wide range, and the results were analyzed to see how well they agreed with the law. To determine the effect of air in promoting the oil agglomeration of coal particles in an aqueous suspension, a number of agglomeration tests were conducted with the model mixing system. Finely ground Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was used for these tests, and the amount of air present was controlled carefully. The agglomeration process was monitored by observing the change in turbidity of the system.

Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Zhang, F.; Nelson, C.

1994-09-01

29

Diffusion mediated agglomeration of CdS nanoparticles via Langmuir–Blodgett technique  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Diffusion mediated agglomeration of CdS nanoparticles are discussed. • Formation of CdS nanoparticles are confirmed by the change of chain length in XRD. • AFM shows the agglomeration of particles with a film swelling of about 5 ?. • UV–vis absorbance suggests that the grown particles show quantum confinement. • Hexagonal form of particle was confirmed by UV–vis reflectivity. - Abstract: We have reported a diffusion mediated agglomeration of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles within cadmium arachidate (CdA{sub 2}) film matrix. The structural morphology and formation of CdS nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show a change in bilayer difference from 53.04 ? to 43 ? after the sulphidation. An epitaxial growth of the films by ?5 ? after sulphidation is confirmed from atomic force microscopy studies. The particle size calculated form UV–vis absorption edges are found to be varying from 2.6 nm to 3.3 nm for the different layers. A lateral dimension of 72–80 nm from AFM measurements and a size of 2.6–3.3 nm have confirmed one side flat pseudo two-dimensional disk-like nanoparticles. UV–vis reflectivity peak at E{sub 1} (A) confirms the formation of hexagonal CdS nanoparticles along the c-axis.

Das, Nayan Mani, E-mail: nayanmanidas3@gmail.com; Roy, Dhrubojyoti; Gupta, P.S.

2013-10-15

30

Removal of contaminant metals from fine grained soils, using agglomeration, chloride solutions and pile leaching techniques.  

PubMed

A leaching process based on the use of a HCl-CaCl2 solution, with total chloride concentration 4M, was investigated for the removal of contaminant metals from fine acidic soils. The possibility to apply this treatment on piles constructed on-site was also examined as a low cost treatment option. The soil sample used in the study was fine in texture, i.e. clay loam, acidic (pH 5.6), and contaminated mainly with Pb, up to 16000mg Pb/kg dry soil, due to past mining activities. The experimental work comprised all the treatment stages, including agglomeration of fine soil particles to increase the permeability of soil, leaching of the agglomerated soil in a laboratory column, removal of metals from the leachate, regeneration and recycling of the leaching solution and final washing of the treated soil. The initial agglomeration treatment resulted in the formation of coarse aggregates and the percolation of leaching solution through the soil column was maintained at high levels, i.e.75ml/cm(2) per day, during the whole treatment. A low amount of HCl acid was required for the removal contaminants from this particular soil, i.e. 0.44mol HCl/kg soil, due to the absence of acid consuming minerals. The extractions achieved were 94% for Pb, 78% for Zn and more than 70% for Cd. The co-dissolution of soil matrix was very limited, with a total weight loss about 3.5%. The final pH of the soil after washing was found to be 5.15, i.e. slightly lower compared to the initial pH of the soil. The results of this study indicate that chloride leaching, in combination with agglomeration and pile leaching techniques, can be a cost effective option for the removal of metal contaminants from fine acidic soils. PMID:11406313

Tampouris, S; Papassiopi, N; Paspaliaris, I

2001-06-29

31

Comparative Tabletting behavior of Carbamazepine granules with spherical agglomerated crystals prepared by spherical crystallization technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to prepare Spherical agglomerates of Carbamazepine by Quesi-Emulsion Solvent Diffusion system (QESDS) with Ethanol-Chloroform-Water system. Granules were prepared by wet granulation method with different excipients.The prepared agglomerates were evaluated for flowability, compressibility, wettability, packability and solubility. Tablets were prepared and evaluated for tensile strength, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution rate. Formulate, evaluate and

Yadav VB; Yadav AV

32

Polymeric Recrystallized Agglomerates of Cefuroxime Axetil Prepared by Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To study the effect of different polymers on the solubility and dissolution rate of cefuroxime axetil (CFU) prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion (ESD) technique. Methods: The ESD technique employed involved three test solvents: first, substance dissolution medium-good solvent (acetone); second, partial dissolution medium for the substance-bridging liquid (dichloromethane), and third, immiscible with the substance-poor solvent (distilled water). The pure

VB Yadav; AV Yadav

33

Oil spill cleanup using vacuum technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum technique is established for oil spill cleanup. It consists of environmental tank, oil-collecting unit, vacuum system, and air distributors. The vacuum technique is found very effective under all possible operating conditions. Several operating parameters are investigated such as hole arrangement (vertical and horizontal slots), air distributors location (one-side and two-sides strategies), air volumetric flow rate over the range

Mazmdouh T Ghannam; Omar Chaalal

2003-01-01

34

New production techniques for alberta oil sands.  

PubMed

Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and upgrading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir. PMID:17816505

Carrigy, M A

1986-12-19

35

The use of starch to enhance sulfur and ash removal from coal by selective oil agglomeration. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, July 1--September 30, 1990  

SciTech Connect

We have found that the use of starch or gelatin, as an additive in the Otisca T-Process of selective oil agglomeration of coal, leads to a considerable improvement in the reduction of pyritic sulfur and of ash-forming minerals. A patent application has been filed; (Good & Badgugar). Improvement in rejection of pyritic sulfur by up to 55% has been found, and improvement in ash rejection by up to 28%. Carbon recovery of 97.5 to 99.1% was obtained when the starch concentration was in the range, 30 to 200 ppM in the water. Three different bituminous coals were used: Upper Freeport, Kentucky No. 9, and Illinois No. 6.

Good, R.J.; Badgujar, M.N.

1990-12-31

36

Analysis of agglomerated packings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of computer simulation of the packing of particles in compacts from agglomerated powders are presented. The effect of the characteristics of agglomerated powders, such as the number of particles in the agglomerates, the size distribution of agglomerates, and the volume share of the fine fraction (individual particles) on the factors that determine the sinterability of compacts, i.e., the density,

A. V. Galakhov; E. V. Tsibailo; G. A. Fomina; B. S. Mitin

1995-01-01

37

POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing  

SciTech Connect

The information presented in this manual is solely for the purpose of operating the POC-scale equipment for fine coal processing as described herein. This manual provides a general description of the process technology and guidelines for plant operating procedures. It is intended for use by the operators and maintenance personnel who will be responsible for the operations of the plant. No attempt should be made to operate the plant until the principles of the process and operating instructions contained in this manual are fully understood. Operating personnel should thoroughly familiarize themselves with all processing equipment prior to commencing plant operation. All equipment is skid mounted to provide a self-contained unit. The dimensions of the unit are comply with standard guidelines. A minimum distance of 2 feet is provided between equipment for walkway and maintenance.

W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

1999-07-01

38

Fuel agglomerates and method of agglomeration  

DOEpatents

Solid fuel agglomerates are prepared of particulate coal or other carbonaceous material with a binder having a high humic acid or humate salt content. The humic acid is extracted from oxidized carbonaceous material with a mild aqueous alkali solution of, for instance, ammonia. The particulate material is blended with the extract which serves as the binder for the agglomerates. The water-resistant agglomerates are formed such as by pelletizing, followed by drying to remove moisture and solidify the humic acid binder throughout the agglomerate.

Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA)

1986-01-01

39

Remediation of Sucarnoochee soil by agglomeration with fine coal  

SciTech Connect

Fine-sized Blue Creek coal was used to remove high molecular weight hydrocarbons from Sucarnoochee soil, a fine-sized high-organic soil. Fine coal in slurry form was blended with Sucarnoochee soil contaminated with 15.0% by wt of crude oil, and agglomerates were removed in a standard flotation cell. Crude oil in the remediated soil was reduced from the original 15.0% to less than a tenth of a wt% by a two-step process. Oil removal of approx. 99.3% was obtained. An added benefit was that the low-grade coal used in the process was simultaneously upgraded. The final level of cleaning was not affected by initial oil concentration. The process compared favorably with a hot water wash technique used to recovery oils from contaminated soil.

Narayanan, P.S.; Arnold, D.W.; Rahnama, M.B. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))

1994-01-01

40

Spatio-temporal variability of surface water quality of fresh water resources in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration, India using geospatial techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study was conducted in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration (RUA) to assess the surface water quality of major rivers and reservoirs during pre- and post-monsoon periods. Study indicated increase in chemical contaminants and decrease in biological contaminants during monsoon periods and a positive correlation with built-up land within the catchment of surface water sources. The remote sensing-based approach indicated Swarnrekha river and tributaries as more encroached by built-up land (0.73 km2 within 50 m buffer) than Jumar river and its tributaries (0.21 km2). For the proper management of the surface water sources in RUA, government attention and interventions are required to minimize the contamination and safeguard the health of local residents.

Pandey, Arvind Chandra; Kumar, Amit

2015-03-01

41

Acoustic agglomeration methods and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods are described for using acoustic energy to agglomerate fine particles on the order of one micron diameter that are suspended in gas, to provide agglomerates large enough for efficient removal by other techniques. The gas with suspended particles, is passed through the length of a chamber while acoustic energy at a resonant chamber mode is applied to set up one or more acoustic standing wave patterns that vibrate the suspended particles to bring them together so they agglomerate. Several widely different frequencies can be applied to efficiently vibrate particles of widely differing sizes. The standing wave pattern can be applied along directions transversed to the flow of the gas. The particles can be made to move in circles by applying acoustic energy in perpendicular directions with the energy in both directions being of the same wavelength but 90 deg out of phase.

Barmatz, M. B. (inventor)

1984-01-01

42

New technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the large size and the number of diffusion pumps, space simulation chambers cannot be easily calibrated by the usual test dome method for measuring backstreaming from oil diffusion pumps. In addition, location dependent contamination may be an important parameter of the test. The backstreaming contamination in the Space Power Facility (SPF) near Sandusky, Ohio, the largest space simulation vacuum test chamber in the U.S.A. was measured. Small size clean silicon wafers as contamination sensors placed at all desired measurement sites were used. The facility used diffusion pumps with DC 705 oil. The thickness of the contamination oil film was measured using ellipsometry. Since the oil did not wet uniformly the silicon substrate, two analysis models were developed to measure the oil film: continuous, homogeneous film and islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. In both cases, the contamination film refractive index was assumed to be that of DC 705. The second model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude, especially for the low coverage cases. Comparison of the two models for our case shows that the continuous film model overestimates the oil volume by less than 50 percent. Absolute numbers for backstreaming are in good agreement with published results for diffusion pumps. Good agreement was also found between the ellipsometric results and measurements done by x ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on samples exposed to the same vacuum runs.

Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

1993-01-01

43

Electrical techniques for monitoring the condition of lubrication oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lubricating oil used in engines for vehicle and other applications is renewed according to a schedule specified by the manufacturer. This timetable is, naturally, very conservative, and makes no allowance for the way in which the engine is operated. Constant-speed operation (such as motorway use) is much less harmful to the lubricant than variable-speed operation, such as urban driving, during which the oil experiences extreme variations of temperature and engine speed. The net result of the conservative lubricant replacement schedule is that most engine oil is discarded well before it has reached the end of its useful life. This paper reports a study in which changes to the dielectric and magnetic properties of the oil are assessed as methods of measuring the degradation of lubricating oil. The relationship between oil use (measured by the distance a vehicle has travelled) and oil viscosity is also measured. The conclusions from this work are that simple distance travelled (miles/kilometres) is not a good indicator of the state of an oil, as estimated by measuring its viscosity. The magnetic characteristics of lubricating oil (i.e. its magnetic permeability) do change as the oil degrades, but the measurements were poorly correlated with viscosity and do not seem to offer much promise as the basis of an oil monitoring system. The dielectric properties of lubricating oil are reasonably well correlated with viscosity, and it is proposed that this could form the basis of a useful sensing technique.

Turner, J. D.; Austin, L.

2003-10-01

44

New technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The backstreaming contamination in the Space Power Facility, Ohio, was measured using small size clean silicon wafers as contamination sensors placed at all measurement sites. Two ellipsometric models were developed to measure the oil film with the contamination film refractive index of DC 705: a continuous, homogeneous film and islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. The island model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude. The continuous film model overestimated the oil volume by about 50 percent.

Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

1992-01-01

45

Development and Application of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Complex Geometries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report progress in the development of agglomerated multigrid techniques for fully un- structured grids in three dimensions, building upon two previous studies focused on efficiently solving a model diffusion equation. We demonstrate a robust fully-coarsened agglomerated multigrid technique for 3D complex geometries, incorporating the following key developments: consistent and stable coarse-grid discretizations, a hierarchical agglomeration scheme, and line-agglomeration/relaxation using prismatic-cell discretizations in the highly-stretched grid regions. A signi cant speed-up in computer time is demonstrated for a model diffusion problem, the Euler equations, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for 3D realistic complex geometries.

Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

2010-01-01

46

Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

2014-10-01

47

Bioremediation Techniques of Oil Contaminated Soils in Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective remediation techniques for crude oil contaminated soils. By providing a guidance manual to oil and gas operators, the Ohio Division of Oil and Gas regulatory authority hopes to reduce remediation costs while improving voluntary compliance with soil clean-up requirements. This shall be accomplished by conducting a series of field tests to define the optimum range for nutrient and organic enhancement to biologically remediate soils contaminated with brines and crude oil having a wide rage of viscosity.

Hodges, David

1996-10-03

48

TECHNIQUES FOR MIXING DISPERSANTS WITH SPILLED OIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The effective use of some oil spill dispersants requires the addition of mixing energy to the dispersant-treated slick. Various methods of energy application have included the use of fire hose streams directed to the water surface, outboard motors mounted on work boats, and the f...

49

Detecting Oil on Water: A Comparison of Known Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews new developments in oil pollution detection and compares available techniques according to their effectiveness. Emphasis is on in situ and remote sensing techniques, with a potential for real-time, automated operation. No mention is made of traditional methods, requiring that a sample be taken to a laboratory for tests of solubility, chemical reactions, or other properties.

Klemas, Vytautas

1971-01-01

50

Agglomeration — the practical alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods of agglomeration are offered as viable alternatives to spray drying. Equipment used includes horizontal mixers,\\u000a orbital screw mixers, batch drum mixers, continuous two-stage rotary drum mixers, V-shaped twin shell batch mixers, and continuous\\u000a zig-zag mixers.

S. A. Kuti

1978-01-01

51

Location, agglomeration and infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we discuss the relationships between transportation infrastructure, firm location, agglomeration and regional development. We will argue that the spatial transaction costs faced by modern firms have changed over recent decades, and that this has changed the ways in which transportation infrastructure contributes to form location behaviour and regional economic development. Therefore, in order to analyse these issues,

Philip McCann; Daniel Shefer

2003-01-01

52

Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines  

E-print Network

Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines: · Oil samples can be collected during oil changes. Follow manufacturers recommendations on frequency (hours, mileage, etc) of oil changes. · Capture a sample from the draining oil while the oil is still hot

53

Measurement of Thin Oil Film Thickness Using Ultrasonic Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An application of ultrasonic technique is attempted for the purpose of measuring thin oil film thickness between two surfaces. The amplitude of the wave reflected from the boundary is vary depending on film thickness, because the ultrasonic wave emitted to the interface between two surfaces does multiple reflection and interference in oil film. Quantitative measurement of oil film thickness then can be possible. For instance, it is possible to measure the submicron film thickness which exists near the point contact formed by convex glass and plate with high frequency probe. And it is confirmed that the oil film thickness estimated from the echo height agrees with the film thickness decided by the curvature of the lens or obtained by the optical interference method, even if it is 100 nm. On the other hand, the thickness of oil film between cylinder and piston ring can be easily measured by setting the small ultrasonic probe on the back of piston ring. For example, the influence of the second ring and oil ring for the behavior of an oil film formed on a top ring is able to evaluate quantitatively. As mentioned above, it is cleared that quantitative evaluation of thin film thickness is possible with investigating the echo height obtained by ultrasonic wave pulse reflection method.

Takeuchi, Akitoshi; Terada, Seiichi; Toda, So

54

Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, thermal lens and open cell photoacoustic techniques are used to measure the thermal properties of biodiesel oils. The absolute values of the thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were determined for samples obtained from soy, castor bean, sunflower and turnip. The results suggest that the employed techniques may be useful as complementary methods for biodiesel certification.

Castro, M. P. P.; Andrade, A. A.; Franco, R. W. A.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Sthel, M.; Vargas, H.; Constantino, R.; Baesso, M. L.

2005-08-01

55

Applications of data analysis techniques for oil production prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two data analysis techniques adopted in a Decision Support System (DSS) that aids users in predicting oil production of an infill well. The system generates predictions in the form of a possible range of cumulative production and length of production life of an infill well. The system also shows the worst and best case scenarios based on

Hanh H. Nguyen; Christine W. Chan

2005-01-01

56

Thermal Characterization of Edible Oils by Using Photopyroelectric Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal properties of several edible oils such as olive, sesame, and grape seed oils were obtained by using the photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. Also, the back photopyroelectric configuration was used to obtain the thermal diffusivity of these oils; this thermal parameter was obtained by fitting the theoretical equation for this configuration, as a function of the sample thickness (called the thermal wave resonator cavity), to the experimental data. All measurements were done at room temperature. A complete thermal characterization of these edible oils was achieved by the relationship between the obtained thermal diffusivities and thermal effusivities with their thermal conductivities and volumetric heat capacities. The obtained results are in agreement with the thermal properties reported for the case of the olive oil.

Lara-Hernández, G.; Suaste-Gómez, E.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.; Sánchez-Sinéncio, F.; Valcárcel, J. P.; García-Quiroz, A.

2013-05-01

57

Oil spill cleanup and protection techniques for shorelines and marshlands  

SciTech Connect

A major oil spill ends in contamination of coastal or inland shorelines and marshlands, with possible environmental and economic damage. Such damage can be significantly reduced if proper protection and cleanup actions are taken promptly. The book provides a systematic methodology that can be used to assess the threat or extent of contamination and to choose the most appropriate protection/cleanup procedures for each shoreline or marshland contamination event. It gives the field user guidlines to determine cost-effective protection, cleanup and restoration techniques for a given oil spill situation.

Breuel, A.

1981-01-01

58

Combustion of an oil palm residue with elevated potassium content in a fluidized-bed combustor using alternative bed materials for preventing bed agglomeration.  

PubMed

Palm kernel shell (PKS) was burned at 45kg/s and excess air of 20-80% in a fluidized-bed combustor using alumina, dolomite, and limestone as the bed material. Temperature and gas concentrations were recorded along the reactor centerline as well as at stack. A SEM-EDS analysis was performed to investigate morphology and elemental composition of bed particles. An X-ray fluorescence method was used to determine the composition of used/reused bed materials and PM emitted from the combustor at different operating times. Excess air of 40% seems to be most appropriate for burning PKS in this combustor with an alumina bed, whereas 60% excess air is more suitable when using dolomite and limestone, as ensuring high (98.6-98.9%) combustion efficiency and acceptable CO and NO emissions. By using the selected bed materials, bed agglomeration can be prevented in this combustor. However, the bed materials exhibit substantial time-domain changes in physical and chemical properties. PMID:25704101

Ninduangdee, Pichet; Kuprianov, Vladimir I

2015-04-01

59

Separation of oil-water-sludge emulsions coming from palm oil mill process through microwave techniques.  

PubMed

The palm oil mills extraction process requires the separation of oil-water-sludge emulsions. For this purpose, the use of sedimentation and/or centrifugation techniques have been required until now. However, significant losses persist in different process flows and new methods are needed to further decrease them, such as methods based on electromagnetic waves application. In the study, emulsions obtained from two flow processes, namely press liquor stream (PL) and recovered stream of the centrifugal step (RC), were exposed to microwave radiation with different exposure times. In the case of the press liquor stream, different oil/water dilution ratios were also studied. The sedimentation speed and efficiency were studied for the irradiated samples and compared to those obtained for the same fluids with no radiation. Also, chromatographic tests were performed on the recovered oil to determine the effect on the oil quality after microwave radiation. The obtained results allow us to conclude that microwave exposure during periods below 1 minute lead to better sedimentation speed and efficiency. It was observed that microwaves facilitate the break of the charges and polarities balances in the emulsions at considerably lower temperatures than the corresponding in the conventional process, without affecting the recovered oil quality. PMID:19227069

Pérez-Páez, Rocío; Catalá-Civera, José Manuel; García-Baños, Beatriz; Castillo, Edgar F; Bastos, Johanna M; Zambrano, Luz S

2008-01-01

60

Geography, Industrial Organization, and Agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper makes two contributions to the empirical literature on agglomeration economies. First, the paper uses a unique and rich database in conjunction with mapping software to measure the geographic extent of agglomerative externalities. Previous papers have been forced to assume that agglomeration economies are club goods that operate at a metropolitan scale. Second, the paper tests for the existence

Stuart S. Rosenthal; William C. Strange

2003-01-01

61

Hydrophobic Agglomeration of Mineral Fines in Aqueous Suspensions and its Application in Flotation: a Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrophobic agglomeration is originated from the hydrophobic attraction between particles, which is essentially different from electrolyte coagulation and polymer flocculation. It is applied to mineral processing in floc-flotation process to improve the recovery of mineral fines. In this paper, the applications of this phenomenon in mineral fines were summarized, including the origin of hydrophobic agglomeration, the main factors affect hydrophobic agglomeration (particle hydrophobicity, shear rate and duration, nonpolar oil and tank geometry), as well as hydrophobic agglomeration based separation processes (carrier flotation and floc-flotation).

Yang, Bingqiao; Song, Shaoxian

2014-05-01

62

Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method for agglomerating coal particles with microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions. In Part I, the development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During batch agglomeration tests the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspension. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. It was shown that gas bubbles trigger the process of agglomeration and participate in a very complex mechanism involving the interaction of particles, oil droplets, and gas bubbles. The process takes place in stages involving dispersion of oil and gas, flocculation, coagulation, and agglomerate building. Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with two kinds of coal in concentrated suspensions to determine the important characteristics of the process and to study the effects of the following operating parameters: i-octane concentration, air concentration, particle concentration, tank diameter, impeller diameter, and impeller speed. Several excellent correlations between the minimum time required to produce spherical agglomerates or a final agglomerate diameter and the operating parameters were obtained by using the general linear regression method. In addition, the results provided a basis for size scale up of an agglomeration system. In Part II, the technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultrafine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was produced by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this method in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt. % ash, it was shown that the ash content could be reduced to 6--7 wt. % while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis by using a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w %, air saturation of 5 to 15 psig, and i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w % based on the coal weight. It was also shown that the process of agglomeration can be reversed by subjecting an aqueous suspension of agglomerates to a pressure sufficient to redissolve the microbubbles.

Shen, Meiyu

63

Recent Advances in Agglomerated Multigrid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report recent advancements of the agglomerated multigrid methodology for complex flow simulations on fully unstructured grids. An agglomerated multigrid solver is applied to a wide range of test problems from simple two-dimensional geometries to realistic three- dimensional configurations. The solver is evaluated against a single-grid solver and, in some cases, against a structured-grid multigrid solver. Grid and solver issues are identified and overcome, leading to significant improvements over single-grid solvers.

Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Hammond, Dana P.

2013-01-01

64

MTCI acoustic agglomeration particulate control  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate pulse combination induced acoustic enhancement of coal ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions typical of direct coal-fired turbines and PFBC hot gas cleanup. MTCI has developed an advanced compact pulse combustor island for direct coal-firing in combustion gas turbines. This combustor island comprises a coal-fired pulse combustor, a combined ash agglomeration and sulfur capture chamber (CAASCC), and a hot cyclone. In the MTCI proprietary approach, the pulse combustion-induced high intensity sound waves improve sulfur capture efficiency and ash agglomeration. The resulting agglomerates allow the use of commercial cyclones and achieve very high particulate collection efficiency. In the MTCI proprietary approach, sorbent particles are injected into a gas stream subjected to an intense acoustic field. The acoustic field serves to improve sulfur capture efficiency by enhancing both gas film and intra-particle mass transfer rates. In addition, the sorbent particles act as dynamic filter foci, providing a high density of stagnant agglomerating centers for trapping the finer entrained (in the oscillating flow field) fly ash fractions. A team has been formed with MTCI as the prime contractor and Penn State University and West Virginia University as subcontractors to MTCI. MTCI is focusing on hardware development and system demonstration, PSU is investigating and modeling acoustic agglomeration and sulfur capture, and WVU is studying aerovalve fluid dynamics. Results are presented from all three studies.

Chandran, R.R.; Mansour, M.N. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Scaroni, A.W.; Koopmann, G.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Loth, J.L. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1994-10-01

65

Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs.

Hersman, L.

1995-11-01

66

Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over 99.9% coal recovery could be obtained in a one-stage separation by screening the agglomerated product. If a conventional oil agglomeration process is used instead, oil consumption as high as 30% is needed to obtain comparable results. In the tests on filtration and dewatering of ultrafine and fine coals, the effect of chemical additives and coal surface properties was investigated. The tests revealed very significant differences in the filtration of ultrafine (-45 mum) and fine (-500 mum) coals. The moisture contents in the filter cakes in the tests with ultrafine coal were around 40% (irrespective of the coal surface properties), while for the fine coal the moisture content fluctuated around 18% (Ford-4) and 30% (Ford-13). The results revealed that the hydrophobic latex and the emulsified oils could not only successfully beneficiate the ultrafine coal but also significantly increase filtration rate and/or reduce moisture content of the filter cake. Among the chemicals tested, the emulsified oils were found to be the most promising not only for the beneficiation but also for filtration and dewatering processes. Surfactants were found to only slightly affect the filtration of fine coal. However, they can influence filtration very profoundly if utilized to emulsify the oil which is used to agglomerate coal prior to its filtration.

Yu, Zhimin

67

Simple Techniques for Evaluation of Crude Oil Compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blending crude oils or crude oils and condensates of different origin may give rise to deposit related problems due to incompatibility. Although the problem has been recognized, there are as yet no standard methods for the determination and quantification of crude oil compatibility. This study focused on the compatibility of stock tank oils in storage depots and refineries. Using blends

W. E. M. Schermer; P. M. J. Melein; F. G. A. van den Berg

2004-01-01

68

Application of microbial enhanced oil recovery technique to a Turkish heavy oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial enhance oil recovery utilizes microorganisms and their metabolic products to improve the recovery of crude oil from reservoir rocks. In this study an anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum was injected into a one-dimensional model reservoir containing a Turkish heavy oil (Raman oil) at 38° C. This injection was followed by water flooding after a suitable shut-in period. Comparison of oil

Kemal Behlulgil; Tanju Mehmetoglu; Sedat Donmez

1992-01-01

69

COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION  

SciTech Connect

The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

T.D. Wheelock

1999-03-01

70

Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil  

SciTech Connect

Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

2010-05-17

71

A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Convergence rates of multigrid cycles are verified with quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the two-grid cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.

Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

2011-01-01

72

A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and highly stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Actual cycle results are verified using quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.

Thomas, James L.; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris

2009-01-01

73

An analysis of oil and gas supply modeling techniques and a survey of offshore supply models  

SciTech Connect

This report surveys the literature on empirical oil and gas supply modeling techniques. These techniques are categorized as either geologic/engineering, econometric, or hybrid - the last being a combination of geologic and econometric techniques. The geologic/ engineering models are further disaggregated into play analysis models and discovery process models. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the models are discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of how these techniques have been applied to offshore oil and gas supply.

Walls, M.A.

1990-01-01

74

A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique  

E-print Network

) or by near-range exposure to static clouds of volatile organic compounds (Gaffin and Walvoord, 2004). HoweverA new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton

Gaffin, Doug

75

Application of petroleum hydrocarbon chemical fingerprinting and allocation techniques after the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in environmental chemistry laboratory and data interpretation techniques (i.e. chemical fingerprinting) contributed to a better understanding of the biological impact of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill and the fate of the spilled oil. A review of the evolution of petroleum chemical fingerprinting techniques is presented followed by a summarization of how new approaches were used to characterize and

Paul D. Boehm; Gregory S. Douglas; William A. Burns; Paul J. Mankiewicz; David S. Page; A. Edward Bence

1997-01-01

76

Agglomeration, Integration and Tax Harmonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper considers tax competition and tax harmonization in the presence of agglomeration forces and falling trade costs. With agglomerative forces operating, industry is not indifferent to location in equilibrium, so perfectly mobile capital becomes a quasi-fixed factor. This suggests that the tax game is something subtler than a race to the bottom. Advanced 'core' nations may act like limit-pricing

Richard E. Baldwin; Paul Krugman

2000-01-01

77

Industrial Agglomeration in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic reform process in the Philippines was accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s. The reforms were found to have yielded positive results in terms of the nature of industrial agglomeration in the country as this was found to have occurred in the 1990s based on the results of the survey and econometrics analyses. The latter also identified the factors

Mari-Len R. Macasaquit

2008-01-01

78

Lubricant properties of Moringa oil using thermal and tribological techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing application of biobased lubricants could significantly reduce environmental pollution and contribute to the\\u000a replacement of petroleum base oils. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates\\u000a for use as base fluids in formulation of environment friendly lubricants. Although many vegetable oils have excellent lubricity,\\u000a they often have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. Here

Brajendra K. Sharma; Umer Rashid; Farooq Anwar; Sevim Z. Erhan

2009-01-01

79

Application of microbial enhanced oil recovery technique to Daqing Oilfield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P-1) and its metabolic products (PIMP) of 10% could enhance the oil recovery in the model reservoir by 11.2% and also decrease injection pressure by 40.1%. Further, PIMP (10%) could reduce the crude oil viscosity by 38.5%. In the pilot tests, about 80% of wells used showed a significant increase in crude oil production after PIMP injection and

Qingxin Li; Congbao Kang; Hao Wang; Chunde Liu; Changkai Zhang

2002-01-01

80

Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration  

DOEpatents

Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

2003-10-14

81

A new technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the large size and the number of diffusion pumps, space simulation chambers cannot be easily calibrated by the usual test dome method for measuring backstreaming from oil diffusion pumps. In addition, location dependent contamination may be an important parameter of the test. The backstreaming contamination was measured in the Space Power Facility (SPF) near Sandusky, OH, the largest space simulation vacuum test chamber in the U.S.. Small clean silicon wafers placed at all desired measurement sites were used as contamination sensors. The facility used diffusion pumps with DC 705 oil. The thickness of the contamination oil film was measured using ellipsometry. Since the oil did not wet the silicon substrate uniformly, two analysis models were developed to measure the oil film: (1) continuous, homogeneous film; and (2) islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. In both cases, the contamination film refractive index was assumed to be that of DC 705. The second model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude, especially for the low coverage cases. Comparison of the two models shows that the continuous film model overestimates the oil volume by less than 50 percent. Absolute numbers for backstreaming are in good agreement with published results for diffusion pumps. Good agreement was also found between the ellipsometric results and measurements done by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on examples exposed to the same vacuum runs.

Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

1991-01-01

82

Electric field in transformer oil measured with the Kerr-effect technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric field distribution in transformer insulating oil was measured as a function of time, both after application of a DC step voltage and after polarity change of the DC voltage, using a highly sensitive advanced Kerr electro-optic technique. The lower limit of the applied electric field intensity was 100 V\\/cm in insulating oil with an electrode length of 8

Y. Nonaka; H. Sato; T. Maeno; T. Takada

1991-01-01

83

Leakage detection and location for long range oil pipeline using negative pressure wave technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leakage accidents in oil transmission pipelines not only cause loss of material, but also bring about hidden troubles for people's property and the environment. Pipeline leakage accidents occur frequently in recent years, particularly in those developing countries, and most of which were done destructively. Negative pressure wave technique is an effective method for paroxysmal oil leakage detection and location. However,

Li Yi-bo; Sun Li-ying

2009-01-01

84

A technique for evaluating the oil/heavy-oil viscosity changes under ultrasound in a simulated porous medium.  

PubMed

Theoretically, Ultrasound method is an economical and environmentally friendly or "green" technology, which has been of interest for more than six decades for the purpose of enhancement of oil/heavy-oil production. However, in spite of many studies, questions about the effective mechanisms causing increase in oil recovery still existed. In addition, the majority of the mechanisms mentioned in the previous studies are theoretical or speculative. One of the changes that could be recognized in the fluid properties is viscosity reduction due to radiation of ultrasound waves. In this study, a technique was developed to investigate directly the effect of ultrasonic waves (different frequencies of 25, 40, 68 kHz and powers of 100, 250, 500 W) on viscosity changes of three types of oil (Paraffin oil, Synthetic oil, and Kerosene) and a Brine sample. The viscosity calculations in the smooth capillary tube were based on the mathematical models developed from the Poiseuille's equation. The experiments were carried out for uncontrolled and controlled temperature conditions. It was observed that the viscosity of all the liquids was decreased under ultrasound in all the experiments. This reduction was more significant for uncontrolled temperature condition cases. However, the reduction in viscosity under ultrasound was higher for lighter liquids compare to heavier ones. Pressure difference was diminished by decreasing in the fluid viscosity in all the cases which increases fluid flow ability, which in turn aids to higher oil recovery in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Higher ultrasound power showed higher liquid viscosity reduction in all the cases. Higher ultrasound frequency revealed higher and lower viscosity reduction for uncontrolled and controlled temperature condition experiments, respectively. In other words, the reduction in viscosity was inversely proportional to increasing the frequency in temperature controlled experiments. It was concluded that cavitation, heat generation, and viscosity reduction are three of the promising mechanisms causing increase in oil recovery under ultrasound. PMID:24075416

Hamidi, Hossein; Mohammadian, Erfan; Junin, Radzuan; Rafati, Roozbeh; Manan, Mohammad; Azdarpour, Amin; Junid, Mundzir

2014-02-01

85

Powder agglomeration in a microgravity environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report for NASA Grant NAG3-755 entitled 'Powder Agglomeration in a Microgravity Environment.' The research program included both two types of numerical models and two types of experiments. The numerical modeling included the use of Monte Carlo type simulations of agglomerate growth including hydrodynamic screening and molecular dynamics type simulations of the rearrangement of particles within an agglomerate under a gravitational field. Experiments included direct observation of the agglomeration of submicron alumina and indirect observation, using small angle light scattering, of the agglomeration of colloidal silica and aluminum monohydroxide. In the former class of experiments, the powders were constrained to move on a two-dimensional surface oriented to minimize the effect of gravity. In the latter, some experiments involved mixture of suspensions containing particles of opposite charge which resulted in agglomeration on a very short time scale relative to settling under gravity.

Cawley, James D.

1994-01-01

86

Study of Oil spill in Norwegian area using Decomposition Techniques on RISAT-1 Hybrid Polarimetric Data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over past few years Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) has received a considerable attention for monitoring and detection of oil spill due to its unique capabilities to provide wide-area surveillance and day and night measurements, almost independently from atmospheric conditions. The critical part of the oil spill detection is to distinguish oil spills from other natural phenomena. Stokes vector analysis of the image data is studied to estimate the polarized circular and linear components of the backscatter signal which essentially utilize the degree of polarization(m) and relative phase (?) of the target. In a controlled oil spill experiment conducted at Norwegian bay during 17th to 22nd June 2014, RISAT-1 hybrid polarimetry images were utilized to study the characteristics of oil spill in the sea. The preliminary results obtained by using polarimetric decomposition technique on hybrid polarimetric data to decipher the polarimetric characteristics of oil spills from natural waters are discussed in the paper.

Jayasri, P. V.; Usha Sundari, H. S. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Prasad, A. V. V.

2014-11-01

87

Boundary-layer transition and global skin friction measurement with an oil-fringe imaging technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new oil-fringe imaging system skin friction (FISF) technique to measure skin friction on wind tunnel models is presented. In the method used to demonstrate the technique, lines of oil are applied on surfaces that connect the intended sets of measurement points, and then a wind tunnel is run so that the oil thins and forms interference fringes that are spaced in proportion to local skin friction. After a run the fringe spacings are imaged with a CCD-array digital camera and measured on a computer. Skin friction and transition measurements on a two-dimensional wing are presented and compared with computational predictions.

Monson, Daryl J.; Mateer, George G.; Menter, Florian R.

1993-01-01

88

Oil spill cleanup and protection techniques for shorelines and marshlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major oil spill ends in contamination of coastal or inland shorelines and marshlands, with possible environmental and economic damage. Such damage can be significantly reduced if proper protection and cleanup actions are taken promptly. The book provides a systematic methodology that can be used to assess the threat or extent of contamination and to choose the most appropriate protection\\/cleanup

Breuel

1981-01-01

89

Tests of absorbents and solidification techniques for oil wastes  

SciTech Connect

A representative of each of six classes of commonly used adsorbents was chosen for a series of tests. After reviewing ASTM and other related standard tests, uncomplicated procedures were developed for carrying out specific tests to determine absorbency for simulated oil waste and for water, under static and simulated transportation (repetitive shock) conditions. The tests were then applied to the six representative absorbents. Solidification tests were performed using these absorbents saturated with oil and loaded to 50% of saturation. The binders used were Portland I cement and Delaware Custom Material (DCM) cement shale silicate. Samples were checked for proper set, and the amounts of free liquid were measured. Another series of tests was performed on samples of simulated oil waste without absorbent, using Portland cement and DCM cement shale silicate. Samples were checked for proper set, free liquid was measured, and compressive strengths were determined. The state-of-the-art parameters were identified which satisfy NRC disposal criteria for solidified radioactive waste. The literature was reviewed for alternative methods of managing oil wastes. Conclusions are drawn on the relative utility of the various methods. 17 references, 3 tables.

Lin, M.; MacKenzie, D. R.

