Sample records for oil agglomeration techniques

  1. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from October 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental test procedures and the results related to the processing of coal fines originating from process streams generated at the Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant, owned and operated by the Drummond Company Inc. of Alabama, are described. Two samples of coal fines, namely Cyclone Overflow and Pond Fines were investigated. The batch test results showed that by applying the Aglofloat technology a significant ash removal might be achieved at a very high combustible matter recovery: · for the Cyclone Overflow sample the ash reduction was in the range 50 to 55% at combustible matter recovery about 98% · for the Pond Fines sample the ash reduction was up to 48% at combustible matter recovery up to 85%. Additional tests were carried out with the Alberta origin Luscar Mine coal, which will be used for the parametric studies of agglomeration equipment at the 250 kg/h pilot plant. The Luscar coal is very similar to the Mary Lee Coal Group (processed at Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant) in terms of rank and chemical composition.

  2. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 01, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

  3. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  4. Selective oil agglomeration of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Halime Abakay Temel; Volkan Bozkurt; Arun Kumar Majumder [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Department of Mining Engineering

    2009-01-15

    In this study, desulfurization and deashing of Adiyaman-Glbai lignite by the agglomeration method were studied. For this purpose, three groups of agglomeration experiments were made. The effects of solid concentration, bridging liquid type and dosage, pH, and screen size on the agglomeration after desliming were investigated in the first group of experiments. The effects of lake water and sea water (the Mediterranean Sea water, the Aegean Sea water, and the Black Sea water) on the agglomeration were investigated in the second group of experiments. The effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3}) on the agglomeration were investigated in the third group of experiments. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of sea waters and soda lake water in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the reduction of total sulfur content of agglomerates. In addition, the usage of NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3} in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the ash content reduction of the agglomerates. 27 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Factors affecting the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi Ulucayir lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, I.; Gorgun Ersan, M. [Cumhuriyet University, Sivas (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    In the coal industry, the coal particles need to be decreased to a very fine size because of the need of removing inorganic materials from coal. Oil agglomeration is a kind of coal cleaning technique that is used for separation of organic and inorganic parts of fine sized coal. In this study, the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi (S-D) Ulucayir lignite was carried out by using kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil, poppy oil, and sunflower oil. The amount of bridging oil was varied from 5% to 25% of the amount of lignite. The effect of oil amount, oil type, solid content, agitation rate and time, pH on agglomeration performance was investigated. Maximum recovery value of 98.18% was observed by using poppy oil. In order to investigate the effect of pH on agglomeration NaOH and HCl is added to the slurry in various amounts. It is decided that the best agglomeration condition is obtained at low pH values. The effect of nonionic surface active agent (Igepal-CA 630) on agglomeration is investigated by adding to the slurry and it is observed that the grade is increased with the amount of surface active agent.

  6. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  7. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  8. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  9. Adapting agglomeration techniques to today's needs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.C.

    1984-07-01

    New industries and economic trends have created new problems and opportunities for which applications of agglomeration have been developed. These applications are presented and discussed briefly. The areas include sintering of finely divided ores, briquetting feed stocks, agglomerate forms for air pollution control, hazardous waste immobilization, briquetting solid fuels for energy conservation, manufacturing synfuel charges, biomass densification, and agglomerate forms for metallurgical coke.

  10. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.

    1997-12-31

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

  11. Preliminary characterization of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process

    SciTech Connect

    Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The agglomeration of aqueous suspensions of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal particles with i-octane was studied by employing a scale model mixing system which measured both agitator speed and torque. The progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque and was confirmed by examining samples of the suspension with an optical microscope. When a suspension containing 30 w/w% solids was degassed and then conditioned with 20 v/w% i-octane (20 ml i-octane/100 g coal), no agglomeration took place until a small amount of air (e.g., 9 v/w%) was introduced. Subsequent changes in agitator torque indicated that the ensuing process of agglomeration was complex and consisted of several stages involving various interactions between coal particles, oil drops, and gas bubbles. The time required to produce spherical agglomerates was determined for different experimental conditions by conducting a number of agglomeration tests involving different mixing tank sizes and different impeller sizes and speeds. The results indicate that agglomeration time decreases with increasing power input per unit volume and increasing gas concentration.

  12. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

    1990-01-01

    Numerous measurements of the heat of immersion of coal were conducting using several different particle size fractions of No. 2 Gas Seam coal from Raleigh County, West Virginia. The heat of immersion was determined in water, methanol, heptane, hexadecane and neohexane (2,2-dimethybutane). A comparison of the results with those determined previously for Illinois No. 6 coal is discussed. A number of potential pyrite depressants for use in oil agglomeration of coal were screened by testing the response of sulfidized mineral pyrite to agglomeration with heptane in the presence of the potential depressant. The following were tested; sodium dithionite, sodium thiosulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, titanous chloride, hydrogen peroxide, Oxone (a form of potassium monopersulfate), pyrogallol, quebracho (colloidal dispersant derived from tree bark), milk whey, and several organic thiols. Ferric chloride was applied to mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and sulfidized mineral pyrite before subjecting the mixtures to agglomeration with heptane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1994-10-01

    During the first year of the project two model mixing systems, which differed in size but were similar in design, were constructed and tested. The systems were equipped for measuring agitator speed and torque and for measuring the turbidity of coal particle suspensions undergoing agglomeration. Preliminary measurements of aqueous suspensions of coal particles showed that the Beer-Lambert law applies to such suspensions at least for low concentrations. Therefore, the measured turbidity can be used as an indicator of particle concentration and a means for monitoring the progress of oil agglomeration. However, the method is not applicable for large particle concentrations so a different technique was tested for monitoring the agglomeration of large concentrations. This technique involves measuring agitator torque and observing changes in torque while agitator speed is held constant. The results of preliminary tests of the technique were encouraging. In these tests significant changes in agitator torque were observed when particle agglomeration took place as long as solids concentration of 25 w/v % or more were utilized. A number of agglomeration tests were conducted using either one or the other of the two monitoring techniques. Both methods showed that even very small amounts of air can promote the oil agglomeration of coal particles suspended in water. Even the amount of air dissolved in water at room temperature and pressure can affect the process providing the air is displaced from the solution by a slightly soluble agglomerant such as heptane. The apparent rate of agglomeration was observed to increase as more air was introduced and also as agitator speed was increased.

  14. TEM and HRTEM of Soot-in-oil particles and agglomerates from internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, M. W.; La Rocca, A.; Shayler, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Over time, the performance of lubricating oil in a diesel engine is affected by the build-up of carbon soot produced by the combustion process. TEM and HRTEM are commonly used to investigate the characteristics of individual and agglomerated particles from diesel exhaust, to understand the structure and distribution of the carbon sheets in the primary particles and the nanostructure morphology. However, high resolution imaging of soot-in-oil is more challenging, as mineral oil is a contaminant for the electron microscope and leads to instability under the electron beam. In this work we compare solvent extraction and centrifugation techniques for removing the mineral oil contaminant, and the effect on particle size distribution.

  15. Nearshore dynamics of artificial sand and oil agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Dalyander, P Soupy; Plant, Nathaniel G; Long, Joseph W; McLaughlin, Molly

    2015-07-15

    Weathered oil can mix with sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) that can cause beach re-oiling for years after a spill. Few studies have focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. In this study, artificial SOAs (aSOAs) were created and deployed in the nearshore, and shear stress-based mobility formulations were assessed to predict SOA response. Prediction sensitivity to uncertainty in hydrodynamic conditions and shear stress parameterizations were explored. Critical stress estimates accounting for large particle exposure in a mixed bed gave the best predictions of mobility under shoaling and breaking waves. In the surf zone, the 10-cm aSOA was immobile and began to bury in the seafloor while smaller size classes dispersed alongshore. aSOAs up to 5cm in diameter were frequently mobilized in the swash zone. The uncertainty in predicting aSOA dynamics reflects a broader uncertainty in applying mobility and transport formulations to cm-sized particles. PMID:25956438

  16. Desulfurization and deashing of Hazro coal by selective oil agglomeration in various water mediums

    SciTech Connect

    Halime Abakay Temel; Fatma Deniz Ayhan [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Department of Mining Engineering

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this study was to study the effects of various water mediums on desulfurization and deashing of Hazro coal by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, three groups of agglomeration experiments were made. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, bridging liquid concentration, and pH, on the agglomeration were investigated in the first group of experiments. The effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3}) on the agglomeration were investigated in the second group of experiments. The effects of lake water and sea water on the agglomeration were investigated in the third group of experiments. The influences of the Mediterranean Sea water and Aegean Sea water on the removal of ash and total sulfur were found to be important. 22 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION FOR RECOVERY OF FINE COAL REFUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the economics of an oil-agglomeration process (with and without an oil recovery system) for recovering coal fines from a fine refuse stream of 105 ton/hr from a coal preparation plant. The two base case processes studied are oil-agglom...

  18. Coal oxidation and its effect on oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, X.; Wheelock, T.D. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Small particles of high volatile bituminous coal from two different sources were oxidized by air at 150 C for up to 72 hrs. As the treatment progressed, samples of coal were recovered and characterized by measuring the heat of immersion of the particles in water and determining the agglomerability of the material with heptane while suspended in water. As oxidation proceeded, the heat of immersion increased and the agglomerability decreased, and a direct relationship between the two was observed.

  19. New surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration in hydrocarbon flowlines and seabed oil capture.

    PubMed

    Sun, Minwei; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2013-07-15

    Anti-agglomeration is a promising solution for gas hydrate risks in deepsea hydrocarbon flowlines and oil leak captures. Currently ineffectiveness at high water to oil ratios limits such applications. We present experimental results of a new surfactant in rocking cell tests, which show high efficiency at a full range of water to oil ratios; there is no need for presence of the oil phase. We find that our surfactant at a very low concentration (0.2 wt.% of water) keeps the hydrate particles in anti-agglomeration state. We propose a mechanism different from the established water-in-oil emulsion theory in the literature that the process is effective without the oil phase. There is no need to emulsify the water phase in the oil phase for hydrate anti-agglomeration; with oil-in-water emulsion and without emulsion hydrate anti-agglomeration is presented in our research. We expect our work to pave the way for broad applications in offshore natural gas production and seabed oil capture with very small quantities of an eco-friendly surfactant. PMID:23660023

  20. Remediation of oil-contaminated sand by coal agglomeration using ball milling.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2011-10-01

    The mechanical shear force provided by a less energy intensive device (usually operating at 20-200 rpm), a ball mill, was used toperform coal agglomeration and its effects on remediation of a model fuel oil-contaminated sand were evaluated. Important process parameters such as the amount of coal added, milling time, milling speed and the size of milling elements are discussed. The results suggested that highly hydrophobic oil-coal agglomerates, formed by adding suitable amounts of coal into the oil-contaminated sand, could be mechanically liberated from cleaned sand during ball milling and recovered as a surface coating on the steel balls. Over 90% removal of oil from oil-contaminated sand was achieved with 6 wt% of coal addition and an optimum ball milling time of 20 min and speed of 200 rpm. This novel process has considerable potential for cleaning oil-contaminated sands. PMID:22329146

  1. Oil encapsulation by spray drying and fluidised bed agglomeration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Turchiuli; M. Fuchs; M. Bohin; M. E. Cuvelier; C. Ordonnaud; M. N. Peyrat-Maillard; E. Dumoulin

    2005-01-01

    Many active components (anti-oxidants, aromas) are lipophilic substances, available in liquid form and have to be protected from the environment. Encapsulation of oil drops into a solid matrix is regarded as an efficient protection method and a means of formulating liquid compounds in a solid dosed form.The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of encapsulation of a

  2. Spherical crystal agglomeration of ibuprofen by the solvent-change technique in presence of methacrylic polymers.

    PubMed

    Kachrimanis, K; Nikolakakis, I; Malamataris, S

    2000-02-01

    The effects of Eudragit(R) nature on the formation and spherical agglomeration of ibuprofen microcrystals have been examined when solvent change (ethanol-water) technique is applied. Four methacrylic polymers (Eudragit(R) S100, L100, RS, and RL), with different solubility and solubilizing ability, were used. The extrapolated points of maximum temperature deviation rate in crystallization liquid that reflect the maximum crystallization rate and the corresponding water addition were determined, as well as crystal yielding and incorporation of drug and polymer in the agglomerates. The physicomechanical properties of the agglomerates, such as size, sphericity, surface roughness and porosity, as well as flow and packing or compression behavior during tableting, were evaluated for different drug/polymer ratios. It was found that crystal yield is greatly reduced in the presence of water-insoluble polymers and that formation of the microcrystals and incorporation of drug and polymer are affected by the polymer nature. Crystal formation changes are attributed to alterations in the metastable zone, whereas the changes in drug and polymer incorporation and crystal yield are caused by changes in the polymers' solubility and micellization. The size of agglomerates depends on the polymer nature and its interactions with the ibuprofen microcrystals formed. Sphericity, surface roughness, and intraparticle porosity of agglomerates increase, in general, with the presence of polymer owing to changes in habit and growth rate of the microcrystals and to their coating before binding into spherical agglomerates. The particle density or intraparticle porosity and size changes determine flow or packing behavior and densification of agglomerates at low compression. The incorporation and brittleness of the polymer determine the deformation under higher compression pressure, expressed as yield pressure, Py. PMID:10688754

  3. Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone.

    PubMed

    Dalyander, P Soupy; Long, Joseph W; Plant, Nathaniel G; Thompson, David M

    2014-03-15

    Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these "surface residual balls" (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results. PMID:24503377

  4. Directional Agglomeration Multigrid Techniques for High Reynolds Number Viscous Flow Solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A preconditioned directional-implicit agglomeration algorithm is developed for solving two- and three-dimensional viscous flows on highly anisotropic unstructured meshes of mixed-element types. The multigrid smoother consists of a pre-conditioned point- or line-implicit solver which operates on lines constructed in the unstructured mesh using a weighted graph algorithm. Directional coarsening or agglomeration is achieved using a similar weighted graph algorithm. A tight coupling of the line construction and directional agglomeration algorithms enables the use of aggressive coarsening ratios in the multigrid algorithm, which in turn reduces the cost of a multigrid cycle. Convergence rates which are independent of the degree of grid stretching are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions. Further improvement of the three-dimensional convergence rates through a GMRES technique is also demonstrated.

  5. Directional Agglomeration Multigrid Techniques for High-Reynolds Number Viscous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    1998-01-01

    A preconditioned directional-implicit agglomeration algorithm is developed for solving two- and three-dimensional viscous flows on highly anisotropic unstructured meshes of mixed-element types. The multigrid smoother consists of a pre-conditioned point- or line-implicit solver which operates on lines constructed in the unstructured mesh using a weighted graph algorithm. Directional coarsening or agglomeration is achieved using a similar weighted graph algorithm. A tight coupling of the line construction and directional agglomeration algorithms enables the use of aggressive coarsening ratios in the multigrid algorithm, which in turn reduces the cost of a multigrid cycle. Convergence rates which are independent of the degree of grid stretching are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions. Further improvement of the three-dimensional convergence rates through a GMRES technique is also demonstrated.

  6. Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

  7. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration. Fossil energy interim report, October 1, 1983--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1992-12-31

    Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with several types of low-ash coal and graphite, high grade mineral pyrite, and other materials. Relatively pure hydrocarbons, including heptane and hexadecane, were used as agglomerants. Access of air to the system was controlled. Particle recovery by agglomeration was observed to depend on a number of system parameters. Among the most important parameters are the hydrophobicity of the particles and the oil dosage, so that the, recovery of solids per unit of oil administered is proportional to the hydrophobicity. The pH and ionic strength of the aqueous suspension affect particle recovery in different ways depending on the surface properties of the particles. On the other hand, the presence of air in the system generally improves particle recovery. The greatest effect of air was observed in a closely related study which showed that air had to be present to produce good agglomerates from a moderately hydrophobic coal in a mixer producing a lower shear rate. The rate of agglomeration was found to be much greater for a strongly hydrophobic coal than for a moderately hydrophobic coal, and the rate was observed to be proportional to the oil dosage. Also the rate was enhanced by the presence of air in the, system. For hydrophobic coals, the rate increased with increasing ionic strength of the aqueous medium, but it was not affected greatly by pH over a wide range. The separation of coal and pyrite particles by selective agglomeration was found to depend on the relative hydrophobicity of the materials, the oil dosage, and the properties of the aqueous medium.

  8. Diffusion mediated agglomeration of CdS nanoparticles via Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Nayan Mani, E-mail: nayanmanidas3@gmail.com; Roy, Dhrubojyoti; Gupta, P.S.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Diffusion mediated agglomeration of CdS nanoparticles are discussed. • Formation of CdS nanoparticles are confirmed by the change of chain length in XRD. • AFM shows the agglomeration of particles with a film swelling of about 5 ?. • UV–vis absorbance suggests that the grown particles show quantum confinement. • Hexagonal form of particle was confirmed by UV–vis reflectivity. - Abstract: We have reported a diffusion mediated agglomeration of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles within cadmium arachidate (CdA{sub 2}) film matrix. The structural morphology and formation of CdS nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show a change in bilayer difference from 53.04 ? to 43 ? after the sulphidation. An epitaxial growth of the films by ?5 ? after sulphidation is confirmed from atomic force microscopy studies. The particle size calculated form UV–vis absorption edges are found to be varying from 2.6 nm to 3.3 nm for the different layers. A lateral dimension of 72–80 nm from AFM measurements and a size of 2.6–3.3 nm have confirmed one side flat pseudo two-dimensional disk-like nanoparticles. UV–vis reflectivity peak at E{sub 1} (A) confirms the formation of hexagonal CdS nanoparticles along the c-axis.

  9. Observational Data Analysis and Numerical Model Assessment of the Seafloor Interaction and Mobility of Sand and Weathered Oil Agglomerates (Surface Residual Balls) in the Surf Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalyander, S.; Long, J.; Plant, N. G.; Penko, A.; Calantoni, J.; Thompson, D.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    When weathered oil is transported ashore, such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, it can mix with suspended sediment in the surf zone to create heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates in the form of mats several centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Broken off pieces of these mats and smaller agglomerates formed in situ (called Surface Residual Balls, SRBs) can cause beach re-oiling months to years after the initial spill. The physical dynamics of these SRBs in the nearshore, where they are larger (cm-scale) and less dense than natural sediment, are poorly understood. In the current study, SRB mobility and seafloor interaction is investigated through a combination of laboratory and field experiments with pseudo-SRBs developed to be physically stable proxies for genuine agglomerates. Formulations for mobility prediction based on comparing estimated shear stress to the critical Shields and modified Shields parameters developed for mixed sediment beds are assessed against observations. Processes such as burial, exhumation, and interaction with bedforms (e.g., migrating ripples) are also explored. The observations suggest that incipient motion estimates based on a modified Shields parameter have some skill in predicting SRB movement, but that other forcing mechanisms such as pressure gradients may be important under some conditions. Additionally, burial and exhumation due to the relatively high mobility of sand grains are confirmed as key processes controlling SRB dynamics in the surf zone. This work has broad implications for understanding surf zone sediment transport at the short timescale associated with mobilizing sand grains and SRBs as well as at the longer timescales associated with net transport patterns, sediment budgets, and bed elevation changes.

  10. Liquid bridge agglomeration: A fundamental approach to toner deinking

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, B.A.; Berg, J.C. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    An alternative agglomeration technique for deinking toner-printed furnishes has been investigated. This technique requires only the addition of an immiscible hydrocarbon oil dispersed in water at dosages of approximately 1% by weight on fiber. The addition is made during repulping: the process appears to be effective at all temperatures of interest (23 C and 70 C are tested) and requires no surfactants or additional chemicals. The result of the oil addition is the agglomeration of the toner particles into spheres of 1 mm to 1 cm in size. These spheres contain the added oil which acts as a binder, holding the toner particles together by liquid bridges. The process is ineffective when the furnish contains highly sized fibers or starched paper, and future work seeks to address these crucial problems.

  11. Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Capes, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the 4th International Symposium on Agglomeration. Topics covered include: Agglomeration of Iron Ore (Balling, Binders and Additives, Pelletizing Plant Practice, Sintering, and Characterization of Pellets and Sinter), Agglomeration Process Technologies (Surveys and Applications, Agglomeration for Recycling, Fluid Bed Systems, Granulation: Food and Pharmaceuticals, Pressure Agglomeration, and Agglomeration in Liquids), Fundamental Aspects (Fundamentals and Modelling, Simulation, and Control), and Coal, Coke and Fuels (Coalmaking and Coke Properties, Oil Agglomeration of Coal, and Fuels). In addition, the book contains plenary lectures and listings of the symposium steering committee, the technical program committee, the international advisory committee and the session chairman.

  12. Unstructured multigrid through agglomeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, D. J.; Berger, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    In this work the compressible Euler equations are solved using finite volume techniques on unstructured grids. The spatial discretization employs a central difference approximation augmented by dissipative terms. Temporal discretization is done using a multistage Runge-Kutta scheme. A multigrid technique is used to accelerate convergence to steady state. The coarse grids are derived directly from the given fine grid through agglomeration of the control volumes. This agglomeration is accomplished by using a greedy-type algorithm and is done in such a way that the load, which is proportional to the number of edges, goes down by nearly a factor of 4 when moving from a fine to a coarse grid. The agglomeration algorithm has been implemented and the grids have been tested in a multigrid code. An area-weighted restriction is applied when moving from fine to coarse grids while a trivial injection is used for prolongation. Across a range of geometries and flows, it is shown that the agglomeration multigrid scheme compares very favorably with an unstructured multigrid algorithm that makes use of independent coarse meshes, both in terms of convergence and elapsed times.

  13. New production techniques for alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Carrigy, M A

    1986-12-19

    Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and upgrading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir. PMID:17816505

  14. Description of agglomerate growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan H. Schaafsma; Pieter Vonk; Pythia Segers; Nico W. F. Kossen

    1998-01-01

    Wet agglomeration processes have predominantly been investigated by changing operation variables of process-scale experiments. So far, most fundamental work concentrated on the strength of the liquid bonds in the agglomerate and its relation to the process. Previous studies on the relationship between droplet size and agglomerate size in fluid bed agglomeration indicated that, besides agglomerate strength, liquid distribution determines the

  15. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

    1999-07-01

    The information presented in this manual is solely for the purpose of operating the POC-scale equipment for fine coal processing as described herein. This manual provides a general description of the process technology and guidelines for plant operating procedures. It is intended for use by the operators and maintenance personnel who will be responsible for the operations of the plant. No attempt should be made to operate the plant until the principles of the process and operating instructions contained in this manual are fully understood. Operating personnel should thoroughly familiarize themselves with all processing equipment prior to commencing plant operation. All equipment is skid mounted to provide a self-contained unit. The dimensions of the unit are comply with standard guidelines. A minimum distance of 2 feet is provided between equipment for walkway and maintenance.

  16. Fuel agglomerates and method of agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Solid fuel agglomerates are prepared of particulate coal or other carbonaceous material with a binder having a high humic acid or humate salt content. The humic acid is extracted from oxidized carbonaceous material with a mild aqueous alkali solution of, for instance, ammonia. The particulate material is blended with the extract which serves as the binder for the agglomerates. The water-resistant agglomerates are formed such as by pelletizing, followed by drying to remove moisture and solidify the humic acid binder throughout the agglomerate.

  17. Silica nanoparticle sols. Part 3: Monitoring the state of agglomeration at the air/water interface using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique.

    PubMed

    Blute, Irena; Pugh, Robert J; van de Pas, John; Callaghan, Ian

    2009-08-15

    Langmuir-Blodgett films were prepared at the air/water interface from dispersions of hydrophilic and partially, hydrophobically modified industrially manufactured silica nanoparticles. The hydrophilic particles featured expanded, fairly easily compressible, surface pressure (pi)-area (A) isotherms with well defined collapse pressures which appeared to be caused by the formation of loosely structured agglomerates which exhibited elastic behavior at low surface pressure and inelastic behavior at high surface pressure. Lateral electrostatic interparticle interactions seemingly played an important role in this hydrophilic system. This contrasted with the hydrophobically modified particles which were more difficult to disperse in the ethanol/chloroform spreading solvent and appeared to be in the semi-agglomerated state at low surface pressures and exhibited a more difficult to compress compacted film. Both types of particulate films were shown to be sensitive to the spreading environment and changes in pH were found to increase particle agglomeration which drastically reduced the particulate area for the hydrophilic sol but less so, in the case of the moderately hydrophobically modified sol. In general, the LB technique proved to be a useful method to monitor changes in the state of aggregation of nanosized silica particles at the air/water interface. These results also appear to give some support of our ideas, presented in earlier publications in which it was suggested that the major role of the hydrophobically modified hydrophilic particles in foaming was to produce an aggregated particulate film surrounding the air/water interface which provides a physical barrier preventing coalescence of bubbles. PMID:19520375

  18. Separating oil from oil-water emulsions by electroflotation technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf Y. Hosny

    1996-01-01

    The separation of finely dispersed oil from oil-water emulsions was carried out in an electroflotation cell which has a set of electrodes, a lead anode and stainless steel screen cathode. The effect of operating parameters on the performance of the batch cell was examined. The parameters investigated are electrical current, oil concentration, flotation time and flocculant agent concentrations. A well-fitted

  19. Electrical techniques for monitoring the condition of lubrication oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J. D.; Austin, L.

    2003-10-01

    The lubricating oil used in engines for vehicle and other applications is renewed according to a schedule specified by the manufacturer. This timetable is, naturally, very conservative, and makes no allowance for the way in which the engine is operated. Constant-speed operation (such as motorway use) is much less harmful to the lubricant than variable-speed operation, such as urban driving, during which the oil experiences extreme variations of temperature and engine speed. The net result of the conservative lubricant replacement schedule is that most engine oil is discarded well before it has reached the end of its useful life. This paper reports a study in which changes to the dielectric and magnetic properties of the oil are assessed as methods of measuring the degradation of lubricating oil. The relationship between oil use (measured by the distance a vehicle has travelled) and oil viscosity is also measured. The conclusions from this work are that simple distance travelled (miles/kilometres) is not a good indicator of the state of an oil, as estimated by measuring its viscosity. The magnetic characteristics of lubricating oil (i.e. its magnetic permeability) do change as the oil degrades, but the measurements were poorly correlated with viscosity and do not seem to offer much promise as the basis of an oil monitoring system. The dielectric properties of lubricating oil are reasonably well correlated with viscosity, and it is proposed that this could form the basis of a useful sensing technique.

  20. New technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    The backstreaming contamination in the Space Power Facility, Ohio, was measured using small size clean silicon wafers as contamination sensors placed at all measurement sites. Two ellipsometric models were developed to measure the oil film with the contamination film refractive index of DC 705: a continuous, homogeneous film and islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. The island model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude. The continuous film model overestimated the oil volume by about 50 percent.

  1. New technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

    1992-08-01

    The backstreaming contamination in the Space Power Facility, Ohio, was measured using small size clean silicon wafers as contamination sensors placed at all measurement sites. Two ellipsometric models were developed to measure the oil film with the contamination film refractive index of DC 705: a continuous, homogeneous film and islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. The island model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude. The continuous film model overestimated the oil volume by about 50 percent.

  2. Influence of a lipid phase on steam jet agglomeration of maltodextrin powders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Martins; T. G. Kieckbusch

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of an oil phase to the agglomeration mechanisms of food powders was evaluated. Maltodextrin (DE 10), palm oil stearin and two palm oil oleins (up to 25% dry mass) were used as food models. Granulation runs were carried out in a pilot plant steam jet agglomerator. The powders containing oleins were more cohesive than those with stearin and

  3. Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

  4. Techniques for evaluating heavy oil cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G.W.; Rajayopalan, K.

    1983-08-01

    Commercial performance of heavy oil cracking catalysts is influenced by diffusivity of heavy oil components through the catalyst matrix, catalyst activity and selectivity for cracking heavier portion of the feed, presence of feed contaminant metals and Conradson carbon. Effects of contaminant metals and Conradson carbon have been previously investigated. This study examines effects of reactant diffusivity and feed crackability. Portions of heavy oil cracking feeds have boiling points far in excess of reaction temperatures while the average boiling point is typically less than reactor temperature. Some of the feeds contain large (10-100A diameter) resid molecules. Order of magnitude estimation procedures for diffusivity of vapor and liquid phase hydrocarbon reactants through the matrix of commercial equilibrium catalysts are described. These procedures utilize catalyst pore size distribution determined by nitrogen adsorption and mercury intrusion. Application of the Weisz-Prater criterion using observed cracking reaction rates of commercial heavy oil feeds and estimated diffusivities suggest that cracking of vapor phase reactants in heavy oil feeds is not matrix diffusion limited in commercial catalysts. Matrix diffusion may be a rate determining step for conversion of liquid reactants. Diffusivity of large liquid molecules through the catalyst matrix is strongly influenced by average pore diameter and weakly influenced by pore volume of the catalyst matrix. Higher average pore diameter and pore volume enhance reactant diffusivity.

  5. Detecting Oil on Water: A Comparison of Known Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, Vytautas

    1971-01-01

    This paper reviews new developments in oil pollution detection and compares available techniques according to their effectiveness. Emphasis is on in situ and remote sensing techniques, with a potential for real-time, automated operation. No mention is made of traditional methods, requiring that a sample be taken to a laboratory for tests of solubility, chemical reactions, or other properties.

  6. Cottonseed oil estimation by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. T. Srinivasan; B. B. Singh; P. K. Chidambareswaran; V. Sundaram

    1985-01-01

    Seed asymmetry and moisture associated with the seeds are known to affect seed oil estimation by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance\\u000a (NMR) technique employing free induction decay or single spin echo (SE) pulse sequence. UsingGossypium (cottonseeds) as experimental material, it is shown that transverse relaxation times (T2) of seed oil, in different varieties of seeds, measured in vivo, are not the

  7. Thermal ash agglomeration process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Bryan; M. J. Khinkis; A. G. Rehmat

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for thermal agglomeration of high melting temperature ashes wherein a carbonaceous material is introduced into a fluidized bed supported upon and maintained fluidized by fluidizing gas introduced through a perforated sloping bed support grid having a density\\/size selective solids withdrawal conduit at a base portion of the bed with upflowing discharge control gas. It comprises:

  8. Location, agglomeration and infrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip McCann; Daniel Shefer

    2003-01-01

    In this article we discuss the relationships between transportation infrastructure, firm location, agglomeration and regional development. We will argue that the spatial transaction costs faced by modern firms have changed over recent decades, and that this has changed the ways in which transportation infrastructure contributes to form location behaviour and regional economic development. Therefore, in order to analyse these issues,

  9. Geographical Agglomeration in Australian Manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Leahy; Alfons Palangkaraya; Jongsay Yong

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographic agglomeration of establishments in the Australian manufacturing industries during the period of 1994{1997. We find that although the agglomeration of Australian manufacturing has doubled during the period, it is still not as agglomerated as those in other developed economies such as the United States, the United Kingdom, France and Ireland. We also find that industries

  10. Geographical Agglomeration in Australian Manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Leahy; Alfons Palangkaraya; Jongsay Yong

    2010-01-01

    Leahy A., Palangkaraya A. and Yong J. Geographical agglomeration in Australian manufacturing, Regional Studies. This paper investigates geographical agglomeration of Australian manufacturing industries from 1993–1994 to 1996–1997. It is found that although agglomeration increased substantially during the period, it was still less than in other developed economies such as the United States, the UK, France, and Ireland. Using a common

  11. The Application of Fluorescence Techniques for Mudlogging Analysis of Oil Drilled With Oil-Based Muds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Reyes

    1994-01-01

    The Texaco E and P Technology Div. has developed two fluorescence techniques to enhance the detection of crude oil extracted from formation samples and to improve mud logging as a formation evaluation tool. The quantitative fluorescence technique (QFT) is a portable field method that uses a single excitation wavelength and measures fluorescence at a narrow emission range. When plotted vs.

  12. Shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Satchwell, R.M.; Johnson, L.A. Jr. [Western Research Institute, Laramie, WY (United States); Trent, R. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Millions of barrels of oil exist in the Bartlesville formation throughout Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri. In an attempt to demonstrate that these shallow heavy oil deposits can be recovered, a field project was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of enhanced oil recovery techniques (EOR) employing horizontal wells. Process screening results suggested that thermal EOR processes were best suited for the recovery of this heavy oil. Screening criteria suggested that in situ combustion was a viable technique for the production of these reserves. Laboratory combustion tube tests confirmed that sufficient amounts of fuel could be deposited. The results of the in situ combustion field pilot were disappointing. A total overall recovery efficiency of only 16.0 percent was achieved. Results suggest that the combustion front might have moved past the horizontal well, however elevated temperatures or crude upgrading were not observed. Factors contributing to the lack of production are also discussed.

  13. Thermal Stability of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) Nanocrystalline Cellulose: Effects of post-treatment of oven drying and solvent exchange techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indarti, E.; Marwan; Wanrosli, W. D.

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystallinecellulose (NCC) from biomass is a promising material with huge potentials in various applications. A big challenge in its utilization is the agglomeration of the NCC's during processing due to hydrogen bonding among the cellulose chains when in close proximity to each other. Obtaining NCC's in a non-agglomerated and non-aqueous condition is challenging. In the present work NCC's was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) using TEMPO-oxidation reaction method. To obtain non-agglomerated and non-aqueous products, the NCC's underwent post-treatment using oven drying (OD) and solvent exchanged (SE) techniques. The thermal stability of all samples was determined from TGA and DTG profiles whilst FTIR was used to analyzethe chemical modifications that occurred under these conditions. NCC-SE has better thermal stability than the NCC-OD and its on-set degradation temperature and residue are also higher. FTIR analysis shows that NCC-SE has a slightly different chemical composition whereby the absorption band at 1300 cm-1 (due to C-O symmetric stretching) is absent as compared to NCC-OD indicating that in NCC-SE the carboxylate group is in acid form which contribute to its thermal stability

  14. Thermal Characterization of Edible Oils by Using Photopyroelectric Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-Hernández, G.; Suaste-Gómez, E.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.; Sánchez-Sinéncio, F.; Valcárcel, J. P.; García-Quiroz, A.

    2013-05-01

    Thermal properties of several edible oils such as olive, sesame, and grape seed oils were obtained by using the photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. Also, the back photopyroelectric configuration was used to obtain the thermal diffusivity of these oils; this thermal parameter was obtained by fitting the theoretical equation for this configuration, as a function of the sample thickness (called the thermal wave resonator cavity), to the experimental data. All measurements were done at room temperature. A complete thermal characterization of these edible oils was achieved by the relationship between the obtained thermal diffusivities and thermal effusivities with their thermal conductivities and volumetric heat capacities. The obtained results are in agreement with the thermal properties reported for the case of the olive oil.

  15. Research status and development trend of ultrasonic oil production technique in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Suman, Bajracharya

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of research status and development trend of ultrasonic oil production technique for Enhanced Oil Recovery in China. As one of EOR techniques, ultrasonic oil production attracts more attention due to its simplicity, lower expenses, good applicability and no reservoir pollution. Through the comparison of the development of ultrasonic oil production both in China and other countries, this paper summarize the recent research progress in ultrasonic oil production techniques and practices in China. Finally, the development of oil production equipment and development trend of ultrasonic oil production technique in China are given. PMID:25640683

  16. Agglomeration multigrid for the three-dimensional Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    A multigrid procedure that makes use of coarse grids generated by the agglomeration of control volumes is advocated as a practical approach for solving the three dimensional Euler equations on unstructured grids about complex configurations. It is shown that the agglomeration procedure can be tailored to achieve certain coarse grid properties such as the sizes of the coarse grids and aspect ratios of the coarse grid cells. The agglomeration is done as a preprocessing step and runs in linear time. The implications for multigrid of using arbitrary polyhedral coarse grids are discussed. The agglomeration multigrid technique compares very favorably with existing multigrid procedures both in terms of convergence rates and elapsed times. The main advantage of the present approach is the ease with which coarse grids of any desired degree of coarseness may be generated in three dimensions, without being constrained by considerations of geometry. Inviscid flows over a variety of complex configurations are computed using the agglomeration multigrid strategy.

  17. A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique

    E-print Network

    Gaffin, Doug

    A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton evaluated the efficacy of the new mineral oil flood technique. From early indications, we think this new

  18. Fragmentation and bond strength of airborne diesel soot agglomerates

    PubMed Central

    Rothenbacher, Sonja; Messerer, Armin; Kasper, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Background The potential of diesel soot aerosol particles to break up into smaller units under mechanical stress was investigated by a direct impaction technique which measures the degree of fragmentation of individual agglomerates vs. impact energy. Diesel aerosol was generated by an idling diesel engine used for passenger vehicles. Both the aerosol emitted directly and aerosol that had undergone additional growth by Brownian coagulation ("aging") was investigated. Optionally a thermo-desoption technique at 280°C was used to remove all high-volatility and the majority of low-volatility HC adsorbates from the aerosol before aging. Results It was found that the primary soot agglomerates emitted directly from the engine could not be fragmented at all. Soot agglomerates permitted to grow additionally by Brownian coagulation of the primary emitted particles could be fragmented to a maximum of 75% and 60% respectively, depending on whether adsorbates were removed from their surface prior to aging or not. At most, these aged agglomerates could be broken down to roughly the size of the agglomerates from the primary emission. The energy required for a 50% fragmentation probability of all bonds within an agglomerate was reduced by roughly a factor of 2 when aging "dry" agglomerates. Average bond energies derived from the data were 0.52*10-16 and 1.2*10-16 J, respectively. This is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than estimates for pure van-der-Waals agglomerates, but agrees quite well with other observations. Conclusion Although direct conclusions regarding the behavior of inhaled diesel aerosol in contact with body fluids cannot be drawn from such measurements, the results imply that highly agglomerated soot aerosol particles are unlikely to break up into units smaller than roughly the size distribution emitted as tail pipe soot. PMID:18533015

  19. Agglomeration of struvite crystals.

    PubMed

    Le Corre, Kristell S; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Hobbs, Phil; Jefferson, Bruce; Parsons, Simon A

    2007-01-01

    Struvite crystallisation is widely studied as a way to remove phosphorus from wastewater effluents and simultaneously generates a valuable product for the fertiliser industry. However, to date, some crystallisation processes experimented at either pilot/or full scale face problems linked to the formation of fines. This paper presents results on the investigation of struvite agglomerative properties and the possible application of coagulants and/or flocculants to remove fines. Coagulants investigated were hydrolysing metals salts (Al(3+) and Fe(3+)), calcium compounds and a cationic polymer, polydiallyldimethylammoniumchloride (polyDADMAC). The effects of a natural flocculant (alginate) have also been tested. Results demonstrated that destabilisation of struvite particles by chemical addition was feasible and identified polyDADMAC as a good option for the agglomeration of struvite particles. However, optimisation of its dosage under typical pH conditions for struvite formation showed floc formation to be very pH sensitive. PMID:17140618

  20. Inverse gas chromatography and other chromatographic techniques in the examination of engine oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Fall; Adam Voelkel

    2002-01-01

    The emerging market of engine oils consists of a number of products from different viscosity and quality classes. Determination of the base oil used in manufacturing of the final product (engine oil) as well as estimation of mutual miscibility of oils and their solubility could be crucial problems. Inverse gas chromatography and other chromatographic techniques are presented as an interesting

  1. Hydrophobic Agglomeration of Mineral Fines in Aqueous Suspensions and its Application in Flotation: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bingqiao; Song, Shaoxian

    2014-05-01

    Hydrophobic agglomeration is originated from the hydrophobic attraction between particles, which is essentially different from electrolyte coagulation and polymer flocculation. It is applied to mineral processing in floc-flotation process to improve the recovery of mineral fines. In this paper, the applications of this phenomenon in mineral fines were summarized, including the origin of hydrophobic agglomeration, the main factors affect hydrophobic agglomeration (particle hydrophobicity, shear rate and duration, nonpolar oil and tank geometry), as well as hydrophobic agglomeration based separation processes (carrier flotation and floc-flotation).

  2. Boundary-layer transition and global skin friction measurement with an oil-fringe imaging technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daryl J. Monson; George G. Mateer; Florian R. Menter

    1993-01-01

    A new oil-fringe imaging system skin friction (FISF) technique to measure skin friction on wind tunnel models is presented. In the method used to demonstrate the technique, lines of oil are applied on surfaces that connect the intended sets of measurement points, and then a wind tunnel is run so that the oil thins and forms interference fringes that are

  3. Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meiyu

    The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method for agglomerating coal particles with microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions. In Part I, the development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During batch agglomeration tests the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspension. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. It was shown that gas bubbles trigger the process of agglomeration and participate in a very complex mechanism involving the interaction of particles, oil droplets, and gas bubbles. The process takes place in stages involving dispersion of oil and gas, flocculation, coagulation, and agglomerate building. Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with two kinds of coal in concentrated suspensions to determine the important characteristics of the process and to study the effects of the following operating parameters: i-octane concentration, air concentration, particle concentration, tank diameter, impeller diameter, and impeller speed. Several excellent correlations between the minimum time required to produce spherical agglomerates or a final agglomerate diameter and the operating parameters were obtained by using the general linear regression method. In addition, the results provided a basis for size scale up of an agglomeration system. In Part II, the technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultrafine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was produced by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this method in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt. % ash, it was shown that the ash content could be reduced to 6--7 wt. % while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis by using a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w %, air saturation of 5 to 15 psig, and i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w % based on the coal weight. It was also shown that the process of agglomeration can be reversed by subjecting an aqueous suspension of agglomerates to a pressure sufficient to redissolve the microbubbles.

  4. Cluster size distribution for free molecular agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.W.; Samson, R.J.; Mountain, R.D.; Ernst, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Dobbins and Megaridis have observed soot agglomerates in a diffusion flame via thermophoretic sampling. The agglomerates are made up of spherules with a typical diameter of about 30 nm. A characteristic of the agglomerate is the relatively low density of the structure with much open space. This study is concerned with modeling the agglomeration growth process.