1983-11-01

90

Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort  

DOEpatents

A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO)

1983-01-01

91

Agglomeration in Li-Al alloy electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-aluminum alloy negative electrodes have shown excellent promise for meeting the performance requirements of high temperature lithium\\/iron sulfide batteries being developed for electric vehicle propulsion. However, it appears that under certain conditions, capacity retention by these electrodes can be affected by agglomeration of the active material. To study agglomeration, its causes, and its electrochemical effects on cell performance, an experimental

A. K. Fischer; D. R. Vissers

1980-01-01

92

Preparation of chitosan microparticles by water-in-vegetable oil emulsion coalescence technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop an implantable vehicle for enhanced control of drug release into the body, chitosan (CS) microparticles were prepared where CS was chelated by a metal ion using the emulsion coalescence technique. Aqueous solutions of CS and metal ion were separately emulsified in vegetable oil containing lecithin. After both the water-in-oil (w\\/o) emulsions were mixed and stirred, CS

Kyoko Kofuji; Chun-Jun Qian; Yoshifumi Murata; Susumu Kawashima

2005-01-01

93

Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy-Oil Recovery Techniques  

SciTech Connect

This final report and technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007 for the project 'Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy Oil Recovery Techniques', DE-FC26-04NT15526. Critical year 3 activities of this project were not undertaken because of reduced funding to the DOE Oil Program despite timely submission of a continuation package and progress on year 1 and 2 subtasks. A small amount of carried-over funds were used during June-August 2007 to complete some work in the area of foamed-gas mobility control. Completion of Year 3 activities and tasks would have led to a more thorough completion of the project and attainment of project goals. This progress report serves as a summary of activities and accomplishments for years 1 and 2. Experiments, theory development, and numerical modeling were employed to elucidate heavy-oil production mechanisms that provide the technical foundations for producing efficiently the abundant, discovered heavy-oil resources of the U.S. that are not accessible with current technology and recovery techniques. Work fell into two task areas: cold production of heavy oils and thermal recovery. Despite the emerging critical importance of the waterflooding of viscous oil in cold environments, work in this area was never sanctioned under this project. It is envisioned that heavy oil production is impacted by development of an understanding of the reservoir and reservoir fluid conditions leading to so-called foamy oil behavior, i.e, heavy-oil solution gas drive. This understanding should allow primary, cold production of heavy and viscous oils to be optimized. Accordingly, we evaluated the oil-phase chemistry of crude oil samples from Venezuela that give effective production by the heavy-oil solution gas drive mechanism. Laboratory-scale experiments show that recovery correlates with asphaltene contents as well as the so-called acid number (AN) and base number (BN) of the crude oil. A significant number of laboratory-scale tests were made to evaluate the solution gas drive potential of West Sak (AK) viscous oil. The West Sak sample has a low acid number, low asphaltene content, and does not appear foamy under laboratory conditions. Tests show primary recovery of about 22% of the original oil in place under a variety of conditions. The acid number of other Alaskan North Slope samples tests is greater, indicating a greater potential for recovery by heavy-oil solution gas drive. Effective cold production leads to reservoir pressure depletion that eases the implementation of thermal recovery processes. When viewed from a reservoir perspective, thermal recovery is the enhanced recovery method of choice for viscous and heavy oils because of the significant viscosity reduction that accompanies the heating of oil. One significant issue accompanying thermal recovery in cold environments is wellbore heat losses. Initial work on thermal recovery found that a technology base for delivering steam, other hot fluids, and electrical heat through cold subsurface environments, such as permafrost, was in place. No commercially available technologies are available, however. Nevertheless, the enabling technology of superinsulated wells appears to be realized. Thermal subtasks focused on a suite of enhanced recovery options tailored to various reservoir conditions. Generally, electrothermal, conventional steam-based, and thermal gravity drainage enhanced oil recovery techniques appear to be applicable to 'prime' Ugnu reservoir conditions to the extent that reservoir architecture and fluid conditions are modeled faithfully here. The extent of reservoir layering, vertical communication, and subsurface steam distribution are important factors affecting recovery. Distribution of steam throughout reservoir volume is a significant issue facing thermal recovery. Various activities addressed aspects of steam emplacement. Notably, hydraulic fracturing of horizontal steam injection wells and implementation of steam trap control that limits steam entry into hor

Stanford University; Department of Energy Resources Engineering Green Earth Sciences

2007-09-30

94

An effective ostrich oil bleaching technique using peroxide value as an indicator.  

PubMed

Ostrich oil has been used extensively in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, rancidity causes undesirable chemical changes in flavour, colour, odour and nutritional value. Bleaching is an important process in refining ostrich oil. Bleaching refers to the removal of certain minor constituents (colour pigments, free fatty acid, peroxides, odour and non-fatty materials) from crude fats and oils to yield purified glycerides. There is a need to optimize the bleaching process of crude ostrich oil prior to its use for therapeutic purposes. The objective of our study was to establish an effective method to bleach ostrich oil using peroxide value as an indicator of refinement. In our study, we showed that natural earth clay was better than bentonite and acid-activated clay to bleach ostrich oil. It was also found that 1 hour incubation at a 150 °C was suitable to lower peroxide value by 90%. In addition, the nitrogen trap technique in the bleaching process was as effective as the continuous nitrogen flow technique and as such would be the recommended technique due to its cost effectiveness. PMID:21730920

Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Sivanathan, Muniswaran; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Subramaniam, Thavamanithevi; Chiew, Gan Seng

2011-01-01

95

Preparation of agglomerated crystals for improving flowability and compactibility of poorly flowable and compactible drugs and excipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agglomerates of naproxen, carbamazepine and lactose were developed by two spherical crystallization techniques, i.e., a spherical agglomeration method for carbamazepine and an emulsion diffusion method for naproxen and lactose. Physical characteristics of the crystals were studied for the morphology of crystals using scanning electron microscope, for the identification of polymorphism by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and for thermodynamic properties using

Ali Nokhodchi; Maryam Maghsoodi; Davood Hassan-Zadeh; Mohammad Barzegar-Jalali

2007-01-01

96

Effect of particle agglomeration in nanotoxicology.  

PubMed

The emission of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into the environment in increasing quantity and variety raises a general concern regarding potential effects on human health. Compared with soluble substances, ENPs exhibit additional dimensions of complexity, that is, they exist not only in various sizes, shapes and chemical compositions but also in different degrees of agglomeration. The effect of the latter is the topic of this review in which we explore and discuss the role of agglomeration on toxicity, including the fate of nanomaterials after their release and the biological effects they may induce. In-depth investigations of the effect of ENP agglomeration on human health are still rare, but it may be stated that outside the body ENP agglomeration greatly reduces human exposure. After uptake, agglomeration of ENPs reduces translocation across primary barriers such as lungs, skin or the gastrointestinal tract, preventing exposure of "secondary" organs. In analogy, also cellular ENP uptake and intracellular distribution are affected by agglomeration. However, agglomeration may represent a risk factor if it occurs after translocation across the primary barriers, and ENPs are able to accumulate within the tissue and thus reduce clearance efficiency. PMID:25618546

Bruinink, Arie; Wang, Jing; Wick, Peter

2015-05-01

97

Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed.

Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A.; Mohapatra, S.

2015-03-01

98

Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

Terralog Technologies

2002-11-25

99

Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

2001-12-17

100

Comparing Effectiveness of Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant with a Quaternary Ammonium Salt Surfactant for Hydrate Anti-Agglomeration  

E-print Network

Comparing Effectiveness of Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant with a Quaternary Ammonium Salt Surfactant through usage of polymers and surfactants, effective at 0.5-3 wt % of coproduced water. One group of low is on the use of two vastly different surfactants as anti-agglomerants. We use a model oil, water

Firoozabadi, Abbas

101

Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo; Vadie, A. Alex

2003-02-10

102

Segmentation Techniques for Identification and Tracking of Oil Spills in Ocean Surface M. Gonzalo-Tasis* a  

E-print Network

Segmentation Techniques for Identification and Tracking of Oil Spills in Ocean Surface M. Gonzalo for self-location, correction of effects arising from skew projections and an evaluation of oil spills in the environment by the oil spill in the ocean. The increase of the marine traffic in zones of straits is a factor

Llanos, Diego R.

103

A comparative staining technique to detect mineral oil contaminants from orthopedic implants.  

PubMed

An adverse tissue response was reported in patients implanted with porous coated implants containing a mineral oil contaminant. A comparative staining technique was developed in a rabbit and sheep model to identify the presence of a mineral oil contaminant on porous coated implants by examining the surrounding tissues and end organs. The hypothesis for the study was that mineral oil, a saturated lipid, could be distinguished from unsaturated lipids such as animal fats. Frozen rabbit and sheep tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, oil-red-O, and bromide-silver nitrate. Twenty-eight positive control rabbits were injected with mineral oil and 12 negative control rabbits were injected with saline into the paravertebral muscle and synovial cavity of the knee joint. Comparative analysis of tissue was conducted after 1, 3, 5, and 12 weeks. Thermally cleaned porous coated implants were implanted for 6, 12, and 24 weeks into cancellous bone of the distal femur of sheep to allow for a weight-bearing model. The comparative histological analysis of the positive control rabbit tissue allowed for detection of mineral oil in all tissues examined. Histological analysis of sheep tissue and saline-injected rabbit tissue showed no evidence of mineral oil or adverse tissue response. PMID:15199593

Willie, Bettina M; Watts, C William; Szakacs, Juliana G; Bloebaum, Roy D

2004-07-15

104

Investigation of self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment  

SciTech Connect

The US Coast Guard commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct this study of 45 self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment for oceangoing tankers and inland tank barges to assess the potential effectiveness of the proposed countermeasure categories. This study considers the hypothetical outflow of oil in the case of side damage and bottom damage to single-hull designs. The results will be considered by the Coast Guard in drafting regulations pertaining to the requirement for tanker vessels to carry oil pollution response equipment (i.e., in response to the oil Pollution Act of 1990). PNL's approach to this investigation included: assessing time-dependent oil outflow in the cases of collision and grounding of both tankers and barges; identifying environmental constraints on self-help countermeasure operation; identifying human factor issues, such as crew performance, safety, and training requirements for the self-help countermeasures considered; and assessing each self-help countermeasure with respect to its potential for minimizing oil loss to the environment. Results from the time-dependent oil outflow, environmental limitations, and human factors requirements were input into a simulation model.

Enderlin, W I; Downing, J P; Enderlin, C W; Sanquist, T F; Pope, W S

1992-06-01

105

Development of methods to predict agglomeration and disposition in FBCs  

SciTech Connect

This 3-year, multiclient program is providing the information needed to determine the behavior of inorganic components in FBC units using advanced methods of analysis coupled with bench-scale combustion experiments. The major objectives of the program are as follows: (1) To develop further our advanced ash and deposit characterization techniques to quantify the effects of the liquid-phase components in terms of agglomerate formation and ash deposits, (2) To determine the mechanisms of inorganic transformations that lead to bed agglomeration and ash deposition in FBC systems, and (3) To develop a better means to predict the behavior of inorganic components as a function of coal composition, bed material characteristics, and combustion conditions.

Mann, M.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.K.; Erickson, T.A.

1995-11-01

106

Instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used by Los Alamos National Laboratory in fragmentation experiments in oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Discussed are the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used to evaluate the explosive fragmentation experiments in oil shale at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines in Colorado. These experiments were conducted to investigate some of the many parameters that control the fragmenting or rubblizing of oil shale in preparation for subsurface retorting. Framing and TV cameras were used to study the size and speed of the ejected shale fragments. Stress and accelerometer gauges provided quantitative data about the explosively induced stress field in the rock. The CORRTEX technique was used to determine the detonation velocity of the explosive and the induced fracture velocity in the oil shale. Postshot measurements included the crater dimensions and rubble size distribution. In addition preshot and postshot geological mapping was done to relate fractures and joints to crater size and shape.

Edwards, C.L.; Adams, T.F.; Dick, R.D.

1981-01-01

107

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

1993-02-01

108

Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

109

Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

110

Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 180 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-09-01

111

Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

112

Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

113

Sound assisted fluidization of nanoparticle agglomerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some preliminary observations on sound-assisted fluidization of hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles (Degussa Aerosil® R974, having a primary particle size of 12 nm) in the form of large 100–400 ?m agglomerates. The effect of sound on the fluidization behavior of the nanoparticle agglomerates, including the fluidization regime, the minimum fluidization velocity, the bed pressure drop and the bed

Chao Zhu; Guangliang Liu; Qun Yu; Robert Pfeffer; Rajesh N Dave; Caroline H Nam

2004-01-01

114

PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ARACHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique  

E-print Network

) or by static clouds of volatile organic compounds brought near the peg tips (Gaffin & Walvoord 2004). Although: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton and Douglas D. Gaffin: Department of Zoology, University peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton and Douglas D. Gaffin: Department

Gaffin, Doug

115

A New Screening Methodology for Improved Oil Recovery Processes Using Soft-Computing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first stage of production of any oil reservoir involves oil displacement by natural drive mechanisms such as solution gas drive, gas cap drive and gravity drainage. Typically, improved oil recovery (IOR) methods are applied to oil reservoirs that have been depleted naturally. In more recent years, IOR techniques are applied to reservoirs even before their natural energy drive is exhausted by primary depletion. Descriptive screening criteria for IOR methods are used to select the appropriate recovery technique according to the fluid and rock properties. This methodology helps in assessing the most suitable recovery process for field deployment of a candidate reservoir. However, the already published screening guidelines neither provide information about the expected reservoir performance nor suggest a set of project design parameters, which can be used towards the optimization of the process. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN) are used to build a high-performance neuro-simulation tool for screening different improved oil recovery techniques: miscible injection (CO2 and N2), waterflooding and steam injection processes. The simulation tool consists of proxy models that implement a multilayer cascade feedforward back propagation network algorithm. The tool is intended to narrow the ranges of possible scenarios to be modeled using conventional simulation, reducing the extensive time and energy spent in dynamic reservoir modeling. A commercial reservoir simulator is used to generate the data to train and validate the artificial neural networks. The proxy models are built considering four different well patterns with different well operating conditions as the field design parameters. Different expert systems are developed for each well pattern. The screening networks predict oil production rate and cumulative oil production profiles for a given set of rock and fluid properties, and design parameters. The results of this study show that the networks are able to recognize the strong correlation between the displacement mechanism and the reservoir characteristics as they effectively forecast hydrocarbon production for different types of reservoir undergoing diverse recovery processes. The artificial neuron networks are able to capture the similarities between different displacement mechanisms as same network architecture is successfully applied in both CO2 and N2 injection. The neuro-simulation application tool is built within a graphical user interface to facilitate the display of the results. The developed soft-computing tool offers an innovative approach to design a variety of efficient and feasible IOR processes by using artificial intelligence. The tool provides appropriate guidelines to the reservoir engineer, it facilitates the appraisal of diverse field development strategies for oil reservoirs, and it helps to reduce the number of scenarios evaluated with conventional reservoir simulation.

Parada, Claudia; Ertekin, Turgay

2010-05-01

116

Centrifugal air-assisted melt agglomeration for fast-release "granulet" design.  

PubMed

Conventional melt pelletization and granulation processes produce round and dense, and irregularly shaped but porous agglomerates respectively. This study aimed to design centrifugal air-assisted melt agglomeration technology for manufacture of spherical and yet porous "granulets" for ease of downstream manufacturing and enhancing drug release. A bladeless agglomerator, which utilized shear-free air stream to mass the powder mixture of lactose filler, polyethylene glycol binder and poorly water-soluble tolbutamide drug into "granulets", was developed. The inclination angle and number of vane, air-impermeable surface area of air guide, processing temperature, binder content and molecular weight were investigated with reference to "granulet" size, shape, texture and drug release properties. Unlike fluid-bed melt agglomeration with vertical processing air flow, the air stream in the present technology moved centrifugally to roll the processing mass into spherical but porous "granulets" with a drug release propensity higher than physical powder mixture, unprocessed drug and dense pellets prepared using high shear mixer. The fast-release attribute of "granulets" was ascribed to porous matrix formed with a high level of polyethylene glycol as solubilizer. The agglomeration and drug release outcomes of centrifugal air-assisted technology are unmet by the existing high shear and fluid-bed melt agglomeration techniques. PMID:22531845

Wong, Tin Wui; Musa, Nafisah

2012-07-01

117

Generating nano-aerosols from TiO? (5 nm) nanoparticles showing different agglomeration states. Application to toxicological studies.  

PubMed

Agglomeration of nanoparticles (NP) is a key factor in the generation of aerosols from nano-powders and may represent an important parameter to consider in toxicological studies. For this reason, the characterization of NP aerosols (e.g., concentration, size, and structure of agglomerates) is a critical step in the determination of the relationship between exposure and effects. The aim of this study was to generate and characterize aerosols composed of TiO? (5 nm) NP showing different agglomeration states. Two concentrations were tested: 2 and 7 mg/m³. Stable mass concentrations over 6 hr were successfully generated by a wet method using Collison and Delavan nebulizers that resulted in aerosols composed of smaller agglomerates (<100 nm), while aerosols composed of larger agglomerates (>100 nm) were obtained by dry generation techniques using either a Palas dust feeder or a Fluidized Bed. Particle size distributions in the aerosols were determined by an electrical low pressure impactor. Median number aerodynamic diameters corresponding to the aerosol with smaller and larger agglomerates were 30 and 185 nm, respectively, for the 2 mg/m³ concentration, and 31 and 194 nm for the 7 mg/m³ experiment. Image analysis by transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of compact or agglomerates with void spaces in the different nano-aerosols. These characterized nano-aerosols will be used in further experiments to study the influence of agglomerate size on NP toxicity. PMID:23252512

Noël, Alexandra; Cloutier, Yves; Wilkinson, Kevin James; Dion, Chantal; Hallé, Stéphane; Maghni, Karim; Tardif, Robert; Truchon, Ginette

2013-01-01

118

Comparing Parameter Estimation Techniques for an Electrical Power Transformer Oil Temperature Prediction Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines various sources of error in MIT's improved top oil temperature rise over ambient temperature model and estimation process. The sources of error are the current parameter estimation technique, quantization noise, and post-processing of the transformer data. Results from this paper will show that an output error parameter estimation technique should be selected to replace the current least squares estimation technique. The output error technique obtained accurate predictions of transformer behavior, revealed the best error covariance, obtained consistent parameter estimates, and provided for valid and sensible parameters. This paper will also show that the output error technique should be used to minimize errors attributed to post-processing (decimation) of the transformer data. Models used in this paper are validated using data from a large transformer in service.

Morris, A. Terry

1999-01-01

119

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin wells is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch Formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project.

Morgan, C.D.

1997-12-31

120

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin wells is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch Formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project.

Morgan, Craig

1999-11-01

121

ANN and wavelet-based discrimination technique between discharge currents in transformer mineral oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is aimed at the analysis of positive pre-breakdown currents triggered in mineral transformer oil submitted to 50 Hz alternating overvoltages. Different shapes of streamer currents and electrical discharges have been recorded to develop a discrimination technique based on an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Wavelet analysis of these currents. This enables us to address a complementary diagnosis tool that can serve as an online transformer monitoring and protection.

Aberkane, F.; Moulai, H.; Nacer, A.; Benyahia, F.; Beroual, A.

2012-05-01

122

Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from fluidex). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and assessment of techniques and equipment used to control and remove oil spills. Chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers are reviewed. Topics include recovery operations, emergency response, frogmat systems, bioremediation, and environmental monitoring. The effects of spills on marine life and fishing industries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-06-01

123

Effects of dietary fish oil and vitamin E supplementation on canine lymphocyte proliferation evaluated using a flow cytometric technique.  

PubMed

Lymphocyte proliferation and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) production of PGE(2) were assayed in 15 healthy dogs fed a basal diet supplemented with either sunflower oil (Group Sunflower oil), sunflower oil and menhaden fish oil (Group Fish oil), or sunflower oil and menhaden fish oil plus alpha-tocopherol acetate for 12 weeks (Group Fish oil + E). Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by a flow cytometric technique utilizing the fluorochrome carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). The PBMC supernatant PGE(2) concentration was assayed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Group Fish oil had a significant decrease in lymphocyte proliferation at week 12. PBMC production of PGE(2) was decreased in all three groups but only significantly reduced in groups receiving fish oil supplementation. Based on these results, this level of fish oil supplementation appears to suppress the lymphoproliferative response in healthy, young dogs but this response can be attenuated by high levels of dietary vitamin E supplementation. Furthermore, fish oil-induced reduction in lymphocyte proliferation appears to manifest through a PGE(2)-independent mechanism and is not associated with increased lipid peroxidation. PMID:17658617

LeBlanc, Casey J; Dietrich, Marilyn A; Horohov, David W; Bauer, John E; Hosgood, Giselle; Mauldin, Glenna E

2007-10-15

124

DETERMINATION OF STOKES SHAPE FACTOR FOR SINGLE PARTICLES AND AGGLOMERATES  

SciTech Connect

The large octahedral crystals of spinel can precipitate from glass during the high-level waste vitrification process and potentially block the glass discharge riser of electrically heated ceramic melters. To help predict the settling behavior of spinel in the riser, the settling of single particles and agglomerates was studied in stagnant and transparent viscosity oils at room temperature with developed optical particle-dynamics-analyzer. Determined dimensions and terminal settling velocities of particles were used for calculation of their Stokes shape factors. Calculated shape factor for the glass beads was almost identical with the theoretical shape factor of 2/9 for a perfect sphere. The shape factor for single spinel crystal was about 7.6 % higher compare to the theoretically predicted value for octahedron. Stokes shape factor of irregularly shaped multi-particle agglomerates was lower than that of the glass beads and individual spinel crystals because of the higher surface drag caused by the larger surface area to volume ratio.

Matyas, Josef; Schaible, Micah J.; Vienna, John D.

2011-09-01

125

Bioremediation techniques on crude oil contaminated soils in Ohio. First quarterly report, October 1, 1995December 31, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to develop environmentally-sound and cost-effective remediation techniques for crude oil contaminated soils. By providing a guidance manual to oil and gas operators, the Ohio Division of Oil and Gas regulatory authority hopes to reduce remediation costs while improving voluntary compliance with soil clean-up requirements. This shall be accomplished by conducting a series of field

1996-01-01

126

Spatial competition and agglomeration in urban modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many forms of urban models are retail oriented, that is, they depend to some degree on the allocation of shopping expenditures to particular destinations. Such an allocation is usually undertaken with the aid of a production-constrained gravity model, although this type of model ignores the relationship between retail expenditure patterns and spatial competition and agglomeration forces. The effect of such

A S Fotheringham

1985-01-01

127

Effect of temperature on wet agglomeration of crystals  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): This study dealt with the wet agglomeration process in which a small quantity of binder liquid was added into a suspension of crystals, directly in the stirring vessel where the crystallization took place. The purpose of this investigation was evaluation of the effect of temperature on the agglomeration process in order to gain insight into the mechanism of the formation of the agglomerates. Materials and Methods: Carbamazepine was used as a model drug and water/ethanol and isopropyl acetate were used as crystallization system and binder liquid, respectively. The agglomeration of crystals was carried out at various temperatures and the agglomerates were characterized in terms of size, morphology, density and mechanical strength. Results: Evaluation of the agglomerates along the course of agglomeration shows that the properties of the particles change gradually but substantially. Higher temperature of the system during agglomeration process favors the formation of more regular agglomerates with mechanically stronger and denser structure; this can be explained by the promotion effect of temperature on the agglomeration process. Conclusion: With optimized wet agglomeration temperature, spherical, dense, and strong agglomerates can be obtained. PMID:24967063

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Yari, Zahra

2014-01-01

128

Method for providing improved solid fuels from agglomerated subbituminous coal  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for separating agglomerated subbituminous coal and the heavy bridging liquid used to form the agglomerates. The separation is performed by contacting the agglomerates with inert gas or steam at a temperature in the range of 250.degree. to 350.degree. C. at substantially atmospheric pressure.

Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

1989-01-01

129

Comparison of soft computing techniques for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.  

SciTech Connect

In this work we compare fuzzy techniques to neural network techniques for building a soft sensor for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The soft sensor is used in a feed-forward control system that augments a feedback control system. Two approaches were used to develop the soft sensor. The first approach was to use a fuzzy rule based system based upon the experience of an expert operator. The expert operator's experience was supplemented using a computer model of the system. The second approach was to use a neural network to build the inverse of the computer model. The pros and cons of both techniques are discussed. KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic, neural networks, soft sensor, soft computing

Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.); Parkinson, w; Miller, N. (Neal)

2002-01-01

130

Chemical and physicochemial properties of submicron aerosol agglomerates  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The formation of nanometer-sized aerosol particles in a premixed methane flame from both solid-phase aerosol precursors and gas-phase precursors was investigated. Techniques were developed to determine the distribution of the individual chemical species as a function of agglomerate size by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). To determine the distribution of chemical species both from particle to particle and within the particles on a nanometer scale, we used the analytical electron microscopy techniques of energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) coupled with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The observed distribution of individual chemical species as a function of agglomerate size was linked to the material properties of the solid-phase precursors. For aerosol formed from gas-phase precursors by gas-to-particle conversion, the distribution of species on a manometer scale was found to correspond to the equilibrium phase distribution expected from equilibrium for the system at the flame temperatures.

Scripsick, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ehrman, S.; Friedlander, S.K. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-12-31

131

Acceleration of a Navier–Stokes equation solver for unstructured grids using agglomeration multigrid and parallel processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the parallelization of the agglomeration multigrid technique for the numerical solution of the 2D and 3D Favre-averaged Navier–Stokes equations on unstructured grids. The agglomeration algorithm conforms with the finite-volume discretization scheme and operates independently of the algorithm used to define the concurrently treated subdomains. The computational platform is a cluster of interconnected processors, each of which

N. K. Lambropoulos; D. G. Koubogiannis; K. C. Giannakoglou

2004-01-01

132

The Fluorescent-Oil Film Method and Other Techniques for Boundary-Layer Flow Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flow-visualization technique, known as the fluorescent-oil film method, has been developed which appears to be generally simpler and to require less experience and development of technique than previously published methods. The method is especially adapted to use in the large high-powered wind tunnels which require considerable time to reach the desired test conditions. The method consists of smearing a film of fluorescent oil over a surface and observing where the thickness is affected by the shearing action of the boundary layer. These films are detected and identified, and their relative thicknesses are determined by use of ultraviolet light. Examples are given of the use of this technique. Other methods that show promise in the study of boundary-layer conditions are described. These methods include the use of a temperature-sensitive fluorescent paint and the use of a radiometer that is sensitive to the heat radiation from a surface. Some attention is also given to methods that can be used with a spray apparatus in front of the test model.

Loving, Donald L.; Katzoff, S.

1959-01-01

133

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Uinta Basin, Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that stage-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance. In the first demonstration well (Michelle Ute well discussed in the previous technical report), dipole shear anisotropy (anisotropy) and dual-burst thermal decay time (TDT) logs were run before and isotope tracer log was run after the treatment. The logs were very helpful in characterizing the remaining hydrocarbon potential in the well. But, mechanical failure resulted in a poor recompletion and did not result in a significant improvement in the oil production from the well.

Deo, M.D.; Morgan, C.D.

1999-04-28

134

Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils  

E-print Network

of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils olive, corn, soybean, canola century as base lubricants, vegetable oils were gradually replaced by mineral oils mainly for economic in environmental issues.2 A vegetable oil is a complex mixture of chemical substances3 with fatty acids among

Mandelis, Andreas

135

Modeling Agglomeration of Dust Particles in Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge on an aggregate immersed in a plasma environment distributes itself over the aggregate's surface; this can be approximated theoretically by assuming a multipole distribution. The dipole-dipole (or higher order) charge interactions between fractal aggregates lead to rotations of the grains as they interact. Other properties of the dust grains also influence the agglomeration process, such as the monomer shape (spherical or ellipsoidal) or the presence of magnetic material. Finally, the plasma and grain properties also determine the morphology of the resultant aggregates. Porous and fluffy aggregates are more strongly coupled to the gas, leading to reduced collisional velocities, and greater collisional cross sections. These factors in turn can determine the growth rate of the aggregates and evolution of the dust cloud. This paper gives an overview of the numerical and experimental methods used to study dust agglomeration at CASPER and highlights some recent results.

Matthews, Lorin S.; Land, Victor; Ma, Qianyu; Perry, Jonathan D.; Hyde, Truell W.

2011-11-01

136

Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising.

Guloy, A.

1992-01-28

137

Optical Characterization of Crude Oils and Dispersant Used in the Northern Gulf of Mexico by Fluorescence EEM Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the unprecedented oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico between April and July 2010, ~8 x 108 liters of crude oil and ~7 x 106 liters of dispersant were released into the water column in the Gulf of Mexico. Fluorescence excitation and emission matrix (EEM) techniques and CDOM measurements have been used in many studies to examine the fate, transport and transformation of oil components in the Gulf of Mexico in addition to direct determination of total hydrocarbon and its speciation. Here, optical properties of end-member crude oils and dispersant were characterized using fluorescence EEM spectroscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. EEM spectra for oil samples from the Deepwater Horizon show a broad elevated region with a maximum fluorescence excitation at ~226 nm and emission at ~340 nm, while the dispersant had a maximum EEM at 340/425 nm. Spectral slope coefficient derived from UV-vis absorbance was low for oil samples, showing its high molecular weight nature compared to natural organic matter in seawater. The spectral slope coefficient decreased from dispersant to wellhead oil to weathered oil, suggesting preferential degradation of low molecular weight oil fraction. Combining optical properties and EEM spectra index, the fate and transformation of soils can be effectively traced.

Guo, L.; Zhuo, Z.; Shiller, A. M.; Lohrenz, S. E.

2010-12-01

138

A new generation of electromagnetic and ultrasonic techniques for subsurface evaluation of oil field tubulars  

SciTech Connect

In the past few years, corrosion and mechanical fatigue have been becoming a more visible issue in the oil and gas industry. The issue of lost profits from lost production and the cost and liability resulting from failure has overcome the obvious concern of simple mechanical integrity. A new generation of tool designs have been developed for in-situ evaluation of well casings. These designs along with improvements to existing designs have just recently been introduced to address some of the limitations in subsurface well casing evaluation. These new hardware developments and interpretation techniques can now provide unpredecented accuracy for evaluating downhole tubular conditions. This paper reviews four recent designs while discussing the principals of measurement and offering actual field data in several comparisons. The four designs include: Electromagnetic: AC Types, DC Types, Casing Potential Profiling; Ultrasonic: Ultrasonic Thickness Types. An interpretation technique using sequential measurements to predict and manage for corrosion problems is also presented.

Lewis, R.G.

1988-01-01

139

Operation of dry-cleaned and agglomerated precompaction system (DAPS)  

SciTech Connect

In order to reduce the manufacturing cost of coke, it is necessary to reduce mainly (1) the material cost and (2) operating cost. Both of these costs can be reduced by lowering the moisture of charging coal. Because dust generation increases with decreasing moisture of charging coal, however, the lower limit of charging coal moisture in the existing coke-oven equipment was about 5%, which yielded good results in coal moisture control (CMC) equipment. Nippon Steel has furthered the development of techniques for lowering the moisture of charging coal as far as possible in the existing coke ovens and has recently succeeded in developing a dry-cleaned and agglomerated precompaction system (DAPS) and incorporating this system in commercial production equipment. In this system, a coal preparation process is undertaken that involves separating coal fines, which cause dust generation, from dried charging coal and agglomerating them. The equipment incorporating this system was installed in the No. 3 and No. 4 coke batteries at Oita Works and brought into full-scale operation in September 1992. The equipment has since been operating smoothly.

Tanaka, Shigemi; Okanishi, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Akio; Yamamura, Yuichi

1997-12-31

140

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâ??s found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâ??s there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâ??s Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâ??s work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

141

Determination of electric field distribution in oil using the Kerr-effect technique after application of DC voltage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique based on the Kerr electrooptic effect is used for the measurement of electric field strength in dielectric liquids such as transformer oil. An elliptically polarized laser beam is used as incident light and the applied DC voltage is modulated with an AC voltage. Using this technique, low-level electric fields are measured in liquids with small Kerr constants using

T. Maeno; Y. Nonaka; T. Takada

1990-01-01

142

Analysis and synthesis of solutions for the agglomeration process modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is devoted development of model of agglomerating process for propellants based on ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium dinitramide (ADN), HMX, inactive binder, and nanoaluminum. Generalization of experimental data, development of physical picture of agglomeration for listed propellants, development and analysis of mathematical models are carried out. Synthesis of models of various phenomena taking place at agglomeration implementation allows predicting of size and quantity, chemical composition, structure of forming agglomerates and its fraction in set of condensed combustion products. It became possible in many respects due to development of new model of agglomerating particle evolution on the surface of burning propellant. Obtained results correspond to available experimental data. It is supposed that analogical method based on analysis of mathematical models of particular phenomena and their synthesis will allow implementing of the agglomerating process modeling for other types of metalized solid propellants.

Babuk, V. A.; Dolotkazin, I. N.; Nizyaev, A. A.

2013-03-01

143

APPLIED PHYTO-REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES USING HALOPHYTES FOR OIL AND BRINE SPILL SCARS  

SciTech Connect

Produced salt water from historical oil and gas production was often managed with inadequate care and unfortunate consequences. In Kansas, the production practices in the 1930's and 1940's--before statewide anti-pollution laws--were such that fluids were often produced to surface impoundments where the oil would segregate from the salt water. The oil was pumped off the pits and the salt water was able to infiltrate into the subsurface soil zones and underlying bedrock. Over the years, oil producing practices were changed so that segregation of fluids was accomplished in steel tanks and salt water was isolated from the natural environment. But before that could happen, significant areas of the state were scarred by salt water. These areas are now in need of economical remediation. Remediation of salt scarred land can be facilitated with soil amendments, land management, and selection of appropriate salt tolerant plants. Current research on the salt scars around the old Leon Waterflood, in Butler County, Kansas show the relative efficiency of remediation options. Based upon these research findings, it is possible to recommend cost efficient remediation techniques for slight, medium, and heavy salt water damaged soil. Slight salt damage includes soils with Electrical Conductivity (EC) values of 4.0 mS/cm or less. Operators can treat these soils with sufficient amounts of gypsum, install irrigation systems, and till the soil. Appropriate plants can be introduced via transplants or seeded. Medium salt damage includes soils with EC values between 4.0 and 16 mS/cm. Operators will add amendments of gypsum, till the soil, and arrange for irrigation. Some particularly salt tolerant plants can be added but most planting ought to be reserved until the second season of remediation. Severe salt damage includes soil with EC values in excess of 16 mS/cm. Operators will add at least part of the gypsum required, till the soil, and arrange for irrigation. The following seasons more gypsum will be added and as the soil EC is reduced, plants can be introduced. If rapid remediation is required, a sufficient volume of topsoil, or sand, or manure can be added to dilute the local salinity, the bulk amendments tilled into the surface with added gypsum, and appropriate plants added. In this case, irrigation will be particularly important. The expense of the more rapid remediation will be much higher.

M.L. Korphage; Bruce G. Langhus; Scott Campbell

2003-03-01

144

Assessment of surfactants for efficient droplet PCR in mineral oil using the pendant drop technique.  

PubMed

Amplification and detection of nucleic acid sequences within integrated microsystems is routinely conducted using the technique of droplet PCR, wherein the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed in microscale water-in-oil droplets (nanoliter to picoliter volumes). During droplet PCR, interactions at the interface of the droplet tend to dominate. Specifically, adsorption of the polymerase at the droplet interface leads to inefficient amplification. To reduce polymerase adsorption, surfactants such as the silicone-based ABIL EM90 have been commonly used. However, these surfactants have been selected largely through trial and error, and have been only somewhat effective. For example, when using ABIL EM90, 8 times (8 ×) the manufacturer prescribed concentration of polymerase was necessary for amplification. In this report, we use the pendant drop technique to measure adsorption and loss of enzyme at droplet interfaces for various surfactant-oil combinations. Dynamic interfacial tension and surface pressure measurements showed that significant polymerase adsorption occurs when using ABIL EM90. In contrast, much lower polymerase adsorption is observed when using Brij L4, a nonionic surfactant with a C12 tail and an oxyethylene headgroup, which has not yet been reported for droplet PCR. These results correlate strongly with droplet PCR efficiency. Brij L4 enables highly efficient PCR at 2 × polymerase concentration, and still enables effective PCR at 1 × polymerase concentration. Overall, this work introduces a methodology for quantitatively assessing surfactants for use with droplet microreactors, and it demonstrates the practical value of this new approach by identifying a surfactant that can dramatically improve the efficiency of droplet PCR. PMID:25620443

Pandit, Kunal R; Rueger, Paul E; Calabrese, Richard V; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; White, Ian M

2015-02-01

145

Reconstruction of industrial location in view of industrial agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Industrial Agglomeration Theory has been evolving all the time. The study on the industrial location has become the focus\\u000a of the massive theoretical location problems about agglomeration since the 1970s. The authors here analyze the evolution and\\u000a the characteristics of the Industrial Agglomeration Theory and study its effect on the reconstruction of industrial location.\\u000a The study suggests that the

Huayou Zhu; Sibao Ding

2006-01-01

146

Method for recovering light hydrocarbons from coal agglomerates  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for removing light hydrocarbons, such as heptane, from coal agglomerates includes an enclosed chamber having a substantially horizontal perforate surface therein. The coal agglomerates are introduced into a water bath within the chamber. The agglomerates are advanced over the surface while steam is substantially continuously introduced through the surface into the water bath. Steam heats the water and causes volatilization of the light hydrocarbons, which may be collected from the overhead of the chamber. The resulting agglomerates may be collected at the opposite end from the surface and subjected to final draining processes prior to transportation or use.

Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Getsoian, John (Ann Arbor, MI)

1991-01-01

147

Rapid determination of plasmonic nanoparticle agglomeration status in blood.  