  5. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhimin

    In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over 99.9% coal recovery could be obtained in a one-stage separation by screening the agglomerated product. If a conventional oil agglomeration process is used instead, oil consumption as high as 30% is needed to obtain comparable results. In the tests on filtration and dewatering of ultrafine and fine coals, the effect of chemical additives and coal surface properties was investigated. The tests revealed very significant differences in the filtration of ultrafine (-45 mum) and fine (-500 mum) coals. The moisture contents in the filter cakes in the tests with ultrafine coal were around 40% (irrespective of the coal surface properties), while for the fine coal the moisture content fluctuated around 18% (Ford-4) and 30% (Ford-13). The results revealed that the hydrophobic latex and the emulsified oils could not only successfully beneficiate the ultrafine coal but also significantly increase filtration rate and/or reduce moisture content of the filter cake. Among the chemicals tested, the emulsified oils were found to be the most promising not only for the beneficiation but also for filtration and dewatering processes. Surfactants were found to only slightly affect the filtration of fine coal. However, they can influence filtration very profoundly if utilized to emulsify the oil which is used to agglomerate coal prior to its filtration.

  6. Use of vegetable oils and fatty acid methyl esters in the production of spherical activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Gryglewicz; K Grabas; G Gryglewicz

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of using vegetable oils, i.e., rapeseed oil, soybean oil, linseed oil, tung oil, castor oil and dehydroxylated castor oil, and the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained from them, for the agglomeration of bituminous coals was investigated. Both vegetable oils and FAMEs were found to be suitable bridging liquids for the production of spherical agglomerates-precursor of spherical activated

  7. An analysis of oil and gas supply modeling techniques and a survey of offshore supply models

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report surveys the literature on empirical oil and gas supply modeling techniques. These techniques are categorized as either geologic/engineering, econometric, or hybrid - the last being a combination of geologic and econometric techniques. The geologic/ engineering models are further disaggregated into play analysis models and discovery process models. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the models are discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of how these techniques have been applied to offshore oil and gas supply.

  8. Application of petroleum hydrocarbon chemical fingerprinting and allocation techniques after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Boehm; Gregory S. Douglas; William A. Burns; Paul J. Mankiewicz; David S. Page; A. Edward Bence

    1997-01-01

    Advances in environmental chemistry laboratory and data interpretation techniques (i.e. chemical fingerprinting) contributed to a better understanding of the biological impact of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill and the fate of the spilled oil. A review of the evolution of petroleum chemical fingerprinting techniques is presented followed by a summarization of how new approaches were used to characterize and

  9. Preparation and evaluation of agglomerated crystals by crystallo-co-agglomeration: an integrated approach of principal component analysis and Box-Behnken experimental design.

    PubMed

    Garala, Kevin C; Patel, Jaydeep M; Dhingani, Anjali P; Dharamsi, Abhay T

    2013-08-16

    Poor mechanical properties of crystalline drug particles require wet granulation technique for tablet production which is uneconomical, laborious, and tedious. The present investigation was aimed to improve flow and mechanical properties of racecadotril (RCD), a poorly water soluble antidiarrheal agent, by a crystallo-co-agglomeration (CCA) technique. The influence of various excipients and processing conditions on formation of directly compressible agglomerates of RCD was evaluated. Principal component analysis and Box-Behnken experimental design was implemented to optimize the agglomerates with good micromeritics and mechanical properties. The overall yield of the process was 88-98% with size of agglomerates between 351 and 1214 ?m. Further, higher rotational speed reduced the size of agglomerates and disturbed sphericity. The optimized batch of agglomerates exhibited excellent flowability and crushing strength. The optimized batch of RCD agglomerates was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry and gas chromatography which illustrated absence of drug-excipient interaction with minimal entrapment of residual solvent. Hence, it may be concluded that both excipients and processing conditions played a vital role to prepare spherical crystal agglomerates of RCD by CCA and it can be adopted as an excellent alternative to wet granulation. PMID:23684660

  10. On the flexibility of agglomeration based physical space discontinuous Galerkin discretizations

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    naturally demand for discretization methods on agglomerated meshes. We remark that usefulness of CFD solvers. Specifically, we propose and in- vestigate a new h-adaptive technique based on agglomeration coarsening of a fine mesh. The main building block of our dG method consists of defining discrete polyno- mial spaces

  11. Cleaning of Indian coals by agglomeration with xylene and hexane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mrinal K Baruah; Probhat Kotoky; Jyotish Baruah; Gobin C Bora

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory scale agglomeration process has been undertaken for cleaning Indian coals using oils namely, xylene and hexane. Maximum organic matter recovery for xylene has been found to be 91.9% whereas with hexane, the value is 54.7% on a dry basis. The highest ash rejection values with xylene (90.7%) and with hexane (89.7%) are almost same. Promising results for rejection

  12. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Brown; M. R. Dawson; S. Noble

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task

  13. Agglomeration of Food Powder and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Dhanalakshmi; S. Ghosal; S. Bhattacharya

    2011-01-01

    Agglomeration has many applications in food processing and major applications include easy flow table salt, dispersible milk powder and soup mix, instant chocolate mix, beverage powder, compacted cubes for nutritional-intervention program, health bars using expanded\\/puffed cereals, etc. The main purpose of agglomeration is to improve certain physical properties of food powders such as bulk density, flowability, dispersability, and stability. Agglomerated

  14. Treatment Techniques of Oil-Contaminated Soil and Water Aquifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed M. Amro

    Many operations in the petroleum exploration, production and transportation have the potential to affect the environment in different degrees. Leakages from pipelines, oil wells, underground storage tanks of gas stations, improper disposal of petroleum wastes and stranded oil spills are the major sources of surface and groundwater contamination. The removal of hydrocarbons from contaminated soil and water aquifer is an

  15. Agglomeration behaviour of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in river waters: A multi-method approach combining light scattering and field-flow fractionation techniques.

    PubMed

    Chekli, L; Roy, M; Tijing, L D; Donner, E; Lombi, E; Shon, H K

    2015-08-15

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are currently one of the most prolifically used nanomaterials, resulting in an increasing likelihood of release to the environment. This is of concern as the potential toxicity of TiO2 NPs has been investigated in several recent studies. Research into their fate and behaviour once entering the environment is urgently needed to support risk assessment and policy development. In this study, we used a multi-method approach combining light scattering and field-flow fractionation techniques to assess both the aggregation behaviour and aggregate structure of TiO2 NPs in different river waters. Results showed that both the aggregate size and surface-adsorbed dissolved organic matter (DOM) were strongly related to the initial DOM concentration of the tested waters (i.e. R(2) > 0.90) suggesting that aggregation of TiO2 NPs is controlled by the presence and concentration of DOM. The conformation of the formed aggregates was also found to be strongly related to the surface-adsorbed DOM (i.e. R(2) > 0.95) with increasing surface-adsorbed DOM leading to more compact structures. Finally, the concentration of TiO2 NPs remaining in the supernatant after sedimentation of the larger aggregates was found to decrease proportionally with both increasing IS and decreasing DOM concentration, resulting in more than 95% sedimentation in the highest IS sample. PMID:26067894

  16. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1995-01-01

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 mm) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. It is generally recognized that surface-based separation processes such as froth flotation or selective agglomeration offer considerable potential for such applications but there remain many problems in obtaining the required selectivity with acceptable recovery of combustible matter. In froth flotation, selectivity is substantially reduced at fine sizes due, primarily, to overloading of the froth phase which leads to excessive carryover of water and entrained mineral matter. Oil agglomeration, on the other hand, can provide good selectivity at low levels of oil addition but the agglomerates tend to be too fragile for separation by the screening methods normally used. The addition of larger amounts of oil can yield large, strong agglomerates which are easily separated but the selectivity is reduced and reagent costs can become excessive. We are investigating the use of a hybrid process - micro-agglomerate flotation - which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30-50 mm in size) rather than individual coal particles (1-10 mm) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. Micro-agglomerate flotation has considerable potential for the practical deep cleaning of coal on a commercial scale.

  17. Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on agglomeration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Capes

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the 4th International Symposium on Agglomeration. Topics covered include: Agglomeration of Iron Ore (Balling, Binders and Additives, Pelletizing Plant Practice, Sintering, and Characterization of Pellets and Sinter), Agglomeration Process Technologies (Surveys and Applications, Agglomeration for Recycling, Fluid Bed Systems, Granulation: Food and Pharmaceuticals, Pressure Agglomeration, and Agglomeration in Liquids), Fundamental Aspects (Fundamentals and Modelling,

  18. Feed mixing technique for fluidized catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oil

    SciTech Connect

    Penick, J. E.

    1985-06-18

    In a fluid catalytic cracking process comprising admixing a hydrocarbon oil feed with hot regenerated catalyst in the bottom section of a reactor riser, passing the mixture of the hydrocarbon oil feed and the catalyst through the riser, thereby at least partially volatilizing the oil feed and effecting cracking thereof at the process temperature under endothermic process conditions and deactivating the catalyst by deposition of carbonaceous deposits thereon, separating the deactivated catalyst from the cracked hydrocarbonaceous feed, passing the deactivated catalyst to a regenerator vessel wherein the carbonaceous deposits are removed from the deactivated catalyst under exothermic process conditions by means of a regenerating medium introduced into the regenerator vessel, and passing the regenerated hot catalyst substantially above process cracking temperature to the bottom section of the reactor riser; the improvement comprising continuously injecting liquid oil feed into a primary mixing zone in a venturi tube mixer spaced inwardly from the reactor riser wall at the bottom portion therein adjacent a regenerated catalyst return conduit; continuously passing a first portion of the hot regenerated catalyst into the venturi tube mixer sufficient to vaporize a major amount of oil feed without substantial cracking thereof; and passing a remaining second hot regenerated catalyst portion into the reactor riser through a passage between the venturi tube mixer and reactor riser wall, thereby mixing additional hot catalyst with vaporized oil feed to crack the oil feed in the reactor riser above the venturi tube mixer.

  19. A new technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

    Due to the large size and the number of diffusion pumps, space simulation chambers cannot be easily calibrated by the usual test dome method for measuring backstreaming from oil diffusion pumps. In addition, location dependent contamination may be an important parameter of the test. The backstreaming contamination was measured in the Space Power Facility (SPF) near Sandusky, OH, the largest space simulation vacuum test chamber in the U.S.. Small clean silicon wafers placed at all desired measurement sites were used as contamination sensors. The facility used diffusion pumps with DC 705 oil. The thickness of the contamination oil film was measured using ellipsometry. Since the oil did not wet the silicon substrate uniformly, two analysis models were developed to measure the oil film: (1) continuous, homogeneous film; and (2) islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. In both cases, the contamination film refractive index was assumed to be that of DC 705. The second model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude, especially for the low coverage cases. Comparison of the two models shows that the continuous film model overestimates the oil volume by less than 50 percent. Absolute numbers for backstreaming are in good agreement with published results for diffusion pumps. Good agreement was also found between the ellipsometric results and measurements done by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on examples exposed to the same vacuum runs.

  20. Nanoparticle agglomerates in magnetoliposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintra, E. R.; Ferreira, F. S.; Santos Junior, J. L.; Campello, J. C.; Socolovsky, L. M.; Lima, E. M.; Bakuzis, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetoliposomes consist of vesicles composed of a phospholipid membrane encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles. These systems have several important applications, such as in MRI contrast agents, drug and gene carriers, and cancer treatment devices. For all of these applications, controlling the number of encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles is a key issue. In this work, we used a magneto-optical technique to obtain information about the efficiency of encapsulation, the number of nanoparticles encapsulated per liposome and also about the formation of the nanoparticle structures. The parameters studied included the effect of the duration of sonication, the presence of cholesterol in the liposome membrane, as well as time-related stability. For the liposomal vesicles prepared in this work, we found between 35 and 300 nanoparticles encapsulated per liposome, depending on the experimental conditions, consisting of small linear chains of nanoparticles, basically trimers and tetramers. The methodology developed might be useful for the investigation and improvement of the properties of several magnetic nanocarrier systems.

  1. Nanoparticle agglomerates in magnetoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Cintra, E R; Ferreira, F S; Santos Junior, J L; Campello, J C; Socolovsky, L M; Lima, E M; Bakuzis, A F

    2009-01-28

    Magnetoliposomes consist of vesicles composed of a phospholipid membrane encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles. These systems have several important applications, such as in MRI contrast agents, drug and gene carriers, and cancer treatment devices. For all of these applications, controlling the number of encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles is a key issue. In this work, we used a magneto-optical technique to obtain information about the efficiency of encapsulation, the number of nanoparticles encapsulated per liposome and also about the formation of the nanoparticle structures. The parameters studied included the effect of the duration of sonication, the presence of cholesterol in the liposome membrane, as well as time-related stability. For the liposomal vesicles prepared in this work, we found between 35 and 300 nanoparticles encapsulated per liposome, depending on the experimental conditions, consisting of small linear chains of nanoparticles, basically trimers and tetramers. The methodology developed might be useful for the investigation and improvement of the properties of several magnetic nanocarrier systems. PMID:19417311

  2. Investigation and technique in the fluorescent spectra examination of crude oil

    E-print Network

    Chambers, Gilbert Vester

    1958-01-01

    INVESTIGATION AND TECHNIQUE IN THE FLUORESCENT SPECTRA EXAMINATION OF CRUDE OIL A THESIS by Gilbert V. Chambers Approved as to style and content by: ha man o zt 1 ead o Department or Stu ent Adv sor January 1958 AGKNOWLEDGEhl... under consideration in this research is the separation of a crude oil into a sufficient number of fractions in order that the fluorescent spectra of the fractions can be used to differentiate between crude oils' Distillation processes are widely...

  3. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  4. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  5. Characterisation of some Australian oil shale using thermal, X-ray and IR techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Bhargava; Firas Awaja; Nalaka Deepal Subasinghe

    2005-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transforms Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used in conjunction to characterise oil shale samples from an Australian Tertiary oil shale deposit. Results from these techniques were compared with conventional Modified Fisher Assay (MFA) data. DRIFTS and TGA results showed clear correlations with each other as well as with the MFA values.

  6. Thermal Effusivity Measurement of Virgin Coconut Oil-Methanol Mixtures using Photoacoustic Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Firas Kamel; Mohamad Al-asfoor; W. Mahmood; Mat Yunus; Azmi Zakaria

    2008-01-01

    Thermal effusivity of virgin coconut oil-methanol mixtures were measured using open photoacoustic cell technique. The samples were prepared by simply mixing virgin coconut oil and methanol using similar procedure applied for preparation of biodisel. Thermal effusivity of the sample was obtained by fitting the experimental data of photoacoustic amplitude signal to the expression of photoacoustic signal as a function of

  7. A new recovery technique for heavy-oil reservoirs with bottomwater

    SciTech Connect

    Chakma, A. (Univ. of Calgary (CA))

    1992-05-01

    This paper proposes a new recovery mechanism for heavy-oil reservoirs containing bottomwater zones. Many heavy-oil reservoirs are considered unproductive because of the presence of a bottomwater zone. No known mechanism now exists for producing oil from these reservoirs. Recently, horizontal wells have been proposed as a unique solution for producing reservoirs that are thin, fractured, or contain a bottomwater zone. For heavy-oil reservoirs, however, horizontal wells alone may not be sufficient. The electro-magnetic heating process has proved to be effective in in-situ heating of oil-bearing formations. Such heating, which is limited to small radii, in combination with a horizontal well offers an attractive process for recovering billions of barrels of oil unrecoverable by other means. The process of electromagnetic heating proposed here is coupled with gas or water injection to create a favorable pressure gradient in the presence of a bottomwater zone. Scaled model experiments were performed to study the feasibility of the process of inert-gas injection along with electromagnetic heating. The variables studied were oil/water-zone thickness ratio, oil viscosity, horizontal-well placement, inert-gas injection rate, and production-well temperature. A recovery as high as 77% oil in place (OIP) was obtained even in the presence of a bottomwater zone as thick as the oil zone. This technique offers heavy-oil production at a cost lower than that of any other thermal recovery scheme.

  8. A technique for evaluating the oil/heavy-oil viscosity changes under ultrasound in a simulated porous medium.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Hossein; Mohammadian, Erfan; Junin, Radzuan; Rafati, Roozbeh; Manan, Mohammad; Azdarpour, Amin; Junid, Mundzir

    2014-02-01

    Theoretically, Ultrasound method is an economical and environmentally friendly or "green" technology, which has been of interest for more than six decades for the purpose of enhancement of oil/heavy-oil production. However, in spite of many studies, questions about the effective mechanisms causing increase in oil recovery still existed. In addition, the majority of the mechanisms mentioned in the previous studies are theoretical or speculative. One of the changes that could be recognized in the fluid properties is viscosity reduction due to radiation of ultrasound waves. In this study, a technique was developed to investigate directly the effect of ultrasonic waves (different frequencies of 25, 40, 68 kHz and powers of 100, 250, 500 W) on viscosity changes of three types of oil (Paraffin oil, Synthetic oil, and Kerosene) and a Brine sample. The viscosity calculations in the smooth capillary tube were based on the mathematical models developed from the Poiseuille's equation. The experiments were carried out for uncontrolled and controlled temperature conditions. It was observed that the viscosity of all the liquids was decreased under ultrasound in all the experiments. This reduction was more significant for uncontrolled temperature condition cases. However, the reduction in viscosity under ultrasound was higher for lighter liquids compare to heavier ones. Pressure difference was diminished by decreasing in the fluid viscosity in all the cases which increases fluid flow ability, which in turn aids to higher oil recovery in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Higher ultrasound power showed higher liquid viscosity reduction in all the cases. Higher ultrasound frequency revealed higher and lower viscosity reduction for uncontrolled and controlled temperature condition experiments, respectively. In other words, the reduction in viscosity was inversely proportional to increasing the frequency in temperature controlled experiments. It was concluded that cavitation, heat generation, and viscosity reduction are three of the promising mechanisms causing increase in oil recovery under ultrasound. PMID:24075416

  9. RDWG technique of determination of moisture content in Oil Palm Fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Z.; Mokhtar, R.; Khalid, K.; Hashim, M.; Aziz, S. Abdul

    2007-11-01

    Both the reflection and transmission coefficients of oil palm fruits of various moisture contents have been measured using a rectangular dielectric waveguide (RDWG) technique in the frequency range between 8GHz and 12GHz. Good agreement between predicted and measured values of reflection coefficient suggests the potential of RDWG technique as a new, fast and accurate method for the determination of moisture content in oil palm fruits.

  10. A general procedure to functionalize agglomerating nanoparticles demonstrated on nanodiamond.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuejiang; Ozawa, Masaki; Krueger, Anke

    2009-08-25

    Upon reduction of particle size to the nanometer range, one has to deal with the general issue of spontaneous agglomeration, which often obstructs postsynthesis modification of nanoparticle surfaces. A technique to cope with this phenomenon is required to realize a wide variety of applications using nanoparticles in solvents or as refined assemblies. In this article, we report on a new technique to facilitate surface chemistry of nanoparticles in a conventional glassware system. A beads-assisted sonication (BASD) process was examined to break up persistent agglomerates of nanodiamonds in two different reactions for simultaneous surface functionalization. The chosen reactions are the silanization with an acrylate-modified silane and the arylation using diazonium salts. The BASD process can be successfully applied even where the original material is not dispersible in the reaction solvent at all, as the formation of ever smaller, increasingly functionalized agglomerates is improving their solubility. We have confirmed that the presence of ceramic beads enables functionalization of each primary particle, while conventional magnetic stirring or beadless sonication can reach primary particles only when agglomeration is loose. Additionally, mechanical surface modification of nanodiamond was found to take place by BASD with high energy density, leading to sp(2)-hybridized surface patches on nanodiamond. This allowed for the efficient grafting of aryl groups to the surface of primary diamond nanoparticles. Stable, homogeneously functionalized nanodiamond particles in colloidal solution can be obtained by this method. PMID:19601635

  11. Study of Oil spill in Norwegian area using Decomposition Techniques on RISAT-1 Hybrid Polarimetric Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasri, P. V.; Usha Sundari, H. S. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Prasad, A. V. V.

    2014-11-01

    Over past few years Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) has received a considerable attention for monitoring and detection of oil spill due to its unique capabilities to provide wide-area surveillance and day and night measurements, almost independently from atmospheric conditions. The critical part of the oil spill detection is to distinguish oil spills from other natural phenomena. Stokes vector analysis of the image data is studied to estimate the polarized circular and linear components of the backscatter signal which essentially utilize the degree of polarization(m) and relative phase (?) of the target. In a controlled oil spill experiment conducted at Norwegian bay during 17th to 22nd June 2014, RISAT-1 hybrid polarimetry images were utilized to study the characteristics of oil spill in the sea. The preliminary results obtained by using polarimetric decomposition technique on hybrid polarimetric data to decipher the polarimetric characteristics of oil spills from natural waters are discussed in the paper.

  12. Boundary-layer transition and global skin friction measurement with an oil-fringe imaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, Daryl J.; Mateer, George G.; Menter, Florian R.

    1993-01-01

    A new oil-fringe imaging system skin friction (FISF) technique to measure skin friction on wind tunnel models is presented. In the method used to demonstrate the technique, lines of oil are applied on surfaces that connect the intended sets of measurement points, and then a wind tunnel is run so that the oil thins and forms interference fringes that are spaced in proportion to local skin friction. After a run the fringe spacings are imaged with a CCD-array digital camera and measured on a computer. Skin friction and transition measurements on a two-dimensional wing are presented and compared with computational predictions.

  13. Agglomeration multigrid for viscous turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.

    1994-01-01

    Agglomeration multigrid, which has been demonstrated as an efficient and automatic technique for the solution of the Euler equations on unstructured meshes, is extended to viscous turbulent flows. For diffusion terms, coarse grid discretizations are not possible, and more accurate grid transfer operators are required as well. A Galerkin coarse grid operator construction and an implicit prolongation operator are proposed. Their suitability is evaluated by examining their effect on the solution of Laplace's equation. The resulting strategy is employed to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for aerodynamic flows. Convergence rates comparable to those obtained by a previously developed non-nested mesh multigrid approach are demonstrated, and suggestions for further improvements are given.

  14. Robust satellite techniques for oil spill detection and monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Casciello; N. Pergola; V. Tramutoli

    2004-01-01

    Discharge of oil into the sea is one of the most dangerous, among technological hazards, for the maritime environment. In the last years maritime transport and exploitation of marine resources continued to increase; as a result, tanker accidents are nowadays increasingly frequent, continuously menacing the maritime security and safety. Satellite remote sensing could contribute in multiple ways, in particular for

  15. Tests of absorbents and solidification techniques for oil wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.; MacKenzie, D. R.

    1983-11-01

    A representative of each of six classes of commonly used adsorbents was chosen for a series of tests. After reviewing ASTM and other related standard tests, uncomplicated procedures were developed for carrying out specific tests to determine absorbency for simulated oil waste and for water, under static and simulated transportation (repetitive shock) conditions. The tests were then applied to the six representative absorbents. Solidification tests were performed using these absorbents saturated with oil and loaded to 50% of saturation. The binders used were Portland I cement and Delaware Custom Material (DCM) cement shale silicate. Samples were checked for proper set, and the amounts of free liquid were measured. Another series of tests was performed on samples of simulated oil waste without absorbent, using Portland cement and DCM cement shale silicate. Samples were checked for proper set, free liquid was measured, and compressive strengths were determined. The state-of-the-art parameters were identified which satisfy NRC disposal criteria for solidified radioactive waste. The literature was reviewed for alternative methods of managing oil wastes. Conclusions are drawn on the relative utility of the various methods. 17 references, 3 tables.

  16. Simultaneous use of neutron transmission and reflection techniques for the classification of crude oil samples.

    PubMed

    Akaho, E H K; Jonah, S A; Nyarko, B J B; Osae, S; Maakuu, B T; Serfor-Armah, Y; Kyere, A W K

    2002-12-01

    Neutron attenuation and reflection characteristics of three crude mineral oil samples from West Africa were determined using 37 GBq 241Am-Be source in a single set-up and compared with those of paraffin (oil) and benzene, an aromatic compound. Based on the trends of measured data which are similar to those exhibited by paraffin but different from those associated with benzene, the crude oil samples could be classified as paraffinic. The total hydrogen content and weight ratios (O+C)/H and C/H determined for the crude oil samples using the transmission and reflection techniques are not only independent of the technique but are also consistent with literature values of thermal reflection technique. PMID:12406624

  17. PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ARACHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique

    E-print Network

    Gaffin, Doug

    : the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton and Douglas D. Gaffin: Department of Zoology, University peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton and Douglas D. Gaffin: Department opening. We developed an improved method of chemical stimulant delivery called the mineral oil flood

  18. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1995-04-01

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 mm) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. In froth flotation, selectivity is substantially reduced at fine sizes due, primarily, to overloading of the froth phase which leads to excessive carryover of water and entrained mineral matter. Oil agglomeration, on the other hand, can provide good selectivity at low levels of oil addition but the agglomerates tend to be too fragile for separation by the screening methods normally used. The addition of larger amounts of oil can yield large, strong agglomerates which are easily separated but the selectivity is reduced and reagent costs can become excessive. We are investigating the use of a hybrid process - Micro-agglomerate flotation which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30-50 mm in size) rather than individual coal particles (1-10 mm) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases in order to promote the interfacial reactions and interactions between phases necessary to ensure selectivity. Kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors may be critical in determining overall system response.

  19. Scale Invariant Feature Transform Technique for Weed Classification in Oil Palm Plantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamarul Hawari Ghazali; Mohd. Marzuki Mustafa; Aini Hussain; Saifudin Razali

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a new and robust technique using Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) for weed classification in oil palm plantation. The proposed SIFT classification technique was developed to overcome problem in real application of image processing such as varies of lighting densities, resolution and target range which contributed to classification accuracy. In this study, SIFT classification algorithm is used

  20. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1997-01-15

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 {micro}m) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. In this investigation a hybrid process--Micro-agglomerate flotation--which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation was studied. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles and to use froth flotation to separate these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units will be relatively large agglomerates (30--50 {micro}m in size) rather than fine coal particles (1--10 {micro}m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is demonstrated in this study that the process is very sensitive to fluctuations in operating parameters. It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases as well as the agitation conditions in order to promote selectivity. Both kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors play a critical role in determining overall system response.

  1. Rapid and nondestructive determination of seed oil by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Tiwari; P. N. Gambhir; T. S. Rajan

    1974-01-01

    The pulsed NMR technique for rapid and nondestructive determination of oil in oilseeds has been developed. The effects of\\u000a spin-lattice relaxation time, spin-spin relaxation time, seed moisture, angular position of the seeds, sample tube thickness,\\u000a and sample height upon the magnitude and reproducibility of the NMR signal were studied. Based upon these studies, various\\u000a parameters for seed oil analysis have

  2. Development of Promising Insulating Oil and Applied Techniques of EHD, ER·MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanaoka, Ryoichi

    The development of an environment-friendly insulating liquid has been noticed for a new design of oil-filled power apparatus such as transformer from viewpoints of the protection of the environment. The dielectric liquids can also widely be applied to various fields which are concerned in the electromagnetic field. This article introduces the recent trend on promising new vegetable based oil as an electrical insulation, and EHD pumping, ER fluid and MR fluid as the applied techniques of dielectric liquids.

  3. Application of acoustic emission technique to observer the engine oil's viscosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Othman Inayatullah; Nordin Jamaludin; Aidy Ali; Mohd Jailani Mohd Nor

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the capability of the acoustic emission (AE) technique in the processes of monitoring and detecting the variation of engine oil's viscosity via in-situ operation. The investigations were conducted on an 8.5-hp single cylinder of four strokes with a water cooling engine. One single grade engine oil's condition has been put to the test; namely,

  4. Thin liquid film technique — application to water–oil–water bitumen emulsion films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khr Khristov; S. D Taylor; J Czarnecki; J Masliyah

    2000-01-01

    We describe an adaptation of the thin liquid film-pressure balance technique (TLF-PBT) for a systematic study of water\\/diluted-bitumen\\/water thin films. Recent research into the stability of water-in-oil emulsions, particularly those occurring in the oil industry, has not properly addressed the dependence of the emulsion stability on the thin films that are formed between approaching water droplets. The objective of this

  5. The application of a.c. impedance technique for detecting glycol contamination in engine oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon S. Wang; Han-Sheng Lee

    1997-01-01

    A few hundred ppm of ethylene glycol (a major component in antifreeze) can cause detrimental changes m engine oil. In this work, the a.c. impedance technique has been employed to measure the bulk-layer resistance of engine oil containing glycol. It is found that the bulk-layer resistance declines abruptly as the glycol concentration increases from 50 to 150 ppm. In addition,

  6. Urban agglomeration economies in manufacturing industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuhiko Kawashima

    1975-01-01

    This paper attempts to extend the analysis of urban agglomeration economies presented by Isard [4; pp. 182-188]. The aim of the proposed extension is to demonstrate how external agglomeration economies for manufacturing activities within urban areas can be partially identified in quantitative terms and to illustrate the manner in which these economies differ with urban size. The major portion of

  7. Simulation of particle agglomeration using dissipative particle dynamics 

    E-print Network

    Mokkapati, Srinivas Praveen

    2009-05-15

    agglomeration kernel using the Brownian Theory (Schmoluchowski, 1917). His model was used for a nuclear safety accessment code (Parozzi et al., 1988) along with several other applications. Brownian agglomeration is probably one the best understood agglomeration...

  8. Development of acoustic agglomerator: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    The Aerojet Energy Conversion Company has conducted a program to develop a system for removal of particulates from a hot gas stream. The system was based on acoustic agglomeration, and it had to be suitable for cleaning the effluent gas stream from a coal-burning, pressurized fluid bed combustor (PFBC). The hot gas cleanup system with acoustic agglomeration (HGCU AA) used high intensity acoustic waves to pre-condition the hot aerosol by causing the smaller particles to agglomerate, or form clusters, with the larger particles. Conventional cyclones can then be used to remove the particulate matter from the aerosol more effectively since the smaller particles have, in effect, been ''removed'' by their agglomerating with the larger particles. After agglomerating and becoming larger, the particles can be more effectively removed by cyclones. 14 refs., 61 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report presents the findings of the project entitled ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration.`` The purpose is to develop selective agglomeration technology to a commercially acceptable level by 1993. Engineering development included bench-scale process development, component development adaptation or modification of existing unit operations, proof-of-concept (POC) module design, fabrication, testing, data evaluation, and conceptual design of a commercial facility. The information obtained during POC operation resulted in a technical and economic design base sufficient to support construction and operation of a commercial plant. Throughout this project performance targets for the engineering development of selective agglomeration process were to achieve 85% or greater Btu recovery at 85% or greater pyritic sulfur rejection (PSR). Additional objectives included producing a final clean-coal product with an ash content of 6% or less which is suitable for conventional coal handling systems. The selective agglomeration process, as applied to coal cleaning, is based on differences in the surface chemistry of coal and its associated impurities. Coal particles are hydrophobic (i.e., repel water) while the majority of its impurities are hydrophilic (i.e., stabilized in water). During selective agglomeration, a liquid (the agglomerant) that is immiscible with water is introduced into a coal-water slurry and agitated to disperse it in the slurry, thereby allowing it to come into contact with all particles in the slurry. The coal particles, due to their hydrophobic nature, are attracted to the agglomerant phase. The hydrophilic mineral impurities remain in the water phase. Continued agitation of the agglomerant-coated coal particles causes them to coalesce to form agglomerates. Once the agglomerates are formed, they are separated from the mineral matter-bearing aqueous phase by subsequent processing steps.

  10. A standard technique for handling, marking, and logging oil shale core

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.A.; Beard, T.N.

    1983-04-01

    Standardized techniques are presented for handling and logging oil shale core, including a brief discussion of the necessity for detailed core examination. The paper covers various field procedures such as laying-out, marking, boxing, and photographing oil shale core. The techniques used in logging partings, fractures and lithology are described in detail. The various procedures are presented in a step by step, standard format necessary to achieve efficient handling and recording of field core observations from the initial core-hole prognosis/status log through the final presentation of the data.

  11. State-of-the-art report summarizing techniques to determine residual oil saturation and recommendations on the requirements for residual oil saturation research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M.M.; Maerefat, N.L.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation was conducted on the residual oil saturation (ROS) measurement techniques developed during the last fifteen years. Knowledge of precise ROS measurements is required for EOR project planning. The advantages, limitations, and problems of each one of the techniques are presented in tabulated form. Also, some of the possible improvements in the measurement techniques for the residual oil saturation are summarized. The following residual oil saturation techniques are discussed: core analyses, well logging, backflow tracer tests, material balance and well testing, newly developed gravity log methods, and interwell residual oil saturation measurements. Several aspects left to be improved in both instrumentations and data interpretation on pressure coring, back-flow tracer tests, well logging, material balance calculations, well testing, and interwell ROS measurements are presented. A nuclear magnetism log-inject-log method is proposed in which the need for porosity measurement for determining residual oil saturation is eliminated. 91 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Segmentation Techniques for Identification and Tracking of Oil Spills in Ocean Surface M. Gonzalo-Tasis* a

    E-print Network

    Llanos, Diego R.

    Segmentation Techniques for Identification and Tracking of Oil Spills in Ocean Surface M. Gonzalo for self-location, correction of effects arising from skew projections and an evaluation of oil spills in the environment by the oil spill in the ocean. The increase of the marine traffic in zones of straits is a factor

  13. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  14. Investigation of self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Enderlin, W I; Downing, J P; Enderlin, C W; Sanquist, T F; Pope, W S

    1992-06-01

    The US Coast Guard commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct this study of 45 self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment for oceangoing tankers and inland tank barges to assess the potential effectiveness of the proposed countermeasure categories. This study considers the hypothetical outflow of oil in the case of side damage and bottom damage to single-hull designs. The results will be considered by the Coast Guard in drafting regulations pertaining to the requirement for tanker vessels to carry oil pollution response equipment (i.e., in response to the oil Pollution Act of 1990). PNL's approach to this investigation included: assessing time-dependent oil outflow in the cases of collision and grounding of both tankers and barges; identifying environmental constraints on self-help countermeasure operation; identifying human factor issues, such as crew performance, safety, and training requirements for the self-help countermeasures considered; and assessing each self-help countermeasure with respect to its potential for minimizing oil loss to the environment. Results from the time-dependent oil outflow, environmental limitations, and human factors requirements were input into a simulation model.

  15. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity, a new technique for extraction of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Vian, Maryline Abert; Fernandez, Xavier; Visinoni, Franco; Chemat, Farid

    2008-05-01

    A new process design and operation for the extraction of essential oils was developed. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) is a combination of microwaves for hydrodiffusion of essential oils from the inside to the exterior of biological material and earth gravity to collect and separate. MHG is performed at atmospheric pressure without adding any solvent or water. MHG has been compared with a conventional technique, hydrodistillation (HD), for the extraction of essential oil from two aromatic herbs: spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) belonging to the Labiatae family. The essential oils extracted by MHG for 15 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation for 90 min. MHG also prevents pollution through potential 90% of energy saved which can lead to greenhouse gas emission benefits. PMID:18343393

  16. Electrostatic formation of liquid marbles and agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyanaarachchi, K. R.; Ireland, P. M.; Webber, G. B.; Galvin, K. P.

    2013-07-01

    We report observations of a sudden, explosive release of electrostatically charged 100 ?m glass beads from a particle bed. These cross an air gap of several millimeters, are engulfed by an approaching pendant water drop, and form a metastable spherical agglomerate on the bed surface. The stability transition of the particle bed is explained by promotion of internal friction by in-plane electrostatic stresses. The novel agglomerates formed this way resemble the "liquid marbles" formed by coating a drop with hydrophobic particles. Complex multi-layered agglomerates may also be produced by this method, with potential industrial, pharmaceutical, environmental, and biological applications.

  17. Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 180 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Agglomerated CNTs synthesized in a fluidized bed reactor: Agglomerate structure and formation mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Hao; Zhang Qunfeng; Wei Fei; Qian Weizhong; Luo Guohua

    2003-01-01

    Agglomerated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of propylene on Fe\\/Mo\\/Al2O3 catalysts in a nano-agglomerate fluidized-bed reactor (NAFBR) of 196 mm I.D. The macroscopic properties and microstructure of the CNTs and their evolution were systematically characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The CNTs from the NAFBR are sub-agglomerates entangled with

  5. Agglomeration of microparticles in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Cheng-Ran; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Konopka, Uwe; Morfill, Gregor E. [Max Plank Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching 85741 (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Agglomeration of highly charged microparticles was observed and studied in complex plasma experiments carried out in a capacitively coupled rf discharge. The agglomeration was caused by strong waves triggered in a particle cloud by decreasing neutral gas pressure. Using a high-speed camera during this unstable regime, it was possible to resolve the motion of individual microparticles and to show that the relative velocities of some particles were sufficiently high to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion and hence to result in agglomeration. After stabilizing the cloud again through the increase of the pressure, we were able to observe the aggregates directly with a long-distance microscope. We show that the agglomeration rate deduced from our experiments is in good agreement with theoretical estimates. In addition, we briefly discuss the mechanisms that can provide binding of highly charged microparticles in a plasma.

  6. MODELLING SERVICES SECTORS' AGGLOMERATION WITHIN A NEW

    E-print Network

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    Astrid Krenz #12;Modeling Services Sectors' Agglomeration within a New Economic Geography Model Astrid Goettingen, Germany, phone: 0049 551 397296, e-mail: astrid.krenz@wiwi.uni-goettingen.de) Abstract This study

  7. Successfully use agglomeration for size enlargement

    SciTech Connect

    Pietsch, W. [COMPACTCONSULT, Inc., Naples, FL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The processing of fine and ultrafine particles by size enlargement finds an ever increasing application. At the same time, undesirable agglomeration such as buildup, caking, bridging, and uncontrolled aggregation of fine particles can occur during processing and handling of these particulate solids. This article will provide a survey of the phenomena of agglomeration and discuss the unit operation of size enlargement by agglomeration. This article is also an invitation, particularly to young engineers, to become interested in agglomeration. Considering that mechanical process technologies are requiring more energy every year than any other group of consumers and efficiencies are typically in the single digits or teens at best, considerable rewards can be expected from the development of scientifically modified, more energy-efficient methods and equipment.

  8. Agglomeration of microparticles in complex plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Cheng-Ran; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Konopka, Uwe; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2010-11-01

    Agglomeration of highly charged microparticles was observed and studied in complex plasma experiments carried out in a capacitively coupled rf discharge. The agglomeration was caused by strong waves triggered in a particle cloud by decreasing neutral gas pressure. Using a high-speed camera during this unstable regime, it was possible to resolve the motion of individual microparticles and to show that the relative velocities of some particles were sufficiently high to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion and hence to result in agglomeration. After stabilizing the cloud again through the increase of the pressure, we were able to observe the aggregates directly with a long-distance microscope. We show that the agglomeration rate deduced from our experiments is in good agreement with theoretical estimates. In addition, we briefly discuss the mechanisms that can provide binding of highly charged microparticles in a plasma.

  9. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  10. Proceedings, volume 17, Institute for Briquetting and Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Papers presented discussed pelletizing of coal fines, graphite manufacture, compacting of coal, use of computers in agglomeration, HYL-III process, briquetting of iron ore fines, RECLAFORM, INMETCO process, binders for agglomeration, acoustic agglomeration, pelletizing of lime-fly ash mixtures, extrusion of aluminas for catalysts, and agglomeration of wastes. Seven papers have been abstracted separately.

  11. Fundamentals of agglomeration in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    A visually observable fluidized bed, which can be operated under conditions in which agglomeration of the bed materials occurs, was designed and constructed. Polyethylene particles and silica sand coated with a thin layer of Elvax were chosen as bed materials. The coated particles used were in three different size ranges +180-250, +250-425, +425-600 ..mu..m and had three different coating thicknesses, 1, 3, and 5 ..mu..m. Two types of fluidized gas distributors were used: a porous plate with an independently fed jet at the center. The fluidized bed could be operated in either continuous-feed mode or in batch mode. In the case of polyethylene particles as bed material in the batch system, the amount of agglomerates increased linearly with residence time and increased exponentially with either auxiliary air or jet air temperature. The amount of agglomerates increased with jet nozzle size at the constant jet air flow rate. For a given jet nozzle size the agglomeration rate increased initially with jet air velocity, reached a maximum value and then decreased. In the case of coated particle as bed material, in the batch fluidized bed, the amount of agglomerates increased with residence time and then leveled off. It increased sharply with jet air temperature, coating thickness, concentration of coated particles and decreasing particle sizes. The agglomeration rate constants calculated from the model agree reasonably well with those obtained from experimental data. The model provides the better understanding of the complicated phenomena of agglomeration and could be an initial guide in choosing the operating conditions of an agglomerating fluidized bed.

  12. Good techniques optimize control of oil-based mud and solids

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, J.; Hoopingarner, J.

    1989-02-13

    Effective techniques have been developed from work on dozens of North Sea Wells to minimize the amount of oil-based mud discharged to the sea while maintaining acceptable levels of solids. Pressure to reduce pollution during the course of drilling prompted the development of these techniques. They involve personnel and optimization of mud system and procedures. Case histories demonstrate that regulations may be met with economical techniques using existing technology. The benefits of low solids content are widely known, and are a key part of any successful mud program. Good solids control should result in lower mud costs and better drilling performance. Operators have specified high-performance shakers to accomplish this and have revised their mud programs with lower and lower allowable drilled solids percentages. This will pay off in certain areas. But with the U.K. Department of Energy regulations requiring cuttings oil discharge content (CODC) to be less than 150 g of oil/kg of dry solids discharge that went into effect Jan. 1, 1989, oil-loss control has a higher profile in the U.K. sector of the North Sea.