PubMed

Plasmonic nanomaterials as drug delivery or bio-imaging agents are typically introduced to biological systems through intravenous administration. However, the potential for agglomeration of nanoparticles in biological systems could dramatically affect their pharmacokinetic profile and toxic potential. Development of rapid screening methods to evaluate agglomeration is urgently needed to monitor the physical nature of nanoparticles as they are introduced into blood. Here, we establish novel methods using darkfield microscopy with hyperspectral detection (hsDFM), single particle inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS), and confocal Raman microscopy (cRM) to discriminate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and their agglomerates in blood. Rich information about nanoparticle agglomeration in situ is provided by hsDFM monitoring of the plasmon resonance of primary nanoparticles and their agglomerates in whole blood; cRM is an effective complement to hsDFM to detect AuNP agglomerates in minimally manipulated samples. The AuNPs and the particle agglomerates were further distinguished in blood for the first time by quantification of particle mass using spICP-MS with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the agglomeration status of synthesized and commercial NPs incubated in blood was successfully assessed using the developed methods. Together, these complementary methods enable rapid determination of the agglomeration status of plasmonic nanomaterials in biological systems, specifically blood. PMID:25771013

Jenkins, Samir V; Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak; Ingle, Taylor M; Wang, Rongrong; Wang, Feng; Howard, Paul C; Chen, Jingyi; Zhang, Yongbin

2015-05-01

148

Method for producing ceramic particles and agglomerates  

DOEpatents

A method for generating spherical and irregularly shaped dense particles of ceramic oxides having a controlled particle size and particle size distribution. An aerosol containing precursor particles of oxide ceramics is directed into a plasma. As the particles flow through the hot zone of the plasma, they melt, collide, and join to form larger particles. If these larger particles remain in the hot zone, they continue melting and acquire a spherical shape that is retained after they exit the hot zone, cool down, and solidify. If they exit the hot zone before melting completely, their irregular shape persists and agglomerates are produced. The size and size distribution of the dense product particles can be controlled by adjusting several parameters, the most important in the case of powder precursors appears to be the density of powder in the aerosol stream that enters the plasma hot zone. This suggests that particle collision rate is responsible for determining ultimate size of the resulting sphere or agglomerate. Other parameters, particularly the gas flow rates and the microwave power, are also adjusted to control the particle size distribution.

Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Gleiman, Seth S. (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

149

Skin friction measurement in complex flows using thin oil film techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Grant NAG2-261 was initiated to support a program of research to study complex flows that occur in flight and laboratory experiments by building, testing and optimizing an on-board technique for direct measurement of surface shear stress using thin oil film techniques. The program of research has proceeded under the supervision of the NASA Ames Research Center and with further cooperation from the NASA Ames-Dryden and NASA Langley Research Centers. In accordance with the original statement of work, the following research milestones were accomplished: (1) design and testing of an internally mounted one-directional skin friction meter to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept; (2) design and construction of a compact instrument capable of measuring skin friction in two directions; (3) study of transitional and fully turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with and without longitudinal pressure gradients utilizing the compact two-directional skin friction meter; (4) study of the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer and a shock wave generated by a compression corner using the two-directional meter; and (5) flight qualification of the compact meter and accompanying electronic and pneumatic systems, preliminary installation into flight test fixture.

1994-01-01

150

Rock bolting techniques for forming an in situ oil shale retort  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subterranean formation containing oil shale is prepared for in situ retorting by forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort site. Formation is initially excavated from the retort site for forming one or more voids extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a zone of unfragmented formation adjacent such

Sass

1981-01-01

151

An extractive distillation technique for producing CO 2 enriched injection gas in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sharp Separation of CO2 (carbon dioxide) from CO2-rich gases issuing from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) fields is investigated by different processing alternatives. A new extractive distillation technique without using an external solvent is introduced for debottlenecking of CO2 separation problem encountered in cryogenic distillation units. The technique involves the addition of a portion of produced C4+ (NGL) stream (natural gas

B. ZareNezhad; N. Hosseinpour

2009-01-01

152

The Limitations of the Cloud Point Measurement Techniques and the Influence of the Oil Composition on Its Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the petroleum industry, cloud points are one of the main guides to evaluate the wax precipitation potential of a fluid. The planning of the exploration of a reservoir or the design of its pipelines are based on the measured cloud points for the reservoir oil. It is known that each measuring technique will provide a different cloud point temperature,

João A. P. Coutinho; Jean-Luc Daridon

2005-01-01

153

Direct observation of oil consumption mechanisms in a production spark ignition engine using fluorescence techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oil consumption characteristics of a four cylinder, normally aspirated spark-ignition engine were investigated for different piston ring end-gap configurations. A radiotracer was used to perform direct measurement of the oil consumption while Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) was used to perform the oil film thickness measurements for consumption predictions using the 'Puddle Theory of Oil Consumption,' which relates oil consumption to second land film thickness and reverse flow through top ring gap. The consumption data was evaluated to determine the impact of top ring end-gap azimuthal location on oil consumption. The film thickness data was used to evaluate the extent to which the oil Puddle Theory predicts variations seen in the actual oil consumption. A tritium radiotracer oil consumption measurement system with an accuracy of 94.6 percent was designed and constructed. This was used to perform direct measurements of the test engine oil consumption in two different test matrices. The first evaluated a piston ring configuration with the rings free to rotate. The second evaluated configurations with the top ring and second piston rings pinned to fix the azimuthal location of the end-gap; the azimuth of the top ring was varied. In the second test matrix, the oil film thickness on the piston's second land was measured, and predictions were made on the basis of that measurement.

Lusted, Roderick M.

1994-05-01

154

Operational analysis of ash-agglomerating fluidized bed gasifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operational characteristics of ash-agglomerating fluidized bed gasifiers are analyzed through a simplified approach. Based on the simple theoretical analysis, true steady state operations in ash-agglomerating fluidized bed gasifiers require that the ash concentration in the bottom ash withdrawal be equal to the steady state ash concentration dictated by the kinetics of coal combustion and gasification, and other process variables

Wen-Ching Yang; Dale L Keairns

2000-01-01

155

Distinct element simulation of impact breakage of lactose agglomerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional theoretical and experimental investigations of the mechanical behavior of particulate solids are restricted by the limited quantitative information about what actually happens inside particulate assemblies. This paper presents computer simulation results of the breakage of lactose agglomerates due to impact on a target plate using distinct element analysis. The agglomerates of interest here are generally weak and easy to

Z. Ning; R. Boerefijn; M. Ghadiri; C. Thornton

1997-01-01

156

Survival of the Fittest in Cities: Agglomeration, Selection, and Polarisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical studies consistently report that labour productivity and TFP rise with city size. The reason is that cities attract the most productive agents, select the best of them, and make the selected ones even more productive via various agglomeration economies. This paper provides a microeconomically founded model of vertical city differentiation in which the latter two mechanisms (`agglomeration' and `selection')

Kristian Behrens; Frédéric Robert-Nicoud

2008-01-01

157

Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, added particulates may include a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD); Chandran, Ravi (Ellicott City, MD)

1994-01-01

158

Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance bimodal agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. A particulate having a size different from the size of the particulate in the gas stream to be cleaned is introduced into the system to effectuate the bimodal process. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, the added particulate may be a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

1993-01-01

159

Soot agglomeration in isolated, free droplet combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the conditions of an isolated, free droplet experiment, hollow, carbonaceous structures, called soot spheres, were observed to form during the atmospheric pressure, low Reynolds number combustion of 1-methylnaphthalene. These structures which are agglomerates composed of smaller spheroidal units result from both thermophoretic effects induced by the envelope flame surrounding each drop and aerodynamic effects caused by changes in the relative gas/drop velocities. A chemically reacting flow model was used to analyze the process of sootshell formation during microgravity droplet combustion. The time-dependent temperature and gas property field surrounding the droplet was determined, and the soot cloud location for microgravity combustion of n-heptane droplets was predicted. Experiments showed that the sooting propensity of n-alkane fuel droplets can be varied through diluent substitution, oxygen-index variations, and ambient pressure reductions.

Choi, M. Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Green, G. J.; Sangiovanni, J. J.

1993-01-01

160

Bioremediation techniques on crude oil contaminated soils in Ohio. First quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop environmentally-sound and cost-effective remediation techniques for crude oil contaminated soils. By providing a guidance manual to oil and gas operators, the Ohio Division of Oil and Gas regulatory authority hopes to reduce remediation costs while improving voluntary compliance with soil clean-up requirements. This shall be accomplished by conducting a series of field tests to define the optimum range for nutrient, oxygen and organic enhancement to biologically remediate soils contaminated with brines and crude oil having a wide range of viscosity. Task one of the bioremediation project began on July 3, 1995 with the selection and preparation of a site in Smith township. Mahoning County. The plots were arranged and parameters were varied. Plots, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal. ) of Corning grade crude oil and plots 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal.) of Pennsylvania grade crude oil. Plots 13 through 21 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal.) of Pennsylvania grade crude oil and 477 liters (126 gal.) of Clinton sandstone brine with a 160,000 mg/liter concentration of chloride. Treatment and administration of variables were conducted from August 17, 1995 to October 26, 1995. During this period samples were collected twice from each plot and analyzed for the parameters specified in the contract. Results from both sampling events of total petroleum hydrocarbons suggest that crude oil spread on surface is not easily mixed into soils as tillage depth, resulting in considerably variable composite samples from plot to plot.

Hodges, D.

1996-03-27

161

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion of coal and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with deposits most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Three general types of mineralogic reactions were observed to occur in the agglomerates and deposits. Although alkalies may play a role with some {open_quotes}high alkali{close_quotes} lignites, we found agglomeration was initiated due to fluxing reactions between iron (II) from pyrites and aluminosilicates from clays. This is indicated by the high amounts of iron, silica, and alumina in the agglomerates and the mineralogy of the agglomerates. Agglomeration likely originated in the dense phase of the FBC bed within the volatile plume which forms when coal is introduced to the boiler. Secondary mineral reactions appear to occur after the agglomerates have formed and tend to strengthen the agglomerates. When calcium is present in high amounts, most of the minerals in the resulting deposits are in the melilite group (gehlenite, melilite, and akermanite) and pyroxene group (diopside and augite). During these solid-phase reactions, the temperature of formation of the melilite minerals can be lowered by a reduction of the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (Diopside + Calcite {r_arrow}Akermanite).

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

1996-01-01

162

Analysis of techniques for predicting viscosity of heavy oil and tar sand bitumen  

SciTech Connect

Thermal recovery methods are generally employed for recovering heavy oil and tar sand bitumen. These methods rely on reduction of oil viscosity by application of heat as one of the primary mechanisms of oil recovery. Therefore, design and performance prediction of the thermal recovery methods require adequate prediction of oil viscosity as a function of temperature. In this paper, several commonly used temperature-viscosity correlations are analyzed to evaluate their ability to correctly predict heavy oil and bitumen viscosity as a function of temperature. The analysis showed that Ali and Standing`s correlations gave satisfactory results in most cases when properly applied. Guidelines are provided for their application. None of the correlations, however, performed satisfactorily with very heavy oils at low temperatures.

Khataniar, S.; Patil, S.L.; Kamath, V.A. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

1995-12-31

163

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah, Class I  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Unita Basin Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that staged-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance.

Morgan, Craig D.; Gwynn, Wallace; Deo, Milind D.; Jarrard, Richard; Curtice, Richard; Morris, Thomas H.; Smouse, DeForrest; Tripp, Carol N.

2000-01-20

164

Development and trial of microwave techniques for measurement of multiphase flow of oil, water and gas  

SciTech Connect

A prototype microwave and gamma-ray MFM has been developed for measurement of oil, water and gas flowrates on production pipelines and has been successfully trialed at the Thevenard island oil production facility. The microwave and gamma-ray MFM determined the oil and water flow rates with errors of 5.4 and 5.9% relative respectively for the wide range of wells and flow conditions during the trial period. A prototype non-intrusive microwave MFM is being developed for measurement of oil, water and gas flow rates on production pipelines. The microwave MFM will be trialed on the West Kingfish platform in Bass Strait in late 1994.

Ashton, S.L.; Cutmore, N.G.; Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W.; McEwan, A.J.

1994-12-31

165

Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (<10 years old), as young oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

2014-10-01

166

Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore  

SciTech Connect

Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

2006-03-31

167

Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore  

SciTech Connect

Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

2005-09-30

168

Multiphase Flow Metering Technique Based on Passive Fiber Optic Components for Oil Producing Wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring oil fields reservoirs for optimizing the production have been satisfied by wellhead sampling and test separator metering. Development and research work have been taking place to develop smaller size and lower cost multiphase flow meters that improve well testing and replace the large and expensive test separators. Recently some commercial multiphase flow meters were introduced that measure gas, oil

M. MAHMOUD

169

Micropipette manipulation: A technique to evaluate the stability of water-in-oil emulsions containing proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theinterfacialpropertiesandstabilityofwater-in-oilemulsionscontaining protein were studied using micromanipulation. Micropipettes were used to produce individual water droplets in oil in a controlled manner on the micron scale. The pipettes were then used to bring two droplets into contact in order to observe fusion. The occurrence of fusion was investigated as a function of the compositions of both the continuous (oil) and dispersed (aqueous)

Lene Jorgensen; Dennis Heejong Kim; Charlotte Vermehren; Simon Bjerregaard; Sven Frokjaer

2004-01-01

170

Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment used for the containment and removal of oil as a result of oil spill mishaps. Dispersants, separators, skimmers and absorbants are discussed. Related studies regarding film spreading and dispersion are presented. Studies pertaining to shipboard ballast and bilgewater cleaning are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

171

Authentication and traceability of Italian extra-virgin olive oils by means of stable isotopes techniques.  

PubMed

Authentication of food origin is relevant to avoid food fraud. This work aimed to explore the variation of isotopic compositions (?(13)C, ?(18)O) of extra-virgin olive oils from Italy growing in different environmental conditions. A total of 387 oil samples from nine different regions (from North to South), produced on 2009, 2010 and 2011, were analysed. Statistical analysis showed correlations among oil isotope compositions and latitude, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation and xerothermic index. No correlation was found comparing isotope compositions with elevation and longitude. An observed shift of the oil ?(18)O per centigrade degree of the mean annual temperature is congruent with literature. The year effect was significant for both ?(18)O and ?(13)C. Samples from Sicilia and Sardegna were higher in (13)C and (18)O than oils from northern regions. PMID:24996298

Portarena, S; Gavrichkova, O; Lauteri, M; Brugnoli, E

2014-12-01

172

a 3d Agglomeration Multigrid Solver for the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agglomeration multigrid strategy is developed and implemented for the solution of three-dimensional steady viscous flows. The method enables convergence acceleration with minimal additional memory overhead and is completely automated in that it can deal with grids of arbitrary construction. The multigrid technique is validated by comparing the delivered convergence rates with those obtained by a previously developed overset-mesh multigrid

D. J. Mavriplis; V. Venkatakrishnan

1996-01-01

173

The influence of bituminous froth components on water-in-oil emulsion stability as determined by the micropipette technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have applied the micropipette technique of Yeung et al., Proc. Royal Soc. London A, 455 (1999) 3709, to study the effects which surface active constituents of bituminous froth have on the interfacial properties of various water-in-oil (W\\/O) emulsion systems in terms of interfacial tension and droplet coalescence. It is shown that asphaltenes play a dominant role in the stabilization

Jana Vander Kloet; Laurier L. Schramm; Bill Shelfantook

2001-01-01

174

Geographical provenance of palm oil by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting techniques.  

PubMed

Analytical methods are required in addition to administrative controls to verify the geographical origin of vegetable oils such as palm oil in an objective manner. In this study the application of fatty acid and volatile organic compound fingerprinting in combination with chemometrics have been applied to verify the geographical origin of crude palm oil (continental scale). For this purpose 94 crude palm oil samples were collected from South East Asia (55), South America (11) and Africa (28). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to develop a hierarchical classification model by combining two consecutive binary PLS-DA models. First, a PLS-DA model was built to distinguish South East Asian from non-South East Asian palm oil samples. Then a second model was developed, only for the non-Asian samples, to discriminate African from South American crude palm oil. Models were externally validated by using them to predict the identity of new authentic samples. The fatty acid fingerprinting model revealed three misclassified samples. The volatile compound fingerprinting models showed an 88%, 100% and 100% accuracy for the South East Asian, African and American class, respectively. The verification of the geographical origin of crude palm oil is feasible by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting. Further research is required to further validate the approach and to increase its spatial specificity to country/province scale. PMID:23200002

Tres, A; Ruiz-Samblas, C; van der Veer, G; van Ruth, S M

2013-04-15

175

An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, Swir, Pd, and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model, are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.

Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

1998-01-01

176

Industrial agglomeration and transport accessibility in metropolitan Seoul  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to reveal the relationship between industrial agglomeration and transport accessibility in the Seoul metropolitan area. Our study suggests that in spite of the rapid expansion of the Seoul metropolitan area, central business districts still function as centers of the industry and transportation system; the agglomeration of most industrial subsectors are occurring in central areas and only primary and manufacturing sectors' clusters are located out of these areas; both of subway and road networks show higher level of accessibility in central Seoul and big cities. This implies a strong relationship between the industrial agglomeration and the transport accessibility, and such hypothetical relationship is tested for every industrial subsector using logit analysis. Our findings indicate that although there are industrial variations in the magnitude of impacts and the significance level, transport networks are, in general, positively associated with industrial agglomeration and this is especially true for service sectors.

Song, Yena; Lee, Keumsook; Anderson, William P.; Lakshmanan, T. R.

2012-07-01

177

What Causes Industry Agglomeration? Evidence from Coagglomeration Patterns  

E-print Network

Why do firms cluster near one another? We test Marshall's theories of industrial agglomeration by examining which industries locate near one another, or coagglomerate. We construct pairwise coagglomeration indices for US ...

Ellison, Glenn

178

Agglomeration in Internet Co-operation Peering Agreements  

E-print Network

Peering decisions between Internet Service Providers contain substantial non-measurable aspects requiring trust and informal cooperation among peering partners. We study whether spatial agglomeration is observed between Internet peers. Our empirical...

Giovannetti, Emanuele; Neuhoff, Karsten; Spagnolo, Giancarlo

2006-03-14

179

Acoustic agglomeration of power plant fly ash. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The work has shown that acoustic agglomeration at practical acoustic intensities and frequencies is technically and most likely economically viable. The following studies were performed with the listed results: The physics of acoustic agglomeration is complex particularly at the needed high acoustic intensities in the range of 150 to 160 dB and frequencies in the 2500 Hz range. The analytical model which we developed, although not including nonlinear acoustic efforts, agreed with the trends observed. We concentrated our efforts on clarifying the impact of high acoustic intensities on the generation of turbulence. Results from a special set of tests show that although some acoustically generated turbulence of sorts exists in the 150 to 170 dB range with acoustic streaming present, such turbulence will not be a significant factor in acoustic agglomeration compared to the dominant effect of the acoustic velocities at the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. Studies of the robustness of the agglomerated particles using the Anderson Mark III impactor as the source of the shear stresses on the particles show that the agglomerates should be able to withstand the rigors of flow through commercial cyclones without significant break-up. We designed and developed a 700/sup 0/F tubular agglomerator of 8'' internal diameter. The electrically heated system functioned well and provided very encouraging agglomeration results at acoustic levels in the 150 to 160 dB and 2000 to 3000 Hz ranges. We confirmed earlier results that an optimum frequency exists at about 2500 Hz and that larger dust loadings will give better results. Studies of the absorption of acoustic energy by various common gases as a function of temperature and humidity showed the need to pursue such an investigation for flue gas constituents in order to provide necessary data for the design of agglomerators. 65 references, 56 figures, 4 tables.

Reethof, G.; McDaniel, O.H.

1982-01-01

180

Industrial Symbiosis in Puerto Rico: Environmentally Related Agglomeration Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chertow M. R., Ashton W. S. and Espinosa J. C. Industrial symbiosis in Puerto Rico: environmentally related agglomeration economies, Regional Studies. Industrial symbiosis, a sub-field of industrial ecology, examines the flow of water, energy, materials, and by-products across firms in geographic proximity. Environmentally related co-location benefits often result that have not been a focus of traditional agglomeration economies, but extend

Marian R. Chertow; Weslynne S. Ashton; Juan C. Espinosa

2008-01-01

181

Investigation of pyrite and mineral matter reduction in a selective coal agglomeration process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In selective agglomeration processes, fine coal\\/water slurries are contacted with light hydrocarbon in a high-shear agglomerator. Based on the hydrophobicity of the organic coal macerals, the light hydrocarbon selectively wets and bridges the clean coal particles to form agglomerates whereas the mineral matter, including pyrite, remains dispersed in the water phase. The major problem associated with selective agglomeration processes is

Ciocco

1992-01-01

182

Primary microparticles and agglomerates of morphine for nasal insufflation.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of powders of morphine HCl suitable for nasal administration to be employed for pain treatment as alternative to injection. Primary microparticles of morphine were prepared by spray drying of aqueous drug solutions using sugars or sugar derivatives as drying protectors and particle shapers. The spray drying procedure modified morphine crystallinity making the substance amorphous and affecting its stability in dependence on the excipient employed. A tendency of the spray-dried powders to turn to varying degrees of yellow was observed. Tumbling the powder in a rotating pan allowed the agglomeration of the primary microparticles. Agglomerates were also obtained by tumbling a mixture of morphine crystals and spray-dried microparticles of excipients, with advantages for the stability of the preparation. A nasal device quantitatively insufflated all the morphine agglomerates. The in vitro transport of morphine through rabbit nasal mucosa was faster using nasal powders than with the saturated solution of morphine. Lactose was the most effective excipient for agglomerate manufacturing and delivery of spray-dried morphine. The agglomerates of morphine crystals mixed with mannitol/lecithin microparticles showed superior stability. However, the drug permeation through rabbit mucosa was slower than with spray-dried morphine microparticle agglomerates. PMID:16937333

Russo, Paola; Sacchetti, Cecilia; Pasquali, Irene; Bettini, Ruggero; Massimo, Gina; Colombo, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandra

2006-12-01

183

Modelling nano-particle agglomeration using local interactions  

E-print Network

Nano-particle agglomeration plays an important role in processes such as spray drying and particle flame synthesis. These processes have in common that nano-particles collide at low concentrations and get irreversibly linked at the point of contact due to plastic deformation. In this paper, we investigate several models of irreversible connections, which require only local interactions between the colliding nano-particles and thus allow for scalable simulations. The models investigated here connect the particles upon collision by non-bonded strongly attractive interactions, bonded interactions or by binding agents placed at the point of contact. Models using spherically symmetric interactions form compact agglomerates and are therefore unsuitable to study agglomeration. In contrast, models that are either based on both central and angular potentials (type one) or on binding agents (type two) efficiently prevent restructuring of the agglomerates, and are therefore useful for modeling contacts formed by plastic deformation. Moreover, both types of models allow to control the rigidity and by that the degree of restructuring. The first type of model is computationally more efficient at low fractional dimensions of the aggregates, while the second gives easy access to local shear forces, which is important when breaking of agglomerates is to be considered. As example applications, we reproduce the well-known diffusion-limited agglomeration (DLA) and report results on soot aggregation.

Gizem Inci; Axel Arnold; Andreas Kronenburg; Rudolf Weeber

2014-04-30

184

NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE  

SciTech Connect

Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

2004-04-01

185

Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation  

PubMed Central

Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised. PMID:25731716

Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

2015-01-01

186

Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised.

Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

2015-03-01

187

Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation.  

PubMed

Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised. PMID:25731716

Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

2015-01-01

188

Multi-criteria evaluation technique for SFI site identification of NORMS and oil industry waste disposal--possibilities in Kuwait.  

PubMed

Waste generation and accumulating quantities of oil field waste are a matter of environmental concern. This study proposes the Slurry Fracture Injection (SFI) technique as an alternative waste disposal method. The slurried solids injection waste disposal method is environmentally secure and permanent, leaving no future liabilities that must be risk-evaluated or priced. An entire waste stream comprising ground solids and waste water can be injected into deep and hydraulically secure target strata with no contamination of potable water-bearing formations or formations outside the target zone that may contain resources (gas and oil). The slurry injection method can be used to clean and reclaim landfills, oil pits and granular waste dumps. This article proposes a two-tier screening method for evaluating the feasibility of this technique and the identification of suitable target zones. A stringent environmental and process control monitoring program should complement the planning and operational period to ensure environmental protection, waste containment, and regulatory HSE compliance. PMID:19716646

Ud din, Saif; Oskui, R P; Dusseault, Maurice B; Al Ghadban, A N

2009-10-01

189

Variation in the volatile oil composition of Eucalyptus citriodora produced by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction techniques.  

PubMed

This work reports variations in the yields and quality of volatiles produced from Eucalyptus citriodora leaves by different hydrodistillation (HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) techniques. HD techniques (1.5%) produced higher yields compared to SCE (0.7%). Citronellal, the major component, was maximum in the extract produced by SCE (79%) followed by oil produced by water-steam distillation (WSD) (72.6%) and water distillation (WD) (62.4%) techniques. Chemical composition of glycoside-bound volatiles produced by acid hydrolysis during HD was found to be very different from free volatiles, although in a minor quantity. The extent of artefact formation and release of aglycones was more profound in the bound volatile oil produced by WD than WSD. Highest oxygenated monoterpenes were found in SCE and WSD (93% each) followed by WD (91.4%). Although the SCE produced lower yields than the HD techniques, its extract is superior in quality in terms of higher concentration of citronellal. PMID:22559719

Mann, Tavleen S; Babu, G D Kiran; Guleria, Shailja; Singh, Bikram

2013-04-01

190

DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUE FOR THE UPSTREAM OIL INDUSTRY  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research and development work reported in this document was to develop a Virtual Intelligence Technique for optimization of the Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) for the upstream oil industry. The work included the development of a software tool for identification and optimization of the most influential parameters in upstream common practices as well as geological, geophysical and reservoir engineering studies. The work was performed in cooperation with three independent producing companies--Newfield Exploration, Chesapeake Energy, and Triad Energy--operating in the Golden Trend, Oklahoma. In order to protect data confidentiality, these companies are referred to as Company One, Two, Three in a randomly selected order. These producing companies provided geological, completion, and production data on 320 wells and participated in frequent technical discussions throughout the project. Research and development work was performed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI), West Virginia University (WVU), and Intelligent Solutions Inc. (ISI). Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association (OIPA) participated in technology transfer and data acquisition efforts. Deliverables from the project are the present final report and a user-friendly software package (Appendix D) with two distinct functions: a characterization tool that identifies the most influential parameters in the upstream operations, and an optimization tool that seeks optimization by varying a number of influential parameters and investigating the coupled effects of these variations. The electronic version of this report is also included in Appendix D. The Golden Trend data were used for the first cut optimization of completion procedures. In the subsequent step, results from soft computing runs were used as the guide for detailed geophysical and reservoir engineering studies that characterize the cause-and-effect relationships between various parameters. The general workflow and the main performing units were as follows: (1) Data acquisition. (GTI, OIPA, Participating producers.) (2) Development of the virtual intelligence software. (WVU, ISI); (3) Application of the software on the acquired data. (GTI, ISI); (4) Detailed production analysis using conventional engineering techniques and the DECICE neural network software. (GTI) and (5) Detailed seismic analysis using Inspect spectral decomposition package and Hapmson-Russell's EMERGE inversion package. (GTI) Technology transfer took place through several workshops held at offices of the participating companies, at OIPA offices, and presentations at the SPE panel on soft computing applications and at the 2003 annual meeting of Texas Independent Producers and Royalty Owners Association (TIPRO). In addition, results were exhibited at the SPE annual meeting, published in GasTips, and placed on the GTI web page. Results from the research and development work were presented to the producing companies as a list of recommended recompletion wells and the corresponding optimized operations parameters. By the end of the project, 16 of the recommendations have been implemented the majority of which resulted in increased production rates to several folds. This constituted a comprehensive field demonstration with positive results.

Iraj A. Salehi; Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Samuel Ameri

2004-09-01

191

The use of thermal analysis techniques to obtain information relevant to the in-situ combustion process for enhanced oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thein-situ combustion technique of enhanced oil recovery may be used for the recovery of heavy oil deposits. In order to predict when\\u000a this process may be used computer-based simulators are being developed. The data required by these simulators are currently\\u000a available from two sources: (i) combustion tubes; these are complex, expensive and time consuming to run; (ii) thermal analysis\\u000a techniques;

A. Millington; D. Price; R. Hughes

1993-01-01

192

Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

2003-02-06

193

Is the cutting of oil contaminated marshes an efficient clean-up technique in a subtropical estuary?  

PubMed

Cutting and removal of oil-impacted marsh plants are still used worldwide as a clean-up and recovery technique. To experimentally test the efficacy of cutting and removing marsh plants under subtropical conditions, we simulated an oil spill (Bunker MF-180) in Spartina alterniflora marshes and compared the responses of plant height, biomass, density of culms and number of flowering plants in high and low energy areas in Paranaguá Bay (S Brazil) for about 9 months. Cutting and removal were inefficient in promoting or accelerating the recovery of the impacted areas. Cut or uncut impacted marshes fully recovered within 6 months, both in low and high energy areas. Plant cutting should be practiced only when there is an effective risk of contamination of groundwater near urban areas, when obvious aesthetical issues are involved in areas of touristic interest or when there are real short-term conservation risks to threatened species. PMID:21507433

Wolinski, André L T O; Lana, Paulo C; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo

2011-06-01

194

Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

1999-11-02

195

A revisit to agglomerates of early-type Hipparcos stars  

E-print Network

We study the spatial structure and sub-structure of regions rich in Hipparcos stars with blue B_T-V_T colours. These regions, which comprise large stellar complexes, OB associations, and young open clusters, are tracers of on-going star formation in the Galaxy. The DBSCAN (Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise) data clustering algorithm is used to look for spatial overdensities of early-type stars. Once an overdensity, "agglomerate", is identified, we carry out a data and bibliographic compilation of their star member candidates. The actual membership in agglomerate of each early-type star is studied based on its heliocentric distance, proper motion, and previous spectro-photometric information. We identify 35 agglomerates of early-type Hipparcos stars. Most of them are associated to previously known clusters and OB associations. The previously unknown P Puppis agglomerate is subject of a dedicated study with Virtual Observatory tools. It is actually a new, nearby, young open cluster (d ~ 470 pc, age ~ 20 Ma) with a clear radial density gradient. We list P Puppis and other six agglomerates (including NGC 2451 A, vdBH 23, and Trumpler 10) as new sites for substellar searches because of their youth, closeness, and spatial density. We investigate in detail the sub-structure in the Orion, CMa-Pup and Pup-Vel OB complexes ("super-agglomerates"). We confirm or discover some stellar overdensities in the Orion complex, like the 25 Ori group, the Horsehead region (including the sigma Orionis cluster), and the eta Orionis agglomerate. Finally, we derive accurate parallactic distances to the Pleiades, NGC 2451 A, and IC 2391, describe several field early-type stars at d < 200 pc, and discuss the incompleteness of our search.

J. A. Caballero; L. Dinis

2008-07-06

196

Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore  

SciTech Connect

Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore processing which are intended to improve the performance of pellet binders, and have directly saved energy by increasing filtration rates of the pelletization feed by as much as 23%.

S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

2006-12-31

197

Anesthesia and liver biopsy techniques for pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) suspected of exposure to crude oil in marine environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper reports on the anesthesia and liver biopsy techniques used in adult and nestling pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) to test for continued exposure to residual crude oil in the marine environment. Populations of pigeon guillemots have declined significantly in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, possibly because of residual effects of crude oil in the environment after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989. Measurement of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) is currently the best way to assess crude oil exposure from food sources; however, lethal sampling to obtain adequate liver tissue was not desirable in this declining population of birds. As part of a larger study to identify factors limiting the recovery of pigeon guillemots and other seabird populations, we surgically collected liver samples from adult and nestling guillemots to provide samples for measurement of hepatic CYP1A concentrations. Results from the larger study were reported elsewhere. Liver samples were taken from 26 nestling (1998) and 24 adult (1999) guillemots from a previously oiled site (Naked Island; 12 chicks, 13 adults) and from a nonoiled site (Jackpot Island/Icy Bay; 14 chicks, 11 adults). The birds were anesthetized with isoflurane. No surgical complications occurred with any of the birds and all adult and nestling birds survived after surgery to the point of release or return to the nest. Thirteen out of 14 chicks from the Jackpot Island/Icy Bay and 8 out of 12 chicks from Naked Island fledged. Four chicks at Naked Island were depredated before fledging. All adults abandoned their nests after surgery, so the study sites were revisited the following summer (2000) in an attempt to assess overwinter survival of the adults. All but 1 adult biopsied bird at the nonoiled site (Icy Bay) was found renesting, whereas only 2 birds at the previously oiled site (Naked Island) were similarly observed. The percent of 1999 breeders at Naked Island that returned to their nest sites to breed again in 2000 was low at nests of biopsied birds and nonbiopsied birds alike, suggesting that factors other than the surgical procedure were responsible for the low return rate among this group. These survival results provide strong support lot using experienced veterinarians for nonlethal invasive sample collection from birds to document exposure to crude oil in the marine environment.

Degernes, L.A.; Harms, C.A.; Golet, G.H.; Mulcahy, D.M.

2002-01-01

198

Integrated Field Study of Heavy Oil Reservoirs using Integrated Geophysics, Geochemistry, and Numerical Modeling Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The complete reservoir characterization of cold production reservoirs involves the integration of geochemistry, geology, geophysics, and numerical modeling of reservoir production. This procedure should optimize enhanced oil recovery. The following talk describes progress of such integrated studies for a field study at Plover Lake, Saskatchewan.

Mathew Fay; Tingge Wang; Fereidoon Vasheghani; Hussain Sheikha; Joan Embleton; Larry Lines; Antonin Settari; Jin Wang; Douglas Schmitt

199

A new generation of electromagnetic and ultrasonic techniques for subsurface evaluation of oil field tubulars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, corrosion and mechanical fatigue have been becoming a more visible issue in the oil and gas industry. The issue of lost profits from lost production and the cost and liability resulting from failure has overcome the obvious concern of simple mechanical integrity. A new generation of tool designs have been developed for in-situ evaluation of

1988-01-01

200

Nanoemulsion of orange oil with non ionic surfactant produced emulsion using ultrasonication technique: evaluating against food spoilage yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, food industries have shown great interest in developing nanoemulsion (NE) using essential oils (EOs) to prevent food spoilage caused by microorganisms. The hydrophobic properties of EOs have lead to reduced solubilization effect of food, which in turn, created a negative impact on the quality of food and its antimicrobial efficacy. Focusing this issue, we attempted a unique NE preparation using orange oil, Tween 80 (organic phase) and water (aqueous phase) by sonication technique. Based on thermodynamic stability studies, the effective diameter was reported to be in the size range from 20 to 30 nm. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in testing the anti-yeast effect. Their activity was studied in both growth medium and apple juice. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this NE was determined using broth dilution method. At 2 ?l/ml, orange oil NE demonstrated inhibition of tested microorganisms. The kinetics of killing curve, have shown that the NE treated cells had lost its viability within 30 min of interaction. Also, SEM image revealed that the treated cells became distorted in comparison to their control cells. NE treated apple juice showed complete loss of viability even on dilution as compared to their controls.

Sugumar, Saranya; Singh, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N.

2015-02-01

201

Oil palm fresh fruit bunch ripeness classification based on rule- based expert system of ROI image processing technique results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a processing need for a fast, easy and accurate classification system for oil palm fruit ripeness. Such a system will be invaluable to farmers and plantation managers who need to sell their oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) for the mill as this will avoid disputes. In this paper,a new approach was developed under the name of expert rules-based systembased on the image processing techniques results of thethree different oil palm FFB region of interests (ROIs), namely; ROI1 (300x300 pixels), ROI2 (50x50 pixels) and ROI3 (100x100 pixels). The results show that the best rule-based ROIs for statistical colour feature extraction with k-nearest neighbors (KNN) classifier at 94% were chosen as well as the ROIs that indicated results higher than the rule-based outcome, such as the ROIs of statistical colour feature extraction with artificial neural network (ANN) classifier at 94%, were selected for further FFB ripeness inspection system.

Alfatni, M. S. M.; Shariff, A. R. M.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Marhaban, M. H.; Shafie, S. B.; Bamiruddin, M. D.; Saaed, O. M. B.

2014-06-01

202

Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.  

PubMed

Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628

Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

2015-04-01

203

Application of chemical, physical and chemometric analytical techniques to the study of ancient ceramic oil lamps.  

PubMed

A chemical, mineralogical and morphological characterization of 54 fragments of oil lamps found in two Spanish archaeological sites (Cordoba and Herrera de Pisuerga (Palencia)) has been performed. Flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry were used for the determination of Al(2)O(3), CaO, Fe(2)O(3), K(2)O, MgO, MnO, Na(2)O and TiO(2) as major constituents and Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn as minor and trace selected elements. Physical, mineralogical and morphological analyses were made by using dilatometry at constant heating rate for the thermal behaviour, X-ray diffraction spectrometry for the mineralogical composition and, in a group of selected samples, scanning electron microscopy and polarizing petrographic microscopy for the observation of thin layers and mineral identification. Separations of light and heavy minerals were carried out with bromoform and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied to both fractions. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to establish correlations between variables and to deduce factors which allow the gathering of oil lamp samples in groups as a function of their composition. The results of these analyses allow the comparison among pieces and the establishment of conclusions about several aspects of their manufacture, the origin of the raw materials and the provenance of the oil lamps (local or imported). They provide information supporting certain archaeological hypothesis. For example, some oil lamps found in Herrera de Pisuerga showed a clearly different physicochemical composition. They were probably brought from Italy by the Roman Legions together with their initial furniture household. PMID:18970455

García Giménez, R; Vigil de la Villa, R; Petit Domínguez, M D; Rucandio, M I

2006-02-15

204

Towards more rational techniques for the isolation of valuable essential oils from plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is drawn to the use of new and clean alternative methods for the isolation of essential oils from plants. A critical overview is presented of conventional methods (based on either organic solvent extraction or distillation) and new alternatives (including microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) as well as supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction and subcritical water extraction). The advantages and disadvantages of each

M. D Luque de Castro; M. M Jiménez-Carmona; V Fernández-Pérez

1999-01-01

205

Combustion characteristics of lignite and oil shale samples by thermal analysis techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research thermal analysis and kinetics of ten lignite's and two oil shale samples of different origin were performed\\u000a using a TA 2960 thermal analysis system with thermogravimetry (TG\\/DTG) and differential al analysis (DTA) modules. Experiments\\u000a were performed with a sample size of ~10 mg, heating rate of 10C min-1. Flow rate was kept constant (10 L h-1) in

M. V. Kök; G. Pokol; C. Keskin; J. Madarász; S. Bagci

2004-01-01

206

Monitoring of olive oil mills' wastes using electrical resistivity tomography techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olive oil mills' wastes (OOMW) are one of the byproducts of the oil production that can lead to serious environmental pollution when they are deposited in ponds dug on the ground surface. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method can provide a valuable tool in order to monitor through time the physical flow of the wastes into the subsurface. ERT could potentially locate the electrical signature due to lower resistivity values resulting from the leakage of OOMW to the subsurface. For this purpose, two vertical boreholes were installed (12m depth, 9 m apart) in the vicinity of an existing pond which is filled with OOMW during the oil production period. The test site is situated in Saint Andreas village about 15km south of the city of Rethymno (Crete, Greece). Surface ERT measurements were collected along multiple lines in order to reconstruct the subsurface resistivity models. Data acquisition was performed with standard and optimized electrode configuration protocols. The monitoring survey includes the ERT data collection for a period of time. The study was initiated before the OOMW were deposited in the pond, so resistivity fluctuations are expected due to the flow of OOMW in the porous subsurface media through time. Preliminary results show the good correlation of the ERT images with the drilled geological formations and the identification of low resistivity subsurface zone that could be attributed to the flow of the wastes within the porous layers.

Simyrdanis, Kleanthis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Kirkou, Stella; Sarris, Apostolos; Tsourlos, Panagiotis

2014-08-01

207

Compendium of scattering matrix element profiles for soot agglomerates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of size and structures of soot agglomerates within dynamic flame environment is possible only via nonintrusive laser diagnostics. Elliptically polarized light scattering is the most versatile approach for this purpose; however, it requires a priori knowledge of scattering characteristics of agglomerates. In this paper, a compendium of results is presented for the scattering matrix elements of different fractal-like aggregates. The effects of monomer size (dp), number of monomers in agglomerate (N), fractal dimension (Df), fractal prefactor (Kf) as well as wavelength (l) are considered. The results show that S12 and S34 profiles are more sensitive to fractal structure parameters than the S11. By using these three profiles simultaneously, the parameters of fractal structures can be obtained from carefully conducted experiments.

Klusek, C.; Manickavasagam, S.; Menguc, P.

2003-09-01

208

Effects of crossover hydrogen on platinum dissolution and agglomeration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The durability of catalysts in the polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is identified as a critical limiting factor for wide commercialization of fuel cells. Even though much progress has been made in understanding the degradation mechanisms, the phenomena of Pt dissolution and agglomeration and their contributing factors are not fully understood. In the present investigation, the effects of crossover hydrogen on Pt degradation are studied using an accelerated stress test (AST). The end-of-test (EOT) membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEAs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results provided mechanistic understanding of Pt dissolution and agglomeration: Pt growth and agglomeration were found to be less severe with more crossover hydrogen due likely to the chemical reduction of Pt oxides by crossover hydrogen and the subsequently decrease in the amount of Pt ions formed via the oxide pathway.

Cheng, Tommy T. H.; Rogers, Erin; Young, Alan P.; Ye, Siyu; Colbow, Vesna; Wessel, Silvia

2011-10-01

209

Two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator  

SciTech Connect

The two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator combines and improves upon the fluidized-bed, agglomeration/incineration technology and the cyclonic-combustion technology developed at IGT over many years.The patented sloped-grid design and the ash-discharge port were originally devised for IGT's U-GAS coal-gasification process. The cyclonic combustor/separator is a modification of IGT's low-emissions combustor. The result is a flexible incinerator for a variety of wastes. The system can operate over a wide range of conditions and has a destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) that is greater than 99.99 percent for organic wastes. Inorganic contaminants in the waste are encapsulated in glassy leach-resistant agglomerates, which renders them environmentally benign and suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill.

Not Available

1990-01-01

210

Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation  

DOEpatents

The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2000-01-01

211

Continuous air Agglomeration Method for high Carbon fly ash Beneficiation  

SciTech Connect

The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carbon-free mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Finseth, Dennis H.

1998-09-29

212

Agglomeration behavior of solid nickel on polycrystalline barium titanate  

SciTech Connect

This letter describes the phenomenon that takes place between nickel/barium titanate couples when heated under conditions employed in multilayer ceramic capacitor manufacturing practice: a 4hr, 1300°C isothermal anneal in 1% H2 – 99% N2. Dense, sputtered nickel films were observed to dewet the titanate and agglomerate into discrete or interconnected islands via a solid-state process. Up to a critical film thickness value of ~1.4?m, the degree of agglomeration was found to display an exponential dependence on the thickness of the original nickel film.

Weil, K. Scott; Mast, Eric S.; Sprenkle, Vince

2007-11-01

213

Innovative Techniques of Multiphase Flow in Pipeline System for Oil-Gas Gathering and Transportation with Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphase flow measurement, desanding, dehumidification and heat furnace are critical techniques for the oil and gas gathering and transportation, which influnce intensively the energy-saving and emission-reduction in the petroleum industry. Some innovative techniques were developed for the first time by the present research team, including an online recognation instrument of multiphase flow regime, a water fraction instrument for multuphase flow, a coiled tube desanding separator with low pressure loss and high efficiency, a supersonic swirling natural gas dehumifier, and a vacuum phase-change boiler. With an integration of the above techniques, a new oil gas gathering and transpotation system was proposed, which reduced the establishment of one metering station and several transfer stations compared with the tranditional system. The oil and gas mixture transpotation in single pipes was realized. The improved techniques were applied in the oilfields in China and promoted the productivity of the oilfields by low energy consumption, low emissions, high efficiency and great security.

Bai, Bofeng; Guo, Liejin; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhang, Ximin; Gu, Hanyang

2010-03-01

214

Bird interactions with offshore oil and gas platforms: review of impacts and monitoring techniques.  

PubMed

Thousands of oil and gas platforms are currently operating in offshore waters globally, and this industry is expected to expand in coming decades. Although the potential environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas activities are widely recognized, there is limited understanding of their impacts on migratory and resident birds. A literature review identified 24 studies and reports of bird-platform interactions, most being qualitative and half having been peer-reviewed. The most frequently observed effect, for seabirds and landbirds, is attraction and sometimes collisions associated with lights and flares; episodic events have caused the deaths of hundreds or even thousands of birds. Though typically unpredictable, anecdotally, it is known that poor weather, such as fog, precipitation and low cloud cover, can exacerbate the effect of nocturnal attraction to lights, especially when coincidental with bird migrations. Other effects include provision of foraging and roosting opportunities, increased exposure to oil and hazardous environments, increased exposure to predators, or repulsion from feeding sites. Current approaches to monitoring birds at offshore platforms have focused on observer-based methods which can offer species-level bird identification, quantify seasonal patterns of relative abundance and distribution, and document avian mortality events and underlying factors. Observer-based monitoring is time-intensive, limited in spatial and temporal coverage, and suffers without clear protocols and when not conducted by trained, independent observers. These difficulties are exacerbated because deleterious bird-platform interaction is episodic and likely requires the coincidence of multiple factors (e.g., darkness, cloud, fog, rain conditions, occurrence of birds in vicinity). Collectively, these considerations suggest a need to implement supplemental systems for monitoring bird activities around offshore platforms. Instrument-based approaches, such as radar, cameras, acoustic recordings, and telemetry, hold promise for continuous monitoring. Recommendations are provided for a rigorous and comprehensive monitoring approach within an adaptive management framework. PMID:25261750

Ronconi, Robert A; Allard, Karel A; Taylor, Philip D

2015-01-01

215

A numerical/empirical technique for history matching and predicting cyclic steam performance in Canadian oil sands reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oil sands of Alberta contain some one trillion barrels of bitumen-in-place, most contained in the McMurray, Wabiskaw, Clearwater, and Grand Rapids formations. Depth of burial is 0--550 m, 10% of which is surface mineable, the rest recoverable by in-situ technology-driven enhanced oil recovery schemes. To date, significant commercial recovery has been attributed to Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) using vertical wellbores. Other techniques, such as Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are proving superior to other recovery methods for increasing early oil production but at initial higher development and/or operating costs. Successful optimization of bitumen production rates from the entire reservoir is ultimately decided by the operator's understanding of the reservoir in its original state and/or the positive and negative changes which occur in oil sands and heavy oil deposits upon heat stimulation. Reservoir description is the single most important factor in attaining satisfactory history matches and forecasts for optimized production of the commercially-operated processes. Reservoir characterization which lacks understanding can destroy a project. For example, incorrect assumptions in the geological model for the Wolf Lake Project in northeast Alberta resulted in only about one-half of the predicted recovery by the original field process. It will be shown here why the presence of thin calcite streaks within oil sands can determine the success or failure of a commercial cyclic steam project. A vast amount of field data, mostly from the Primrose Heavy Oil Project (PHOP) near Cold Lake, Alberta, enabled the development a simple set of correlation curves for predicting bitumen production using CSS. A previously calibtrated thermal numerical simulation model was used in its simplist form, that is, a single layer, radial grid blocks, "fingering" or " dilation" adjusted permeability curves, and no simulated fracture, to generate the first cycle production correlation curves. The key reservoir property used to develop a specific curve was to vary the initial mobile water saturation. Individual pilot wells were then history-matched using these correlation curves, adjusting for thermal net pay using perforation height and a fundamentally derived "net pay factor". Operating days (injection plus production) were required to complete the history matching calculations. Subsequent cycles were then history-matched by applying an Efficiency Multiplication Factor (EMF) to the original first cycle prediction method as well as selecting the proper correlation curve for the specific cycle under analysis by using the appropriate steam injection rates and slug sizes. History matches were performed on eight PHOP wells (two back-to-back, five-spot patterns) completed in the Wabiskaw and, three single-well tests completed just below in the McMurray Formation. Predictions for the PHOP Wabiskaw Formation first cycle bitumen production averaged within 1% of the actual pilot total. Bitumen recovery from individual wells for second cycle onwards, was within 20% of actual values. For testing the correlations, matching was also performed on cyclic steam data from British Petroleum's Wolf Lake Project, the Esso Cold Lake Project, and the PCEJ Fort McMurray Pilot, a joint venture of Petro-Canada, Cities Services (Canadian Occidental), Esso, and Japan-Canada Oil Sands with reasonable results.

Leshchyshyn, Theodore Henry

216

Applying monitoring, verification, and accounting techniques to a real-world, enhanced oil recovery operational CO2 leak  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being tested for oil fields in the Illinois Basin, USA. While this technology has shown promise for improving oil production, it has raised some issues about the safety of CO2 injection and storage. The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) organized a Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) team to develop and deploy monitoring programs at three EOR sites in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, USA. MVA goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. This paper focuses on the use of MVA techniques in monitoring a small CO2 leak from a supply line at an EOR facility under real-world conditions. The ability of shallow monitoring techniques to detect and quantify a CO2 leak under real-world conditions has been largely unproven. In July of 2009, a leak in the pipe supplying pressurized CO2 to an injection well was observed at an MGSC EOR site located in west-central Kentucky. Carbon dioxide was escaping from the supply pipe located approximately 1 m underground. The leak was discovered visually by site personnel and injection was halted immediately. At its largest extent, the hole created by the leak was approximately 1.9 m long by 1.7 m wide and 0.7 m deep in the land surface. This circumstance provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate the performance of several monitoring techniques including soil CO2 flux measurements, portable infrared gas analysis, thermal infrared imagery, and aerial hyperspectral imagery. Valuable experience was gained during this effort. Lessons learned included determining 1) hyperspectral imagery was not effective in detecting this relatively small, short-term CO2 leak, 2) even though injection was halted, the leak remained dynamic and presented a safety risk concern during monitoring activities and, 3) the atmospheric and soil monitoring techniques used were relatively cost-effective, easily and rapidly deployable, and required minimal manpower to set up and maintain for short-term assessments. However, characterization of CO2 distribution near the land surface resulting from a dynamic leak with widely variable concentrations and fluxes was challenging. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Wimmer, B.T.; Krapac, I.G.; Locke, R.; Iranmanesh, A.

2011-01-01

217

Identification of potential antioxidant compounds in the essential oil of thyme by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and multivariate calibration techniques.  

PubMed

Thyme species are used in traditional medicine throughout the world and are known for their antiseptic, antispasmodic, and antitussive properties. Also, antioxidant activity is one of the interesting properties of thyme essential oil. In this research, we aim to identify peaks potentially responsible for the antioxidant activity of thyme oil from chromatographic fingerprints. Therefore, the chemical compositions of hydrodistilled essential oil of thyme species from different regions were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and antioxidant activities of essential oils were measured by a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging test. Several linear multivariate calibration techniques with different preprocessing methods were applied to the chromatograms of thyme essential oils to indicate the peaks responsible for the antioxidant activity. These techniques were applied on data both before and after alignment of chromatograms with correlation optimized warping. In this study, orthogonal projection to latent structures model was found to be a good technique to indicate the potential antioxidant active compounds in the thyme oil due to its simplicity and repeatability. PMID:25403421

Masoum, Saeed; Mehran, Mehdi; Ghaheri, Salehe

2015-02-01

218

Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Site closeout report  

SciTech Connect

The Selective Agglomeration POC facility consisted of a coal crushing and grinding circuit, followed by an agglomeration circuit and product dewatering. (A plot plan of the facility is shown in Figure 1-2.) The coal crushing and grinding system consisted of a hammermill coal crusher, weigh-belt feeder, two ball mills (primary and secondary), and necessary hoppers, pumps, and conveyors. The mills were capable of providing coal over a range of grinds from a d{sub 50} of 125 to 25 microns. Slurry discharged from the ball mills was pumped to the agglomeration circuit. The agglomeration circuit began with a high-shear mixer, where diesel was added to the slurry to begin the formation of microagglomerates. The high-shear mixer was followed by two stages of conventional flotation cells for microagglomerate recovery. The second-stage-flotation-cell product was pumped to either a rotary-drum vacuum filter or a high-G centrifuge for dewatering. The dewatered product was then convoyed to the product pad from which dump trucks were used to transfer it to the utility plant located next to the facility. Plant tailings were pumped to the water clarifier for thickening and then dewatered in plate-and-frame filter presses. These dewatered tailings were also removed to the utility via dump truck. Clarified water (thickener overflow) was recycled to the process via a head tank.

Not Available

1993-04-01

219

How do Firms Agglomerate? A Study of FDI in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper studies the determinants of location choice by foreign investors in France. A new sample of almost 4000 location choices over ten years and 92 administrative locations is used to measure two important issues: To what extent do foreign investors cluster spatially and are the decision-makers sensitive to investment incentives provided through regional policies? Concerning the agglomeration effects, we

Matthieu Crozet; Thierry Mayer; Jean-Louis Mucchielli

2003-01-01

220

How do firms agglomerate? A study of FDI Matthieu Crozeta  

E-print Network

How do firms agglomerate? A study of FDI in France Matthieu Crozeta , Thierry Mayerb,*, Jean a `learning process' of FDI, the location decisions becoming more remote from the country of origin during: Industrial location; Conditional logit; Nested logit; FDI; Regional policy 1. Introduction Regional policies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

221

How do firms agglomerate? A study of FDI in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the determinants of location choice by foreign investors in France using a sample of almost 4000 foreign investments over 10 years and 92 locations. Concerning agglomeration effects, we find very strong evidence of positive spillovers between firms, and identify detailed patterns of clustering, assessing, for instance, the countries of origin and the industries for which those spillovers

Matthieu Crozet; Thierry Mayer; Jean-Louis Mucchielli

2004-01-01

222

Enhanced Deposition, Acoustic Agglomeration, and Chladni Figures in Smoke Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-scale house fire test was conducted to investigate the accuracy of two proposed methods for determining whether a smoke or carbon monoxide (CO) alarm sounded during a smoke exposure. One method involves examining the plastic case of the alarm's piezoelectric horn for locally enhanced soot deposition and agglomerated soot particles. The other method involves examining the metal disc of

C. L. Worrell; R. J. Roby; L. Streit; J. L. Torero

2001-01-01

223

Multivariable optimization of PEMFC cathodes using an agglomerate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive numerical framework for cathode electrode design is presented and applied to predict the catalyst layer and the gas diffusion layer parameters that lead to an optimal electrode performance at different operating conditions. The design and optimization framework couples an agglomerate cathode catalyst layer model to a numerical gradient-based optimization algorithm. The set of optimal parameters is obtained by

M. Secanell; K. Karan; A. Suleman; N. Djilali

2007-01-01

224

OVERVIEW OF THE THEORIES OF GEOGRAPHICAL CLUSTERING AND AGGLOMERATION#  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the paper is to enhance the overview of the interactions between the theoretical approaches of clustering and agglomeration. The paper gives a theoretical over- view of these different approaches to the concepts of geographical clustering and agglom- eration. Based on a description of four different theoretical schools (mainstream, evolu- tionary economics of innovation, economic\\/industrial geography, and strategic

Michael S. Dahl

225

Potential Function Agglomeration Clustering Algorithm for Sparse Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the Potential Function Agglomeration Clustering (PFAC) algorithm has been proposed for estimating the mixing matrix in underdetermined Sparse Component Analysis (SCA), wherein the number of mixtures is less than the number of the sources. In contrast to many existing SCA methods, the PFAC algorithm can accurate estimate the number of sources and the mixing matrix. The algorithm

Ye Zhang; Fei Li; Jianhua Wu

2010-01-01

226

A LIFE CYCLE FOR CLUSTERS? THE DYNAMICS GOVERNING REGIONAL AGGLOMERATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to address a gap in the literature on regional agglomerations by examining the factors shaping their evolution over time. It is found that an industry's clustering rationale (resource access versus interaction) and the nature of change events (external versus internal) have important repercussions on the evolution of the spatial distribution of the industry (i.e. the rise and

Kerstin Wolter

2003-01-01

227

Bioremediation of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil Using Slurry-Phase Biological Treatment and Land Farming Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-scale experiments on bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil were undertaken on the territory of the Kokuyskoye oil field (Perm region, West Urals, Russia) owned by the LUKOIL Company. The pollution consisted of the contents of a oil waste storage pit, which mostly received soils contaminated after accidental oil spills and also the solid n-alkane (paraffin) wastes removed

Maria S. Kuyukina; Irena B. Ivshina; Marina I. Ritchkova; James C. Philp; Colin J. Cunningham; Nick Christofi

2003-01-01

228

Novel simulation techniques used in a gas reservoir with a thin oil zone; Troll field  

SciTech Connect

Choice of production strategy in modern reservoir management relies heavily on numerical simulation. Large fields may require prohibitively large computer times. This paper reports on new techniques developed to save computer and engineering time: local grid refinement with small timesteps and flux boundary conditions for simulating regions of special interest. The combined use of these techniques allowed flexible, non-time-consuming, user-friendly reservoir simulation of a variety of reservoir management scenarios for Troll field.

Henriquez, A.; Apeland, O.J.; Lie, O. (Statoil (Norway)); Cheshire, I. (Intera Petroleum Production Services (United Kingdom))

1992-11-01

229

Proceedings of the 19 biennial conference of the institute for briquetting and agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the briquetting and agglomeration of materials. Topics considered at the conference included the pelletizing of carbon black, the agglomeration of hard coal, the selection of a coal agglomerate for gasification, the briquetting of soft lignite, fiber addition for increased pellet strength, properties of granules, compaction, the Iowa agglomeration process, land disposal restrictions, the disposal of hazardous materials and industrial wastes, and the compaction of sludges from municipal waste treatment plants.

Not Available

1985-01-01

230

Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah.  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide- (CO{sub 2}-) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

1997-10-15

231

Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million bbl of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO-) flood 2 project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

Allison, M. Lee; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas

1999-11-03

232

Oscillatory Dynamics of Single Bubbles and Agglomeration in a Sound Field in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual-frequency acoustic levitator containing water was developed for studying bubble and drop dynamics in low gravity. It was flown on USML-1 where it was used in the Glovebox facility. High frequency (21 or 63 kHz) ultrasonic waves were modulated by low frequencies to excite shape oscillations on bubbles and oil drops ultrasonically trapped in the water. Bubble diameters were typically close to 1 cm or larger. When such large bubbles are acoustically trapped on the Earth, the acoustic radiation pressure needed to overcome buoyancy tends to shift the natural frequency for quadrupole (n = 2) oscillations above the prediction of Lamb's equation. In low gravity, a much weaker trapping force was used and measurements of n = 2 and 3 mode frequencies were closer to the ideal case. Other video observations in low gravity include: (i) the transient reappearance of a bulge where a small bubble has coalesced with a large one, (ii) observations of the dynamics of bubbles coated by oil indicating that shape oscillations can shift a coated bubble away from the oil-water interface of the coating giving a centering of the core, and (iii) the agglomeration of bubbles induced by the sound field.

Marston, Philip L.; Trinh, Eugene H.; Depew, Jon; Asaki, Thomas J.

1994-01-01

233

Estimation of the agglomeration coefficient of bipolar-charged aerosol particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrostatic agglomeration is a promising method for improving the submicron particles’ collection efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator. The electrostatic agglomeration coefficient of bipolar charged particles is calculated using a two particles collision model to evaluate the effect of external electric field on the particles agglomeration. The model is based on kinetic equations which trace the trajectories of two particles under

Y. Koizumi; M. Kawamura; F. Tochikubo; T. Watanabe

2000-01-01

234

Study of agglomeration mechanisms of food powders: Application to durum wheat semolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wet agglomeration of durum wheat semolina is an important stage in couscous production which contributes to the final quality of the end products (couscous grains). There is still a lack of studies in investigating the agglomeration mechanisms of durum wheat semolina. The present study aims to investigate the agglomeration mechanisms occurring during the wetting\\/mixing process of durum wheat semolina.

M. Mohamad Saad; A. Barkouti; E. Rondet; T. Ruiz; B. Cuq

2011-01-01

235

AGGLOMERATION, BREAKAGE, POPULATION BALANCE, AND CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF REACTIVE PRECIPITATION PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agglomeration and breakage of particles play a significant role in determining final particle size distribution (PSD) and other qualities such as filtering characteristics and impurity content. In reactive precipitation processes, especially during the precipitation of fine particles, the agglomeration and breakage of particles normally cannot be neglected. In this study, the agglomeration and breakage of particles during the reactive

Jie Lu; Jing-Kang Wang

2006-01-01

236

Dispersion and Filtration of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and Measurement of Nanoparticle Agglomerates in Diesel Exhaust  

PubMed Central

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) tend to form bundles due to their geometry and van der Walls forces, which usually complicates studies of the CNT properties. Dispersion plays a significant role in CNT studies and we summarize dispersion techniques to generate airborne CNTs from suspensions or powders. We describe in detail our technique of CNT aerosolization with controlled degree of agglomeration using an electrospray system. The results of animal inhalation studies using the electrosprayed CNTs are presented. We have performed filtration experiments for CNTs through a screen filter. A numerical model has been established to simulate the CNT filtration experiments. Both the modeling and experimental results show that the CNT penetration is less than the penetration for a sphere with the same mobility diameter, which is mainly due to the larger interception length of the CNTs. There is a need for instruments capable of fast and online measurement of gas-borne nanoparticle agglomerates. We developed an instrument Universal NanoParticle Analyzer (UNPA) and the measurement results for diesel exhaust particulates are presented. The results presented here are pertinent to non-spherical aerosol particles, and illustrate the effects of particle morphology on aerosol behaviors. PMID:23355749

Wang, Jing; Pui, David Y.H.

2012-01-01

237

Exploring Oil Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1974-01-01

238

Measuring emissions from oil and natural gas well pads using the mobile flux plane technique.  

PubMed

We present a study of methane emissions from oil and gas producing well pad facilities in the Barnett Shale region of Texas, measured using an innovative ground-based mobile flux plane (MFP) measurement system, as part of the Barnett Coordinated Campaign.1 Using only public roads, we measured the emissions from nearly 200 well pads over 2 weeks in October 2013. The population of measured well pads is split into well pads with detectable emissions (N = 115) and those with emissions below the detection limit of the MFP instrument (N = 67). For those well pads with nonzero emissions, the distribution was highly skewed, with a geometric mean of 0.63 kg/h, a geometric standard deviation of 4.2, and an arithmetic mean of 1.72 kg/h. Including the population of nonemitting well pads, we find that the arithmetic mean of the well pads sampled in this study is 1.1 kg/h. This distribution implies that 50% of the emissions is due to the 6.6% highest emitting well pads, and 80% of the emissions is from the 22% highest emitting well pads. PMID:25806837

Rella, Chris W; Tsai, Tracy R; Botkin, Connor G; Crosson, Eric R; Steele, David

2015-04-01

239

Mechanisms of mineral scaling in oil and geothermal wells studied in laboratory experiments by nuclear techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two independent nuclear methods have been developed and tested for studies of mineral scaling mechanisms and kinetics related to the oil and geothermal industry. The first is a gamma transmission method to measure mass increase with a 30 MBq source of 133Ba. The other method applies radioactive tracers of one or more of the scaling components. CaCO3-precipitation has been used as an example here where the main tracer has been 47Ca2+. While the transmission method is an indirect method, the latter is a direct method where the reactions of specific components may be studied. Both methods are on-line, continuous and non-destructive, and capable to study scaling of liquids with saturation ratios approaching the solubility product. A lower limit for detection of CaCO3 with the transmission method in sand-packed columns with otherwise reasonable experimental parameters is estimated to be <1 mg in a 1 cm section of the tube packed with silica sand while the lower limit of detection for the tracer method with reasonable experimental parameters is estimated to <1 µg in the same tube section.

Bjørnstad, T.; Stamatakis, E.

2006-01-01

240

Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques  

PubMed Central

The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals. PMID:25226536

Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A.; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

2014-01-01

241

Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process  

DOEpatents

A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

1994-01-01

242

Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. First annual report  

SciTech Connect

This three-year project has two general objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application, and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. Another objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. This report describes work performed during the first year of the project. Following the introduction, Chapters 2 through 5 present several surveys concerning field applications of gel treatments. Based on the results of the surveys, guidelines are proposed in Chapter 5 for the selection of candidates for gel treatments (both injection wells and production wells). Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 11 discuss theoretical work that was performed during the project. Chapter 6 examines whether Hall plots indicated selectivity during gelant placement. Chapter 7 discusses several important theoretical aspects of gel treatments in production wells with water-coning problems. Chapter 8 considers exploitation of density differences during gelant placement. Chapter 11 presents a preliminary consideration of the use of precipitates as blocking agents. Chapters 9 and 10 detail the experimental work for the project. Chapter 9 describes an experimental investigation of gelant placement in fractured systems. Chapter 10 describes experiments that probe the mechanisms for disproportionate permeability reduction by gels.

Seright, R.S.

1993-12-01

243

Development of Impregnated Agglomerate Pelletization (IAP) process for fabrication of (Th,U)O 2 mixed oxide pellets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impregnated Agglomerate Pelletization (IAP) technique has been developed at Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (AFFF), BARC, Tarapur, for manufacturing (Th, 233U)O 2 mixed oxide fuel pellets, which are remotely fabricated in hot cell or shielded glove box facilities to reduce man-rem problem associated with 232U daughter radionuclides. This technique is being investigated to fabricate the fuel for Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). In the IAP process, ThO 2 is converted to free flowing spheroids by powder extrusion route in an unshielded facility which are then coated with uranyl nitrate solution in a shielded facility. The dried coated agglomerate is finally compacted and then sintered in oxidizing/reducing atmosphere to obtain high density (Th,U)O 2 pellets. In this study, fabrication of (Th,U)O 2 mixed oxide pellets containing 3-5 wt.% UO 2 was carried out by IAP process. The pellets obtained were characterized using optical microscopy, XRD and alpha autoradiography. The results obtained were compared with the results for the pellets fabricated by other routes such as Coated Agglomerate Pelletization (CAP) and Powder Oxide Pelletization (POP) route.

Khot, P. M.; Nehete, Y. G.; Fulzele, A. K.; Baghra, Chetan; Mishra, A. K.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J. P.; Kamath, H. S.

2012-01-01

244

The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method. PMID:25598636

Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza

2015-01-01

245

Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study  

SciTech Connect

Southern Company Services, Inc., (SCS) was contracted in 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a commercially acceptable selective agglomeration technology to enhance the use of high-sulfur coals by 1993. The project scope involved development of a bench-scale process and components, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of a proof-of-concept (POC) facility. To that end, a two-ton-per-hour facility was constructed and tested near Wilsonville, Alabama. Although it was not the primary focus of the test program, SCS also measured the ability of selective agglomeration to remove trace elements from coal. This document describes the results of that program.

Not Available

1993-09-01

246

A novel multi-band SAR data technique for fully automatic oil spill detection in the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the launch of the Italian constellation of small satellites for the Mediterranean basin observation COSMO-SkyMed and the German TerraSAR-X missions, the delivery of very high-resolution SAR data to observe the Earth day or night has remarkably increased. In particular, also taking into account other ongoing missions such as Radarsat or those no longer working such as ALOS PALSAR, ERS-SAR and ENVISAT the amount of information, at different bands, available for users interested in oil spill analysis has become highly massive. Moreover, future SAR missions such as Sentinel-1 are scheduled for launch in the very next years while additional support can be provided by Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) SAR systems. Considering the opportunity represented by all these missions, the challenge is to find suitable and adequate image processing multi-band procedures able to fully exploit the huge amount of data available. In this paper we present a new fast, robust and effective automated approach for oil-spill monitoring starting from data collected at different bands, polarizations and spatial resolutions. A combination of Weibull Multiplicative Model (WMM), Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) techniques is proposed for achieving the aforementioned goals. One of the most innovative ideas is to separate the dark spot detection process into two main steps, WMM enhancement and PCNN segmentation. The complete processing chain has been applied to a data set containing C-band (ERS-SAR, ENVISAT ASAR), X-band images (Cosmo-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X) and L-band images (UAVSAR) for an overall number of more than 200 images considered.

Del Frate, Fabio; Latini, Daniele; Taravat, Alireza; Jones, Cathleen E.

2013-10-01

247

Combustion of metal agglomerates in a solid rocket core flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for access to space may require the use of solid propellants. High thrust and density are appealing features for different applications, spanning from boosting phase to other service applications (separation, de-orbiting, orbit insertion). Aluminum is widely used as a fuel in composite solid rocket motors because metal oxidation increases enthalpy release in combustion chamber and grants higher specific impulse. Combustion process of metal particles is complex and involves aggregation, agglomeration and evolution of reacting particulate inside the core flow of the rocket. It is always stated that residence time should be enough in order to grant complete metal oxidation but agglomerate initial size, rocket grain geometry, burning rate, and other factors have to be reconsidered. New space missions may not require large rocket systems and metal combustion efficiency becomes potentially a key issue to understand whether solid propulsion embodies a viable solution or liquid/hybrid systems are better. A simple model for metal combustion is set up in this paper. Metal particles are represented as single drops trailed by the core flow and reacted according to Beckstead's model. The fluid dynamics is inviscid, incompressible, 1D. The paper presents parametric computations on ideal single-size particles as well as on experimental agglomerate populations as a function of operating rocket conditions and geometries.

Maggi, Filippo; Dossi, Stefano; DeLuca, Luigi T.

2013-12-01

248

Agglomeration processes sustained by dust density waves in Ar/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} plasma: From C{sub 2}H{sub 2} injection to the formation of an organized structure  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, an experimental investigation of dust particle agglomeration in a capacitively coupled RF discharge is reported. Carbonaceous particles are produced in an argon plasma using acetylene. As soon as the particle density becomes sufficient, dust density waves (DDWs) are spontaneously excited within the cathode sheath. Recently, it was proven that DDWs can significantly enhance the agglomeration rate between particles by transferring them a significant kinetic energy. Thus, it helps them to overcome Coulomb repulsion. The influence of this mechanism is studied from acetylene injection to the formation of very large agglomerates forming an organized structure after a few dozens of seconds. For this purpose, three diagnostic tools are used: extinction measurements to probe nanometer-sized particles, fast imaging for large agglomerates and a dust extraction technique developed for ex-situ analysis.

Dap, Simon; Hugon, Robert; Poucques, Ludovic de; Briancon, Jean-Luc; Bougdira, Jamal [Universite de Lorraine-Institut Jean Lamour, Dpt CP2S UMR 7198 CNRS, Faculte des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Lacroix, David [Universite de Lorraine-LEMTA, UMR 7563 CNRS, Faculte des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

2013-03-15

249

Evaluation of optical and electronic properties of silicon nano-agglomerates embedded in SRO: applying density functional theory.  

PubMed

In systems in atomic scale and nanoscale such as clusters or agglomerates constituted by particles from a few to less than 100 atoms, quantum confinement effects are very important. Their optical and electronic properties are often dependent on the size of the systems and the way in which the atoms in these clusters are bonded. Generally, these nanostructures display optical and electronic properties significantly different to those found in corresponding bulk materials. Silicon agglomerates embedded in silicon rich oxide (SRO) films have optical properties, which have been reported to be directly dependent on silicon nanocrystal size. Furthermore, the room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of SRO has repeatedly generated a huge interest due to its possible applications in optoelectronic devices. However, a plausible emission mechanism has not been widely accepted in the scientific community. In this work, we present a short review about the experimental results on silicon nanoclusters in SRO considering different techniques of growth. We focus mainly on their size, Raman spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. With this as background, we employed the density functional theory with a functional B3LYP and a basis set 6-31G* to calculate the optical and electronic properties of clusters of silicon (constituted by 15 to 20 silicon atoms). With the theoretical calculation of the structural and optical properties of silicon clusters, it is possible to evaluate the contribution of silicon agglomerates in the luminescent emission mechanism, experimentally found in thin SRO films. PMID:25276105

Espinosa-Torres, Néstor D; la Luz, David Hernández-de; Flores-Gracia, José Francisco J; Luna-López, José A; Martínez-Juárez, Javier; Vázquez-Valerdi, Diana E

2014-01-01

250

Evaluation of optical and electronic properties of silicon nano-agglomerates embedded in SRO: applying density functional theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In systems in atomic scale and nanoscale such as clusters or agglomerates constituted by particles from a few to less than 100 atoms, quantum confinement effects are very important. Their optical and electronic properties are often dependent on the size of the systems and the way in which the atoms in these clusters are bonded. Generally, these nanostructures display optical and electronic properties significantly different to those found in corresponding bulk materials. Silicon agglomerates embedded in silicon rich oxide (SRO) films have optical properties, which have been reported to be directly dependent on silicon nanocrystal size. Furthermore, the room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of SRO has repeatedly generated a huge interest due to its possible applications in optoelectronic devices. However, a plausible emission mechanism has not been widely accepted in the scientific community. In this work, we present a short review about the experimental results on silicon nanoclusters in SRO considering different techniques of growth. We focus mainly on their size, Raman spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. With this as background, we employed the density functional theory with a functional B3LYP and a basis set 6-31G* to calculate the optical and electronic properties of clusters of silicon (constituted by 15 to 20 silicon atoms). With the theoretical calculation of the structural and optical properties of silicon clusters, it is possible to evaluate the contribution of silicon agglomerates in the luminescent emission mechanism, experimentally found in thin SRO films.

Espinosa-Torres, Néstor D.; la Luz, David Hernández-de; Flores-Gracia, José Francisco J.; Luna-López, José A.; Martínez-Juárez, Javier; Vázquez-Valerdi, Diana E.

2014-09-01

251

Evaluation of optical and electronic properties of silicon nano-agglomerates embedded in SRO: applying density functional theory  

PubMed Central

In systems in atomic scale and nanoscale such as clusters or agglomerates constituted by particles from a few to less than 100 atoms, quantum confinement effects are very important. Their optical and electronic properties are often dependent on the size of the systems and the way in which the atoms in these clusters are bonded. Generally, these nanostructures display optical and electronic properties significantly different to those found in corresponding bulk materials. Silicon agglomerates embedded in silicon rich oxide (SRO) films have optical properties, which have been reported to be directly dependent on silicon nanocrystal size. Furthermore, the room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of SRO has repeatedly generated a huge interest due to its possible applications in optoelectronic devices. However, a plausible emission mechanism has not been widely accepted in the scientific community. In this work, we present a short review about the experimental results on silicon nanoclusters in SRO considering different techniques of growth. We focus mainly on their size, Raman spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. With this as background, we employed the density functional theory with a functional B3LYP and a basis set 6-31G* to calculate the optical and electronic properties of clusters of silicon (constituted by 15 to 20 silicon atoms). With the theoretical calculation of the structural and optical properties of silicon clusters, it is possible to evaluate the contribution of silicon agglomerates in the luminescent emission mechanism, experimentally found in thin SRO films. PMID:25276105

2014-01-01

252

Oil Spills  

MedlinePLUS

... of response operations. In addition to spill response software and mapping tools , OR&R provides standard techniques ... communities for oil spills, OR&R develops several software and map tools for spill response and planning. ...

253

In Situ Formation and Evolution of Gas Hydrates in Water-in-Oil Emulsions Using Pressure Rheometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In oil and gas production and transportation a major concern is the formation of gas hydrates (crystalline gas-water inclusion compounds that are stable at high pressures and low temperatures). Gas hydrates have a tenacious ability to plug pipelines, and may lead to unscheduled shut downs. The successful operation of pipeline transport with gas hydrates particles will depend on the ability to control gas hydrate agglomerations and depositions. Gas hydrates can be thermodynamically inhibited but this is proving cost ineffective and environmentally unfriendly. For this reason the oil/gas industry is moving to hydrate management rather than traditional methods of thermodynamic inhibition. One intriguing possibility would be to convert the water in the pipelines to non-agglomerating gas hydrates and then flow the slurry. However, this cannot be reliably achieved until basic understanding of hydrate slurry rheology is gained. To develop this fundamental understanding, in situ pressurized gas hydrate formation and rheological measurements from a water-in-oil emulsion have been conducted. In this work, small amplitude oscillatory and steady shear techniques have been used to characterize the rheological properties of these systems. The results demonstrate that hydrate formation can be detected in steady shear and oscillatory measurements, where a large viscosity (and elastic modulus) increase coincides with hydrate formation. Since temperature and pressure affect the thermodynamic stability of hydrates these are particular key variables that need to be tuned for this system.