  13. Centrifugal air-assisted melt agglomeration for fast-release "granulet" design.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin Wui; Musa, Nafisah

    2012-07-01

    Conventional melt pelletization and granulation processes produce round and dense, and irregularly shaped but porous agglomerates respectively. This study aimed to design centrifugal air-assisted melt agglomeration technology for manufacture of spherical and yet porous "granulets" for ease of downstream manufacturing and enhancing drug release. A bladeless agglomerator, which utilized shear-free air stream to mass the powder mixture of lactose filler, polyethylene glycol binder and poorly water-soluble tolbutamide drug into "granulets", was developed. The inclination angle and number of vane, air-impermeable surface area of air guide, processing temperature, binder content and molecular weight were investigated with reference to "granulet" size, shape, texture and drug release properties. Unlike fluid-bed melt agglomeration with vertical processing air flow, the air stream in the present technology moved centrifugally to roll the processing mass into spherical but porous "granulets" with a drug release propensity higher than physical powder mixture, unprocessed drug and dense pellets prepared using high shear mixer. The fast-release attribute of "granulets" was ascribed to porous matrix formed with a high level of polyethylene glycol as solubilizer. The agglomeration and drug release outcomes of centrifugal air-assisted technology are unmet by the existing high shear and fluid-bed melt agglomeration techniques. PMID:22531845

  14. Agglomerate formation and growth mechanisms during melt agglomeration in a rotary processor.

    PubMed

    Vilhelmsen, Thomas; Schaefer, Torben

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the binder particle size and the binder addition method on the mechanisms of agglomerate formation and growth during melt agglomeration in a laboratory scale rotary processor. Lactose monohydrate was agglomerated with molten polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3000 by adding the PEG either as solid particles from the size fraction 0-250, 250-500, or 500-750 microm or as droplets with a median size of 25, 48, or 69 microm. It was found that the PEG particle size, the PEG droplet size, and the massing time significantly influenced the agglomerate size and size distribution. Agglomerate formation and growth were found to occur primarily by distribution and coalescence for the PEG size fraction 0-250 microm and mainly by the immersion mechanism for the PEG size fractions 250-500 and 500-750 microm. When the PEG was sprayed upon the lactose, the mechanism of agglomerate formation was supposed to be a mixture of immersion and distribution, and the agglomerate growth was found to occur by coalescence regardless of the PEG mean droplet size. Compared to high shear mixers and conventional fluid bed granulators, the mechanisms of agglomerate formation and growth in the rotary processor resembled mostly those seen in the fluid bed granulator. PMID:16198077

  15. Comparing Parameter Estimation Techniques for an Electrical Power Transformer Oil Temperature Prediction Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines various sources of error in MIT's improved top oil temperature rise over ambient temperature model and estimation process. The sources of error are the current parameter estimation technique, quantization noise, and post-processing of the transformer data. Results from this paper will show that an output error parameter estimation technique should be selected to replace the current least squares estimation technique. The output error technique obtained accurate predictions of transformer behavior, revealed the best error covariance, obtained consistent parameter estimates, and provided for valid and sensible parameters. This paper will also show that the output error technique should be used to minimize errors attributed to post-processing (decimation) of the transformer data. Models used in this paper are validated using data from a large transformer in service.

  16. Technical constraints limiting application of enhanced oil recovery techniques to petroleum production in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    In the interval since the publication in September 1980 of the technical constraints that inhibit the application of enhanced oil recovery techniques in the United States, there has been a large number of successful field trials of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. The Department of Energy has shared the costs of 28 field demonstrations of EOR with industry, and the results have been made available to the public through DOE documents, symposiums and the technical literature. This report reexamines the constraints listed in 1980, evaluates the state-of-the-art and outlines the areas where more research is needed. Comparison of the 1980 constraints with the present state-of-the-art indicates that most of the constraints have remained the same; however, the constraints have become more specific. 26 references, 6 tables.

  17. Geographical Characterization of Greek Olive Oils Using Rare Earth Elements Content and Supervised Chemometric Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleni G. Farmaki; Nikolaos S. Thomaidis; Katerina S. Minioti; Evaggelia Ioannou; Constantinos A. Georgiou; Constantinos E. Efstathiou

    2012-01-01

    Different ANNs models (Multi-layer Perceptrons (MLPs) and Radial Basis Function (RBF)) were developed and evaluated for the discrimination of olive oils produced in four Greek regions according to their geographical origin. For this purpose, ninety-seven samples were analyzed for 10 rare earth elements (REE) by ICP-MS. Moreover, two additional supervised techniques, discriminant analysis (DA) and classification trees (CTs), were applied

  18. Application of thermal techniques in the recovery of heavy minerals from oil-sand tailings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaheer A. Mikhail; Anne-Marie Turcotte; Colin A. Hamer

    1996-01-01

    Thermal techniques, namely, thermogravimetry (TG), simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-DTA-FTIR) and thermomagnetometry, were used to examine the thermal behaviour of heavy-mineral tailings generated in oil-sand steam processing operations. The results will be used in the selection and optimization of a thermal process to remove residual bitumen in the tailings and recover the contained titanium and zirconium values.

  19. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and assessment of techniques and equipment used to control and remove oil spills. Chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers are reviewed. Topics include recovery operations, emergency response, frogmat systems, bioremediation, and environmental monitoring. The effects of spills on marine life and fishing industries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. A numerical technique for tracking sharp fronts in studies of tertiary oil recovery pilots

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, O.K.; Finlayson, B.A.

    1983-11-01

    A numerical front tracking technique, which is based on a transformation of the governing equations into a moving coordinate system, is applied to a finite element reservoir simulator. The method is especially suited for studies of tertiary oil recovery pilots using chemical flooding and other miscible displacement processes. The new front tracking technique is compared to conventional finite element formulations using a uniform grid over the entire domain. Comparisons with other methods show that the computer time can be reduced by a large factor for the same accuracy.

  1. AN INVESTIGATION OF DIESEL ENGINE OIL FILTRATION AND ABRASIVE WEAR WITH HIGH DETERGENCY LUBRICANTS BY MEANS OF RADIOACTIVE TRACER TECHNIQUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halliwell

    1959-01-01

    A study designed to evaluate the relative effects of fullflow and bypass ; filtration, abrasive particle size, and detergent additive level of diesel ; lubricating oils on piston ring wear in a General Motors 3-71 type diesel engine ; was conducted using radioisotope tracer techniques. The detergent-type oils ; greatly reduced the amount of piston ring wear in comparison to

  2. Oil Spill Detection and Tracking Using Lipschitz Regularity and Multiscale Techniques in Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajadi, O. A.; Meyer, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Automatic oil spill detection and tracking from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is a difficult task, due in large part to the inhomogeneous properties of the sea surface, the high level of speckle inherent in SAR data, the complexity and the highly non-Gaussian nature of amplitude information, and the low temporal sampling that is often achieved with SAR systems. This research presents a promising new oil spill detection and tracking method that is based on time series of SAR images. Through the combination of a number of advanced image processing techniques, the develop approach is able to mitigate some of these previously mentioned limitations of SAR-based oil-spill detection and enables fully automatic spill detection and tracking across a wide range of spatial scales. The method combines an initial automatic texture analysis with a consecutive change detection approach based on multi-scale image decomposition. The first step of the approach, a texture transformation of the original SAR images, is performed in order to normalize the ocean background and enhance the contrast between oil-covered and oil-free ocean surfaces. The Lipschitz regularity (LR), a local texture parameter, is used here due to its proven ability to normalize the reflectivity properties of ocean water and maximize the visibly of oil in water. To calculate LR, the images are decomposed using two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (2D-CWT), and transformed into Holder space to measure LR. After texture transformation, the now normalized images are inserted into our multi-temporal change detection algorithm. The multi-temporal change detection approach is a two-step procedure including (1) data enhancement and filtering and (2) multi-scale automatic change detection. The performance of the developed approach is demonstrated by an application to oil spill areas in the Gulf of Mexico. In this example, areas affected by oil spills were identified from a series of ALOS PALSAR images acquired in 2010. The comparison showed exceptional performance of our method. This method can be applied to emergency management and decision support systems with a need for real-time data, and it shows great potential for rapid data analysis in other areas, including volcano detection, flood boundaries, forest health, and wildfires.

  3. Identification of vegetable oil botanical speciation in refined vegetable oil blends using an innovative combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Maria Teresa; Haughey, Simon A; Elliott, Christopher T; Koidis, Anastasios

    2015-12-15

    European Regulation 1169/2011 requires producers of foods that contain refined vegetable oils to label the oil types. A novel rapid and staged methodology has been developed for the first time to identify common oil species in oil blends. The qualitative method consists of a combination of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to profile the oils and fatty acid chromatographic analysis to confirm the composition of the oils when required. Calibration models and specific classification criteria were developed and all data were fused into a simple decision-making system. The single lab validation of the method demonstrated the very good performance (96% correct classification, 100% specificity, 4% false positive rate). Only a small fraction of the samples needed to be confirmed with the majority of oils identified rapidly using only the spectroscopic procedure. The results demonstrate the huge potential of the methodology for a wide range of oil authenticity work. PMID:26190602

  4. Micro-Foundations of Urban Agglomeration Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles Duranton; Diego Puga

    2003-01-01

    This handbook chapter studies the theoretical micro-foundations of urban agglomeration economies. We distinguish three types of micro-foundations, based on sharing, matching, and learning mechanisms. For each of these three categories, we develop one or more core models in detail and discuss the literature in relation to those models. This allows us to give a precise characterisation of some of the

  5. Micro-foundations of urban agglomeration economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles Duranton; Diego Puga

    This handbook chapter studies the theoretical micro- foundations of urban agglomeration economies. We distinguish three types of micro-foundations, based on sharing, matching, and learning mechanisms. For each of these three categories, we develop one or more core models in detail and discuss the liter- ature in relation to those models. This allows us to give a precise characterisation of some

  6. Comparison of soft computing techniques for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.); Parkinson, w; Miller, N. (Neal)

    2002-01-01

    In this work we compare fuzzy techniques to neural network techniques for building a soft sensor for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The soft sensor is used in a feed-forward control system that augments a feedback control system. Two approaches were used to develop the soft sensor. The first approach was to use a fuzzy rule based system based upon the experience of an expert operator. The expert operator's experience was supplemented using a computer model of the system. The second approach was to use a neural network to build the inverse of the computer model. The pros and cons of both techniques are discussed. KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic, neural networks, soft sensor, soft computing

  7. Gas hydrate anti-agglomerant properties of polypropoxylates and some other demulsifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm A. Kelland; Thor Martin Svartås; Lindy Dybvik Andersen

    2009-01-01

    Low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHIs) have been developed over the last 15 yr as a new gas hydrate control technology for the oil industry, which can be more cost-effective than traditional practices such as the use of thermodynamic inhibitors e.g. methanol and glycols. Two classes of LDHI called kinetic inhibitors (KHIs) and anti-agglomerants (AAs) are already being successfully used in the

  8. Chemical and physicochemial properties of submicron aerosol agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Scripsick, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ehrman, S.; Friedlander, S.K. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The formation of nanometer-sized aerosol particles in a premixed methane flame from both solid-phase aerosol precursors and gas-phase precursors was investigated. Techniques were developed to determine the distribution of the individual chemical species as a function of agglomerate size by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). To determine the distribution of chemical species both from particle to particle and within the particles on a nanometer scale, we used the analytical electron microscopy techniques of energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) coupled with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The observed distribution of individual chemical species as a function of agglomerate size was linked to the material properties of the solid-phase precursors. For aerosol formed from gas-phase precursors by gas-to-particle conversion, the distribution of species on a manometer scale was found to correspond to the equilibrium phase distribution expected from equilibrium for the system at the flame temperatures.

  9. Effect of temperature on wet agglomeration of crystals

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoodi, Maryam; Yari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): This study dealt with the wet agglomeration process in which a small quantity of binder liquid was added into a suspension of crystals, directly in the stirring vessel where the crystallization took place. The purpose of this investigation was evaluation of the effect of temperature on the agglomeration process in order to gain insight into the mechanism of the formation of the agglomerates. Materials and Methods: Carbamazepine was used as a model drug and water/ethanol and isopropyl acetate were used as crystallization system and binder liquid, respectively. The agglomeration of crystals was carried out at various temperatures and the agglomerates were characterized in terms of size, morphology, density and mechanical strength. Results: Evaluation of the agglomerates along the course of agglomeration shows that the properties of the particles change gradually but substantially. Higher temperature of the system during agglomeration process favors the formation of more regular agglomerates with mechanically stronger and denser structure; this can be explained by the promotion effect of temperature on the agglomeration process. Conclusion: With optimized wet agglomeration temperature, spherical, dense, and strong agglomerates can be obtained. PMID:24967063

  10. Method for providing improved solid fuels from agglomerated subbituminous coal

    DOEpatents

    Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for separating agglomerated subbituminous coal and the heavy bridging liquid used to form the agglomerates. The separation is performed by contacting the agglomerates with inert gas or steam at a temperature in the range of 250.degree. to 350.degree. C. at substantially atmospheric pressure.

  11. Agglomeration in bio-fuel fired fluidized bed combustors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weigang Lin; Kim Dam-Johansen; Flemming Frandsen

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results from systematic agglomeration experiments in a straw-fired laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor and a theoretical study of the phenomena. Experiments were carried out at different operating conditions. Defluidization resulting from agglomeration occurred in all experiments. The agglomeration tendency is represented by the time before defluidization is detected. The results show that the temperature has a pronounced effect

  12. Oil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâ??s found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâ??s there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâ??s Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâ??s work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

  13. Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils

    E-print Network

    Mandelis, Andreas

    of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils olive, corn, soybean, canola century as base lubricants, vegetable oils were gradually replaced by mineral oils mainly for economic in environmental issues.2 A vegetable oil is a complex mixture of chemical substances3 with fatty acids among

  14. Water in oil emulsion droplet size characterization using a pulsed field gradient with diffusion editing (PFG-DE) NMR technique.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Clint P; Flaum, Mark; Jiang, Tianmin; Hirasaki, George J; Chapman, Walter G

    2007-11-15

    This paper describes a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, pulsed field gradient with diffusion editing (PFG-DE), to quantify drop size distributions of brine/crude oil emulsions. The drop size distributions obtained from this technique were compared to results from the traditional pulsed field gradient (PFG) technique. The PFG-DE technique provides both transverse relaxation (T2) and drop size distributions simultaneously. In addition, the PFG-DE technique does not assume a form of the drop size distribution. An algorithm for the selection of the optimal parameters to use in a PFG-DE measurement is described in this paper. The PFG-DE technique is shown to have the ability to resolve drop size distributions when the T2 distribution of the emulsified brine overlaps either the crude oil or the bulk brine T2 distribution. Finally, the PFG-DE technique is shown to have the ability to resolve a bimodal drop size distribution. PMID:17716679

  15. Uncertainty Analysis for Oil-Film Interferometry Skin-Friction Measurement Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naughton, Jonathan W.; Brown, James L.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the use of oil-film interferometry to measure the skin friction coefficient (C(sub f) = tau/q where tau is the surface shear stress and q is the dynamic pressure) has increased. Different forms of this oil-film technique with various levels of accuracy and ease of use have been successfully applied in a wide range of flows. The method's popularity is growing due to its relative ease of implementation and minimal intrusiveness as well as an increased demand for C(sub f) measurements. Nonetheless, the accuracy of these methods has not been rigorously addressed to date. Most researchers have simply shown that the skin-friction measurements made using these techniques compare favorably with other measurements and theory, most of which are only accurate to within 5-20%. The use of skin-friction data in the design of commercial aircraft, whose drag at cruise is 50% skin-friction drag, and in the validation of computational fluid dynamics programs warrants better uncertainty estimates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Get More Out of Your Data: A New Approach to Agglomeration and Aggregation Studies Using Nanoparticle Impact Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Joanna; Tschulik, Kristina; Stuart, Emma J E; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Omanovi?, Dario; Uhlemann, Margitta; Crossley, Alison; Compton, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Anodic particle coloumetry is used to size silver nanoparticles impacting a carbon microelectrode in a potassium chloride/citrate solution. Besides their size, their agglomeration state in solution is also investigated solely by electrochemical means and subsequent data analysis. Validation of this new approach to nanoparticle agglomeration studies is performed by comparison with the results of a commercially available nanoparticle tracking analysis system, which shows excellent agreement. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the electrochemical technique has the advantage of directly yielding the number of atoms per impacting nanoparticle irrespective of its shape. This is not true for the optical nanoparticle tracking system, which requires a correction for the nonspherical shape of agglomerated nanoparticles to derive reasonable information on the agglomeration state. PMID:24551537

  17. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising.

  18. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The major objective of the Phase 1 test program is to confirm the feasibility of the Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc. bimodal particle size approach to enhance particulate control by acoustic ash agglomeration. An ancillary objective of the Phase 1 effort is to demonstrate and confirm the feasibility of an acoustic field to enhance sulfur capture by increasing sorbent reactivity. Phase 1 tests are designed to cover the frequency range between 50 and 1400 Hz, establish monomodal baseline performance as a benchmark from which to measure the degree of enhancement expected from the bimodal approach, and, finally, to confirm the effectiveness of low-frequency fields over high-frequency fields for realistic particulate streams. The program will demonstrate the effectiveness of a unique approach which uses a bimodal distribution composed of large sorbent particles and fine fly ash particles to enhance ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions found in direct coal-fired turbines. Under the impact of high-intensity sound waves, sorbent reactivity and utilization, it is theorized, will increase while agglomerates of fly ash and sorbents are formed which are readily collected in commercial cyclones. The work will extend the concept from the demonstration of feasibility (Phase 1), through proof-of-concept (Phase 2) to the construction (Phase 3) of a coal-fired pulsed combustor with in-furnace sorbent injection. For Phase 1, Pennsylvania State University will conduct studies for enhanced sulfur capture in The Combustion Laboratory and agglomeration tests in the High Intensity Acoustic Laboratory. 2 refs., 43 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Agglomeration rate and action forces between atomized particles of agglomerator and inhaled-particles from coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Zhang, Jun-ying; Zheng, Chu-guang

    2005-01-01

    In order to remove efficiently haled-particles emissions from coal combustions, a new way was used to put forward the process of agglomeration and the atomization was produced by the nozzle and then sprayed into the flue before precipitation devices of power station boiler in order to make inhaled-particles agglomerate into bigger particles, which can be easily removed but not change existing running conditions of boiler. According to this idea, a model is set up to study agglomeration rate and effect forces between fly ash inhaled-particles and atomized agglomerator particles. The developed agglomeration rate was expressed by relative particle number decreasing speed per unit volume. The result showed that viscosity force and flow resistance force give main influences on agglomeration effect of inhaled-particles, while springiness force and gravity have little effect on agglomeration effect of theirs. Factors influencing the agglomeration rate and effect forces are studied, including agglomerator concentration, agglomerator flux and agglomerator density, atomized-particles diameters and inhaled-particles diameter and so on. PMID:16295917

  20. A comparison of different pulse sequences in the nondestructive estimation of seed oil by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. T. Srinivasan

    1979-01-01

    Three basic pulse sequences,viz., Free Induction Decay (FID), Spin Echo (SE) and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG), available in the pulsed nuclear magnetic\\u000a resonance technique have been used to estimate the relative oil content in single as well as bulk samples of oil-bearing seeds.\\u000a Conclusive evidence has been presented to show that the CPMG sequence is vastly superior to the other two as

  1. Optical Properties of Some Silicone Diffusion-Pump Oils in the Vacuum Ultraviolet—Using a Closed-Cell Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Sowers; M. W. Williams; R. N. Hamm; E. T. Arakawa

    1971-01-01

    The optical properties of Dow Corning-704 and -705 diffusion-pump oils have been measured from 2?10.6 eV using a closed-cell technique. The data are interpreted in terms of molecular excitations of ?, ?, and nonbonding electrons in the complex pump oil molecules and in terms of collective oscillations of electrons in the liquids. The optical constants of Dow Corning-200, another silicone

  2. Influence of particle size and pH on the removal of trace elements from high-rank coals by n-heptane agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Vega, J.M.G.; Garcia, A.B. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon

    1994-12-31

    During combustion and gasification, trace elements are released into the environment, some of them in their vapor phase and others associated with the smaller and more respirable particles. Some of these elements are essential to plant and animal life, while others by be toxic under certain conditions and concentration. Although the effect of trace element emissions is not well known, and the evaluation of the potential toxicity of each element and its common compounds is an issue to be clarified, the growing concerns over environmental aspects associated with trace elements had led to the introduction in many countries of regulations on their emissions form coal fired power plants. The removal of trace elements from coal as a preliminary to coal utilization will be necessary in order to comply with stricter future environmental laws. Physical cleaning techniques, which rely on differences in density or surface properties between organic and inorganic components of coals, are able to reduce content of trace elements associated with mineral matter liberated during grinding. Provided that most trace elements in coal are associated with minerals which are finely disseminated in the coal matrix, advanced physical cleaning processes which are efficient for very small particle sizes, such as oil agglomeration, should be used for separating these elements from coal. In the work described below two Spanish anthracites were agglomerated with n-heptane, over a wide pH range, and the removal of several major and trace elements from these coals during the process evaluated. The influence of pH and coal particle size on the elimination of trace elements from these coals by agglomeration has been investigated.

  3. Increased Oil Production and Reserves From Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Deo, M.D.

    1998-04-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Colton (Wasatch) Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in the ancestral Lake Uinta. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1000 to 3000 vertical ft (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. Completion techniques used in the Bluebell field were discussed in detail in the Second Annual Report (Curtice, 1996). The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more beds for stimulation. These recompletion will show which logs are most effective in identifying productive beds and what scale of completion is most cost effective. The third demonstration will be the logging and completion of a new well using the logs and completion scale or technique, most effective in the previous demonstrations.

  4. Analysis and synthesis of solutions for the agglomeration process modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuk, V. A.; Dolotkazin, I. N.; Nizyaev, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The present work is devoted development of model of agglomerating process for propellants based on ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium dinitramide (ADN), HMX, inactive binder, and nanoaluminum. Generalization of experimental data, development of physical picture of agglomeration for listed propellants, development and analysis of mathematical models are carried out. Synthesis of models of various phenomena taking place at agglomeration implementation allows predicting of size and quantity, chemical composition, structure of forming agglomerates and its fraction in set of condensed combustion products. It became possible in many respects due to development of new model of agglomerating particle evolution on the surface of burning propellant. Obtained results correspond to available experimental data. It is supposed that analogical method based on analysis of mathematical models of particular phenomena and their synthesis will allow implementing of the agglomerating process modeling for other types of metalized solid propellants.

  5. Direct optical techniques for the measurement of water content in oil-paper insulation in power transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Joaquín H.; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando; Álvarez-Chávez, José A.; Jaramillo-Vigueras, David; Robles-Pimentel, Edgar G.

    2011-06-01

    Paper-oil insulation in power transformers is degraded and gradually damaged due to electrical, chemical, mechanical and moisture factors. It is well established from several studies that moisture is a major source of insulation failure in high voltage power transformers. Measurement and monitoring of moisture is essential to predict life and operation condition for power transformers. This paper presents direct optical measurement of water content at paper insulation immersed in transformer oil inside a test cell, which contains a water source, and a capillary paper bridge to transfer water to the paper inside an oil reservoir. Optical measurement of water content was carried out in the near infrared from 900 to 1500 nm band. Experimental studies of light transmission in transformer oil and water are discussed. The criteria to establish the best optical bands for maximum sensitivities are given. The measurement limitations, calibration procedures and an error analysis are presented. The resulting technique can be used for on-line measurements in electrical apparatus that use oil-paper insulation under large electrical field gradients. The presented method has advantages, since it is a direct and fast technique to measure the water transfer to paper immersed in oil, and it could be applied in compact portable equipment at a low cost.

  6. Effect of agglomeration on flowability of baby food powders.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Karolina; Lenart, Andrzej

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the wet agglomeration in a fluidized bed on flowability of agglomerated products, such as baby food powders. The agglomeration process was performed in the fluidized bed. The wetting liquid used to the process was: water, 2% lecithin solution, and 50% sugar solution. Food powders flowability was expressed as: Hausner Ratio, pouring time, angles of sliding and of repose and flow function. The composition of materials, used to prepare mixtures, has a significant influence on tested properties. The higher milk powder of the mixtures caused decreasing of their flowability. Wet agglomeration of baby food powders caused an increase in the mean diameter of particles, which made it possible to receive agglomerates with good flowability and decreased bulk density. The increase of milk powder content from 0 to 73% in the mixture before the agglomeration contributed to improve its flowability. Wet agglomeration with 2% lecithin solution and 50% sugar solution reduced particle size and bulk density, improved flowability of received agglomerates in relation to agglomerates received with water as a wetting liquid. PMID:20629874

  7. Agglomerates processing on in-flight images of granular products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Frederic; Guillaume, S.; Sevila, Francis

    1993-11-01

    Image analysis can be used to characterize granular populations in many processes in food industry or in agricultural engineering. Either global or individual parameters can be extracted from the image. However, granular products may appear agglomerate on the image, bringing biasing on individual parameters. Combining statistical and neural network technics enables the build of a system which can recognize if products are agglomerate or not. To process images after agglomerates detection, two approaches have been studied: the first is based on erosion, followed by conditional dilation with the original image; the second takes advantage of the graph's properties of the agglomerate's skeleton.

  8. Skin friction measurement in complex flows using thin oil film techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Grant NAG2-261 was initiated to support a program of research to study complex flows that occur in flight and laboratory experiments by building, testing and optimizing an on-board technique for direct measurement of surface shear stress using thin oil film techniques. The program of research has proceeded under the supervision of the NASA Ames Research Center and with further cooperation from the NASA Ames-Dryden and NASA Langley Research Centers. In accordance with the original statement of work, the following research milestones were accomplished: (1) design and testing of an internally mounted one-directional skin friction meter to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept; (2) design and construction of a compact instrument capable of measuring skin friction in two directions; (3) study of transitional and fully turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with and without longitudinal pressure gradients utilizing the compact two-directional skin friction meter; (4) study of the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer and a shock wave generated by a compression corner using the two-directional meter; and (5) flight qualification of the compact meter and accompanying electronic and pneumatic systems, preliminary installation into flight test fixture.

  9. [Artificial neural network forecasting method in monitoring technique by spectrometric oil analysis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-wei; Chen, Guo; Yang, Yu-wei; Chen, Guo

    2005-08-01

    The spectrometric oil analysis (SOA) is an important technique for machine state monitoring and fault diagnosis, and forecasting machine state through SOA results has an advantage of finding out machine system wear fault early. Because Artificial Neural Network (ANN) possesses obvious advantages over traditional forecasting models for identifyingnon-linear model and forecasting non-even signal, the ANN forecasting approach was applied to monitoring technique by SOA, and the monitoringtechnique by SOA based on ANN forecasting was put forward. In the forecasting model, a 3-layer BP network structure was adopted.Aiming at the problem that ANN structure has a great effect on forecasting precision, the authors utilized the Genetic Algorithm (GA) to optimize the node number of input layer, the node number of hidden layer, and MSE (Mean of Squared Error) target value which was required for ANN training, and obtained the optimum forecasting model of ANN. Finally, the practical SOA data of some engine was analyzed and forecasted by ANN, and the forecasting result was compared with that of traditional ARMA model. The result fully showsthe superiority and effectivity of the new method. PMID:16329517

  10. Development of scaling methods for a crude oil cracking reactor using short duration test techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Kearns; D. Milks; G. R. Kamm

    1978-01-01

    A development program is described designed to commercialize a new ethylene technology based on flame cracking of crude oil and crude oil fractions. This unique advanced cracking reactor (ACR) technology results in producing 60 to 70% of high value chemical products, including over 30% ethylene from selected crude oils or a wide range of distillate feedstocks. This process offers a

  11. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary\\/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jr. Chidsey Thomas C; M. Lee Allison

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of

  12. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary\\/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chidsey Jr; Thomas C

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150

  13. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary\\/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lee Allison; Chidsey Jr. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of

  14. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary\\/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Jr. Chidsey; D. M. Lorenz; W. E. Culham

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of

  15. Method for producing ceramic particles and agglomerates

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Gleiman, Seth S. (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A method for generating spherical and irregularly shaped dense particles of ceramic oxides having a controlled particle size and particle size distribution. An aerosol containing precursor particles of oxide ceramics is directed into a plasma. As the particles flow through the hot zone of the plasma, they melt, collide, and join to form larger particles. If these larger particles remain in the hot zone, they continue melting and acquire a spherical shape that is retained after they exit the hot zone, cool down, and solidify. If they exit the hot zone before melting completely, their irregular shape persists and agglomerates are produced. The size and size distribution of the dense product particles can be controlled by adjusting several parameters, the most important in the case of powder precursors appears to be the density of powder in the aerosol stream that enters the plasma hot zone. This suggests that particle collision rate is responsible for determining ultimate size of the resulting sphere or agglomerate. Other parameters, particularly the gas flow rates and the microwave power, are also adjusted to control the particle size distribution.

  16. Application of the ultra-thin elastohydrodynamic oil film thickness technique to the study of automotive engine oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cooper; A. J. Moore

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in the measurement of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) oil film thickness have enabled films of only a few molecules width to be measured with good accuracy. As a result, the range of temperature and viscosity that may be permitted in EHD experiments has been significantly extended and the practical value of the information obtained correspondingly increased. This paper explores the

  17. Direct observation of oil consumption mechanisms in a production spark ignition engine using fluorescence techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusted, Roderick M.

    1994-05-01

    The oil consumption characteristics of a four cylinder, normally aspirated spark-ignition engine were investigated for different piston ring end-gap configurations. A radiotracer was used to perform direct measurement of the oil consumption while Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) was used to perform the oil film thickness measurements for consumption predictions using the 'Puddle Theory of Oil Consumption,' which relates oil consumption to second land film thickness and reverse flow through top ring gap. The consumption data was evaluated to determine the impact of top ring end-gap azimuthal location on oil consumption. The film thickness data was used to evaluate the extent to which the oil Puddle Theory predicts variations seen in the actual oil consumption. A tritium radiotracer oil consumption measurement system with an accuracy of 94.6 percent was designed and constructed. This was used to perform direct measurements of the test engine oil consumption in two different test matrices. The first evaluated a piston ring configuration with the rings free to rotate. The second evaluated configurations with the top ring and second piston rings pinned to fix the azimuthal location of the end-gap; the azimuth of the top ring was varied. In the second test matrix, the oil film thickness on the piston's second land was measured, and predictions were made on the basis of that measurement.

  18. Bioremediation techniques on crude oil contaminated soils in Ohio. First quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, D.

    1996-03-27

    The objective of this project is to develop environmentally-sound and cost-effective remediation techniques for crude oil contaminated soils. By providing a guidance manual to oil and gas operators, the Ohio Division of Oil and Gas regulatory authority hopes to reduce remediation costs while improving voluntary compliance with soil clean-up requirements. This shall be accomplished by conducting a series of field tests to define the optimum range for nutrient, oxygen and organic enhancement to biologically remediate soils contaminated with brines and crude oil having a wide range of viscosity. Task one of the bioremediation project began on July 3, 1995 with the selection and preparation of a site in Smith township. Mahoning County. The plots were arranged and parameters were varied. Plots, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal. ) of Corning grade crude oil and plots 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal.) of Pennsylvania grade crude oil. Plots 13 through 21 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal.) of Pennsylvania grade crude oil and 477 liters (126 gal.) of Clinton sandstone brine with a 160,000 mg/liter concentration of chloride. Treatment and administration of variables were conducted from August 17, 1995 to October 26, 1995. During this period samples were collected twice from each plot and analyzed for the parameters specified in the contract. Results from both sampling events of total petroleum hydrocarbons suggest that crude oil spread on surface is not easily mixed into soils as tillage depth, resulting in considerably variable composite samples from plot to plot.

  19. A meta-analysis of estimates of urban agglomeration economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia C. Melo; Daniel J. Graham; Robert B. Noland

    2009-01-01

    Although the productivity gains of urban agglomeration economies are generally found to be positive, there is a great deal of variability in the magnitude of reported estimates. This paper undertakes a quantitative review of the empirical literature on agglomeration through a meta-analysis of 729 elasticities taken from 34 different studies. The objective is to make sense of the range of

  20. Effect of structural characteristics on impact breakage of agglomerates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Samimi; M. Ghadiri; R. Boerefijn; A. Groot; R. Kohlus

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical properties and evolved structure of agglomerates depend strongly on the manufacturing method. There is a great interest in finding a simple way of establishing a rank order in their processing behaviour, e.g., the ease with which they could be dispersed in fluids. For this reason, the breakage propensity of two types of detergent agglomerates produced by different processes

  1. Agglomeration and Central Place Theory: A Review of the Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon F. Mulligan

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews and evaluates the analytical literature on the interdependencies of agglomeration and central place theory. It is emphasized that economic agents (firms, households) tend to cluster at points of differential centrality on the economic landscape, and that this clustering process can provide even further savings to both producers and consumers. The agglomeration phenomenon is examined at three scales:

  2. Cork agglomerates as an ideal core material in lightweight structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osvaldo Castro; José M. Silva; Tessaleno Devezas; Arlindo Silva; Luís Gil

    2010-01-01

    The experiments carried out in this investigation were oriented in order to optimize the properties of cork-based agglomerates as an ideal core material for sandwich components of lightweight structures, such as those used in aerospace applications. Static bending tests were performed in order to characterize the mechanical strength of different types of cork agglomerates which were obtained considering distinct production

  3. Measuring agglomerate size distribution and dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance absorbance on gold nanoparticle agglomerate size using analytical ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Zook, Justin M; Rastogi, Vinayak; Maccuspie, Robert I; Keene, Athena M; Fagan, Jeffrey

    2011-10-25

    Agglomeration of nanoparticles during measurements in relevant biological and environmental media is a frequent problem in nanomaterial property characterization. The primary problem is typically that any changes to the size distribution can dramatically affect the potential nanotoxicity or other size-determined properties, such as the absorbance signal in a biosensor measurement. Herein we demonstrate analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) as a powerful method for measuring two critical characteristics of nanoparticle (NP) agglomerates in situ in biological media: the NP agglomerate size distribution, and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorbance spectrum of precise sizes of gold NP agglomerates. To characterize the size distribution, we present a theoretical framework for calculating the hydrodynamic diameter distribution of NP agglomerates from their sedimentation coefficient distribution. We measure sedimentation rates for monomers, dimers, and trimers, as well as for larger agglomerates with up to 600 NPs. The AUC size distributions were found generally to be broader than the size distributions estimated from dynamic light scattering and diffusion-limited colloidal aggregation theory, an alternative bulk measurement method that relies on several assumptions. In addition, the measured sedimentation coefficients can be used in nanotoxicity studies to predict how quickly the agglomerates sediment out of solution under normal gravitational forces, such as in the environment. We also calculate the absorbance spectra for monomer, dimer, trimer, and larger gold NP agglomerates up to 600 NPs, to enable a better understanding of LSPR biosensors. Finally, we validate a new method that uses these spectra to deconvolute the net absorbance spectrum of an unknown bulk sample and approximate the proportions of monomers, dimers, and trimers in a polydisperse sample of small agglomerates, so that every sample does not need to be measured by AUC. These results demonstrate the potential utility of AUC to characterize NP agglomeration and sedimentation for nanotoxicity and biosensor studies, as well as to characterize NP agglomerate size and absorbance to improve LSPR and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based biosensors. PMID:21888410

  4. Recent improvements in optimizing use of dispersants as a cost-effective oil spill countermeasure technique

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.S.; Indrebo, G.

    1996-12-31

    Several oil spill incidents during recent years have demonstrated that the physico-chemical properties of spilled oil and the effectiveness of available combat methods are, in addition to the prevailing environmental and weather conditions, key factors that determine the consequences of an oil spill. Pre-spill analyses of the feasibility and effectiveness of different response strategies, such as mechanical recovery and dispersants, for actual oils under various environmental conditions should therefore be an essential part of any oil spill contingency planning to optimize the overall {open_quotes}Net Environmental Benefit{close_quotes} of a combat operation. During the four-year research program ESCOST ({open_quotes}ESSO-SINTEF Coastal Oil Spill Treatment Program{close_quotes}), significant improvements have been made in oil spill combat methods and in tools for use in contingency planning and decision-making during oil spill operations. This paper will present an overview of the main findings obtained with respect to oil weathering and oil spill dispersant treatment.

  5. Influence of primary particle density in the morphology of agglomerates

    E-print Network

    M. D. Camejo; D. R. Espeso; L. L. Bonilla

    2014-07-03

    Agglomeration processes occur in many different realms of science such as colloid and aerosol formation or formation of bacterial colonies. We study the influence of primary particle density in agglomerate structure using diffusion-controlled Monte Carlo simulations with realistic space scales through different regimes (DLA and DLCA). The equivalence of Monte Carlo time steps to real time scales is given by Hirsch's hydrodynamical theory of Brownian motion. Agglomerate behavior at different time stages of the simulations suggests that three indices (fractal exponent, coordination number and eccentricity index) characterize agglomerate geometry. Using these indices, we have found that the initial density of primary particles greatly influences the final structure of the agglomerate as observed in recent experimental works.

  6. Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah, Class I

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Craig D.; Gwynn, Wallace; Deo, Milind D.; Jarrard, Richard; Curtice, Richard; Morris, Thomas H.; Smouse, DeForrest; Tripp, Carol N.

    2000-01-20

    The objective of this project was to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Unita Basin Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that staged-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance.

  7. Soot agglomeration in isolated, free droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, M. Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Green, G. J.; Sangiovanni, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Under the conditions of an isolated, free droplet experiment, hollow, carbonaceous structures, called soot spheres, were observed to form during the atmospheric pressure, low Reynolds number combustion of 1-methylnaphthalene. These structures which are agglomerates composed of smaller spheroidal units result from both thermophoretic effects induced by the envelope flame surrounding each drop and aerodynamic effects caused by changes in the relative gas/drop velocities. A chemically reacting flow model was used to analyze the process of sootshell formation during microgravity droplet combustion. The time-dependent temperature and gas property field surrounding the droplet was determined, and the soot cloud location for microgravity combustion of n-heptane droplets was predicted. Experiments showed that the sooting propensity of n-alkane fuel droplets can be varied through diluent substitution, oxygen-index variations, and ambient pressure reductions.

  8. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD); Chandran, Ravi (Ellicott City, MD)

    1994-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, added particulates may include a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  9. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance bimodal agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. A particulate having a size different from the size of the particulate in the gas stream to be cleaned is introduced into the system to effectuate the bimodal process. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, the added particulate may be a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  10. Analysis of techniques for predicting viscosity of heavy oil and tar sand bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    Khataniar, S.; Patil, S.L.; Kamath, V.A. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermal recovery methods are generally employed for recovering heavy oil and tar sand bitumen. These methods rely on reduction of oil viscosity by application of heat as one of the primary mechanisms of oil recovery. Therefore, design and performance prediction of the thermal recovery methods require adequate prediction of oil viscosity as a function of temperature. In this paper, several commonly used temperature-viscosity correlations are analyzed to evaluate their ability to correctly predict heavy oil and bitumen viscosity as a function of temperature. The analysis showed that Ali and Standing`s correlations gave satisfactory results in most cases when properly applied. Guidelines are provided for their application. None of the correlations, however, performed satisfactorily with very heavy oils at low temperatures.

  11. Simple techniques to increase the production yield and enhance the quality of organic rice bran oils.

    PubMed

    Srikaeo, Khongsak; Pradit, Maythawinee

    2011-01-01

    This study develops simple techniques for increasing production yield and refining of crude RBO (CRBO). It was found that pre-heating of rice bran by hot air oven to reach 60°C before being extracted by screw press machine increased the yield from 4.8 to 8.3%w/w. This paper suggested three simple steps for refining of organic CRBO: (1) filtering using filter papers (2) sedimentation by adding 4%w/v fuller's earth and (3) bleaching by running through a packed column of activated carbon. These steps significantly enhanced the qualities of RBO when compared to CRBO before treatment. It was found that the lightness of oil as indicated by color value (L*) increased from 22.8 to 28.7, gum and wax decreased from 3.6 to 1.3%w/w. However, the simple refining method had no effect on peroxide value and free fatty acid content. Moreover, it slightly induced the loss of oryzanol content from 2.8 to 2.2%w/w. PMID:21178310

  12. Differentiation of lemon essential oil based on volatile and non-volatile fractions with various analytical techniques: a metabolomic approach.

    PubMed

    Mehl, Florence; Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Debrus, Benjamin; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Raymo, Vilfredo; Velazco, Maria Inés; Sommer, Horst; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Rudaz, Serge

    2014-01-15

    Due to the importance of citrus lemon oil for the industry, fast and reliable analytical methods that allow the authentication and/or classification of such oil, using the origin of production or extraction process, are necessary. To evaluate the potential of volatile and non-volatile fractions for classification purposes, volatile compounds of cold-pressed lemon oils were analyzed, using GC-FID/MS and FT-MIR, while the non-volatile residues were studied, using FT-MIR, (1)H-NMR and UHPLC-TOF-MS. 64 Lemon oil samples from Argentina, Spain and Italy were considered. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses were sequentially performed on various data blocks obtained by the above techniques. Successful data treatments led to statistically significant models that discriminated and classified cold-pressed lemon oils according to their geographic origin, as well as their production processes. Studying the loadings allowed highlighting of important classes of discriminant variables that corresponded to putative or identified chemical functions and compounds. PMID:24054247

  13. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment used for the containment and removal of oil as a result of oil spill mishaps. Dispersants, separators, skimmers and absorbants are discussed. Related studies regarding film spreading and dispersion are presented. Studies pertaining to shipboard ballast and bilgewater cleaning are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Comparing classical and neural regression techniques in modeling crude oil viscosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Elsharkwy; R. B. C. Gharbi

    2000-01-01

    The importance of crude oil viscosity makes its accurate determination necessary for reservoir performance calculations, evaluation of hydrocarbon reserves, planning thermal methods of enhanced oil recovery, and designing production equipment and pipelines. Viscosity data are also involved in several dimensionless parameters to calculate flow regimes, friction factors and pressure gradients in multiphase flow problems. Numerous research efforts have been directed

  15. Thermogravimetric determination of vapor pressure of diffusion pump oils by Knudsen effusion cell technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steckel

    1980-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the determination of vapor pressure of diffusion pump oils using a Knudsen effusion cell in conjunction with a vacuum balance. The extrapolated vapor pressure of the diffusion pump oils evaluated ranged from 4 x 10⁻⁸ to 2 x 10⁻⁶ torr at 20°C.