Rensing, P. J.; Liberatore, M. W.; Tonmukayakul, N.; Koh, C. A.; Sloan, E. D.

2008-07-01

254

Productivity and quality of volatile oil extracted from Mentha spicata and M. arvensis var. piperascens grown by a hydroponic system using the deep flow technique.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and Japanese mint (M. arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinv.) cultivated in either soil or nutrient solution using the deep flow technique (DFT). The differences were measured in terms of harvest period (full bloom period) and quantity and chemical components of volatile oils. The spearmint and Japanese mint were cultivated in four different nutrient formulas: plant standard nutrient, plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture, plant standard nutrient with a sulphur compound, and a combination of plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture and a sulphur compound. We observed that cultivation of spearmint and Japanese mint in nutrient solution using DFT is an effective method to provide high production of volatile oil, since it results in an earlier harvest period and higher quantity of volatile oil. We determined that for spearmint an amino acid mixture is an appropriate nutrient supplement to enhance production of volatile oil with optimum carvone content. Finally, we observed high menthol content in Japanese mint grown in all four nutrient formulas; however, supplementation with a combination of sulphur fertilisation and amino acid mixture yields the highest quantity of volatile oil. PMID:19763744

Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; Vannavanich, Danai; Keattikunpairoj, Sunisa; Chittasupho, Chuda

2010-01-01

255

The application of ESI maps with the GIS technique to coastal oil-spill cleanups in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile ecosystems and the harnessing of resources for human use are two major elements that have to coexist in coastal regions. The sensitivity of the coastal environment to oil spills and related cleanups depends on the presence of these resources, and can be assessed by the level of potential impact that would be caused by an oil spill. In this

Y.-C. Chen; L.-J. O'Yang

256

Numerical derivation of forces on particles and agglomerates in a resonant acoustic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles and agglomerates are investigated in gaseous acoustic flow fields. Acoustic fields exert forces on solid objects, which can influence the shape of the exposed bodies, even to the point of breakage of the structures. Motivated by experimentally observed breakage of agglomerates in an acoustic levitator (f = 20 kHz), a numerical study is presented that derives the acoustic forces on a complex model agglomerate from the pressure and velocity fields of a resonant standing ultrasound wave, calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It is distinguished between the drag and lift/lateral forces on the overall agglomerate and on the different primary particles of the model.

Knoop, Claas; Fritsching, Udo

2013-10-01

257

Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. First quarterly technical progress report, September 30, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to increase the oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin, Utah, by demonstration of improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field. Low productivity is attributed to gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Tertiary Green River and Wasatch Formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This phase will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project. Technical progress is described for: outcrop studies of the Green River Formation; subsurface studies of the Bluebell field; and engineering studies of the reservoirs in the Green River Formation and the Wasatch Formation.

Morgan, C.D.

1994-01-10

258

Investigations on a Novel Inductive Concept Frequency Technique for the Grading of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches  

PubMed Central

From the Malaysian harvester's perspective, the determination of the ripeness of the oil palm (FFB) is a critical factor to maximize palm oil production. A preliminary study of a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is presented. To optimize the functionality of the sensor, the frequency characteristics of air coils of various diameters are investigated to determine their inductance and resonant characteristics. Sixteen samples from two categories, namely ripe oil palm fruitlets and unripe oil palm fruitlets, are tested from 100 Hz up to 100 MHz frequency. The results showed the inductance and resonant characteristics of the air coil sensors display significant changes among the samples of each category. The investigations on the frequency characteristics of the sensor air coils are studied to observe the effect of variations in the coil diameter. The effect of coil diameter yields a significant 0.02643 MHz difference between unripe samples to air and 0.01084 MHz for ripe samples to air. The designed sensor exhibits significant potential in determining the maturity of oil palm fruits. PMID:23435051

Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Ahmad, Desa; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

2013-01-01

259

Transport, mixing and agglomeration of particles in turbulent flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes methods and approaches that have been used to simulate and model the transport, mixing and agglomeration of small particles in a flowing turbulent gas. The transported particles because of their inertia are assumed not to follow the motion of the large scales of the turbulence and or the motion of the small dissipating scales of the turbulence. We show how both these behaviours can be represented by a PDF approach analogous to that used in Classical Kinetic Theory. For large scale dispersion the focus is on transport in simple generic flows like statistically stationary homogeneous and isotropic turbulence and simple shear flows. Special consideration is given to the transport and deposition of particles in turbulent boundary layers. For small scale transport the focus is on how the the small scales of turbulence together with the particle inertial response enhances collision processes like particle agglomeration. In this case the importance of segregation and the formation of caustics, singularities and random uncorrelated motion is highlighted and discussed.

Reeks, Michael W.

2014-08-01

260

Combination Chemotherapeutic Dry Powder Aerosols via Controlled Nanoparticle Agglomeration  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop an aerosol system for efficient local lung delivery of chemotherapeutics where nanotechnology holds tremendous potential for developing more valuable cancer therapies. Concurrently, aerosolized chemotherapy is generating interest as a means to treat certain types of lung cancer more effectively with less systemic exposure to the compound. Methods Nanoparticles of the potent anticancer drug, paclitaxel, were controllably assembled to form low density microparticles directly after preparation of the nanoparticle suspension. The amino acid, L-leucine, was used as a colloid destabilizer to drive the assembly of paclitaxel nanoparticles. A combination chemotherapy aerosol was formed by assembling the paclitaxel nanoparticles in the presence of cisplatin in solution. Results Freeze-dried powders of the combination chemotherapy possessed desirable aerodynamic properties for inhalation. In addition, the dissolution rates of dried nanoparticle agglomerate formulations (~60% to 66% after 8 h) were significantly faster than that of micronized paclitaxel powder as received (~18% after 8 h). Interestingly, the presence of the water soluble cisplatin accelerated the dissolution of paclitaxel. Conclusions Nanoparticle agglomerates of paclitaxel alone or in combination with cisplatin may serve as effective chemotherapeutic dry powder aerosols to enable regional treatment of certain lung cancers. PMID:19415471

El-Gendy, Nashwa; Berkland, Cory

2014-01-01

261

Influence of the pan pelletizer rotational velocity and the particles size on the agglomeration of alumina oxide granules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High fraction of agglomerates and better agglomerate strength are main purpose for every agglomeration process. For optimizing the agglomeration process of industrial produced granules, using liquid binders, it is necessary to understand the microinteractions between primary particles and binder and the marcointeractions between the agglomerates themselves. In order to investigate the influence of the rotational velocity of the pan pelletizer and the primary particle size on the fraction of agglomerates and the mechanical properties of the produced agglomerates, the obtained structures have to be basically analyzed. Agglomeration of industrial produced Alumina Oxide (?-Al2O3) granules is carried out in a rotating pan pelletizer. A 6 mass-% solution of viscoelastic polymer - hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is used as binder. The rotational velocity of the pelletizer pan is previously measured and calibrated. By changing the rotational velocity of the process chamber it was found that there are critical speed limits for the pan. The minimum critical velocity of the pelletizer plate does not provide enough contact collisions between the particles and the necessary kinetic level for agglomeration cannot be reached. The maximum critical velocity leads to higher rotational kinetic energy and this causes breakages of the agglomerates. It was also proven that the breakage strength of the agglomerates decreases with the reduction of the agglomerate size. The conclusions from the experimental work help us to understand the basics of agglomeration process and tend to develop and facilitate the operating with particle collectives in science and industry.

Radeva, Zheni; Müller, Peter; Tomas, Juergen

2013-06-01

262

Economic Growth of Agglomerations and Geographic Concentration of Industries: Evidence for West Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geppert K., Gornig M. and Werwatz A. (2008) Economic growth of agglomerations and geographic concentration of industries: evidence for West Germany, Regional Studies. During the two decades between 1980 and 2000, there was no clear overall trend of economic convergence or divergence among West German regions. However, a number of regions that were already rich - generally large agglomerations - had succeeded in further

Kurt Geppert; Martin Gornig; Axel Werwatz

2007-01-01

263

Location Matters: Where We Have Been and Where We Might Go in Agglomeration Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agglomeration research investigates the geographic concentration of economic activity. The authors explicate the various explanations for this phenomenon while focusing on a particular class of agglomerations—the spatial concentrations of related firms. The authors review theoretical explanations and empirical evidence around the performance implications of clustering in proximity to related firms. Moreover, they motivate future research by identifying challenges facing researchers

Brian T. McCann; Timothy B. Folta

2008-01-01

264

Author's personal copy New surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration in hydrocarbon flowlines  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy New surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration in hydrocarbon flowlines Available online 10 April 2013 Keywords: Gas hydrates Hydrate anti-agglomeration Surfactants Surface such applications. We present experimental results of a new surfactant in rocking cell tests, which show high

Firoozabadi, Abbas

265

A MODEL FOR FINE PARTICLE AGGLOMERATION IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED ABSORBERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A model for fine particle agglomeration in circulating fluidized bed absorbers (CFBAS) has been developed. It can model the influence of different factors on agglomeration, such as the geometry of CFBAs, superficial gas velocity, initial particle size distribution, and type of ag...

266

Agglomeration and Trade with Input–Output Linkages and Capital Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a nesting ‘New Trade, New Economic Geography’ model in which agglomeration is driven by input–output linkages among firms, trade in goods and capital mobility. The New Economic Geography sub-model exhibits the same positive and dynamic properties as a wide class of models based on other agglomeration mechanisms. Its normative implications are nuanced: equity and efficiency do not

Frédéric Robert-Nicoud

2006-01-01

267

Propellant Formulation Factors and Metal Agglomeration in Combustion of Aluminized Solid Rocket Propellant  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of aluminized solid rocket propellant combustion was conducted in order to determine the influence of various propellant formulation factors on metal agglomeration. The results allowed us to determine the dependencies of the agglomeration process characteristics on the physical and mechanical properties of the propellant binder, the particle size of the metal fuel, the type of film covering

V. A. BABUK; V. A. VASSILIEV; V. V. SVIRIDOV

2001-01-01

268

Influence of primary-particle density in the morphology of agglomerates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agglomeration processes occur in many different realms of science, such as colloid and aerosol formation or formation of bacterial colonies. We study the influence of primary-particle density in agglomerate structures using diffusion-controlled Monte Carlo simulations with realistic space scales through different regimes (diffusion-limited aggregation and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation). The equivalence of Monte Carlo time steps to real time scales is given by Hirsch's hydrodynamical theory of Brownian motion. Agglomerate behavior at different time stages of the simulations suggests that three indices (the fractal exponent, the coordination number, and the eccentricity index) characterize agglomerate geometry. Using these indices, we have found that the initial density of primary particles greatly influences the final structure of the agglomerate, as observed in recent experimental works.

Camejo, M. D.; Espeso, D. R.; Bonilla, L. L.

2014-07-01

269

Analysis of river pollution data from low-flow period by means of multivariate techniques: a case study from the oil-shale industry region, northeastern Estonia.  

PubMed

The oil-shale industry has created serious pollution problems in northeastern Estonia. Untreated, phenol-rich leachate from semi-coke mounds formed as a by-product of oil-shale processing is discharged into the Baltic Sea via channels and rivers. An exploratory analysis of water chemical and microbiological data sets from the low-flow period was carried out using different multivariate analysis techniques. Principal component analysis allowed us to distinguish different locations in the river system. The riverine microbial community response to water chemical parameters was assessed by co-inertia analysis. Water pH, COD and total nitrogen were negatively related to the number of biodegradative bacteria, while oxygen concentration promoted the abundance of these bacteria. The results demonstrate the utility of multivariate statistical techniques as tools for estimating the magnitude and extent of pollution based on river water chemical and microbiological parameters. An evaluation of river chemical and microbiological data suggests that the ambient natural attenuation mechanisms only partly eliminate pollutants from river water, and that a sufficient reduction of more recalcitrant compounds could be achieved through the reduction of wastewater discharge from the oil-shale chemical industry into the rivers. PMID:12638742

Truu, Jaak; Heinaru, Eeva; Talpsep, Ene; Heinaru, Ain

2002-01-01

270

Derivatization technique to increase the spectral selectivity of two-dimensional Fourier transform infrared focal plane array imaging: analysis of binder composition in aged oil and tempera paint.  

PubMed

The interpretation of standard Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) on oil-based paint samples often suffers from interfering bands of the different compounds, namely, binder, oxidative aging products, carboxylates formed during aging, and several pigments and fillers. The distinction of the aging products such as ketone and carboxylic acid functional groups pose the next problem, as these interfere with the triglyceride esters of the oil. A sample preparation and derivatization technique using gaseous sulfur tetrafluoride (SF4), was thus developed with the aim to discriminate overlapping signals and achieve a signal enhancement on superposed compounds. Of particular interest in this context is the signal elimination of the broad carboxylate bands of the typical reaction products developing during the aging processes in oil-based paints, as well as signal interference originating from several typical pigments in this spectral range. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish the different carbonyl-containing functional groups upon selective alteration. The derivatization treatment can be applied to both microsamples and polished cross sections. It increases the selectivity of the infrared spectroscopy technique in a fundamental manner and permits the identification and two-dimensional (2D) localization of binder components in aged paint samples at the micrometer scale. The combination of SF4 derivatization with high-resolution 2D FT-IR focal plane array (FPA) imaging delivers considerable advances to the study of micro-morphological processes involving organic compounds. PMID:24694702

Zumbühl, Stefan; Scherrer, Nadim C; Eggenberger, Urs

2014-01-01

271

Dielectric measurements of gas hydrate formation in water-in-oil emulsions using open-ended coaxial probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of gas hydrates in multiphase flow from oil-producing wells can cause severe problems such as agglomeration and clogging of pipelines. The formation of gas hydrates in emulsions gives rise to a change in the bulk permittivity, and hence dielectric spectroscopy is a potential technique for the detection of gas hydrates in emulsified systems. This paper presents a time domain system for permittivity measurements of emulsions. The permittivity was calculated by using a simple admittance model from reflection measurements from 10 MHz to 10 GHz with two different open-ended coaxial probes. Measurements on liquids with known permittivity were used to verify the sensitivity and reproducibility of the measurements. The formation of gas hydrates in a 60% water-in-oil emulsion was also monitored with the dielectric measurement system. During the formation of gas hydrates decreases in the relaxation time and the static and high-frequency permittivities were observed.

Jakobsen, Thorvald; Folgerø, Kjetil

1997-09-01

272

Identification of micro parameters for discrete element simulation of agglomerates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical behaviour of solid particles like agglomerates, granules or crystals strongly depends on their micro structure, e.g. structural defects and porosity. In order to model the mechanical behaviour of these inhomogeneous media the discrete element method has been proven to be an appropriate tool. The model parameters used are typically micro parameters like bond stiffness, particle-particle contact stiffness, strength of the bonds. Due to the lack of general methods for a direct micro parameter determination, normally laborious parameter adaptation has to be done in order to fit experiment and simulation. In this contribution a systematic and automatic way for parameter adaptation using real experiments is proposed. Due to the fact, that discrete element models are typically systems of differential equations of very high order, gradient based methods are not suitable. Hence, the focus will be on derivative free methods.

Palis, Stefan; Antonyuk, Sergiy; Dosta, Maksym; Heinrich, Stefan

2013-06-01

273

Crude Oil Price Forecasting Based on Hybridizing Wavelet Multiple Linear Regression Model, Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques, and Principal Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR) is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series. PMID:24895666

Shabri, Ani; Samsudin, Ruhaidah

2014-01-01

274

Crude oil price forecasting based on hybridizing wavelet multiple linear regression model, particle swarm optimization techniques, and principal component analysis.  

PubMed

Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR) is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series. PMID:24895666

Shabri, Ani; Samsudin, Ruhaidah

2014-01-01

275

Investigation of the influence of humidity on the ultrasonic agglomeration of submicron particles in diesel exhausts.  

PubMed

Removing very fine particles in the 0.01-1 micro m range generated in diesel combustion is important for air pollution abatement because of the impact such particles have on the environment. By forming larger particles, acoustic agglomeration of submicron particles is presented as a promising process for enhancing the efficiency of the current filtration systems for particle removal. Nevertheless, some authors have pointed out that acoustic agglomeration is much more efficient for larger particles than for smaller particles. This paper studies the effect of humidity on the acoustic agglomeration of diesel exhausts particles in the nanometer size range at 21 kHz. For the agglomeration tests, the experimental facility basically consists of a pilot scale plant with a diesel engine, an ultrasonic agglomeration chamber a dilution system, a nozzle atomizer, and an aerosol sampling and measuring station. The effect of the ultrasonic treatment, generated by a linear array of four high-power stepped-plate transducers on fumes at flow rates of 900 Nm(3)/h, was a small reduction in the number concentration of particles at the outlet of the chamber. However, the presence of humidity raised the agglomeration rate by decreasing the number particle concentration by up to 56%. A numerical study of the agglomeration process as a linear combination of the orthokinetic and hydrodynamic agglomeration coefficients resulting from mutual radiation pressure also found that acoustic agglomeration was enhanced by humidity. Both results confirm the benefit of using high-power ultrasound together with humidity to enhance the agglomeration of particles much smaller than 1 micro m. PMID:12782259

Riera-Franco de Sarabia, E; Elvira-Segura, L; González-Gómez, I; Rodríguez-Maroto, J J; Muñoz-Bueno, R; Dorronsoro-Areal, J L

2003-06-01

276

Which Microbial Communities Are Present? Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation (FISH): Microscopic Techniques for Enumeration of Troublesome Microorganisms in Oil and Fuel Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enumeration of microbes involved in souring of oil fields and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) with culture-based methods, usually yield inadequate and contradictory results. Any cultivation step will almost certainly alter the population structure of the sample and thus the results of cultivation analysis are not a good basis for mitigation decisions. The need for methods that are cultivation independent has over the past 10 years facilitated the development of several analytical methods for determination of bacterial identity, quantity, and to some extent function, applied directly to samples of the native population. In this chapter, we demonstrate the features and benefits of applying microscopic techniques to a situation often encountered in the oil and petroleum industry: Control of microbial growth in fuel storage tanks. The methods described in this chapter will focus on direct counts of specific groups of microorganisms with microscopy and these are based on the detection of genetic material and not on culturing.

Holmkvist, Lars; Østergaard, Jette Johanne; Skovhus, Torben Lund

277

Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Class II  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

Chidsey, Thomas C.

2000-07-28

278

Ultrasonic cavitation induced water in vegetable oil emulsion droplets--a simple and easy technique to synthesize manganese zinc ferrite nanocrystals with improved magnetization.  

PubMed

In the present investigation, synthesis of manganese zinc ferrite (Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4)) nanoparticles with narrow size distribution have been prepared using ultrasound assisted emulsion (consisting of rapeseed oil as an oil phase and aqueous solution of Mn(2+), Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) acetates) and evaporation processes. The as-prepared ferrite was nanocrystalline. In order to remove the small amount of oil present on the surface of the ferrite, it was subjected to heat treatment at 300 °C for 3h. Both the as-prepared and heat treated ferrites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), TGA/DTA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. As-prepared ferrite is of 20 nm, whereas the heat treated ferrite shows the size of 33 nm. In addition, magnetic properties of the as-prepared as well as the heat treated ferrites have also been carried out and the results of which show that the spontaneous magnetization (?(s)) of the heat treated sample (24.1 emu/g) is significantly higher than that of the as-synthesized sample (1.81 emu/g). The key features of this method are avoiding (a) the cumbersome conditions that exist in the conventional methods; (b) usage of necessary additive components (stabilizers or surfactants, precipitants) and (c) calcination requirements. In addition, rapeseed oil as an oil phase has been used for the first time, replacing the toxic and troublesome organic nonpolar solvents. As a whole, this simple straightforward sonochemical approach results in more phase pure system with improved magnetization. PMID:22113061

Sivakumar, Manickam; Towata, Atsuya; Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Iida, Yasuo; Maiorov, Michail M; Blums, Elmars; Bhattacharya, Dipten; Sivakumar, Neelagesi; Ashok, M

2012-05-01

279

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, agglomerates which formed in the FBC at Montana-Dakota Utilities (Heskett Station Unit 2 located in Bismarck, ND) were analyzed by x-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) for mineral determination; bulk chemical composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy; and polished sections were made for optical and scanning electron microscopy. Polarized-light microscopy was performed using a Zeiss research microscope. Individual mineral grains were analyzed using an ARL electron microprobe and a JOEL 840 scanning electron microscope. The agglomerate was found in the mechanical dust collector and was about ten centimeters in diameter with a dark-colored core and a greenish rim. The sample had voids up to ten millimeters in size; however, the agglomerate was hard to break apart. Bulk compositionally, the agglomerate consists primarily of calcium, silica, and alumina with relatively high abundances of iron (8 to 9 wt %), magnesium (5 to 9 wt %) and sodium (3 to 4 wt %). It is likely that the ``root`` cause of this agglomerate originated in the dense phase of the FBC bed. Because fluidized bed combustors work below the ash fusion temperature of coal ash, aluminosilicates (clays) in the ash probably became ``sticky`` due to fluxing reactions with pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) and perhaps alkalies (Na). This is indicated by the high amounts of iron, silica, and alumina in the agglomerate. Because of the size of the deposit, the bed particles probably agglomerated in the dust collector.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

1994-01-01

280

Evaluation of physico-mechanical properties of drug-excipients agglomerates obtained by crystallization.  

PubMed

Spherical crystallization (SC) of carbamazepine (CBZ) was carried out for preparation of the agglomerates using the solvent change method. The potential of the intraagglomerate addition of sodium starch glycolate (SSG) as a disintegrant agent and povidone (PVP) as a hydrophilic polymer was also evaluated. The process of SC involved recrystallization of CBZ and its simultaneous agglomeration with additives. An ethanol:isopropyl acetate:water system was used where isopropyl acetate acted as a bridging liquid and ethanol and water as good and bad solvents, respectively. The agglomerates were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD), and Scanning electron microscopy and were evaluated for yield, flowability, disintegration time and drug release. CBZ agglomerates exhibited significantly improved micromeritic properties as well as dissolution behavior in comparison to conventional drug crystals. The dissolution rate of drug from agglomerates was enhanced by inclusion of SSG, while addition of PVP to CBZ/SSG agglomerates led to reduction in the release rate of CBZ even below that of the conventional drug crystals. SC process can be considered as a suitable alternative to conventional granulation process to obtain agglomerates of CBZ with excipients with improved micromeritic properties and modified dissolution rate. PMID:20175665

Maghsoodi, M; Tajalli Bakhsh, A S

2011-06-01

281

Nanoparticle agglomeration in an evaporating levitated droplet for different acoustic amplitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiatively heated levitated functional droplets with nanosilica suspensions exhibit three distinct stages namely pure evaporation, agglomeration, and finally structure formation. The temporal history of the droplet surface temperature shows two inflection points. One inflection point corresponds to a local maximum and demarcates the end of transient heating of the droplet and domination of vaporization. The second inflection point is a local minimum and indicates slowing down of the evaporation rate due to surface accumulation of nanoparticles. Morphology and final precipitation structures of levitated droplets are due to competing mechanisms of particle agglomeration, evaporation, and shape deformation. In this work, we provide a detailed analysis for each process and propose two important timescales for evaporation and agglomeration that determine the final diameter of the structure formed. It is seen that both agglomeration and evaporation timescales are similar functions of acoustic amplitude (sound pressure level), droplet size, viscosity, and density. However, we show that while the agglomeration timescale decreases with initial particle concentration, the evaporation timescale shows the opposite trend. The final normalized diameter can be shown to be dependent solely on the ratio of agglomeration to evaporation timescales for all concentrations and acoustic amplitudes. The structures also exhibit various aspect ratios (bowls, rings, spheroids) which depend on the ratio of the deformation timescale (tdef) and the agglomeration timescale (tg). For tdef

Tijerino, Erick; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan

2013-01-01

282

Modifying drug release and tablet properties of starch acetate tablets by dry powder agglomeration.  

PubMed

In this study three model drugs (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG), anhydrous caffeine, and propranolol hydrochloride) were agglomerated with starch acetate (SA) by mixing the binary powders on a stainless steel (SS) plate. Agglomeration was induced by triboelectrification of the particles during mixing, and it was evaluated as a method to achieve controlled drug release rate. These agglomerates, mixed with different amounts of a disintegrant, were compressed into tablets whose dissolution characteristics were determined. Triboelectric measurements showed that when the drugs were in contact with SS, charges of the opposite polarity were generated to SA (+) and caffeine and NAG (-) promoting adhesion. Instead, propranolol HCl was charged with the same polarity as SA. SEM micrographs showed that smaller caffeine particles, in spite of their larger negative charge, agglomerated less efficiently with SA than larger NAG particles. This emphasizes the importance of particle size in the agglomeration process. Propranolol HCl did not form agglomerates with SA since their particle sizes and charges were identical. As a result, agglomeration of powders prior to tablet compression allows for modification and control of the release rate of the drugs from the SA matrix tablets as well as the tensile strength of the tablets. PMID:17075868

Mäki, Riikka; Suihko, Eero; Rost, Susanne; Heiskanen, Minna; Murtomaa, Matti; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko

2007-02-01

283

INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH  

SciTech Connect

The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which exhibits a characteristic set of reservoir properties obtained from outcrop analogs, cores, and geophysical logs. The Anasazi and Runway fields were selected for geostatistical modeling and reservoir compositional simulations. Models and simulations incorporated variations in carbonate lithotypes, porosity, and permeability to accurately predict reservoir responses. History matches tied previous production and reservoir pressure histories so that future reservoir performances could be confidently predicted. The simulation studies showed that despite most of the production being from the mound-core intervals, there were no corresponding decreases in the oil in place in these intervals. This behavior indicates gravity drainage of oil from the supra-mound intervals into the lower mound-core intervals from which the producing wells' major share of production arises. The key to increasing ultimate recovery from these fields (and similar fields in the basin) is to design either waterflood or CO{sub 2}-miscible flood projects capable of forcing oil from high-storage-capacity but low-recovery supra-mound units into the high-recovery mound-core units. Simulation of Anasazi field shows that a CO{sub 2} flood is technically superior to a waterflood and economically feasible. For Anasazi field, an optimized CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total 4.21 million barrels (0.67 million m3) of oil representing in excess of 89 percent of the original oil in place. For Runway field, the best CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total of 2.4 million barrels (0.38 million m3) of oil representing 71 percent of the original oil in place. If the CO{sub 2} flood performed as predicted, it is a financially robust process for increasing the reserves in the many small fields in the Paradox Basin. The results can be applied to other fields in the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent.

Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

2002-11-01

284

Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing  

SciTech Connect

Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,`` there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

Not Available

1991-09-01

285

Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing  

SciTech Connect

Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,'' there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

Not Available

1991-09-01

286

Agglomeration of Ni-nanoparticles in the gas phase under gravity and microgravity conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agglomeration of metallic nanoparticles can be performed using the well-known inert gas condensation process. Unfortunately, thermal effects such as convection are created by the heating source and as a result the turbulent aerosol avoids ideal conditions. In addition, the sedimentation of large particles and/or agglomerates influences the self-assembly of particles. These negative effects can be eliminated by using microgravity conditions. Here we present the results of the agglomeration of nanoscale Ni-particles under gravity and microgravity conditions, the latter provided by adapted microgravity platforms namely the European sounding rocket MAXUS 8 and the European Parabolic Flight aircraft, Airbus A300 Zero-G.

Lösch, S.; Iles, G. N.; Schmitz, B.; Günther, B. H.

2011-12-01

287

Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles  

DOEpatents

A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-07-05

288

Heliophrya sp. , a new protozoan biomonitor of pollution: culture techniques, toxin uptake and elimination, and field studies in an oil-polluted stream  

SciTech Connect

The stalkless suctorian Heliophyra sp., a sessile ciliated protozoan, was used as a pollution biomonitor. The research objectives were to determine: (1) optimal culture conditions and techniques for biotoxicity testing; (2) ability of Helipophrya to incorporate and eliminate a /sup 14/C oil component and other organic toxins; (3) suitability of Heliophrya as a biomonitor of oil pollution. Selection of culture conditions for Heliophrya were based on survival over a three week period and ability to divide when fed after three weeks. The LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% of the population) for 96 h was 12.4 ppt salinity. Heliophrya were exposed to /sup 14/C toxins for 48 h, then organisms were transferred to nonradioactive water for 96 h. The uptake rate of /sup 14/C octachlorostyrene was higher than /sup 14/C phenanthrene or /sup 14/C diisononyl phthalate. Elimination rates were comparable to other test organisms. Heliophrya and d. pulex were placed at three stations, in a stream which received chronic oil pollution, for periods of 48 h and seven days. A 48 h lab test with dilutions of field water was performed. Water samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Death of Heliophrya at the three polluted stations over 48 h was not significantly greater than at a less polluted tributary; however, all the Daphnia in the polluted stream stations were killed. In the seven day field study, Heliophrya had an estimated LC50 of 1 ppm for the aromatic and 29 ppm for the total hydrocarbons. Compared to other species, Heliophrya is moderately sensitive to oil pollution, and is a good companion biomonitor to the more sensitive Daphnia.

Sayre, P.G.

1984-01-01

289

Synthesis of crystalline and amorphous, particle-agglomerated 3-D nanostructures of Al and Si oxides by femtosecond laser and the prediction of these particle sizes.  

PubMed

We report a single step technique of synthesizing particle-agglomerated, amorphous 3-D nanostructures of Al and Si oxides on powder-fused aluminosilicate ceramic plates and a simple novel method of wafer-foil ablation to fabricate crystalline nanostructures of Al and Si oxides at ambient conditions. We also propose a particle size prediction mechanism to regulate the size of vapor-condensed agglomerated nanoparticles in these structures. Size characterization studies performed on the agglomerated nanoparticles of fabricated 3-D structures showed that the size distributions vary with the fluence-to-threshold ratio. The variation in laser parameters leads to varying plume temperature, pressure, amount of supersaturation, nucleation rate, and the growth rate of particles in the plume. The novel wafer-foil ablation technique could promote the possibilities of fabricating oxide nanostructures with varying Al/Si ratio, and the crystallinity of these structures enhances possible applications. The fabricated nanostructures of Al and Si oxides could have great potentials to be used in the fabrication of low power-consuming complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits and in Mn catalysts to enhance the efficiency of oxidation on ethylbenzene to acetophenone in the super-critical carbon dioxide. PMID:23140103

Sivayoganathan, Mugunthan; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

2012-01-01

290

Synthesis of crystalline and amorphous, particle-agglomerated 3-D nanostructures of Al and Si oxides by femtosecond laser and the prediction of these particle sizes  

PubMed Central

We report a single step technique of synthesizing particle-agglomerated, amorphous 3-D nanostructures of Al and Si oxides on powder-fused aluminosilicate ceramic plates and a simple novel method of wafer-foil ablation to fabricate crystalline nanostructures of Al and Si oxides at ambient conditions. We also propose a particle size prediction mechanism to regulate the size of vapor-condensed agglomerated nanoparticles in these structures. Size characterization studies performed on the agglomerated nanoparticles of fabricated 3-D structures showed that the size distributions vary with the fluence-to-threshold ratio. The variation in laser parameters leads to varying plume temperature, pressure, amount of supersaturation, nucleation rate, and the growth rate of particles in the plume. The novel wafer-foil ablation technique could promote the possibilities of fabricating oxide nanostructures with varying Al/Si ratio, and the crystallinity of these structures enhances possible applications. The fabricated nanostructures of Al and Si oxides could have great potentials to be used in the fabrication of low power-consuming complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits and in Mn catalysts to enhance the efficiency of oxidation on ethylbenzene to acetophenone in the super-critical carbon dioxide. PMID:23140103

2012-01-01

291

Reducing adhesion and agglomeration within a cloud of combustible particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of combustible particle clouds inside flame tubes is of fundamental scientific interest as well as a practical concern. Only the suspended concentration is important to the combustion process, so that assurances must be provided that a minimum of particles adheres to the tube wall. This paper demonstrates experimentally the ability to minimize adhesion and agglomeration of acoustically-mixed lycopodium particles within a 5-cm diameter lexan flame tube. The area density of particles (ADP) adhering to the wall of bare lexan tubes was measured at greater than 100 particles/sq mm. The nature of adhesion was found to be clearly electrostatic, with the ADP level aggravated by increased mixing time, vigor, and the concentration of particles. Increases in the conductivity of the air and the tube wall did not affect ADP levels substantially. However, the observed adhesion was reduced to less than 10 p/sq mm when the air was ionized by use of an alpha emitter mounted on the inner walls of the flame tube.

Ross, Howard D.

1988-01-01

292

Reducing adhesion and agglomeration within a cloud of combustible particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of combustible particle clouds inside flame tubes is of fundamental scientific interest as well as a practical concern. Only the suspended concentration is important to the combustion process, so that assurances must be provided that a minimum of particles adheres to the tube wall. This paper demonstrates experimentally the ability to minimize adhesion and agglomeration of acoustically-mixed lycopodium particles within a 5-cm diameter lexan flame tube. The area density of particles (ADP) adhering to the wall of bare lexan tubes was measured at greater than 100 particles/sq mm. The nature of adhesion was found to be clearly electrostatic, with the ADP level aggravated by increased mixing time, vigor, and the concentration of particles. Increases in the conductivity of the air and the tube wall did not affect ADP levels substantially. However, the observed adhesion was reduced to less than 10 p/sq mm when the air was ionized by use of an alpha emitter mounted on the inner walls of the flame tube.

Ross, Howard D.

1988-07-01

293

Magnetoviscosity and thread-like agglomerations in ferrofluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on experiments and simulations performed on small non-magnetic glass balls falling under gravity through a magnetized ferrofluid. The applied magnetic field is oriented horizontally, normal to the fall, and is uniform but its magnitude can be adjusted over a wide range. Using the Advanced Photon Source x-ray beamline at Argonne, we were able to achieve sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to track the dynamics of these 500 ?m diameter spheres simultaneously with an array of magnetic particle macro-chains -- thread-like agglomerations each several mm long and 2-10 ?m thick. The enhanced drag induced by the macro-chains is enormous: up to four times larger than for unmagnetized fluid, a value greater than is predicted by the prevailing magneto-viscosity model. We provide direct visualization of a possible mechanism by which macro-chains impede the transverse motion of spheres. Numerical simulations can reproduce the observed drag, without modeling it physically, by implementing a simple magnetization dependent anisotropic viscosity.

Yecko, Philip; Cali, A.; Lee, W.-K.; Nunez, S.; Prescod, J.; Smith, R.; Trubatch, A. D.; Vieira, M.

2011-11-01

294

Constraints on chondrule agglomeration from fine-grained chondrule rims  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fine-grained rims around chondrules, Ca,Al-rich inclusions, and other coarse-grained components occur in most types of unequilibrated chondrites, most prominently in carbonaceous chondrites of the CM group. Based on mineralogical and petrographic investigations, it was suggested that rim structures in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites could have formed in the solar nebula by accretion of dust on the surfaces of the chondrules. Dust mantles in CM chondrites seem to have formed by accretion of dust on the surfaces of chondrules and other components during their passage through dust-rich regions in the solar nebula. Concentric mantles with compositionally different layers prove the existence of various distinct dust reservoirs in the vicinity of the accreting parent body. Despite mineralogical and chemical differences, fine-grained rims from other chondrite groups principally show striking similarities to dust mantle textures in CM chondrite. This implies that the formation of dust mantles was a cosmically significant event like the chondrule formation itself. Dust mantles seem to have formed chronologically between chondrule-producing transient heating events and the agglomeration of chondritic parent bodies. For this reason the investigation of dust mantle structures may help to answer the question of how a dusty solar nebula was transformed into a planetary system.

Metzler, K.; Bischoff, A.

1994-01-01

295

The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates. V. Multiple Impacts of Dusty Agglomerates at Velocities Above the Fragmentation Threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, a number of new experiments have advanced our knowledge on the early growth phases of protoplanetary dust aggregates. Some of these experiments have shown that collisions between porous and compacted agglomerates at velocities above the fragmentation threshold velocity can lead to growth of the compact body, when the porous collision partner fragments upon impact and transfers mass to the compact agglomerate. To obtain a deeper understanding of this potentially important growth process, we performed laboratory and drop tower experiments to study multiple impacts of small, highly porous dust-aggregate projectiles onto sintered dust targets. The projectile and target consisted of 1.5 ?m monodisperse, spherical SiO2 monomers with volume filling factors of 0.15 ± 0.01 and 0.45 ± 0.05, respectively. The fragile projectiles were accelerated by a solenoid magnet and combined with a projectile magazine with which 25 impacts onto the same spot on the target could be performed in vacuum. We measured the mass-accretion efficiency and the volume filling factor for different impact velocities between 1.5 and 6.0 m s^{-1}. The experiments at the lowest impact speeds were performed in the Bremen drop tower under microgravity conditions to allow partial mass transfer also for the lowest adhesion case. Within this velocity range, we found a linear increase of the accretion efficiency with increasing velocity. In the laboratory experiments, the accretion efficiency increases from 0.12 to 0.21 in units of the projectile mass. The recorded images of the impacts showed that the mass transfer from the projectile to the target leads to the growth of a conical structure on the target after less than 100 impacts. From the images, we also measured the volume filling factors of the grown structures, which ranged from 0.15 (uncompacted) to 0.40 (significantly compacted) with increasing impact speed. The velocity dependency of the mass-transfer efficiency and the packing density of the resulting aggregates augment our knowledge of the aggregate growth in protoplanetary disks and should be taken into account for future models of protoplanetary dust growth.