  16. Microbiological techniques for paraffin reduction in producing oil wells: Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Oppenheimer; F. K. Hiebert

    1989-01-01

    Alpha Environmental has completed an eighteen month field oriented, cooperative research program with the US Department of Energy to demonstrate a new economically viable process using petroleum degrading microorganisms, a biocatalyst, formation water and inorganic nutrients to recover residual oil from reservoirs. Alpha's mixed community of microorganisms decomposes crude oil to produce detergents, COâ, and new cells, thus mechanically and

  17. Determination and structural elucidation of triacylglycerols in krill oil by chromatographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Pedro; Zhu, Han; Breivik, Joar Fjørtoft; Hjelle, Jan Idar; Zeng, Yingxu

    2014-02-01

    The content of triacylglycerols (TAG) in krill oil is generally omitted from the labels of commercial supplements and unacknowledged in studies aimed at proving its health benefits. The present study demonstrates that TAG compounds, in addition to phospholipids and lysophospholipids, are an important lipid class in pure krill oil. The fatty acid composition of TAG molecules from krill oil and their distribution on the backbone of TAG structures were determined by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric, respectively. The content of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was similar to those reported in the literature for fish oil. It was estimated that 21 % of n-3 PUFA were at the sn-2 position of TAG structures. To our knowledge, this is the first determination and structural characterization of TAG in pure krill oil supplements. PMID:24190513

  18. Dynamic micromechanical behavior of agglomerates under compression and dispersion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kuo-Yuan

    The relationships between the mechanical response of particle agglomerates to compressive forces, and the hydrodynamic dispersion behavior of such agglomerates have been studied. Structural changes within the agglomerate, rates of stress relaxation following loading of the agglomerate, and the mechanical hardening of particle agglomerates under repeated loading and unloading cycles of uniaxial compression provide information useful to the interpretation of hydrodynamic dispersion phenomena. Dispersion experiments were performed under controlled flow conditions in a rotating cone-and-plate device which produces a steady simple-shear flow. Specifically, dispersion tests were performed on individual calcium carbonate agglomerates suspended and sheared in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Several binder liquids (water, glycerol, ethanolamine, and PDMS) were used in varying concentrations to impart different interfacial properties (and hence different mechanical behaviors) to the starting agglomerates. Compression experiments were performed in a controlled motor-micrometer system which allowed for uniaxial compressive forces that could be applied to the agglomerates at controlled loading rates. Stress-strain data were measured. Experiments involving compressing the agglomerate to fracture, loading to a certain stress and monitoring stress relaxation, and application of multiple cycles of loading and unloading have been performed. Generally, the agglomerates exhibit elastoplastic (or viscoelastic) behavior, with the stress-strain curve for the initial loading showing a sequence of elastic and plastic yield responses. A two-parameter non-linear Maxwell model has been proposed and validated to represent the overall mechanical response of the agglomerate. Under conditions of low strain rate (0.0001 ˜ 0.0125 s-1), the structural relaxation of an agglomerate (of a given packing density and binder content) can be described by a single relaxation time. Relaxation time scales associated with the loading portion of the compression experiment are different than those for the unloading segment of the compression cycle. In addition, shifts in the relaxation time scale have been observed in experiments in which multiple loading-unloading cycles are applied to the agglomerate. These results shed light on the mechanical origins of the dispersion behavior. The fracture energy associated with the cohesive strength of the agglomerate is employed as an index of the expected dispersion behavior. The cohesive strength of the agglomerate is determined by the van der Waals and inelastic forces that act between constituent particles. Thus the agglomerate packing density and nature and composition of the binder used (if any) are important parameters in this analysis. The tendency of an agglomerate to disperse can further be analyzed in terms of two parameters: the structural relaxation time and the period of the hydrodynamic stress cycle. The ratio of these two time scales (the Deborah number) can be used to predict dispersion tendencies. Direct measurement of the structural relaxation time scale, under stress loading conditions similar to that encountered in hydrodynamic dispersion, were performed in stress-relaxation experiments. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical notion that if the structural relaxation time of the agglomerate under compression is long compared to the one-quarter period of the hydrodynamic stress cycle, dispersion will take place.

  19. Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Executive summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Project performance targets for the selective agglomeration process were to achieve 85% or greater Btu recovery at 85% or greater pyritic sulfur rejection (PSR) on a run-of-mine (ROM) coal basis, while producing a final clean-coal product with an ash content of 6% or less which is handleable by conventional coal handling systems. Engineering development of selective agglomeration included: (1) Batch and continuous bench-scale precess development testing; (2) Continuous pilot-scale (3-t/h) component development testing to evaluate the adaptation and/or modification of existing unit operations for selective agglomeration; (3) Continuous pilot-scale (2-t/h) POC testing to optimize the selective agglomeration process and demonstrate precess reliability; (4) Vendor testing to evaluate pelletization and thermal drying precesses as applied to selective agglomeration; (5) Conceptual design of a commercial-scale (200-V/h) selective agglomeration facility; (6) Economic analysis of the selective agglomeration precess at a commercial (200-t/h) scale. The information obtained from the various modes of testing and analysis, particularly POC operations, resulted in a technical and economic design base sufficient to support construction and operation of a commercial plant.

  20. Investigations into the control of agglomeration and defluidisation during fluidised-bed combustion of low-rank coals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Vuthaluru; T. M. Linjewile; Dong-ke Zhang; A. R. Manzoori

    1999-01-01

    A laboratory scale spouted bed combustor was used to study the effectiveness of various control methodologies in alleviating ash-related problems such as particle agglomeration and bed defluidisation during fluid bed combustion of low-rank coals. The three control techniques investigated are: (i) the use of mineral additives; (ii) alternative bed materials; and (iii) pretreatment of coal. Mineral additives, including dolomite, two

  1. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary\\/Terriary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Eby; Jr. Thomas C. Chidsey

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by;\\u000ademonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin,;\\u000asoutheastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique;\\u000acan be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased;\\u000arecovery of

  2. A FARIMA-based technique for oil slick and low-wind areas discrimination in sea SAR imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Bertacca; Fabrizio Berizzi; Enzo Dalle Mese

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a new analysis technique, using the fractionally integrated autoregressive-moving average (FARIMA) model, to distinguish between low-wind and oil slick areas in high-resolution sea synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The method deals with the estimation of the fractional differencing and autoregressive-moving average parameters of the mean radial power spectral density of sea SAR images. The algorithm is applied

  3. Optical Properties of Some Silicone Diffusion-Pump Oils in the Vacuum Ultraviolet—Using an Open-Dish Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Kerr; M. W. Williams; R. D. Birkhoff; L. R. Painter

    1971-01-01

    The optical properties of Dow Corning-704 and -705 diffusion-pump oils have been measured from 4?24.8 eV using an open-dish technique. These are the first liquids for which optical constants have been obtained above 11.8 eV. In the region above 10.6 eV, the real part of the dielectric constant is structureless. A collective oscillation involving ? and ? electrons is seen

  4. Review of ash agglomeration in fluidized bed gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Matulevicius, E.S.; Golan, L.P.

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the data and mathematical models which describe the phenomena involved in the agglomeration of ash in fluidized bed coal gasifiers (FBG). Besides highlighting the data and theoretical models, this review lists areas where there is a lack of information regarding the actual mechanisms of agglomeration. Also, potential areas for further work are outlined. The work is directed at developing models of agglomeration which could be included in computer codes describing fluidized bed gasifier phenomena, e.g., FLAG and CHEMFLUB which have been developed for the US Department of Energy. 134 references, 24 figures, 13 tables.

  5. Agglomeration processes sustained by dust density waves in Ar/C2H2 plasma: From C2H2 injection to the formation of an organized structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dap, Simon; Hugon, Robert; Lacroix, David; de Poucques, Ludovic; Briancon, Jean-Luc; Bougdira, Jamal

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation of dust particle agglomeration in a capacitively coupled RF discharge is reported. Carbonaceous particles are produced in an argon plasma using acetylene. As soon as the particle density becomes sufficient, dust density waves (DDWs) are spontaneously excited within the cathode sheath. Recently, it was proven that DDWs can significantly enhance the agglomeration rate between particles by transferring them a significant kinetic energy. Thus, it helps them to overcome Coulomb repulsion. The influence of this mechanism is studied from acetylene injection to the formation of very large agglomerates forming an organized structure after a few dozens of seconds. For this purpose, three diagnostic tools are used: extinction measurements to probe nanometer-sized particles, fast imaging for large agglomerates and a dust extraction technique developed for ex-situ analysis.

  6. Agglomeration of proteins in acoustically levitated droplets.

    PubMed

    Delissen, Friedmar; Leiterer, Jork; Bienert, Ralf; Emmerling, Franziska; Thünemann, Andreas F

    2008-09-01

    An ultrasonic trap (acoustic levitator) was used as an analytical tool to allow container-free handling of proteins in small sample volumes. This trap was combined for the first time with synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for structure analysis of biological macromolecules in a solution. The microfocus beamline at BESSY was used as a source of intense X-ray radiation. Apoferritin (APO) was used as a model protein, and its aggregation behavior in a levitator was followed from a diluted solution to the solid state. Different stages of APO agglomeration were observed without solid container walls, which may influence aggregation behavior and produce a parasitic scattering background. Starting with a volume of 5 microL we analyzed the concentration dependence of APO structure factors in the range from 5 to 1,200 mg/mL (solid protein). The solution was stirred automatically due to convection inside the droplet caused by the ultrasonic field. SAXS data recording of APO was performed in time intervals of 60 s during an aggregation experiment of 30 to 60 min. PMID:18607573

  7. The development of a technique for determining the oil content of medical compressed air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dyment; G. D. Ludbrook

    1980-01-01

    The maximum permissible concentration of oil droplet contamination in medical compressed air is 0.5 mg\\/m3. Because of the increasing use of compressed air in hospitals, a rapid and straightforward test is required which will enable a hospital engineer to establish whether the air supply is free from oil. A jet of air is impacted onto the surface of a porous

  8. Simulation of particle agglomeration using dissipative particle dynamics

    E-print Network

    Mokkapati, Srinivas Praveen

    2009-05-15

    Attachment of particles to one another due to action of certain inter-particle forces is called as particle agglomeration. It has applications ranging from efficient capture of ultra-fine particles generated in coal-burning boilers to effective...

  9. Industrial agglomeration and transport accessibility in metropolitan Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yena; Lee, Keumsook; Anderson, William P.; Lakshmanan, T. R.

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to reveal the relationship between industrial agglomeration and transport accessibility in the Seoul metropolitan area. Our study suggests that in spite of the rapid expansion of the Seoul metropolitan area, central business districts still function as centers of the industry and transportation system; the agglomeration of most industrial subsectors are occurring in central areas and only primary and manufacturing sectors' clusters are located out of these areas; both of subway and road networks show higher level of accessibility in central Seoul and big cities. This implies a strong relationship between the industrial agglomeration and the transport accessibility, and such hypothetical relationship is tested for every industrial subsector using logit analysis. Our findings indicate that although there are industrial variations in the magnitude of impacts and the significance level, transport networks are, in general, positively associated with industrial agglomeration and this is especially true for service sectors.

  10. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised. PMID:25731716

  11. Measurement of Metal Nanoparticle Agglomerates Generated by Spark Discharge Using the Universal Nanoparticle Analyzer (UNPA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhun Liu; Seong Chan Kim; Jing Wang; Weon Gyu Shin; Heinz Fissan; David Y. H. Pui

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle agglomerates play an essential role in the manufacturing of many nanomaterials and are commonly found in combustion products. Conventional aerosol instruments based on equivalent spheres are not directly applicable to the measurement of nanoparticle agglomerates. The increasing interest in real-time assessment of the structure of engineered nanoparticle agglomerates and the mass concentration of potentially hazardous agglomerates (e.g., diesel soot,

  12. Statistical simulation of aluminum agglomeration during combustion of heterogeneous condensed mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Rashkovskii

    2005-01-01

    A statistical model of aluminum agglomeration during combustion of solid composite rocket propellants is considered; the model describes the process dynamics, beginning from propellant heating in the combustion wave and ending by separation of agglomerates from the burning surface. An algorithm of computing the agglomeration process by the Monte Carlo method is proposed. A series of computations of aluminum agglomeration

  13. Determination of peroxide value of edible oils by FTIR spectroscopy with the use of the spectral reconstitution technique.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuzhu; van de Voort, F R; Sedman, J

    2007-11-30

    Spectral reconstitution (SR), a technique that has been developed to facilitate mid-FTIR transmission analysis of inherently viscous samples, was applied to simplify and automate a previously reported FTIR method for the determination of peroxide value (PV) of edible oils. The basis of the PV determination is the rapid reaction of triphenylphosphine (TPP) with the hydroperoxides present in an oil to produce triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), which exhibits a readily measurable absorption band at 542 cm(-1). In the SR procedure, the viscosity of oil samples is reduced by mixing them with a diluent, which allows them to be readily loaded into a flow-through transmission cell. The spectra of the neat oil samples are then reconstituted from those of the diluted samples by using the absorption of a spectral marker present in the diluent to determine the dilution ratio. For the SR-based PV method, the TPP reagent was added to the diluent, which consisted of odorless mineral spirits (OMS) containing methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as the spectral marker. Sample preparation for PV analysis involved mixing approximately 10 ml of oil with approximately 25 ml of the TPP-containing diluent; accurate weighing or delivery of precise volumes was not required because the dilution ratio was determined spectroscopically from the intensity of the nu(CO) absorption of MMT at 1942 cm(-1) in the spectrum of the diluted sample relative to that in the spectrum of the diluent. Calibration standards, prepared by gravimetric addition of TPPO to a peroxide-free oil, were handled in the same manner, and a linear calibration equation relating the concentration of TPPO (expressed as the equivalent PV) to the absorbance of TPPO at 542 cm(-1) relative to a baseline at 530 cm(-1) in the reconstituted spectra was obtained, with a regression S.D. of +/-0.15 meq/kg oil. PV determinations on two sets of validation samples, spanning PV ranges of 0-20 and 0-2 meq/kg oil, were carried out in parallel by the AOCS titrimetric and SR-based FTIR procedures, and comparison of the results of duplicate analyses by the two methods indicated that the latter was more reproducible and slightly more sensitive. The SR-based PV method, when implemented on an autosampler-equipped FTIR system, allowed for the automated analysis of approximately 90 samples per hour. PMID:18371636

  14. Application of Rosenbrock search technique to reduce the drilling cost of a well in Bai-Hassan oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Aswad, Z.A.R.; Al-Hadad, S.M.S.

    1983-03-01

    The powerful Rosenbrock search technique, which optimizes both the search directions using the Gram-Schmidt procedure and the step size using the Fibonacci line search method, has been used to optimize the drilling program of an oil well drilled in Bai-Hassan oil field in Kirkuk, Iran, using the twodimensional drilling model of Galle and Woods. This model shows the effect of the two major controllable variables, weight on bit and rotary speed, on the drilling rate, while considering other controllable variables such as the mud properties, hydrostatic pressure, hydraulic design, and bit selection. The effect of tooth dullness on the drilling rate is also considered. Increasing the weight on the drill bit with a small increase or decrease in ratary speed resulted in a significant decrease in the drilling cost for most bit runs. It was found that a 48% reduction in this cost and a 97-hour savings in the total drilling time was possible under certain conditions.

  15. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-11-02

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  16. Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Anaya, Jessica Del Pilar; Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina; Castañeda-Saucedo, Ma Claudia; Villalón-Mir, Marina; de la Serrana, Herminia López-García

    2015-12-01

    Potato, tomato, eggplant and pumpkin were deep fried, sautéed and boiled in Mediterranean extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), water, and a water/oil mixture (W/O). We determined the contents of fat, moisture, total phenols (TPC) and eighteen phenolic compounds, as well as antioxidant capacity in the raw vegetables and compared these with contents measured after cooking. Deep frying and sautéing led to increased fat contents and TPC, whereas both types of boiling (in water and W/O) reduced the same. The presence of EVOO in cooking increased the phenolics identified in the raw foods as oleuropein, pinoresinol, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and the contents of vegetable phenolics such as chlorogenic acid and rutin. All the cooking methods conserved or increased the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS. Multivariate analyses showed that each cooked vegetable developed specific phenolic and antioxidant activity profiles resulting from the characteristics of the raw vegetables and the cooking techniques. PMID:26041214

  17. A model for fine particle agglomeration in circulating fluidized bed absorbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mao; J. R. Edwards; A. V. Kuznetsov; R. Srivastava

    2002-01-01

    A model for fine particle agglomeration in circulating fluidized bed absorbers (CFBAs) has been developed. It can model the\\u000a influence of different factors on agglomeration, such as the geometry of a CFBA, the superficial gas velocity, initial particle\\u000a size distribution (PSD), and type of agglomeration mechanism. It is found that the Brownian agglomeration mechanism can be\\u000a neglected compared to agglomeration

  18. Model for coal ash agglomeration based on two-particle dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, J.L.; O'Brien, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    The agglomeration of coal and coal ash in fluidized-bed gasifiers (FBG's) is of great interest in coal conversion. However, only limited work has been done to develop analytical models in order to understand ash agglomeration in FBG's. This paper focuses on two-particle collision dynamics, which is then used to develop a criterion for the agglutination of the two particles. The main assumption of this mechanism is that the binding force can be modeled as ''piecewise'' conservative. This makes it possible to compute the maximum energy that can be dissipated by the system. Comparison of this quantity with the initial kinetic energy provides the agglutination criteria. A specific version of this model is obtained by making specific choices for the contact force and the binding force. An analytic formula for the critical velocity, the relative collision velocity below which agglutination takes place, is obtained for head-on collisions; a numerical technique is developed for collisions which are not head-on. A process change which increases the critical velocity increases the likelihood of agglutination of particles with random relative velocities. To examine the critical velocity as a function of temperature, the model requires correlations for the shear modulus and surface adhesiveness coefficient of the particles. Although these correlations are derived from limited experimental information, they lead to reasonable results and agreement with existing experimental data on agglomeration and defluidization. By considering the agglutination of particles of average size and temperature, a measure of the agglomeration tendency of a FBG can be obtained. Finally, the sensitivity of the model to system parameters is also investigated and an assessment of needed additional work is made. 35 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  20. Analysis of flue-cured tobacco essential oil by hyphenated analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Gordon, B M; Uhrig, M S; Borgerding, M F; Chung, H L; Coleman, W M; Elder, J F; Giles, J A; Moore, D S; Rix, C E; White, E L

    1988-04-01

    The major components of an alkaloid-free, flue-cured, tobacco essential oil sample are isolated and identified. This is accomplished by utilizing modern hyphenated analytical methods. The instrumentation developed to accomplish this are an automated multidimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer/flame ionization detector (MDGC/MS/FID) and a multidimensional gas chromatograph/matrix isolation/Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (MDGC/MI/FTIR). A total of 306 compounds is identified in the essential oil, of which 80 are found as tobacco constituents for the first time. PMID:3379123

  1. Experimental investigation on waste heat recovery by refinery oil sludge incineration using fluidised?bed technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sankaran; S. Pandey; K. Sumathy

    1998-01-01

    This paper details the experimental investigation and the methodology of fluid bed incineration of three different oil sludge wastes from one of the major refineries of South India using the pilot plant facility at School of Energy, Bharathidasan University, Trichy. The trial runs conducted in the fluid bed incinerator system show that more than 98 % combustion efficiency and 99

  2. Determination of Trace Elements in Vegetable Oils and Biodiesel by Atomic Spectrometric Techniques---A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fábio G. Lepri; Eduardo S. Chaves; Mariana A. Vieira; Anderson S. Ribeiro; Adilson J. Curtius; Lígia C. C. DeOliveira; Reinaldo C. DeCampos

    2011-01-01

    The determination of trace elements in edible oils and biodiesel using atomic spectrometric methods is reviewed. Problems related to sample pretreatment for appropriate sample introduction and calibration are addressed as well as the strategies to overcome them. Recent trends aimed at simplifying sample manipulation are presented. The applications and scope of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), flame optical emission spectrometry (F-OES),

  3. A fractional calculus technique for on-line detection of oil debris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoonbin Hong; Ming Liang

    2008-01-01

    The quantity and size of the metallic debris falling off machine components due to fatigue, corrosion and pitting provide valuable information about the machine structural integrity. For this reason, in-line oil debris sensors have been widely adopted for on-line fault detection. However, the effectiveness of such sensors relies on how the acquired data are processed. The existing method for identifying

  4. Skin friction measurements by a new nonintrusive double-laser-beam oil viscosity balance technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, D. J.; Higuchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    A portable dual-laser-beam interferometer that nonintrusively measures skin friction by monitoring the thickness change of an oil film subject to shear stress is described. The method is an advance over past versions in that the troublesome and error-introducing need to measure the distance to the oil leading edge and the starting time for the oil flow has been eliminated. The validity of the method was verified by measuring oil viscosity in the laboratory, and then using those results to measure skin friction beneath the turbulent boundary layer in a low-speed wind tunnel. The dual-laser-beam skin friction measurements are compared with Preston tube measurements, with mean velocity profile data in a 'law-of-the-wall' coordinate system, and with computations based on turbulent boundary-layer theory. Excellent agreement is found in all cases. This validation and the aforementioned improvements appear to make the present form of the instrument usable to measure skin friction reliably and nonintrusively in a wide range of flow situations in which previous methods are not practical.

  5. Prudhoe Bay Oil Production Optimization: Using Virtual intelligence Techniques, Stage One: Neural Model Building

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous. Figure 1 illustrates the gas transit network between the separation facilities and the inlet capacity and subsequent oil production. Figure 2 illustrates the range of daily average temperatures from

  6. Clinical presentation of a mixed 23-gauge infusion and 20-gauge pars plana technique for active silicone oil removal

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jian-Qin; Xie, An-Ming; Shi, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    AIM To present with a clinical case series of a mixed 23-gauge infusion and 20-gauge pars plana technique for 5,700-centipoise silicone oil removal (SOR), and to discuss its efficacy and safety. METHODS This is a retrospective, non-randomized controlled study. We performed SOR with 23-gauge infusion and 20-gauge active suction technique on 29 patients 29 eyes from April to October, 2011 (mixed group). During the surgeries, a 23-gauge sclerotomy was made for infusion and a 20-gauge sclerotomy was used for active silicone oil suction. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was applied for 23-gauge sclerotomy analysis 1 day post-operation. Traditional 20-gauge SOR was performed on another consecutive 29 patients 29 eyes, the control group (20G group). RESULTS There were 2 eyes (6.9%) in mixed group and 5 eyes (17.2%) in 20G group which had recurrent retinal detachment after surgery. Hopytony (IOP?6mmHg) occurred in 8 eyes (27.6%) of mixed group and in 10 eyes (34.5%) of 20G group post-operation, but all of them recovered to the normal level finally. There were no statistical significant differences. Final visual acuity was significantly increased after surgery in both groups. Anterior segment OCT images were acquired from 13 eyes of mixed group, and all of them had a proper wound apposition. But local ciliary detachment was found in 9 eyes (69%). It was hard to define the OCT image of the sclerotomies and ciliary body because of the serious conjunctival hemorrhages and chemosis in 20G group. CONCLUSION This mixed technique is a convenient and effective way to remove high viscosity silicone oil. Compared with traditional 20-gauge SOR, it does not increase the risk of post-operative complications and has less conjunctival reactions.. Transient postoperative hypotony is common for this procedure and subclinical ciliochoroidal detachment is a probable cause. PMID:23166872

  7. Quantitative analyses of polar components in frying oils by the iatroscan thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detection technique.

    PubMed

    Sébédio, J L; Astorg, P O; Septier, C; Grandgirard, A

    1987-09-18

    Frying oils collected in restaurants were fractionated into a polar and a non-polar fraction by the Iatroscan thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detection (TLC-FID) system on Chromarod S II using hexane-diethyl ether-acetic acid (97:3:1) as the solvent system. The FID responses for Iatroscan analyses of the polar and the non-polar fraction isolated from a frying oil by column chromatography on a 5% hydrated silicic acid were studied at Chromarod load levels ranging from 1 to 16 micrograms, relative to methyl heptadecanoate as the internal standard. The correction factors were relatively constant in the range 10-16 micrograms, but increased in the range 1-5 micrograms. The amount of polar material in ten commercial frying oil samples was quantitated by the Iatroscan TLC-FID technique. Good correlations were found between the results and data obtained by column chromatography and silica gel Sep-Pak cartridges. PMID:3693474

  8. Nanoemulsion of orange oil with non ionic surfactant produced emulsion using ultrasonication technique: evaluating against food spoilage yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugumar, Saranya; Singh, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N.

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, food industries have shown great interest in developing nanoemulsion (NE) using essential oils (EOs) to prevent food spoilage caused by microorganisms. The hydrophobic properties of EOs have lead to reduced solubilization effect of food, which in turn, created a negative impact on the quality of food and its antimicrobial efficacy. Focusing this issue, we attempted a unique NE preparation using orange oil, Tween 80 (organic phase) and water (aqueous phase) by sonication technique. Based on thermodynamic stability studies, the effective diameter was reported to be in the size range from 20 to 30 nm. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in testing the anti-yeast effect. Their activity was studied in both growth medium and apple juice. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this NE was determined using broth dilution method. At 2 ?l/ml, orange oil NE demonstrated inhibition of tested microorganisms. The kinetics of killing curve, have shown that the NE treated cells had lost its viability within 30 min of interaction. Also, SEM image revealed that the treated cells became distorted in comparison to their control cells. NE treated apple juice showed complete loss of viability even on dilution as compared to their controls.

  9. Development of acoustic agglomerator. Test plan for high temperature high pressure acoustic agglomerator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-12

    The design specifications for the HTHP AA Facility are listed in Table 1. The facility is an open-loop, air flow system with subsystems and components to provide the high temperature, high pressure, residence time, dust loading and acoustic irradiation to simulate the aerosol and Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) AA system of a Pressurized Fluid Bed Combustor (PFBC), Combined Cycle Power Plant. Data sampling, instrumentation, and automatic controls and data analysis systems are also provided. This test plan describes the testing to be done on the high temperature, high pressure acoustic agglomerator (HTHP AA) at Penn State University's High Intensity Acoustic Laboratory on Department of Energy Contract No. AC21-84 MC20107.

  10. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  11. A Landfarming Application Technique Used as Environmental Remediation for Coal Oil Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Concetta I. Giasi; Annalisa Morelli

    2003-01-01

    Since the massive exploitation of the Val d'Agri (Basilicata-Italy) oilfield has started, a lot of environmental pollution accidents have occurred in the same region. This research takes as starting point the heavy accident occurred in the year 2000, when 15,150 kg of coal oil were spilt all over the Agri river bed and the surrounding fields. In that particular case, the

  12. Investigation and technique in the fluorescent spectra examination of crude oil 

    E-print Network

    Chambers, Gilbert Vester

    1958-01-01

    sediments (25, 28) and source rock (12, 15) by columnar chromatography. Kerr, Weatherford and 'apell (16) chromatographed undiluted virgin crude petroleum oils on alumina. The developers used were n-pentane, thKophene-free benzene, and 25 volume percent... absolute methanol in thiophene-free benzene. They reported that the first appearance of sulfur compounds in the pentane eluant corresponds closely to the initial appearance of compounds which fluoresce visibly in a ultra violet light. Hunt (11) used...

  13. Monitoring of olive oil mills' wastes using electrical resistivity tomography techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simyrdanis, Kleanthis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Kirkou, Stella; Sarris, Apostolos; Tsourlos, Panagiotis

    2014-08-01

    Olive oil mills' wastes (OOMW) are one of the byproducts of the oil production that can lead to serious environmental pollution when they are deposited in ponds dug on the ground surface. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method can provide a valuable tool in order to monitor through time the physical flow of the wastes into the subsurface. ERT could potentially locate the electrical signature due to lower resistivity values resulting from the leakage of OOMW to the subsurface. For this purpose, two vertical boreholes were installed (12m depth, 9 m apart) in the vicinity of an existing pond which is filled with OOMW during the oil production period. The test site is situated in Saint Andreas village about 15km south of the city of Rethymno (Crete, Greece). Surface ERT measurements were collected along multiple lines in order to reconstruct the subsurface resistivity models. Data acquisition was performed with standard and optimized electrode configuration protocols. The monitoring survey includes the ERT data collection for a period of time. The study was initiated before the OOMW were deposited in the pond, so resistivity fluctuations are expected due to the flow of OOMW in the porous subsurface media through time. Preliminary results show the good correlation of the ERT images with the drilled geological formations and the identification of low resistivity subsurface zone that could be attributed to the flow of the wastes within the porous layers.

  14. Multiple-quasiparticle agglomerates at ?=2/5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, D.; Braggio, A.; Magnoli, N.; Sassetti, M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of quasiparticle agglomerates in edge states of the Jain sequence for ?=2/5. Comparison of the Fradkin-Lopez model with the Wen one is presented within a field theoretical construction, focusing on similarities and differences. We demonstrate that both models predict the same universal role for the multiple-quasiparticle agglomerates that dominate on single quasiparticles at low energy. This result is induced by the presence of neutral modes with finite velocity and is essential to explain the anomalous behavior of tunneling conductance and noise through a point contact.

  15. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  16. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  17. Continuous air Agglomeration Method for high Carbon fly ash Beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Finseth, Dennis H.

    1998-09-29

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carbon-free mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  18. Applying monitoring, verification, and accounting techniques to a real-world, enhanced oil recovery operational CO2 leak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wimmer, B.T.; Krapac, I.G.; Locke, R.; Iranmanesh, A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being tested for oil fields in the Illinois Basin, USA. While this technology has shown promise for improving oil production, it has raised some issues about the safety of CO2 injection and storage. The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) organized a Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) team to develop and deploy monitoring programs at three EOR sites in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, USA. MVA goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. This paper focuses on the use of MVA techniques in monitoring a small CO2 leak from a supply line at an EOR facility under real-world conditions. The ability of shallow monitoring techniques to detect and quantify a CO2 leak under real-world conditions has been largely unproven. In July of 2009, a leak in the pipe supplying pressurized CO2 to an injection well was observed at an MGSC EOR site located in west-central Kentucky. Carbon dioxide was escaping from the supply pipe located approximately 1 m underground. The leak was discovered visually by site personnel and injection was halted immediately. At its largest extent, the hole created by the leak was approximately 1.9 m long by 1.7 m wide and 0.7 m deep in the land surface. This circumstance provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate the performance of several monitoring techniques including soil CO2 flux measurements, portable infrared gas analysis, thermal infrared imagery, and aerial hyperspectral imagery. Valuable experience was gained during this effort. Lessons learned included determining 1) hyperspectral imagery was not effective in detecting this relatively small, short-term CO2 leak, 2) even though injection was halted, the leak remained dynamic and presented a safety risk concern during monitoring activities and, 3) the atmospheric and soil monitoring techniques used were relatively cost-effective, easily and rapidly deployable, and required minimal manpower to set up and maintain for short-term assessments. However, characterization of CO2 distribution near the land surface resulting from a dynamic leak with widely variable concentrations and fluxes was challenging. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Bird interactions with offshore oil and gas platforms: review of impacts and monitoring techniques.

    PubMed

    Ronconi, Robert A; Allard, Karel A; Taylor, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of oil and gas platforms are currently operating in offshore waters globally, and this industry is expected to expand in coming decades. Although the potential environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas activities are widely recognized, there is limited understanding of their impacts on migratory and resident birds. A literature review identified 24 studies and reports of bird-platform interactions, most being qualitative and half having been peer-reviewed. The most frequently observed effect, for seabirds and landbirds, is attraction and sometimes collisions associated with lights and flares; episodic events have caused the deaths of hundreds or even thousands of birds. Though typically unpredictable, anecdotally, it is known that poor weather, such as fog, precipitation and low cloud cover, can exacerbate the effect of nocturnal attraction to lights, especially when coincidental with bird migrations. Other effects include provision of foraging and roosting opportunities, increased exposure to oil and hazardous environments, increased exposure to predators, or repulsion from feeding sites. Current approaches to monitoring birds at offshore platforms have focused on observer-based methods which can offer species-level bird identification, quantify seasonal patterns of relative abundance and distribution, and document avian mortality events and underlying factors. Observer-based monitoring is time-intensive, limited in spatial and temporal coverage, and suffers without clear protocols and when not conducted by trained, independent observers. These difficulties are exacerbated because deleterious bird-platform interaction is episodic and likely requires the coincidence of multiple factors (e.g., darkness, cloud, fog, rain conditions, occurrence of birds in vicinity). Collectively, these considerations suggest a need to implement supplemental systems for monitoring bird activities around offshore platforms. Instrument-based approaches, such as radar, cameras, acoustic recordings, and telemetry, hold promise for continuous monitoring. Recommendations are provided for a rigorous and comprehensive monitoring approach within an adaptive management framework. PMID:25261750

  20. Identification of potential antioxidant compounds in the essential oil of thyme by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and multivariate calibration techniques.

    PubMed

    Masoum, Saeed; Mehran, Mehdi; Ghaheri, Salehe

    2015-02-01

    Thyme species are used in traditional medicine throughout the world and are known for their antiseptic, antispasmodic, and antitussive properties. Also, antioxidant activity is one of the interesting properties of thyme essential oil. In this research, we aim to identify peaks potentially responsible for the antioxidant activity of thyme oil from chromatographic fingerprints. Therefore, the chemical compositions of hydrodistilled essential oil of thyme species from different regions were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and antioxidant activities of essential oils were measured by a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging test. Several linear multivariate calibration techniques with different preprocessing methods were applied to the chromatograms of thyme essential oils to indicate the peaks responsible for the antioxidant activity. These techniques were applied on data both before and after alignment of chromatograms with correlation optimized warping. In this study, orthogonal projection to latent structures model was found to be a good technique to indicate the potential antioxidant active compounds in the thyme oil due to its simplicity and repeatability. PMID:25403421

  1. ELEMENTS OF SKILL: TRAITS, INTELLIGENCES, EDUCATION, AND AGGLOMERATION &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marigee Bacolod; Bernardo S. Blum; William C. Strange

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT.?There are many fundamental issues in regional and urban economics that hinge on worker skills. This paper builds on psychological approaches to learning to characterize the role of education and agglomeration in the skill development process. While the standard approach of equating skill to worker education can be useful, there are important aspects of skill that are missed. Using a

  2. Heterogeneous Skills and Homogeneous Land: Segmentation and Agglomeration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Wrede

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of skill heterogeneity on regional patterns of production and housing in the presence of pecuniary externalities within a general-equilibrium framework assuming monopolistic competition at intermediate good markets. It shows that the interplay of heterogeneous skills and relatively homogeneous land demand triggers skill segmentation and agglomeration. The core region, being more attractive to high skilled workers,

  3. Unsupervised Classification of SAR Images using Hierarchical Agglomeration and EM

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Unsupervised Classification of SAR Images using Hierarchical Agglomeration and EM Koray Kayabol algorithm for high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. The founda- tion of algorithm is based model for a mixture den- sity to obtain spatially smooth class segments. We test our algorithm on TerraSAR

  4. Agglomeration and the Geography of Localization Economies in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Baldwin; Desmond Beckstead; W. Mark Brown; David L. Rigby

    2008-01-01

    Baldwin J. R., Beckstead D., Brown W. M. and Rigby D. L. Agglomeration and the geography of localization economies in Canada, Regional Studies.?This paper maps the spatial variation in productivity levels across Canadian cities and models the underlying determinants of that variation. There are two main goals. The first is to confirm the existence, the nature and the size of

  5. Experimental study and modeling of fluidized bed coating and agglomeration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Saleh; D. Steinmetz; M. Hemati

    2003-01-01

    This work deals with the fluidized bed coating and agglomeration of solid particles. The effect of particle size on coating criteria was investigated using sand particles as the coating support and aqueous solutions containing NaCl as coating liquid. The results showed that both growth rate and efficiency increase with decreasing the particle size. The growth was mainly governed by layering

  6. Agglomerating combustor-gasifier method and apparatus for coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph L. P. Chen; David H. Archer

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for gasifying coal wherein the gasification takes place in a spout fluid bed at a pressure of about 10 to 30 atmospheres and a temperature of about 1800.degree. to 2200.degree.F and wherein the configuration of the apparatus and the manner of introduction of gases for combustion and fluidization is such that agglomerated ash can be withdrawn

  7. Experimental evaluation and modeling of agglomerating fine powder fluidized beds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Yadav; B. D. Kulkarni; L. K. Doraiswamy

    1994-01-01

    The effects of fines on the behavior of a fluidized-bed reactor have been investigated using a commercial catalyst for propylene ammoxidation. Experimental studies show that the catalyst powder agglomerates and that there exists a critical level of fines in the bed (around 30%) for which the fluid-bed behavior in terms of bed expansion, aeratability, and cluster size is optimum. The

  8. The Spread of Industry: Spatial Agglomeration in Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Puga; Anthony J. Venables

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the spread of industry from country to country as a region grows. All industrial sectors are initially agglomerated in one country, tied together by input–output links between firms. Growth expands industry more than other sectors, bidding up wages in the country in which industry is clustered. At some point firms start to move away, and when a

  9. Effect of Soft Agglomerates on CMP Slurry Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bahar Basim; Brij M. Moudgil

    2002-01-01

    The stability of the polishing slurries under extreme environments of pH, ionic strength, pressure, and temperature is required for their optimal performance in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) operations. Agglomeration of the abrasive particles during polishing due to fluctuations in local particle or salt concentration under dynamic processing conditions may alter the slurry performance. It is known that the presence of

  10. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M. Lee; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas

    1999-11-03

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million bbl of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO-) flood 2 project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  11. Proceedings of the 19 biennial conference of the institute for briquetting and agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the briquetting and agglomeration of materials. Topics considered at the conference included the pelletizing of carbon black, the agglomeration of hard coal, the selection of a coal agglomerate for gasification, the briquetting of soft lignite, fiber addition for increased pellet strength, properties of granules, compaction, the Iowa agglomeration process, land disposal restrictions, the disposal of hazardous materials and industrial wastes, and the compaction of sludges from municipal waste treatment plants.

  12. Fluid bed hydrogenation of agglomerating bituminous coals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Liss; C. Welter

    1981-01-01

    A technique was developed and demonstrated at Union Carbide Corporation in 1977 for the processing of raw caking coals in a fluidized bed without preprocessing, and under severe conditions of high hydrogen partial pressure and low injection-gas\\/coal ratio. Fluid bed operating limits were explored by sequential dynamic testing of the key operating variables, and it was determined that the energy

  13. Fluid bed processing of agglomerating coals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yerushalmi

    1977-01-01

    Fluid bed technologies for processing coal may benefit substantially if a caking coal could be fed directly to the bed without pretreatment. This discussion covers various techniques toward this end. The key to successful feeding of a caking coal directly to a fluid bed lies in achieving dispersal of the raw particles of coal in the dry char that comprises

  14. Phosphate-enhanced cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles and agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Everett, W Neil; Chern, Christina; Sun, Dazhi; McMahon, Rebecca E; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Wei-Jung A; Hahn, Mariah S; Sue, H-J

    2014-02-10

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been found to readily react with phosphate ions to form zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) crystallites. Because phosphates are ubiquitous in physiological fluids as well as waste water streams, it is important to examine the potential effects that the formation of Zn3(PO4)2 crystallites may have on cell viability. Thus, the cytotoxic response of NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells was assessed following 24h of exposure to ZnO NPs suspended in media with and without the standard phosphate salt supplement. Both particle dosage and size have been shown to impact the cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs, so doses ranging from 5 to 50 ?g/mL were examined and agglomerate size effects were investigated by using the bioinert amphiphilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to generate water-soluble ZnO ranging from individually dispersed 4 nm NPs up to micron-sized agglomerates. Cell metabolic activity measures indicated that the presence of phosphate in the suspension media can led to significantly reduced cell viability at all agglomerate sizes and at lower ZnO dosages. In addition, a reduction in cell viability was observed when agglomerate size was decreased, but only in the phosphate-containing media. These metabolic activity results were reflected in separate measures of cell death via the lactate dehydrogenase assay. Our results suggest that, while higher doses of water-soluble ZnO NPs are cytotoxic, the presence of phosphates in the surrounding fluid can lead to significantly elevated levels of cell death at lower ZnO NP doses. Moreover, the extent of this death can potentially be modulated or offset by tuning the agglomerate size. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how nanoscale materials can interact with the components of surrounding fluids so that potential adverse effects of such interactions can be controlled. PMID:24362007

  15. Dispersion and Filtration of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and Measurement of Nanoparticle Agglomerates in Diesel Exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Pui, David Y.H.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) tend to form bundles due to their geometry and van der Walls forces, which usually complicates studies of the CNT properties. Dispersion plays a significant role in CNT studies and we summarize dispersion techniques to generate airborne CNTs from suspensions or powders. We describe in detail our technique of CNT aerosolization with controlled degree of agglomeration using an electrospray system. The results of animal inhalation studies using the electrosprayed CNTs are presented. We have performed filtration experiments for CNTs through a screen filter. A numerical model has been established to simulate the CNT filtration experiments. Both the modeling and experimental results show that the CNT penetration is less than the penetration for a sphere with the same mobility diameter, which is mainly due to the larger interception length of the CNTs. There is a need for instruments capable of fast and online measurement of gas-borne nanoparticle agglomerates. We developed an instrument Universal NanoParticle Analyzer (UNPA) and the measurement results for diesel exhaust particulates are presented. The results presented here are pertinent to non-spherical aerosol particles, and illustrate the effects of particle morphology on aerosol behaviors. PMID:23355749

  16. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992December 31, 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Brown; M. R. Dawson; S. Noble

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task

  17. Revisiting Marshall's Agglomeration Economies: Technological Relatedness and the Evolution of the Sheffield Metals Cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antony Potter; H. Doug Watts

    2012-01-01

    Potter A. and Watts H. D. Revisiting Marshall's agglomeration economies: technological relatedness and the evolution of the Sheffield metals cluster, Regional Studies. According to Alfred Marshall, firms receive increasing returns from a trinity of agglomeration economies: a local pool of skilled labour, local supplier linkages and local knowledge spillovers. This article re-examines the mechanisms underlying Marshall's agglomeration economies in the

  18. A macroscopic agglomeration kernel model for gibbsite precipitation in turbulent and laminar flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Livk; D. Ilievski

    2007-01-01

    A macroscopic agglomeration kernel model has been developed that is capable of describing gibbsite agglomeration over a broad range of process conditions, including both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. The agglomeration kernel model was derived using chemical reaction engineering principles and data from an extensive experimental program covering a wide range of temperatures, supersaturations, seed sizes, shear rates and

  19. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOEpatents

    Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  20. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A.; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals. PMID:25226536

  1. The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method. PMID:25598636

  2. Productivity and quality of volatile oil extracted from Mentha spicata and M. arvensis var. piperascens grown by a hydroponic system using the deep flow technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sornkanok Vimolmangkang; Worapan Sitthithaworn; Danai Vannavanich; Sunisa Keattikunpairoj; Chuda Chittasupho

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and Japanese mint (M. arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinv.) cultivated in either soil or nutrient solution using the deep flow technique (DFT). The differences were measured\\u000a in terms of harvest period (full bloom period) and quantity and chemical components of volatile oils. The spearmint and

  3. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary\\/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Class II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chidsey; Thomas C

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150

  4. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary\\/teritiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of

  5. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary\\/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Technical progress report, January 1March 31, 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of

  6. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary\\/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Final technical progress report, October 1December 31, 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of

  7. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary\\/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Quarterly report, October 1December 31, 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of

  8. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary\\/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Technical progress report, April 1, 1995June 30, 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of

  9. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary\\/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995March 31, 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of

  10. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary\\/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Technical progress report, July 1September 30, 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of

  11. Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. January 1973-September 1989 (Citations from Fluidex data base). Report for January 1973-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersion, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. Harbors, estuaries, shorelines and the resulting impact on water birds and marine life are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 171 citations, 20 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  12. Crystal agglomeration of europium oxalate in reaction crystallization using double-jet semi-batch reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Woon-Soo; Kim, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Joon-Soo; Ward, Michael D

    2004-02-02

    The particle agglomeration of europium oxalate was investigated in a double-jet semi-batch reactor over a wide range of operating variables, including the agitation speed, reactant feed rate, and reactant concentration. The size of the agglomerates was directly dictated by the particle collision and supersaturation promoting agglomeration and the fluid shear force inhibiting agglomeration. Thus, with a longer feeding time and higher feed concentration for the reaction crystallization, the mean particle size increased, while the corresponding total particle population decreased due to the enhanced chance of particle agglomeration, resulting from a longer residence time and higher supersaturation in the reactor. Agitation was found to exhibit a rather complicated influence on particle agglomeration. Although both particle collision and turbulent fluid shear were promoted by an increase in the mixing intensity, the crystal agglomeration of europium oxalate was maximized at around 500 rpm of agitation speed due to an optimized balance between particle aggregation and breakage.

  13. On Some Versions of the Element Agglomeration AMGe Method

    SciTech Connect

    Lashuk, I; Vassilevski, P

    2007-08-09

    The present paper deals with element-based AMG methods that target linear systems of equations coming from finite element discretizations of elliptic PDEs. The individual element information (element matrices and element topology) is the main input to construct the AMG hierarchy. We study a number of variants of the spectral agglomerate element based AMG method. The core of the algorithms relies on element agglomeration utilizing the element topology (built recursively from fine to coarse levels). The actual selection of the coarse degrees of freedom (dofs) is based on solving large number of local eigenvalue problems. Additionally, we investigate strategies for adaptive AMG as well as multigrid cycles that are more expensive than the V-cycle utilizing simple interpolation matrices and nested conjugate gradient (CG) based recursive calls between the levels. The presented algorithms are illustrated with an extensive set of experiments based on a matlab implementation of the methods.

  14. Testing for Discrete vs. Agglomerated Nanoparticles of 'Iron Oxides'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, R. L.; Erbs, J. J.; Jentzsch, T. L.

    2007-05-01

    Nanoparticles of 'iron oxides' such as ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite and magnetite are found in nature as discrete or agglomerated ('clumped') particles, and with or without dopants such as Al, as and Si. The presence of clumping has important repercussions on both physical and chemical properties of these compounds. We present evidence from a number of nanoparticle systems in which dc and ac susceptibility measurements at low temperatures provide a non-destructive way to assess the presence of agglomeration and the roles of the dopants in modifying such behavior. In addition, we use quantitative kinetics for Fe (III) reduction or Fe(II) oxidation by quinones as our main chemical tool for sample aliquots.

  15. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Southern Company Services, Inc., (SCS) was contracted in 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a commercially acceptable selective agglomeration technology to enhance the use of high-sulfur coals by 1993. The project scope involved development of a bench-scale process and components, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of a proof-of-concept (POC) facility. To that end, a two-ton-per-hour facility was constructed and tested near Wilsonville, Alabama. Although it was not the primary focus of the test program, SCS also measured the ability of selective agglomeration to remove trace elements from coal. This document describes the results of that program.

  16. Formation of particle agglomerates after switching fluidizing gases

    SciTech Connect

    Kai, Takami; Takahashi, Takeshige [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering] [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    1997-02-01

    When a fluidizing gas is switched from a low-density gas to a high-density gas, particles in the emulsion phase agglomerate and bubbles disappear. At the same time, channeling occurs and a decrease in the pressure drop over the bed is observed. The disturbance of fluidization is temporary, and normal fluidization is restored after several minutes. The study of mechanisms of the transient phenomena shows that the difference in diffusion rates of the two gases in the emulsion phase caused the agglomeration of particles. Because the mobility of particles was reduced, channels were formed and the fluidizing gas bypassed through them. Effects of the properties of the fluidizing gases and particles on the intensity of the transient phenomena were also studied. The intensity increased with increasing difference in the densities of the two gases. The transient phenomena were considerable for small- and light-particle systems.

  17. The process of suburbanization in the agglomeration of Budapest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herman Kok; Zoltán Kovács

    1999-01-01

    One of the major developments in post-socialist cities is the increasing outflow of people from the city to the surrounding\\u000a settlements. Budapest is a case in point. The agglomeration used to receive migrants coming to live and work in the capital\\u000a (i.e., rural urbanization). After the political and economic changes of the 1980s and 1990s, the suburban area around Budapest

  18. Modeling agglomeration processes in fluid-bed granulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Cryer

    1999-01-01

    Many agrochemicals are formulated as water dispersive granules through agglomeration, beginning with a fine powder (â¼1 μm) and ending with granules on the order of 500 μm. Powders are charged into a granulation system with a liquid binding agent, and granules are subsequently grown to an appropriate size. Granulation in fluid beds is presented using a mass conserving discretized population

  19. Agglomeration of particles during roasting of zinc sulfide concentrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Benlyamani; F. Ajersch

    1986-01-01

    This study was undertaken in an attempt to explain the agglomeration of zinc concentrate particles that occurs during fluid\\u000a bed roasting. In order to simulate extensive particle contact, pure ZnS, FeS, and (Zn, Fe)S particles were roasted in a fixed\\u000a bed at temperatures between 1223 K and 1323 K using an argon-oxygen gas mixture withP\\u000a O2 = 0.21 atm. The

  20. Direct observation of oil consumption mechanisms in a production spark ignition engine using fluorescence techniques. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lusted, R.M.

    1994-05-01

    The oil consumption characteristics of a four cylinder, normally aspirated spark-ignition engine were investigated for different piston ring end-gap configurations. A radiotracer was used to perform direct measurement of the oil consumption while Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) was used to perform the oil film thickness measurements for consumption predictions using the 'Puddle Theory of Oil Consumption,' which relates oil consumption to second land film thickness and reverse flow through top ring gap. The consumption data was evaluated to determine the impact of top ring end-gap azimuthal location on oil consumption. The film thickness data was used to evaluate the extent to which the oil Puddle Theory predicts variations seen in the actual oil consumption. A tritium radiotracer oil consumption measurement system with an accuracy of 94.6% was designed and constructed. This was used to perform direct measurements of the test engine oil consumption in two different test matrices. The first evaluated a piston ring configuration with the rings free to rotate. The second evaluated configurations with the top ring and second piston rings pinned to fix the azimuthal location of the end-gap; the azimuth of the top ring was varied. In the second test matrix, the oil film thickness on the piston's second land was measured, and predictions were made on the basis of that measurement.

  1. Nifedipine nanoparticle agglomeration as a dry powder aerosol formulation strategy.

    PubMed

    Plumley, Carl; Gorman, Eric M; El-Gendy, Nashwa; Bybee, Connor R; Munson, Eric J; Berkland, Cory

    2009-03-18

    Efficient administration of drugs represents a leading challenge in pulmonary medicine. Dry powder aerosols are of great interest compared to traditional aerosolized liquid formulations in that they may offer improved stability, ease of administration, and simple device design. Particles 1-5microm in size typically facilitate lung deposition. Nanoparticles may be exhaled as a result of their small size; however, they are desired to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Nanoparticles of the hypertension drug nifedipine were co-precipitated with stearic acid to form a colloid exhibiting negative surface charge. Nifedipine nanoparticle colloids were destabilized by using sodium chloride to disrupt the electrostatic repulsion between particles as a means to achieve the agglomerated nanoparticles of a controlled size. The aerodynamic performance of agglomerated nanoparticles was determined by cascade impaction. The powders were found to be well suited for pulmonary delivery. In addition, nanoparticle agglomerates revealed enhanced dissolution of the drug species suggesting the value of this formulation approach for poorly water-soluble pulmonary medicines. Ultimately, nifedipine powders are envisioned as an approach to treat pulmonary hypertension. PMID:19015016

  2. Nifedipine Nanoparticle Agglomeration as a Dry Powder Aerosol Formulation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Plumley, Carl; Gorman, Eric M.; Munson, Eric J.; Berkland, Cory

    2009-01-01

    Efficient administration of drugs represents a leading challenge in pulmonary medicine. Dry powder aerosols are of great interest compared to traditional aerosolized liquid formulations in that they may offer improved stability, ease of administration, and simple device design. Particles 1–5 µm in size typically facilitate lung deposition. Nanoparticles may be exhaled as a result of their small size; however, they are desired to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Nanoparticles of the hypertension drug nifedipine were co-precipitated with stearic acid to form a colloid exhibiting negative surface charge. Nifedipine nanoparticle colloids were destabilized by using sodium chloride to disrupt the electrostatic repulsion between particles as a means to achieve the agglomerated nanoparticles of a controlled size. The aerodynamic performance of agglomerated nanoparticles was determined by cascade impaction. The powders were found to be well suited for pulmonary delivery. In addition, nanoparticle agglomerates revealed enhanced dissolution of the drug species suggesting the value of this formulation approach for poorly water soluble pulmonary medicines. Ultimately, nifedipine powders are envisioned as an approach to treat pulmonary hypertension. PMID:19015016

  3. Fluid bed agglomeration with a narrow droplet size distribution.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, S H; Vonk, P; Kossen, N W

    2000-01-01

    In the fluid bed agglomeration processes liquid distribution influences the agglomerate growth. We developed a new nozzle that produces uniform droplets, which allows droplets to be easily controlled in size independently of liquid- and airflow of the nozzle. It was found that the spray rate and the mixing in the spray zone determine the average granule size and that there is linear relation between the number of droplets of which a granule consists and its volume, at the early stage of the process. The nucleation ratio factor introduced in this paper depends on the material properties of binder liquid and powder particles and is a useful parameter to describe the binder liquid efficiency. The decline of the growth rate of granules during the agglomeration process was due to the less sufficient rewetting of granules resulting in less growth. A linear relation was found between tracer mass added to the binder liquid and the granule mass in an early stage of the process. Solubility of the tracer was found not to influence its distribution. The new nozzle proves to be a good tool to study the effect of wetting and growth of granules. PMID:10606780

  4. Experimental Study on Optimization of the Agglomeration Process for Producing Instant Sugar by Conical Fluidized Bed Agglomerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hadi Mahdavian Mehr; Mohammad Elahi; Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the optimal processing conditions for manufacturing instant sugar. The instant sugar was produced with a batch fluid bed agglomerator under the following conditions: inlet air temperature 60–90°C; water flow rate 1–3 mL min; and spraying time 1–10 min. The optimal conditions were estimated using response surface methodology as follows: inlet air temperature of 74.4°C, water flow

  5. In Situ Formation and Evolution of Gas Hydrates in Water-in-Oil Emulsions Using Pressure Rheometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, P. J.; Liberatore, M. W.; Tonmukayakul, N.; Koh, C. A.; Sloan, E. D.

    2008-07-01

    In oil and gas production and transportation a major concern is the formation of gas hydrates (crystalline gas-water inclusion compounds that are stable at high pressures and low temperatures). Gas hydrates have a tenacious ability to plug pipelines, and may lead to unscheduled shut downs. The successful operation of pipeline transport with gas hydrates particles will depend on the ability to control gas hydrate agglomerations and depositions. Gas hydrates can be thermodynamically inhibited but this is proving cost ineffective and environmentally unfriendly. For this reason the oil/gas industry is moving to hydrate management rather than traditional methods of thermodynamic inhibition. One intriguing possibility would be to convert the water in the pipelines to non-agglomerating gas hydrates and then flow the slurry. However, this cannot be reliably achieved until basic understanding of hydrate slurry rheology is gained. To develop this fundamental understanding, in situ pressurized gas hydrate formation and rheological measurements from a water-in-oil emulsion have been conducted. In this work, small amplitude oscillatory and steady shear techniques have been used to characterize the rheological properties of these systems. The results demonstrate that hydrate formation can be detected in steady shear and oscillatory measurements, where a large viscosity (and elastic modulus) increase coincides with hydrate formation. Since temperature and pressure affect the thermodynamic stability of hydrates these are particular key variables that need to be tuned for this system.

  6. Evaluation of optical and electronic properties of silicon nano-agglomerates embedded in SRO: applying density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In systems in atomic scale and nanoscale such as clusters or agglomerates constituted by particles from a few to less than 100 atoms, quantum confinement effects are very important. Their optical and electronic properties are often dependent on the size of the systems and the way in which the atoms in these clusters are bonded. Generally, these nanostructures display optical and electronic properties significantly different to those found in corresponding bulk materials. Silicon agglomerates embedded in silicon rich oxide (SRO) films have optical properties, which have been reported to be directly dependent on silicon nanocrystal size. Furthermore, the room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of SRO has repeatedly generated a huge interest due to its possible applications in optoelectronic devices. However, a plausible emission mechanism has not been widely accepted in the scientific community. In this work, we present a short review about the experimental results on silicon nanoclusters in SRO considering different techniques of growth. We focus mainly on their size, Raman spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. With this as background, we employed the density functional theory with a functional B3LYP and a basis set 6-31G* to calculate the optical and electronic properties of clusters of silicon (constituted by 15 to 20 silicon atoms). With the theoretical calculation of the structural and optical properties of silicon clusters, it is possible to evaluate the contribution of silicon agglomerates in the luminescent emission mechanism, experimentally found in thin SRO films. PMID:25276105

  7. Asymmetry in retail gasoline and crude oil price movements in the United States: An application of hidden cointegration technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afshin Honarvar

    2009-01-01

    There is a common belief that gasoline prices respond more quickly to crude oil price increases than decreases. Some economists and politicians believe that asymmetry in oil and gasoline price movements is the outcome of a non-competitive gasoline market requiring that governments take policy action to address “unfair pricing”. There is no consensus as to the existence, or nature, of

  8. Assessment of infrared spectroscopy and multivariate techniques for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnobio Roberto Caneca; M. Fernanda Pimentel; Roberto Kawakami Harrop Galvão; Cláudia Eliane da Matta; Florival Rodrigues de Carvalho; Ivo M. Raimundo Jr.; Celio Pasquini; Jarbas J. R. Rohwedder

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents two methodologies for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils on the basis of infrared spectra. In the first approach, oils samples are discriminated into three groups, each one associated to a given wear stage. An algorithm is proposed to select spectral variables with good discriminant power and small collinearity for the purpose of discriminant analysis

  9. Agglomerated carbon nanotubes and its mass production in a fluidized-bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yao Wang; Fei Wei; Guangsheng Gu; Hao Yu

    2002-01-01

    The microstructure and fluidization characteristics distinctive of agglomerated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated. The CNT agglomerates have a low bulk density and broad size distribution under 100?m and can be fluidized when the superficial gas velocity is higher than 0.005m\\/s. Several flow regions under different gas velocities were identified. Based on the agglomerate fluidization of CNTs, a method was developed

  10. Agglomeration and strength development of deposits in CFBC boilers firing high-sulfur fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J Anthony; L Jia

    2000-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustor (FBC) ashes from high-sulfur, low-ash fuels, can agglomerate if subjected to sulfating conditions for long enough (days to weeks). The degree of sulphation increases with both temperature and time under these conditions, and at a conversion equivalent to the production of 50–60% or more of CaSO4 in the deposit the ashes agglomerate. Fly ash agglomerates less readily

  11. Combustion of CWF agglomerates from pulverized or micronized bituminous coal, carbon black, and diesel soot

    SciTech Connect

    Atal, A.; Levendis, Y.A. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    Fundamental studies were conducted to explore the role of coal grind size on the combustion characteristics of coal-water fuel (CWF) agglomerates. The agglomerates were prepared from bituminous coals of two different grind sizes: (40 [mu]m, and 4[mu]m) mean size as well as blends thereof. Additional experiments were performed with predried agglomerates from water slurries of carbon black or diesel soot. All agglomerates were in the size range of 150--900 [mu]m and were either plain or impregnated with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). Upon heating and devolatilization, the bituminous coal agglomerates studied were found to melt, mildly swell, and form cenospheric structures. Individual pulverized coal particles also form small cenospheres themselves, superimposed on large agglomerate-derived cenospheres. Combustion of CWF agglomerates, in the size range examined, occurred with distinct volatile and char combustion phases with the latter burning in a diffusion-controlled mode. The combustion behavior of pulverized and micronized coal agglomerates of the same size was strikingly similar. The presence of dissolved CMA accelerated setting of the slurries and, upon water evaporation it suppressed melting and cenospheres formation of the coal particles and agglomerates alike. Also, CMA mildly influence the agglomerate combustion behavior, causing both larger volatile flames and char temperatures that peaked at the first half of the burnout period and decreased thereafter, but did not substantially affect the char burnout time. Carbon black and diesel soot agglomerates did not form cenospheres and the latter burned a little hotter and faster but, basically, their combustion was similar to that of CWF chars. Bulk fragmentation was consistently observed only in the case of CMA-impregnated carbon black agglomerates.

  12. Experimental evaluation and modeling of agglomerating fine powder fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, N.K.; Kulkarni, B.D. (National Chemical Lab., Pune (India)); Doraiswamy, L.K. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    The effects of fines on the behavior of a fluidized-bed reactor have been investigated using a commercial catalyst for propylene ammoxidation. Experimental studies show that the catalyst powder agglomerates and that there exists a critical level of fines in the bed (around 30%) for which the fluid-bed behavior in terms of bed expansion, aeratability, and cluster size is optimum. The results also suggest that the dense phase should indeed be treated as two distinct phases: cluster and emulsion. A general mathematical model to account for these two phases is proposed.

  13. Agglomerated carbon nanotubes and its mass production in a fluidized-bed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yao; Wei, Fei; Gu, Guangsheng; Yu, Hao

    2002-10-01

    The microstructure and fluidization characteristics distinctive of agglomerated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated. The CNT agglomerates have a low bulk density and broad size distribution under 100 ?m and can be fluidized when the superficial gas velocity is higher than 0.005 m/s. Several flow regions under different gas velocities were identified. Based on the agglomerate fluidization of CNTs, a method was developed for the mass production of CNTs in an agglomerate fluidized-bed reactor (AFBR), which can be easily scaled up as a continuous process.

  14. Antidiuretic effect of desmopressin chimera agglomerates by nasal administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Anna Giulia; Ferraro, Luca; Bortolotti, Fabrizio; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Colombo, Paolo; Sonvico, Fabio; Russo, Paola; Colombo, Gaia

    2013-01-20

    In the present study, a nasal powder of the antidiuretic peptide desmopressin (DDAVP) formulated as chimera agglomerates was studied to improve drug bioavailability and provide a flexible drug product. Firstly, DDAVP was spray-dried along with mannitol and lecithin to produce primary microparticles capable of instantaneous dissolution in water. The chimera agglomerates were spontaneously formed by mechanically vibrating the microparticles on two stacked sieves. Agglomerate formation and strength were favored by the presence of lecithin. Drug content and dissolution rate remained unmodified after agglomeration. However, owing to the agglomerate larger size, powder flowability was greatly improved in comparison with the original microparticles, allowing accurate powder dosing into the nasal delivery device. DDAVP in vitro permeation across excised rabbit nasal mucosa from the agglomerates was significantly higher than that obtained from a commercial liquid nasal spray. In rats, intranasal DDAVP agglomerates allowed for efficient administration with almost 80% of the loaded powder emitted from the device into the animal nose. The administration of DDAVP agglomerates induced a significant reduction in urine production. Moreover, the antidiuretic effect of agglomerates did not significantly differ from the one induced by an intravenous injection of DDAVP at a ten-fold lower dose. PMID:23046665

  15. Investigations on a Novel Inductive Concept Frequency Technique for the Grading of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Ahmad, Desa; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2013-01-01

    From the Malaysian harvester's perspective, the determination of the ripeness of the oil palm (FFB) is a critical factor to maximize palm oil production. A preliminary study of a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is presented. To optimize the functionality of the sensor, the frequency characteristics of air coils of various diameters are investigated to determine their inductance and resonant characteristics. Sixteen samples from two categories, namely ripe oil palm fruitlets and unripe oil palm fruitlets, are tested from 100 Hz up to 100 MHz frequency. The results showed the inductance and resonant characteristics of the air coil sensors display significant changes among the samples of each category. The investigations on the frequency characteristics of the sensor air coils are studied to observe the effect of variations in the coil diameter. The effect of coil diameter yields a significant 0.02643 MHz difference between unripe samples to air and 0.01084 MHz for ripe samples to air. The designed sensor exhibits significant potential in determining the maturity of oil palm fruits. PMID:23435051

  16. Investigations on a novel inductive concept frequency technique for the grading of oil palm fresh fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Ahmad, Desa; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2013-01-01

    From the Malaysian harvester's perspective, the determination of the ripeness of the oil palm (FFB) is a critical factor to maximize palm oil production. A preliminary study of a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is presented. To optimize the functionality of the sensor, the frequency characteristics of air coils of various diameters are investigated to determine their inductance and resonant characteristics. Sixteen samples from two categories, namely ripe oil palm fruitlets and unripe oil palm fruitlets, are tested from 100 Hz up to 100 MHz frequency. The results showed the inductance and resonant characteristics of the air coil sensors display significant changes among the samples of each category. The investigations on the frequency characteristics of the sensor air coils are studied to observe the effect of variations in the coil diameter. The effect of coil diameter yields a significant 0.02643 MHz difference between unripe samples to air and 0.01084 MHz for ripe samples to air. The designed sensor exhibits significant potential in determining the maturity of oil palm fruits. PMID:23435051

  17. Combination Chemotherapeutic Dry Powder Aerosols via Controlled Nanoparticle Agglomeration

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nashwa; Berkland, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop an aerosol system for efficient local lung delivery of chemotherapeutics where nanotechnology holds tremendous potential for developing more valuable cancer therapies. Concurrently, aerosolized chemotherapy is generating interest as a means to treat certain types of lung cancer more effectively with less systemic exposure to the compound. Methods Nanoparticles of the potent anticancer drug, paclitaxel, were controllably assembled to form low density microparticles directly after preparation of the nanoparticle suspension. The amino acid, L-leucine, was used as a colloid destabilizer to drive the assembly of paclitaxel nanoparticles. A combination chemotherapy aerosol was formed by assembling the paclitaxel nanoparticles in the presence of cisplatin in solution. Results Freeze-dried powders of the combination chemotherapy possessed desirable aerodynamic properties for inhalation. In addition, the dissolution rates of dried nanoparticle agglomerate formulations (~60% to 66% after 8 h) were significantly faster than that of micronized paclitaxel powder as received (~18% after 8 h). Interestingly, the presence of the water soluble cisplatin accelerated the dissolution of paclitaxel. Conclusions Nanoparticle agglomerates of paclitaxel alone or in combination with cisplatin may serve as effective chemotherapeutic dry powder aerosols to enable regional treatment of certain lung cancers. PMID:19415471

  18. Planetary Rings: Statistical Description of Fragmentation of Ring-agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahn, Frank; Vieira Neto, E.; Guimaraes, A. H. F.; Brilliantov, N. V.; Gorban, A. N.

    2009-09-01

    We study the fragmentation dynamics of a two-dimensional agglomerate, hold together by adhesive bonds, caused by an impacting projectile of given mass and impact speed/energy. The agglomerate is made of identical adhering spheres (constituents) forming a regular cubic lattice. A rather simple "random walk model" of a crack propagation has been studied numerically and analytically, where subsequent breaking of adhesive bonds (defining the crack path) is organized randomly and the breakage continues until the impact energy of the projectile is exhausted. A large number of repeated numerical breakage experiments have yielded a surprising agreement with egg-shell crushing experiments (Hermann et al., Physica A 371 (2006), 59) - i.e. the size distribution of the fragments obeys a power law, p(s) sa with a = -3/2. This distribution can theoretically described by a one-dimensional random walk model to mimick the propagation of the crack. With this prerequisite the fragment sizes can be mapped to the mean time of two distant cracks to meet (mean free passage time) in this way justifying the above distribution. These studies will serve as an input for a kinetic description (Spahn et al. 2004, Europhys. Lett. 67 (2004), 545) of a balance between coagulation and fragmentation to describe the "meso-scopic" dynamics of dense planetary rings.

  19. Modeling agglomeration processes in fluid-bed granulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cryer, S.A.

    1999-10-01

    Many agrochemicals are formulated as water dispersive granules through agglomeration, beginning with a fine powder ({approximately}1 {micro}m) and ending with granules on the order of 500 {micro}m. Powders are charged into a granulation system with a liquid binding agent, and granules are subsequently grown to an appropriate size. Granulation in fluid beds is presented using a mass conserving discretized population balance equation. Coalesce kernels governing the rate and extent of granulation are assumed dependent on the Stokes number, which is indirectly liked to important process variables (air and under flow rate, bed charge, bed geometry) such that the physical processes governing particle coalescence and rebound are correlated to process variables. A new coalescence kernel is proposed based on physical insight, simplicity, and deterministic equivalent modeling to account for uncertainty. This kernel is based on a Stokes number method where uncertainty in the Stokes number is characterized by polynomial chaos expansions. The magnitude of the coalescence kernel is proportional to the probability of the distribution of Stokes number exceeding a critical value. This mechanistic/semiempirical approach to fluid-bed agglomeration fosters an environment for process scaleup by eliminating specific equipment and process variable constraints to focus on the underlying mechanisms for proper scale-up procedures. Model predictions using this new kernel are then compared to experimental pilot-plant observations.

  20. 2D Cross Sectional Analysis and Associated Electrochemistry of Composite Electrodes Containing Dispersed Agglomerates of Nanocrystalline Magnetite, Fe3O4.

    PubMed

    Bock, David C; Kirshenbaum, Kevin C; Wang, Jiajun; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2015-06-24

    When electroactive nanomaterials are fully incorporated into an electrode structure, characterization of the crystallite sizes, agglomerate sizes, and dispersion of the electroactive materials can lend insight into the complex electrochemistry associated with composite electrodes. In this study, composite magnetite electrodes were sectioned using ultramicrotome techniques, which facilitated the direct observation of crystallites and agglomerates of magnetite (Fe3O4) as well as their dispersal patterns in large representative sections of electrode, via 2D cross sectional analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Further, the electrochemistry of these electrodes were recorded, and Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) was used to determine the distribution of oxidation states of the reduced magnetite. Unexpectedly, while two crystallite sizes of magnetite were employed in the production of the composite electrodes, the magnetite agglomerate sizes and degrees of dispersion in the two composite electrodes were similar to each other. This observation illustrates the necessity for careful characterization of composite electrodes, in order to understand the effects of crystallite size, agglomerate size, and level of dispersion on electrochemistry. PMID:26024206

  1. A 3D agglomeration multigrid solver for the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    An agglomeration multigrid strategy is developed and implemented for the solution of three-dimensional steady viscous flows. The method enables convergence acceleration with minimal additional memory overheads, and is completely automated, in that it can deal with grids of arbitrary construction. The multigrid technique is validated by comparing the delivered convergence rates with those obtained by a previously developed overset-mesh multigrid approach, and by demonstrating grid independent convergence rates for aerodynamic problems on very large grids. Prospects for further increases in multigrid efficiency for high-Reynolds number viscous flows on highly stretched meshes are discussed.

  2. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY\\/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Chidsey

    2002-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m³) of oil per field at a 15 to 20

  3. Getty: producing oil from diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Zublin, L.

    1981-10-01

    Getty Oil Company has developed unconventional oil production techniques which will yield oil from diatomaceous earth. They propose to mine oil-saturated diatomite using open-pit mining methods. Getty's diatomite deposit in the McKittrick field of California is unique because it is cocoa brown and saturated with crude oil. It is classified also as a tightly packed deposit, and oil cannot be extracted by conventional oil field methods.

  4. Business cycles in oil economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Al-Mutairi

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases

  5. Influence of the pan pelletizer rotational velocity and the particles size on the agglomeration of alumina oxide granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeva, Zheni; Müller, Peter; Tomas, Juergen

    2013-06-01

    High fraction of agglomerates and better agglomerate strength are main purpose for every agglomeration process. For optimizing the agglomeration process of industrial produced granules, using liquid binders, it is necessary to understand the microinteractions between primary particles and binder and the marcointeractions between the agglomerates themselves. In order to investigate the influence of the rotational velocity of the pan pelletizer and the primary particle size on the fraction of agglomerates and the mechanical properties of the produced agglomerates, the obtained structures have to be basically analyzed. Agglomeration of industrial produced Alumina Oxide (?-Al2O3) granules is carried out in a rotating pan pelletizer. A 6 mass-% solution of viscoelastic polymer - hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is used as binder. The rotational velocity of the pelletizer pan is previously measured and calibrated. By changing the rotational velocity of the process chamber it was found that there are critical speed limits for the pan. The minimum critical velocity of the pelletizer plate does not provide enough contact collisions between the particles and the necessary kinetic level for agglomeration cannot be reached. The maximum critical velocity leads to higher rotational kinetic energy and this causes breakages of the agglomerates. It was also proven that the breakage strength of the agglomerates decreases with the reduction of the agglomerate size. The conclusions from the experimental work help us to understand the basics of agglomeration process and tend to develop and facilitate the operating with particle collectives in science and industry.

  6. Derivatization technique to increase the spectral selectivity of two-dimensional Fourier transform infrared focal plane array imaging: analysis of binder composition in aged oil and tempera paint.

    PubMed

    Zumbühl, Stefan; Scherrer, Nadim C; Eggenberger, Urs

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of standard Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) on oil-based paint samples often suffers from interfering bands of the different compounds, namely, binder, oxidative aging products, carboxylates formed during aging, and several pigments and fillers. The distinction of the aging products such as ketone and carboxylic acid functional groups pose the next problem, as these interfere with the triglyceride esters of the oil. A sample preparation and derivatization technique using gaseous sulfur tetrafluoride (SF4), was thus developed with the aim to discriminate overlapping signals and achieve a signal enhancement on superposed compounds. Of particular interest in this context is the signal elimination of the broad carboxylate bands of the typical reaction products developing during the aging processes in oil-based paints, as well as signal interference originating from several typical pigments in this spectral range. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish the different carbonyl-containing functional groups upon selective alteration. The derivatization treatment can be applied to both microsamples and polished cross sections. It increases the selectivity of the infrared spectroscopy technique in a fundamental manner and permits the identification and two-dimensional (2D) localization of binder components in aged paint samples at the micrometer scale. The combination of SF4 derivatization with high-resolution 2D FT-IR focal plane array (FPA) imaging delivers considerable advances to the study of micro-morphological processes involving organic compounds. PMID:24694702

  7. Agglomeration characteristics of river sand and wheat stalk ash mixture at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Linlin; Li, Shiyuan; Lu, Qinggang

    2013-02-01

    The agglomeration characteristics of river sand and wheat stalk ash mixture at various temperatures are investigated using a muffle furnace. The surface structural changes, as well as the elemental makeup of the surface and cross-section of the agglomerates, are analyzed by polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Multi-phase equilibrium calculation is performed with FactSage in identifying the melting behavior of the river sand-wheat stalk ash mixture at high temperatures. No indication of agglomeration is detected below 850°C. At a temperature of 900-1000°C, however, obvious agglomeration is observed and the agglomerates solidify further as temperature increases. The presence of potassium and calcium enrichment causes the formation of a sticky sand surface that induces agglomeration. The main component of the agglomerate surface is K2O-CaO-SiO2, which melts at low temperatures. The formation of molten silicates causes particle cohesion. The main ingredient of the binding phase in the cross-section is K2O-SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO; the agglomeration is not the result of the melting behavior of wheat stalk ash itself but the comprehensive results of chemical reaction and the melting behavior at high temperatures. The multi-phase equilibrium calculations agree well with the experimental results.

  8. Author's personal copy New surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration in hydrocarbon flowlines

    E-print Network

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Available online 10 April 2013 Keywords: Gas hydrates Hydrate anti-agglomeration Surfactants Surface on changing surface properties with small chemical quantities, which are referred to as the low dosage (active adsorption a b s t r a c t Anti-agglomeration is a promising solution for gas hydrate risks in deepsea

  9. Agglomeration and filtration of colloidal suspensions with DVLO interactions in simulation and experiment

    E-print Network

    Harting, Jens

    Agglomeration and filtration of colloidal suspensions with DVLO interactions in simulation 16 May 2010 Keywords: Colloids Agglomeration Filtration Molecular dynamics Stochastic rotation dynamics Lattice Boltzmann a b s t r a c t Cake filtration is a widely used solid­liquid separation process

  10. In situ determination of the activation energy for restructuring of nanometer aerosol agglomerates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred P. Weber; Sheldon K. Friedlander

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to the kinetics of the rearrangement of aerosol agglomerates is presented. This analysis is based on the change in free energy per primary particle during restructuring. The excess free energy compared with the final state drives the agglomerate to become more compact which results in an increase in the coordination number, as estimated from the changing fractal

  11. Tourism agglomeration and its impact on social welfare: An empirical approach to the Spanish case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ainhoa Urtasun; Isabel Gutiérrez

    2006-01-01

    This paper measures two descriptors of tourism—namely, its scale and agglomeration level—and subsequently evaluates both descriptors according to their direct and joint impacts on the host communities’ quality of life. The key constructs for this research are the following: (1) a tourism evaluation function that incorporates the scale and agglomeration of tourism, which is constructed for each one of the

  12. A MODEL FOR FINE PARTICLE AGGLOMERATION IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED ABSORBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model for fine particle agglomeration in circulating fluidized bed absorbers (CFBAS) has been developed. It can model the influence of different factors on agglomeration, such as the geometry of CFBAs, superficial gas velocity, initial particle size distribution, and type of ag...

  13. Experimental study and optimization of the agglomeration of acerola powder in a conical fluid bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Dacanal; F. C. Menegalli

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the physical property modifications of acerola powder produced by a wet-agglomeration process in a fluid bed. A 22 full experimental design was used to evaluate the influence of the main operational conditions and to optimize the agglomeration process. The product transformations were determined by an analysis of the particle diameter, size distribution,

  14. Crystal agglomeration is a major element in calcium oxalate urinary stone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dik J Kok; Socrates E Papapoulos; Olav L M Bijvoet

    1990-01-01

    Crystal agglomeration is a major element in calcium oxalate urinary stone formation. The effects of urines from 36 healthy subjects and 86 calcium oxalate renal stone formers on calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization kinetics were studied using a seeded crystal growth method in which the solubility, the growth and the agglomeration of the crystals are measured as three separate and system-independent

  15. Application of acoustic agglomerators for emergency use in liquid-metal fast breeder reactor plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Shaw; N. Rajendran

    1979-01-01

    The use of acoustic agglomerators for the suppression of sodium-fire aerosols in the case of a hypothetical core disruptive accident of a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor is discussed. The basic principle for the enhancement of agglomeration of airborne particles under the influence of an acoustic field is first discussed, followed by theoretical predictions of the optimum operating conditions for such

  16. Effect of Grinding Conditions on the Performance of a Selective Agglomeration Process for Physical Coal Cleaning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. KIM; B. I. MORSI; G. ARAUJO; S.-H. CHIANG; J. BLACHERE; A. SHARKEY

    1991-01-01

    An extensive experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of grinding conditions on the performance of a selective agglomeration process using n-pentane as agglomerant. Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh # 8, and Illinois # 6 coal samples were dry and wet ground to 28 mesh × 0 and 200 mesh × 0 particle sizes using a pulverizer, a ceramic jar mill,

  17. Agglomeration bonus: an incentive mechanism to reunite fragmented habitat for biodiversity conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Parkhurst; Jason F. Shogren; Chris Bastian; Paul Kivi; Jennifer Donner; Rodney B. W. Smith

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines an experiment conducted to explore a voluntary incentive mechanism, the agglomeration bonus, designed to protect endangered species and biodiversity by reuniting fragmented habitat across private land. The goal is to maximize habitat protection and minimize landowner resentment. The agglomeration bonus mechanism pays an extra bonus for every acre a landowner retires that borders on any other retired

  18. Acoustic agglomeration of power-plant fly ash. A comprehensive semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Reethof, G.

    1980-02-01

    Results obtained during the reporting period are presented. The agglomeration of submicron fly ash particles has been studied as a function of sound pressure level, sound frequency, loading, and exposure time. A second generation model of the agglomeration process is being developed. A high-frequency, high-intensity variable speed siren delivering at least 600 W at frequencies up to 4000 Hz has been developed and tested. Details on the design and operation are presented. The agglomeration chamber has been completely cleaned and the aerosol generating system has been rebuilt. A mathematical model of the acoustics of agglomeration is being developed. Preliminary results of computerized electron microscopic scanning of fly ash particles during agglomeration are presented. (DMC)

  19. Improved bioavailability of aceclofenac from spherical agglomerates: development, in vitro and preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Muatlik, S; Usha, A N; Reddy, M S; Ranjith, A K; Pandey, S

    2007-07-01

    The objective of present study was to improve the solubility, dissolution rate, micromeritic properties and bioavailability of aceclofenac (NSAID) by formulating its spherical agglomerates. They were prepared with different water soluble polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30, polyvinylpyrrolidone-K90 and sodium alginate) by using acetone-water-dichloromethane solvent system. The agglomerates were subjected to various physicochemical properties, DSC, IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micromeritic properties and dissolution studies. The in vivo studies (anti-inflammatory, analgesic and pharmacokinetic studies) were conducted in Wistar rats and Swiss albino mice. SEM studies showed that agglomerates were spherical in structure and formed by cluster of small crystals. The agglomerates prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone-K90 exhibited improved solubility, dissolution rate and micromeritic properties compared to those prepared with other polymers and pure drug. These optimized agglomerates showed rapid analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity besides exhibiting improved bioavailability of drug when compared to pure drug. PMID:17545107

  20. On temperature- and space-dimension dependent matter agglomeration in a mature growing stage

    E-print Network

    A. Gadomski; J. M. Rubi; J. Luczka; M. Ausloos

    2004-12-10

    Model matter agglomerations, with temperature as leading control parameter, have been considered, and some of their characteristics have been studied. The primary interest has been focused on the grain volume fluctuations, the magnitude of which readily differentiates between two commonly encountered types of matter agglomeration/aggregation processes, observed roughly for high- and low-density matter organizations. The two distinguished types of matter arrangements have been described through the (entropic) potential driving system. The impact of the potential type on the character of matter agglomeration has been studied, preferentially for (low density) matter agglomeration for which a logarithmic measure of its speed has been proposed. A common diffusion as well as mechanical relaxation picture, emerging during the mature growing stage, has been drawn using a phenomenological line of argumentation. Applications, mostly towards obtaining soft agglomerates of so-called jammed materials, have been mentioned.

  1. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Chidsey, Thomas C.

    2000-07-28

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  2. Which Microbial Communities Are Present? Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation (FISH): Microscopic Techniques for Enumeration of Troublesome Microorganisms in Oil and Fuel Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmkvist, Lars; Østergaard, Jette Johanne; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    Enumeration of microbes involved in souring of oil fields and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) with culture-based methods, usually yield inadequate and contradictory results. Any cultivation step will almost certainly alter the population structure of the sample and thus the results of cultivation analysis are not a good basis for mitigation decisions. The need for methods that are cultivation independent has over the past 10 years facilitated the development of several analytical methods for determination of bacterial identity, quantity, and to some extent function, applied directly to samples of the native population. In this chapter, we demonstrate the features and benefits of applying microscopic techniques to a situation often encountered in the oil and petroleum industry: Control of microbial growth in fuel storage tanks. The methods described in this chapter will focus on direct counts of specific groups of microorganisms with microscopy and these are based on the detection of genetic material and not on culturing.

  3. Ultrasonic cavitation induced water in vegetable oil emulsion droplets--a simple and easy technique to synthesize manganese zinc ferrite nanocrystals with improved magnetization.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Manickam; Towata, Atsuya; Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Iida, Yasuo; Maiorov, Michail M; Blums, Elmars; Bhattacharya, Dipten; Sivakumar, Neelagesi; Ashok, M

    2012-05-01

    In the present investigation, synthesis of manganese zinc ferrite (Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4)) nanoparticles with narrow size distribution have been prepared using ultrasound assisted emulsion (consisting of rapeseed oil as an oil phase and aqueous solution of Mn(2+), Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) acetates) and evaporation processes. The as-prepared ferrite was nanocrystalline. In order to remove the small amount of oil present on the surface of the ferrite, it was subjected to heat treatment at 300 °C for 3h. Both the as-prepared and heat treated ferrites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), TGA/DTA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. As-prepared ferrite is of 20 nm, whereas the heat treated ferrite shows the size of 33 nm. In addition, magnetic properties of the as-prepared as well as the heat treated ferrites have also been carried out and the results of which show that the spontaneous magnetization (?(s)) of the heat treated sample (24.1 emu/g) is significantly higher than that of the as-synthesized sample (1.81 emu/g). The key features of this method are avoiding (a) the cumbersome conditions that exist in the conventional methods; (b) usage of necessary additive components (stabilizers or surfactants, precipitants) and (c) calcination requirements. In addition, rapeseed oil as an oil phase has been used for the first time, replacing the toxic and troublesome organic nonpolar solvents. As a whole, this simple straightforward sonochemical approach results in more phase pure system with improved magnetization. PMID:22113061

  4. Intensive drying and the related microstructure features in agglomerate spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudlyk, Rostyslav

    Most metal ore concentrates are fine particulates with a wide particle-size distribution. Industrially they are pelletized by tumbling in balling discs or drums into spheres, an operation which requires the addition of typically up to 10% by weight of water. Further processing of these agglomerates involves first drying and then induration by heating up to 1250°C. The main objective of this thesis was the study of the interrelationship between the microstructure of the agglomerates with, on the one hand, the mechanical and physical properties of the pellets and their behaviour during intensive drying, on the other. The previously developed model of the drying process identified the loss of capillarity, resulting from the vapour lock, to be a critical component of the mechanism of intense as opposed to 'classical' drying. It was shown that the absence of the constant-rate drying period is a natural consequence of this effect. Several significant shortcomings of the previous model have been identified. This model treats the period of transition between surface- and shrinking-core drying as an instantaneous event. The new extended model, which overcomes the original model limitations, was developed in this project. In its formalism, the new model includes the pore-size distribution and thus simulates a gradual surface/shrinking-core transition. It was shown that the nature of the transition between the surface- and shrinking-core drying regimes during intensive drying is fundamentally different from that of classical drying, i.e. carried out at mild temperatures. In the latter case, liquid is being delivered to the surface through the network of interconnected small pores reaching the surface. The transition occurs when the larger pores, also reaching the surface, are being drained. On the other hand, under intense-drying conditions, the rate-limiting factor is the vapour lock. The latter phenomenon will occur in the smaller pores first, as they have smaller liquid pressure. Hence, they will be the first to become dry, while surface drying continues through the system of interconnected larger pores reaching the surface. Experimental research to be described validates the extended model for the drying of agglomerates that have a wide range of particle size and have been dried under wide range of drying conditions. New insights have been gained by applying this new drying model. Critical aspects of microstructure of agglomerates were investigated more specifically in the light of these new insights. They include pore-matrix expansion during drying due to the engulfment of fine particles into the contacts between the larger, structure-creating ones. Experimental results validate the matrix-expansion hypothesis developed in this study. Although this study focused on a specific industrial process, the pelletizing of iron-ore concentrates, the interrelationship between microstructure and drying behaviour has important implications in understanding the nature of soils, rocks, ceramics and processed foods.