Kothe, Stefan; Güttler, Carsten; Blum, Jürgen

2010-12-01

296

The surface properties of nanoparticles determine the agglomeration state and the size of the particles under physiological conditions  

PubMed Central

Summary Due to the recent widespread application of nanomaterials to biological systems, a careful consideration of their physiological impact is required. This demands an understanding of the complex processes at the bio–nano interface. Therefore, a comprehensive and accurate characterization of the material under physiological conditions is crucial to correlate the observed biological impact with defined colloidal properties. As promising candidates for biomedical applications, two SiO2-based nanomaterial systems were chosen for extensive size characterization to investigate the agglomeration behavior under physiological conditions. To combine the benefits of different characterization techniques and to compensate for their respective drawbacks, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation were applied. The investigated particle systems were (i) negatively charged silica particles and (ii) poly(organosiloxane) particles offering variable surface modification opportunities (positively charged, polymer coated). It is shown that the surface properties primarily determine the agglomeration state of the particles and therefore their effective size, especially under physiological conditions. Thus, the biological identity of a nanomaterial is clearly influenced by differentiating surface properties. PMID:25383289

Galla, Hans-Joachim; Kirkpatrick, C James; Stauber, Roland H

2014-01-01

297

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

1993-02-01

298

Productivity growth and pecuniary knowledge externalities: An empirical analysis of agglomeration economies in  

E-print Network

1 Productivity growth and pecuniary knowledge externalities: An empirical analysis of agglomeration activities on regional productivity growth, applying the notion of pecuniary knowledge externalities on knowledge externalities, and their impact on regional growth. Our analysis leads to specify the hypothesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Role of Solvents in Improvement of Dissolution Rate of Drugs: Crystal Habit and Crystal Agglomeration  

PubMed Central

Crystallization is often used for manufacturing drug substances. Advances of crystallization have achieved control over drug identity and purity, but control over the physical form remains poor. This review discusses the influence of solvents used in crystallization process on crystal habit and agglomeration of crystals with potential implication for dissolution. According to literature it has been known that habit modification of crystals by use of proper solvents may enhance the dissolution properties by changing the size, number and the nature of crystal faces exposed to the dissolution medium. Also, the faster dissolution rate of drug from the agglomerates of crystals compared with the single crystals may be related to porous structure of the agglomerates and consequently their better wettability. It is concluded from this review that in-depth understanding of role of the solvents in crystallization process can be applied to engineering of crystal habit or crystal agglomeration, and predictably dissolution improvement in poorly soluble drugs. PMID:25789214

Maghsoodi, Maryam

2015-01-01

300

Dynamic forces on agglomerated particles caused by high-intensity ultrasound.  

PubMed

In this paper the acoustic forces on particles and agglomerates caused by high-intensity ultrasound in gaseous atmosphere are derived by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Sound induced forces cause an oscillating stress scenario where the primary particles of an agglomerate are alternatingly pressed together and torn apart with the frequency of the applied wave. A comparison of the calculated acoustic forces with respect to the inter particle adhesion forces from Van-der-Waals and liquid bridge interactions reveals that the separation forces may reach the same order of magnitude for 80 ?m sized SiO2-particles. Hence, with finite probability acoustically agitated gases may de-agglomerate/disperse solid agglomerate structures. This effect is confirmed by dispersion experiments in an acoustic particle levitation setup. PMID:24152872

Knoop, Claas; Fritsching, Udo

2014-03-01

301

OIL SLICK DISPERSAL MECHANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigates the spreading and dissolution behavior of small oil slicks formed from spills of 12 oils. The increases in area covered by the oils during spreading experiments were determined using photographic techniques. Spreading equations were derived and used to cor...

302

Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Second annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project is directed at reducing water production and increasing oil recovery efficiency. Today, the cost of water disposal is typically between $0.25 and $0.50 per bbl. Therefore, there is a tremendous economic incentive to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without sacrificing hydrocarbon production. Environmental considerations also provide a significant incentive to reduce water production during oilfield operations. This three-year project has two technical objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. Topics covered in this report include (1) comparisons of the use of gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates as blocking agents; (2) propagation of aluminum-citrate-HPAM gels through porous rock; (3) gel properties in fractured systems; (4) gel placement in unfractured anisotropic flow systems; and (5) an investigation of why some gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability.

Seright, R.S.

1995-03-01

303

Dispersion of TiO2 Nanoparticle Agglomerates by Pseudomonas aeruginosa? †  

PubMed Central

Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly incorporated into consumer products and are emerging as potential environmental contaminants. Upon environmental release, nanoparticles could inhibit bacterial processes, as evidenced by laboratory studies. Less is known regarding bacterial alteration of nanoparticles, including whether bacteria affect physical agglomeration states controlling nanoparticle settling and bioavailability. Here, the effects of an environmental strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on TiO2 nanoparticle agglomerates formed in aqueous media are described. Environmental scanning electron microscopy and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy visually demonstrated bacterial dispersion of large agglomerates formed in cell culture medium and in marsh water. For experiments in cell culture medium, quantitative image analysis verified that the degrees of conversion of large agglomerates into small nanoparticle-cell combinations were similar for 12-h-growth and short-term cell contact experiments. Dispersion in cell growth medium was further characterized by size fractionation: for agglomerated TiO2 suspensions in the absence of cells, 81% by mass was retained on a 5-?m-pore-size filter, compared to only 24% retained for biotic treatments. Filtrate cell and agglomerate sizes were characterized by dynamic light scattering, revealing that the average bacterial cell size increased from 1.4 ?m to 1.9 ?m because of nano-TiO2 biosorption. High-magnification scanning electron micrographs showed that P. aeruginosa dispersed TiO2 agglomerates by preferential biosorption of nanoparticles onto cell surfaces. These results suggest a novel role for bacteria in the environmental transport of engineered nanoparticles, i.e., growth-independent, bacterially mediated size and mass alterations of TiO2 nanoparticle agglomerates. PMID:20851981

Horst, Allison M.; Neal, Andrea C.; Mielke, Randall E.; Sislian, Patrick R.; Suh, Won Hyuk; Mädler, Lutz; Stucky, Galen D.; Holden, Patricia A.

2010-01-01

304

Reduced bed agglomeration by co-combustion biomass with peat fuels in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion is an energy conversion technology that is very suitable for biomass combustion because of its fuel flexibility and low process temperatures. However, agglomeration of bed material may cause severe operating problems. To prevent or at least reduce this, peat has been suggested as an additive to the main fuels. Nevertheless, the characteristics of peat fuels vary and there is limited information of the effect of different peat fuels and of the mechanisms behind the agglomeration prevention. The objectives of the present work were therefore to: (I) quantify the potential positive effect by co-combustion peat with forest fuels in terms of initial agglomeration temperatures; (ii) determine the amount of peat fuel that is needed to significantly reduce the agglomeration tendencies; and, if possible, (iii) elucidate the governing mechanisms. The results showed that all peat fuels prevented agglomeration in the studied interval of 760-1020{sup o}C and even as little as 5% peat fuel was found to have significant effects. The results also indicated that the mechanism of the agglomeration prevention varies between different peat fuels. Possible mechanisms are the minerals in the peat fuel retain alkali, which then is either elutriated up from the bed or captured in the bed; calcium and other refractory elements increase the melting temperature and thereby counteract the melting of alkali; and sulfur reacts with alkali metals and the alkali sulfates is either elutriated up from the bed or prevents agglomeration by increased melting temperature and lowered viscosity. Results from elemental analysis of the coating on bed particles showed that all mixtures with peat fuel resulted in a decreased or unchanged fraction of potassium and an increased fraction of aluminum in the coatings. The results also indicated a complex relationship between the fuel inorganic contents and the agglomeration process. 21 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Karin Lundholm; Anders Nordin; Marcus Oehman; Dan Bostroem [Umeaa University, Umeaa (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry

2005-12-01

305

Nanostructured cerium oxide: preparation and properties of weakly-agglomerated powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocrystalline powders of cerium oxide were prepared from cerium(III) nitrate solution by a two-stage precipitation process which yielded weakly-agglomerated powders with a crystallite size smaller than 5nm. Hydrogen peroxide was added to cerium nitrate at 5°C to slowly oxidise Ce3+ to Ce4+ and thereby initiate homogeneous precipitation with the formation of dense spherical agglomerates. The precipitation process was completed by

Boro Djuri?i?; Stephen Pickering

1999-01-01

306

Reliability of non-destructive test techniques in the inspection of pipelines used in the oil industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to evaluate the reliability of non-destructive test (NDT) techniques for the inspection of pipeline welds employed in the petroleum industry. Radiography, manual and automatic ultrasonic techniques using pulse-echo and time of flight diffraction (TOFD) were employed. Three classes of defects were analyzed: lack of penetration (LP), lack of fusion (LF) and undercut (UC). The

A. A. Carvalho; J. M. A. Rebello; M. P. V. Souza; L. V. S. Sagrilo; S. D. Soares

2008-01-01

307

THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. VII. THE LOW-VELOCITY COLLISION BEHAVIOR OF LARGE DUST AGGLOMERATES  

SciTech Connect

We performed micro-gravity collision experiments in our laboratory drop tower using 5 cm sized dust agglomerates with volume filling factors of 0.3 and 0.4, respectively. This work is an extension of our previous experiments reported in Beitz et al. to aggregates of more than one order of magnitude higher masses. The dust aggregates consisted of micrometer-sized silica particles and were macroscopically homogeneous. We measured the coefficient of restitution for collision velocities ranging from 1 cm s{sup -1} to 0.5 m s{sup -1}, and determined the fragmentation velocity. For low velocities, the coefficient of restitution decreases with increasing impact velocity, in contrast to findings by Beitz et al. At higher velocities, the value of the coefficient of restitution becomes constant, before the aggregates break at the onset of fragmentation. We interpret the qualitative change in the coefficient of restitution as the transition from a solid-body-dominated to a granular-medium-dominated behavior. We complement our experiments by molecular-dynamics simulations of porous aggregates and obtain a reasonable match to the experimental data. We discuss the importance of our experiments for protoplanetary disks, debris disks, and planetary rings. This work is an extension to the previous work of our group and gives new insight into the velocity dependency of the coefficient of restitution due to improved measurements, better statistics, and a theoretical approach.

Schraepler, Rainer; Blum, Juergen [Institut fuer Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, University of Braunschweig Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm, E-mail: r.schraepler@tu-bs.de [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, University of Tuebingen Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2012-10-10

308

Coagulation-agglomeration of fractal-like particles: structure and self-preserving size distribution.  

PubMed

Agglomeration occurs in environmental and industrial processes, especially at low temperatures where particle sintering or coalescence is rather slow. Here, the growth and structure of particles undergoing agglomeration (coagulation in the absence of coalescence, condensation, or surface growth) are investigated from the free molecular to the continuum regime by discrete element modeling (DEM). Particles coagulating in the free molecular regime follow ballistic trajectories described by an event-driven method, whereas in the near-continuum (gas-slip) and continuum regimes, Langevin dynamics describe their diffusive motion. Agglomerates containing about 10-30 primary particles, on the average, attain their asymptotic fractal dimension, D(f), of 1.91 or 1.78 by ballistic or diffusion-limited cluster-cluster agglomeration, corresponding to coagulation in the free molecular or continuum regimes, respectively. A correlation is proposed for the asymptotic evolution of agglomerate D(f) as a function of the average number of constituent primary particles, n?(p). Agglomerates exhibit considerably broader self-preserving size distribution (SPSD) by coagulation than spherical particles: the number-based geometric standard deviations of the SPSD agglomerate radius of gyration in the free molecular and continuum regimes are 2.27 and 1.95, respectively, compared to ?1.45 for spheres. In the transition regime, agglomerates exhibit a quasi-SPSD whose geometric standard deviation passes through a minimum at Knudsen number Kn ? 0.2. In contrast, the asymptotic D(f) shifts linearly from 1.91 in the free molecular regime to 1.78 in the continuum regime. Population balance models using the radius of gyration as collision radius underestimate (up to about 80%) the small tail of the SPSD and slightly overpredict the overall agglomerate coagulation rate, as they do not account for cluster interpenetration during coagulation. In the continuum regime, when a recently developed agglomeration rate is used in population balance equations, the resulting SPSD is in excellent agreement with that obtained by DEM. PMID:25560979

Goudeli, Eirini; Eggersdorfer, Maximilian L; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

2015-02-01

309

Preparation of sustained release matrix pellets by melt agglomeration in the fluidized bed: influence of formulation variables and modelling of agglomerate growth.  

PubMed

The one-step preparation of sustained release matrix pellets, using a melting procedure in a fluidized bed apparatus, was tested in a 2(3) full factorial design of experiments, using microcrystalline wax as lipophilic binder, theophylline as model drug and talc as additional matrix forming agent. The three influence parameters were (A) size of binder particles, (B) fraction of theophylline in solid particles and (C) fraction of microcrystalline wax in formulation. The response variables were agglomerate size and size distribution, dissolution time, agglomerate crush resistance, sphericity, yield and porosity. Nearly spherical pellets comprising a smooth, closed surface could be obtained with the used method, exhibiting the hollow core typical for the immersion and layering mechanism. The reproducibility was very good concerning all responses. The size of agglomerates is proportional to the size of the binder particles, which serve as cores for pellet formation in the molten state in the fluidized bed. Additionally, the agglomerate size is influenced by the volume of the solid particles in relation to the binder particles, with more solid particles leading to larger agglomerates and vice versa. Dissolution times vary in a very wide range, resulting from the interplay between amount of drug in relation to the meltable matrix substance microcrystalline wax and the non-meltable matrix substance talc. The change of binder particle size does not lead to a structural change of the matrix; both dissolution times and porosity are not significantly altered. Agglomerate crush resistance is low due to the hollow core of the pellets. However, it is significantly increased if the volume fraction of microcrystalline wax in the matrix is high, which means that the matrix is mechanically better stabilized. A theoretical model has been established to quantitatively explain agglomerate growth and very good accordance of the full particle size distributions between predicted and actual values could be shown. A low volumetric binder to solids ratio is compensated by a more porous layer. On the basis of this model, in-depth understanding on the mechanism and influence of product properties could be gained; and an a priori estimation of particle size distributions for new formulas can be performed, with densities, formula, and binder particle size distribution as input parameters. PMID:20026401

Pauli-Bruns, Anette; Knop, Klaus; Lippold, Bernhard C

2010-03-01

310

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) represents the use of microorganisms to extract the remaining oil from reservoirs. This technique has the potential to be cost-efficient in the extraction of oil remained trapped in capillary pores of the formation rock or in areas not swept by the classical or modern enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods, such as combustion, steams, miscible displacement,

I. Lazar; I. G. Petrisor; T. F. Yen

2007-01-01

311

Evaluation of the NO{sub x} reduction potential of various NO{sub x} control techniques on a 320MWe oil/gas fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

Recent NO{sub x} emissions legislation in Italy requires that the NO{sub x} emissions from oil/gas fired utility boiler plant be reduced to 200 mg/Nm{sup 3} (corrected to 3 % oxygen) (0.130 lb/MMBtu). In the case of Azienda Energetica Municipale (Aem) Milano this must be achieved by the end of 1997. Aem Milano operate a 320 MWe opposed oil/gas fired boiler at their Cassano d`Adda facility. In order to determine the most cost effective approach of achieving a boiler NO{sub x} emission level of 200 mg/Nm{sup 3} Aem Milano entered into a tailored collaboration contract with the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI). Under contract to EPRI the Power Technology Department of PowerGen plc have undertaken studies to predict the NO{sub x} control potential of a wide range of NO{sub x} reduction techniques, and combinations thereof, when applied to Cassano d`Adda Unit 2. Furnace computational fluid dynamics modelling and limited boiler performance modelling aspects of the studies were undertaken by the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC).

Baimbridge, P.; Garwood, M. [Power Technology Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Facchiano, A. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-01-01

312

Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/teritiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Four activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization: (1) interpretation of outcrop analogues; (2) reservoir mapping, (3) reservoir engineering analysis of the five project fields; and (4) technology transfer.

Allison, M.L.

1996-10-01

313

A kinetic study of the mechanism of radiation induced agglomeration of ovalbumin in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of concentration on the protein radiolytic damage resulting in a change in molecular mass was measured in the concentration range from 0.2 to 2 mmol×dm -3 ovalbumin in phosphate buffered solutions saturated with N 2O. The electrophoretic analysis of samples on discontinuous SDS-polyacrylamide gels in the presence or absence of 5% ?-mercaptoethanol showed an expected result, i.e. that the protein scission did not take place in the absence of oxygen. Only ovalbumin agglomerates, bonded by covalent bonds other than S-S bridges, were observed. The G-value for the formation of ovalbumin agglomerates increased linearly from 1.1 to 2.4 by increasing the ovalbumin concentration from 0.2 to 2 mmol×dm -3. The result is interpreted as to be owing to the competition between ovalbumin agglomeration and some intramolecular reactions which did not lead to the change in the molecular mass. It was also found that the G-value is independent of irradiation dose rate. The result was rationalized as a kinetic evidence that the agglomeration is not a cross-linking process, i.e. it does not occur via recombination of the protein radicals produced in the interaction of ovalbumin and rad OH radical. The result suggested that the agglomeration takes place via the process of grafting, i.e. it occurs in the reaction of ovalbumin radical and an intact ovalbumin molecule. The time-resolved light scattering experiments provided an additional proof, supporting the reaction scheme of radiation-induced protein agglomeration. The biological consequences of the proposed mechanism of protein agglomeration are also discussed.

Tuce, Zorana; Janata, Eberhard; Radojcic, Marija; Milosavljevic, Bratoljub H.

2001-10-01

314

Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities.

Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laural L.

2001-11-26

315

Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (40-80 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvania (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performances, and report associated validation activities.

Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laura L.

2001-04-19

316

Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Wasatch Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in a fluvial-dominated lacustrine environment. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical feet (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval. This completion technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. Geologic and engineering characterization has been used to define improved completion techniques. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The characterization study resulted in recommendations for improved completion techniques and a field-demonstration program to test those techniques. The results of the characterization study and the proposed demonstration program are discussed in the second annual technical progress report. The operator of the wells was unable to begin the field demonstration this project year (October 1, 1995 to September 20, 1996). Correlation and thickness mapping of individual beds in the Wasatch Formation was completed and resulted in a. series of maps of each of the individual beds. These data were used in constructing the reservoir models. Non-fractured and fractured geostatistical models and reservoir simulations were generated for a 20-square-mile (51.8-km{sup 2}) portion of the Bluebell field. The modeling provides insights into the effects of fracture porosity and permeability in the Green River and Wasatch reservoirs.

Morgan, C.D.; Allison, M.L.

1997-08-01

317

Decision-Making for the Optimal Strategy of Population Agglomeration in Urban Planning with Path-Converged Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The chapter aims first to identify existing population agglomeration and its efficiency, and second to simulate decision-making\\u000a for the optimal migration strategy in urban planning to eliminate inefficiency among cities in China. First, identification\\u000a based on path-converged design reveals inefficiency in existing population agglomeration in China because the population mostly\\u000a agglomerates to cities with urbanization levels lower than 0.35 and

Bing Xu; Junzo Watada

318

Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This three-year project has two general objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes will be compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application, and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses will be performed to assess where the various diverting agents will be most effective (e.g., in fractured vs. unfractured wells, deep vs. near-wellbore applications, reservoirs with vs. without crossflow, or injection wells vs. production wells). Experiments will be performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. Another objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. In addition to establishing why this occurs, our research will attempt to identify materials and conditions that maximize this phenomenon.

Seright, R.S.

1994-01-01

319

Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This three-year project has two general objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes will be compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application, and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses will be performed to assess where the various diverting agents will be most effective (e.g., in fractured vs. unfractured wells, deep vs. near-wellbore applications, reservoirs with vs. without crossflow, or injection wells vs. production wells). Experiments will be performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. Another objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. In addition to establishing why this occurs, our research will attempt to identify materials and conditions that maximize this phenomenon.

Seright, R.S.

1994-04-01

320

Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This three-year project has two general objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes will be compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses will be performed to assess where the various diverting agents will be most effective (e.g., in fractured vs. unfractured wells, deep vs. near-wellbore applications, reservoirs with vs. without crossflow, or injection wells vs. production wells). Experiments will be performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. Another objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. In addition to establishing why this occurs, this research will attempt to identify materials and conditions that maximize this phenomenon.

Seright, R.S.

1994-07-01

321

Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This three-year project has two general objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes is most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses are being performed to assess where the various diverting agents will be most effective (e.g., in fractured vs. unfractured wells, deep vs. near-wellbore applications, reservoirs with vs. without crossflow, or injection wells vs. production wells). Experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. Another objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. In addition to establishing why this occurs, our research attempts to identify materials and conditions that maximize this disproportionate permeability reduction.

Seright, R.S.

1995-10-01

322

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, agglomeration tests were conducted in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor using coal and {open_quotes}model{close_quotes} components which allowed controlled amounts of clays and pyrites to be added during the test. These tests permitted a more direct evaluation of the interaction between iron compounds and aluminosilicates. With additional clay and pyrite (under simulated local reducing conditions found at coal feed locations) large agglomerates formed. The agglomerates were many times larger than those formed with a standard coal feed. When only clay was added to the fuel (no additional pyrite), agglomerates formed but they were much smaller and very friable. These tests support the hypothesis that local reducing conditions promote the interaction of iron in a +2 state and aluminosilicate material in the coal which leads to agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Also during this quarter, a deposit which formed in a fluidized bed boiler of a Texas-New Mexico Power Company was analyzed to determine the chemical and mineralogic mechanisms responsible for deposit formation. Mineral phases were determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Bulk chemical composition was determined by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). Polished sections of the deposit were made for optical and scanning electron microscopy.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

1995-07-01

323

Experimental investigation on agglomeration of coal-fired PM10 in uniform magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agglomeration experiments on fly ash particles in the size range of 0.023-9.314 ?m were conducted in a uniform magnetic field. The fly particles were produced from combustion of bituminous coal originated in Dongshen, China. A dedicated fluidized bed aerosol generator was developed to disperse particles to generate aerosol with constant rate. The aerosol particles from the generator underwent agglomeration during passing through the magnetic field. The variation in particles number concentration induced by agglomeration was measured in real time by Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The effects of the particle size, the magnetic flux density, the particle residence time in the magnetic field, the total particle mass concentration and the average gas velocity on particle agglomeration were examined. Experimental results indicate that the removal efficiencies for the midsized particles are higher than those for the smaller and the bigger ones. Single-sized and total particle removal efficiencies can be enhanced by rasing the magnetic flux density, the total particle mass concentration, the particle residence time in the magnetic field or reducing the average gas velocity. When particles are satuatedly magnetized, the magnetic flux density has no effect on their agglomeration.

Li, Yongwang; Zhao, Changsui; Wu, Xin; Lu, Duanfeng; Han, Song

2007-06-01

324

Development of Photocatalytic Coating Sprayed Using Agglomerated TiO2 Nano Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO2 coatings were prepared by High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) spraying using agglomerated nano-TiO2 powders with mean diameters of 30˜35 ?m, of which primary particle sizes were 200nm, 30nm and 7nm. The effects of spraying conditions on microstructure, anatase phase ratio and primary particle size have been investigated and then photocatalytic property was also evaluated. The anatase phase ratio decreased drastically with increasing fuel gas pressure in the case of agglomerated 7nm powder (P7 powder), while higher anatase ratio could be obtained in the case of agglomerated 200nm and 30nm powders (P200 and P30 powders). The particles of anatase phase grew during spraying in the case of agglomerated 7nm and 30nm powders. Especially, in the case of 7nm powders, they haw become three times larger compared to as-agglomerated powders, while they have hardly changed in the case of 200nm powders. These coatings showed photocatalytic degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde (CH3CHO). As a result of experiments, it was clarifid that the main factors affecting photocatalytic properties were the anatase ratio and particle size in the sprayed coating.

Yasuoka, Junichi; Nakade, Katsuyuki; Ohmori, Akira

325

Impact of a non-meltable additive on melt agglomeration with a hydrophobic meltable binder in high-shear mixer.  

PubMed

The present study aims to investigate the behavior of melt agglomeration with a low-viscosity hydrophobic meltable binder by using a non-meltable additive. The size, crushing strength, and pore size distribution of resultant agglomerates, the rheological, surface tension, and wetting properties of the molten binder, as well as, the flow characteristics of preagglomeration powder blend were determined. The use of additive showed contradictory agglomerate growth-promoting and -retarding effects on the molten binder surface tension and the interparticulate frictional forces. Critical concentration effects of additive corresponded to threshold transition of agglomeration-promoting to -retarding behavior were discussed. PMID:17763142

Cheong, Wai See; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Wong, Tin Wui

2007-01-01

326

Determination of the Volatile Oil of Magnolia biondii Pamp by GC–MS Combined with Chemometric Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimized temperature-programmed gas chromatography–mass spectrometry system combined with chemometric methods was firstly\\u000a applied to analyze the volatile components of M. biondii Pamp. A total of 65 components were identified using similarity searches between mass spectra and MS database. This number\\u000a was extended to 80 components with the help of chemometric techniques. The peak purity of two-way data was controlled

Liping Qu; Yunpeng Qi; Guorong Fan; Yutian Wu

2009-01-01

327

Direct observation of nanoscale pt electrode agglomeration at the triple phase boundary.  

PubMed

Nanoporous platinum electrode thin films were delaminated from yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates via double cantilever beam delamination to reveal the structure located at the interface between electrode and electrolyte. The thermally driven morphological evolution between the electrode top surface and the substrate contact interface of agglomerated nanoporous platinum thin films were compared. We found the temperature required for significant agglomeration to occur was approximately 100 °C higher at the electrolyte contact interface side than at the top surface side. Judging the reaction active site from the electrode top surface could be inaccurate because higher resistance of thermal agglomeration at the interface could retain the reaction active site during fuel cell operation. PMID:25756949

Yu, Chen-Chiang; Kim, Sanwi; Baek, Jong Dae; Li, Yong; Su, Pei-Chen; Kim, Taek-Soo

2015-03-25

328

Effect of whey protein agglomeration on spray dried microcapsules containing Saccharomyces boulardii.  

PubMed

This work investigates the effect of whey protein agglomeration on the survivability of Saccharomyces boulardii within spray dried microcapsules. It attempts to go beyond phenomenological observations by establishing a relationship between physicochemical characteristics of the polymeric matrix and its effect on probiotic endurance upon spray drying. It is well known that this type of thermal shock has lethal consequences on the yeast cells. To avoid such undesirable outcome, we take advantage of the early agglomeration phenomenon observed for whey protein by adjusting the pH value of preparations close to isoelectric point (pH 4-5). During the subsequent process of spray drying, development of whey protein agglomerates induces formation of an early crust, and the protein in this molten globular state creates a cohesive network encapsulating the yeast cells. It appears that the early crust formation at a given sample pH and temperature regime during spray drying benefits the survivability of S. boulardii within microcapsules. PMID:23870891

Duongthingoc, Diep; George, Paul; Katopo, Lita; Gorczyca, Elizabeth; Kasapis, Stefan

2013-12-01

329

Development and Assessment of Oil-in-Water Emulsions for Encapsulation of Reactive Iron Particles for Subsurface Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive iron particles hold promise for use in the destruction of contaminants in the subsurface environment. Application of these nano- to submicron-scale particles, however, may be limited by poor subsurface transport and non-uniform distribution of the reactive material. Delivery issues are particularly important when evaluating the efficacy of iron-based technologies for treatment of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. Current approaches for the delivery of reactive iron particles within DNAPL source zones are hindered by particle agglomeration, flow bypassing, and presence of non-target reactions. Encapsulation of the reactive particles within an oil-in-water emulsion is a novel approach that may overcome these limitations. Development of kinetically-stable, iron-laden, oil-in-water emulsions commenced by identifying surfactant-based coatings to increase the stability of commercially-available iron particles within non-polar organic phases (e.g., soy oil). A phase inversion technique was employed to disperse approximately 10% wt of the iron-laden, organic phase within a continuous aqueous phase containing nonionic emulsifiers. Emulsions were designed to ensure emulsifier proportions yielded hydrophilic-lipophilic balances affiliated with oil-in-water emulsions. Micrographs of the oil-in-water emulsions suggest that the average diameter of the oil droplets is approximately one micrometer. The presence of iron within oil droplets was confirmed in the micrographs and supported by an absence of iron agglomeration within the continuous phase. Bulk characteristics of each emulsion (density and viscosity) were used in conjunction with interfacial tension measurements in total trapping number analyses to assess the propensity of these emulsions to mobilize an entrapped trichloroethene (TCE)-DNAPL. Results suggest that the emulsions described herein should not cause significant mobilization of entrapped TCE-DNAPL in fine-to-medium grain sandy media. Column experiments are being conducted to evaluate the transport of these emulsions through sandy media. Preliminary results from experiments with iron-free emulsions suggest conductivity reductions occurring during emulsion flushing are not the result of extensive pore-clogging but rather are due to viscosity changes (emulsion viscosities range from 2 to 10 cP). Current efforts are focused on assessing and comparing both transport and reaction of commercially available iron particles and iron-laden emulsions within sandy porous media.

Berge, N. D.; Taghavy, A.; Ramsburg, A.

2007-12-01

330

BP Oil Spill November 10, 2011  

E-print Network

BP Oil Spill Qiyam Tung November 10, 2011 1 Introduction Figure 1: BP Oil spill (source: http://thefoxisblack.com/2010/05/02/the-bp-oil-spill-in-the-gulf-of-mexico/) Last year, there was a major oil spill caused major techniques to minimize the threat once it happened. What kind of damage would an oil spill like this cause

Lega, Joceline

331

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math meets ecology lesson provides hands-on experiences with mixing oil and water, provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives learners opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

2012-07-18

332

Similarity criteria of HOSP formation at plasma processing of agglomerated particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical analysis of basic phenomena at plasma processing of the agglomerated powders, in context of hollow microspherical particles production, was fulfilled. With the use of the obtained theoretical solutions for the first time the key similarity criteria were derived that allow to formulate the requirements to plasma flow, characteristics of agglomerate and its material as well as condition of quenching of the formed hollow microdroplet which realization provides the formation of hollow microsphere with necessary characteristics, in particular, of maximal diameter and minimum thickness of shell.

Solonenko, O. P.

2014-11-01

333

Two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator. Technology spotlight report  

SciTech Connect

The two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator combines and improves upon the fluidized-bed, agglomeration/ incineration-technology and the cyclonic-combustion technology developed at Institute of Gas Technolgy (IGT) over many years. The result is a unique and extremely flexible incinerator for solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes. The system can operate over a wide range of conditions and has a destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) greater than 99.99%. Solid inorganic contaminants are contained within aglassy matrix, rendering them benign and suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill.

NONE

1995-08-01

334

Morphology and agglomeration control of LiMnPO4 micro- and nanocrystals.  

PubMed

Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis was used to grow LiMnPO4 micro- and nanocrystals from acetate precursors. By appropriate adjustment of the precursor concentration and the pH-value of the reactant, the product composition and purity along with the crystal size can be manipulated, resulting in particle-dimensions from around 10 ?m down to a few 100 nm. Prisms and plates with hexagonal basal faces as well as cuboid and rod-like particles were produced. The effects on the crystal morphology as well as on the materials texture and agglomeration tendency are discussed and a comprehensive agglomeration phase diagram is constructed. PMID:23691973

Neef, Christoph; Jähne, Carsten; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Klingeler, Rüdiger

2013-06-25

335

Agglomeration, Accessibility, and Productivity: Evidence for Urbanized Areas Paper submitted for the Transportation Research Board 92nd  

E-print Network

Paris, France WORD COUNT: Abstract: 169 words Text: 5882 words Tables: (3) 750 words Figures: (3) 750. Agglomeration economies are represented with driving time measures of employment accessibility to establish of the productivity-agglomeration effects decays very rapidly with time and is very strong within 20 minutes driving

Levinson, David M.

336

Population balance modelling for a flow induced phase inversion based granulation in a two-dimensional rotating agglomerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel two-dimensional rotating agglomerator was developed to carry out the flow induced phase inversion (FIPI) based granulation. The process in this agglomerator shows that a continuous paste flow (mixed with liquid binder and primary particles) is extruded into the interstice of two relatively rotating disks, as the paste becomes solidified due to the loss of heat to the disks,

L. Liu; G. Akay; L. Tong

2011-01-01

337

Spatial Inter-firm Networks in the Post-modernization Era: The Case of Town Factories' Agglomerations in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) inter-firm networks in industrial agglomerations in Japan. We argue that a common factor found in all types of agglomerations is a transition from the growth or the modernization period to a new era. We focus on some of the most interesting cases observed during our field study in different Japanese

Ana Colovic

2003-01-01

338

Composite propellant aluminum agglomeration reduction using tailored Al/PTFE particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micron aluminum is widely used in propellants; however, performance could be significantly improved if ignition barriers could be disrupted and combustion tailored. In solid propellants for example, aluminum increases theoretical specific impulse performance, yet theoretical levels cannot be achieved largely because of two-phase flow losses. These losses could be reduced if particles quickly ignited, more gaseous products were produced, and if particle breakup occurred during combustion. To achieve altered aluminum ignition and particle combustion, this work explores the use of low level (10-30 wt.%) fluorocarbon (polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or poly(carbon monofluoride) (PMF)) inclusion inside of aluminum via low or high energy mechanical activation. Aluminum/PTFE particles are found to be amenable to use in binder based energetics, having average particle sizes ranging from 15 to 78 ?m, ~2-7 m2/g, specific surface area, and combustion enthalpies as high as 20.2 kJ/g. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments indicate high energy MA reduces both reaction and oxidation onset to ~440 °C that is far below aluminum alone. Safety testing shows these particles have high electrostatic discharge (ESD) (89.9-108 mJ), impact (> 213 cm), and friction (> 360 N) ignition thresholds. The idea of further increasing reactivity and increasing particle combustion enthalpy is explored by reducing fluorocarbon inclusion content to 10 wt.% and through the use of the strained fluorocarbon PMF. Combustion enthalpy and average particle size range from 18.9 to 28.5 kJ/g and 23.0 to 67.5 ?m, respectively and depend on MA intensity, duration, and inclusion level. Specific surface areas are high (5.3 to 34.8 m2/g) and as such, Al/PMF particles are appropriate for energetic applications not requiring a curable liquid binder. Mechanical activation reduces oxidation onset (DSC) from 555 to 480 °C (70/30 wt.%). Aluminum/PMF particles are sensitive to ESD (11.5-47.5 mJ) and some can be ignited via optical flash. Propellant aluminum agglomeration is assessed through replacement of reference aluminum powders (spherical, flake, or nanoscale) with Al/PTFE (90/10 or 70/30 wt.%) particles. The effects on burning rate, pressure dependence, and aluminum ignition, combustion, and agglomeration are quantified. Microscopic imaging shows tailored particles promptly ignite at the burning surface and appear to breakup into smaller particles. Replacement of spherical aluminum with Al/PTFE 70/30 wt.% also increases the pressure exponent from 0.36 to 0.58, which results in a 50% increase in propellant burning rate at 13.8 MPa. Combustion products were quench collected using a liquid-free technique at 2.1 and 6.9 MPa. Sizing of products indicates that composite particles result in nominally 25 ?m coarse products, which are smaller than the original, average particle size and are also 66% smaller in diameter (96% by volume) than the 76 ?m products collected from reference spherical aluminized propellant. Smaller diameter condensed phase products and more gaseous products will likely decrease two-phase flow loss and reduce slag accumulation in solid rocket motors.

Sippel, Travis R.

339

Survey and evaluation of instream habitat and stock restoration techniques for wild pink and chum salmon. Restoration study number 105-1 (restoration project 93063). Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

This project is the result of a three-year survey of the Exxon Valdez oil spill impact area to identify appropriate and cost-effective instream habitat restoration techniques for salmon, including spawning channels and improvement of fish passage through fish ladders or step-pool structures to overcome physical or hydrological barriers. Additional wild salmon stock rehabilitation measures include stream-side incubation boxes, remote egg-taking, incubation at existing hatcheries for fry stocking in oil-impacted streams, and fry rearing. Study results include the identification of the most promising instream habitat restoration projects in each of the spill-impacted areas.

Willette, T.M.; Dudiak, N.C.; Honnold, S.G.; Carpenter, G.; Dickson, M.

1995-08-01

340

Oil pollution signatures by remote sensing.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study of the possibility of developing an effective remote sensing system for oil pollution monitoring which would be capable of detecting oil films on water, mapping the areal extent of oil slicks, measuring slick thickness, and identifying the oil types. In the spectral regions considered (ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radar), the signatures were sufficiently unique when compared to the background so that it was possible to detect and map oil slicks. Both microwave and radar techniques are capable of operating in adverse weather. Fluorescence techniques show promise in identifying oil types. A multispectral system will be required to detect oil, map its distribution, estimate film thickness, and characterize the oil pollutant.

Catoe, C. E.; Mclean, J. T.

1972-01-01

341

Do Spatial Agglomeration and Local Labor Market Competition Affect Employer - Provided Training? Evidence from the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we use British data to ask whether local employment density - which we take as a proxy of labor market competition - affects employer - provided training. We find that training is less frequent in economically denser areas. We interpret this result as evidence that the balance of poaching and local agglomeration effects on training is negative.