  5. Shale oil stabilization with a hydroprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    York, E. D.; Johnson, D. M.; Miller, P. B.

    1985-10-22

    A process is provided to produce, stabilize, dedust and upgrade synthetic oil, such as shale oil. In the process, synthetic fuels, such as oil shale, tar sands and diatomite are retorted with heat carrier material to liberate an effluent product stream comprising hydrocarbons and entrained particulates of dust. In order to minimize polymerization of the product stream and agglomerate the dust, the product stream is stabilized, upgraded, and pretreated prior to dedusting, in a hydroprocessor, such as an ebullated bed reactor, with a hydroprocessing gas in the presence of a catalyst. The hydroprocessing gas can be hydrogen, scrubbed fractionator gases, or hydrocarbon-enriched hydroprocessor off gases.

  6. The effects of agglomeration\\/defluidization on emission of heavy metals for various fluidized parameters in fluidized-bed incineration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiou-Liang Lin; Ming-Chih Tsai; Chih-Hung Chang

    2010-01-01

    The agglomeration\\/defluidization may be produced to generate the secondary pollutant during incineration. However, the effects of agglomeration\\/defluidization on heavy metal distribution have rarely been examined. Therefore, the effects of the agglomeration\\/defluidization process on heavy metal emission in flue gas are studied. The artificial waste is employed to simulate municipal waste and to form agglomerates, which contain alkali metals, earth alkali

  7. Direct optical techniques for the measurement of water content in oil-paper insulation in power transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joaquín H. Rodríguez-Rodríguez; Fernando Martínez-Piñón; José A. Álvarez-Chávez; David Jaramillo-Vigueras; Edgar G. Robles-Pimentel

    2011-01-01

    Paper-oil insulation in power transformers is degraded and gradually damaged due to electrical, chemical, mechanical and moisture factors. It is well established from several studies that moisture is a major source of insulation failure in high voltage power transformers. Measurement and monitoring of moisture is essential to predict life and operation condition for power transformers. This paper presents direct optical

  8. Nanoparticle agglomeration in an evaporating levitated droplet for different acoustic amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijerino, Erick; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2013-01-01

    Radiatively heated levitated functional droplets with nanosilica suspensions exhibit three distinct stages namely pure evaporation, agglomeration, and finally structure formation. The temporal history of the droplet surface temperature shows two inflection points. One inflection point corresponds to a local maximum and demarcates the end of transient heating of the droplet and domination of vaporization. The second inflection point is a local minimum and indicates slowing down of the evaporation rate due to surface accumulation of nanoparticles. Morphology and final precipitation structures of levitated droplets are due to competing mechanisms of particle agglomeration, evaporation, and shape deformation. In this work, we provide a detailed analysis for each process and propose two important timescales for evaporation and agglomeration that determine the final diameter of the structure formed. It is seen that both agglomeration and evaporation timescales are similar functions of acoustic amplitude (sound pressure level), droplet size, viscosity, and density. However, we show that while the agglomeration timescale decreases with initial particle concentration, the evaporation timescale shows the opposite trend. The final normalized diameter can be shown to be dependent solely on the ratio of agglomeration to evaporation timescales for all concentrations and acoustic amplitudes. The structures also exhibit various aspect ratios (bowls, rings, spheroids) which depend on the ratio of the deformation timescale (tdef) and the agglomeration timescale (tg). For tdef

  9. Agglomeration and defluidization in FBC of biomass fuels -- Mechanisms and measures for prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, A.; Oehman, M. [Univ. of Umeaa (Sweden); Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The use of biomass fuels in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) and gasification (FBG) is becoming more important because of the environmental benefits associated with these fuel and processes. However, severe bed agglomeration and defluidization have been reported due to the special ash forming constituents of some biomass fuels. Previous results have indicated that this could possibly be prevented by intelligent fuel mixing. In the present work the mechanisms of bed agglomeration using two different biomass fuels as well as the mechanism of the prevention of agglomeration by co-combustion with coal (50/50 %{sub w}) were studied. Several repeated combustion tests with the two biomass fuels, alone (Lucerne and olive flesh), all resulted in agglomeration and defluidization of the bed within less than 30 minutes. By controlled defluidization experiments the initial cohesion temperatures for the two fuels were determined to be as low as 670 C and 940 C, respectively. However, by fuel mixing the initial agglomeration temperature increased to 950 C and more than 1050 C, respectively. When co-combusted with coal during ten hour extended runs, no agglomeration was observed for either of the two fuel mixtures. The agglomeration temperatures were compared with results from a laboratory method, based on compression strength measurements of ash pellets, and results from chemical equilibrium calculations. Samples of bed materials, collected throughout the experimental runs, as well as the produced agglomerated beds, were analyzed using SEM EDS and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that loss of fluidization resulted from formation of molten phases coating the bed materials; a salt melt in the case of Lucerne and a silicate melt in the case of the olive fuel. By fuel mixing, the in-bed ash composition is altered, conferring higher melting temperatures, and thereby agglomeration and defluidization can be prevented.

  10. Automotive engine-oil condition monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Smolenski; S. E. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    This article describes some of the technical literature regarding engine-oil condition monitoring, including oil analyses techniques and the significance of various analytical results. Limiting criteria for oil analysis results (that is, values above which there is risk of engine problems) are tabulated. Several approaches for monitoring oil condition are described: oil sampling followed by oil analysis, creation of models to

  11. Heliophrya sp. , a new protozoan biomonitor of pollution: culture techniques, toxin uptake and elimination, and field studies in an oil-polluted stream

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    The stalkless suctorian Heliophyra sp., a sessile ciliated protozoan, was used as a pollution biomonitor. The research objectives were to determine: (1) optimal culture conditions and techniques for biotoxicity testing; (2) ability of Helipophrya to incorporate and eliminate a /sup 14/C oil component and other organic toxins; (3) suitability of Heliophrya as a biomonitor of oil pollution. Selection of culture conditions for Heliophrya were based on survival over a three week period and ability to divide when fed after three weeks. The LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% of the population) for 96 h was 12.4 ppt salinity. Heliophrya were exposed to /sup 14/C toxins for 48 h, then organisms were transferred to nonradioactive water for 96 h. The uptake rate of /sup 14/C octachlorostyrene was higher than /sup 14/C phenanthrene or /sup 14/C diisononyl phthalate. Elimination rates were comparable to other test organisms. Heliophrya and d. pulex were placed at three stations, in a stream which received chronic oil pollution, for periods of 48 h and seven days. A 48 h lab test with dilutions of field water was performed. Water samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Death of Heliophrya at the three polluted stations over 48 h was not significantly greater than at a less polluted tributary; however, all the Daphnia in the polluted stream stations were killed. In the seven day field study, Heliophrya had an estimated LC50 of 1 ppm for the aromatic and 29 ppm for the total hydrocarbons. Compared to other species, Heliophrya is moderately sensitive to oil pollution, and is a good companion biomonitor to the more sensitive Daphnia.

  12. Simulation of cold flow in agglomerating reactors. Topical report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Scharff, M.F.; Klein, H.H.; Chan, R.K.C.; Dietrich, D.E.; Goldman, S.R.; Sperling, J.L.

    1980-07-01

    JAYCOR has developed a computer code for modeling fluid flows containing agglomerating particles, with the goal of providing a method for optimization and scale-up of certain coal gasification reactors. The physical and chemical processes modeled in the computer code range from fluid and particle flow with heat transfer, to pyrolysis, mixing, and agglomeration of the coal. The initial effort has been directed toward a simulation of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation's devolatilizer unit, which uses a draft tube and fluidized bed for devolatilizing coal, while limiting the agglomeration of the coal particles. The simulation code is flexible and can easily be adapted to study the behavior of other reactors.

  13. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-07-05

    A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

  14. OIL SLICK DISPERSAL MECHANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates the spreading and dissolution behavior of small oil slicks formed from spills of 12 oils. The increases in area covered by the oils during spreading experiments were determined using photographic techniques. Spreading equations were derived and used to cor...

  15. Synthesis of crystalline and amorphous, particle-agglomerated 3-D nanostructures of Al and Si oxides by femtosecond laser and the prediction of these particle sizes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report a single step technique of synthesizing particle-agglomerated, amorphous 3-D nanostructures of Al and Si oxides on powder-fused aluminosilicate ceramic plates and a simple novel method of wafer-foil ablation to fabricate crystalline nanostructures of Al and Si oxides at ambient conditions. We also propose a particle size prediction mechanism to regulate the size of vapor-condensed agglomerated nanoparticles in these structures. Size characterization studies performed on the agglomerated nanoparticles of fabricated 3-D structures showed that the size distributions vary with the fluence-to-threshold ratio. The variation in laser parameters leads to varying plume temperature, pressure, amount of supersaturation, nucleation rate, and the growth rate of particles in the plume. The novel wafer-foil ablation technique could promote the possibilities of fabricating oxide nanostructures with varying Al/Si ratio, and the crystallinity of these structures enhances possible applications. The fabricated nanostructures of Al and Si oxides could have great potentials to be used in the fabrication of low power-consuming complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits and in Mn catalysts to enhance the efficiency of oxidation on ethylbenzene to acetophenone in the super-critical carbon dioxide. PMID:23140103

  16. Synthesis of crystalline and amorphous, particle-agglomerated 3-D nanostructures of Al and Si oxides by femtosecond laser and the prediction of these particle sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivayoganathan, Mugunthan; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2012-11-01

    We report a single step technique of synthesizing particle-agglomerated, amorphous 3-D nanostructures of Al and Si oxides on powder-fused aluminosilicate ceramic plates and a simple novel method of wafer-foil ablation to fabricate crystalline nanostructures of Al and Si oxides at ambient conditions. We also propose a particle size prediction mechanism to regulate the size of vapor-condensed agglomerated nanoparticles in these structures. Size characterization studies performed on the agglomerated nanoparticles of fabricated 3-D structures showed that the size distributions vary with the fluence-to-threshold ratio. The variation in laser parameters leads to varying plume temperature, pressure, amount of supersaturation, nucleation rate, and the growth rate of particles in the plume. The novel wafer-foil ablation technique could promote the possibilities of fabricating oxide nanostructures with varying Al/Si ratio, and the crystallinity of these structures enhances possible applications. The fabricated nanostructures of Al and Si oxides could have great potentials to be used in the fabrication of low power-consuming complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits and in Mn catalysts to enhance the efficiency of oxidation on ethylbenzene to acetophenone in the super-critical carbon dioxide.

  17. Getty: producing oil from diatomite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zublin

    1981-01-01

    Getty Oil Company has developed unconventional oil production techniques which will yield oil from diatomaceous earth. They propose to mine oil-saturated diatomite using open-pit mining methods. Getty's diatomite deposit in the McKittrick field of California is unique because it is cocoa brown and saturated with crude oil. It is classified also as a tightly packed deposit, and oil cannot be

  18. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, M.D.; Morgan, C.D.

    1998-05-01

    Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical ft, them stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more beds for stimulation. These recompletion will show which logs are most effective in identifying productive beds and what scale of completion is most cost effective. The third demonstration will be the logging and completion of a new well using the logs and completion scale or technique most effective in the previous demonstrations.

  19. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Tenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-05-13

    The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin will is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil- bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch Formations in the Bluefell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project. Data (net pay thickness, porosity, and water saturation) of more than 100 individuals beds in he lower Green River and Wasatch Formations were used to generate geostatistical realization (numerical- representation) of the reservoir properties. The data set was derived from the Michelle Ute and Malnar Pike demonstration wells and 22 other wells in a 20 (52 km{sup 2}) square-mile area. Beds were studied independently of each other. Principles of sequential Gaussian simulations were used to generate geostatistical realizations of the beds.

  20. Reducing adhesion and agglomeration within a cloud of combustible particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D.

    1988-01-01

    The study of combustible particle clouds inside flame tubes is of fundamental scientific interest as well as a practical concern. Only the suspended concentration is important to the combustion process, so that assurances must be provided that a minimum of particles adheres to the tube wall. This paper demonstrates experimentally the ability to minimize adhesion and agglomeration of acoustically-mixed lycopodium particles within a 5-cm diameter lexan flame tube. The area density of particles (ADP) adhering to the wall of bare lexan tubes was measured at greater than 100 particles/sq mm. The nature of adhesion was found to be clearly electrostatic, with the ADP level aggravated by increased mixing time, vigor, and the concentration of particles. Increases in the conductivity of the air and the tube wall did not affect ADP levels substantially. However, the observed adhesion was reduced to less than 10 p/sq mm when the air was ionized by use of an alpha emitter mounted on the inner walls of the flame tube.

  1. Assessment of Traffic Noise on Highway Passing from Urban Agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kori, Chandan; Kumar, Manoj; Chakrabarti, T.; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Assessment of traffic noise pollution in developing countries is complex due to heterogeneity in traffic conditions like traffic volume, road width, honking, etc. To analyze the impact of such variables, a research study was carried out on a national highway passing from an urban agglomeration. Traffic volume and noise levels (L10, Lmin, Lmax, Leq and L90) were measured during morning and evening peak hours. Contribution of noise by individual vehicle was estimated using passenger car noise unit. Extent of noise pollution and impact of noisy vehicles were estimated using noise pollution level and traffic noise index, respectively. Noise levels were observed to be above the prescribed Indian and International standards. As per audio spectrum analysis of traffic noise, honking contributed an additional 3-4 dB(A) noise. Based on data analysis, a positive relationship was observed between noise levels and honking while negative correlation was observed between noise levels and road width. The study suggests that proper monitoring and analysis of traffic data is required for better planning of noise abatement measures.

  2. THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. V. MULTIPLE IMPACTS OF DUSTY AGGLOMERATES AT VELOCITIES ABOVE THE FRAGMENTATION THRESHOLD

    SciTech Connect

    Kothe, Stefan; Guettler, Carsten; Blum, Juergen, E-mail: s.kothe@tu-bs.d [Institut fuer Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universitaet zu Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-12-10

    In recent years, a number of new experiments have advanced our knowledge on the early growth phases of protoplanetary dust aggregates. Some of these experiments have shown that collisions between porous and compacted agglomerates at velocities above the fragmentation threshold velocity can lead to growth of the compact body, when the porous collision partner fragments upon impact and transfers mass to the compact agglomerate. To obtain a deeper understanding of this potentially important growth process, we performed laboratory and drop tower experiments to study multiple impacts of small, highly porous dust-aggregate projectiles onto sintered dust targets. The projectile and target consisted of 1.5 {mu}m monodisperse, spherical SiO{sub 2} monomers with volume filling factors of 0.15 {+-} 0.01 and 0.45 {+-} 0.05, respectively. The fragile projectiles were accelerated by a solenoid magnet and combined with a projectile magazine with which 25 impacts onto the same spot on the target could be performed in vacuum. We measured the mass-accretion efficiency and the volume filling factor for different impact velocities between 1.5 and 6.0 m s{sup -1}. The experiments at the lowest impact speeds were performed in the Bremen drop tower under microgravity conditions to allow partial mass transfer also for the lowest adhesion case. Within this velocity range, we found a linear increase of the accretion efficiency with increasing velocity. In the laboratory experiments, the accretion efficiency increases from 0.12 to 0.21 in units of the projectile mass. The recorded images of the impacts showed that the mass transfer from the projectile to the target leads to the growth of a conical structure on the target after less than 100 impacts. From the images, we also measured the volume filling factors of the grown structures, which ranged from 0.15 (uncompacted) to 0.40 (significantly compacted) with increasing impact speed. The velocity dependency of the mass-transfer efficiency and the packing density of the resulting aggregates augment our knowledge of the aggregate growth in protoplanetary disks and should be taken into account for future models of protoplanetary dust growth.

  3. Nanoparticle agglomerates of fluticasone propionate in combination with albuterol sulfate as dry powder aerosols.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Nashwa; Pornputtapitak, Warangkana; Berkland, Cory

    2011-11-20

    Particle engineering strategies remain at the forefront of aerosol research for localized treatment of lung diseases and represent an alternative for systemic drug therapy. With the hastily growing popularity and complexity of inhalation therapy, there is a rising demand for tailor-made inhalable drug particles capable of affording the most proficient delivery to the lungs and the most advantageous therapeutic outcomes. To address this formulation demand, nanoparticle agglomeration was used to develop aerosols of the asthma therapeutics, fluticasone or albuterol. In addition, a combination aerosol was formed by drying agglomerates of fluticasone nanoparticles in the presence of albuterol in solution. Powders of the single drug nanoparticle agglomerates or of the combined therapeutics possessed desirable aerodynamic properties for inhalation. Powders were efficiently aerosolized (?75% deposition determined by cascade impaction) with high fine particle fraction and rapid dissolution. Nanoparticle agglomeration offers a unique approach to obtain high performance aerosols from combinations of asthma therapeutics. PMID:21964203

  4. Dynamic forces on agglomerated particles caused by high-intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Knoop, Claas; Fritsching, Udo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the acoustic forces on particles and agglomerates caused by high-intensity ultrasound in gaseous atmosphere are derived by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Sound induced forces cause an oscillating stress scenario where the primary particles of an agglomerate are alternatingly pressed together and torn apart with the frequency of the applied wave. A comparison of the calculated acoustic forces with respect to the inter particle adhesion forces from Van-der-Waals and liquid bridge interactions reveals that the separation forces may reach the same order of magnitude for 80 ?m sized SiO2-particles. Hence, with finite probability acoustically agitated gases may de-agglomerate/disperse solid agglomerate structures. This effect is confirmed by dispersion experiments in an acoustic particle levitation setup. PMID:24152872

  5. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  6. Role of solvents in improvement of dissolution rate of drugs: crystal habit and crystal agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Maghsoodi, Maryam

    2015-03-01

    Crystallization is often used for manufacturing drug substances. Advances of crystallization have achieved control over drug identity and purity, but control over the physical form remains poor. This review discusses the influence of solvents used in crystallization process on crystal habit and agglomeration of crystals with potential implication for dissolution. According to literature it has been known that habit modification of crystals by use of proper solvents may enhance the dissolution properties by changing the size, number and the nature of crystal faces exposed to the dissolution medium. Also, the faster dissolution rate of drug from the agglomerates of crystals compared with the single crystals may be related to porous structure of the agglomerates and consequently their better wettability. It is concluded from this review that in-depth understanding of role of the solvents in crystallization process can be applied to engineering of crystal habit or crystal agglomeration, and predictably dissolution improvement in poorly soluble drugs. PMID:25789214

  7. Sonic-enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Technical progress report, April--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. The major objective of the Phase 1 test program is to confirm the feasibility of the MTCI bimodal particle size approach to enhance particulate control by acoustic ash agglomeration, and to demonstrate and confirm the feasibility of an acoustic field to enhance sulfur capture by increasing sorbent reactivity. During this reporting period, commercialization activity was continued.

  8. Development of acoustic agglomerator. Monthly technical progress report for April 1-30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-20

    This report is a monthly technical progress statement of the devlopment of an acoustic agglomerator. The report is divided into two parts including the establishment of performance criteria and a sound source evaluation.

  9. Road pricing and agglomeration economies: a new methodology to estimate indirect effects applied to the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Thissen; Narisra Limtanakool; Hans Hilbers

    2011-01-01

    A congestion charging scheme may be a good alternative for infrastructure investment to improve the allocation of road usage\\u000a over different user groups, thereby enhancing economic welfare. However, a congestion charge also increases the costs of traveling,\\u000a thereby possibly inducing agglomeration effects (Arnott in Congestion tolling with agglomeration externalities, paper presented\\u000a at Conference in Honor of Kenneth A. Small, University

  10. Nanostructured cerium oxide: preparation and properties of weakly-agglomerated powders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boro Djuri?i?; Stephen Pickering

    1999-01-01

    Nanocrystalline powders of cerium oxide were prepared from cerium(III) nitrate solution by a two-stage precipitation process which yielded weakly-agglomerated powders with a crystallite size smaller than 5nm. Hydrogen peroxide was added to cerium nitrate at 5°C to slowly oxidise Ce3+ to Ce4+ and thereby initiate homogeneous precipitation with the formation of dense spherical agglomerates. The precipitation process was completed by

  11. Reduced bed agglomeration by co-combustion biomass with peat fuels in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Karin Lundholm; Anders Nordin; Marcus Oehman; Dan Bostroem [Umeaa University, Umeaa (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry

    2005-12-01

    Fluidized bed combustion is an energy conversion technology that is very suitable for biomass combustion because of its fuel flexibility and low process temperatures. However, agglomeration of bed material may cause severe operating problems. To prevent or at least reduce this, peat has been suggested as an additive to the main fuels. Nevertheless, the characteristics of peat fuels vary and there is limited information of the effect of different peat fuels and of the mechanisms behind the agglomeration prevention. The objectives of the present work were therefore to: (I) quantify the potential positive effect by co-combustion peat with forest fuels in terms of initial agglomeration temperatures; (ii) determine the amount of peat fuel that is needed to significantly reduce the agglomeration tendencies; and, if possible, (iii) elucidate the governing mechanisms. The results showed that all peat fuels prevented agglomeration in the studied interval of 760-1020{sup o}C and even as little as 5% peat fuel was found to have significant effects. The results also indicated that the mechanism of the agglomeration prevention varies between different peat fuels. Possible mechanisms are the minerals in the peat fuel retain alkali, which then is either elutriated up from the bed or captured in the bed; calcium and other refractory elements increase the melting temperature and thereby counteract the melting of alkali; and sulfur reacts with alkali metals and the alkali sulfates is either elutriated up from the bed or prevents agglomeration by increased melting temperature and lowered viscosity. Results from elemental analysis of the coating on bed particles showed that all mixtures with peat fuel resulted in a decreased or unchanged fraction of potassium and an increased fraction of aluminum in the coatings. The results also indicated a complex relationship between the fuel inorganic contents and the agglomeration process. 21 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Dispersion of TiO2 Nanoparticle Agglomerates by Pseudomonas aeruginosa? †

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Allison M.; Neal, Andrea C.; Mielke, Randall E.; Sislian, Patrick R.; Suh, Won Hyuk; Mädler, Lutz; Stucky, Galen D.; Holden, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly incorporated into consumer products and are emerging as potential environmental contaminants. Upon environmental release, nanoparticles could inhibit bacterial processes, as evidenced by laboratory studies. Less is known regarding bacterial alteration of nanoparticles, including whether bacteria affect physical agglomeration states controlling nanoparticle settling and bioavailability. Here, the effects of an environmental strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on TiO2 nanoparticle agglomerates formed in aqueous media are described. Environmental scanning electron microscopy and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy visually demonstrated bacterial dispersion of large agglomerates formed in cell culture medium and in marsh water. For experiments in cell culture medium, quantitative image analysis verified that the degrees of conversion of large agglomerates into small nanoparticle-cell combinations were similar for 12-h-growth and short-term cell contact experiments. Dispersion in cell growth medium was further characterized by size fractionation: for agglomerated TiO2 suspensions in the absence of cells, 81% by mass was retained on a 5-?m-pore-size filter, compared to only 24% retained for biotic treatments. Filtrate cell and agglomerate sizes were characterized by dynamic light scattering, revealing that the average bacterial cell size increased from 1.4 ?m to 1.9 ?m because of nano-TiO2 biosorption. High-magnification scanning electron micrographs showed that P. aeruginosa dispersed TiO2 agglomerates by preferential biosorption of nanoparticles onto cell surfaces. These results suggest a novel role for bacteria in the environmental transport of engineered nanoparticles, i.e., growth-independent, bacterially mediated size and mass alterations of TiO2 nanoparticle agglomerates. PMID:20851981

  13. Agglomeration Tendency during Top-Spray Fluidized Bed Coating with Gelatin and Starch Hydrolysate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koen Dewettinck; Winy Messens; Lidewij Deroo; André Huyghebaert

    1999-01-01

    Top-spray fluidized bed coating of glass beads with gelatin and starch hydrolysate leads to an `all or nothing' side-effect agglomeration, that is, a drastic collapse of the fluid-bed when a critical spray rate is exceeded. This undesirable side-effect agglomeration is primarily influenced by the type of coating, and more specifically its hygroscopicity, water binding capacity and viscosity. Hydrolyzed gelatin permits

  14. Effects of fluoride residue on Cu agglomeration in Cu\\/low- k interconnects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kobayashi; S. Ozaki; Y. Iba; Y. Nakata; T. Nakamura

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of fluoride residue on the thermal stability of a Cu\\/barrier metal (BM)\\/porous low-k film (k<2.3) structure. We confirmed that the Cu agglomerated more on a BM\\/inter layer dielectric (ILD) with a fluoride residue. To consider the effect of fluoride residue on Cu agglomeration, the structural state at the Cu\\/BM interface was evaluated with a cross-section

  15. Analysis of nanoparticle agglomeration in aqueous suspensions via constant-number Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyang Haven; Surawanvijit, Sirikarn; Rallo, Robert; Orkoulas, Gerassimos; Cohen, Yoram

    2011-11-01

    A constant-number direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model was developed for the analysis of nanoparticle (NP) agglomeration in aqueous suspensions. The modeling approach, based on the "particles in a box" simulation method, considered both particle agglomeration and gravitational settling. Particle-particle agglomeration probability was determined based on the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory and considerations of the collision frequency as impacted by Brownian motion. Model predictions were in reasonable agreement with respect to the particle size distribution and average agglomerate size when compared with dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements for aqueous TiO(2), CeO(2), and C(60) nanoparticle suspensions over a wide range of pH (3-10) and ionic strength (0.01-156 mM). Simulations also demonstrated, in quantitative agreement with DLS measurements, that nanoparticle agglomerate size increased both with ionic strength and as the solution pH approached the isoelectric point (IEP). The present work suggests that the DSMC modeling approach, along with future use of an extended DLVO theory, has the potential for becoming a practical environmental analysis tool for predicting the agglomeration behavior of aqueous nanoparticle suspensions. PMID:21916459

  16. Effect of hydration repulsion on nanoparticle agglomeration evaluated via a constant number Monte–Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haven Liu, Haoyang; Lanphere, Jacob; Walker, Sharon; Cohen, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hydration repulsion on the agglomeration of nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions was investigated via the description of agglomeration by the Smoluchowski coagulation equation using constant number Monte–Carlo simulation making use of the classical DLVO theory extended to include the hydration repulsion energy. Evaluation of experimental DLS measurements for TiO2, CeO2, SiO2, and ?-Fe2O3 (hematite) at high IS (up to 900 mM) or low |?-potential| (?1.35 mV) demonstrated that hydration repulsion energy can be above electrostatic repulsion energy such that the increased overall repulsion energy can significantly lower the agglomerate diameter relative to the classical DLVO prediction. While the classical DLVO theory, which is reasonably applicable for agglomeration of NPs of high |?-potential| (˜>35 mV) in suspensions of low IS (˜<1 mM), it can overpredict agglomerate sizes by up to a factor of 5 at high IS or low |?-potential|. Given the potential important role of hydration repulsion over a range of relevant conditions, there is merit in quantifying this repulsion energy over a wide range of conditions as part of overall characterization of NP suspensions. Such information would be of relevance to improved understanding of NP agglomeration in aqueous suspensions and its correlation with NP physicochemical and solution properties.

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the formation and growth of ash agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Carty, R.H.; Mason, D.M.; Kline, S.; Babu, S.; Arastoopour, H.; Hariri, H.

    1989-09-01

    This research program on the experimental and theoretical investigation of the formation and growth of ash agglomerates consists of 3 tasks: (1) facility preparation, (2) test program, and (3) test data analysis and interpretation. The result is a description of ash agglomeration as a function of temperature, velocities, particle size, and viscosity of the molten agglomerates. Major objectives include: investigation of the effects on ash behavior of the addition of limestone as an in-bed sulfur-capture agent and of the recycling of the effluent stream containing SO{sub 2} from the regeneration of a hot-gas cleanup system to a fluidized-bed gasifier; determination of the maximum viscosity of molten ash that allows ash agglomerate growth and experimental measurement of agglomerate growth as a function of temperature, viscosity, and chemical composition; exploration of the development of an optimum design basis and operating procedure for fluidized-bed coal gasification processes based on the analysis of bench-scale experimental data; and development of mathematical relationships based on fundamentals of fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and the previously developed Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) description of the agglomeration phenomenon in a fluidized-bed coal gasification system. 18 refs., 60 figs., 48 tabs.

  18. Effects of operating conditions on agglomeration and habit of paracetamol crystals in anti-solvent crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. Q.; Tan, R. B. H.; Chow, P. S.

    2005-06-01

    Effects of agitation speed and feeding rate on agglomeration and habit of paracetamol crystals in anti-solvent crystallization from water-acetone mixture are reported. Water is used as anti-solvent and is added in a semi-batch manner to a baffled 1-l crystallizer equipped with a marine-type impeller. A simple new method to characterize agglomeration degree has been proposed. Results show that agglomeration degree of crystals depends on particle size and elevated agitation reduces agglomeration degree of big particles. Particle mean size exhibits a maximum with increasing agitation intensity in the range of 200-600 rpm, which is explained from the perspective of anti-solvent dispersion and crystal agglomeration/disruption. Agglomeration degree of products deteriorates with increasing feeding rate ranging from 1 to 20 g/min due to enhanced nucleation. Crystal habit changes when feeding rate is altered, mainly in the faces of [0 0 1] and [1 1 0]. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was used to monitor indirectly the particle size distribution in situ. The data demonstrated that FBRM may potentially be used as a tool to control crystallization process.

  19. THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. VII. THE LOW-VELOCITY COLLISION BEHAVIOR OF LARGE DUST AGGLOMERATES

    SciTech Connect

    Schraepler, Rainer; Blum, Juergen [Institut fuer Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, University of Braunschweig Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm, E-mail: r.schraepler@tu-bs.de [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, University of Tuebingen Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2012-10-10

    We performed micro-gravity collision experiments in our laboratory drop tower using 5 cm sized dust agglomerates with volume filling factors of 0.3 and 0.4, respectively. This work is an extension of our previous experiments reported in Beitz et al. to aggregates of more than one order of magnitude higher masses. The dust aggregates consisted of micrometer-sized silica particles and were macroscopically homogeneous. We measured the coefficient of restitution for collision velocities ranging from 1 cm s{sup -1} to 0.5 m s{sup -1}, and determined the fragmentation velocity. For low velocities, the coefficient of restitution decreases with increasing impact velocity, in contrast to findings by Beitz et al. At higher velocities, the value of the coefficient of restitution becomes constant, before the aggregates break at the onset of fragmentation. We interpret the qualitative change in the coefficient of restitution as the transition from a solid-body-dominated to a granular-medium-dominated behavior. We complement our experiments by molecular-dynamics simulations of porous aggregates and obtain a reasonable match to the experimental data. We discuss the importance of our experiments for protoplanetary disks, debris disks, and planetary rings. This work is an extension to the previous work of our group and gives new insight into the velocity dependency of the coefficient of restitution due to improved measurements, better statistics, and a theoretical approach.

  20. What Happens When an Oil Spill Occurs?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-12-17

    This interactive activity from McDougal Littell/TERC visualizes the effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, factors that influence oil spill behavior and impact, and techniques used to contain and clean up oil spills at sea.

  1. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laural L.

    2001-11-26

    The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities.

  2. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Allison, M.L.

    1997-08-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Wasatch Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in a fluvial-dominated lacustrine environment. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical feet (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval. This completion technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. Geologic and engineering characterization has been used to define improved completion techniques. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The characterization study resulted in recommendations for improved completion techniques and a field-demonstration program to test those techniques. The results of the characterization study and the proposed demonstration program are discussed in the second annual technical progress report. The operator of the wells was unable to begin the field demonstration this project year (October 1, 1995 to September 20, 1996). Correlation and thickness mapping of individual beds in the Wasatch Formation was completed and resulted in a. series of maps of each of the individual beds. These data were used in constructing the reservoir models. Non-fractured and fractured geostatistical models and reservoir simulations were generated for a 20-square-mile (51.8-km{sup 2}) portion of the Bluebell field. The modeling provides insights into the effects of fracture porosity and permeability in the Green River and Wasatch reservoirs.

  3. Combustion of single and agglomerated aluminum particles in solid rocket motor flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcher, John Charles, IV

    2001-07-01

    Single and agglomerated aluminum droplets were studied in a solid rocket motor (SRM) test chamber with optical access to the internal flow at 6--22 atm and 2300 K. The chamber was pressurized by burning a main grain AP/HTPB propellant, and the burning aluminum droplets were generated by a smaller aluminized solid propellant sample, center-mounted in the flow. A 35 mm camera was used with a chopper wheel to give droplet flame diameter vs. time measurements of the burning droplets in flight, from which bum-rate laws were developed. A high-speed video CCD was used with high-magnification optics in order to image the flame/smoke cloud surrounding the burning liquid droplets. The intensity profiles of the droplet images were de-convoluted using an Abel inversion to give true intensity profiles. Both single and agglomerated droplets were studied, where agglomerates are comprised of hundreds of parent particles or more. The Abel inversion results show that the relative smoke cloud size is not constant with diameter, but instead grows as the droplet shrinks, by ˜D -0.5, for both the single and agglomerated droplets. Measured diameter trajectories show that for single droplets, the diameter law is D 0.75 = DO0.75 = 8·t [mu m, msec], and for agglomerated droplets, D 1.0 = Do1.0 - 20·t, such that the single droplets burn faster than the agglomerates. For both single and agglomerated droplets, the burning rate slope k did not change significantly over the chamber pressure studied. Lastly, a model was developed to describe the oxide cap accumulation on the droplet surface from the oxide smoke cloud surrounding the droplet. Results suggest that less oxide accumulates in high-pressure SRMs when considering mass burning rates for different relative cap sizes. The thermophoretic force, which can control oxide transport only over the cap, decreases with pressure.

  4. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    This three-year project has two general objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes is most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses are being performed to assess where the various diverting agents will be most effective (e.g., in fractured vs. unfractured wells, deep vs. near-wellbore applications, reservoirs with vs. without crossflow, or injection wells vs. production wells). Experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. Another objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. In addition to establishing why this occurs, our research attempts to identify materials and conditions that maximize this disproportionate permeability reduction.

  5. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    This three-year project has two general objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes will be compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application, and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses will be performed to assess where the various diverting agents will be most effective (e.g., in fractured vs. unfractured wells, deep vs. near-wellbore applications, reservoirs with vs. without crossflow, or injection wells vs. production wells). Experiments will be performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. Another objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. In addition to establishing why this occurs, our research will attempt to identify materials and conditions that maximize this phenomenon.

  6. Development and Assessment of Oil-in-Water Emulsions for Encapsulation of Reactive Iron Particles for Subsurface Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, N. D.; Taghavy, A.; Ramsburg, A.

    2007-12-01

    Reactive iron particles hold promise for use in the destruction of contaminants in the subsurface environment. Application of these nano- to submicron-scale particles, however, may be limited by poor subsurface transport and non-uniform distribution of the reactive material. Delivery issues are particularly important when evaluating the efficacy of iron-based technologies for treatment of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. Current approaches for the delivery of reactive iron particles within DNAPL source zones are hindered by particle agglomeration, flow bypassing, and presence of non-target reactions. Encapsulation of the reactive particles within an oil-in-water emulsion is a novel approach that may overcome these limitations. Development of kinetically-stable, iron-laden, oil-in-water emulsions commenced by identifying surfactant-based coatings to increase the stability of commercially-available iron particles within non-polar organic phases (e.g., soy oil). A phase inversion technique was employed to disperse approximately 10% wt of the iron-laden, organic phase within a continuous aqueous phase containing nonionic emulsifiers. Emulsions were designed to ensure emulsifier proportions yielded hydrophilic-lipophilic balances affiliated with oil-in-water emulsions. Micrographs of the oil-in-water emulsions suggest that the average diameter of the oil droplets is approximately one micrometer. The presence of iron within oil droplets was confirmed in the micrographs and supported by an absence of iron agglomeration within the continuous phase. Bulk characteristics of each emulsion (density and viscosity) were used in conjunction with interfacial tension measurements in total trapping number analyses to assess the propensity of these emulsions to mobilize an entrapped trichloroethene (TCE)-DNAPL. Results suggest that the emulsions described herein should not cause significant mobilization of entrapped TCE-DNAPL in fine-to-medium grain sandy media. Column experiments are being conducted to evaluate the transport of these emulsions through sandy media. Preliminary results from experiments with iron-free emulsions suggest conductivity reductions occurring during emulsion flushing are not the result of extensive pore-clogging but rather are due to viscosity changes (emulsion viscosities range from 2 to 10 cP). Current efforts are focused on assessing and comparing both transport and reaction of commercially available iron particles and iron-laden emulsions within sandy porous media.

  7. BP Oil Spill November 10, 2011

    E-print Network

    Lega, Joceline

    BP Oil Spill Qiyam Tung November 10, 2011 1 Introduction Figure 1: BP Oil spill (source: http://thefoxisblack.com/2010/05/02/the-bp-oil-spill-in-the-gulf-of-mexico/) Last year, there was a major oil spill caused major techniques to minimize the threat once it happened. What kind of damage would an oil spill like this cause

  8. Temperature-Switchable Agglomeration of Magnetic Particles Designed for Continuous Separation Processes in Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Anja S; Heinzler, Raphael; Ooi, Huey Wen; Franzreb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this work was the synthesis and characterization of thermally switchable magnetic particles for use in biotechnological applications such as protein purification and enzymatic conversions. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization was employed to synthesize poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes via a "graft-from" approach on the surface of magnetic microparticles. The resulting particles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis and their temperature-dependent agglomeration behavior was assessed. The influence of several factors on particle agglomeration (pH, temperature, salt type, and particle concentration) was evaluated. The results showed that a low pH value (pH 3-4), a kosmotropic salt (ammonium sulfate), and a high particle concentration (4 g/L) resulted in improved agglomeration at elevated temperature (40 °C). Recycling of particles and reversibility of the temperature-switchable agglomeration were successfully demonstrated for ten heating-cooling cycles. Additionally, enhanced magnetic separation was observed for the modified particles. Ionic monomers were integrated into the polymer chain to create end-group functionalized particles as well as two- and three-block copolymer particles for protein binding. The adsorption of lactoferrin, bovine serum albumin, and lysozyme to these ion exchange particles was evaluated and showed a binding capacity of up to 135 mg/g. The dual-responsive particles combined magnetic and thermoresponsive properties for switchable agglomeration, easy separability, and efficient protein adsorption. PMID:26069936

  9. Agglomeration and defluidization in fluidized beds due to thermally induced sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Compo, P.; Pfeffer, R.; Tardos, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    The surfaces of fluidizable particles often soften at temperatures well below the material's bulk solid melting point. When particles come into contact at elevated temperatures, there is a tendency for material bridges to form resulting in an interparticle adhesive force. This phenomenon, known as sintering, is driven by the reduction of excess surface energy and for each material is dependent on factors such as particle size and morphology, the interparticle compression force and most importantly, temperature. High temperature fluidization of cohesive powders results in agglomeration, thereby increasing the effective diameter and changing the hydrodynamic properties of the particles. If interparticle forces become significantly greater than forces generated by particle motion, defluidization will occur. In industrial practice, agglomeration is usually undesirable and must be avoided, although there are cases where controlled agglomeration is useful as in fluid-bed coal gasification where the mineral matter agglomerates and is removed from the reactor. The experimental work reported here consists of dilatometry to determine the sintering behavior of a powder as a function of temperature and high temperature fluidization in a pilot size unit to measure the minimum fluidization velocity (defluidization limit) and the voidage at minimum fluidization in the cohesive temperature range of the material. A wide variety of particles have been studied ranging from pure substances including polymers, salts and glass beads to ores and cracking catalysts obtained from industrial reactors where problematic agglomeration at high temperature fluidization was encountered.

  10. Thermally Induced Wettability Change During SAGD for Oil Sand Extraction 

    E-print Network

    Unal, Yasin

    2014-08-20

    Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is an in-situ bitumen extraction technique that significantly increases ultimate oil recovery from oil sand reservoirs. Because SAGD is one of the newest proven thermal oil recovery techniques, laboratory test...