Giorgio Brunello; Francesca Gambarotto

2006-01-01

342

Industrial Agglomeration, Geographic Innovation and Total Factor Productivity: The Case of Taiwan  

E-print Network

of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand. AuthorIndustrial Agglomeration, Geographic Innovation and Total Factor Productivity: The Case of Taiwan The paper analyses the impact of geographic innovation on Total Factor Productivity (TFP) in Taiwan. Using

Hickman, Mark

343

Plasma transport around dust agglomerates having complex shapes Eric R. Keitera)  

E-print Network

American Institute of Physics. S0021-8979 98 04711-2 I. INTRODUCTION Dust particle transport and charging of a number of studies in the past few years.1­4 The transport of charged dust particles in plas- mas as used of dust particles in plasmas.3 Dust particle agglomerates are typically composed of a collection of nearly

Kushner, Mark

344

A model for transport and agglomeration of particles in reactive ion etching plasma reactors  

E-print Network

in the microelectronics industry. It is common to find that particles collected on surfaces or downstream of the etch in plasma etching tools are negatively charged, their agglomeration is problematic since the particles must. Electrostatic forces accelerate the negatively charged particles towards the maximum in the plasma potential

Kushner, Mark

345

Agglomeration benefits and location choice: Evidence from Japanese manufacturing investments in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theories of economic geography suggest that firms in the same industry may be drawn to the same locations because proximity generates positive externalities or ‘agglomeration effects’. Under this view, chance events and government inducements can have a lasting influence on the geographical pattern of manufacturing. However, most evidence on the causes and magnitude of industry localization has been based

Keith Head; John Ries; Deborah Swenson

1995-01-01

346

A Note on the Growth of Primary Particles in Agglomerate Structures by Coalescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol particles at high concentrations grow by collisions and coalescence. If coalescence is faster, particles remain individual and spherical, and primary particle growth is determined by the collision rate. When collisions are faster, dendritic agglomerates consisting of a large number of primary particles form. Primary particle growth is then determined by the coalescence rate. In this Note a model is

Kari E. J. Lehtinen; Robert S. Windeler; Sheldon K. Friedlander

1996-01-01

347

An agglomeration payment for cost-effective biodiversity conservation in spatially structured landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connected habitats are ecologically more valuable than isolated habitats for many species. A key challenge when designing payments for biodiversity in fragmented landscapes is to increase the spatial connectivity of habitats. Based on the idea of an agglomeration bonus we consider a scheme in which land-owners only receive payments if habitats are arranged in an ecologically favourable configuration. We compare

Martin Drechsler; Frank Wätzold; Karin Johst; Jason F. Shogren

2010-01-01

348

Quasiparticle agglomerates and environmental effects in the fractional quantum Hall edge states at ? = 5/2  

SciTech Connect

We discuss how the presence of environmental effects and quasiparticle agglomerates could better reconcile the edge states theories with the experimental observations for the case of ? = 5/2. The Pfaffian and the anti-Pfaffian models will be compared in connection with experimental results identifying the latter as the best candidate.

Braggio, A. [SPIN-CNR, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Carrega, M. [NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126, Pisa (Italy); Ferraro, D.; Magnoli, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova, Italy and INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146, Genova (Italy); Sassetti, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova, Italy and SPIN-CNR, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

2013-12-04

349

Fault diagnosis of industrial boiler based on competitive agglomeration and fuzzy association rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying datamining algorithm to the association analyzes between the measurable parameters and faults in the industrial boiler control system. The works we have done generally as follows. According to the distribution of the parameters that can be measured, using competitive agglomeration clustering algorithm to partition the fuzzy interval of each attribute; based on the principle of association rules, an algorithm

Zhao Hui; Jiang Bi-bo; Zhao Zhuo-qun

2010-01-01

350

Simple modeling of the thermal history of d.c plasma sprayed agglomerated nanosized zirconia particles  

E-print Network

Simple modeling of the thermal history of d.c plasma sprayed agglomerated nanosized zirconia, Russia Abstract: In this work, are presented the results of a model coupling both dynamic and thermal histories of a single zirconia particle injected into a d.c plasma jet. The model developed calculates

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

Evidence of zirconium nano-agglomeration in as-cast dilute U-Zr alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructure evaluation of as-cast and annealed U-Zr (Zr = 2, 6 and 10 wt.%) alloys has been carried out for the first time using positrons as a probe. The chemical signature in the matter-antimatter annihilation gamma and the positron lifetime data suggests that majority of positrons are annihilating from Zr sites in the as-cast alloys. The results have been interpreted as due to the presence of Zr nano-agglomerates in the as-cast alloys which have a higher positron affinity as compared to the rest of the U matrix. A minimum agglomerate size of ?2 nm diameter has been calculated from the difference in positron affinity between the agglomerates and the matrix. Upon annealing, the Zr signature in the annihilation gamma photons vanishes suggesting that the Zr agglomerates diffuse out of U matrix and form micron-sized precipitates. This has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy which shows a 3 times increase in the surface density of the precipitates in the annealed alloys as compared to the as-cast ones. Shorter positron diffusion length (measured using slow positron beam) as compared to precipitate separation has been invoked to explain the observed data.

Mukherjee, S.; Kaity, S.; Saify, M. T.; Jha, S. K.; Pujari, P. K.

2014-09-01

352

Implications of Agglomeration Economics and Market Access for Firm Growth in Food Manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the persistant changes in technology and increased competition in food manufacturing, it is important to reassess the effects of agglomeration economies and market access on the performance of firms in the industry. Using survey data from a recent survey of New York state food processors, an ordered logit analysis reveals that firm growth is related to important upstream and

Todd M. Schmit; Jeffrey S. Hall

2011-01-01

353

TECHNOLOGICAL AGGLOMERATION AND THE EMERGENCE OF CLUSTERS AND NETWORKS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

- 1 - TECHNOLOGICAL AGGLOMERATION AND THE EMERGENCE OF CLUSTERS AND NETWORKS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY clusters in nanotechnologies (MESA+ (Twente) and other centres in the Netherlands and Minatec in Grenoble nanotechnology-linked developments. We will use our ongoing studies of regions with a high concentration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Agglomeration Influences Dose-Rates and Modulates Oxidative Stress Mediated Dose-Response Profiles In Vitro  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous agglomeration of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is a common problem in cell culture media which can confound interpretation of in vitro nanotoxicity studies. The authors created stable agglomerates of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in conventional culture medium, which varied in hydrodynamic size (276 nm-1.5 ?m) but were composed of identical primary particles with similar surface potentials and protein coatings. Studies using C10 lung epithelial cells show that the dose rate effects of agglomeration can be substantial, varying by over an order of magnitude difference in cellular dose in some cases. Quantification by magnetic particle detection showed that small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs induced greater cytotoxicity and redox-regulated gene expression when compared with large agglomerates on an equivalent total cellular IONP mass dose basis, whereas agglomerates of amine-modified IONPs failed to induce cytotoxicity or redox-regulated gene expression despite delivery of similar cellular doses. Dosimetry modelling and experimental measurements reveal that on a delivered surface area basis, large and small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs have similar inherent potency for the generation of ROS, induction of stress-related genes and eventual cytotoxicity. The results suggest that reactive moieties on the agglomerate surface are more efficient in catalysing cellular ROS production than molecules buried within the agglomerate core. Because of the dynamic, size and density-dependent nature of ENP delivery to cells in vitro, the biological consequences of agglomeration are not discernible from static measures of exposure concentration (?g/ml) alone, highlighting the central importance of integrated physical characterisation and quantitative dosimetry for in vitro studies. The combined experimental and computational approach provides a quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between the biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their physical and chemical characteristics.

Sharma, Gaurav; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Wang, Wei; Minard, Kevin R.; Karin, Norman J.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Thrall, Brian D.

2013-07-31

355

Iron oxide nanoparticle agglomeration influences dose rates and modulates oxidative stress-mediated dose-response profiles in vitro.  

PubMed

Spontaneous agglomeration of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is a common problem in cell culture media which can confound interpretation of in vitro nanotoxicity studies. The authors created stable agglomerates of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in conventional culture medium, which varied in hydrodynamic size (276 nm-1.5 ?m) but were composed of identical primary particles with similar surface potentials and protein coatings. Studies using C10 lung epithelial cells show that the dose rate effects of agglomeration can be substantial, varying by over an order of magnitude difference in cellular dose in some cases. Quantification by magnetic particle detection showed that small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs induced greater cytotoxicity and redox-regulated gene expression when compared with large agglomerates on an equivalent total cellular IONP mass dose basis, whereas agglomerates of amine-modified IONPs failed to induce cytotoxicity or redox-regulated gene expression despite delivery of similar cellular doses. Dosimetry modelling and experimental measurements reveal that on a delivered surface area basis, large and small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs have similar inherent potency for the generation of ROS, induction of stress-related genes and eventual cytotoxicity. The results suggest that reactive moieties on the agglomerate surface are more efficient in catalysing cellular ROS production than molecules buried within the agglomerate core. Because of the dynamic, size and density-dependent nature of ENP delivery to cells in vitro, the biological consequences of agglomeration are not discernible from static measures of exposure concentration (?g/ml) alone, highlighting the central importance of integrated physical characterisation and quantitative dosimetry for in vitro studies. The combined experimental and computational approach provides a quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between the biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their physical and chemical characteristics. PMID:23837572

Sharma, Gaurav; Kodali, Vamsi; Gaffrey, Matthew; Wang, Wei; Minard, Kevin R; Karin, Norman J; Teeguarden, Justin G; Thrall, Brian D

2014-09-01

356

Toxicity study of the oil dispersant Corexit 9527 on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) egg hatchability by using a flow-through bioassay technique.  

PubMed

The effect of the oil-spill dispersant Corexit 9527 on egg-hatching rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) was studied by using an innovated flow-through bioassay technique. This bioassay method relies on the fact that M. rosenbergii fertilized eggs when detached from the mother prawn were able to hatch artificially. The flow-through system generated a stable and good water quality environment for hatching the eggs successfully. The Corexit 9527 had a pronounced effect on hatching rate of the M. rosenbergii eggs. In the control, the hatching rate of the eggs was 95.55% +/- 1.74%. However, it was reduced drastically with increasing concentrations of Corexit 9527. A 100% inhibition of egg hatchability was found when the level of Corexit 9527 was higher than 250 mg litre(-1). The EC(50) and the EC(95) values estimated by the probit method were 80.4 +/- 5.5 mg litre(-1) and 193.5 +/- 39.9 mg litre(-1) respectively (P = 0.05). The recommended safety level of Corexit 9527 for M. rosenbergii in Malaysian estuarine waters is below 40 mg litre(-1). PMID:15091547

Law, A T

1995-01-01

357

Evaluation of charge and agglomeration behavior of TiO2 nanoparticles in ecotoxicological media.  

PubMed

The dynamic nature of nanoparticle (NP) agglomeration behavior is of paramount interest to many current studies in environmental nanoscience and nano(eco)toxicology because agglomeration affects the NP bioavailability and toxicity. The present study investigates the surface charge and agglomeration behavior of TiO2 NPs in four different ecotoxicological media (OECD algae, OECD L_variegatus, hardwater and plant media) and two different electrolytes KCl (200mM) and CaCl2 (50mM). TiO2 NPs were positively charged, and the zeta potential varied from +1.9mV in hardwater (at pH7.1) to +24.5mV in CaCl2 electrolyte (at pH7.4) in all media except algae media, where the zeta potential was -6.7mV (at pH7.7). Despite the differences in the pH and the surface charge of TiO2 NPs in the different media, an immediate agglomeration of the NPs in all standard ecotoxicological media was observed with aggregate sizes in the micrometer scale, as the measured zeta potentials were insufficient to prevent TiO2 NP agglomeration. The isoelectric point (pHiep) of TiO2 NPs in the studied media varied in the range (6.8-7.6), which was attributed to preferential association of anions and cations to TiO2; that is the pHiep decreases with the increased concentration of Cl and increases with the increased concentrations of Na and Mg. Despite the complexity of the ecotoxicological media and the presence of a mixture of different monovalent and divalent electrolytes, the agglomeration kinetics in the media follows the DVLO theory where two distinct agglomeration rates (slow, reaction limited regime and fast, diffusion limited regime) were observable. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) of TiO2 NPs in the ecotoxicological media varied from 17.6 to 54.0% v/v standard media in UHPW, due to differences in media pH and TiO2 NP surface charge. In the ecotoxicological media (hardwater, L-variegatus and plant), where TiO2 NPs are positively charged, the CCC decrease with the increased divalent anions (act as counter ions) concentration in the media, again in good agreement with the DLVO theory. PMID:25432129

Nur, Y; Lead, J R; Baalousha, M

2014-11-25

358

Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture. Technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a ``hot flue gas cleanup`` subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process. The goal of the program is to support the DOE mission in developing coal-fired combustion gas turbines. In particular, the MTCI proprietary process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture will be evaluated and developed. The technology embodiment of the invention provides for the use of standard grind, moderately beneficiated coal and WEM for firing the gas turbine with efficient sulfur capture and particulate emission control upstream of the turbine. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering material if necessary.

Not Available

1993-12-31

359

Oil spill identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

To unambiguously identify spilled oils and petroleum products and to link them to the known sources are extremely important in settling questions of environmental impact and legal liability. This article briefly reviews the most recent development and advances of chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques which are most frequently used in oil spill identification studies, including recognition of relative distribution

Zhendi Wang; Merv Fingas; David S Page

1999-01-01

360

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan makes real world connections as students explore the ability to estimate the surface area of an oil spill. The lesson provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives students opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson includes two students activity sheets, one fractional amount overhead sheet, assessment and extension suggestions, and questions for reflection.

Lisa Cartwright

2010-01-01

361

CONSOLIDATION OF K BASIN SLUDGE DATA AND EXPERIENCES ON AGGLOMERATE FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

The formation of high sludge strength agglomerates is a key concern to the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) to ensure the sludge can be retrieved after planned storage for up to 10 years in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) at T Plant. This report addresses observations of agglomerate formation, conditions that the data shows lead to agglomeration, the frequency of agglomerate formation and postulated physiochemical mechanisms that may lead to agglomeration. Although the exact underlying chemistry of K Basin sludge agglomerate formation is not known, the factors that lead to agglomeration formation, based on observations, are as follows: (1) High Total Uranium Content (i.e., sample homogeneity and influence from other constituents); (2) Distribution of Uranium Phases (i.e., extent of conversion from uraninite to uranium oxide hydroxide compounds); (3) Sample Dry-out (loss of cover water); (4) Elevated temperature; (5) Solubility ofU(IV) phases vs. U(VI) phases; and (6) Long storage times. Agglomerated sludge has occurred infrequently and has only been observed in four laboratory samples, five samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (performed for 7 to 10 hours at {approx}185 C and 225 psig), and indirectly during six sampling events in the KE Basin. In the four laboratory samples where agglomerates were observed, the agglomerates exhibited high shear strength and the sample container typically had to be broken to remove the solids. The total uranium content (dry basis) for the four samples (KE Pit, KC-2/3 SS, KC-2/3 M250 and 96-13) were {approx}8 wt%, {approx}59.0 wt%, 68.3 wt% and 82 wt%. The agglomerates that were present during the six sampling events were undoubtedly disturbed and easily broken apart during sample collection, thus no agglomerates were observed in subsequent laboratory analyses. The highest shear strengths measured for K Basin sludge samples were obtained after hydrothermal treatment (7 to 10 hr at 185 C) of high-uranium-content KE canister sludge. The unconfined compressive strength of samples from this testing, measured by a pocket penetrometer, infers that their shear strength may be between 120 kPa and 170 kPa (PNNL-16496). These short-duration hydrothermal tests were conducted at temperatures much greater than the temperature of the T Plant canyon cells (-7 C to 33 C); however, the strength results provide an initial bounding target for sludge stored for many years, and an upper range for simulants (042910-53451-TP02 Rev 1). Sampling and characterization activities conducted in 2009 have measured the total uranium content and speciation for sludge stored in Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260 (PNNL-19035). Based on on-going testing that has measured the shear strength of uranium samples containing varying uranium (IV) to uranium (VI) ratios and the characterization of the Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260, it is unlikely that agglomerates will form on a large scale in this sludge. The highest measured total uranium concentration in the Engineered Container SCS-CON-220 sludge is 35.2 wt% and only 4 wt% to 6 wt% (dry) in Engineered Containers SCS-CON -240, -250, and -260. The uranium concentrations in Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260 sludge are below the threshold for agglomerate formation. Settler sludge however is estimated to contain {approx} 80 wt% (dry) total uranium, which could lead to the formation of high strength agglomerates depending on the relative concentrations of U(IV) and U(VI) compounds. One of the chief concerns of the STP is sludge dry-out. Samples archived in PNNL hot cells have been known to dry out and form hard clods of material, which are then difficult to reconstitute (HNF-6705). In 1996, all but one of the samples archived at the 222-S Laboratory dried out. These samples were composed of sludge collected from the KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit. However, in the STP's current design plans for sludge stored in STSCs at T Plant, there are provisions for continual water level observation and periodic

HILL SR

2010-06-10

362

MICROBIAL POPULATION CHANGES DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL  

EPA Science Inventory

Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil-spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil + nutrients, and oil + nutrients + an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In-situ microbial community str...

363

Wear Metal Analysis of Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article concentrates on reviewing the literature related with wear metal analysis of oils. An overview on the existence of metals in oils and typical wearing situations is discussed briefly. Different pre-treatment methods of oil samples before wear metal analysis are presented with application remarks. Common measurement techniques of wear metal analysis, both qualitative and quantitative, are handled and compared

Pekka Vähäoja; Ilkka Välimäki; Katri Roppola; Toivo Kuokkanen; Sulo Lahdelma

2008-01-01

364

Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt.  

PubMed

Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE-SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa-Hurghada coastal zone. PMID:23688834

Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

2013-07-15

365

Formulation techniques for nanofluids.  

PubMed

Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed. PMID:24330043

Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David

2013-11-01

366

The Preparation and Characterization of Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Microparticles. II. The Entrapment of a Model Protein Using a (Water-in-Oil)inWater Emulsion Solvent Evaporation Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microparticles with entrapped antigens have recently been investigated as controlled-release vaccines. This paper describes the preparation of PLG microparticles with an entrapped model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), using a (water-in-oil)-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique. In a series of experiments, the effects of process parameters on particle size and OVA entrapment were investigated. It was found that smooth, spherical microparticles

Hayley Jeffery; Stanley S. Davis; Derek T. O'Hagan

1993-01-01

367

A protocol for assessing the effectiveness of oil spill dispersants in stimulating the biodegradation of oil.  

PubMed

Dispersants are important tools in oil spill response. Taking advantage of the energy in even small waves, they disperse floating oil slicks into tiny droplets (<70 ?m) that entrain in the water column and drift apart so that they do not re-agglomerate to re-form a floating slick. The dramatically increased surface area allows microbial access to much more of the oil, and diffusion and dilution lead to oil concentrations where natural background levels of biologically available oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus are sufficient for microbial growth and oil consumption. Dispersants are only used on substantial spills in relatively deep water (usually >10 m), conditions that are impossible to replicate in the laboratory. To date, laboratory experiments aimed at following the biodegradation of dispersed oil usually show only minimal stimulation of the rate of biodegradation, but principally because the oil in these experiments disperses fairly effectively without dispersant. What is needed is a test protocol that allows comparison between an untreated slick that remains on the water surface during the entire biodegradation study and dispersant-treated oil that remains in the water column as small dispersed oil droplets. We show here that when this is accomplished, the rate of biodegradation is dramatically stimulated by an effective dispersant, Corexit 9500. Further development of this approach might result in a useful tool for comparing the full benefits of different dispersants. PMID:23943003

Prince, Roger C; Butler, Josh D

2014-08-01

368

Effect of Drying Phase on the Agglomerates Prepared by Spherical Crystallization  

PubMed Central

In this paper, differences in porosity, compressive strength and tablet- forming ability of carbamazepine crystals agglomerated under similar condition, but subjected to different drying temperatures are reported. The agglomerates were prepared by spherical crystallization method and thereafter dried without agitation at different temperature. An increased drying temperature did not affect the shape and structure texture of dried particles and did not cause them to fracture. Drying of particles at higher temperature suppressed the particle contraction as a consequence of fast evaporation and hence produced particles of larger mean diameter, higher porosity and thus lower compressive strength than those dried at lower temperature. Through a relationship with particle porosity, the drying rate also affected the ability of particles to form tablets. PMID:25561911

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Yari, Zahra

2015-01-01

369

Transfer-free graphene synthesis on insulating substrates via agglomeration phenomena of catalytic nickel films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene layers were synthesized by annealing amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films on Ni/SiO2/Si(111) substrates grown using pulse arc plasma deposition. Although the graphene layers were formed by catalytic reaction between a-C films and Ni metals, they were observed to be directly on the insulating SiO2/Si substrates with island-shaped metallic particles. These particles presumably resulted from agglomeration phenomena of thin Ni films at a high temperature. We speculated that the agglomeration phenomena allowed the graphene formation on SiO2/Si substrates. It was also confirmed that the particle size and graphene layer thickness depend on the starting Ni thickness.

Banno, Kazuya; Mizuno, Masaya; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Kubo, Toshiharu; Miyoshi, Makoto; Egawa, Takashi; Soga, Tetsuo

2013-08-01

370

Bed agglomeration characteristics of rice straw combustion in a vortexing fluidized-bed combustor.  

PubMed

To investigate bed agglomeration characteristics, the combustion of pelletized rice straw was conducted in a bench-scale vortexing fluidized bed. Effects of bed temperature, superficial velocity, secondary gas velocities, and mass blended ratio of coal on the defluidization time were investigated. The alkali concentrations in different sections of the bed zone were also studied. The bed materials and agglomerates were analyzed using SEM/EDX to obtain the surface morphology and the compositions. The results revealed that the defluidization time is increased with superficial gas velocity and is decreased with bed temperature. Eutectic composition with low melting point materials promote defluidization at high temperatures. Effect of the secondary gas velocity on the defluidization time indicates different trends at different bed temperatures. The highest value of alkali concentration appears at upper bubbling zone. Coal ash can avoid the existence of a certain eutectic composition, and increases its melting point. PMID:25742751

Duan, Feng; Chyang, Chien-Song; Zhang, Li-Hui; Yin, Siang-Fong

2015-05-01

371

Colloidal stability of suspended and agglomerate structures of settled carbon nanotubes in different aqueous matrices.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are often processed in suspended form and therefore a release of CNT-suspensions into the aquatic environment is plausible. In this study, the behaviour of two physico-chemically very different CNT types in the presence of varying, environmentally relevant calcium-containing media was investigated, including the long-term colloidal stability and the sedimentary structures of settled CNTs. Calcium induced CNT flocculation, however, the stability of the CNTs in the medium did not monotonously decrease with increasing calcium concentration. At intermediate calcium concentrations (0.5-1.5 mM Ca) pre-dispersed CNTs were stabilized in humic acid medium to similar, temporarily even to higher degree than in the absence of calcium. Between pH 5 and 8 only at the highest pH an influence on CNT stability was observed by either promoting flocculation or stabilisation depending on the CNT type. Humic acid stabilized CNTs much better than fulvic acid. Generally, the colloidal stability of the long, thick CNTs with higher surface oxygen content was less affected by the media composition. An investigation of the settled CNT material using analytical electron microscopy revealed the presence of spheroidal, bundle-like and net like CNT-agglomerate structures. Calcium possibly acted as bridging agent linking CNTs in a network like manner, temporarily increasing the CNT concentrations stabilized in the supernatants due to the low density of these structures. With increasing settling time the CNTs formed a fluffy sediment layer at the bottom of the reaction vessels. Bundle-like CNT agglomerates were also observed within that layer of settled CNTs, possibly caused by calcium neutralizing the surface charges. Furthermore, the CNT suspensions contained spheroidal CNT agglomerates, most likely residues from the original dry powder that were not disaggregated. The analysis of settled CNT material is a novelty and illustrates CNT agglomerate structures possibly accumulating in the sediments of aquatic systems subsequent to CNT emissions. PMID:23582307

Schwyzer, Irène; Kaegi, Ralf; Sigg, Laura; Nowack, Bernd

2013-08-01

372

Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies  

SciTech Connect

The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO{sub 2} emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

1990-04-01

373

Quantum dot agglomerates in biological media and their characterization by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.  

PubMed

The molecular composition of the biological environment of nanoparticles influences their physical properties and changes their pristine physicochemical identity. In order to understand, or predict, the interactions of cells with specific nanoparticles, it is critical to know their size, shape, and agglomeration state not only in their nascent state but also in biological media. Here, we use asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with on-line multiangle light scattering (MALS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-Visible absorption detections to determine the relative concentration of isolated nanoparticles and agglomerates in the case of three types of semi-conductor quantum dots (QDs) dispersed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Media (DMEM) containing 10% of fetal bovine serum (DMEM-FBS). AF4 analysis also yielded the size and size distribution of the agglomerates as a function of the time of QDs incubation in DMEM-FBS. The preferred modes of internalization of the QDs are assessed for three cell-types, N9 microglia, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and human embryonic kidney cells (Hek293), by confocal fluorescence imaging of live cells, quantitative determination of the intracellular QD concentration, and flow cytometry. There is an excellent correlation between the agglomeration status of the three types of QDs in DMEM-FBS determined by AF4 analysis and their preferred mode of uptake by the three cell lines, which suggests that AF4 yields an accurate description of the nanoparticles as they encounter cells and advocates its use as a means to characterize particles under evaluation. PMID:25542679

Moquin, Alexandre; Neibert, Kevin D; Maysinger, Dusica; Winnik, Françoise M

2015-01-01

374

Recent satellite-based trends of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over large urban agglomerations worldwide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trends in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns over 66 large urban agglomerations worldwide have been computed using data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument onboard the Envisat platform for the period August 2002 to March 2012. A seasonal model including a~linear trend was fitted to the satellite-based time series over each site. The results indicate distinct spatial patterns in trends. While agglomerations in Europe, North America, and some locations in East Asia/Oceania show decreasing tropospheric NO2 levels on the order of -5% yr-1, rapidly increasing levels of tropospheric NO2 are found for agglomerations in large parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The site with the most rapidly increasing absolute levels of tropospheric NO2 was found to be Tianjin in China with a trend of 3.04 (±0.47) × 1015 molecules cm-2yr-1, whereas the site with the most rapidly increasing relative trend was Kabul in Afghanistan with 14.3 (±2.2) % yr-1. In total, 34 sites exhibited increasing trends of tropospheric NO2 throughout the study period, 24 of which were found to be statistically significant. A total of 32 sites showed decreasing levels of tropospheric NO2 during the study period, of which 20 sites did so at statistically significant magnitudes. Overall, going beyond the relatively small set of megacities investigated previously, this study provides the first consistent analysis of recent changes in tropospheric NO2 levels over most large urban agglomerations worldwide, and indicates that changes in urban NO2 levels are subject to substantial regional differences as well as influenced by economic and demographic factors.

Schneider, P.; Lahoz, W. A.; van der A, R.

2015-02-01

375

Recent satellite-based trends of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over large urban agglomerations worldwide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trends in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations over 66 large urban agglomerations worldwide have been computed using data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument onboard the Envisat platform for the period August 2002 to March 2012. A seasonal model including a linear trend was fitted to the satellite-based time series over each site. The results indicate distinct spatial patterns in trends. While agglomerations in Europe, North America, and some locations in East Asia/Oceania show decreasing tropospheric NO2 levels on the order of -5 % yr-1, rapidly increasing levels of tropospheric NO2 are found for agglomerations in large parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The site with the most rapidly increasing absolute levels of tropospheric NO2 was found to be Tianjin in China with a trend value of 3.04 (±0.47) × 1015 molecules cm-2 yr-1, whereas the site with the most rapidly increasing relative trend was Kabul in Afghanistan with 14.3 (±2.2) % yr-1. In total, 34 sites exhibited increasing trends of tropospheric NO2 throughout the study period, 24 of which were found to be statistically significant. A total of 32 sites showed decreasing levels of tropospheric NO2 during the study period, of which 20 sites did so at statistically significant magnitudes. Overall, going beyond the relatively small set of megacities investigated previously, this study provides the first consistent analysis of recent changes in tropospheric NO2 levels over most large urban agglomerations worldwide.

Schneider, P.; Lahoz, W. A.; van der A, R.

2014-09-01

376

Remediation of a Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil by Means of Agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of treating a heavy metal-contaminated soil by means of a solidification\\/stabilization treatment consisting of a granulation process is discussed in the present article. The aim of the study was to attain contaminant immobilization within the agglomerated solid matrix. The soil under concern was characterized by varying levels of heavy metal contamination, ranging from 50 to 500 mg kg dry soil

Alessandra Polettini; Raffaella Pomi; Mattia Valente

2004-01-01

377

Integrated low emission cleanup system for direct coal-fueled turbines (electrostatic agglomeration)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract was to investigate the removal of SO[sub x] and particulate matter from direct coal fired combustion gas streams at high temperature and high pressure conditions. This investigation was to be accomplished through a bench scale testing and evaluation program for SO[sub x] removal and the innovative particulate collection concept of particulate growth through electrostatic agglomeration followed by high efficiency mechanical collection. The process goal was to achieve control better than that required by 1979 New Source Performance Standards. During Phase I, the designs of the combustor and gas cleanup apparatus were successfully completed. Hot gas cleanup was designed to be accomplished at temperature levels between 1800[degrees] and 2500[degrees]F at pressures up to 15 atmospheres. The combustor gas flow rate could be varied between 0.2--0.5 pounds per second. The electrostatic agglomerator residence time could be varied between 0.25 to 3 seconds. In Phase II, all components were fabricated, and erected successfully. Test data from shakedown testing was obtained. Unpredictable difficulties in pilot plant erection and shakedown consumed more budget resources than was estimated and as a consequence DOE, METC, decided ft was best to complete the contract at the end of Phase II. Parameters studied in shakedown testing revealed that high-temperature high pressure electrostatics offers an alternative to barrier filtration in hot gas cleanup but more research is needed in successful system integration between the combustor and electrostatic agglomerator.

Quimby, J.M.; Kumar, K.S.

1992-01-01

378

Benign reduction of carbon nanotube agglomerates using a supercritical carbon dioxide process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was developed to deagglomerate commercially available multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bundles while maintaining the carbon nanotube aspect ratio. The process utilizes the rapid expansion of a supercritical carbon dioxide/MWCNT mixture to separate large primary carbon nanotube agglomerates. High levels of deagglomeration of Baytubes® C 150 P and Nanocyl™ NC-7000 MWCNT bundles were observed on the macroscale and nanoscale, resulting in 30-fold and 50-fold decreases in bulk density, respectively, with median agglomerate sizes <8 ?m in diameter. These results were obtained while retaining the aspect ratio of the as-received nanomaterial, irrespective of the MWCNT agglomerate morphology. It was found that a temperature and pressure of 40 °C and 7.86 MP resulted in maximum deagglomeration without damage to the MWCNTs. Thermodynamic principles were applied to describe the effect of processing variables on the efficiency of the deagglomeration. These results suggest that combining this process with a composite processing step, such as melt compounding, will result in nanocomposites with enhanced electrical properties.

Quigley, John P.; Herrington, Kevin; Bortner, Michael; Baird, Donald G.

2014-09-01

379

Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch in a bubbling fluidized bed: a performance and agglomeration study.  

PubMed

Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was investigated in a pilot-scale air-blown fluidized bed. The effect of bed temperature (650-1050 °C) on gasification performance was studied. To explore the potential of EFB, the gasification results were compared to that of sawdust. Results showed that maximum heating values (HHV) of 5.37 and 5.88 (MJ/Nm3), dry gas yield of 2.04 and 2.0 (Nm3/kg), carbon conversion of 93% and 85 % and cold gas efficiency of 72% and 71 % were obtained for EFB and sawdust at the temperature of 1050 °C and ER of 0.25. However, it was realized that agglomeration was the major issue in EFB gasification at high temperatures. To prevent the bed agglomeration, EFB gasification was performed at temperature of 770±20 °C while the ER was varied from 0.17 to 0.32. Maximum HHV of 4.53 was obtained at ER of 0.21 where no agglomeration was observed. PMID:20980143

Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin

2011-01-01

380

Sedimentation of agglomerated nanoparticles under cell culture conditions studied by image based analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic effects of nanoparticles can be analyzed with alveolar macrophages in vitro. To quantify exposure of cells to particles we analyzed the sedimentation of nanoparticle agglomerates in cell culture medium (MEM) by means of phase contrast microscopy. Particles were suspended by brief ultrasonication in MEM and pipetted into a glass bottom culture dish on the stage of a Nikon-Biostation under cell culture condition. Successive images were captured from the lowermost optical plane and were converted into binary images. The number of agglomerates (N) as well as the particle-covered area (A) were determined by image analyses. Typically, N increased to a maximum value before it partially decayed due to overlapping and/or optical interference of particles, and finally became constant. In contrast, A increased in a monophasic manner. By means of mathematical modeling we identified the endpoint of sedimentation of particle agglomerates, which is an important though a largely neglected event in most cell culture experiments. This endpoint could be calculated from an approximated model function. As the method can be employed in the presence of cells, a parallel evaluation of particle sedimentation and particle uptake appears possible.

Schippritt, Darius; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

2010-04-01

381

Agglomeration and filtration of colloidal suspensions with DVLO interactions in simulation and experiment.  

PubMed

Cake filtration is a widely used solid-liquid separation process. However, the high flow resistance of the nanoporous filter cake lowers the efficiency of the process significantly. The structure and thus the permeability of the filter cakes depend on the compressive load acting on the particles, the particles size, and the agglomeration of the particles. The latter is determined by the particle charge and the ionic strength of the suspension, as described by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. In this paper, we propose a combined stochastic rotation dynamics (SRD) and molecular dynamics (MD) methodology to simulate the cake formation. The simulations give further insight into the dependency of the filter cakes' structure on the agglomeration of the particles, which cannot be accessed experimentally. The permeability, as investigated with lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulations of flow through the discretized cake, depends on the particle size and porosity, and thus on the agglomeration of the particles. Our results agree qualitatively with experimental data obtained from colloidal boehmite suspensions. PMID:20570277

Schäfer, Bastian; Hecht, Martin; Harting, Jens; Nirschl, Hermann

2010-09-01

382

Constructal theory of particle agglomeration and design of air-cleaning devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a constructal approach to understanding and predicting the morphology of agglomerates of aerosol particles and also to the design of air-cleaning devices. We show that particle agglomeration begins in spherical shape and switches to needle-shaped agglomeration, which performs best as a particle collector at long times. The shape of the needle depends on the dipolar moment of the particles, while the critical number of particles prior to switching to needle shape does not depend on the particle properties.We also show how constructal theory leads to the design of air-cleaning devices that achieve maximum performance per unit volume, under the imposed global constrains. The optimal geometry (internal spacing) of devices composed of parallel-plate channels or tubes and porous filters is shown to depend on known non-dimensional numbers that characterize particle deposition. The work reported in this paper adds to many studies that show how constructal theory provides a deterministic basis for the generation of flow configuration everywhere.

Reis, A. H.; Miguel, A. F.; Bejan, A.

2006-05-01

383

Visualizing powder de-agglomeration upon impact with simultaneous flowing charge behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of the dry powder inhaler (DPI) in treating respiratory diseases lies in its ability to deliver consistent and reliable drug dosage with each actuation. From aerosolization upon actuation to throat impaction, the deagglomeration with subsequent detachment of the drug from the carrier particles depend on the interaction forces, including electrostatic contributions, between the particles themselves or with the inhaler wall and the extent of which could depend on the surface roughness of the carrier particles. In this study, we have simultaneously investigated the contributions of the electrostatic forces while visualizing the de-agglomeration and impaction behaviours of carrier powders in an impaction throat model using a non-contact vibrating capacitive probe and a high speed camera respectively. Rough and smooth carrier particles were obtained by spray drying and then aerosolized at 60 L/min in the model. Higher flowing charges were observed for the rough aerosolized carrier particles while experiencing rebound or limited agglomerate fracture upon impaction. On the other hand, smooth particles were broken up upon impaction resulting in a 'plume-like' re-entrainment. Further analyses revealed that the increased moisture sorption on the larger specific surface area of the rough particles would have facilitated the accumulation of surface charges that could in turn contribute to the cohesiveness of the rough particles. Combined high speed imaging with electrostatic monitoring has proved to be useful in investigating the mechanisms of powder de-agglomeration upon impaction.

Kwek, Jin Wang; Heng, Desmond; Lee, Sie Huey; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Hak-Kim; Heng, Jerry; Tan, Reginald

2013-06-01

384

Investigations on Agglomeration and Haemocompatibility of Vitamin E TPGS Surface Modified Berberine Chloride Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of surface modification on systemic stability of NPs. Vitamin E TPGS (1% w/v) was used for surface modification of berberine chloride nanoparticles. Naked and surface modified NPs were incubated in different SBFs (pH 6.8 and 7.4) with or without bile salts and human plasma. NPs were observed for particle agglomeration and morphology by particle size analyzer and TEM, respectively. The haemocompatibility studies were conducted on developed NPs to evaluate their safety profile. The surface modified NPs were stable compared to naked NPs in different SBFs due to the steric stabilization property of vitamin E TPGS. Particle agglomeration was not seen when NPs were incubated in SBF (pH 6.8) with bile salts. No agglomeration was observed in NPs after their incubation in plasma but particle size of the naked NPs increased due to adhesion of plasma proteins. The TEM images confirmed the particle size results. DSC and FT-IR studies confirmed the coexistence of TPGS in surface modified NPs. The permissible haemolysis, LDH release, and platelet aggregation revealed that NPs were compatible for systemic administration. Thus, the study illustrated that the surface modification is helpful in the maintenance of stability of NPs in systemic conditions. PMID:25162037

Vuddanda, Parameswara Rao; Rajamanickam, Vijayakumar Mahalingam; Yaspal, Madhu; Singh, Sanjay

2014-01-01

385

The impact of solution agglomeration on the deposition of self-assembled monolayers  

SciTech Connect

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMS) are commonly produced by immersing substrates in organic solutions containing trichlorosilane coupling agents. Unfortunately, such deposition solutions can also form alternate structures including inverse micelles and lamellar phases. The formation of alternate phases is one reason for the sensitivity of SAM depositions to factors such as the water content of the deposition solvent. If such phases are present, the performance of thin films used for applications such as minimization of friction and stiction in micromachines can be seriously compromised. Inverse micelle formation has been studied in detail for depositions involve 1H-, 1H-, 2H-, 2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) in isooctane. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments have been used to monitor the kinetics of hydrolysis and condensation reactions between water and FDTS. Light scattering experiments show that when hydrolyzed FDTS concentrations reach a critical concentration, there is a burst of nucleation to form high concentrations of spherical agglomerates. Atomic force microscopy results show that the agglomerates then deposit on substrate surfaces. Deposition conditions leading to monolayer formation involve using deposition times that are short relative to the induction time for agglomeration. After deposition, inverse micelles can be converted into lamellar or monolayer structures with appropriate heat treatments if surface concentrations are relatively low.