  11. Oil Oil Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-18

    This math meets ecology lesson provides hands-on experiences with mixing oil and water, provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives learners opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

  12. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary\\/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996June 30, 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of

  13. Dry powdered aerosols of diatrizoic acid nanoparticle agglomerates as a lung contrast agent

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nashwa; Aillon, Kristin L.; Berkland, Cory

    2010-01-01

    Aerosolized contrast agents may improve the resolution of biomedical imaging modalities and enable more accurate diagnosis of lung diseases. Many iodinated compounds, such as diatrizoic acid, have been shown to be safe and useful for radiographic examination of the airways. Formulations of such compounds must be improved in order to allow imaging of the smallest airways. Here, diatrizoic acid nanoparticle agglomerates were created by assembling nanoparticles into inhalable microparticles that may augment deposition in the lung periphery. Nanoparticle agglomerates were fully characterized and safety was determined in vivo. After dry powder insufflation to rats, no acute alveolar tissue damage was observed 2 h post dose. Diatrizoic acid nanoparticle agglomerates possess the characteristics of an efficient and safe inhalable lung contrast agent. PMID:20214960

  14. Dry powdered aerosols of diatrizoic acid nanoparticle agglomerates as a lung contrast agent.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Nashwa; Aillon, Kristin L; Berkland, Cory

    2010-05-31

    Aerosolized contrast agents may improve the resolution of biomedical imaging modalities and enable more accurate diagnosis of lung diseases. Many iodinated compounds, such as diatrizoic acid, have been shown to be safe and useful for radiographic examination of the airways. Formulations of such compounds must be improved in order to allow imaging of the smallest airways. Here, diatrizoic acid nanoparticle agglomerates were created by assembling nanoparticles into inhalable microparticles that may augment deposition in the lung periphery. Nanoparticle agglomerates were fully characterized and safety was determined in vivo. After dry powder insufflation to rats, no acute alveolar tissue damage was observed 2h post-dose. Diatrizoic acid nanoparticle agglomerates possess the characteristics of an efficient and safe inhalable lung contrast agent. PMID:20214960

  15. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

    1995-04-01

    Experiments performed support the hypothesis that a reducing atmosphere during fluidized bed coal combustion contributes to the formation of agglomerates. Reducing conditions are imposed by controlling the amount of combustion air supplied to the combustor, 50% of theoretical in these experiments. These localized reducing conditions may arise from either poor lateral bed mixing or oxygen-starved conditions due to the coal feed locations. Deviations from steady-state operating conditions in bed pressure drop may be used to detect agglomerate formation. Interpretation of the bed pressure drop was made more straightforward by employing a moving average difference method. During steady-state operation, the difference between the moving point averages should be close to zero, within {plus_minus}0.03 inches of water. Instability within the combustor, experienced once agglomerates begin to form, can be recognized as larger deviations from zero, on the magnitude of {plus_minus}0.15 inches of water.

  16. Fluid bed processing of agglomerating coals. [Caking coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yerushalmi

    1977-01-01

    A number of techniques are discussed that might be employed to process a caking coal in fluidized beds. I have also tried to provide a rationale, a technical basis or precedent, for each of these techniques. But their feasibility for a given process can only be clinched in tests in equipment of sufficient size, and under the actual process conditions

  17. Effects of temperature and pressure on asphaltene particle size distributions in crude oils diluted with n-pentane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bent B. Nielsen; William Y. Svrcek; Anil K. Mehrotra

    1994-01-01

    The effects of temperature (0--150 C) and pressure (0--5.6 MPa) on the size distribution of asphaltene particles (or agglomerates), formed as a result of diluting the crude oils with n-pentane, were studied using a modified laser particle analyzer. Four crude oils, ranging from an asphaltic condensate to a heavy oil-sand bitumen, were tested in this investigation. The average size of

  18. Mesoscopic Dispersion of Colloidal Agglomerate in a Complex Fluid Modelled by a Hybrid Fluid–Particle Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Witold Dzwinel; David A. Yuen

    2002-01-01

    The dispersion of the agglomerating fluid process involving colloids has been investigated at the mesoscale level by a discrete particle approach—the hybrid fluid–particle model (FPM). Dynamical processes occurring in the granulation of colloidal agglomerate in solvents are severely influenced by coupling between the dispersed microstructures and the global flow. On the mesoscale this coupling is further exacerbated by thermal fluctuations,

  19. Microscopic examination of lignite ash and silica sand agglomerates formed in a 2-inch fluidized bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Bobman; D. T. Ketelle; D. P. Kalmanovitch

    1986-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion of North Dakota lignite may result in severe agglomeration of ash and bed material; the nature of mineral impurities, operating temperatures, gaseous environment, and bed material composition are significant factors which influence agglomerate formation. Tests were performed in a 18-inch fluid bed combustor (FBC) at UNDERC using a wide range of low-rank coals and various bed materials.

  20. Oil spill identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhendi Wang; Merv Fingas; David S Page

    1999-01-01

    To unambiguously identify spilled oils and petroleum products and to link them to the known sources are extremely important in settling questions of environmental impact and legal liability. This article briefly reviews the most recent development and advances of chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques which are most frequently used in oil spill identification studies, including recognition of relative distribution

  1. Long run relationship between oil prices and aggregate oil investment: Empirical Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Guerra

    Using the aggregate number of oil rigs as a proxy of oil investment, I evaluate the bidirectional relationship between oil prices and oil investment in OPEC and Non-OPEC countries. We take advantage of Bayesian estimation techniques and innovation accounting to incorporate the long run dynamics of the oil market without imposing strong restrictions on its structural form. Our results suggest

  2. Oil Oil Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Cartwright

    2010-01-01

    This lesson plan makes real world connections as students explore the ability to estimate the surface area of an oil spill. The lesson provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives students opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson includes two students activity sheets, one fractional amount overhead sheet, assessment and extension suggestions, and questions for reflection.

  3. MICROBIAL POPULATION CHANGES DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil-spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil + nutrients, and oil + nutrients + an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In-situ microbial community str...

  4. Ultrasonic Cavitation induced Water in Vegetable oil emulsion droplets - A Simple and Easy Technique to Synthesize Manganese Zinc Ferrite Nanocrystals with improved magnetisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manickam Sivakumar; Atsuya Towata; Kyuichi Yasui; Toru Tuziuti; Teruyuki. Kozuka; Yasuo Iida; Michail M. Maiorov; Elmars Blums; Dipten Bhattacharya; Neelagesi Sivakumar; Ashok M

    In the present investigation, synthesis of manganese zinc ferrite (Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanoparticles with narrow size distribution have been prepared using ultrasound assisted emulsion (consisting of rapeseed oil as an oil phase and aqueous solution of Mn+2, Zn+2 and Fe+2 acetates) and evaporation processes. The as-prepared ferrite was nanocrystalline. In order to remove the small amount of oil present on the surface

  5. Urban Amenities and Agglomeration Economies? The Locational Behaviour and Economic Success of Dutch Fashion Design Entrepreneurs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rik Wenting; Oedzge Atzema; Koen Frenken

    2011-01-01

    The spatial clustering of industries is traditionally explained by agglomeration economies benefiting co-located firms. The focus on firms rather than people has been challenged by Florida arguing that urban amenities attract creative people to certain cities. On the basis of a questionnaire, an analysis is made of the extent to which these two mechanisms affect the locational behaviour of Dutch

  6. Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture. Technical progress report, October 1992--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Invention Disclosure filed) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a ``hot flue gas cleanup`` subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process.

  7. Factors Governing the Development of High Tech Industry Agglomerations: A Tale of Three Cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Glasmeier

    1988-01-01

    GLASMEIER A. (1988) Factors governing the development of high tech industry agglomerations: a tale of three cities, Reg. Studies22, 287–301. High tech industries are thought to precipitate structural change in local economies through the creation of backward and forward linkages and new firm spinoffs. Case studies of high tech firms and products indicate interindustry linkage development is closely associated with

  8. Demand forecast, congestion charge and economic benefit of an automated highway network for the paris agglomeration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Marin

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on the main results of a pre-doctoral dissertation (DEA) on transport done at the ENPC. The research is about an economic evaluation of an automated highway network in the Paris urban agglomeration in the Ile de France Region.To this end, an automatic highway network incorporated into the road network in Ile de France has been modelled

  9. Quasiparticle agglomerates and environmental effects in the fractional quantum Hall edge states at ? = 5/2

    SciTech Connect

    Braggio, A. [SPIN-CNR, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Carrega, M. [NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126, Pisa (Italy); Ferraro, D.; Magnoli, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova, Italy and INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146, Genova (Italy); Sassetti, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova, Italy and SPIN-CNR, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2013-12-04

    We discuss how the presence of environmental effects and quasiparticle agglomerates could better reconcile the edge states theories with the experimental observations for the case of ? = 5/2. The Pfaffian and the anti-Pfaffian models will be compared in connection with experimental results identifying the latter as the best candidate.

  10. UTILIZATION OF AGGLOMERATION ALGORITHM (TREE CLUSTERING) IN RESEARCH ON CRIMINALITY IN MOTOR TRANSPORT IN POLAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zbigniew Burski

    Summary. In this thesis there are introduced theoretical basics and utilization opportunities of an agglomeration method (tree clustering) in researches on criminality in motor transport in Poland. It concerns a period of inten- sifi cation of government transitions in the country, in which the problems of property larceny, including cars, have considerably grown. Application of the mathematical, statistical method enabled

  11. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Virden, J.W.

    1997-06-01

    'Disposal of millions of gallons of existing radioactive wastes is a major remediation problem for the Department of Energy (DOE). Although radionuclides are the most hazardous waste con- stituents. the components of greatest concern from a waste processing standpoint are insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles. Depending on processing conditions, these colloidal particles can form agglomerate networks that could clog transfer lines or interfere with solid-liquid separations such as settle-decant operations. Under different conditions, the particles can be dispersed to form very fine suspended particles that will not create sediment in settle- decant steps and that can foul and contaminate downstream treatment components including ion exchangers or filtrations systems. Given the wide range of tank chemistries present at Hanford and other DOE sites, it is impractical to measure the properties of all potential processing conditions to design effective treatment procedures. Instead. a framework needs to be established to allow sludge property trends to be predicted on a sound scientific basis. The scientific principles of greatest utility in characterizing, understanding, and controlling the physical properties of sludge fall in the realm of colloid chemistry. The objectives of this work are to accomplish the following: understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation. and filtration develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena.'

  12. Breakage and Attrition of Sintered Agglomerates (1) Institut fur Computerphysik, Universitat Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 27, 70569

    E-print Network

    Luding, Stefan

    Breakage and Attrition of Sintered Agglomerates S. Luding (1) Institut f¨ur Computerphysik points of view. Compression and vibration tests lead to breakage and attrition, respectively. Among of material with almost equally strong attractive and repulsive contact forces. #12;Breakage and Attrition

  13. The Importance of Creative Industry Agglomerations in Explaining the Wealth of European Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blanca de-Miguel-Molina; Jose-Luis Hervas-Oliver; Rafael Boix; Maria de-Miguel-Molina

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the existence of regional agglomerations of manufacturing, service and creative industries, the relationship between these industries and the wealth of regions and their industrial structure. Through an analysis of 250 European regions, three important conclusions can be inferred from the results obtained in this paper. The first is that creative industries play an important role in the

  14. Study of the Sintering of Nanosized Titania Agglomerates in Flames Using In Situ Light Scattering Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guixiang Yang; Pratim Biswas

    1997-01-01

    A premixed flame aerosol reactor was used to produce titania particles by oxidation of titanium isopropoxide vapor. The growth, aggregation of particles, and the agglomerate structure were determined as a function of height in the flame using in situ light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. A methodology to determine the sintering characteristic time using light scattering data was

  15. Influence of material properties on the agglomeration of water-soluble amorphous particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Palzer

    2009-01-01

    The viscosity and elasticity of particles influence their agglomeration behaviour. Such mechanical particle properties are determined by the supra-molecular and microscopic structure of the particles and process conditions such as temperature, humidity and strain rate or frequency.Most food powders are composed of amorphous water soluble substances. Accordingly spray dried dextrose syrup is used as a model substance for the current

  16. Agglomerating combustor-gasifier method and apparatus for coal gasification. [11 claims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. P. Chen; D. H. Archer

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for gasifying coal wherein the gasification takes place in a spout fluid bed at a pressure of about 10 to 30 atmospheres and a temperature of about 1800 to 2200°F and wherein the configuration of the apparatus and the manner of introduction of gases for combustion and fluidization is such that agglomerated ash can

  17. Dynamic axial crushing of short to long circular aluminium tubes with agglomerate cork filler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Gameiro; J. Cirne

    2007-01-01

    Cork is a complex natural cellular material with quite unknown or not well understood properties. It is available in the natural and in the agglomerate form and it is an ecological and very durable material. That is why it is used today as thermal and acoustic insulator, as a seal and as an energy-absorbing medium in flooring, shoes and packaging,

  18. Sonic-enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Technical progress report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustion effluent. The major objective of the Phase 1 test program is to confirm the feasibility of the MTCI bimodal particle size approach to enhance particulate control by acoustic ash agglomeration and to demonstrate and confirm the feasibility of an acoustic field to enhance sulfur capture by increasing sorbent reactivity. During this report period, commercialization activity was continued. Also, a time extension for the contract at no additional cost to the Department of Energy was requested. The request was granted and the period of performance was extended to March 31, 1998.

  19. Sonic-enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Technical progress report, October--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. The major objective of the Phase 1 test program is to confirm the feasibility of the MTCI bimodal particle size approach to enhance particulate control by acoustic ash agglomeration and to demonstrate and confirm the feasibility of an acoustic field to enhance sulfur capture by increasing sorbent reactivity. During this reporting period, additional fabrication work was carried out and final report preparation was started.

  20. Analysis of aerosol agglomeration and removal mechanisms relevant to a reactor containment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Chiang; S. R. Mulpuru; E. D. Lindquist

    1995-01-01

    During some Postulated accidents in a nuclear reactor, radioactive aerosols may be formed and could be released from a rupture of the primary heat transport system into the containment. The released aerosols can agglomerate and form larger aerosol particles. The airborne aerosols can be removed from containment atmosphere by deposition onto the walls and other surfaces in contact with the

  1. Development of Systematic Models for Aerosol Agglomeration and Spray Removal under Severe Accident Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuhiro KAJIMOTO

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide behavior during various severe accident conditions has been addressed as one of the important issues to discuss environmental safety in nuclear power plants. The present paper deals with the development of analytical models and their validations for the agglomeration of multiple-component aerosol and spray removal that controls source terms to the environment of both aerosols and gaseous radionuclides during

  2. TECHNOLOGICAL AGGLOMERATION AND THE EMERGENCE OF CLUSTERS AND NETWORKS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - TECHNOLOGICAL AGGLOMERATION AND THE EMERGENCE OF CLUSTERS AND NETWORKS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY clusters in nanotechnologies (MESA+ (Twente) and other centres in the Netherlands and Minatec in Grenoble nanotechnology-linked developments. We will use our ongoing studies of regions with a high concentration

  3. Wear Metal Analysis of Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pekka Vähäoja; Ilkka Välimäki; Katri Roppola; Toivo Kuokkanen; Sulo Lahdelma

    2008-01-01

    This article concentrates on reviewing the literature related with wear metal analysis of oils. An overview on the existence of metals in oils and typical wearing situations is discussed briefly. Different pre-treatment methods of oil samples before wear metal analysis are presented with application remarks. Common measurement techniques of wear metal analysis, both qualitative and quantitative, are handled and compared

  4. Pilot plant testing of IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Mensinger, M.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Richardson, T.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting a multi-year experimental program to develop and test, through pilot-scale operation, IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor (AGGCOM). The AGGCOM process is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration and gasification technology with the cyclonic combustion technology, both of which have been developed at IGT over many years. AGGCOM is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-energy-content wastes. The ACCCOM combustor can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes, while isolating solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in ordinary landfills. Fines elutriated from the first stage are captured by a high-efficiency cyclone and returned to the fluidized bed for ultimate incorporation into the agglomerates. Intense mixing in the second-stage cyclonic combustor ensures high destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) for organic compounds that may be present in the feed material. This paper presents an overview of the experimental development of the AGGCOM process and progress made to date in designing, constructing, and operating the 6-ton/day AGGCOM pilot plant. Results of the bench-scale tests conducted to determine the operating conditions necessary to agglomerate a soil were presented at the 1991 Incineration Conference. On-site construction of the AGGCOM pilot plant was initiated in August 1992 and completed at the end of March 1993, with shakedown testing following immediately thereafter. The initial tests in the AGGCOM pilot plant will focus on the integrated operation of both stages of the combustor and will be conducted with ``clean`` topsoil.

  5. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a {open_quotes}hot flue gas cleanup{close_quotes} subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process. The goal of the program is to support the DOE mission in developing coal-fired combustion gas turbines. In particular, the MTCI proprietary process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture will be evaluated and developed. The technology embodiment of the invention provides for the use of standard grind, moderately beneficiated coal and WEM for firing the gas turbine with efficient sulfur capture and particulate emission control upstream of the turbine. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering material if necessary. The proposed technology provides for practical, reliable, and capital (and O&M) cost-effective means of protection for the gas turbine from impurities in the coal combustor effluent.

  6. Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. January 1980-October 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Oct 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment used for the containment and removal of oil as a result of oil spill mishaps. Dispersants, separators, skimmers and absorbents are discussed. Related studies regarding film spreading and dispersion are presented. (Contains 107 citations with title list and subject index).

  7. Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

    2013-07-15

    Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE-SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa-Hurghada coastal zone. PMID:23688834

  8. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996, 11th Quarter of the project

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, E.; Morgan, C.D. [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-07-30

    The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin wells is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project.

  9. Biodegradation of crude oils.

    PubMed

    Bosecker, K; Teschner, M; Wehner, H

    1989-01-01

    Petroleum from well sites in the Gifhorn Trough (Lower Saxony, NW-Germany) and the Maracaibo Basin (Venezuela) contained various types of microorganisms capable of degrading crude oils. Genetically related oils were inoculated with the isolated microorganisms and the degradation of the oils was followed by chromatographic techniques. Parameters important for the reactions (pH, supply of oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus, reaction medium) were monitored and optimized. The degradation of n-alkanes was followed closely. Microorganisms active in degradation (yeast, bacteria) easily survived a period of inactivity due to missing nutrients and were reactivated within hours to degrade newly added crude oil. Under substrate-limiting conditions selectivity of degradation was found, destroying medium-chain n-alkanes (C20, C21) at a faster rate than long-chain n-alkanes (C30, C31). During degradation the physical parameters of the crude oils (e.g. density, viscosity, average molecular weight) were altered and shifted into the direction of heavy oil. In vitro degraded oil is very similar to oil degraded in nature. Aromatic hydrocarbons and biomarker molecules (steranes and triterpanes) were not degraded under the conditions used. Pyrolysis-GC analysis of asphaltenes revealed no significant changes in the composition of pyrolyzates during biodegradation. There is sufficient evidence that heavy oils - besides some other effects - are generated by the in situ-biodegradation of conventional oils. PMID:2727641

  10. Formulation techniques for nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David

    2013-11-01

    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed. PMID:24330043

  11. Study of the Dynamics of the Agglomerate Layer Thickness Under Mechanical Activation of a Ti + Ni Powder Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkoda, O. A.; Lapshin, O. V.

    2015-05-01

    An experimental study of the process of mechanical activation (MA) of a nickel and titanium powder mixture has been carried out. It is revealed that the MA time significantly affects the physical-chemical and structural transformations of the grinded mixture. The reason for such an effect is the change of the composition and structure of the layered agglomerates formed during MA from the mixture components. The kinetic constant characterizing the rate of growth of the interphase surface in the agglomerates during mechanical treatment of the powder mixture is estimated using the method of inverse problem. Theoretical calculations of the layer thickness and interphase surface in the agglomerate are carried out.

  12. Techniques for mapping the types, volumes, and distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs and for determining their effects on oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, B.

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of correlation of log signatures with information on distribution of the types and volumes of clays in sandstone pore spaces determined from detailed CT-scan, XRD, SEM, and thin section analyses of core samples from three sandstone reservoirs. The log signatures are then analyzed to determine if suitable mathematical/statistical parameter(s) could be calculated from the logs to determine their effects on permeability and oil production. The variability measures obtained from power spectral analysis of permeability and wireline log data in clayey formations have been correlated with oil production from two oil fields. Compared with the conventional measures of permeability variations like the Dykstra-Parsons coefficients, the new measure appears to correlate better with oil production.

  13. Techniques for mapping the types, volumes, and distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs and for determining their effects on oil production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, B.

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of correlation of log signatures with information on distribution of the types and volumes of clays in sandstone pore spaces determined from detailed CT-scan, XRD, SEM, and thin section analyses of core samples from three sandstone reservoirs. The log signatures are then analyzed to determine if suitable mathematical/statistical parameter(s) could be calculated from the logs to determine their effects on permeability and oil production. The variability measures obtained from power spectral analysis of permeability and wireline log data in clayey formations have been correlated with oil production from two oil fields. Compared with the conventional measures of permeability variations like the Dykstra-Parsons coefficients, the new measure appears to correlate better with oil production.

  14. Use of multivariate statistical techniques to optimize the simultaneous separation of 13 phenolic compounds from extra-virgin olive oil by capillary electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristiano Augusto Ballus; Adriana Dillenburg Meinhart; Roy Edward Bruns; Helena Teixeira Godoy

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of phenolic compounds in olive oil has not been achieved as yet, owing to the complexities of their chemical structures and analytical matrix. The aim of this work is to optimize and validate a method for simultaneous separation and quantification of 13 phenolic compounds from extra-virgin olive oil: tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein glycoside, ferrulic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic

  15. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary\\/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chidsey; T. C. Jr

    1997-01-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of

  16. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary\\/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1996February 8, 1997

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chidsey; T. C. Jr

    1997-01-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of

  17. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary\\/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1997February 8, 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chidsey; T. C. Jr

    1998-01-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m³) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200

  18. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Eby; Jr. Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m³) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200

  19. Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. January 1976-October 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1976-October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment used for the containment and removal of oil as a result of oil-spill mishaps. Dispersants, separators, skimmers and absorbants are discussed. Related studies regarding film spreading and dispersion are presented. Studies pertaining to shipboard ballast and bilgewater cleaning are excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 276 citations, 86 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Chidsey

    2002-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m³) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200

  1. Possibilities of peanut, pecan and safflower seed oils as supplements for olive oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Bickford; G. E. Mann; K. S. Markley

    1943-01-01

    Summary  Samples of completely refined peanut oil, semirefined pecan oil, imported edible grade olive oil and crude safflower seed\\u000a oil have been examined for composition, spectral transmittance and other properties. Compositions were determined by means\\u000a of the modified Bertram oxidation method and application of the iodine-thiocyanogen number technique.\\u000a \\u000a None of the oils examined simulate olive oil in composition. Peanut and pecan

  2. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Technical progress report: January 1993--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This 15th Quarterly Technical Progress Report presents the results of work accomplished during the period January 4, 193 through March 28, 1993 under Contract No. DE-AC21-88MC26288 entitled {open_quotes}Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture.{close_quotes} The fundamental studies conducted by West Virginia University and Pennsylvania State University are provided in subsections of this report. Shakedown testing continued through this period resulting in a series of required modifications for the coal-feed system, coal injector, installation of a water-cooling jacket at the bottom of the agglomeration chamber, and finally, the installation of an additional flow sensor and rate meter. Coal-fired bimodal tests were initiated at the end of the period. The unit was run at 2 atm pressure for 3 hours with steady-state operation for 2 hours. Then, the pressure was increased to 3 atm with steady-state operation for 2 hours.

  3. Transfer-free graphene synthesis on insulating substrates via agglomeration phenomena of catalytic nickel films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banno, Kazuya; Mizuno, Masaya; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Kubo, Toshiharu; Miyoshi, Makoto; Egawa, Takashi; Soga, Tetsuo

    2013-08-01

    Graphene layers were synthesized by annealing amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films on Ni/SiO2/Si(111) substrates grown using pulse arc plasma deposition. Although the graphene layers were formed by catalytic reaction between a-C films and Ni metals, they were observed to be directly on the insulating SiO2/Si substrates with island-shaped metallic particles. These particles presumably resulted from agglomeration phenomena of thin Ni films at a high temperature. We speculated that the agglomeration phenomena allowed the graphene formation on SiO2/Si substrates. It was also confirmed that the particle size and graphene layer thickness depend on the starting Ni thickness.

  4. Chromatographic techniques for the determination of alkyl-phenols, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds in raw and roasted cold pressed cashew nut oils.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2010-11-19

    Anacardium occidentale belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is principally grown in tropical America (Mexico, Peru, Brazil, etc.) and India. Cashew nuts contain low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols that come from an oily liquid present in their shell and that is known as cashew-nut shell liquid. This paper reports the alkyl phenols composition of cold pressed raw and roasted cashew nut oil. First of all, cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes by preparative TLC and definitively identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. Anacardic acids were the major alkylphenols contained in both oils followed by cardol, cardanol and 2-methylcardol compounds, respectively. Raw and roasted oils did not show different compositions except for cardanols. The oil produced from roasted cashew nut reported a higher concentration of cardanols. Furthermore, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds were determined by HPLC-FLD and HPLC-DAD-MS, respectively. Tocopherol content varied in a range of 171.48-29.56mg/100g from raw to roasted cashew nut oil, being ?-tocopherol the one which presented a higher decrease (93.68%). Also minor polar compounds in cashew oil decreased after roasting from 346.52 to 262.83mg/kg. PMID:20961547

  5. Quantum dot agglomerates in biological media and their characterization by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Moquin, Alexandre; Neibert, Kevin D; Maysinger, Dusica; Winnik, Françoise M

    2015-01-01

    The molecular composition of the biological environment of nanoparticles influences their physical properties and changes their pristine physicochemical identity. In order to understand, or predict, the interactions of cells with specific nanoparticles, it is critical to know their size, shape, and agglomeration state not only in their nascent state but also in biological media. Here, we use asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with on-line multiangle light scattering (MALS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-Visible absorption detections to determine the relative concentration of isolated nanoparticles and agglomerates in the case of three types of semi-conductor quantum dots (QDs) dispersed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Media (DMEM) containing 10% of fetal bovine serum (DMEM-FBS). AF4 analysis also yielded the size and size distribution of the agglomerates as a function of the time of QDs incubation in DMEM-FBS. The preferred modes of internalization of the QDs are assessed for three cell-types, N9 microglia, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and human embryonic kidney cells (Hek293), by confocal fluorescence imaging of live cells, quantitative determination of the intracellular QD concentration, and flow cytometry. There is an excellent correlation between the agglomeration status of the three types of QDs in DMEM-FBS determined by AF4 analysis and their preferred mode of uptake by the three cell lines, which suggests that AF4 yields an accurate description of the nanoparticles as they encounter cells and advocates its use as a means to characterize particles under evaluation. PMID:25542679

  6. Remediation of a Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil by Means of Agglomeration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra Polettini; Raffaella Pomi; Mattia Valente

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of treating a heavy metal-contaminated soil by means of a solidification\\/stabilization treatment consisting of a granulation process is discussed in the present article. The aim of the study was to attain contaminant immobilization within the agglomerated solid matrix. The soil under concern was characterized by varying levels of heavy metal contamination, ranging from 50 to 500 mg kg dry soil

  7. Finite element analysis of Carbon composite sandwich material with agglomerated Cork core

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sathis Kumar; M. Milwich; B. L. Deopura; H. Plank

    2011-01-01

    Composite sandwich structures were developed for the hydrofoil sail boat hull using biaxial carbon fabric\\/epoxy composite facing and agglomerated cork core. These ultra-light weight structures were tested through four point bending tests to characterize their flexural behavior. The material exhibited an initial linear elastic behavior followed by non-linear elastic-plastic behavior. Finite element analysis of the sandwich beams was performed to

  8. Determination of the characteristics of agglomerates in aqueous suspensions using nonlinear optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bongono; N. Azema; A. Johannet; P. Gaudon

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of characteristics of particles in suspensions without dilution has a practical interest in formulation, mineral processing, material sciences and environmental technologies.These characteristics are the size, shape, and surface properties of the primary particles, and also the size, structure and the number of primary particles in the agglomerates.In this work, the multiple light-scattering model through the optical analyzer, Turbiscan MA

  9. The effect of primary particle surface energy on agglomeration rate in fluidised bed wet granulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Thielmann; Majid Naderi; Mansoor A. Ansari; Frantisek Stepanek

    2008-01-01

    The effect of primary particle surface wettability by a binder solution on the rate of agglomeration in a fluid-bed top-spray granulation process was investigated. A model system consisting of hydrophilic and hydrophobic spherical primary particles with a narrow size distribution, and an aqueous solution of hydroxy propyl-cellulose (HPC) as binder, was used. The surface energy of the primary particles was

  10. Powder agglomeration during the spray-drying process: measurements of air properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Gianfrancesco; Christelle Turchiuli; Elisabeth Dumoulin

    2008-01-01

    Instant food powders are usually produced by spray drying of formulated liquid and powder agglomeration, either into the drying\\u000a chamber or in an external fluid bed. During spray drying, according to the liquid composition, the viscosity of the initial\\u000a liquid drops increases more or less rapidly, until the drop surface reaches a rubbery state considered as sticky, before further\\u000a drying.

  11. Stability of spatial structure of urban agglomeration in China based on Central Place Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuanglin Fang; Jitao Song; Dunjiang Song

    2007-01-01

    This paper brings forward the concept of stability of the spatial structure of urban agglomeration (UA) based on Central Place\\u000a Theory by introducing centrality index and fractal theory. Before assessment, K=4 is selected as parameter to calculate centrality index and fractal dimension (K represents the quantitive relationship between city and the counties in Central Place Theory), and then found the

  12. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO{sub 2} emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  13. Agglomeration behavior of nickel particles on YSZ and TiO 2-doped YSZ electrolytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruo Kishimoto; Akihito Suzuki; Taro Shimonosono; Manuel E. Brito; Katsuhiko Yamaji; Teruhisa Horita; Fumio Munakata; Harumi Yokokawa

    Agglomeration behavior of nickel thin films on the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and TiO2 doped-YSZ electrolytes under a reducing condition and at solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operating temperatures was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to clarify whether this method is appropriate to investigate fundamental physicochemical properties that determine the microstructure of nickel\\/zirconia cermet

  14. Recent satellite-based trends of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over large urban agglomerations worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P.; Lahoz, W. A.; van der A, R.

    2015-02-01

    Trends in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns over 66 large urban agglomerations worldwide have been computed using data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument onboard the Envisat platform for the period August 2002 to March 2012. A seasonal model including a~linear trend was fitted to the satellite-based time series over each site. The results indicate distinct spatial patterns in trends. While agglomerations in Europe, North America, and some locations in East Asia/Oceania show decreasing tropospheric NO2 levels on the order of -5% yr-1, rapidly increasing levels of tropospheric NO2 are found for agglomerations in large parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The site with the most rapidly increasing absolute levels of tropospheric NO2 was found to be Tianjin in China with a trend of 3.04 (±0.47) × 1015 molecules cm-2yr-1, whereas the site with the most rapidly increasing relative trend was Kabul in Afghanistan with 14.3 (±2.2) % yr-1. In total, 34 sites exhibited increasing trends of tropospheric NO2 throughout the study period, 24 of which were found to be statistically significant. A total of 32 sites showed decreasing levels of tropospheric NO2 during the study period, of which 20 sites did so at statistically significant magnitudes. Overall, going beyond the relatively small set of megacities investigated previously, this study provides the first consistent analysis of recent changes in tropospheric NO2 levels over most large urban agglomerations worldwide, and indicates that changes in urban NO2 levels are subject to substantial regional differences as well as influenced by economic and demographic factors.

  15. A model for agglomeration in bio-fuel fired fluidized bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiyuan Li; Linlin Shang; Haipeng Teng; Qinggang Lu

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the agglomeration process in bio-fuel fired fluidized bed combustor. Based\\u000a on the balance mechanism of the adhesive force caused by liquid bonding between two particles and the breaking force induced\\u000a by bubbles in the fluidized bed, the model considers modified Urbain model and chemical equilibrium calculations using FactSage\\u000a modeling. This model prediction

  16. Investigations on Agglomeration and Haemocompatibility of Vitamin E TPGS Surface Modified Berberine Chloride Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vuddanda, Parameswara Rao; Rajamanickam, Vijayakumar Mahalingam; Yaspal, Madhu; Singh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of surface modification on systemic stability of NPs. Vitamin E TPGS (1% w/v) was used for surface modification of berberine chloride nanoparticles. Naked and surface modified NPs were incubated in different SBFs (pH 6.8 and 7.4) with or without bile salts and human plasma. NPs were observed for particle agglomeration and morphology by particle size analyzer and TEM, respectively. The haemocompatibility studies were conducted on developed NPs to evaluate their safety profile. The surface modified NPs were stable compared to naked NPs in different SBFs due to the steric stabilization property of vitamin E TPGS. Particle agglomeration was not seen when NPs were incubated in SBF (pH 6.8) with bile salts. No agglomeration was observed in NPs after their incubation in plasma but particle size of the naked NPs increased due to adhesion of plasma proteins. The TEM images confirmed the particle size results. DSC and FT-IR studies confirmed the coexistence of TPGS in surface modified NPs. The permissible haemolysis, LDH release, and platelet aggregation revealed that NPs were compatible for systemic administration. Thus, the study illustrated that the surface modification is helpful in the maintenance of stability of NPs in systemic conditions. PMID:25162037

  17. Agglomeration and filtration of colloidal suspensions with DVLO interactions in simulation and experiment

    E-print Network

    Bastian Schaefer; Martin Hecht; Jens Harting; Hermann Nirschl

    2010-06-15

    Cake filtration is a widely used solid-liquid separation process. However, the high flow resistance of the nanoporous filter cake lowers the efficiency of the process significantly. The structure and thus the permeability of the filter cakes depend on the compressive load acting on the particles, the particles size, and the agglomeration of the particles. The latter is determined by the particle charge and the ionic strength of the suspension, as described by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. In this paper, we propose a combined stochastic rotation dynamics (SRD) and molecular dynamics (MD) methodology to simulate the cake formation. The simulations give further insight into the dependency of the filter cakes' structure on the agglomeration of the particles, which cannot be accessed experimentally. The permeability, as investigated with lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulations of flow through the discretized cake, depends on the particle size and porosity, and thus on the agglomeration of the particles. Our results agree qualitatively with experimental data obtained from colloidal boehmite suspensions.

  18. Benign reduction of carbon nanotube agglomerates using a supercritical carbon dioxide process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, John P.; Herrington, Kevin; Bortner, Michael; Baird, Donald G.

    2014-09-01

    A method was developed to deagglomerate commercially available multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bundles while maintaining the carbon nanotube aspect ratio. The process utilizes the rapid expansion of a supercritical carbon dioxide/MWCNT mixture to separate large primary carbon nanotube agglomerates. High levels of deagglomeration of Baytubes® C 150 P and Nanocyl™ NC-7000 MWCNT bundles were observed on the macroscale and nanoscale, resulting in 30-fold and 50-fold decreases in bulk density, respectively, with median agglomerate sizes <8 ?m in diameter. These results were obtained while retaining the aspect ratio of the as-received nanomaterial, irrespective of the MWCNT agglomerate morphology. It was found that a temperature and pressure of 40 °C and 7.86 MP resulted in maximum deagglomeration without damage to the MWCNTs. Thermodynamic principles were applied to describe the effect of processing variables on the efficiency of the deagglomeration. These results suggest that combining this process with a composite processing step, such as melt compounding, will result in nanocomposites with enhanced electrical properties.

  19. The impact of solution agglomeration on the deposition of self-assembled monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    BUNKER,BRUCE C.; CARPICK,ROBERT W.; ASSINK,ROGER A.; THOMAS,MICHAEL L.; HANKINS,MATTHEW G.; VOIGT,JAMES A.; SIPOLA,DIANA L.; DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; GULLEY,GERALD L.

    2000-04-17

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMS) are commonly produced by immersing substrates in organic solutions containing trichlorosilane coupling agents. Unfortunately, such deposition solutions can also form alternate structures including inverse micelles and lamellar phases. The formation of alternate phases is one reason for the sensitivity of SAM depositions to factors such as the water content of the deposition solvent. If such phases are present, the performance of thin films used for applications such as minimization of friction and stiction in micromachines can be seriously compromised. Inverse micelle formation has been studied in detail for depositions involve 1H-, 1H-, 2H-, 2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) in isooctane. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments have been used to monitor the kinetics of hydrolysis and condensation reactions between water and FDTS. Light scattering experiments show that when hydrolyzed FDTS concentrations reach a critical concentration, there is a burst of nucleation to form high concentrations of spherical agglomerates. Atomic force microscopy results show that the agglomerates then deposit on substrate surfaces. Deposition conditions leading to monolayer formation involve using deposition times that are short relative to the induction time for agglomeration. After deposition, inverse micelles can be converted into lamellar or monolayer structures with appropriate heat treatments if surface concentrations are relatively low.

  20. Visualizing powder de-agglomeration upon impact with simultaneous flowing charge behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwek, Jin Wang; Heng, Desmond; Lee, Sie Huey; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Hak-Kim; Heng, Jerry; Tan, Reginald

    2013-06-01

    The effectiveness of the dry powder inhaler (DPI) in treating respiratory diseases lies in its ability to deliver consistent and reliable drug dosage with each actuation. From aerosolization upon actuation to throat impaction, the deagglomeration with subsequent detachment of the drug from the carrier particles depend on the interaction forces, including electrostatic contributions, between the particles themselves or with the inhaler wall and the extent of which could depend on the surface roughness of the carrier particles. In this study, we have simultaneously investigated the contributions of the electrostatic forces while visualizing the de-agglomeration and impaction behaviours of carrier powders in an impaction throat model using a non-contact vibrating capacitive probe and a high speed camera respectively. Rough and smooth carrier particles were obtained by spray drying and then aerosolized at 60 L/min in the model. Higher flowing charges were observed for the rough aerosolized carrier particles while experiencing rebound or limited agglomerate fracture upon impaction. On the other hand, smooth particles were broken up upon impaction resulting in a 'plume-like' re-entrainment. Further analyses revealed that the increased moisture sorption on the larger specific surface area of the rough particles would have facilitated the accumulation of surface charges that could in turn contribute to the cohesiveness of the rough particles. Combined high speed imaging with electrostatic monitoring has proved to be useful in investigating the mechanisms of powder de-agglomeration upon impaction.

  1. [Spatio-temporal dynamics of ecosystem service value in Wuhan Urban Agglomeration].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jie; Li, Jiang-Feng; Yao, Xiao-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Based on the land use vector data of Wuhan Urban Agglomeration in the years 1990, 2000 and 2009, this paper used Costanza' s evaluation formula to estimate the ecosystem service value (ESV) of the study area according to "equivalent value per unit area of ecosystem services in China" and analyze its spatio-temporal characteristics. Then the correlation analysis was applied to explore the association between the ESV evolution and the land use changes. The results showed that due to the substantial growth of water area, the ESV of Wuhan Urban Agglomeration increased by 9.5% during the study period, which showed an overall rising trend. The ESV of water regulation and waste treatment increased obviously. Furthermore, the ESV changes showed obvious regional differences, which were most significant in Xiantao, Xinzhou and Yunmeng. The ESV was higher in the southeast and lower in the northwest. Over time, a Wuhan-centered "low-high-low" hierarchically distributed structure of ESV was formed in the eastern, western and northern parts. The ecologic dominance of the northern mountainous and hilly region was gradually abated, while a structural expansion with a high-ESV cluster had taken place in the southern part of the region in 2009. During the research period, the temporal change of ESV in Wuhan Urban Agglomeration was positively correlated with the area changes of forestland, water, grassland and cultivated land. However, the spatially balanced distribution of ESV was negatively correlated with the dispersion degrees of the cultivated land and unused land. PMID:24984511

  2. Aerobic enhanced oil recovery: analysis of the mechanisms and a pilot study 

    E-print Network

    Eide, Karen

    1998-01-01

    The technique that uses microorganisms to improve oil production in petroleum reservoirs is known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery is a method which is based on stimulating indigenous oil degrading...

  3. Suppression of Ni agglomeration in PLD fabricated Ni-YSZ composite for surface modification of SOFC anode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho-Sung Noh; Ji-Won Son; Heon Lee; Ho-Il Ji; Jong-Ho Lee; Hae-Weon Lee

    2010-01-01

    The suppression of Ni agglomeration in Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) nano-composite thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been investigated by varying post-annealing temperatures at a range of 800–1200°C. Grain growth to a certain extent appears to be necessary to obtain a stable Ni-YSZ composite microstructure by suppressing massive Ni agglomeration. The microstructurally stable and uniform nano-porous Ni-YSZ

  4. Development of advanced fluid-bed agglomeration and cyclonic incineration for simultaneous waste disposal and energy recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rehmat; M. Khinkis

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is currently developing a two-stage fluidized-bed\\/cyclonic agglomerating incineration system for waste disposal that is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration\\/incineration and cyclonic combustion techologies. Both technologies have been developed individually at IGT over many years. This combination has resulted in a unique and extremely flexible incinerator for solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes including municipal

  5. Business cycles in oil economies

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon.

  6. Calorimetry for Fast Authentication of Edible Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angiuli, Marco; Bussolino, Gian Carlo; Ferrari, Carlo; Matteoli, Enrico; Righetti, Maria Cristina; Salvetti, Giuseppe; Tombari, Elpidio

    2009-06-01

    There are little data in the literature on how to authenticate edible oils through calorimetry techniques. However, oil melting curves can be used to represent correlations between calorimetric results and oil quality. A calorimetric method has been developed for studying the solid-liquid phase transitions of olive oil and seed oils, in which melting peak behavior is correlated to the type, quality, and composition of the oil. Good reproducible thermograms were obtained by defining precise protocols for use in testing, which take into account the specific characteristics of a particular oil. This approach does not replace classical analytical methods; nevertheless, it is believed that calorimetric tests could be a useful preliminary stage for quality testing. The calorimetric technique allows the detection of the adulterant (seed oils or refined olive oil), oil origin, and possible photo-oxidation degradation processes, before more complex and expensive procedures and analyses are applied.

  7. Agglomerated oral dosage forms of artemisinin/?-cyclodextrin spray-dried primary microparticles showing increased dissolution rate and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Anna Giulia; Magosso, Enrico; Colombo, Gaia; Sonvico, Fabio; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Yuen, Kah Hay; Bettini, Ruggero; Colombo, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandra

    2013-09-01

    Artemisinin, a poorly water-soluble antimalarial drug, presents a low and erratic bioavailability upon oral administration. The aim of this work was to study an agglomerated powder dosage form for oral administration of artemisinin based on the artemisinin/?-cyclodextrin primary microparticles. These primary microparticles were prepared by spray-drying a water-methanol solution of artemisinin/?-cyclodextrin. ?-Cyclodextrin in spray-dried microparticles increased artemisinin water apparent solubility approximately sixfold. The thermal analysis evidenced a reduction in the enthalpy value associated with drug melting, due to the decrease in drug crystallinity. The latter was also evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, while (13)C-NMR analysis indicated the partial complexation with ?-cyclodextrin. Agglomerates obtained by sieve vibration of spray-dried artemisinin/?-cyclodextrin primary microparticles exhibited free flowing and close packing properties compared with the non-flowing microparticulate powder. The in vitro dissolution rate determination of artemisinin from the agglomerates showed that in 10 min about 70% of drug was released from the agglomerates, whereas less than 10% of artemisinin was dissolved from raw material powder. Oral administration of agglomerates in rats yielded higher artemisinin plasma levels compared to those of pure drug. In the case of the agglomerated powder, a 3.2-fold increase in drug fraction absorbed was obtained. PMID:23703233

  8. Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

  9. BIOREMEDIATION TECHNIQUES ON CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED SOILS IN OHIO. Final report includes the quarterly report that ended 12/31/1996

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Hodges; Richard J. Simmers

    1997-05-30

    The purpose of this study is to define the optimum limits of chemical and physical conditions that reduce soil salinity and maximize indigenous aerobic microbiological populations in the bioremediation of oil field waste solids. Specifically, the study centers around treatment of surface contained oily waste having low density and limited solubility in water. Successful remediation is defined by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction to 1% and no hydrocarbon or salinity impact on ground water resources. The Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission have encouraged oil and gas producing states to identify and develop improved methods such as this to reduce, recycle or treat solid waste generated with the exploration and development of domestic petroleum resources (IOGCC, 1995). With encouragement and funding assistance through the Department of Energy, Ohio is developing these bioremediation practices to protect soil and water resources. Ohio produced 8,300,000 barrels of crude oil in 1996 from wells operated by 4310 registered owners (ODNR, 1996). Good well site housekeeping can minimize spills, however accidental spills inevitably occur with oil production of this magnitude. Development of sound environmental and economical clean-up procedures is essential.

  10. Determination of the triacylglycerol fraction in fish oil by comprehensive liquid chromatography techniques with the support of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Beccaria, Marco; Costa, Rosaria; Sullini, Giuseppe; Grasso, Elisa; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    Fish oil made from menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) can be used as a dietary supplement for the presence of high levels of the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids, viz. epentaenoic and docosahexanoic. In this work, for the first time, two different multidimensional approaches were developed and compared, in terms of peak capacity, for triacylglycerol characterization. In particular, silver ion chromatography with a silver-ion column and non-aqueous reverse-phase liquid chromatography with a C18 column were tested in both comprehensive (stop-flow) and off-line modes. The use of mass spectra attained by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for both LC approaches, and the fatty acids methyl esters profile of menhaden oil obtained by gas chromatography analysis, greatly supported the elucidation of the triacylglycerol content in menhaden oil. The off-line approach afforded a better separation and, thus, higher peak capacity to allow identifying and semiquantifying more than 250 triacylglycerols. Such a huge number has never been reported for a menhaden oil sample.The main disadvantage of such an approach over the stop-flow one was the longer analysis time, mainly attributable to solvent exchange between the two dimensions. Graphical Abstract Top: stop-flow Ag+-LC × RP-LC-APCI-MS plot of the TAGs in menhaden oil. Bottom: modulated detector response. Left: 2D analysis of a selected fraction. PMID:25963648

  11. Analysis of Argan Oil Adulteration Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdelkhalek Oussama; Fatiha Elabadi; Olivier Devos

    2012-01-01

    The determination of argan oil adulteration by other vegetable oils is a real analytical challenge. The authentication of argan oil needs fast and simple analytical techniques for quality control and testing. This study focuses on the detection and quantification of argan oil adulteration with different edible oils, using midinfrared spectroscopy with chemometrics. Chemometric treatment of MIR spectra has been assessed

  12. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  13. Oil Spills

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill in 2010. (NOAA) Oil Spills During an oil spill in coastal waters, OR&R 's role is to ... Students and teachers can find a variety of oil spill-related educational resources in our Education section . For ...

  14. Fatty Acids, Triacylglycerols, and Sterols in Neem Oil (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss) as Determined by a Combination of Chromatographic and Spectral Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetlana Momchilova; Daniela Antonova; Ilko Marekov; Liliana Kuleva; Gulab Jham

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative thin?layer chromatography in silver ion and reversed phase modes, gas chromatography, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry were employed to determine the lipid composition in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) kernel oil. Thirteen fatty acids and 25 triacylglycerols species were identified and quantified. The seven main triacylglycerols species were found in almost equal amounts in the

  15. The effect of particle agglomeration on the formation of a surface-connected compartment induced by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Müller, Karin H; Motskin, Michael; Philpott, Alistair J; Routh, Alexander F; Shanahan, Catherine M; Duer, Melinda J; Skepper, Jeremy N

    2014-01-01

    Agglomeration dramatically affects many aspects of nanoparticle-cell interactions. Here we show that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles formed large agglomerates in biological medium resulting in extensive particle uptake and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in human macrophages. Particle citration and/or the addition of the dispersant Darvan 7 dramatically reduced mean agglomerate sizes, the amount of particle uptake and concomitantly cytotoxicity. More surprisingly, agglomeration governed the mode of particle uptake. Agglomerates were sequestered within an extensive, interconnected membrane labyrinth open to the extracellular space. In spite of not being truly intracellular, imaging studies suggest particle degradation occurred within this surface-connected compartment (SCC). Agglomerate dispersion prevented the SCC from forming, but did not completely inhibit nanoparticle uptake by other mechanisms. The results of this study could be relevant to understanding particle-cell interactions during developmental mineral deposition, in ectopic calcification in disease, and during application of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle vectors in biomedicine. PMID:24183166

  16. The effect of particle agglomeration on the formation of a surface-connected compartment induced by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in human monocyte-derived macrophages?

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Karin H.; Motskin, Michael; Philpott, Alistair J.; Routh, Alexander F.; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Duer, Melinda J.; Skepper, Jeremy N.

    2014-01-01

    Agglomeration dramatically affects many aspects of nanoparticle–cell interactions. Here we show that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles formed large agglomerates in biological medium resulting in extensive particle uptake and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in human macrophages. Particle citration and/or the addition of the dispersant Darvan 7 dramatically reduced mean agglomerate sizes, the amount of particle uptake and concomitantly cytotoxicity. More surprisingly, agglomeration governed the mode of particle uptake. Agglomerates were sequestered within an extensive, interconnected membrane labyrinth open to the extracellular space. In spite of not being truly intracellular, imaging studies suggest particle degradation occurred within this surface-connected compartment (SCC). Agglomerate dispersion prevented the SCC from forming, but did not completely inhibit nanoparticle uptake by other mechanisms. The results of this study could be relevant to understanding particle–cell interactions during developmental mineral deposition, in ectopic calcification in disease, and during application of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle vectors in biomedicine. PMID:24183166

  17. Dust agglomeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    John Marshall, an investigator at Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the microgravity fluid physics program, is studying the adhesion and cohesion of particles in order to shed light on how granular systems behave. These systems include everything from giant dust clouds that form planets to tiny compressed pellets, such as the ones you swallow as tablets. This knowledge should help us control the grains, dust, and powders that we encounter or use on a daily basis. Marshall investigated electrostatic charge in microgravity on the first and second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory shuttle missions to see how grains aggregate, or stick together. With gravity's effects eliminated on orbit, Marshall found that the grains of sand that behaved ever so freely on Earth now behaved like flour. They would just glom together in clumps and were quite difficult to disperse. That led to an understanding of the prevalence of the electrostatic forces. The granules wanted to aggregate as little chains, like little hairs, and stack end to end. Some of the chains had 20 or 30 grains. This phenomenon indicated that another force, what Marshall believes to be an electrostatic dipole, was at work.(The diagram on the right emphasizes the aggregating particles in the photo on the left, taken during the USML-2 mission in 1995.)

  18. Fractionation of blackcurrant seed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Traifler; H. J. Wille; A. Studer

    1988-01-01

    Blackcurrant seed oil is known to be one of the richest natural sources of ?-linolenic (allcis-6,9,12-octadecatrienoic) acid, with values of up to 20% of this acid. These concentrations are sufficient for most applications\\u000a of the oil, but some utilizations require higher concentrations of ?-linolenic acid. Blackcurrant seed oil also contains up\\u000a to 14%?-linolenic (allcis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic) acid. Different fractionation techniques have been

  19. Saltation threshold reduction due to the electrostatic agglomeration of fine particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Rodman N.; Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Particles between 80 and 110 microns in diameter are the most easily moved by the wind. As the particle size decreases below 60 microns, they are increasingly more difficult to move by surface winds, and a number of experiments were performed in an attempt to reduce the required wind velocity. These include: (1) the bombardment of a bed of fine particles by particles near the optimum size, the larger particles kicking the fine particles into the windstream where they are entrained; and (2) the electrostatic agglomeration of fine particles into sizes more easily saltated. The results of these experiments are discussed.

  20. Peculiarities of Lasing in Solutions of R6G with Agglomerated Metallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchenko, V. A.; Edreev, I. A.; Zemlyanov, Al. A.; Kharenkov, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    A physical interpretation is given for the experimentally observed substantial lowering of the lasing thresholds and the blue shift of the peak of the stimulated emission spectrum of a solution of the laser dye rhodamine 6G (R6G) with agglomerated silver nanoparticles. Results of a study of the influence of nonlinear thermal processes on the lasing of a solution of R6G with silver nanoparticles are presented. The dynamic range of the pump energies at which breakdown of the working medium does not take place under the influence of thermal processes is determined.

  1. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Nineteenth quarterly technical progress report, January 3, 1994--March 27, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, up-stream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a ``hot flue gas cleanup`` subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process. The goal of the program is to support the DOE mission in developing coal-fired combustion gas turbines. In particular, the MTCI proprietary process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture will be evaluated and developed.

  2. Physical simulation of precipitation of radioactive element oxalates by using the harmless neodymium oxalate for studying the agglomeration phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalleman, Sophie; Bertrand, Murielle; Plasari, Edouard

    2012-03-01

    Oxalic precipitation is usually applied in nuclear industry to process radioactive wastes or to recover actinides from a multicomponent solution. This paper deals with the development of methods adapted to a nuclear environment in order to study the agglomeration phenomena during actinide oxalic precipitation. These methods are previously setup with harmless elements that simulate the actinide behaviour: the lanthanides. A parametric study is carried out to quantify the influence of operating parameters on the agglomeration kernel and to determine a kinetic law for this mechanism. The experimental study is performed in a continuous-MSMPR precipitator at steady-state. The method is based on the resolution of two population balances using the moment approach, one for elementary crystals and the other for agglomerates. Provided that the kinetic rates of nucleation and growth are known, the agglomeration kernel can be obtained from a mathematical treatment of the experimental particle size distributions. Results point out that experimental crystal sizes are consistent with an independent kernel. It appears that the agglomeration kernel is directly proportional to supersaturation, increases with temperature but is limited by ionic strength and shear rate.

  3. SAMPLING OIL-WATER MIXTURES AT OHMSETT (OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SIMULATED ENVIRONMENTAL TEST TANK)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes procedures developed at the Oil and Hazardous Material Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT) for sampling oil and water mixtures. Two procedures for sampling in containers are discussed: grab and stratified sampling. Both of these techniques require str...

  4. Effects of raw and modified canola lecithins compared to canola oil, canola seed and soy lecithin on ruminal fermentation measured with rumen simulation technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-R Wettstein; Andrea Machmüller; M Kreuzer

    2000-01-01

    The effects of four different canola lecithins applied at proportions of 30g fatty acid kg?1 diet were compared with diets containing either no additional lipid or the same amount of fatty acids from canola seed, pure canola oil and deoiled soy lecithin, respectively. Four types of canola lecithin with increasing dispersibility in water were used: raw; deoiled; deoiled\\/hydrolysed; and hydrolysed\\/acetylated

  5. New tools target oil quality sweetspots in viscous oil accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, P.C.; Goodwin, N.S.; Dillon, J.F. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Shallow oilfields frequently contain oils that not only have low API gravity and high viscosities, but are also highly variable in terms of these properties. It is thus crucial to gather sufficient oil quality data to sample a statistical cross section of the oil population. This paper describes how API gravity and dead oil viscosity can be predicted from geochemical parameters that can be measured on core or sidewall core samples, thus allowing oil samples to be accessed with greater spatial coverage than could reasonably be achieved with conventional fluid sampling. This technique is demonstrated on cored wells from the large Schrader Bluff viscous oil accumulation in Milne Point, Alaska. An oil can inherit a particular API gravity or viscosity from a variety of causes. Consequently, spatial variations in such bulk oil properties can be difficult to map empirically simply by contouring data, because more than one controlling factor may be operative. A major step forward in fluid mapping is to identify and quantify these controls, and map them. In Schrader Bluff the controls were discovered to be degree of biodegradation, and the presence of an in-mixed second charge of (light) oil. Variations in these processes can be mapped with a much greater degree of certainty than the bulk oil properties, and the individual maps combined to predict gravity and viscosity. Further, conceptual models exist for these processes, opening the possibility of model-driven prediction of oil properties and sweetspots in areas away from well control.

  6. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, mule, Blue Hogan, heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The reservoir engineering component of the work completed to date included analysis of production data and well tests, comprehensive laboratory programs, and preliminary mechanistic reservoir simulation studies. A comprehensive fluid property characterization program was completed. Mechanistic reservoir production performance simulation studies were also completed.

  7. Oil Types

    MedlinePLUS

    ... figure at right shows the weathering processes affecting oil spills: Adsorption (sedimentation): The process by which one substance ... Response Tools for Spills NOAA's Key Questions During Oil Spills Keeping Microplastics out of the Ocean Deepwater Horizon ...

  8. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-12-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing, vertical, field wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the third project year (April 6 through October 5, 2002). This work included capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pore casting on selected samples from Cherokee and Bug fields, Utah. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found at these fields are indicators of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for enhanced oil recovery via horizontal drilling. The reservoir quality of Cherokee and Bug fields has been affected by multiple generations of dissolution, anhydrite plugging, and various types of cementation which act as barriers or baffles to fluid flow. The most significant diagenetic characteristics are microporosity (Cherokee field) and micro-boxwork porosity (Bug field), as shown from porethroat radii histograms, and saturation profiles generated from the capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, and identified by scanning electron microscopy and pore casting. These porosity types represent important sites for untapped hydrocarbons and primary targets for horizontal drilling. Technology transfer activities consisted of exhibiting a booth display of project materials at the Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, a technical presentation, and publications. The project home page was updated for the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  9. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture: Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The major objective of the Phase 1 test program is to confirm the feasibility of the MTCI bimodal particle size approach to enhance particulate control by acoustic ash agglomeration. An ancillary objective of the Phase 1 effort is to demonstrate and confirm the feasibility of an acoustic field to enhance sulfur capture by increasing sorbent reactivity. The program will demonstrate the effectiveness of a unique approach which uses a bimodal distribution composed of large sorbent particles and fine fly ash particles to enhance ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions found in direct coal-fired turbines. The work will extend the concept from the demonstration of feasibility (Phase 1), through proof-of-concept (Phase 2) to the construction (Phase 3) of a coal-fired pulsed combustor with in-furnace sorbent injection. In view of the potentially large repowering market in the US, several possible configurations were formulated and evaluated for application to the repowering market. Based on discussions between the DOE/METC team members and MTCI staff; seven different configuration were proposed for further evaluation. The technical and market issues associated with each of these configurations were identified and summarized. An initial system simulation test for the system operating at inlet air temperatures of 700--800 F as for a gas turbine application was conducted, indicating that acoustic performance can be further improved by modifying gas injectors. Development of the advanced vortex aerovalve continued.

  10. Cell agglomeration in acidogenic, mixed, and methanogenic cultures at different loading and mixing conditions.

    PubMed

    Verma, M; Sreekrishnan, T R; Tyagi, R D

    2005-07-01

    Cell agglomeration studies were conducted in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors without any external support. Granulation was studied at different combinations of loading and mixing conditions utilizing synthetic wastewater. Both single-stage and two-stage biomethanation processes were studied. Reactors of volume 0.55, 10, and 16 l were operated with height to diameter ratio of 7-8. It was found that the acidogens were more liable to form granules among mixed culture of anaerobes, while the methanogens were capable of forming cell agglomerates in the form of flocs. In acidogenic granules, rod shaped bacteria were dominating, while in case of methanogens, there were more cocci. It was found that for an upflow liquid linear velocity upto 2.0 m h(-1), acidogens showed very good granulation but at relatively higher values of upflow liquid linear velocities granulation was affected adversely, causing breakage and dissociation of granules. In the case of methanogens and mixed process, it was found that upflow liquid linear velocities up to 4.0 m h(-1) were suitable and biomass flocs were actively growing. The maximum organic loadings applied were 39.0 and 54.4 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) (at 27.3 and 35.36 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) degradation respectively) for single-stage and two-stage biomethanation respectively. PMID:16080330

  11. A comparison study of the agglomeration mechanism of nano- and micrometer aluminum particles

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Z.X., E-mail: zhengxinyan163@163.com [Key Laboratory of Western Mine Exploitation and Hazard Prevention of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, 710054 China (China); Deng, J.; Luo, Z.M. [Key Laboratory of Western Mine Exploitation and Hazard Prevention of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, 710054 China (China)

    2010-02-15

    The agglomeration mechanism of micro- and nanosize aluminum particles with a primary mean particle diameter of 4.5 {mu}m and 75 nm, respectively, was comparatively investigated under an incident shock wave. The morphology, particle size, and agglomeration process of micro- and nanometer alumina particles were comprehensibly compared by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Images of X-ray diffraction reveal that a varied of phases of alumina ({gamma}-, {delta}-, {epsilon}-, and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were simultaneously found in the nanosize alumina products, which may give some detail information of the wide variety of reacting temperature of aluminum nanoparticles, while Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was detected in micrometer alumina products, which also gives some dynamic information of aluminum to alumina, i.e., aluminas have actually reacted with the free active carbon atoms to produce their intermediates. The microstructure of aluminas induced by the incident shock waves was detected and analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum. These results are an additive evidence to support that the initial stage sintering of the alumina nanosize powders is dominated by grain boundary diffusion, while the volume diffusion is the main character for the initial stage sintering of the micrometer alumina powders.

  12. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies on agglomeration phenomena of ultrathin Au/Fe bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiko, Masao; Koo, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Min; Ha, Jae-Geun [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The agglomeration phenomena of a few nanometer thick Au/Fe bilayers, grown on an MgO(100) substrate, were studied by using atomic force microscopy and x ray diffraction (XRD). The authors found that the insertion of an Fe ultrathin layer between an MgO(100) substrate and a 4 nm thick Au layer promotes the agglomeration process of the Au layer, in which the bilayer structure changes into large Fe/Au islands of {approx}200 nm in diameter. In addition, XRD results revealed that the Au in the agglomerated islands has only a (111)-crystallographic orientation, presumably caused by reducing the large surface energy of Au on the MgO(001) substrate. These findings are quite different from cases in which structural stabilization is achieved by inserting an Fe seeding layer of a few nanometers on an MgO(001) substrate.

  13. Mixing of nanosize particles by magnetically assisted impaction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scicolone, James V.

    Nanoparticles and nanocomposites offer unique properties that arise from their small size, large surface area, and the interactions of phases at their interfaces, and are attractive for their potential to improve performance of drugs, biomaterials, catalysts and other high-value-added materials. However, a major problem in utilizing nanoparticles is that they often lose their high surface area due to grain growth. Creating nanostructured composites where two or more nanosized constituents are intimately mixed can prevent this loss in surface area, but in order to obtain homogeneous mixing, de-agglomeration of the individual nanoparticle constituents is necessary. Due to high surface area, nano-particles form very large, fractal agglomerates. The structure of these agglomerates can have a large agglomerate composed of sub-agglomerates (SA), which itself consists of primary agglomerates (PA), that contain chain or net like nano-particle structures; typically sub-micron size. Thus the final agglomerate has a hierarchical, fractal structure, and depending upon the forces applied, it could break down to a certain size scale. The agglomerates can be fairly porous and fragile or they could be quite dense, based on primary particle size and its surface energy. Thus depending upon the agglomerate strength at different length scales, one could achieve deagglomeration and subsequent mixing at varying length scale. A better understanding of this can have a major impact on the field of nano-structured materials; thus the long term objective of this project is to gain fundamental understanding of deagglomeration and mixing of nano-agglomerates. Dry mixing is in general not effective in achieving desired mixing at nanoscale, whereas wet mixing suffers from different disadvantages like nanomaterial of interest should be insoluble, has to wet the liquid, and involves additional steps of filtration and drying. This research examines the use of environmentally friendly a novel approach based on use of small magnetic particles as mixing media is introduced that achieves a high-degree of mixing at scales of about a micron. The method is tested for binary mixture of alumina/silica and silica/titania. Various parameters such as processing time, size of the magnets, and magnetic particle to powder mixed ratio are considered. Experiments are carried out in batch containers in liquid and dry mediums, as well as a fluidized bed set-up. Homogeneity of Mixing (HoM), defined as the compliment of the Intensity of Segregation, was evaluated at the micron scale through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Secondary electron images, along with elemental mappings, were used to visualize the change in agglomerate sizes. Compositional percent data of each element were obtained through an EDS spatial distribution point analysis and used to obtain quantitative analysis on the homogeneity of the mixture. The effect of magnet impaction on mixing quality was examined on the HoM of binary mixtures. The research shows that HoM improved with magnetically assisted impaction mixing techniques indicating that the HoM depends on the product of processing time with the number of magnets. In a fluidized bed set-up, MAIM not only improved dispersion, but it was also found that the magnetic particles served to break down the larger agglomerates, to reduce the minimum fluidization velocity, to delay the onset of bubbling, and to convert the fluidization behavior of ABF powder to APF. Thus MAIM techniques may be used to achieve mixing of nanopowders at a desired HoM through adjusting the number of magnets and processing time; and its inherent advantages are its simplicity, an environmentally benign operation, and reduced cost as compared with wet mixing techniques.

  14. Tertiary oil recovery: potential application and constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geffen

    1978-01-01

    The technology of tertiary oil recovery methods is described and potential economic and environmental constraints to future commercial application are identified. Oil recoverable by tertiary techniques represents a domestic resource of between 11- and 42-billion barrels. Estimates of additional oil supplies from tertiary methods by the year 2000 range from 1 to 8 million barrels per day, depending on the

  15. In-Situ Burning of Spilled Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Alan A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews in-situ burning with particular emphasis on how it can be applied in water-related oil spill situations. Presents and discusses the use of nomograms and development of techniques cited for safe and effective ignition and controlled burning of spilled oil. Includes representative oil spill scenarios and possible responses. (15 references)…

  16. Rat pulmonary responses to inhaled nano-TiO2: effect of primary particle size and agglomeration state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The exact role of primary nanoparticle (NP) size and their degree of agglomeration in aerosols on the determination of pulmonary effects is still poorly understood. Smaller NP are thought to have greater biological reactivity, but their level of agglomeration in an aerosol may also have an impact on pulmonary response. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of primary NP size and the agglomeration state in aerosols, using well-characterized TiO2 NP, on their relative pulmonary toxicity, through inflammatory, cytotoxic and oxidative stress effects in Fisher 344 male rats. Methods Three different sizes of TiO2 NP, i.e., 5, 10–30 or 50 nm, were inhaled as small (SA) (< 100 nm) or large agglomerates (LA) (> 100 nm) at 20 mg/m3 for 6 hours. Results Compared to the controls, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) showed that LA aerosols induced an acute inflammatory response, characterized by a significant increase in the number of neutrophils, while SA aerosols produced significant oxidative stress damages and cytotoxicity. Data also demonstrate that for an agglomeration state smaller than 100 nm, the 5 nm particles caused a significant increase in cytotoxic effects compared to controls (assessed by an increase in LDH activity), while oxidative damage measured by 8-isoprostane concentration was less when compared to 10–30 and 50 nm particles. In both SA and LA aerosols, the 10–30 nm TiO2 NP size induced the most pronounced pro-inflammatory effects compared to controls. Conclusions Overall, this study showed that initial NP size and agglomeration state are key determinants of nano-TiO2 lung inflammatory reaction, cytotoxic and oxidative stress induced effects. PMID:24090040

  17. Microscopic examination of lignite ash and silica sand agglomerates formed in a 2-inch fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bobman, M.H.; Ketelle, D.T.; Kalmanovitch, D.P.

    1986-02-01

    Fluidized bed combustion of North Dakota lignite may result in severe agglomeration of ash and bed material; the nature of mineral impurities, operating temperatures, gaseous environment, and bed material composition are significant factors which influence agglomerate formation. Tests were performed in a 18-inch fluid bed combustor (FBC) at UNDERC using a wide range of low-rank coals and various bed materials. More recently, a 2-inch fluidized bed reactor was constructed and operated to evaluate interactions of North Dakota lignite ash and silica sand bed material at typical combustor operating temperatures. Samples of the bed material were prepared in polished thick sections for optical and electron microscopy. Detailed analysis by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy showed that when sulfur dioxide was present in the gas stream, calcium, sulfur, and silica were present at the boundary between the silica sand particle and its ash coating. The ash coating consisted of discrete fly ash particles in a homogeneous matrix. The photomicrograph below was taken of a cross-section of an agglomerate formed at 1450/sup 0/F when sulfur dioxide was added. The particle diameter is more than twice that of the initial silica sand grain. In contrast, a very thin ash coating resulted when sulfur dioxide was not present in the fluidizing gas, and cemented agglomerates consisting of several sand grains, were not observed. The significance of this work relates to the need for understanding mechanisms by which agglomeration occurs in fluidized bed combustion. Using a small bench-scale system allows for careful control of experimental variables at a reasonable cost. The results of such an experimental program may be used by utility, engineering, and mining firms to assess the potential for serious agglomeration when combusting a fuel with high ash content or ''bad acting'' minerals in a fluidized bed. 2 refs.

  18. Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SARAH J. MACNAUGHTON; JOHN R. STEPHEN; Y. J. Chang; A. D. Venosa; G. A. Davis; DAVID C. WHITE

    1999-01-01

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil plus nutrients, and oil plus nutrients plus an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In situ microbial community structures were monitored by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and 16S rDNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to

  19. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting in no favorable impact on protein loss. PMID:12715094

  20. Airborne optical detection of oil on water.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Airborne measurements were made over controlled oil-spill test sites to evaluate various techniques, utilizing reflected sunlight, for detecting oil on water. The results of these measurements show that (1) maximum contrast between oil and water is in the UV and red portions of the spectrum; (2) minimum contrast is in the blue-green; (3) differential polarization appears to be a very promising technique; (4) no characteristic absorption bands, which would permit one oil to be distinguished from another, were discovered in the spectral regions measured; (5) sky conditions greatly influence the contrast between oil and water; and (6) highest contrast was achieved under overcast sky conditions.

  1. Oil spill recovery: Oil booms and skimmers. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning booms, skimmers and skimming techniques used for oil spill recovery. Patents covering oil absorbent materials, dispersants, floating booms, methods and equipment for oil spill containment and collection, marine barriers, cryogenic beach cleaners, microbial materials, and ultrasonic oil removal are included. Citations concerning oil/water separation for non-oil spill recovery applications are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 177 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Experimental investigation and prediction of oiling out during crystallization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesow, Kai; Tumakaka, Feelly; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2008-08-01

    Oiling out is an unwanted effect during the cooling crystallization of complex molecules from solution: upon cooling, crystallization is preceded by the formation of a second liquid phase (oiling out) which disturbs the crystallization process and often deteriorates the product properties. On the basis of the crystallization of 4,4' dihydroxydiphenylsulfone (DHDPS) from water/acetone mixtures and water/2-propanol mixtures, respectively, this study proved the dependence of the oiling-out behavior on the solvent system. Attempts were made to model the oiling-out phenomenon using a thermodynamic equation of state here: (Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT)). Applying this model, an oiling-out behavior of the ternary system DHDPS/water/acetone could be predicted qualitatively. Exchanging the water/acetone solvent mixture by a mixture of water and 2-propanol led to a prevention of oiling out. This could be predicted by the calculations using PC-SAFT, as well as confirmed experimentally. Furthermore, micrographs of the crystals obtained revealed the influence of the oiling out on the properties of the solid product. Size, shape and degree of agglomeration of the particles vary depending on whether an oiling out occurred during the cooling process or not.

  3. Using a non-invasive technique in nutrition: synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy spectroscopic characterization of oil seeds treated with different processing conditions on molecular spectral factors influencing nutrient delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Non-invasive techniques are a key to study nutrition and structure interaction. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy coupled with a synchrotron radiation source (SR-IMS) is a rapid, non-invasive, and non-destructive bioanalytical technique. To understand internal structure changes in relation to nutrient availability in oil seed processing is vital to find optimal processing conditions. The objective of this study was to use a synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique SR-IMS as a non-invasive and non-destructive tool to study the effects of heat-processing methods and oil seed canola type on modeled protein structure based on spectral data within intact tissue that were randomly selected and quantify the relationship between the modeled protein structure and protein nutrient supply to ruminants. The results showed that the moisture heat-related processing significantly changed (p<0.05) modeled protein structures compared to the raw canola (control) and those processing by dry heating. The moisture heating increased (p<0.05) spectral intensities of amide I, amide II, ?-helices, and ?-sheets but decreased (p<0.05) the ratio of modeled ?-helices to ?-sheet spectral intensity. There was no difference (p>0.05) in the protein spectral profile between the raw and dry-heated canola tissue and between yellow- and brown-type canola tissue. The results indicated that different heat processing methods have different impacts on the protein inherent structure. The protein intrinsic structure in canola seed tissue was more sensitive and more response to the moisture heating in comparison to the dry heating. These changes are expected to be related to the nutritive value. However, the current study is based on limited samples, and more large-scale studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24920208

  4. Application of multivariate chemometric techniques for simultaneous determination of five parameters of cottonseed oil by single bounce attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Talpur, M Younis; Kara, Huseyin; Sherazi, S T H; Ayyildiz, H Filiz; Topkafa, Mustafa; Arslan, Fatma Nur; Naz, Saba; Durmaz, Fatih; Sirajuddin

    2014-11-01

    Single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics was used for accurate determination of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), conjugated diene (CD) and conjugated triene (CT) of cottonseed oil (CSO) during potato chips frying. Partial least square (PLS), stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR), principal component regression (PCR) and simple Beer?s law (SBL) were applied to develop the calibrations for simultaneous evaluation of five stated parameters of cottonseed oil (CSO) during frying of French frozen potato chips at 170°C. Good regression coefficients (R(2)) were achieved for FFA, PV, IV, CD and CT with value of >0.992 by PLS, SMLR, PCR, and SBL. Root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was found to be less than 1.95% for all determinations. Result of the study indicated that SB-ATR FTIR in combination with multivariate chemometrics could be used for accurate and simultaneous determination of different parameters during the frying process without using any toxic organic solvent. PMID:25127621

  5. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-10-05

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the fourth project year (April 6 through October 5, 2003). The work included (1) analysis of well-test data and oil production from Cherokee and Bug fields, San Juan County, Utah, and (2) diagenetic evaluation of stable isotopes from the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Production ''sweet spots'' and potential horizontal drilling candidates were identified for Cherokee and Bug fields. In Cherokee field, the most productive wells are located in the thickest part of the mound facies of the upper Ismay zone, where microporosity is well developed. In Bug field, the most productive wells are located structurally downdip from the updip porosity pinch out in the dolomitized lower Desert Creek zone, where micro-box-work porosity is well developed. Microporosity and micro-box-work porosity have the greatest hydrocarbon storage and flow capacity, and potential horizontal drilling target in these fields. Diagenesis is the main control on the quality of Ismay and Desert Creek reservoirs. Most of the carbonates present within the lower Desert Creek and Ismay have retained a marine-influenced carbon isotope geochemistry throughout marine cementation as well as through post-burial recycling of marine carbonate components during dolomitization, stylolitization, dissolution, and late cementation. Meteoric waters do not appear to have had any effect on the composition of the dolomites in these zones. Light oxygen values obtained from reservoir samples for wells located along the margins or flanks of Bug field may be indicative of exposure to higher temperatures, to fluids depleted in {sup 18}O relative to sea water, or to hypersaline waters during burial diagenesis. The samples from Bug field with the lightest oxygen isotope compositions are from wells that have produced significantly greater amounts of hydrocarbons. There is no significant difference between the oxygen isotope compositions from lower Desert Creek dolomite samples in Bug field and the upper Ismay limestones and dolomites from Cherokee field. Carbon isotopic compositions for samples from Patterson Canyon field can be divided into two populations: isotopically heavier mound cement and isotopically lighter oolite and banded cement. Technology transfer activities consisted of exhibiting a booth display of project materials at the annual national convention of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, a technical presentation, a core workshop, and publications. The project home page was updated on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  6. Predicting drying kinetic and undesired agglomeration during drying of granules containing amorphous water-soluble substances in a continuous horizontal fluid bed dryer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Palzer

    2010-01-01

    Various industries use fluid bed dryers for the drying of larger granules produced by extrusion, pan agglomeration or spray granulation. During such drying processes secondary agglomeration is undesired due to an increasing amount of oversize particles. In the current study the drying of granules containing amorphous substances is modelled. The model is based on the laws of heat and mass

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

    1984-01-01

    The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

  8. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.D.

    1993-07-01

    A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed boilers indicate that several facilities are experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with these deposits being, found most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Deposit and agglomerate samples have been received from four units. Our analyses of the cyclone deposits indicate they are primarily composed of an iron-aluminosilicate material. The bulk of the deposit is about 30 wt % SiO{sub 2}), 18 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 30 to 33 wt % Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Titanium is also present between 3 and 4 wt %. All the iron in the deposit is now in the Fe+3 state, but there is evidence that at the time of deposit formation it was in the Fe+2 state. The atomic structure of the bulk of the deposit is that of the spinel mineral maghemite. In nature, this is a rare mineral which forms by the oxidation of the mineral magnetite. Magnetite contains iron in both the +2 and +3 states and can incorporate titanium into its structure at low oxygen fugacities. The relatively high titanium content of the deposit suggests that it may have originally been magnetite (formed at a low oxygen fugacity), but was later oxidized to maghemite under higher oxygen fugacities. We have hypothesized that the cause of deposit formation was most likely interaction of iron, as a flux (in a reduced form), with aluminosilicate materials (clays). The iron probably originated as pyrite or iron sulfides in the feed. It also appears the quench water plays a role in enhancing, the deposit formation in the cyclones. We have hypothesized that the high iron content of solids in the sour quench water probably did not play a role in deposit formation; although, the high water vapor pressure may have had an effect on the viscosity of the material. The alkalic elements, Na and K, probably played only a minor role in deposit formation.

  9. Used oil as a fuel oil alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Beker, U.G. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1996-09-01

    In this study, the possibility of using used frying oil as a fuel oil alternative has been investigated. The fuel oil analysis tests applied to the reference fuel oil, used frying oil and its blends with fuel oil, were done according to standard test methods. The experimental results indicated that used frying oil and its blends with fuel oil can be proposed as a possible substitute for fuel oil.

  10. Open-mouthed metallic microcapsules: exploring performance improvements at agglomeration-free interiors.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Saikat; Sathish, Marappan; Saravanan, Govindachetty; Datta, K K R; Ji, Qingmin; Hill, Jonathan P; Abe, Hideki; Honma, Itaru; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2010-10-20

    Although artificial capsule structures have been thoroughly investigated, functionality at the surfaces of their interiors has been surprisingly overlooked. In order to exploit this aspect of capsular structure, we here report the breakthrough fabrication of metallic (platinum) microcapsules with sufficient accessibility and electroactivity at both interior and exterior surfaces (open-mouthed platinum microcapsules), and also we demonstrate improvements in electrochemical and catalytic functions to emphasize the practical importance of our concept. The open-mouthed platinum microcapsules were prepared by template synthesis using polystyrene spheres, where surface-fused crystalline nanoparticles formed a capsule shell. Subsequent removal of the polystyrene spheres induced formation of mouth-like openings. The open-mouthed platinum microcapsules exhibit a substantial increase of their electrode capability for methanol oxidation and catalytic activities for carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation. Notably, activity loss during CO oxidation due to undesirable particle agglomeration can be drastically suppressed using the open-mouthed microcapsules. PMID:20879769

  11. A model for agglomeration in bio-fuel fired fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiyuan; Shang, Linlin; Teng, Haipeng; Lu, Qinggang

    2010-10-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the agglomeration process in bio-fuel fired fluidized bed combustor. Based on the balance mechanism of the adhesive force caused by liquid bonding between two particles and the breaking force induced by bubbles in the fluidized bed, the model considers modified Urbain model and chemical equilibrium calculations using FactSage modeling. This model prediction accounts for the evolvement of the adhesive and breaking forces, and clearly demonstrates that the different composition of ash, the increasing liquid phase matter and the fluidization velocity cause defluidization in fluidized bed. In this model, it is the first time to hypothesize that the bonding stress between two particles is proportional to mass fraction of liquid phase and inversely proportional to the diameter of particles and viscosity of liquid phase. The defluidization time calculated by this model shows good agreement with that from the experimental data.

  12. A Context-Aware Delayed Agglomeration Framework for Electron Microscopy Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Parag, Toufiq; Chakraborty, Anirban; Plaza, Stephen; Scheffer, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Electron Microscopy (EM) image (or volume) segmentation has become significantly important in recent years as an instrument for connectomics. This paper proposes a novel agglomerative framework for EM segmentation. In particular, given an over-segmented image or volume, we propose a novel framework for accurately clustering regions of the same neuron. Unlike existing agglomerative methods, the proposed context-aware algorithm divides superpixels (over-segmented regions) of different biological entities into different subsets and agglomerates them separately. In addition, this paper describes a “delayed” scheme for agglomerative clustering that postpones some of the merge decisions, pertaining to newly formed bodies, in order to generate a more confident boundary prediction. We report significant improvements attained by the proposed approach in segmentation accuracy over existing standard methods on 2D and 3D datasets. PMID:26018659

  13. Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Salisbury; D. M. DAria; F. F. Jr. Sabins

    1993-01-01

    It is important to develop a remote sensing technique for reliable detection of oil slicks for reasons of both oil exploration and environmental protection. Yet, unambiguous detection has proven an elusive goal. This article presents new thermal infrared spectra of oil slicks made from five different crude oil samples with a wide range of API gravities and compositions. After a

  14. THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. VI. EROSION OF LARGE AGGREGATES AS A SOURCE OF MICROMETER-SIZED PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Schraepler, Rainer; Blum, Juergen, E-mail: r.schraepler@tu-bs.de [Institut fuer Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, University of Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-06-20

    Observed protoplanetary disks consist of a large amount of micrometer-sized particles. Dullemond and Dominik pointed out for the first time the difficulty in explaining the strong mid-infrared excess of classical T Tauri stars without any dust-retention mechanisms. Because high relative velocities in between micrometer-sized and macroscopic particles exist in protoplanetary disks, we present experimental results on the erosion of macroscopic agglomerates consisting of micrometer-sized spherical particles via the impact of micrometer-sized particles. We find that after an initial phase, in which an impacting particle erodes up to 10 particles of an agglomerate, the impacting particles compress the agglomerate's surface, which partly passivates the agglomerates against erosion. Due to this effect, the erosion halts for impact velocities up to {approx}30 m s{sup -1} within our error bars. For higher velocities, the erosion is reduced by an order of magnitude. This outcome is explained and confirmed by a numerical model. In a next step, we build an analytical disk model and implement the experimentally found erosive effect. The model shows that erosion is a strong source of micrometer-sized particles in a protoplanetary disk. Finally, we use the stationary solution of this model to explain the amount of micrometer-sized particles in the observational infrared data of Furlan et al.

  15. Breakage and Attrition of Sintered Agglomerates (1) Institut fur Computerphysik, Universitat Stuttgart, Pfa#enwaldring 27, 70569

    E-print Network

    Luding, Stefan

    Breakage and Attrition of Sintered Agglomerates S. Luding (1) Institut fË?ur Computerphysik points of view. Compression and vibration tests lead to breakage and attrition, respectively. Among of material with almost equally strong attractive and repulsive contact forces. #12; Breakage and Attrition

  16. Selection of operational parameters for the production of instant soy protein isolate by pulsed fluid bed agglomeration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Dacanal; F. C. Menegalli

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select the optimal operational conditions for the production of instant soy protein isolate (SPI) by pulsed fluid bed agglomeration. The spray-dried SPI was characterized as being a cohesive powder, presenting cracks and channeling formation during its fluidization (Geldart type A). The process was carried out in a pulsed fluid bed, and aqueous maltodextrin

  17. [Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture]. [Quarterly technical progress report, September 27, 1993--January 2, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a ``hot flue gas cleanup`` subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process. The goal of the program is to support the DOE mission in developing coal-fired combustion gas turbines. In particular, the MTCI proprietary process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture will be evaluated and developed. The technology embodiment of the invention provides for the use of standard grind, moderately beneficiated coal and WEM for firing the gas turbine with efficient sulfur capture and particulate emission control upstream of the turbine. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering material if necessary. This is aimed at utilization of relatively inexpensive coal fuels, thus realizing the primary benefit being sought by direct firing of coal in such gas turbine systems.

  18. Steric stabilization of nonaqueous silicon slips. I - Control of particle agglomeration and packing. II - Pressure casting of powder compacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerkar, Awdhoot V.; Henderson, Robert J. M.; Feke, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    The application of steric stabilization to control particle agglomeration and packing of silicon powder in benzene and trichloroethylene is reported. The results provide useful guidelines for controlling unfavorable particle-particle interactions during nonaqueous processing of silicon-based ceramic materials. The application of steric stabilization to the control and improvement of green processing of nonaqueous silicon slips in pressure consolidation is also demonstrated.

  19. Agglomeration, support effects, and CO adsorption on Au/TiO2(110) prepared by ion beam deposition

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Scott L.

    of ion scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), CO adsorption, and CO tem- peratureAgglomeration, support effects, and CO adsorption on Au/TiO2(110) prepared by ion beam deposition oxidation on Aun/TiO2 are discussed. Ó 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Sintering; Ion

  20. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}-)flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.