BUNKER,BRUCE C.; CARPICK,ROBERT W.; ASSINK,ROGER A.; THOMAS,MICHAEL L.; HANKINS,MATTHEW G.; VOIGT,JAMES A.; SIPOLA,DIANA L.; DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; GULLEY,GERALD L.

2000-04-17

386

The large-scale production of carbon nanotubes in a nano-agglomerate fluidized-bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) produced by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) can be formed into loose agglomerates that can be fluidized during the growth process. This provides a way to prepare high-quality CNTs on a large scale at low cost in a nano-agglomerate fluidized-bed reactor (NAFBR). With the present fluidized-bed reactor design and catalyst preparation, 50 kg\\/day of carbon materials was

Yao Wang; Fei Wei; Guohua Luo; Hao Yu; Guangsheng Gu

2002-01-01

387

LAST 20 YEARS OF GAS HYDRATES IN THE OIL INDUSTRY: CHALLENGES AND ACHIEVEMENTS IN PREDICTING PIPELINE BLOCKAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous effort to understand the complicated behavior of gas hydrates in multiphase flow has led to the evolution of a new paradigm of hydrate blockage. The hydrate community continues to debate the impact of kinetics, agglomeration, and oil chemistry effects on hydrate blockage formation in pipelines and wellbores. However, today's industry for the most part still continues to rely

Douglas A. Estanga; Jefferson Creek; Sivakumar Subramanian; Ramesh A. Kini

388

BIOREMEDIATION TECHNIQUES ON CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED SOILS IN OHIO. Final report includes the quarterly report that ended 12/31/1996  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to define the optimum limits of chemical and physical conditions that reduce soil salinity and maximize indigenous aerobic microbiological populations in the bioremediation of oil field waste solids. Specifically, the study centers around treatment of surface contained oily waste having low density and limited solubility in water. Successful remediation is defined by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction to 1% and no hydrocarbon or salinity impact on ground water resources. The Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission have encouraged oil and gas producing states to identify and develop improved methods such as this to reduce, recycle or treat solid waste generated with the exploration and development of domestic petroleum resources (IOGCC, 1995). With encouragement and funding assistance through the Department of Energy, Ohio is developing these bioremediation practices to protect soil and water resources. Ohio produced 8,300,000 barrels of crude oil in 1996 from wells operated by 4310 registered owners (ODNR, 1996). Good well site housekeeping can minimize spills, however accidental spills inevitably occur with oil production of this magnitude. Development of sound environmental and economical clean-up procedures is essential.

David A. Hodges; Richard J. Simmers

1997-05-30

389

Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

1986-01-01

390

Oil Spill!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

2005-01-01

391

Oil Types  

MedlinePLUS

... About one-third will evaporate within 24 hours. Oil contamination of intertidal areas can be severe and long- ... Heavy Oils (Heavy Crude Oils, No. 6 Fuel Oil, Bunker C) Little or no evaporation or dissolution. Heavy contamination of intertidal areas likely. Severe impacts to waterfowl ...

392

Motor oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil can be recycled and reused, cutting down on our foreign oil dependence. It can also contaminate drinking water and harm beach shore sand, as well as birds. Birds covered in oil cannot fly again until all the oil is washed off.

N/A N/A (None; )

2007-02-11

393

Modeling the kinetics of the coalescence of water droplets in crude oil emulsions subject to an electric field, with the cellular automata technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the concept of cellular automata is applied in an innovative way to simulate the separation of phases in a water\\/oil emulsion. The velocity of the water droplets is calculated by the balance of forces acting on a pair of droplets in a group, and cellular automata is used to simulate the whole group of droplets. Thus, it

Antonio E. Bresciani; Candido F. X. Mendonça; Rita Maria Brito Alves; Claudio Augusto Oller Nascimento

2010-01-01

394

Influence of olive (cv Grignano) fruit ripening and oil extraction under different nitrogen regimes on volatile organic compound emissions studied by PTR-MS technique.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds of extra virgin olive oils obtained from the local Italian cultivar Grignano were measured by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Oils were extracted by olives harvested at different ripening stages across veraison, performing each extraction step and the whole extraction process in nitrogen atmosphere to observe the changes in the volatile profiles of the oils. Principal component analysis carried out on the full spectral signature of the PTR-MS measurements showed that the stage of ripening has a stronger effect on the global definition of volatile profiles than the use of nitrogen during oil extraction. The fingerprint-like chemical information provided by the spectra were used to construct a heat map, which allowed the dynamical representation of the multivariate nature of mass evolution during the ripening process. This provided the first evidence that some groups of volatile organic compounds displayed a time course of regulation with coordinated increasing or decreasing trends in association with specific stages of fruit ripening. PMID:21225248

Vezzaro, Alice; Boschetti, Andrea; Dell'Anna, Rossana; Canteri, Roberto; Dimauro, Mariano; Ramina, Angelo; Ferasin, Massimo; Giulivo, Claudio; Ruperti, Benedetto

2011-03-01

395

Combining FIPA ACL With DAML+OIL A Case Study Agent Communication with CIA, FIPA ACL and Techniques of the Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Combining FIPA ACL With DAML+OIL ­ A Case Study Agent Communication with CIA, FIPA ACL The Collaboration and Coordination Infrastructure for per- sonal Agents (CIA) is a Java-based multi-agent framework for personal assistance. Until now, inter-agent communi- cation in CIA is done via topic-based communication

Biundo, Susanne

396

BIOREMEDIATION TECHNIQUES ON CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED SOILS IN OHIO. Final report includes the quarterly report that ended 12\\/31\\/1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to define the optimum limits of chemical and physical conditions that reduce soil salinity and maximize indigenous aerobic microbiological populations in the bioremediation of oil field waste solids. Specifically, the study centers around treatment of surface contained oily waste having low density and limited solubility in water. Successful remediation is defined by total petroleum

David A. Hodges; Richard J. Simmers

1997-01-01

397

Inoculation of Bacillus sphaericus UPMB-10 to Young Oil Palm and Measurement of Its Uptake of Fixed Nitrogen Using the 15N Isotope Dilution Technique  

PubMed Central

There are increasing applications of diazotrophic rhizobacteria in the sustainable agriculture system. A field experiment on young immature oil palm was conducted to quantify the uptake of N derived from N2 fixation by the diazotroph Bacillus sphaericus strain UPMB-10, using the 15N isotope dilution method. Eight months after 15N application, young immature oil palms that received 67% of standard N fertilizer application together with B. sphaericus inoculation had significantly lower 15N enrichment than uninoculated palms that received similar N fertilizers. The dilution of labeled N served as a marker for the occurrence of biological N2 fixation. The proportion of N uptake that was derived from the atmosphere was estimated as 63% on the whole plant basis. The inoculation process increased the N and dry matter yields of the palm leaflets and rachis significantly. Field planting of young, immature oil palm in soil inoculated with B. sphaericus UPMB-10 might mitigate inorganic fertilizer-N application through supplementation by biological nitrogen fixation. This could be a new and important source of nitrogen biofertilizer in the early phase of oil palm cultivation in the field. PMID:22446306

Zakry, Fitri Abdul Aziz; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H.; Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Zakaria, Zin Zawawi; Rahim, Anuar Abdul

2012-01-01

398

Inoculation of Bacillus sphaericus UPMB-10 to young oil palm and measurement of its uptake of fixed nitrogen using the ¹?N isotope dilution technique.  

PubMed

There are increasing applications of diazotrophic rhizobacteria in the sustainable agriculture system. A field experiment on young immature oil palm was conducted to quantify the uptake of N derived from N? fixation by the diazotroph Bacillus sphaericus strain UPMB-10, using the ¹?N isotope dilution method. Eight months after ¹?N application, young immature oil palms that received 67% of standard N fertilizer application together with B. sphaericus inoculation had significantly lower ¹?N enrichment than uninoculated palms that received similar N fertilizers. The dilution of labeled N served as a marker for the occurrence of biological N? fixation. The proportion of N uptake that was derived from the atmosphere was estimated as 63% on the whole plant basis. The inoculation process increased the N and dry matter yields of the palm leaflets and rachis significantly. Field planting of young, immature oil palm in soil inoculated with B. sphaericus UPMB-10 might mitigate inorganic fertilizer-N application through supplementation by biological nitrogen fixation. This could be a new and important source of nitrogen biofertilizer in the early phase of oil palm cultivation in the field. PMID:22446306

Zakry, Fitri Abdul Aziz; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H; Abdul Rahim, Khairuddin; Zawawi Zakaria, Zin; Abdul Rahim, Anuar

2012-01-01

399

Electrical insulating oils. I . Characterization and pre-treatment of new transformer oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is of fundamental importance that appropriate oil purity be preserved for all applications in electrical equipment. Oil purity can be maintained if good oil handling and testing procedures are provided. Trace contaminants and very small particle contents have recently received more attention because of improved measurement techniques. As delivered, new oils require pre-treatment by the users, but most often

Andrzej Sierota; Juris Rungis

1995-01-01

400

Dust agglomeration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

John Marshall, an investigator at Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the microgravity fluid physics program, is studying the adhesion and cohesion of particles in order to shed light on how granular systems behave. These systems include everything from giant dust clouds that form planets to tiny compressed pellets, such as the ones you swallow as tablets. This knowledge should help us control the grains, dust, and powders that we encounter or use on a daily basis. Marshall investigated electrostatic charge in microgravity on the first and second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory shuttle missions to see how grains aggregate, or stick together. With gravity's effects eliminated on orbit, Marshall found that the grains of sand that behaved ever so freely on Earth now behaved like flour. They would just glom together in clumps and were quite difficult to disperse. That led to an understanding of the prevalence of the electrostatic forces. The granules wanted to aggregate as little chains, like little hairs, and stack end to end. Some of the chains had 20 or 30 grains. This phenomenon indicated that another force, what Marshall believes to be an electrostatic dipole, was at work.(The diagram on the right emphasizes the aggregating particles in the photo on the left, taken during the USML-2 mission in 1995.)

2000-01-01

401

The effect of particle agglomeration on the formation of a surface-connected compartment induced by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in human monocyte-derived macrophages?  

PubMed Central

Agglomeration dramatically affects many aspects of nanoparticle–cell interactions. Here we show that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles formed large agglomerates in biological medium resulting in extensive particle uptake and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in human macrophages. Particle citration and/or the addition of the dispersant Darvan 7 dramatically reduced mean agglomerate sizes, the amount of particle uptake and concomitantly cytotoxicity. More surprisingly, agglomeration governed the mode of particle uptake. Agglomerates were sequestered within an extensive, interconnected membrane labyrinth open to the extracellular space. In spite of not being truly intracellular, imaging studies suggest particle degradation occurred within this surface-connected compartment (SCC). Agglomerate dispersion prevented the SCC from forming, but did not completely inhibit nanoparticle uptake by other mechanisms. The results of this study could be relevant to understanding particle–cell interactions during developmental mineral deposition, in ectopic calcification in disease, and during application of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle vectors in biomedicine. PMID:24183166

Müller, Karin H.; Motskin, Michael; Philpott, Alistair J.; Routh, Alexander F.; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Duer, Melinda J.; Skepper, Jeremy N.

2014-01-01

402

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for fingerprint pattern recognition in olive oils produced by two different techniques in Portuguese olive varieties Galega Vulgar, Cobrançosa e Carrasquenha.  

PubMed

For olive oil production a metal hammer-decanter olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press line, a discontinuous method which, if properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega, Carrasquenha and Cobrançosa olives (traditional Portuguese varieties) were studied. The analysis of the aroma compounds was performed after headspace-solid phase micro extraction. The analytical results obtained after comprehensive gas chromatography in tandem with time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/ToFMS) for these three different olive oil varieties, from a single year harvest and processed with two different extraction technologies, were compared using statistical image treatment, by means of ImageJ software, for fingerprint recognitions and compared with principal component analysis when the area data of each chromatographic spot of the contour plots were considered. The differences used to classify the olive oils studied under different groups after principal component analysis were observed independently of the treatment used (peak areas or the sum of the pixels counts). When the individual peak areas were considered, more then 75.7% of the total variance is explained by the first two principal components while in the case where the data were subjected to image treatment 84.0% of the total variance is explained by the first two principal components. In both cases the first and second principal components present eigenvalues higher then 1.0. Fingerprint image monitoring of the aroma compounds of the olive oil allowed a rapid differentiation of the three varieties studied as well as the extraction methods used. The volatile compounds responsible for their characterization were tentatively identified in a bi-dimensional polar/non-polar column set in the GCxGC/Tof-MS apparatus. This methodology allowed the reduction of the number of compounds needed for matrices characterization, preserving the efficiency of the discrimination, when compared with the traditional methods where the identification of all peaks is needed. PMID:19166732

Vaz-Freire, L Torres; da Silva, M D R Gomes; Freitas, A M Costa

2009-02-01

403

Influence of the nanoparticles agglomeration state in the quantum-confinement effects: Experimental evidences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agglomeration state facilitates particle-particle interaction which produces important effects in the phonon confinement effects at the nanoscale. A partial phonon transmission between close nanoparticles yields a lower momentum conservation relaxation than in a single isolated nanoparticle. It means a larger red shift and broadening of the Raman modes than the expected ones for Raman quantum confinement effects. This particle-particle interaction can drive to error when Raman responses are used to estimate the size of the nanoscaled materials. In this work different corrections are suggested to overtake this source of error.

Lorite, I.; Romero, J. J.; Fernandez, J. F.

2015-03-01

404

Saltation threshold reduction due to the electrostatic agglomeration of fine particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Particles between 80 and 110 microns in diameter are the most easily moved by the wind. As the particle size decreases below 60 microns, they are increasingly more difficult to move by surface winds, and a number of experiments were performed in an attempt to reduce the required wind velocity. These include: (1) the bombardment of a bed of fine particles by particles near the optimum size, the larger particles kicking the fine particles into the windstream where they are entrained; and (2) the electrostatic agglomeration of fine particles into sizes more easily saltated. The results of these experiments are discussed.

Leach, Rodman N.; Greeley, Ronald

1991-01-01

405

Comparative study of different clean-up techniques for the determination of ?-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin in palm oil matrices by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.  

PubMed

Solid phase extraction (SPE) and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) were compared and evaluated for the determination of ?-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin in palm oil matrices by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Several SPE sorbents such as graphitised carbon black (GCB), primary secondary amine (PSA), C(18), silica, and florisil were tested in order to minimise fat residues. The results show that mixed sorbents using GCB and PSA obtained cleaner extracts than a single GCB and PSA sorbents. The average recoveries obtained for each pesticide ranged between 81% and 114% at five fortification levels with the relative standard deviation of less than 7% in all cases. The limits of detection for these pesticides were ranged between 0.025 and 0.05 ?g/g. The proposed method was applied successfully for the residue determination of both ?-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin in crude palm oil samples obtained from local mills throughout Malaysia. PMID:23442715

Muhamad, Halimah; Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam; Abu Bakar, Nor Kartini

2012-10-15

406

Water quality studied in areas of unconventional oil and gas development, including areas where hydraulic fracturing techniques are used, in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis is hosting an interdisciplinary working group of USGS scientists to conduct a temporal and spatial analysis of surface-water and groundwater quality in areas of unconventional oil and gas development. The analysis uses existing national and regional datasets to describe water quality, evaluate water-quality changes over time where there are sufficient data, and evaluate spatial and temporal data gaps.

Susong, David D.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.

2012-01-01

407

Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, mule, Blue Hogan, heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The reservoir engineering component of the work completed to date included analysis of production data and well tests, comprehensive laboratory programs, and preliminary mechanistic reservoir simulation studies. A comprehensive fluid property characterization program was completed. Mechanistic reservoir production performance simulation studies were also completed.

Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

1997-02-01

408

Agglomeration multigrid methods with implicit Runge-Kutta smoothers applied to aerodynamic simulations on unstructured grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For unstructured finite volume methods an agglomeration multigrid with an implicit multistage Runge-Kutta method as a smoother is developed for solving the compressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The implicit Runge-Kutta method is interpreted as a preconditioned explicit Runge-Kutta method. The construction of the preconditioner is based on an approximate derivative. The linear systems are solved approximately with a symmetric Gauss-Seidel method. To significantly improve this solution method grid anisotropy is treated within the Gauss-Seidel iteration in such a way that the strong couplings in the linear system are resolved by tridiagonal systems constructed along these directions of strong coupling. The agglomeration strategy is adapted to this procedure by taking into account exactly these anisotropies in such a way that a directional coarsening is applied along these directions of strong coupling. Turbulence effects are included by a Spalart-Allmaras model, and the additional transport-type equation is approximately solved in a loosely coupled manner with the same method. For two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical examples and a variety of differently generated meshes we show the wide range of applicability of the solution method. Finally, we exploit the GMRES method to determine approximate spectral information of the linearized RANS equations. This approximate spectral information is used to discuss and compare characteristics of multistage Runge-Kutta methods.

Langer, Stefan

2014-11-01

409

Nano crystalline ceria-neodymia solid solutions by combustion route: effect of agglomeration on powder properties.  

PubMed

About 8 compositions in the system Ce(1-x)Nd(x)O(2-x/2) (0.0 < or = x < or = 0.50) were prepared by the combustion process using glycine as a fuel and corresponding metal nitrates as the oxidants. The oxidant-to-fuel ratio was taken as 1:1.0. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering, sinterability etc. The crystallite size of powders, as obtained by the line broadening method, was typically in the range of 7 to 16 nm. The deagglomeration studies carried out showed that the average agglomerate size of these powders increases with increasing content of Nd in CeO2. The powders were sintered at 1200 degrees C to yield densities in the range of 80-95% of theoretical densities. This wide variation in the sintered density was explained based on the powder properties. An interesting observation was that the nature and size of the agglomerates plays an important role in governing properties such as sintered density and in turn ionic conductivity of nano ceramics. PMID:18019152

Bedekar, Vinila; Tyagi, A K

2007-09-01

410

Remediation of a heavy metal-contaminated soil by means of agglomeration.  

PubMed

The feasibility of treating a heavy metal-contaminated soil by means of a solidification/stabilization treatment consisting of a granulation process is discussed in the present article. The aim of the study was to attain contaminant immobilization within the agglomerated solid matrix. The soil under concern was characterized by varying levels of heavy metal contamination, ranging from 50 to 500 mg kg(-1) dry soil for chromium. from 300 to 2000 mg kg(-1) dry soil for lead and from 270 to 5000 mg kg(-1) dry soil for copper. An artificially contaminated soil with contaminant concentrations corresponding to the upper level of the mentioned ranges was prepared from a sample of uncontaminated soil by means of spiking experiments. Pure soluble species of chromium, copper and lead. namely CrCl3.6H2O, CuCl2.2H2O and Pb(NO3)2, were selected for the spiking experiments, which were arranged according to a 2(3) full factorial design. The solidification/stabilization treatment was based on an agglomeration process making use of hydraulic binders including Portland cement, hydrated lime and sodium methasilicate, which were selected on the basis of preliminary test runs. It was found that after 7 days of curing the applied treatment was able to efficiently immobilize the investigated heavy metals within the hydrated matrix. Good acid neutralization behavior was also observed, indicating improved matrix resistance to acid attack and decreased potential for metal leaching. PMID:15137715

Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella; Valente, Mattia

2004-01-01

411

HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES  

SciTech Connect

The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing, vertical, field wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the third project year (April 6 through October 5, 2002). This work included capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pore casting on selected samples from Cherokee and Bug fields, Utah. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found at these fields are indicators of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for enhanced oil recovery via horizontal drilling. The reservoir quality of Cherokee and Bug fields has been affected by multiple generations of dissolution, anhydrite plugging, and various types of cementation which act as barriers or baffles to fluid flow. The most significant diagenetic characteristics are microporosity (Cherokee field) and micro-boxwork porosity (Bug field), as shown from porethroat radii histograms, and saturation profiles generated from the capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, and identified by scanning electron microscopy and pore casting. These porosity types represent important sites for untapped hydrocarbons and primary targets for horizontal drilling. Technology transfer activities consisted of exhibiting a booth display of project materials at the Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, a technical presentation, and publications. The project home page was updated for the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

2002-12-01

412

Simple Techniques For Assessing Impacts Of Oil And Gas Operations On Public Lands: A Field Evaluation Of A Photoionization Detector (PID) At A Condensate Release Site, Padre Island National Seashore, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Simple, cost-effective techniques are needed for land managers to assess the environmental impacts of oil and gas production activities on public lands, so that sites may be prioritized for remediation or for further, more formal assessment. Field-portable instruments provide real-time data and allow the field investigator to extend an assessment beyond simply locating and mapping obvious disturbances. Field investigators can examine sites for the presence of hydrocarbons in the subsurface using a soil auger and a photoionization detector (PID). The PID measures volatile organic compounds (VOC) in soil gases. This allows detection of hydrocarbons in the shallow subsurface near areas of obvious oil-stained soils, oil in pits, or dead vegetation. Remnants of a condensate release occur in sandy soils at a production site on the Padre Island National Seashore in south Texas. Dead vegetation had been observed by National Park Service personnel in the release area several years prior to our visit. The site is located several miles south of the Malaquite Beach Campground. In early 2001, we sampled soil gases for VOCs in the area believed to have received the condensate. Our purpose in this investigation was: 1) to establish what sampling techniques might be effective in sandy soils with a shallow water and contrast them with techniques used in an earlier study; and 2) delineate the probable area of condensate release. Our field results show that sealing the auger hole with a clear, rigid plastic tube capped at the top end and sampling the soil gas through a small hole in the cap increases the soil VOC gas signature, compared to sampling soil gases in the bottom of an open hole. This sealed-tube sampling method increases the contrast between the VOC levels within a contaminated area and adjacent background areas. The tube allows the PID air pump to draw soil gas from the volume of soil surrounding the open hole below the tube in a zone less influenced by atmospheric air. In an open hole, the VOC readings seem to be strongly dependent on the degree of diffusion and advection of soil gas VOCs into the open hole from the surrounding soil, a process that may vary with soil and wind conditions. Making measurements with the sealed hole does take some additional time (4-7 minutes after the hole is augered) compared to the open-hole technique (1-2 minutes). We used the rigid-plastic tube technique to survey for soil gas VOCs across the entire site, less than ? acre. Condensate has impacted at least 0.28 acres. The impacted area may extend northwest of the surveyed area.

Otton, James K.; Zielinski, Robert A.

2001-01-01

413

Study on transfer-free graphene synthesis process utilizing spontaneous agglomeration of catalytic Ni and Co metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transfer-free graphene synthesis process utilizing metal agglomeration phenomena was investigated by using carbon films deposited on Ni or Co catalyst metals on SiO2/Si substrates. As a result of metal agglomeration at high temperatures, multilayer graphene films appeared to be formed directly on SiO2 films. The microscopic Raman mapping study revealed that graphene films were preferentially synthesized around areas where metal films disappeared at an early stage of agglomeration, and that they finally covered almost the whole surface. It was also found that the synthesized graphene films tended to have better structural qualities and lower layer numbers with the increase in the starting metal thicknesses regardless of the kinds of catalyst metals. Raman study also showed that they had good two-dimensional uniformity in the structural quality.

Miyoshi, Makoto; Mizuno, Masaya; Banno, Kazuya; Kubo, Toshiharu; Egawa, Takashi; Soga, Tetsuo

2015-01-01

414

Fluorescence characteristics of oil during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency responders, agencies and researchers have tracked oil spilled during the Deepwater Horizon event using a number of techniques, including fluorescence, particle size and chemical analyses. Even though current protocols call for the use of in situ fluorometers to detect the presence of oil throughout the water column, these fluorometers have not been designed to yield information on changes in

P. G. Coble; R. N. Conmy; M. Wood; K. Lee; P. Kepkay; Z. Li

2010-01-01

415

Rat pulmonary responses to inhaled nano-TiO2: effect of primary particle size and agglomeration state  

PubMed Central

Background The exact role of primary nanoparticle (NP) size and their degree of agglomeration in aerosols on the determination of pulmonary effects is still poorly understood. Smaller NP are thought to have greater biological reactivity, but their level of agglomeration in an aerosol may also have an impact on pulmonary response. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of primary NP size and the agglomeration state in aerosols, using well-characterized TiO2 NP, on their relative pulmonary toxicity, through inflammatory, cytotoxic and oxidative stress effects in Fisher 344 male rats. Methods Three different sizes of TiO2 NP, i.e., 5, 10–30 or 50 nm, were inhaled as small (SA) (< 100 nm) or large agglomerates (LA) (> 100 nm) at 20 mg/m3 for 6 hours. Results Compared to the controls, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) showed that LA aerosols induced an acute inflammatory response, characterized by a significant increase in the number of neutrophils, while SA aerosols produced significant oxidative stress damages and cytotoxicity. Data also demonstrate that for an agglomeration state smaller than 100 nm, the 5 nm particles caused a significant increase in cytotoxic effects compared to controls (assessed by an increase in LDH activity), while oxidative damage measured by 8-isoprostane concentration was less when compared to 10–30 and 50 nm particles. In both SA and LA aerosols, the 10–30 nm TiO2 NP size induced the most pronounced pro-inflammatory effects compared to controls. Conclusions Overall, this study showed that initial NP size and agglomeration state are key determinants of nano-TiO2 lung inflammatory reaction, cytotoxic and oxidative stress induced effects. PMID:24090040

2013-01-01

416

SAMPLING OIL-WATER MIXTURES AT OHMSETT (OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SIMULATED ENVIRONMENTAL TEST TANK)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes procedures developed at the Oil and Hazardous Material Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT) for sampling oil and water mixtures. Two procedures for sampling in containers are discussed: grab and stratified sampling. Both of these techniques require str...

417

Peppermint Oil  

MedlinePLUS

... Services National Institutes of Health Search NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® Follow NCCAM: Read our disclaimer about external links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Peppermint Oil Common Name: peppermint oil Latin Name: Mentha x ...

418

Flaxseed oil  

MedlinePLUS

Flaxseed is the seed from the plant Linum usitatissimum. Oil from the seed is used to make medicine. People try flaxseed oil for many different conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis and high cholesterol. ...

419

Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1996--February 8, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The Anasazi field was selected for the initial geostatistical modeling and reservoir simulation. A compositional simulation approach is being used to model primary depletion, waterflood, and CO{sub 2}-flood processes. During this second year of the project, team members performed the following reservoir-engineering analysis of Anasazi field: (1) relative permeability measurements of the supra-mound and mound-core intervals, (2) completion of geologic model development of the Anasazi reservoir units for use in reservoir simulation studies including completion of a series of one-dimensional, carbon dioxide-displacement simulations to analyze the carbon dioxide-displacement mechanism that could operate in the Paradox basin system of reservoirs, and (3) completion of the first phase of the full-field, three-dimensional Anasazi reservoir simulation model, and the start of the history matching and reservoir performance prediction phase of the simulation study.

Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

1997-08-01

420

Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1997--February 8, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil are at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. This study utilized representative core and modern geophysical logs to characterize and grade each of the five fields for suitability of enhanced recovery projects. The typical vertical sequence or cycle of lithofacies from each field, as determined from conventional core, was tied to its corresponding log response. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found in the various hydrocarbon-bearing rocks of each field can be an indicator of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for water- and/or CO{sub 2}-flooding. Diagenetic histories of the various Desert Creek reservoirs were determined from 50 representative samples selected from the conventional cores of each field. Thin sections were also made of each sample for petrographic description.

Chidsey, T.C. Jr. [ed.] [comp.

1998-03-01

421

Oil Spills  

MedlinePLUS

... worst spill in U.S. history. It had major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills have the potential to affect human ... but is unlikely to have long-lasting health effects. Oil also can spread in the water, ... are underway of the health impacts of the Gulf oil spill.

422

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed boilers indicate that several facilities are experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with these deposits being, found most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Deposit and agglomerate samples have been received from four units. Our analyses of the cyclone deposits indicate they are primarily composed of an iron-aluminosilicate material. The bulk of the deposit is about 30 wt % SiO{sub 2}), 18 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 30 to 33 wt % Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Titanium is also present between 3 and 4 wt %. All the iron in the deposit is now in the Fe+3 state, but there is evidence that at the time of deposit formation it was in the Fe+2 state. The atomic structure of the bulk of the deposit is that of the spinel mineral maghemite. In nature, this is a rare mineral which forms by the oxidation of the mineral magnetite. Magnetite contains iron in both the +2 and +3 states and can incorporate titanium into its structure at low oxygen fugacities. The relatively high titanium content of the deposit suggests that it may have originally been magnetite (formed at a low oxygen fugacity), but was later oxidized to maghemite under higher oxygen fugacities. We have hypothesized that the cause of deposit formation was most likely interaction of iron, as a flux (in a reduced form), with aluminosilicate materials (clays). The iron probably originated as pyrite or iron sulfides in the feed. It also appears the quench water plays a role in enhancing, the deposit formation in the cyclones. We have hypothesized that the high iron content of solids in the sour quench water probably did not play a role in deposit formation; although, the high water vapor pressure may have had an effect on the viscosity of the material. The alkalic elements, Na and K, probably played only a minor role in deposit formation.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.D.

1993-07-01

423

Application of multivariate chemometric techniques for simultaneous determination of five parameters of cottonseed oil by single bounce attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics was used for accurate determination of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), conjugated diene (CD) and conjugated triene (CT) of cottonseed oil (CSO) during potato chips frying. Partial least square (PLS), stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR), principal component regression (PCR) and simple Beer?s law (SBL) were applied to develop the calibrations for simultaneous evaluation of five stated parameters of cottonseed oil (CSO) during frying of French frozen potato chips at 170°C. Good regression coefficients (R(2)) were achieved for FFA, PV, IV, CD and CT with value of >0.992 by PLS, SMLR, PCR, and SBL. Root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was found to be less than 1.95% for all determinations. Result of the study indicated that SB-ATR FTIR in combination with multivariate chemometrics could be used for accurate and simultaneous determination of different parameters during the frying process without using any toxic organic solvent. PMID:25127621

Talpur, M Younis; Kara, Huseyin; Sherazi, S T H; Ayyildiz, H Filiz; Topkafa, Mustafa; Arslan, Fatma Nur; Naz, Saba; Durmaz, Fatih; Sirajuddin

2014-11-01

424

Application of /sup 13/C NMR, fluorescence, and light-scattering techniques for structural studies of oil-in-water microemulsions  

SciTech Connect

The nature of the microdroplets present in oil-in-water microemulsions was examined by using the 4-component model system water-hexadecane-sodium hexadecyl sulfate-pentanol. Three compositions were selected corresponding to regions in the pahse diagram where the content of water, cosurfactant, and oil, respectively, approached the tolerable limit to yield clear isotropic solutions. In the water-side microemulsion, the radius of the droplets is 127A as determined from quasi-elastic light-scattering measurements. Fluorescence experiments showed that the core of the microspheres has a microviscosity similar to hexadecane at room temperature. /sup 13/C NMR shift analysis was applied to test the partitioning of cosurfactant between the surface and the interior of the droplet. For all three compositions significant fractions of the cosurfactant are present in the interior. This is corroborated by results obtained from T/sub 1/ relaxation-time analysis at different field strengths. The influence of the field strength on T/sub 1/ is explained in terms of a model based on a distribution of correlation times. In particular, the importance of taking into account slower rotational modes such as the tumbling of the whole microsphere is illustrated.

Tricot, Y.; Kiwi, J.; Niederberger, W.; Graetzel, M.

1981-04-02

425

Processing-related fracture origins. III. Differential sintering of ZrO2 agglomerates in Al2O3\\/ZrO2 composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, hard ZrO2 agglomerates remained in an Al2O3\\/ZrO2 composite suspension after inefficient ball-milling. The ZrO2 agglomerates shrank away from the consolidated Al2O3\\/ZrO2 powder matrix during sintering, producing cracklike voids which were responsible for strength degradation.

F. F. Lange; B. I. Davis; I. A. AKSAY

1983-01-01

426

Processing-related fracture origins. III. Differential sintering of ZrO2 agglomerates in Al2O3/ZrO2 composite  

SciTech Connect

Large, hard ZrO2 agglomerates remained in an Al2O3/ZrO2 composite suspension after inefficient ball-milling. The ZrO2 agglomerates shrank away from the consolidated Al2O3/ZrO2 powder matrix during sintering, producing cracklike voids which were responsible for strength degradation.

Lange, F.F.; Davis, B.I.

1983-06-01

427

In-Situ Burning of Spilled Oil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews in-situ burning with particular emphasis on how it can be applied in water-related oil spill situations. Presents and discusses the use of nomograms and development of techniques cited for safe and effective ignition and controlled burning of spilled oil. Includes representative oil spill scenarios and possible responses. (15 references)…

Allen, Alan A.

1991-01-01

428

Proceedings of the improved oil recovery conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this conference was to introduce enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and other improved oil recovery (IOR) techniques to the many independent oil operators in this area. Topics of discussion included surfactant\\/polymer recovery, COâ injection, polymer augmented waterflooding, hydrocarbon leaching, control of water production, improvements in gelled acid technology, and new variations in chemical EOR. Individual projects are processed

1989-01-01

429

Compression characteristics of agglomerated food powders: Effect of agglomerate size and water activity Características de la compresión de alimentos en polvo: Efecto del tamaño del aglomerado y del contenido de humedad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of food agglomerates is very important for keeping optimal instant properties as well as flow characteristics. Compression tests have been proven not only to be useful tools in char acterizing attrition, but also excellent descriptors for powder flowability. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of particle size and water activity (a w) on the

H. Yan; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas

1997-01-01

430

Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the fourth project year (April 6 through October 5, 2003). The work included (1) analysis of well-test data and oil production from Cherokee and Bug fields, San Juan County, Utah, and (2) diagenetic evaluation of stable isotopes from the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Production ''sweet spots'' and potential horizontal drilling candidates were identified for Cherokee and Bug fields. In Cherokee field, the most productive wells are located in the thickest part of the mound facies of the upper Ismay zone, where microporosity is well developed. In Bug field, the most productive wells are located structurally downdip from the updip porosity pinch out in the dolomitized lower Desert Creek zone, where micro-box-work porosity is well developed. Microporosity and micro-box-work porosity have the greatest hydrocarbon storage and flow capacity, and potential horizontal drilling target in these fields. Diagenesis is the main control on the quality of Ismay and Desert Creek reservoirs. Most of the carbonates present within the lower Desert Creek and Ismay have retained a marine-influenced carbon isotope geochemistry throughout marine cementation as well as through post-burial recycling of marine carbonate components during dolomitization, stylolitization, dissolution, and late cementation. Meteoric waters do not appear to have had any effect on the composition of the dolomites in these zones. Light oxygen values obtained from reservoir samples for wells located along the margins or flanks of Bug field may be indicative of exposure to higher temperatures, to fluids depleted in {sup 18}O relative to sea water, or to hypersaline waters during burial diagenesis. The samples from Bug field with the lightest oxygen isotope compositions are from wells that have produced significantly greater amounts of hydrocarbons. There is no significant difference between the oxygen isotope compositions from lower Desert Creek dolomite samples in Bug field and the upper Ismay limestones and dolomites from Cherokee field. Carbon isotopic compositions for samples from Patterson Canyon field can be divided into two populations: isotopically heavier mound cement and isotopically lighter oolite and banded cement. Technology transfer activities consisted of exhibiting a booth display of project materials at the annual national convention of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, a technical presentation, a core workshop, and publications. The project home page was updated on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

2003-10-05

431

Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil plus nutrients, and oil plus nutrients plus an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In situ microbial community structures were monitored by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and 16S rDNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to

SARAH J. MACNAUGHTON; JOHN R. STEPHEN; Y. J. Chang; A. D. Venosa; G. A. Davis; DAVID C. WHITE

1999-01-01

432

Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.  

PubMed

Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting in no favorable impact on protein loss. PMID:12715094

Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

2003-01-01

433

Airborne optical detection of oil on water.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne measurements were made over controlled oil-spill test sites to evaluate various techniques, utilizing reflected sunlight, for detecting oil on water. The results of these measurements show that (1) maximum contrast between oil and water is in the UV and red portions of the spectrum; (2) minimum contrast is in the blue-green; (3) differential polarization appears to be a very promising technique; (4) no characteristic absorption bands, which would permit one oil to be distinguished from another, were discovered in the spectral regions measured; (5) sky conditions greatly influence the contrast between oil and water; and (6) highest contrast was achieved under overcast sky conditions.

Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

1972-01-01

434

Mechanisms for agglomeration and deagglomeration following oblique collisions of wet particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies on wetted, particle-particle collisions have been limited to head-on collisions, but in many-particle flows, collisions are inherently oblique. In this work, we explore such oblique collisions experimentally and theoretically. Whereas in normal collisions particles rebound only due to solid deformation, we observe in oblique collisions a new outcome where the particles initially form a rotating doublet and then deagglomerate at a later time due to so-called centrifugal forces. Surprisingly, we discover the essential role of capillary forces in oblique collisions even when the capillary number (viscous over capillary forces) is high. This recognition leads to the introduction of a dimensionless number, the centrifugal number (centrifugal over capillary forces), which together with the previously established Stokes number characterizes the regime map of outcomes. Unexpectedly, we observe a normal restitution coefficient greater than unity at large impact angles, the mechanism for which may also be observed in other agglomerating systems.

Donahue, Carly M.; Davis, Robert H.; Kantak, Advait A.; Hrenya, Christine M.

2012-08-01

435

Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms an