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Sample records for oil agglomeration techniques

  1. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from October 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental test procedures and the results related to the processing of coal fines originating from process streams generated at the Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant, owned and operated by the Drummond Company Inc. of Alabama, are described. Two samples of coal fines, namely Cyclone Overflow and Pond Fines were investigated. The batch test results showed that by applying the Aglofloat technology a significant ash removal might be achieved at a very high combustible matter recovery: · for the Cyclone Overflow sample the ash reduction was in the range 50 to 55% at combustible matter recovery about 98% · for the Pond Fines sample the ash reduction was up to 48% at combustible matter recovery up to 85%. Additional tests were carried out with the Alberta origin Luscar Mine coal, which will be used for the parametric studies of agglomeration equipment at the 250 kg/h pilot plant. The Luscar coal is very similar to the Mary Lee Coal Group (processed at Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant) in terms of rank and chemical composition.

  2. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  3. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  4. Selective oil agglomeration of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Halime Abakay Temel; Volkan Bozkurt; Arun Kumar Majumder

    2009-01-15

    In this study, desulfurization and deashing of Adiyaman-Glbai lignite by the agglomeration method were studied. For this purpose, three groups of agglomeration experiments were made. The effects of solid concentration, bridging liquid type and dosage, pH, and screen size on the agglomeration after desliming were investigated in the first group of experiments. The effects of lake water and sea water (the Mediterranean Sea water, the Aegean Sea water, and the Black Sea water) on the agglomeration were investigated in the second group of experiments. The effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3}) on the agglomeration were investigated in the third group of experiments. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of sea waters and soda lake water in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the reduction of total sulfur content of agglomerates. In addition, the usage of NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3} in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the ash content reduction of the agglomerates. 27 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Factors affecting the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi Ulucayir lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, I.; Gorgun Ersan, M.

    2007-07-01

    In the coal industry, the coal particles need to be decreased to a very fine size because of the need of removing inorganic materials from coal. Oil agglomeration is a kind of coal cleaning technique that is used for separation of organic and inorganic parts of fine sized coal. In this study, the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi (S-D) Ulucayir lignite was carried out by using kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil, poppy oil, and sunflower oil. The amount of bridging oil was varied from 5% to 25% of the amount of lignite. The effect of oil amount, oil type, solid content, agitation rate and time, pH on agglomeration performance was investigated. Maximum recovery value of 98.18% was observed by using poppy oil. In order to investigate the effect of pH on agglomeration NaOH and HCl is added to the slurry in various amounts. It is decided that the best agglomeration condition is obtained at low pH values. The effect of nonionic surface active agent (Igepal-CA 630) on agglomeration is investigated by adding to the slurry and it is observed that the grade is increased with the amount of surface active agent.

  6. Adapting agglomeration techniques to today's needs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.C.

    1984-07-01

    New industries and economic trends have created new problems and opportunities for which applications of agglomeration have been developed. These applications are presented and discussed briefly. The areas include sintering of finely divided ores, briquetting feed stocks, agglomerate forms for air pollution control, hazardous waste immobilization, briquetting solid fuels for energy conservation, manufacturing synfuel charges, biomass densification, and agglomerate forms for metallurgical coke.

  7. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  8. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing. Technical report number 2, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal streams. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a tubular (jet) processor. To meet the overall objective an 11 task work plan has been designed. The work will range from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning and management; host site selection and plan formulation; preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment; coal characterization and laboratory (batch) and bench-scale testing; final engineering and design of POC equipment; proof-of-concept (POC) equipment procurement and fabrication; POC equipment inspection; POC equipment installation, shakedown and operation; process evaluation; dismantling of the system; final report. Accomplishments to date are described on the site selection, a work plan for bench-scale testing, preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment, and coal characterization.

  9. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  10. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Potas, Todd A.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Musich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  11. Column oil agglomeration of fly ash with ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M.L.; Champagne, K.J.; Soong, Y.; Finseth, D.H.

    1999-07-01

    A promising oil agglomeration process has been developed for the beneficiation of fly ash using a six-foot agglomeration column. Carbon concentrates have been separated from fly ash with yields greater than 60 % and purities of 55 to 74 %. The parameters examined in the study include ultrasonic exposure, pulse rate, frequency, agitation speed, and blade configuration. The effects of the experimental variables on the quality of separation are discussed.

  12. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.C.; Tyson, D.; Ziaoping, Qiu, Lessa, A.

    1990-04-01

    The overall objective is to determine the basic principles and mechanisms which underlie a number of selective oil agglomeration processes that have been proposed for beneficiating fine-size coal. An understanding of the basic principles and mechanisms will greatly facilitate technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

    1990-01-01

    Numerous measurements of the heat of immersion of coal were conducting using several different particle size fractions of No. 2 Gas Seam coal from Raleigh County, West Virginia. The heat of immersion was determined in water, methanol, heptane, hexadecane and neohexane (2,2-dimethybutane). A comparison of the results with those determined previously for Illinois No. 6 coal is discussed. A number of potential pyrite depressants for use in oil agglomeration of coal were screened by testing the response of sulfidized mineral pyrite to agglomeration with heptane in the presence of the potential depressant. The following were tested; sodium dithionite, sodium thiosulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, titanous chloride, hydrogen peroxide, Oxone (a form of potassium monopersulfate), pyrogallol, quebracho (colloidal dispersant derived from tree bark), milk whey, and several organic thiols. Ferric chloride was applied to mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and sulfidized mineral pyrite before subjecting the mixtures to agglomeration with heptane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Development of a full scale selective oil agglomeration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, J.C.; Cooney, B.; Hoare, I.; Waugh, B.; Robinson, R.

    1998-12-31

    A research and development program managed by Australian Mining Investments Limited (AMI) on behalf of an investment syndicate was conducted with the objective of improving the efficiency and economy of the Selective Oil Agglomeration Process (SOAP), and developing viable commercial sized operating plants. Fewer than half the coal preparation plants in Australia beneficiate fine coal by froth flotation, the only viable alternative to SOAP for the recovery of low ash, fine and ultra fine coal. Those plants without flotation generally dispose of the ultra fine material, approximately {minus}100{micro}m in size, as tailings to waste. In the majority of cases this ultra fine waste contains more than 50% relatively low ash coal of saleable quality. It is believed that this coal constitutes a loss of 8--10 million tonnes per annum and that the coal mining industry would welcome a recovery process which has low capital and operating costs and will function automatically with minimal operator attention. The authors carried out a comprehensive literature study of selective oil agglomeration in order to gain a full understanding of the process and to plan the research program. Extensive studies were then undertaken on oil dispersion in the water phase, formation of oil water emulsions with surfactants and the optimization of surfactant selection. Oil and emulsion properties were investigated including stability, viscosity, temperature, concentration of components, time of formation, and cost. This work was followed by characterization studies on coals from the Gunnedah Basin and agglomeration test work on these coals. These agglomeration studies were performed firstly at bench level and then by using a small, 200 kg/hr continuous process development unit. The results were sufficiently encouraging to justify the design and construction of a fully instrumented, PLC controlled, 2 tph pilot plant at Gunnedah Colliery Coal Preparation Plant. Extensive trials were carried out on

  15. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  16. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process: Air-promoted oil agglomeration of moderately hydrophobic coals. 2: Effect of air dosage in a model mixing system

    SciTech Connect

    Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1996-07-01

    In a selective oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal, fine-size particles are suspended in water and treated with a water-immiscible hydrocarbon which can range from pentane to heavy fuel oil. Vigorous agitation is applied to disperse the oil and to produce frequent contacts between oil-coated particles. In Part 1 of this series of papers, it was shown that a definite amount of air had to be present in a laboratory mixing unit which produced a moderate shear rate in order to form compact, spherical agglomerates in an aqueous suspension of moderately hydrophobic coal using heptane or hexadecane as an agglomerate. In this paper, the effects of different amounts of air including dissolved air are discussed. The results indicate that a small amount of air will trigger the process of agglomeration, and even the air dissolved in water under equilibrium conditions at room temperature and pressure is sufficient to promote agglomeration provided it is released from solution.

  17. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1994-10-01

    During the first year of the project two model mixing systems, which differed in size but were similar in design, were constructed and tested. The systems were equipped for measuring agitator speed and torque and for measuring the turbidity of coal particle suspensions undergoing agglomeration. Preliminary measurements of aqueous suspensions of coal particles showed that the Beer-Lambert law applies to such suspensions at least for low concentrations. Therefore, the measured turbidity can be used as an indicator of particle concentration and a means for monitoring the progress of oil agglomeration. However, the method is not applicable for large particle concentrations so a different technique was tested for monitoring the agglomeration of large concentrations. This technique involves measuring agitator torque and observing changes in torque while agitator speed is held constant. The results of preliminary tests of the technique were encouraging. In these tests significant changes in agitator torque were observed when particle agglomeration took place as long as solids concentration of 25 w/v % or more were utilized. A number of agglomeration tests were conducted using either one or the other of the two monitoring techniques. Both methods showed that even very small amounts of air can promote the oil agglomeration of coal particles suspended in water. Even the amount of air dissolved in water at room temperature and pressure can affect the process providing the air is displaced from the solution by a slightly soluble agglomerant such as heptane. The apparent rate of agglomeration was observed to increase as more air was introduced and also as agitator speed was increased.

  18. Nearshore dynamics of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; McLaughlin, Molly R.

    2015-01-01

    Weathered oil can mix with sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) that can cause beach re-oiling for years after a spill. Few studies have focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. In this study, artificial SOAs (aSOAs) were created and deployed in the nearshore, and shear stress-based mobility formulations were assessed to predict SOA response. Prediction sensitivity to uncertainty in hydrodynamic conditions and shear stress parameterizations were explored. Critical stress estimates accounting for large particle exposure in a mixed bed gave the best predictions of mobility under shoaling and breaking waves. In the surf zone, the 10-cm aSOA was immobile and began to bury in the seafloor while smaller size classes dispersed alongshore. aSOAs up to 5 cm in diameter were frequently mobilized in the swash zone. The uncertainty in predicting aSOA dynamics reflects a broader uncertainty in applying mobility and transport formulations to cm-sized particles.

  19. Desulfurization and deashing of Hazro coal by selective oil agglomeration in various water mediums

    SciTech Connect

    Halime Abakay Temel; Fatma Deniz Ayhan

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this study was to study the effects of various water mediums on desulfurization and deashing of Hazro coal by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, three groups of agglomeration experiments were made. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, bridging liquid concentration, and pH, on the agglomeration were investigated in the first group of experiments. The effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3}) on the agglomeration were investigated in the second group of experiments. The effects of lake water and sea water on the agglomeration were investigated in the third group of experiments. The influences of the Mediterranean Sea water and Aegean Sea water on the removal of ash and total sulfur were found to be important. 22 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. APPLICATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION FOR EFFLUENT CONTROL FROM COAL CLEANING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the potential applicability of oil agglomeration for the control of black water effluents from coal cleaning plants processing four different coals. Removal and recovery of the coal from each of the black waters produced aqueous suspensions of mineral matter ...

  1. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal advanced in three major research areas. One area of research resulted in the development of a method for measuring the rate of agglomeration of dilute particle suspensions and using the method to relate the rate of agglomeration of coal particles to various key parameters. A second area of research led to the development of a method for monitoring a batch agglomeration process by measuring changes in agitator torque. With this method it was possible to show that the agglomeration of a concentrated coal particle suspension is triggered by the introduction of a small amount of gas. The method was also used in conjunction with optical microscopy to study the mechanism of agglomeration. A third area of research led to the discovery that highly hydrophobic particles in an aqueous suspension can be agglomerated by air alone.

  2. Directional Agglomeration Multigrid Techniques for High-Reynolds Number Viscous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    1998-01-01

    A preconditioned directional-implicit agglomeration algorithm is developed for solving two- and three-dimensional viscous flows on highly anisotropic unstructured meshes of mixed-element types. The multigrid smoother consists of a pre-conditioned point- or line-implicit solver which operates on lines constructed in the unstructured mesh using a weighted graph algorithm. Directional coarsening or agglomeration is achieved using a similar weighted graph algorithm. A tight coupling of the line construction and directional agglomeration algorithms enables the use of aggressive coarsening ratios in the multigrid algorithm, which in turn reduces the cost of a multigrid cycle. Convergence rates which are independent of the degree of grid stretching are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions. Further improvement of the three-dimensional convergence rates through a GMRES technique is also demonstrated.

  3. Directional Agglomeration Multigrid Techniques for High Reynolds Number Viscous Flow Solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A preconditioned directional-implicit agglomeration algorithm is developed for solving two- and three-dimensional viscous flows on highly anisotropic unstructured meshes of mixed-element types. The multigrid smoother consists of a pre-conditioned point- or line-implicit solver which operates on lines constructed in the unstructured mesh using a weighted graph algorithm. Directional coarsening or agglomeration is achieved using a similar weighted graph algorithm. A tight coupling of the line construction and directional agglomeration algorithms enables the use of aggressive coarsening ratios in the multigrid algorithm, which in turn reduces the cost of a multigrid cycle. Convergence rates which are independent of the degree of grid stretching are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions. Further improvement of the three-dimensional convergence rates through a GMRES technique is also demonstrated.

  4. Mechanisms for selective agglomeration of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

    1989-05-01

    Work continued on the basic mechanisms which underlie various processes for beneficiating aqueous suspensions of coal by selective agglomeration with oil. A new method was demonstrated for characterizing the agglomerability of coal suspensions. This method utilizes a photometric dispersion analyzer to monitor changes in the turbidity of a particle suspension as increasing amounts of oil are added to the suspension in a batch agglomeration test. Agglomeration of the particles leads to a marked decrease in the turbidity of the suspension. Another experimental technique was also demonstrated for characterizing oil agglomeration. This technique involves measuring the rate of growth of agglomerates in a continuous flow system operating under stead-state conditions. The data are analyzed by means of a population balance. The results of a preliminary set of experiments in which Indiana V seam coal was agglomerated with tetralin seemed to fit a particular growth model very well. Equipment was also constructed for studying the kinetics of agglomeration in a batch process. While earlier work showed that quebracho (a commercially available dispersant) is a strong agglomeration depressant for pyrite, recent experiments with mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and mineral pyrite showed that quebracho does not appear to be sufficiently selective. Further consideration was given to the separation of mixtures of coal and pyrite agglomeration with heptane. 2 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone.

    PubMed

    Dalyander, P Soupy; Long, Joseph W; Plant, Nathaniel G; Thompson, David M

    2014-03-15

    Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these "surface residual balls" (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results. PMID:24503377

  6. Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joesph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3 years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these “surface residual balls” (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results.

  7. Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Ayhan, F.D.

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

  8. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration. Fossil energy interim report, October 1, 1983--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1992-12-31

    Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with several types of low-ash coal and graphite, high grade mineral pyrite, and other materials. Relatively pure hydrocarbons, including heptane and hexadecane, were used as agglomerants. Access of air to the system was controlled. Particle recovery by agglomeration was observed to depend on a number of system parameters. Among the most important parameters are the hydrophobicity of the particles and the oil dosage, so that the, recovery of solids per unit of oil administered is proportional to the hydrophobicity. The pH and ionic strength of the aqueous suspension affect particle recovery in different ways depending on the surface properties of the particles. On the other hand, the presence of air in the system generally improves particle recovery. The greatest effect of air was observed in a closely related study which showed that air had to be present to produce good agglomerates from a moderately hydrophobic coal in a mixer producing a lower shear rate. The rate of agglomeration was found to be much greater for a strongly hydrophobic coal than for a moderately hydrophobic coal, and the rate was observed to be proportional to the oil dosage. Also the rate was enhanced by the presence of air in the, system. For hydrophobic coals, the rate increased with increasing ionic strength of the aqueous medium, but it was not affected greatly by pH over a wide range. The separation of coal and pyrite particles by selective agglomeration was found to depend on the relative hydrophobicity of the materials, the oil dosage, and the properties of the aqueous medium.

  9. The use of starch to enhance sulfur and ash removal from coal by selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Good, R.J.; Badgujar, M.N.

    1990-01-01

    We have found that the use of starch or gelatin, as an additive in the Otisca T-Process of selective oil agglomeration of coal, leads to a considerable improvement in the reduction of pyritic sulfur and of ash-forming minerals. A patent application has been filed; (Good Badgugar). Improvement in rejection of pyritic sulfur by up to 55% has been found, and improvement in ash rejection by up to 28%. Carbon recovery of 97.5 to 99.1% was obtained when the starch concentration was in the range, 30 to 200 ppM in the water. Three different bituminous coals were used: Upper Freeport, Kentucky No. 9, and Illinois No. 6.

  10. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Zhang, F.; Nelson, C.

    1994-09-01

    The overall purpose of this research project is to carry out the preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal using model mixing systems. The design and construction of a model mixing system for conducting oil agglomeration tests were reported previously as well as the results of a series of calibration and shakedown tests. The system consists of a flat bottom tank which is fitted with four vertical baffles, a cover, and a turbine agitator. The tank has an inside diameter of 15.24 cm (6.0 in.), height of 15.24 cm (6.0 in.), and net volume of 2.87 L. The tank is connected to a photometric dispersion analyzer so that the turbidity of a coal particle suspension undergoing agglomeration can be monitored. Measuring the turbidity of a particle suspension requires application of the Beer-Lambert law. However, since this law applies for dilute suspensions, it is questionable whether or not it applies to the somewhat more concentrated coal suspensions required for the present project. Therefore, to determine the law`s applicability, a series of turbidity measurements was conducted on particle suspensions which varied in particle concentration over a wide range, and the results were analyzed to see how well they agreed with the law. To determine the effect of air in promoting the oil agglomeration of coal particles in an aqueous suspension, a number of agglomeration tests were conducted with the model mixing system. Finely ground Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was used for these tests, and the amount of air present was controlled carefully. The agglomeration process was monitored by observing the change in turbidity of the system.

  11. Diffusion mediated agglomeration of CdS nanoparticles via Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Nayan Mani Roy, Dhrubojyoti; Gupta, P.S.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Diffusion mediated agglomeration of CdS nanoparticles are discussed. • Formation of CdS nanoparticles are confirmed by the change of chain length in XRD. • AFM shows the agglomeration of particles with a film swelling of about 5 Å. • UV–vis absorbance suggests that the grown particles show quantum confinement. • Hexagonal form of particle was confirmed by UV–vis reflectivity. - Abstract: We have reported a diffusion mediated agglomeration of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles within cadmium arachidate (CdA{sub 2}) film matrix. The structural morphology and formation of CdS nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show a change in bilayer difference from 53.04 Å to 43 Å after the sulphidation. An epitaxial growth of the films by ∼5 Å after sulphidation is confirmed from atomic force microscopy studies. The particle size calculated form UV–vis absorption edges are found to be varying from 2.6 nm to 3.3 nm for the different layers. A lateral dimension of 72–80 nm from AFM measurements and a size of 2.6–3.3 nm have confirmed one side flat pseudo two-dimensional disk-like nanoparticles. UV–vis reflectivity peak at E{sub 1} (A) confirms the formation of hexagonal CdS nanoparticles along the c-axis.

  12. Mechanisms for selective agglomeration of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

    1989-10-01

    Measurement and control of the surface properties of coal and pyrite are important in the application of selective oil agglomeration for coal beneficiation and both received further study and consideration. One method of surface characterization involves measuring the heat of immersion of coal in water or other liquids. To develop a useful and consistent measurement technique, numerous measurements were conducted with Illinois No. 6 coal to study the effects of coal particle size and moisture content on the heat of immersion in heptane, water, hexadecane and methanol. The effect of particle size was also studied. Also, ground mineral pyrite was pretreated with dilute solutions of sodium sulfide at various Ph and then agglomerated with heptane. To achieve better control over the oil agglomeration process, oil agglomeration experiments were conducted with aqueous suspensions of graphite which were first degassed with a vacuum pump. 7 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  14. Observational Data Analysis and Numerical Model Assessment of the Seafloor Interaction and Mobility of Sand and Weathered Oil Agglomerates (Surface Residual Balls) in the Surf Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalyander, S.; Long, J.; Plant, N. G.; Penko, A.; Calantoni, J.; Thompson, D.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    When weathered oil is transported ashore, such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, it can mix with suspended sediment in the surf zone to create heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates in the form of mats several centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Broken off pieces of these mats and smaller agglomerates formed in situ (called Surface Residual Balls, SRBs) can cause beach re-oiling months to years after the initial spill. The physical dynamics of these SRBs in the nearshore, where they are larger (cm-scale) and less dense than natural sediment, are poorly understood. In the current study, SRB mobility and seafloor interaction is investigated through a combination of laboratory and field experiments with pseudo-SRBs developed to be physically stable proxies for genuine agglomerates. Formulations for mobility prediction based on comparing estimated shear stress to the critical Shields and modified Shields parameters developed for mixed sediment beds are assessed against observations. Processes such as burial, exhumation, and interaction with bedforms (e.g., migrating ripples) are also explored. The observations suggest that incipient motion estimates based on a modified Shields parameter have some skill in predicting SRB movement, but that other forcing mechanisms such as pressure gradients may be important under some conditions. Additionally, burial and exhumation due to the relatively high mobility of sand grains are confirmed as key processes controlling SRB dynamics in the surf zone. This work has broad implications for understanding surf zone sediment transport at the short timescale associated with mobilizing sand grains and SRBs as well as at the longer timescales associated with net transport patterns, sediment budgets, and bed elevation changes.

  15. Unstructured multigrid through agglomeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, D. J.; Berger, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    In this work the compressible Euler equations are solved using finite volume techniques on unstructured grids. The spatial discretization employs a central difference approximation augmented by dissipative terms. Temporal discretization is done using a multistage Runge-Kutta scheme. A multigrid technique is used to accelerate convergence to steady state. The coarse grids are derived directly from the given fine grid through agglomeration of the control volumes. This agglomeration is accomplished by using a greedy-type algorithm and is done in such a way that the load, which is proportional to the number of edges, goes down by nearly a factor of 4 when moving from a fine to a coarse grid. The agglomeration algorithm has been implemented and the grids have been tested in a multigrid code. An area-weighted restriction is applied when moving from fine to coarse grids while a trivial injection is used for prolongation. Across a range of geometries and flows, it is shown that the agglomeration multigrid scheme compares very favorably with an unstructured multigrid algorithm that makes use of independent coarse meshes, both in terms of convergence and elapsed times.

  16. New production techniques for alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Carrigy, M A

    1986-12-19

    Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and upgrading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir. PMID:17816505

  17. Liquid bridge agglomeration: A fundamental approach to toner deinking

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, B.A.; Berg, J.C. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    An alternative agglomeration technique for deinking toner-printed furnishes has been investigated. This technique requires only the addition of an immiscible hydrocarbon oil dispersed in water at dosages of approximately 1% by weight on fiber. The addition is made during repulping: the process appears to be effective at all temperatures of interest (23 C and 70 C are tested) and requires no surfactants or additional chemicals. The result of the oil addition is the agglomeration of the toner particles into spheres of 1 mm to 1 cm in size. These spheres contain the added oil which acts as a binder, holding the toner particles together by liquid bridges. The process is ineffective when the furnish contains highly sized fibers or starched paper, and future work seeks to address these crucial problems.

  18. Mining technique finds applications in oil exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Deliac, E.P.; Messines, J.P. ); Thierree, B.A. )

    1991-03-06

    This paper reports that oil exploration companies have taken increased interest in slim hole drilling as practiced by the mining drilling industry in small diameter coring. In addition to providing cores for the entire well, the core hole drilling technique is an attractive exploration method because a well can typically be drilled for approximately 30% less than the cost of a conventionally drilled well. These savings increase even further for remote locations because the smaller core hole rig package reduces logistics and transportation expenses. The worldwide status of slim hole drilling and its applications to the oil industry were surveyed by Exploservices. Based on this survey of slim hole drilling, part of which is documented here, a major research and development project was recently launched by Elf Aquitaine. This multidisciplinary project joined explorationists with drilling and reservoir engineers to analyze existing slim hole techniques and improve them for oil field applications.

  19. Colloidal Instability Fosters Agglomeration of Subvisible Particles Created by Rupture of Gels of a Monoclonal Antibody Formed at Silicone Oil-Water Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Shyam B; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of ionic strength (1.25-231 mM) on viscoelastic interfacial gels formed by a monoclonal antibody at silicone oil-water interfaces, and the formation of subvisible particles due to rupture of these gels. Rates of gel formation and their elastic moduli did not vary significantly with ionic strength. Likewise, during gel rupture no significant effects of ionic strength were observed on particle formation and aggregation as detected by microflow imaging, resonance mass measurement, and size exclusion chromatography. Subvisible particles formed by mechanical rupturing of the gels agglomerated over time, even during quiescent incubation, due to the colloidal instability of the particles. PMID:27422087

  20. The use of starch to enhance sulfur and ash removal from coal by selective oil agglomeration. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, July 1--September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Good, R.J.; Badgujar, M.N.

    1990-12-31

    We have found that the use of starch or gelatin, as an additive in the Otisca T-Process of selective oil agglomeration of coal, leads to a considerable improvement in the reduction of pyritic sulfur and of ash-forming minerals. A patent application has been filed; (Good & Badgugar). Improvement in rejection of pyritic sulfur by up to 55% has been found, and improvement in ash rejection by up to 28%. Carbon recovery of 97.5 to 99.1% was obtained when the starch concentration was in the range, 30 to 200 ppM in the water. Three different bituminous coals were used: Upper Freeport, Kentucky No. 9, and Illinois No. 6.

  1. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

    1999-07-01

    The information presented in this manual is solely for the purpose of operating the POC-scale equipment for fine coal processing as described herein. This manual provides a general description of the process technology and guidelines for plant operating procedures. It is intended for use by the operators and maintenance personnel who will be responsible for the operations of the plant. No attempt should be made to operate the plant until the principles of the process and operating instructions contained in this manual are fully understood. Operating personnel should thoroughly familiarize themselves with all processing equipment prior to commencing plant operation. All equipment is skid mounted to provide a self-contained unit. The dimensions of the unit are comply with standard guidelines. A minimum distance of 2 feet is provided between equipment for walkway and maintenance.

  2. Fuel agglomerates and method of agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wen, Wu-Wey

    1986-01-01

    Solid fuel agglomerates are prepared of particulate coal or other carbonaceous material with a binder having a high humic acid or humate salt content. The humic acid is extracted from oxidized carbonaceous material with a mild aqueous alkali solution of, for instance, ammonia. The particulate material is blended with the extract which serves as the binder for the agglomerates. The water-resistant agglomerates are formed such as by pelletizing, followed by drying to remove moisture and solidify the humic acid binder throughout the agglomerate.

  3. Spatio-temporal variability of surface water quality of fresh water resources in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration, India using geospatial techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Arvind Chandra; Kumar, Amit

    2015-03-01

    Study was conducted in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration (RUA) to assess the surface water quality of major rivers and reservoirs during pre- and post-monsoon periods. Study indicated increase in chemical contaminants and decrease in biological contaminants during monsoon periods and a positive correlation with built-up land within the catchment of surface water sources. The remote sensing-based approach indicated Swarnrekha river and tributaries as more encroached by built-up land (0.73 km2 within 50 m buffer) than Jumar river and its tributaries (0.21 km2). For the proper management of the surface water sources in RUA, government attention and interventions are required to minimize the contamination and safeguard the health of local residents.

  4. Authentication of vegetable oils by chromatographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, R; Aparicio-Ruíz, R

    2000-06-01

    Food authentication has been evolving continually to situations that were basically governed by a global market trend. Analytical techniques have been developed or modified to give plausible solutions to the devious adulterations at each moment. Classical tests have largely been replaced with newer technical procedures, most of which are based on gas chromatography, with some being based on high-performance liquid chromatography. Determination of trans-fatty acid and sterolic composition, together with sterol-dehydration products, have been used most frequently used to detect contamination and adulteration. Sophisticated new adulterations, e.g., olive oil with hazelnut oil, represent a new challenge for the next millennium, although suggestive proposals for detecting these kinds of adulterations are emerging with the contribution of databases and mathematical algorithms. PMID:10905696

  5. Remediation of Sucarnoochee soil by agglomeration with fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, P.S.; Arnold, D.W.; Rahnama, M.B. )

    1994-01-01

    Fine-sized Blue Creek coal was used to remove high molecular weight hydrocarbons from Sucarnoochee soil, a fine-sized high-organic soil. Fine coal in slurry form was blended with Sucarnoochee soil contaminated with 15.0% by wt of crude oil, and agglomerates were removed in a standard flotation cell. Crude oil in the remediated soil was reduced from the original 15.0% to less than a tenth of a wt% by a two-step process. Oil removal of approx. 99.3% was obtained. An added benefit was that the low-grade coal used in the process was simultaneously upgraded. The final level of cleaning was not affected by initial oil concentration. The process compared favorably with a hot water wash technique used to recovery oils from contaminated soil.

  6. Acoustic agglomeration methods and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Methods are described for using acoustic energy to agglomerate fine particles on the order of one micron diameter that are suspended in gas, to provide agglomerates large enough for efficient removal by other techniques. The gas with suspended particles, is passed through the length of a chamber while acoustic energy at a resonant chamber mode is applied to set up one or more acoustic standing wave patterns that vibrate the suspended particles to bring them together so they agglomerate. Several widely different frequencies can be applied to efficiently vibrate particles of widely differing sizes. The standing wave pattern can be applied along directions transversed to the flow of the gas. The particles can be made to move in circles by applying acoustic energy in perpendicular directions with the energy in both directions being of the same wavelength but 90 deg out of phase.

  7. Multidimensional nature of fluidized nanoparticle agglomerates.

    PubMed

    de Martín, Lilian; Bouwman, Wim G; van Ommen, J Ruud

    2014-10-28

    We show that fluidized nanoparticle agglomerates are hierarchical fractal structures with three fractal dimensions: one characterizing sintered aggregates formed during nanoparticle synthesis, one that is also found in stored agglomerates and represents unbroken agglomerates, and one describing the large agglomerates broken during fluidization. This has been possible by using spin-echo small-angle neutron scattering-a relatively novel technique that, for the first time, allowed to characterize in situ the structure of fluidized nanoparticle agglomerates from 21 nm to ∼20 μm. The results show that serial agglomeration mechanisms in the gas phase can generate nanoparticle clusters with different fractal dimensions, contradicting the common approach that considers fluidized nanoparticle agglomerates as single fractals, in analogy to the agglomerates formed by micron-sized particles. This work has important implications for the fluidization field but also has a wider impact. Current studies deal with the formation and properties of clusters where the building blocks are particles and the structure can be characterized by only one fractal dimension. However, fluidized nanoparticle agglomerates are low-dimensional clusters formed by higher-dimensional clusters that are formed by low-dimensional clusters. This multifractality demands a new type of multiscale model able to capture the interplay between different scales. PMID:25313446

  8. Secondary oil recovery techniques improve remediation projects

    SciTech Connect

    Aminian, K.; Ameri, S.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum industry has successfully developed sophisticated oil recovery technologies that could be used for effective contaminant removal from soil and/or groundwater. In enhanced recovery, the residual oil is mobilized through injection of a solvent that is miscible with oil. Soil vapor extraction takes advantage of the highly volatile nature of VOCs in air and the relative ease of moving air through the unsaturated zone to effectively remove VOCs from the soil. A similar approach can be used for groundwater decontamination.

  9. Transfer-free graphene synthesis on sapphire by catalyst metal agglomeration technique and demonstration of top-gate field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Miyoshi, Makoto Arima, Yukinori; Kubo, Toshiharu; Egawa, Takashi; Mizuno, Masaya; Soga, Tetsuo

    2015-08-17

    Transfer-free graphene synthesis was performed on sapphire substrates by using the catalyst metal agglomeration technique, and the graphene film quality was compared to that synthesized on sputtered SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. Raman scattering measurements indicated that the graphene film on sapphire has better structural qualities than that on sputtered SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. The cross-sectional transmission microscopic study also revealed that the film flatness was drastically improved by using sapphire substrates instead of sputtered SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. These quality improvements seemed to be due the chemical and thermal stabilities of sapphire. Top-gate field-effect transistors were fabricated using the graphene films on sapphire, and it was confirmed that their drain current can be modulated with applied gate voltages. The maximum field-effect mobilities were estimated to be 720 cm{sup 2}/V s for electrons and 880 cm{sup 2}/V s for holes, respectively.

  10. New technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Due to the large size and the number of diffusion pumps, space simulation chambers cannot be easily calibrated by the usual test dome method for measuring backstreaming from oil diffusion pumps. In addition, location dependent contamination may be an important parameter of the test. The backstreaming contamination in the Space Power Facility (SPF) near Sandusky, Ohio, the largest space simulation vacuum test chamber in the U.S.A. was measured. Small size clean silicon wafers as contamination sensors placed at all desired measurement sites were used. The facility used diffusion pumps with DC 705 oil. The thickness of the contamination oil film was measured using ellipsometry. Since the oil did not wet uniformly the silicon substrate, two analysis models were developed to measure the oil film: continuous, homogeneous film and islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. In both cases, the contamination film refractive index was assumed to be that of DC 705. The second model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude, especially for the low coverage cases. Comparison of the two models for our case shows that the continuous film model overestimates the oil volume by less than 50 percent. Absolute numbers for backstreaming are in good agreement with published results for diffusion pumps. Good agreement was also found between the ellipsometric results and measurements done by x ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on samples exposed to the same vacuum runs.

  11. Agglomeration of Dust

    SciTech Connect

    Annaratone, B. M.; Arnas, C.; Elskens, Y.

    2008-09-07

    The agglomeration of the matter in plasma, from the atomic level up to millimetre size particles, is here considered. In general we identify a continuous growth, due to deposition, and two agglomeration steps, the first at the level of tens of nanometres and the second above the micron. The agglomeration of nano-particles is attributed to electrostatic forces in presence of charge polarity fluctuations. Here we present a model based on discrete currents. With increasing grain size the positive charge permanence decreases, tending to zero. This effect is only important in the range of nanometre for dust of highly dispersed size. When the inter-particle distance is of the order of the screening length another agglomeration mechanism dominates. It is based on attractive forces, shadow forces or dipole-dipole interaction, overcoming the electrostatic repulsion. In bright plasma radiation pressure also plays a role.

  12. A new shock wave assisted sandalwood oil extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, A. N.; Srinivasa, Y. B.; Ravikumar, G.; Shankaranarayana, K. H.; Rao, K. S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    A new shock wave assisted oil extraction technique from sandalwood has been developed in the Shock Waves Lab, IISc, Bangalore. The fragrant oil extracted from sandalwood finds variety of applications in medicine and perfumery industries. In the present method sandal wood specimens (2.5mm diameter and 25mm in length)are subjected to shock wave loading (over pressure 15 bar)in a constant area shock tube, before extracting the sandal oil using non-destructive oil extraction technique. The results from the study indicates that both the rate of extraction as well as the quantity of oil obtained from sandal wood samples exposed to shock waves are higher (15-40 percent) compared to non-destructive oil extraction technique. The compressive squeezing of the interior oil pockets in the sandalwood specimen due to shock wave loading appears to be the main reason for enhancement in the oil extraction rate. This is confirmed by the presence of warty structures in the cross-section and micro-fissures in the radial direction of the wood samples exposed to shock waves in the scanning electron microscopic investigation. In addition the gas chromatographic studies do not show any change in the q uality of sandal oil extracted from samples exposed to shock waves.

  13. Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

  14. Bioremediation Techniques of Oil Contaminated Soils in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, David

    1996-10-03

    The objective of this project is to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective remediation techniques for crude oil contaminated soils. By providing a guidance manual to oil and gas operators, the Ohio Division of Oil and Gas regulatory authority hopes to reduce remediation costs while improving voluntary compliance with soil clean-up requirements. This shall be accomplished by conducting a series of field tests to define the optimum range for nutrient and organic enhancement to biologically remediate soils contaminated with brines and crude oil having a wide rage of viscosity.

  15. TECHNIQUES FOR MIXING DISPERSANTS WITH SPILLED OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effective use of some oil spill dispersants requires the addition of mixing energy to the dispersant-treated slick. Various methods of energy application have included the use of fire hose streams directed to the water surface, outboard motors mounted on work boats, and the f...

  16. Development and Application of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Complex Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2010-01-01

    We report progress in the development of agglomerated multigrid techniques for fully un- structured grids in three dimensions, building upon two previous studies focused on efficiently solving a model diffusion equation. We demonstrate a robust fully-coarsened agglomerated multigrid technique for 3D complex geometries, incorporating the following key developments: consistent and stable coarse-grid discretizations, a hierarchical agglomeration scheme, and line-agglomeration/relaxation using prismatic-cell discretizations in the highly-stretched grid regions. A signi cant speed-up in computer time is demonstrated for a model diffusion problem, the Euler equations, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for 3D realistic complex geometries.

  17. Agglomeration of ceramic powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, James D.; Larosa, Judith; Dirkse, Fredrick

    1989-01-01

    A research program directed at a critical comparison of numerical models for power agglomeration with experimental observations is currently underway. Central to this program is the quantitative characterization of the distribution of mass within an agglomerate as a function of time. Current experiments are designed to restrict agglomeration to a surface, which is oriented perpendicular to the force of gravity. These experiments are discussed with reference to: their significance to ceramic processing; artifacts which may be avoided in microgravity experiments; and the comparison of information available in real space (from optical microscopy) to that in reciprocal space (from light scattering). The principle machine requirement appears to be a need to obtain information at small scattering angles.

  18. Detecting Oil on Water: A Comparison of Known Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, Vytautas

    1971-01-01

    This paper reviews new developments in oil pollution detection and compares available techniques according to their effectiveness. Emphasis is on in situ and remote sensing techniques, with a potential for real-time, automated operation. No mention is made of traditional methods, requiring that a sample be taken to a laboratory for tests of solubility, chemical reactions, or other properties.

  19. Wintergreen oil: a novel method in Wheatley's trichrome staining technique.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Fatmah Md; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Yasin, Azlin Mohd; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-10-01

    Permanent staining of faecal smears by Wheatley's trichrome technique has been used by many scientists for the detection of parasites in the past and it was found to be highly sensitive. This study was conducted to evaluate the use of Wintergreen oil in comparison with xylene in Wheatley's trichrome staining technique, as the reference technique. In a blind comparison study, 500 collected faecal samples from aboriginal communities were examined. Wintergreen oil was found to be more superior than xylene as a clearing agent in the Wheatley's trichrome staining of polyvinyl alcohol-fixed faecal smears for the identification of intestinal protozoa. Elimination of toxic, carcinogenic, and fire hazards makes Wintergreen oil the preferred choice in routine parasitology examinations. PMID:22986100

  20. Technique for the determination of asphaltenes in crude oil residues

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, C.D.; Huff, G.S.; Gharfeh, S.G.

    1986-12-01

    Recently, the authors reported a method for the determination of saturates, aromatics, and resins in deasphaltened crude oil residues by high-performance liquid chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The present work describes a filtration technique for the determination of asphaltenes in crude oil residues using disposable Millex filters. This technique reduces the filtration, washing, and equilibration time needed for asphaltene determination. Six crude oil residues that varied widely in asphaltene content were used to evaluate the precision of this technique. The values obtained by Millex filters were compared to the values obtained by a conventional method using filter papers. Agreement between the two methods was very good. Several methods have been reported for the separation and determination of asphaltenes. Speight et al. made a survey of the different asphaltene procedures and conducted the experimental work to determine the optimum conditions for asphaltene separation and determination. The operating parameters recommended by Speight were used in this work.

  1. Multifrequency scanning probe microscopy study of nanodiamond agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Vasudeva; Lippold, Stephen; Li, Qian; Strelcov, Evgheny; Okatan, Baris; Legum, Benjamin; Kalinin, Sergei; Clarion University Team; Oak Ridge National Laboratory Team

    Due to their rich surface chemistry and excellent mechanical properties and non-toxic nature, nanodiamond particles have found applications such as biomedicine, tribology and lubrication, targeted drug delivery systems, tissue scaffolds and surgical implants. Although single nanodiamond particles have diameters about 4-5nm, they tend to form agglomerates. While these agglomerates can be useful for some purposes, many applications of nanodiamonds require single particle, disaggregated nanodiamonds. This work is oriented towards studying forces and interactions that contribute to agglomeration in nanodiamonds. In this work, using multifrequency scanning probe microscopy techniques, we show that agglomerate sizes can vary between 50-100nm in raw nanodiamonds. Extremeties of particles and Interfaces between agglomerates show dissipative forces with scanning probe microscope tip, indicating agglomerates could act as points of increased adhesion, thus reducing lubricating efficiency when nanodiamonds are used as lubricant additives. This research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  2. Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, M. P. P.; Andrade, A. A.; Franco, R. W. A.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Sthel, M.; Vargas, H.; Constantino, R.; Baesso, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    In this Letter, thermal lens and open cell photoacoustic techniques are used to measure the thermal properties of biodiesel oils. The absolute values of the thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were determined for samples obtained from soy, castor bean, sunflower and turnip. The results suggest that the employed techniques may be useful as complementary methods for biodiesel certification.

  3. Thermal Characterization of Edible Oils by Using Photopyroelectric Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-Hernández, G.; Suaste-Gómez, E.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.; Sánchez-Sinéncio, F.; Valcárcel, J. P.; García-Quiroz, A.

    2013-05-01

    Thermal properties of several edible oils such as olive, sesame, and grape seed oils were obtained by using the photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. Also, the back photopyroelectric configuration was used to obtain the thermal diffusivity of these oils; this thermal parameter was obtained by fitting the theoretical equation for this configuration, as a function of the sample thickness (called the thermal wave resonator cavity), to the experimental data. All measurements were done at room temperature. A complete thermal characterization of these edible oils was achieved by the relationship between the obtained thermal diffusivities and thermal effusivities with their thermal conductivities and volumetric heat capacities. The obtained results are in agreement with the thermal properties reported for the case of the olive oil.

  4. Influence of excipients and processing conditions on the development of agglomerates of racecadotril by crystallo-co-agglomeration

    PubMed Central

    Garala, Kevin; Patel, Jaydeep; Patel, Anjali; Raval, Mihir; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to improve the flow and mechanical properties of racecadotril by a crystallo-co-agglomeration (CCA) technique. Direct tableting is a requirement of pharmaceutical industries. Poor mechanical properties of crystalline drug particles require wet granulation which is uneconomical, laborious, and tedious. Materials and Methods: The objective of this work was to study the influence of various polymers/excipients and processing conditions on the formation of directly compressible agglomerates of the water-insoluble drug, racecadotril, an antidiarrheal agent. The agglomerates of racecadotril were prepared using dichloromethane (DCM)–water as the crystallization system. DCM acted as a good solvent for racecadotril as well as a bridging liquid for the agglomeration of the crystallized drug and water as the nonsolvent. The prepared agglomerates were tested for micromeritic and mechanical properties. Results: The process yielded ~90 to 96% wt/ wt spherical agglomerates containing racecadotril with the diameter between 299 and 521 μ. A higher rotational speed of crystallization system reduces the size of the agglomerates and disturbs the sphericity. Spherical agglomerates were generated with a uniform dispersion of the crystallized drug. CCA showed excellent flowability and crushing strength. Conclusion: Excipients and processing conditions can play a key role in preparing spherical agglomerates of racecadotril by CCA, an excellent alternative to the wet granulation process to prepare intermediates for direct compression. PMID:23580935

  5. Laboratory techniques for investigating recovery in heavy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Maini, B.; Sayegh, S.

    1983-01-01

    Although general guidelines have been published in the literature for selecting the most suitable tertiary recovery technique for a given reservoir, the actual design of a commercial enhanced recovery scheme is a time- consuming and expensive process requiring computer simulations, experimental field pilots, and extensive laboratory tests. The objective of this work is to review laboratory testing procedures related to heavy oil recovery and to provide reservoir and production engineers with an insight into such procedures so that they may better appreciate their potentials and limitations. The topics discussed include characterization of stock tank oils, phase behavior measurements of oil/gas systems, measurements of relative permeability, and its temperature dependence and core tests for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ stimulation. 22 references.

  6. Thermal Stability of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) Nanocrystalline Cellulose: Effects of post-treatment of oven drying and solvent exchange techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indarti, E.; Marwan; Wanrosli, W. D.

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystallinecellulose (NCC) from biomass is a promising material with huge potentials in various applications. A big challenge in its utilization is the agglomeration of the NCC's during processing due to hydrogen bonding among the cellulose chains when in close proximity to each other. Obtaining NCC's in a non-agglomerated and non-aqueous condition is challenging. In the present work NCC's was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) using TEMPO-oxidation reaction method. To obtain non-agglomerated and non-aqueous products, the NCC's underwent post-treatment using oven drying (OD) and solvent exchanged (SE) techniques. The thermal stability of all samples was determined from TGA and DTG profiles whilst FTIR was used to analyzethe chemical modifications that occurred under these conditions. NCC-SE has better thermal stability than the NCC-OD and its on-set degradation temperature and residue are also higher. FTIR analysis shows that NCC-SE has a slightly different chemical composition whereby the absorption band at 1300 cm-1 (due to C-O symmetric stretching) is absent as compared to NCC-OD indicating that in NCC-SE the carboxylate group is in acid form which contribute to its thermal stability

  7. Spectral Element Agglomerate AMGe

    SciTech Connect

    Chartier, T; Falgout, R; Henson, V E; Jones, J E; Vassilevski, P S; Manteuffel, T A; McCormick, S F; Ruge, J W

    2005-05-20

    The purpose of this note is to describe an algorithm resulting from the uniting of two ideas introduced and applied elsewhere. For many problems, AMG has always been difficult due to complexities whose natures are difficult to discern from the entries of matrix A alone. Element-based interpolation has been shown to be an effective method for some of these problems, but it requires access to the element matrices on all levels. One way to obtain these has been to perform element agglomeration to form coarse elements, but in complicated situations defining the coarse degrees of freedom (dofs) is not easy. The spectral approach to coarse dof selection is very attractive due to its elegance and simplicity. The algorithm presented here combines the robustness of element interpolation, the ease of coarsening by element agglomeration, and the simplicity of defining coarse dofs through the spectral approach. As demonstrated in the numerical results, the method does yield a reasonable solver for the problems described. It can, however, be an expensive method due to the number and cost of the local, small dense linear algebra problems; making it a generally competitive method remains an area for further research.

  8. Agglomeration multigrid for the three-dimensional Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    A multigrid procedure that makes use of coarse grids generated by the agglomeration of control volumes is advocated as a practical approach for solving the three dimensional Euler equations on unstructured grids about complex configurations. It is shown that the agglomeration procedure can be tailored to achieve certain coarse grid properties such as the sizes of the coarse grids and aspect ratios of the coarse grid cells. The agglomeration is done as a preprocessing step and runs in linear time. The implications for multigrid of using arbitrary polyhedral coarse grids are discussed. The agglomeration multigrid technique compares very favorably with existing multigrid procedures both in terms of convergence rates and elapsed times. The main advantage of the present approach is the ease with which coarse grids of any desired degree of coarseness may be generated in three dimensions, without being constrained by considerations of geometry. Inviscid flows over a variety of complex configurations are computed using the agglomeration multigrid strategy.

  9. Crystal growth and agglomeration of calcium sulfite hemihydrate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, C.Y.; Chen, P.C.

    1995-04-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes are most commonly utilized to remove sulfur dioxide from stack gases of coal- or oil-fired plants. In the simple slurry technology, SO{sub 2} is absorbed by a slurry of lime/limestone to form calcium sulfite crystals of acicular habit and its strong agglomeration, requiring large clarifiers and filters to dewater the sludge to make an acceptable landfill. Crystal growth and agglomeration of calcium sulfite hemihydrate crystals from solution were studied by reacting Ca(OH){sub 2} with NaHSO{sub 3} in a pH-stat semibatch crystallizer. Single platelet crystals and agglomerates of platelet crystals were produced in the pH range from 5.80 to 6.80. The crystallization mechanism changed from primary nucleation to crystal growth in the progressive precipitation. Using the titration curves, the growth rate was calculated from the titration rate at the final stage of operation. The crystal growth rates of calcium sulfate hemihydrate crystals were found to obey the parabolic rate law in the low supersaturation range. Another point to be noted is that the precipitates of calcium sulfite hemihydrate in agitated suspensions have a tendency to form agglomerates. It was found that the degree of agglomeration is a weak function of relative supersaturation and magma density, while the pH value is a key factor that affects the degree of agglomeration. Addition of EDTA also has an effect on the agglomeration of calcium sulfite hemihydrates.

  10. Oil combatting in a cold environment using bioremediation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Rytkoenen, J.; Liukkonen, S.; Levchenko, A.; Worthington, T.; Matishov, G.; Petrov, V.

    1995-12-31

    The clean-up of oil spills in the Arctic environment is often limited by severe and cold environmental conditions. Mechanical methods are usually considered to be most favorable for oil spill combatting. However, remote spill sites, long distances, severe environmental conditions and sensitive ecosystems mean that more advanced combatting techniques are also needed to back up conventional recovery and clean-up measures. This paper describes the results of macro-scale tests conducted by VTT Manufacturing Technology to study the effectiveness of biosorbent technology against marine oil spills. The use of biosorbents was studied as a joint research project involving VTT (Finland) and the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (Russia). Selected biosorbent products of Marine Systems, U.S.A., and the Bios Group, Russia, were used in macro-scale tests conducted in a basin measuring 15.0 {times} 3.0 m in length and width, respectively. This paper outlines the macro-scale test project, including microbiological and chemical studies, supported by toxicity tests and various analyses to understand better the fate of oil, especially the degree of biodegradation during the test.

  11. Fiber optic remote inspecting technique for caverned large oil tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weilai; Jiang, Desheng; Cao, He

    2000-12-01

    In the management of caverned fuel oil inventory, a strict rule of fire control has always been the first priority due to the special conditions. It is always a challenge to perform automatic measurement by means of conventional electrical devices for inspecting oil tank level there. Introduced in this paper is a fiber optic gauging technique with millimeter precision for automatic measurement in caverned tanks. Instead of using any electrical device, it uses optical encoders and optical fibers for converting and transmitting signals. Its principle, specifications, installation and applications are discussed in detail. Theoretical analysis of the factors affecting its accuracy, stability, and special procedures adopted in the installation of the fiber optic gauge are also discussed.

  12. Fragmentation and bond strength of airborne diesel soot agglomerates

    PubMed Central

    Rothenbacher, Sonja; Messerer, Armin; Kasper, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Background The potential of diesel soot aerosol particles to break up into smaller units under mechanical stress was investigated by a direct impaction technique which measures the degree of fragmentation of individual agglomerates vs. impact energy. Diesel aerosol was generated by an idling diesel engine used for passenger vehicles. Both the aerosol emitted directly and aerosol that had undergone additional growth by Brownian coagulation ("aging") was investigated. Optionally a thermo-desoption technique at 280°C was used to remove all high-volatility and the majority of low-volatility HC adsorbates from the aerosol before aging. Results It was found that the primary soot agglomerates emitted directly from the engine could not be fragmented at all. Soot agglomerates permitted to grow additionally by Brownian coagulation of the primary emitted particles could be fragmented to a maximum of 75% and 60% respectively, depending on whether adsorbates were removed from their surface prior to aging or not. At most, these aged agglomerates could be broken down to roughly the size of the agglomerates from the primary emission. The energy required for a 50% fragmentation probability of all bonds within an agglomerate was reduced by roughly a factor of 2 when aging "dry" agglomerates. Average bond energies derived from the data were 0.52*10-16 and 1.2*10-16 J, respectively. This is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than estimates for pure van-der-Waals agglomerates, but agrees quite well with other observations. Conclusion Although direct conclusions regarding the behavior of inhaled diesel aerosol in contact with body fluids cannot be drawn from such measurements, the results imply that highly agglomerated soot aerosol particles are unlikely to break up into units smaller than roughly the size distribution emitted as tail pipe soot. PMID:18533015

  13. Particle Agglomeration in Bipolar Barb Agglomerator Under AC Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao; Ma, Xiuqin; Sun, Youshan; Wang, Meiyan; Zhang, Changping; Lou, Yueya

    2015-04-01

    The development of an efficient technology for removing fine particles in flue gas is essential as the haze is becoming more and more serious. To improve agglomeration effectiveness of fine particles, a dual zone electric agglomeration device consisting of a charging chamber and an agglomeration chamber with bipolar barb electrodes was developed. The bipolar barb electric agglomerator with a polar distance of 200 mm demonstrates good agglomeration effectiveness for particles with a size less than 8.0 μm under applied AC electric field. An optimal condition for achieving better agglomeration effectiveness was found to be as follows: flue gas flow velocity of 3.00 m/s, particle concentration of 2.00 g/m3, output voltage of 35 kV and length of the barb of 16 mm. In addition, 4.0-6.0 μm particles have the best effectiveness with the variation of particle volume occupancy of -3.2. supported by the Key Technology R&D Program of Hebei, China (No. 13211207D)

  14. Experimental research on No-oil ignition technique of pulverized coal/coal-water-slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Zhijun; Fan Haojie; Tu Jianhua

    1997-07-01

    With new coal-fired boilers going into operation and widespread application of substitute-oil fuel such as Coal-Water-Slurry, many oil-fired boiler may stop firing oil. But the ignition of coal-fired boilers stabilizing combustion under low load also need a large amount of oil. Information show that it will consume 5t for a 50MW unit boiler to start one time and for a 125NM unit, 15t oil will be consumed. It will consume 50t oil for a 200NM unit boiler to start one time and 1000t/year on stabilizing combustion. A 600MW unit, according to information from USA, will consume 300t oil to start one time, and 23300t oil are needed for one year. So, the amount of oil used to ignite coal and stabilize combustion are very considerable. Due to attaching importance to conserving oil, novel ignition and stabilizing techniques (such as pulverized coal pre-combustion chamber technique, blunt body burner, boat-shaped burner, great-velocity-difference combustion stabilizing technique, dense-thin phase combustion stabilizing technique and plasma ignition technique) are come out these ten years, and oil consumption for ignition and stabilizing are decreased greatly. Among them, only plasma ignition technique is a kind of ignition technique without oil. Although the others can conserve a large amount of oil during ignition and low load condition, total oil consumption are still very considerable. And plasma ignition technique is not adapt to coal-water-slurry ignition. Therefore, this paper presents a novel ignition technique: electrical thermal chamber ignition technique adapting pulverized coal (PC) and coal-water-slurry (CWS), which absorbs the advantage of pre-combustion chamber technique and does not consume oil.

  15. Hydrophobic Agglomeration of Mineral Fines in Aqueous Suspensions and its Application in Flotation: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bingqiao; Song, Shaoxian

    2014-05-01

    Hydrophobic agglomeration is originated from the hydrophobic attraction between particles, which is essentially different from electrolyte coagulation and polymer flocculation. It is applied to mineral processing in floc-flotation process to improve the recovery of mineral fines. In this paper, the applications of this phenomenon in mineral fines were summarized, including the origin of hydrophobic agglomeration, the main factors affect hydrophobic agglomeration (particle hydrophobicity, shear rate and duration, nonpolar oil and tank geometry), as well as hydrophobic agglomeration based separation processes (carrier flotation and floc-flotation).

  16. Inverse gas chromatography and other chromatographic techniques in the examination of engine oils.

    PubMed

    Fall, Jacek; Voelkel, Adam

    2002-09-01

    The emerging market of engine oils consists of a number of products from different viscosity and quality classes. Determination of the base oil used in manufacturing of the final product (engine oil) as well as estimation of mutual miscibility of oils and their solubility could be crucial problems. Inverse gas chromatography and other chromatographic techniques are presented as an interesting and fruitful extension of normalised standard analytical methods used in the oil industry. PMID:12385390

  17. Coal Cleaning by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Meiyu Shen; Royce Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1998-03-01

    The gas agglomeration method of coal cleaning was demonstrated with laboratory scale mixing equipment which made it possible to generate microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions of coal particles. A small amount of i-octane was introduced to enhance the hydrophobicity of the coal. Between 1.0 and 2.5 v/w% i-octane was sufficient based on coal weight. Coal agglomerates or aggregates were produced which were bound together by small gas bubbles.

  18. Recent Advances in Agglomerated Multigrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Hammond, Dana P.

    2013-01-01

    We report recent advancements of the agglomerated multigrid methodology for complex flow simulations on fully unstructured grids. An agglomerated multigrid solver is applied to a wide range of test problems from simple two-dimensional geometries to realistic three- dimensional configurations. The solver is evaluated against a single-grid solver and, in some cases, against a structured-grid multigrid solver. Grid and solver issues are identified and overcome, leading to significant improvements over single-grid solvers.

  19. Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Hersman, L.

    1995-11-01

    Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs.

  20. MTCI acoustic agglomeration particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Chandran, R.R.; Mansour, M.N.; Scaroni, A.W.; Koopmann, G.H.; Loth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate pulse combination induced acoustic enhancement of coal ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions typical of direct coal-fired turbines and PFBC hot gas cleanup. MTCI has developed an advanced compact pulse combustor island for direct coal-firing in combustion gas turbines. This combustor island comprises a coal-fired pulse combustor, a combined ash agglomeration and sulfur capture chamber (CAASCC), and a hot cyclone. In the MTCI proprietary approach, the pulse combustion-induced high intensity sound waves improve sulfur capture efficiency and ash agglomeration. The resulting agglomerates allow the use of commercial cyclones and achieve very high particulate collection efficiency. In the MTCI proprietary approach, sorbent particles are injected into a gas stream subjected to an intense acoustic field. The acoustic field serves to improve sulfur capture efficiency by enhancing both gas film and intra-particle mass transfer rates. In addition, the sorbent particles act as dynamic filter foci, providing a high density of stagnant agglomerating centers for trapping the finer entrained (in the oscillating flow field) fly ash fractions. A team has been formed with MTCI as the prime contractor and Penn State University and West Virginia University as subcontractors to MTCI. MTCI is focusing on hardware development and system demonstration, PSU is investigating and modeling acoustic agglomeration and sulfur capture, and WVU is studying aerovalve fluid dynamics. Results are presented from all three studies.

  1. Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meiyu

    The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method for agglomerating coal particles with microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions. In Part I, the development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During batch agglomeration tests the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspension. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. It was shown that gas bubbles trigger the process of agglomeration and participate in a very complex mechanism involving the interaction of particles, oil droplets, and gas bubbles. The process takes place in stages involving dispersion of oil and gas, flocculation, coagulation, and agglomerate building. Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with two kinds of coal in concentrated suspensions to determine the important characteristics of the process and to study the effects of the following operating parameters: i-octane concentration, air concentration, particle concentration, tank diameter, impeller diameter, and impeller speed

  2. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhimin

    In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over

  3. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  4. Characterization of used mineral oil condition by spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Vanhanen, Jarmo; Rinkiö, Marcus; Aumanen, Jukka; Korppi-Tommola, Jouko; Kolehmainen, Erkki; Kerkkänen, Tuula; Törmä, Päivi

    2004-08-20

    Optical absorption, fluorescence, and quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy have been used to study the degradation of mineral gearbox oil. Samples of used oil were collected from field service. Measured absorption, fluorescence, and quantitative 13C NMR spectra of used oils show characteristic changes from the spectra of a fresh oil sample. A clearly observable, approximately 20-nm blueshift of the fluorescence emission occurs during the early stages of oil use and correlates with changes in intensity of some specific 13C NMR resonance lines. These changes correlate with oil age because of the connection between the blueshift and breaking of the larger conjugated hydrocarbons of oil as a result of use. PMID:15352397

  5. Air agglomeration of hydrophobic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The agglomeration of hydrophobic particles in an aqueous suspension was accomplished by introducing small amounts of air into the suspension while it was agitated vigorously. The extent of aggregation was proportional both to the air to solids ratio and to the hydrophobicity of the solids. For a given air/solids ratio, the extent of aggregation of different materials increased in the following order: graphite, gilsonite, coal coated with heptane, and Teflon. The structure of agglomerates produced from coarse Teflon particles differed noticeably from the structure of bubble-particle aggregates produced from smaller, less hydrophobic particles.

  6. Agglomeration behaviour of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in river waters: A multi-method approach combining light scattering and field-flow fractionation techniques.

    PubMed

    Chekli, L; Roy, M; Tijing, L D; Donner, E; Lombi, E; Shon, H K

    2015-08-15

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are currently one of the most prolifically used nanomaterials, resulting in an increasing likelihood of release to the environment. This is of concern as the potential toxicity of TiO2 NPs has been investigated in several recent studies. Research into their fate and behaviour once entering the environment is urgently needed to support risk assessment and policy development. In this study, we used a multi-method approach combining light scattering and field-flow fractionation techniques to assess both the aggregation behaviour and aggregate structure of TiO2 NPs in different river waters. Results showed that both the aggregate size and surface-adsorbed dissolved organic matter (DOM) were strongly related to the initial DOM concentration of the tested waters (i.e. R(2) > 0.90) suggesting that aggregation of TiO2 NPs is controlled by the presence and concentration of DOM. The conformation of the formed aggregates was also found to be strongly related to the surface-adsorbed DOM (i.e. R(2) > 0.95) with increasing surface-adsorbed DOM leading to more compact structures. Finally, the concentration of TiO2 NPs remaining in the supernatant after sedimentation of the larger aggregates was found to decrease proportionally with both increasing IS and decreasing DOM concentration, resulting in more than 95% sedimentation in the highest IS sample. PMID:26067894

  7. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  8. An analysis of oil and gas supply modeling techniques and a survey of offshore supply models

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report surveys the literature on empirical oil and gas supply modeling techniques. These techniques are categorized as either geologic/engineering, econometric, or hybrid - the last being a combination of geologic and econometric techniques. The geologic/ engineering models are further disaggregated into play analysis models and discovery process models. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the models are discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of how these techniques have been applied to offshore oil and gas supply.

  9. Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multilevel Monte-Carlo Library

    SciTech Connect

    2015-02-19

    ElagMC is a parallel C++ library for Multilevel Monte Carlo simulations with algebraically constructed coarse spaces. ElagMC enables Multilevel variance reduction techniques in the context of general unstructured meshes by using the specialized element-based agglomeration techniques implemented in ELAG (the Element-Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid and Upscaling Library developed by U. Villa and P. Vassilevski and currently under review for public release). The ElabMC library can support different type of deterministic problems, including mixed finite element discretizations of subsurface flow problems.

  10. Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multilevel Monte-Carlo Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-02-19

    ElagMC is a parallel C++ library for Multilevel Monte Carlo simulations with algebraically constructed coarse spaces. ElagMC enables Multilevel variance reduction techniques in the context of general unstructured meshes by using the specialized element-based agglomeration techniques implemented in ELAG (the Element-Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid and Upscaling Library developed by U. Villa and P. Vassilevski and currently under review for public release). The ElabMC library can support different type of deterministic problems, including mixed finite element discretizationsmore » of subsurface flow problems.« less

  11. Suitability of online 3D visualization technique in oil palm plantation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat, Ruzinoor Che; Nordin, Norani; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm industry has been the backbone for the growth of Malaysia economy. The exports of this commodity increasing almost every year. Therefore, there are many studies focusing on how to help this industry increased its productivity. In order to increase the productivity, the management of oil palm plantation need to be improved and strengthen. One of the solution in helping the oil palm manager is by implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation using game engine technology. The potential of this application is that it can helps in fertilizer and irrigation management. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to investigate the issues in managing oil palm plantation from the view of oil palm manager by interview. The results from this interview will helps in identifying the suitable issues could be highlight in implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation management.

  12. A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Convergence rates of multigrid cycles are verified with quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the two-grid cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.

  13. A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James L.; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and highly stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Actual cycle results are verified using quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of agglomerated crystals by crystallo-co-agglomeration: an integrated approach of principal component analysis and Box-Behnken experimental design.

    PubMed

    Garala, Kevin C; Patel, Jaydeep M; Dhingani, Anjali P; Dharamsi, Abhay T

    2013-08-16

    Poor mechanical properties of crystalline drug particles require wet granulation technique for tablet production which is uneconomical, laborious, and tedious. The present investigation was aimed to improve flow and mechanical properties of racecadotril (RCD), a poorly water soluble antidiarrheal agent, by a crystallo-co-agglomeration (CCA) technique. The influence of various excipients and processing conditions on formation of directly compressible agglomerates of RCD was evaluated. Principal component analysis and Box-Behnken experimental design was implemented to optimize the agglomerates with good micromeritics and mechanical properties. The overall yield of the process was 88-98% with size of agglomerates between 351 and 1214 μm. Further, higher rotational speed reduced the size of agglomerates and disturbed sphericity. The optimized batch of agglomerates exhibited excellent flowability and crushing strength. The optimized batch of RCD agglomerates was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry and gas chromatography which illustrated absence of drug-excipient interaction with minimal entrapment of residual solvent. Hence, it may be concluded that both excipients and processing conditions played a vital role to prepare spherical crystal agglomerates of RCD by CCA and it can be adopted as an excellent alternative to wet granulation. PMID:23684660

  15. A new technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the large size and the number of diffusion pumps, space simulation chambers cannot be easily calibrated by the usual test dome method for measuring backstreaming from oil diffusion pumps. In addition, location dependent contamination may be an important parameter of the test. The backstreaming contamination was measured in the Space Power Facility (SPF) near Sandusky, OH, the largest space simulation vacuum test chamber in the U.S.. Small clean silicon wafers placed at all desired measurement sites were used as contamination sensors. The facility used diffusion pumps with DC 705 oil. The thickness of the contamination oil film was measured using ellipsometry. Since the oil did not wet the silicon substrate uniformly, two analysis models were developed to measure the oil film: (1) continuous, homogeneous film; and (2) islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. In both cases, the contamination film refractive index was assumed to be that of DC 705. The second model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude, especially for the low coverage cases. Comparison of the two models shows that the continuous film model overestimates the oil volume by less than 50 percent. Absolute numbers for backstreaming are in good agreement with published results for diffusion pumps. Good agreement was also found between the ellipsometric results and measurements done by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on examples exposed to the same vacuum runs.

  16. [Bio-remediation techniques of crude oil contaminated soils].

    PubMed

    Li, Peijun; Guo, Shuhai; Sun, Tieheng; Tai, Peidong; Zhang, Chungui; Bai, Yuxing; Sun, Qiang; Sheng, Ping

    2002-11-01

    The bioremediation of soils contaminated by different types of petroleum were carried out with composting process in a prepared bed. By the measures of nutrient- and microbiological agent addition, and moisture- and pH control, an ideal environment for microbes were obtained. When total petroleum hydrocarbons, which consist of thin oil, high condensation oil, special viscous oil, and viscous oil, were in the range of 25.8-77.2 g.kg-1 dry soil, the petroleum removal rate could reach 38.37-56.74% by 2 months operation. The contents of aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltum and resin were important factors controlling the degradation of petroleum. 6 fungi, 6 bacteria and 1 actinomyces were found to be the dominant strains for petroleum degradation. The results could provide theoretical bases for remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum. PMID:12625007

  17. Microstickies agglomeration by electric field.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaotang Tony; Hsieh, Jeffery S

    2016-01-01

    Microstickies deposits on both paper machine and paper products when it agglomerates under step change in ionic strength, pH, temperature and chemical additives. These stickies increase the down time of the paper mill and decrease the quality of paper. The key property of microstickies is its smaller size, which leads to low removal efficiency and difficulties in measurement. Thus the increase of microstickies size help improve both removal efficiency and reduce measurement difficulty. In this paper, a new agglomeration technology based on electric field was investigated. The electric treatment could also increase the size of stickies particles by around 100 times. The synergetic effect between electric field treatment and detacky chemicals/dispersants, including polyvinyl alcohol, poly(diallylmethylammonium chloride) and lignosulfonate, was also studied. PMID:27332828

  18. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  19. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1995-01-01

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 mm) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. It is generally recognized that surface-based separation processes such as froth flotation or selective agglomeration offer considerable potential for such applications but there remain many problems in obtaining the required selectivity with acceptable recovery of combustible matter. In froth flotation, selectivity is substantially reduced at fine sizes due, primarily, to overloading of the froth phase which leads to excessive carryover of water and entrained mineral matter. Oil agglomeration, on the other hand, can provide good selectivity at low levels of oil addition but the agglomerates tend to be too fragile for separation by the screening methods normally used. The addition of larger amounts of oil can yield large, strong agglomerates which are easily separated but the selectivity is reduced and reagent costs can become excessive. We are investigating the use of a hybrid process - micro-agglomerate flotation - which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30-50 mm in size) rather than individual coal particles (1-10 mm) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. Micro-agglomerate flotation has considerable potential for the practical deep cleaning of coal on a commercial scale.

  20. Tests of absorbents and solidification techniques for oil wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.; MacKenzie, D. R.

    1983-11-01

    A representative of each of six classes of commonly used adsorbents was chosen for a series of tests. After reviewing ASTM and other related standard tests, uncomplicated procedures were developed for carrying out specific tests to determine absorbency for simulated oil waste and for water, under static and simulated transportation (repetitive shock) conditions. The tests were then applied to the six representative absorbents. Solidification tests were performed using these absorbents saturated with oil and loaded to 50% of saturation. The binders used were Portland I cement and Delaware Custom Material (DCM) cement shale silicate. Samples were checked for proper set, and the amounts of free liquid were measured. Another series of tests was performed on samples of simulated oil waste without absorbent, using Portland cement and DCM cement shale silicate. Samples were checked for proper set, free liquid was measured, and compressive strengths were determined. The state-of-the-art parameters were identified which satisfy NRC disposal criteria for solidified radioactive waste. The literature was reviewed for alternative methods of managing oil wastes. Conclusions are drawn on the relative utility of the various methods. 17 references, 3 tables.

  1. A technique for evaluating the oil/heavy-oil viscosity changes under ultrasound in a simulated porous medium.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Hossein; Mohammadian, Erfan; Junin, Radzuan; Rafati, Roozbeh; Manan, Mohammad; Azdarpour, Amin; Junid, Mundzir

    2014-02-01

    Theoretically, Ultrasound method is an economical and environmentally friendly or "green" technology, which has been of interest for more than six decades for the purpose of enhancement of oil/heavy-oil production. However, in spite of many studies, questions about the effective mechanisms causing increase in oil recovery still existed. In addition, the majority of the mechanisms mentioned in the previous studies are theoretical or speculative. One of the changes that could be recognized in the fluid properties is viscosity reduction due to radiation of ultrasound waves. In this study, a technique was developed to investigate directly the effect of ultrasonic waves (different frequencies of 25, 40, 68 kHz and powers of 100, 250, 500 W) on viscosity changes of three types of oil (Paraffin oil, Synthetic oil, and Kerosene) and a Brine sample. The viscosity calculations in the smooth capillary tube were based on the mathematical models developed from the Poiseuille's equation. The experiments were carried out for uncontrolled and controlled temperature conditions. It was observed that the viscosity of all the liquids was decreased under ultrasound in all the experiments. This reduction was more significant for uncontrolled temperature condition cases. However, the reduction in viscosity under ultrasound was higher for lighter liquids compare to heavier ones. Pressure difference was diminished by decreasing in the fluid viscosity in all the cases which increases fluid flow ability, which in turn aids to higher oil recovery in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Higher ultrasound power showed higher liquid viscosity reduction in all the cases. Higher ultrasound frequency revealed higher and lower viscosity reduction for uncontrolled and controlled temperature condition experiments, respectively. In other words, the reduction in viscosity was inversely proportional to increasing the frequency in temperature controlled experiments. It was concluded that cavitation

  2. Study of Oil spill in Norwegian area using Decomposition Techniques on RISAT-1 Hybrid Polarimetric Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasri, P. V.; Usha Sundari, H. S. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Prasad, A. V. V.

    2014-11-01

    Over past few years Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) has received a considerable attention for monitoring and detection of oil spill due to its unique capabilities to provide wide-area surveillance and day and night measurements, almost independently from atmospheric conditions. The critical part of the oil spill detection is to distinguish oil spills from other natural phenomena. Stokes vector analysis of the image data is studied to estimate the polarized circular and linear components of the backscatter signal which essentially utilize the degree of polarization(m) and relative phase (δ) of the target. In a controlled oil spill experiment conducted at Norwegian bay during 17th to 22nd June 2014, RISAT-1 hybrid polarimetry images were utilized to study the characteristics of oil spill in the sea. The preliminary results obtained by using polarimetric decomposition technique on hybrid polarimetric data to decipher the polarimetric characteristics of oil spills from natural waters are discussed in the paper.

  3. Boundary-layer transition and global skin friction measurement with an oil-fringe imaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, Daryl J.; Mateer, George G.; Menter, Florian R.

    1993-01-01

    A new oil-fringe imaging system skin friction (FISF) technique to measure skin friction on wind tunnel models is presented. In the method used to demonstrate the technique, lines of oil are applied on surfaces that connect the intended sets of measurement points, and then a wind tunnel is run so that the oil thins and forms interference fringes that are spaced in proportion to local skin friction. After a run the fringe spacings are imaged with a CCD-array digital camera and measured on a computer. Skin friction and transition measurements on a two-dimensional wing are presented and compared with computational predictions.

  4. Boundary-layer transition and global skin friction measurement with an oil-fringe imaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, Daryl J.; Mateer, George G.; Menter, Florian R.

    1993-01-01

    A new oil-fringe imaging fkin friction (FISF) technique to measure skin friction on wind tunnel models is presented. In the method used to demonstrate the technique, lines of oil are applied on surfaces that connect the intended sets of measurement points, and then a wind tunnel is run so that the oil thins and forms interference fringes that are spaced proportional to local skin friction. After a run the fringe spacings are imaged with a CCD-array digital camera and measured on a computer. Skin friction and transition measurements on a two-dimensional wing are presented and compared with computational predictions.

  5. Agglomeration multigrid for viscous turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.

    1994-01-01

    Agglomeration multigrid, which has been demonstrated as an efficient and automatic technique for the solution of the Euler equations on unstructured meshes, is extended to viscous turbulent flows. For diffusion terms, coarse grid discretizations are not possible, and more accurate grid transfer operators are required as well. A Galerkin coarse grid operator construction and an implicit prolongation operator are proposed. Their suitability is evaluated by examining their effect on the solution of Laplace's equation. The resulting strategy is employed to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for aerodynamic flows. Convergence rates comparable to those obtained by a previously developed non-nested mesh multigrid approach are demonstrated, and suggestions for further improvements are given.

  6. Powder agglomeration in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, James D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA Grant NAG3-755 entitled 'Powder Agglomeration in a Microgravity Environment.' The research program included both two types of numerical models and two types of experiments. The numerical modeling included the use of Monte Carlo type simulations of agglomerate growth including hydrodynamic screening and molecular dynamics type simulations of the rearrangement of particles within an agglomerate under a gravitational field. Experiments included direct observation of the agglomeration of submicron alumina and indirect observation, using small angle light scattering, of the agglomeration of colloidal silica and aluminum monohydroxide. In the former class of experiments, the powders were constrained to move on a two-dimensional surface oriented to minimize the effect of gravity. In the latter, some experiments involved mixture of suspensions containing particles of opposite charge which resulted in agglomeration on a very short time scale relative to settling under gravity.

  7. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, R.

    1996-01-01

    This three-year project had two technical objectives. The first objective was to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes were compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, particulates, and microorganisms. The ultimate goals of these comparisons were to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments were performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project was to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. A capacity to reduce water permeability much more than oil or gas permeability is critical to the success of gel treatments in production wells if zones cannot be isolated during gel placement. Topics covered in this report include (1) determination of gel properties in fractures, (2) investigation of schemes to optimize gel placement in fractured systems, (3) an investigation of why some polymers and gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability, (4) consideration of whether microorganisms and particulates can exhibit placement properties that are superior to those of gels, and (5) examination of when foams may show placement properties that are superior to those of gels.

  8. Non-thermal plasma as preparative technique to evaluate olive oil adulteration.

    PubMed

    Van Durme, Jim; Vandamme, Jeroen

    2016-10-01

    In recent years adulteration of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with other types of vegetable oils has become an important issue. In this study, non-thermal plasma (NTP) is investigated as an innovative preparative analytical technique enabling classification of adulterated olive oil from an ascertained authentic batch of olive oil in a more sensitive manner. Non-thermal plasma discharges are a source of highly oxidative species such as singlet oxygen, and atomic oxygen. It was assumed that NTP-induced oxidation triggers unique lipid oxidation mechanisms depending on the specific composition of the oil matrix and minor constituents. In this work EVOO samples were adulterated with sunflower oil (1-3%) and submitted to NTP treatment. Results showed that while untreated samples could not be classified from the authentic olive oil reference, NTP treatments of 60min (Ar/O2 0.1%) on the oil batches resulted in the formation of a unique set of secondary volatile lipid oxidation products enabling classification of adulterated oil samples. PMID:27132839

  9. Reversible or not? Distinguishing agglomeration and aggregation at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Stanislav V; Tschulik, Kristina; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Compton, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles are prone to clustering either via aggregation (irreversible) or agglomeration (reversible) processes. It is exceedingly difficult to distinguish the two via conventional techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), or electron microscopy imaging (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) as such techniques only generally confirm the presence of large particle clusters. Herein we develop a joint approach to tackle the issue of distinguishing between nanoparticle aggregation vs agglomeration by characterizing a colloidal system of Ag NPs using DLS, NTA, SEM imaging and the electrochemical nanoimpacts technique. In contrast to the conventional techniques which all reveal the presence of large clusters of particles, electrochemical nanoimpacts provide information regarding individual nanoparticles in the solution phase and reveal the presence of small nanoparticles (<30 nm) even in high ionic strength (above 0.5 M KCl) and allow a more complete analysis. The detection of small nanoparticles in high ionic strength media evidence the clustering to be a reversible process. As a result it is concluded that agglomeration rather than irreversible aggregation takes place. This observation is of general importance for all colloids as it provides a feasible analysis technique for a wide range of systems with an ability to distinguish subtly different processes. PMID:26352558

  10. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1995-07-01

    The development, of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 mm) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. In froth flotation, selectivity is substantially reduced at fine sizes due, primarily, to overloading of the froth phase which leads to excessive carryover of water and entrained mineral matter. Oil agglomeration, on the other hand, can provide good selectivity at low levels of oil addition but the agglomerates tend to be too fragile for separation by the screening methods normally used. This project is concerned with a hydrid process, micro-agglomerate flotation, which is a combination of oil agglomeration and froth flotation.

  11. Development of Promising Insulating Oil and Applied Techniques of EHD, ER·MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanaoka, Ryoichi

    The development of an environment-friendly insulating liquid has been noticed for a new design of oil-filled power apparatus such as transformer from viewpoints of the protection of the environment. The dielectric liquids can also widely be applied to various fields which are concerned in the electromagnetic field. This article introduces the recent trend on promising new vegetable based oil as an electrical insulation, and EHD pumping, ER fluid and MR fluid as the applied techniques of dielectric liquids.

  12. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1995-04-01

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 mm) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. In froth flotation, selectivity is substantially reduced at fine sizes due, primarily, to overloading of the froth phase which leads to excessive carryover of water and entrained mineral matter. Oil agglomeration, on the other hand, can provide good selectivity at low levels of oil addition but the agglomerates tend to be too fragile for separation by the screening methods normally used. The addition of larger amounts of oil can yield large, strong agglomerates which are easily separated but the selectivity is reduced and reagent costs can become excessive. We are investigating the use of a hybrid process - Micro-agglomerate flotation which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30-50 mm in size) rather than individual coal particles (1-10 mm) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases in order to promote the interfacial reactions and interactions between phases necessary to ensure selectivity. Kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors may be critical in determining overall system response.

  13. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, 1 April--30 June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1994-07-01

    The authors are investigating the use of a hybrid process--Micro-agglomerate flotation--which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concepts is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30--50 {mu}m in size) rather than individual coal particles (1--10 {mu}m) the problems of froth overload water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases in order to promote the interfacial reactions and interactions between phases necessary to ensure selectivity. Kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors may be critical in determining overall system response. The research program has been organized into several specific tasks: Task 1, interfacial studies; Task 2, emulsification; Task 3, agglomerate growth and structure; and Task 4, agglomerate flotation. This report summarizes the status of Tasks 2, 3, and 4.

  14. Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report presents the findings of the project entitled ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration.`` The purpose is to develop selective agglomeration technology to a commercially acceptable level by 1993. Engineering development included bench-scale process development, component development adaptation or modification of existing unit operations, proof-of-concept (POC) module design, fabrication, testing, data evaluation, and conceptual design of a commercial facility. The information obtained during POC operation resulted in a technical and economic design base sufficient to support construction and operation of a commercial plant. Throughout this project performance targets for the engineering development of selective agglomeration process were to achieve 85% or greater Btu recovery at 85% or greater pyritic sulfur rejection (PSR). Additional objectives included producing a final clean-coal product with an ash content of 6% or less which is suitable for conventional coal handling systems. The selective agglomeration process, as applied to coal cleaning, is based on differences in the surface chemistry of coal and its associated impurities. Coal particles are hydrophobic (i.e., repel water) while the majority of its impurities are hydrophilic (i.e., stabilized in water). During selective agglomeration, a liquid (the agglomerant) that is immiscible with water is introduced into a coal-water slurry and agitated to disperse it in the slurry, thereby allowing it to come into contact with all particles in the slurry. The coal particles, due to their hydrophobic nature, are attracted to the agglomerant phase. The hydrophilic mineral impurities remain in the water phase. Continued agitation of the agglomerant-coated coal particles causes them to coalesce to form agglomerates. Once the agglomerates are formed, they are separated from the mineral matter-bearing aqueous phase by subsequent processing steps.

  15. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

    2001-12-17

    The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  16. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  17. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1997-01-15

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 {micro}m) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. In this investigation a hybrid process--Micro-agglomerate flotation--which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation was studied. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles and to use froth flotation to separate these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units will be relatively large agglomerates (30--50 {micro}m in size) rather than fine coal particles (1--10 {micro}m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is demonstrated in this study that the process is very sensitive to fluctuations in operating parameters. It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases as well as the agitation conditions in order to promote selectivity. Both kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors play a critical role in determining overall system response.

  18. Oil and Gas Exploration Planning using VOI Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peskova, D. N.; Sizykh, A. V.; Rukavishnikov, V. S.

    2016-03-01

    Paper deals with actual problem about making decisions during field development. The main aim was to apply method “Value of information” in order to estimate the necessity of field exploration works and show the effectiveness of this method. The object of analysis - field X, which is located in the Eastern Siberia. The reservoir is B13 formation of Vend age. The Field has complex structure, and divided into blocks by faults. During evaluation of the project, main uncertainties and oil in place were obtained for three blocks of the field. According to uncertainty analysis, it was suggested to drill a new exploration well, and value of information method was applied to estimate results from this exploration works. Economic evaluation of the value of information method was made by choosing optimal development strategy. According to the obtained results, drilling of the exploration wells for blocks 1 and 3 of the field X is a good decision, while drilling a well in the second block is risky and not recommended. Also using the value of information, optimal well locations were advised - well l_le for the first block, and well 33 for the third block.

  19. Investigation of self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Enderlin, W I; Downing, J P; Enderlin, C W; Sanquist, T F; Pope, W S

    1992-06-01

    The US Coast Guard commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct this study of 45 self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment for oceangoing tankers and inland tank barges to assess the potential effectiveness of the proposed countermeasure categories. This study considers the hypothetical outflow of oil in the case of side damage and bottom damage to single-hull designs. The results will be considered by the Coast Guard in drafting regulations pertaining to the requirement for tanker vessels to carry oil pollution response equipment (i.e., in response to the oil Pollution Act of 1990). PNL's approach to this investigation included: assessing time-dependent oil outflow in the cases of collision and grounding of both tankers and barges; identifying environmental constraints on self-help countermeasure operation; identifying human factor issues, such as crew performance, safety, and training requirements for the self-help countermeasures considered; and assessing each self-help countermeasure with respect to its potential for minimizing oil loss to the environment. Results from the time-dependent oil outflow, environmental limitations, and human factors requirements were input into a simulation model.

  20. Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A.; Mohapatra, S.

    2015-03-01

    Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed.

  1. Effect of particle agglomeration in nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Bruinink, Arie; Wang, Jing; Wick, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The emission of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into the environment in increasing quantity and variety raises a general concern regarding potential effects on human health. Compared with soluble substances, ENPs exhibit additional dimensions of complexity, that is, they exist not only in various sizes, shapes and chemical compositions but also in different degrees of agglomeration. The effect of the latter is the topic of this review in which we explore and discuss the role of agglomeration on toxicity, including the fate of nanomaterials after their release and the biological effects they may induce. In-depth investigations of the effect of ENP agglomeration on human health are still rare, but it may be stated that outside the body ENP agglomeration greatly reduces human exposure. After uptake, agglomeration of ENPs reduces translocation across primary barriers such as lungs, skin or the gastrointestinal tract, preventing exposure of "secondary" organs. In analogy, also cellular ENP uptake and intracellular distribution are affected by agglomeration. However, agglomeration may represent a risk factor if it occurs after translocation across the primary barriers, and ENPs are able to accumulate within the tissue and thus reduce clearance efficiency. PMID:25618546

  2. Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A.; Mohapatra, S.

    2015-03-07

    Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed.

  3. New technique for collecting ambient diesel particles for bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, M.F.; Smith, T.J.; Hammond, S.K.; Beck, B.D.; Brain, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes a new application of viable aerosol sampler, the Liquid electrostatic Aerosol Precipitator (LEAP), for the collection of diesel particles for bioassays of pulmonary toxicity and mutagenicity or carinogenicity. Currently used methods (filtration, dry electrostatic precipitation) cause agglomeration of particles and increases in particle size up to twenty-fold, which may alter particle toxicity significantly. Collection of diesel particles with the LEAP preserved submicronic particle size. Differences in chemical composition of extracts of surface adsorbents as compared to particles collected on filters also were observed. This technique may be applicable for collection other types of combustion products or oil mists that agglomerate when collected by filtration.

  4. A new technique for collecting ambient diesel particles for bioassays.

    PubMed

    Hallock, M F; Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Beck, B D; Brain, J D

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes a new application of a viable aerosol sampler, the Liquid Electrostatic Aerosol Precipitator (LEAP), for the collection of diesel particles for bioassays of pulmonary toxicity and mutagenicity or carcinogenicity. Currently used methods (filtration, dry electrostatic precipitation) cause agglomeration of particles and increases in particle size up to twenty-fold, which may alter particle toxicity significantly. Collection of diesel particles with the LEAP preserved submicronic particle size. Differences in chemical composition of extracts of surface adsorbents as compared to particles collected on filters also were observed. This technique may be applicable for collection of other types of combustion products or oil mists that agglomerate when collected by filtration. PMID:2438921

  5. Modeling of Particle Agglomeration in Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagala, Hari Krishna

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nano sized particles (<100nm in diameter) in dispersion mediums. They are of great interest in industrial applications as heat transfer fluids owing to their enhanced thermal conductivities. Stability of nanofluids is a major problem hindering their industrial application. Agglomeration and then sedimentation are some reasons, which drastically decrease the shelf life of these nanofluids. Current research addresses the agglomeration effect and how it can affect the shelf life of a nanofluid. The reasons for agglomeration in nanofluids are attributable to the interparticle interactions which are quantified by the various theories. By altering the governing properties like volume fraction, pH and electrolyte concentration different nanofluids with instant agglomeration, slow agglomeration and no agglomeration can be produced. A numerical model is created based on the discretized population balance equations which analyses the particle size distribution at different times. Agglomeration effects have been analyzed for alumina nanoparticles with average particle size of 150nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the particle size distribution became broader and moved to bigger sizes rapidly with time. Particle size distributions became broader and moved to bigger sizes more quickly with time with increase in the electrolyte concentration. The two effects together can be used to create different temporal trends in the particle size distributions. Faster agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces which is due to decrease in the induced charge and the double layer thickness around the particle. Bigger particle clusters show lesser agglomeration due to reaching the equilibrium size. The procedures and processes described in this work can be used to generate more stable nanofluids.

  6. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1994-04-01

    We are investigating the use of a hybrid process -- Micro-agglomerate flotation which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30--50 {mu}m in size) rather than individual coal particles (1--10 {mu}m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. Micro-agglomerate flotation has considerable potential for the practical deep cleaning of coal on a commercial scale. In principle, it should be possible to achieve both high selectivity and high yield at reasonable cost. The process requires only conventional, off-the-shelf equipment and reagent usage (oil, surfactants, etc.) should be small. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases- two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases in order to promote the interfacial reactions and interactions between phases necessary to ensure selectivity. Kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors may be critical in determining overall system response.

  7. Micro-agglomerate location flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1994-01-01

    We are investigating the use of a hybrid process -- Micro-agglomerate flotation which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30--50 {mu}m in size) rather than individual coal particles (1--10 {mu}m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. Micro-agglomerate flotation has considerable potential for the practical deep cleaning of coal on a commercial scale. In principle, it should be possible to achieve both high selectivity and high yield at reasonable cost. The process requires only conventional, off-the-shelf equipment and reagent usage (oil, surfactants, etc.) should be small. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases in order to promote the interfacial reactions and interactions between phases necessary to ensure selectivity. Kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors may be critical in determining overall system response.

  8. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo; Vadie, A. Alex

    2003-02-10

    The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

  9. State-of-the-art report summarizing techniques to determine residual oil saturation and recommendations on the requirements for residual oil saturation research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M.M.; Maerefat, N.L.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation was conducted on the residual oil saturation (ROS) measurement techniques developed during the last fifteen years. Knowledge of precise ROS measurements is required for EOR project planning. The advantages, limitations, and problems of each one of the techniques are presented in tabulated form. Also, some of the possible improvements in the measurement techniques for the residual oil saturation are summarized. The following residual oil saturation techniques are discussed: core analyses, well logging, backflow tracer tests, material balance and well testing, newly developed gravity log methods, and interwell residual oil saturation measurements. Several aspects left to be improved in both instrumentations and data interpretation on pressure coring, back-flow tracer tests, well logging, material balance calculations, well testing, and interwell ROS measurements are presented. A nuclear magnetism log-inject-log method is proposed in which the need for porosity measurement for determining residual oil saturation is eliminated. 91 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Percolative fragmentation and spontaneous agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, R.; Davis, K.

    1999-03-01

    Captive particle imaging experiments were performed on over 200 coal and char particles in the pulverized size range from four coals of various rank at oxygen concentration from 3--19 mol% and at gas temperatures of about 1250 K. Despite wide variations in single-particle behavior, the data set reveals two clear trends that provide new information on the nature of char combustion. First, the low-rank coal chars are observed to maintain their high reactivity through the late stages of combustion, thus avoiding the near-extinction events and long burnout tails observed for bituminous coal chars. Secondly, percolative fragmentation in the late stages of combustion is a rare event under these conditions. Some particles reach a percolation threshold rate in combustion, but typically undergo spontaneous agglomeration rather than liberation of the incipient fragments. It is concluded that percolative fragmentation behavior in the pulverized size range is determined not only by solid-phase connectivity, but also by a real competition between disruptive and cohesive forces present at the time of formation of the colloidal-sized incipient fragments.

  11. Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 180 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Development of methods to predict agglomeration and disposition in FBCs

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.K.; Erickson, T.A.

    1995-11-01

    This 3-year, multiclient program is providing the information needed to determine the behavior of inorganic components in FBC units using advanced methods of analysis coupled with bench-scale combustion experiments. The major objectives of the program are as follows: (1) To develop further our advanced ash and deposit characterization techniques to quantify the effects of the liquid-phase components in terms of agglomerate formation and ash deposits, (2) To determine the mechanisms of inorganic transformations that lead to bed agglomeration and ash deposition in FBC systems, and (3) To develop a better means to predict the behavior of inorganic components as a function of coal composition, bed material characteristics, and combustion conditions.

  19. Agglomeration of microparticles in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Cheng-Ran; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Konopka, Uwe; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2010-11-15

    Agglomeration of highly charged microparticles was observed and studied in complex plasma experiments carried out in a capacitively coupled rf discharge. The agglomeration was caused by strong waves triggered in a particle cloud by decreasing neutral gas pressure. Using a high-speed camera during this unstable regime, it was possible to resolve the motion of individual microparticles and to show that the relative velocities of some particles were sufficiently high to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion and hence to result in agglomeration. After stabilizing the cloud again through the increase of the pressure, we were able to observe the aggregates directly with a long-distance microscope. We show that the agglomeration rate deduced from our experiments is in good agreement with theoretical estimates. In addition, we briefly discuss the mechanisms that can provide binding of highly charged microparticles in a plasma.

  20. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  1. Advances in food powder agglomeration engineering.

    PubMed

    Cuq, B; Gaiani, C; Turchiuli, C; Galet, L; Scher, J; Jeantet, R; Mandato, S; Petit, J; Murrieta-Pazos, I; Barkouti, A; Schuck, P; Rondet, E; Delalonde, M; Dumoulin, E; Delaplace, G; Ruiz, T

    2013-01-01

    Food powders are used in everyday life in many ways and offer technological solutions to the problem of food production. The natural origin of food powders, diversity in their chemical composition, variability of the raw materials, heterogeneity of the native structures, and physicochemical reactivity under hydrothermal stresses contribute to the complexity in their behavior. Food powder agglomeration has recently been considered according to a multiscale approach, which is followed in the chapter layout: (i) at the particle scale, by a presentation of particle properties and surface reactivity in connection with the agglomeration mechanisms, (ii) at the mechanisms scale, by describing the structuration dynamics of agglomerates, (iii) at the process scale, by a presentation of agglomeration technologies and sensors and by studying the stress transmission mode in the powder bed, and finally (iv) by an integration of the acquired knowledge, thanks to a dimensional analysis carried out at each scale. PMID:23522795

  2. Successfully use agglomeration for size enlargement

    SciTech Connect

    Pietsch, W.

    1996-04-01

    The processing of fine and ultrafine particles by size enlargement finds an ever increasing application. At the same time, undesirable agglomeration such as buildup, caking, bridging, and uncontrolled aggregation of fine particles can occur during processing and handling of these particulate solids. This article will provide a survey of the phenomena of agglomeration and discuss the unit operation of size enlargement by agglomeration. This article is also an invitation, particularly to young engineers, to become interested in agglomeration. Considering that mechanical process technologies are requiring more energy every year than any other group of consumers and efficiencies are typically in the single digits or teens at best, considerable rewards can be expected from the development of scientifically modified, more energy-efficient methods and equipment.

  3. Good techniques optimize control of oil-based mud and solids

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, J.; Hoopingarner, J.

    1989-02-13

    Effective techniques have been developed from work on dozens of North Sea Wells to minimize the amount of oil-based mud discharged to the sea while maintaining acceptable levels of solids. Pressure to reduce pollution during the course of drilling prompted the development of these techniques. They involve personnel and optimization of mud system and procedures. Case histories demonstrate that regulations may be met with economical techniques using existing technology. The benefits of low solids content are widely known, and are a key part of any successful mud program. Good solids control should result in lower mud costs and better drilling performance. Operators have specified high-performance shakers to accomplish this and have revised their mud programs with lower and lower allowable drilled solids percentages. This will pay off in certain areas. But with the U.K. Department of Energy regulations requiring cuttings oil discharge content (CODC) to be less than 150 g of oil/kg of dry solids discharge that went into effect Jan. 1, 1989, oil-loss control has a higher profile in the U.K. sector of the North Sea.

  4. Proceedings, volume 17, Institute for Briquetting and Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Papers presented discussed pelletizing of coal fines, graphite manufacture, compacting of coal, use of computers in agglomeration, HYL-III process, briquetting of iron ore fines, RECLAFORM, INMETCO process, binders for agglomeration, acoustic agglomeration, pelletizing of lime-fly ash mixtures, extrusion of aluminas for catalysts, and agglomeration of wastes. Seven papers have been abstracted separately.

  5. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredana Soran, Maria; Codruta Cobzac, Simona; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: α and β-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  6. An overview of uncertainty quantification techniques with application to oceanic and oil-spill simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandarani, Mohamed; Wang, Shitao; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Carlisle Thacker, W.; Winokur, Justin; Knio, Omar M.

    2016-04-01

    We give an overview of four different ensemble-based techniques for uncertainty quantification and illustrate their application in the context of oil plume simulations. These techniques share the common paradigm of constructing a model proxy that efficiently captures the functional dependence of the model output on uncertain model inputs. This proxy is then used to explore the space of uncertain inputs using a large number of samples, so that reliable estimates of the model's output statistics can be calculated. Three of these techniques use polynomial chaos (PC) expansions to construct the model proxy, but they differ in their approach to determining the expansions' coefficients; the fourth technique uses Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). An integral plume model for simulating the Deepwater Horizon oil-gas blowout provides examples for illustrating the different techniques. A Monte Carlo ensemble of 50,000 model simulations is used for gauging the performance of the different proxies. The examples illustrate how regression-based techniques can outperform projection-based techniques when the model output is noisy. They also demonstrate that robust uncertainty analysis can be performed at a fraction of the cost of the Monte Carlo calculation.

  7. A New Screening Methodology for Improved Oil Recovery Processes Using Soft-Computing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada, Claudia; Ertekin, Turgay

    2010-05-01

    The first stage of production of any oil reservoir involves oil displacement by natural drive mechanisms such as solution gas drive, gas cap drive and gravity drainage. Typically, improved oil recovery (IOR) methods are applied to oil reservoirs that have been depleted naturally. In more recent years, IOR techniques are applied to reservoirs even before their natural energy drive is exhausted by primary depletion. Descriptive screening criteria for IOR methods are used to select the appropriate recovery technique according to the fluid and rock properties. This methodology helps in assessing the most suitable recovery process for field deployment of a candidate reservoir. However, the already published screening guidelines neither provide information about the expected reservoir performance nor suggest a set of project design parameters, which can be used towards the optimization of the process. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN) are used to build a high-performance neuro-simulation tool for screening different improved oil recovery techniques: miscible injection (CO2 and N2), waterflooding and steam injection processes. The simulation tool consists of proxy models that implement a multilayer cascade feedforward back propagation network algorithm. The tool is intended to narrow the ranges of possible scenarios to be modeled using conventional simulation, reducing the extensive time and energy spent in dynamic reservoir modeling. A commercial reservoir simulator is used to generate the data to train and validate the artificial neural networks. The proxy models are built considering four different well patterns with different well operating conditions as the field design parameters. Different expert systems are developed for each well pattern. The screening networks predict oil production rate and cumulative oil production profiles for a given set of rock and fluid properties, and design parameters. The results of this study show that the networks are

  8. Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy-Oil Recovery Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford University; Department of Energy Resources Engineering Green Earth Sciences

    2007-09-30

    This final report and technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007 for the project 'Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy Oil Recovery Techniques', DE-FC26-04NT15526. Critical year 3 activities of this project were not undertaken because of reduced funding to the DOE Oil Program despite timely submission of a continuation package and progress on year 1 and 2 subtasks. A small amount of carried-over funds were used during June-August 2007 to complete some work in the area of foamed-gas mobility control. Completion of Year 3 activities and tasks would have led to a more thorough completion of the project and attainment of project goals. This progress report serves as a summary of activities and accomplishments for years 1 and 2. Experiments, theory development, and numerical modeling were employed to elucidate heavy-oil production mechanisms that provide the technical foundations for producing efficiently the abundant, discovered heavy-oil resources of the U.S. that are not accessible with current technology and recovery techniques. Work fell into two task areas: cold production of heavy oils and thermal recovery. Despite the emerging critical importance of the waterflooding of viscous oil in cold environments, work in this area was never sanctioned under this project. It is envisioned that heavy oil production is impacted by development of an understanding of the reservoir and reservoir fluid conditions leading to so-called foamy oil behavior, i.e, heavy-oil solution gas drive. This understanding should allow primary, cold production of heavy and viscous oils to be optimized. Accordingly, we evaluated the oil-phase chemistry of crude oil samples from Venezuela that give effective production by the heavy-oil solution gas drive mechanism. Laboratory-scale experiments show that recovery correlates with asphaltene contents as well as the so-called acid number (AN) and base number (BN) of the

  9. Comparing Parameter Estimation Techniques for an Electrical Power Transformer Oil Temperature Prediction Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines various sources of error in MIT's improved top oil temperature rise over ambient temperature model and estimation process. The sources of error are the current parameter estimation technique, quantization noise, and post-processing of the transformer data. Results from this paper will show that an output error parameter estimation technique should be selected to replace the current least squares estimation technique. The output error technique obtained accurate predictions of transformer behavior, revealed the best error covariance, obtained consistent parameter estimates, and provided for valid and sensible parameters. This paper will also show that the output error technique should be used to minimize errors attributed to post-processing (decimation) of the transformer data. Models used in this paper are validated using data from a large transformer in service.

  10. Technical constraints limiting application of enhanced oil recovery techniques to petroleum production in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    In the interval since the publication in September 1980 of the technical constraints that inhibit the application of enhanced oil recovery techniques in the United States, there has been a large number of successful field trials of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. The Department of Energy has shared the costs of 28 field demonstrations of EOR with industry, and the results have been made available to the public through DOE documents, symposiums and the technical literature. This report reexamines the constraints listed in 1980, evaluates the state-of-the-art and outlines the areas where more research is needed. Comparison of the 1980 constraints with the present state-of-the-art indicates that most of the constraints have remained the same; however, the constraints have become more specific. 26 references, 6 tables.

  11. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and assessment of techniques and equipment used to control and remove oil spills. Chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers are reviewed. Topics include recovery operations, emergency response, frogmat systems, bioremediation, and environmental monitoring. The effects of spills on marine life and fishing industries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Effects of dietary fish oil and vitamin E supplementation on canine lymphocyte proliferation evaluated using a flow cytometric technique.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Casey J; Dietrich, Marilyn A; Horohov, David W; Bauer, John E; Hosgood, Giselle; Mauldin, Glenna E

    2007-10-15

    Lymphocyte proliferation and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) production of PGE(2) were assayed in 15 healthy dogs fed a basal diet supplemented with either sunflower oil (Group Sunflower oil), sunflower oil and menhaden fish oil (Group Fish oil), or sunflower oil and menhaden fish oil plus alpha-tocopherol acetate for 12 weeks (Group Fish oil + E). Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by a flow cytometric technique utilizing the fluorochrome carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). The PBMC supernatant PGE(2) concentration was assayed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Group Fish oil had a significant decrease in lymphocyte proliferation at week 12. PBMC production of PGE(2) was decreased in all three groups but only significantly reduced in groups receiving fish oil supplementation. Based on these results, this level of fish oil supplementation appears to suppress the lymphoproliferative response in healthy, young dogs but this response can be attenuated by high levels of dietary vitamin E supplementation. Furthermore, fish oil-induced reduction in lymphocyte proliferation appears to manifest through a PGE(2)-independent mechanism and is not associated with increased lipid peroxidation. PMID:17658617

  13. Centrifugal air-assisted melt agglomeration for fast-release "granulet" design.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin Wui; Musa, Nafisah

    2012-07-01

    Conventional melt pelletization and granulation processes produce round and dense, and irregularly shaped but porous agglomerates respectively. This study aimed to design centrifugal air-assisted melt agglomeration technology for manufacture of spherical and yet porous "granulets" for ease of downstream manufacturing and enhancing drug release. A bladeless agglomerator, which utilized shear-free air stream to mass the powder mixture of lactose filler, polyethylene glycol binder and poorly water-soluble tolbutamide drug into "granulets", was developed. The inclination angle and number of vane, air-impermeable surface area of air guide, processing temperature, binder content and molecular weight were investigated with reference to "granulet" size, shape, texture and drug release properties. Unlike fluid-bed melt agglomeration with vertical processing air flow, the air stream in the present technology moved centrifugally to roll the processing mass into spherical but porous "granulets" with a drug release propensity higher than physical powder mixture, unprocessed drug and dense pellets prepared using high shear mixer. The fast-release attribute of "granulets" was ascribed to porous matrix formed with a high level of polyethylene glycol as solubilizer. The agglomeration and drug release outcomes of centrifugal air-assisted technology are unmet by the existing high shear and fluid-bed melt agglomeration techniques. PMID:22531845

  14. Integrated Analysis of the Wood Oil from Xanthocyparis vietnamensis Farjon & Hiep. by Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Bazzali, Ophélie; Thai, Tran Huy; Hoi, Tran Minh; Khang, Nguyen Sinh; Hien, Nguyen Thi; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange; Tomi, Félix

    2016-01-01

    In order to get better knowledge about the volatiles produced by Xanthocyparis vietnamensis, a species recently discovered in Vietnam, its wood oil has been analyzed by a combination of chromatographic (GC, CC) and spectroscopic (GC-MS, (13)C-NMR) techniques. Forty components that accounted for 87.9% of the oil composition have been identified. The composition is dominated by nootkatene (20.7%), 11,12,13-tri-nor-eremophil-1(10)-en-7-one (17.2%), γ-eudesmol (5.1%), nootkatone (4.7%), valencene (3.5%) and 13-nor-eremophil-1(10)-en-11-one (2.6%). The structure of two new compounds-10-epi-nor-γ-eudesmen-11-one and 12-hydroxy-isodihydroagarofuran-has been elucidated, while 11,12,13-tri-nor-eremophil-1(10)-en-7-ol is reported as a natural product for the first time. The composition of X. vietnamensis wood oil varied drastically from those of leaf oils, dominated by hedycaryol (34.4%), phyllocladene (37.8%) or by pimara-6(14)-15-diene (19.4%). PMID:27355937

  15. Oil Spill Detection and Tracking Using Lipschitz Regularity and Multiscale Techniques in Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajadi, O. A.; Meyer, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Automatic oil spill detection and tracking from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is a difficult task, due in large part to the inhomogeneous properties of the sea surface, the high level of speckle inherent in SAR data, the complexity and the highly non-Gaussian nature of amplitude information, and the low temporal sampling that is often achieved with SAR systems. This research presents a promising new oil spill detection and tracking method that is based on time series of SAR images. Through the combination of a number of advanced image processing techniques, the develop approach is able to mitigate some of these previously mentioned limitations of SAR-based oil-spill detection and enables fully automatic spill detection and tracking across a wide range of spatial scales. The method combines an initial automatic texture analysis with a consecutive change detection approach based on multi-scale image decomposition. The first step of the approach, a texture transformation of the original SAR images, is performed in order to normalize the ocean background and enhance the contrast between oil-covered and oil-free ocean surfaces. The Lipschitz regularity (LR), a local texture parameter, is used here due to its proven ability to normalize the reflectivity properties of ocean water and maximize the visibly of oil in water. To calculate LR, the images are decomposed using two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (2D-CWT), and transformed into Holder space to measure LR. After texture transformation, the now normalized images are inserted into our multi-temporal change detection algorithm. The multi-temporal change detection approach is a two-step procedure including (1) data enhancement and filtering and (2) multi-scale automatic change detection. The performance of the developed approach is demonstrated by an application to oil spill areas in the Gulf of Mexico. In this example, areas affected by oil spills were identified from a series of ALOS PALSAR images

  16. DETERMINATION OF STOKES SHAPE FACTOR FOR SINGLE PARTICLES AND AGGLOMERATES

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Schaible, Micah J.; Vienna, John D.

    2011-09-01

    The large octahedral crystals of spinel can precipitate from glass during the high-level waste vitrification process and potentially block the glass discharge riser of electrically heated ceramic melters. To help predict the settling behavior of spinel in the riser, the settling of single particles and agglomerates was studied in stagnant and transparent viscosity oils at room temperature with developed optical particle-dynamics-analyzer. Determined dimensions and terminal settling velocities of particles were used for calculation of their Stokes shape factors. Calculated shape factor for the glass beads was almost identical with the theoretical shape factor of 2/9 for a perfect sphere. The shape factor for single spinel crystal was about 7.6 % higher compare to the theoretically predicted value for octahedron. Stokes shape factor of irregularly shaped multi-particle agglomerates was lower than that of the glass beads and individual spinel crystals because of the higher surface drag caused by the larger surface area to volume ratio.

  17. A detection method of vegetable oils in edible blended oil based on three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy technique.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Edible blended vegetable oils are made from two or more refined oils. Blended oils can provide a wider range of essential fatty acids than single vegetable oils, which helps support good nutrition. Nutritional components in blended oils are related to the type and content of vegetable oils used, and a new, more accurate, method is proposed to identify and quantify the vegetable oils present using cluster analysis and a Quasi-Monte Carlo integral. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were obtained at 250-400nm (excitation) and 260-750nm (emission). Mixtures of sunflower, soybean and peanut oils were used as typical examples to validate the effectiveness of the method. PMID:27374508

  18. Identification of vegetable oil botanical speciation in refined vegetable oil blends using an innovative combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Maria Teresa; Haughey, Simon A; Elliott, Christopher T; Koidis, Anastasios

    2015-12-15

    European Regulation 1169/2011 requires producers of foods that contain refined vegetable oils to label the oil types. A novel rapid and staged methodology has been developed for the first time to identify common oil species in oil blends. The qualitative method consists of a combination of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to profile the oils and fatty acid chromatographic analysis to confirm the composition of the oils when required. Calibration models and specific classification criteria were developed and all data were fused into a simple decision-making system. The single lab validation of the method demonstrated the very good performance (96% correct classification, 100% specificity, 4% false positive rate). Only a small fraction of the samples needed to be confirmed with the majority of oils identified rapidly using only the spectroscopic procedure. The results demonstrate the huge potential of the methodology for a wide range of oil authenticity work. PMID:26190602

  19. Comparison of soft computing techniques for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. E.; Parkinson, w; Miller, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we compare fuzzy techniques to neural network techniques for building a soft sensor for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The soft sensor is used in a feed-forward control system that augments a feedback control system. Two approaches were used to develop the soft sensor. The first approach was to use a fuzzy rule based system based upon the experience of an expert operator. The expert operator's experience was supplemented using a computer model of the system. The second approach was to use a neural network to build the inverse of the computer model. The pros and cons of both techniques are discussed. KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic, neural networks, soft sensor, soft computing

  20. The Fluorescent-Oil Film Method and Other Techniques for Boundary-Layer Flow Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loving, Donald L.; Katzoff, S.

    1959-01-01

    A flow-visualization technique, known as the fluorescent-oil film method, has been developed which appears to be generally simpler and to require less experience and development of technique than previously published methods. The method is especially adapted to use in the large high-powered wind tunnels which require considerable time to reach the desired test conditions. The method consists of smearing a film of fluorescent oil over a surface and observing where the thickness is affected by the shearing action of the boundary layer. These films are detected and identified, and their relative thicknesses are determined by use of ultraviolet light. Examples are given of the use of this technique. Other methods that show promise in the study of boundary-layer conditions are described. These methods include the use of a temperature-sensitive fluorescent paint and the use of a radiometer that is sensitive to the heat radiation from a surface. Some attention is also given to methods that can be used with a spray apparatus in front of the test model.

  1. The seismic method in the search for oil and gas: Current techniques and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Berkhout, A.J.

    1986-08-01

    In applying seismic echo techniques to oil and gas exploration, the underground is ''illuminated'' from the surface by acoustic waves. The incident wavefield is reflected at the geologic layer boundaries and is registered at the surface, yielding detailed information on earth's upper structure. An important aspect of the seismic method is that an unprocessed seismic image does not represent the actual picture. Each reflection has been distorted during its propagation through earth. These distortions have to be corrected before an accurate picture can be developed. This is in most cases accomplished by ''seismic inversion.'' In this paper, current seismic techniques for oil and gas search, and their further development, are reviewed, with emphasis on seismic inversion. It is shown that important new developments in theory, software, and hardware have yielded significant improvements in wave theory solutions. Most research results presented are general and apply equally well to other echo technique applications, such as ultrasonic medical imaging, nondestructive testing, acoustic microscopy, sonar, and ground radar.

  2. Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, M.D.; Morgan, C.D.

    1999-04-28

    The objective of the project is to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Uinta Basin, Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that stage-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance. In the first demonstration well (Michelle Ute well discussed in the previous technical report), dipole shear anisotropy (anisotropy) and dual-burst thermal decay time (TDT) logs were run before and isotope tracer log was run after the treatment. The logs were very helpful in characterizing the remaining hydrocarbon potential in the well. But, mechanical failure resulted in a poor recompletion and did not result in a significant improvement in the oil production from the well.

  3. Chemical and physicochemial properties of submicron aerosol agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Scripsick, R.C.; Ehrman, S.; Friedlander, S.K.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The formation of nanometer-sized aerosol particles in a premixed methane flame from both solid-phase aerosol precursors and gas-phase precursors was investigated. Techniques were developed to determine the distribution of the individual chemical species as a function of agglomerate size by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). To determine the distribution of chemical species both from particle to particle and within the particles on a nanometer scale, we used the analytical electron microscopy techniques of energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) coupled with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The observed distribution of individual chemical species as a function of agglomerate size was linked to the material properties of the solid-phase precursors. For aerosol formed from gas-phase precursors by gas-to-particle conversion, the distribution of species on a manometer scale was found to correspond to the equilibrium phase distribution expected from equilibrium for the system at the flame temperatures.

  4. Analysis of Urban Agglomeration and Its Meaning for Rural People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegelman, Robert G.

    Agglomeration--the clustering of people, businesses, or structures within an area--is investigated for two purposes: (1) defining the nature of agglomeration and erecting a suitable agglomeration theory, and (2) suggesting further research. These two objectives are seen as being vital to help improve the economic well-being of rural people by…

  5. Method for providing improved solid fuels from agglomerated subbituminous coal

    DOEpatents

    Janiak, Jerzy S.; Turak, Ali A.; Pawlak, Wanda; Ignasiak, Boleslaw L.

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for separating agglomerated subbituminous coal and the heavy bridging liquid used to form the agglomerates. The separation is performed by contacting the agglomerates with inert gas or steam at a temperature in the range of 250.degree. to 350.degree. C. at substantially atmospheric pressure.

  6. Effect of temperature on wet agglomeration of crystals

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoodi, Maryam; Yari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): This study dealt with the wet agglomeration process in which a small quantity of binder liquid was added into a suspension of crystals, directly in the stirring vessel where the crystallization took place. The purpose of this investigation was evaluation of the effect of temperature on the agglomeration process in order to gain insight into the mechanism of the formation of the agglomerates. Materials and Methods: Carbamazepine was used as a model drug and water/ethanol and isopropyl acetate were used as crystallization system and binder liquid, respectively. The agglomeration of crystals was carried out at various temperatures and the agglomerates were characterized in terms of size, morphology, density and mechanical strength. Results: Evaluation of the agglomerates along the course of agglomeration shows that the properties of the particles change gradually but substantially. Higher temperature of the system during agglomeration process favors the formation of more regular agglomerates with mechanically stronger and denser structure; this can be explained by the promotion effect of temperature on the agglomeration process. Conclusion: With optimized wet agglomeration temperature, spherical, dense, and strong agglomerates can be obtained. PMID:24967063

  7. Uncertainty Analysis for Oil-Film Interferometry Skin-Friction Measurement Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naughton, Jonathan W.; Brown, James L.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the use of oil-film interferometry to measure the skin friction coefficient (C(sub f) = tau/q where tau is the surface shear stress and q is the dynamic pressure) has increased. Different forms of this oil-film technique with various levels of accuracy and ease of use have been successfully applied in a wide range of flows. The method's popularity is growing due to its relative ease of implementation and minimal intrusiveness as well as an increased demand for C(sub f) measurements. Nonetheless, the accuracy of these methods has not been rigorously addressed to date. Most researchers have simply shown that the skin-friction measurements made using these techniques compare favorably with other measurements and theory, most of which are only accurate to within 5-20%. The use of skin-friction data in the design of commercial aircraft, whose drag at cruise is 50% skin-friction drag, and in the validation of computational fluid dynamics programs warrants better uncertainty estimates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Modeling Agglomeration of Dust Particles in Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Land, Victor; Ma Qianyu; Perry, Jonathan D.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2011-11-29

    The charge on an aggregate immersed in a plasma environment distributes itself over the aggregate's surface; this can be approximated theoretically by assuming a multipole distribution. The dipole-dipole (or higher order) charge interactions between fractal aggregates lead to rotations of the grains as they interact. Other properties of the dust grains also influence the agglomeration process, such as the monomer shape (spherical or ellipsoidal) or the presence of magnetic material. Finally, the plasma and grain properties also determine the morphology of the resultant aggregates. Porous and fluffy aggregates are more strongly coupled to the gas, leading to reduced collisional velocities, and greater collisional cross sections. These factors in turn can determine the growth rate of the aggregates and evolution of the dust cloud. This paper gives an overview of the numerical and experimental methods used to study dust agglomeration at CASPER and highlights some recent results.

  9. Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the findings of the project entitled {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration.{close_quotes} In 1989 the US Department of Energy contracted with Southern Company Services, Inc. (DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC88879) to develop selective agglomeration technology to a commercially acceptable level by 1993. This project is part of DOE`s program to advance the state of physical coal cleaning technologies in order to accelerate the utilization of high-sulfur coals while complying with environmental regulations. Such projects assume added importance in light of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Appropriate utilization of the abundant reserves of high-sulfur coal in the United States can make a significant contribution to achieving the goal of energy independence.

  10. Agglomeration and Sedimentation of MWCNTS in Chloroform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Yu. S.; Kolesnikova, A. A.; Grekhov, A. M.

    The kinetics of agglomeration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in chloroform has been studied by the methods of optical spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. With the use of the models of the diffusion of cylindrical particles, the sizes of particles obtained by this method can be recalculated to the DLS data and the concentration at which the dispersion of individual МWCNTs occurs can be determined.

  11. Compression behavior of porous dust agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seizinger, A.; Speith, R.; Kley, W.

    2012-05-01

    Context. The early planetesimal growth proceeds through a sequence of sticking collisions of dust agglomerates. Very uncertain is still the relative velocity regime in which growth rather than destruction can take place. The outcome of a collision depends on the bulk properties of the porous dust agglomerates. Aims: Continuum models of dust agglomerates require a set of material parameters that are often difficult to obtain from laboratory experiments. Here, we aim at determining those parameters from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our goal is to improve on the existing model that describe the interaction of individual monomers. Methods: We use a molecular dynamics approach featuring a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. The model includes normal forces, rolling, twisting and sliding between the dust grains. We present a new treatment of wall-particle interaction that allows us to perform customized simulations that directly correspond to laboratory experiments. Results: We find that the existing interaction model by Dominik & Tielens leads to a too soft compressive strength behavior for uni- and omni-directional compression. Upon making the rolling and sliding coefficients stiffer we find excellent agreement in both cases. Additionally, we find that the compressive strength curve depends on the velocity with which the sample is compressed. Conclusions: The modified interaction strengths between two individual dust grains will lead to a different behavior of the whole dust agglomerate. This will influences the sticking probabilities and hence the growth of planetesimals. The new parameter set might possibly lead to an enhanced sticking as more energy can be stored in the system before breakup.

  12. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising.

  13. Agglomeration rate and action forces between atomized particles of agglomerator and inhaled-particles from coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Zhang, Jun-ying; Zheng, Chu-guang

    2005-01-01

    In order to remove efficiently haled-particles emissions from coal combustions, a new way was used to put forward the process of agglomeration and the atomization was produced by the nozzle and then sprayed into the flue before precipitation devices of power station boiler in order to make inhaled-particles agglomerate into bigger particles, which can be easily removed but not change existing running conditions of boiler. According to this idea, a model is set up to study agglomeration rate and effect forces between fly ash inhaled-particles and atomized agglomerator particles. The developed agglomeration rate was expressed by relative particle number decreasing speed per unit volume. The result showed that viscosity force and flow resistance force give main influences on agglomeration effect of inhaled-particles, while springiness force and gravity have little effect on agglomeration effect of theirs. Factors influencing the agglomeration rate and effect forces are studied, including agglomerator concentration, agglomerator flux and agglomerator density, atomized-particles diameters and inhaled-particles diameter and so on. PMID:16295917

  14. Best available techniques (BATs) for oil spill response in the Mediterranean Sea: calm sea and presence of economic activities.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Giambattista; Sliskovic, Merica; Violante, Anna Carmela; Vukic, Luka

    2016-01-01

    An oil spill is the accidental or intentional discharge of petroleum products into the environment due to human activities. Although oil spills are actually just a little percent of the total world oil pollution problem, they represent the most visible form of it. The impact on the ecosystems can be severe as well as the impact on economic activities. Oil spill cleanup is a very difficult and expensive activity, and many techniques are available for it. In previous works, a methodology based on different kinds of criteria in order to come to the most satisfactory technique was proposed and the relative importance of each impact criterion on the basis of the Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was also evaluated. After a review of the best available techniques (BATs) available for oil spill response, this work suggests criteria for BATs' selection when oil spills occur in the Mediterranean Sea under well-defined circumstances: calm sea and presence of economic activities in the affected area. A group of experts with different specializations evaluated the alternative BATs by means of AHP method taking into account their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:26498811

  15. Cold bond agglomeration of waste oxides for recycling

    SciTech Connect

    D`Alessio, G.; Lu, W.K.

    1996-12-31

    Recycling of waste oxides has been an on-going challenge for integrated steel plants. The majority of these waste oxides are collected from the cleaning systems of ironmaking and steelmaking processes, and are usually in the form of fine particulates and slurries. In most cases, these waste materials are contaminated by oils and heavy metals and often require treatment at a considerable expense prior to landfill disposal. This contamination also limits the re-use or recycling potential of these oxides as secondary resources of reliable quality. However, recycling of some selected wastes in blast furnaces or steelmaking vessels is possible, but first requires agglomeration of the fine particulate by such methods as cold bond briquetting. Cold bond briquetting technology provides both mechanical compacting and bonding (with appropriate binders) of the particulates. This method of recycling has the potential to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The nature of the present study is cold bond briquetting of iron ore pellet fines with a molasses-cement-H{sub 2}O binder for recycling in a blast furnace. The inclusion of molasses is for its contribution to the green strength of briquettes. During the curing stage, significant gains in strength may be credited to molasses in the presence of cement. The interactions of cement (and its substitutes), water and molasses and their effects on the properties of the agglomerates during and after various curing conditions were investigated. Tensile strengths of briquettes made in the laboratory and subjected to experimental conditions which simulated the top part of a blast furnace shaft were also examined.

  16. Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ferrell, Jack R.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Christensen, Earl D.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Stankovikj, Filip; Meier, Dietrich; Paasikallio, Ville

    2016-07-05

    Here, we discuss the standardization of analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oils, including the current status of methods, and our opinions on future directions. First, the history of past standardization efforts is summarized, and both successful and unsuccessful validation of analytical techniques highlighted. The majority of analytical standardization studies to-date has tested only physical characterization techniques. In this paper, we present results from an international round robin on the validation of chemical characterization techniques for bio-oils. Techniques tested included acid number, carbonyl titrations using two different methods (one at room temperature and one at 80 °C), 31P NMR for determination ofmore » hydroxyl groups, and a quantitative gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Both carbonyl titration and acid number methods have yielded acceptable inter-laboratory variabilities. 31P NMR produced acceptable results for aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, but not for carboxylic hydroxyl groups. As shown in previous round robins, GC-MS results were more variable. Reliable chemical characterization of bio-oils will enable upgrading research and allow for detailed comparisons of bio-oils produced at different facilities. Reliable analytics are also needed to enable an emerging bioenergy industry, as processing facilities often have different analytical needs and capabilities than research facilities. We feel that correlations in reliable characterizations of bio-oils will help strike a balance between research and industry, and will ultimately help to -determine metrics for bio-oil quality. Lastly, the standardization of additional analytical methods is needed, particularly for upgraded bio-oils.« less

  17. Oil whip instability control using μ-synthesis technique on a magnetic actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemann, Bernd; Araujo Perini, Efrain; Lucchesi Cavalca, Katia; Fiori de Castro, Helio; Rinderknecht, Stephan

    2013-02-01

    Rotating machines have a wide application range and since those machines have high trust levels, several rotor vibrations control methods are investigated in order to avoid sudden cracks, improve rotor performance or even to reach higher operation speeds by controlling some instabilities, critical speeds resonances or oil whip effect. Rotor instabilities are associated to the operation speed and can have structural or dynamic sources from the shaft, bearings and foundation or even from an actuator external force. This work focuses on a strategy that uses the μ-synthesis control technique to attenuate the oil whip instability effect of flexible hydrodynamically supported rotors and allows the rotor to operate in higher speeds. For the identified rotor model and the synthesized controller applied on a magnetic actuator, the control system stability and performance specifications are analyzed with regard to the model uncertainties and μ-synthesis controlled vibration levels are compared to PID controller in vertical and horizontal directions. The performance specifications within the μ-synthesis are optimized to suppress unbalance vibration and, in order to contribute to industrial acceptance, the controller design is presented as a strategy which focuses on a design at reduced effort.

  18. Radiations and biodegradation techniques for detoxifying Carica papaya seed oil for effective dietary and industrial use.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Israel Sunmola; Bisi-Adeniyi, Tolulope Dorcas; Adedoyin, Toluwalase Ronke; Rotimi, Solomon Oladapo

    2015-10-01

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is toxic in high concentration. The capacity of Aspergillus niger, microwave and ultraviolet radiations to reduce the BITC levels in Carica papaya Linn seed oil were assessed in vitro. BITC at different concentrations were periodically exposed to microwave and ultraviolet radiations for 30 min and 10 h, respectively; and to identify Aspergillus niger for 4 days. Microwave radiation significantly reduced (p < 0.05) BITC levels (0.0272, 0.0544, and 0.0816 μmol) to 12.19, 8.99 and 27.5 % respectively within 15 min. Ultraviolet radiation significantly reduced (p < 0.05) BITC levels at all the concentrations. A. niger significantly increased (p < 0.05) BITC degradation on days 2 and 4 at 0.816, 1.36 and 2.72 nmol. Glutathione activity was significantly increased (p < 0.05) while glutathione S-transferase activity significantly reduced (p < 0.05) at all concentrations on days 3 and 4 respectively. The three techniques are possible models for improving the dietary consumption of the oil. PMID:26396392

  19. Increased Oil Production and Reserves From Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Deo, M.D.

    1998-04-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Colton (Wasatch) Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in the ancestral Lake Uinta. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1000 to 3000 vertical ft (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. Completion techniques used in the Bluebell field were discussed in detail in the Second Annual Report (Curtice, 1996). The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more

  20. Olive oil sensory defects classification with data fusion of instrumental techniques and multivariate analysis (PLS-DA).

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Calvo, Angels; Busto, Olga

    2016-07-15

    Three instrumental techniques, headspace-mass spectrometry (HS-MS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), have been combined to classify virgin olive oil samples based on the presence or absence of sensory defects. The reference sensory values were provided by an official taste panel. Different data fusion strategies were studied to improve the discrimination capability compared to using each instrumental technique individually. A general model was applied to discriminate high-quality non-defective olive oils (extra-virgin) and the lowest-quality olive oils considered non-edible (lampante). A specific identification of key off-flavours, such as musty, winey, fusty and rancid, was also studied. The data fusion of the three techniques improved the classification results in most of the cases. Low-level data fusion was the best strategy to discriminate musty, winey and fusty defects, using HS-MS, MIR and UV-vis, and the rancid defect using only HS-MS and MIR. The mid-level data fusion approach using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores was found to be the best strategy for defective vs non-defective and edible vs non-edible oil discrimination. However, the data fusion did not sufficiently improve the results obtained by a single technique (HS-MS) to classify non-defective classes. These results indicate that instrumental data fusion can be useful for the identification of sensory defects in virgin olive oils. PMID:26948620

  1. APPLIED PHYTO-REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES USING HALOPHYTES FOR OIL AND BRINE SPILL SCARS

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Korphage; Bruce G. Langhus; Scott Campbell

    2003-03-01

    Produced salt water from historical oil and gas production was often managed with inadequate care and unfortunate consequences. In Kansas, the production practices in the 1930's and 1940's--before statewide anti-pollution laws--were such that fluids were often produced to surface impoundments where the oil would segregate from the salt water. The oil was pumped off the pits and the salt water was able to infiltrate into the subsurface soil zones and underlying bedrock. Over the years, oil producing practices were changed so that segregation of fluids was accomplished in steel tanks and salt water was isolated from the natural environment. But before that could happen, significant areas of the state were scarred by salt water. These areas are now in need of economical remediation. Remediation of salt scarred land can be facilitated with soil amendments, land management, and selection of appropriate salt tolerant plants. Current research on the salt scars around the old Leon Waterflood, in Butler County, Kansas show the relative efficiency of remediation options. Based upon these research findings, it is possible to recommend cost efficient remediation techniques for slight, medium, and heavy salt water damaged soil. Slight salt damage includes soils with Electrical Conductivity (EC) values of 4.0 mS/cm or less. Operators can treat these soils with sufficient amounts of gypsum, install irrigation systems, and till the soil. Appropriate plants can be introduced via transplants or seeded. Medium salt damage includes soils with EC values between 4.0 and 16 mS/cm. Operators will add amendments of gypsum, till the soil, and arrange for irrigation. Some particularly salt tolerant plants can be added but most planting ought to be reserved until the second season of remediation. Severe salt damage includes soil with EC values in excess of 16 mS/cm. Operators will add at least part of the gypsum required, till the soil, and arrange for irrigation. The following seasons more

  2. Assessment of surfactants for efficient droplet PCR in mineral oil using the pendant drop technique.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Kunal R; Rueger, Paul E; Calabrese, Richard V; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; White, Ian M

    2015-02-01

    Amplification and detection of nucleic acid sequences within integrated microsystems is routinely conducted using the technique of droplet PCR, wherein the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed in microscale water-in-oil droplets (nanoliter to picoliter volumes). During droplet PCR, interactions at the interface of the droplet tend to dominate. Specifically, adsorption of the polymerase at the droplet interface leads to inefficient amplification. To reduce polymerase adsorption, surfactants such as the silicone-based ABIL EM90 have been commonly used. However, these surfactants have been selected largely through trial and error, and have been only somewhat effective. For example, when using ABIL EM90, 8 times (8 ×) the manufacturer prescribed concentration of polymerase was necessary for amplification. In this report, we use the pendant drop technique to measure adsorption and loss of enzyme at droplet interfaces for various surfactant-oil combinations. Dynamic interfacial tension and surface pressure measurements showed that significant polymerase adsorption occurs when using ABIL EM90. In contrast, much lower polymerase adsorption is observed when using Brij L4, a nonionic surfactant with a C12 tail and an oxyethylene headgroup, which has not yet been reported for droplet PCR. These results correlate strongly with droplet PCR efficiency. Brij L4 enables highly efficient PCR at 2 × polymerase concentration, and still enables effective PCR at 1 × polymerase concentration. Overall, this work introduces a methodology for quantitatively assessing surfactants for use with droplet microreactors, and it demonstrates the practical value of this new approach by identifying a surfactant that can dramatically improve the efficiency of droplet PCR. PMID:25620443

  3. Comparison of oil refining and biodiesel production process between screw press and n-hexane techniques from beauty leaf feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N.

    2016-07-01

    The Beauty Leaf Tree (Callophylum inophyllum) is regarded as an alternative source of energy to produce 2nd generation biodiesel due to its potentiality as well as high oil yield content in the seed kernels. The treating process is indispensable during the biodiesel production process because it can augment the yield as well as quality of the product. Oil extracted from both mechanical screw press and solvent extraction using n-hexane was refined. Five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for screw press and five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for n-hexane were selected for refining as well as biodiesel conversion processes. The oil refining processes consists of degumming, neutralization as well as dewaxing. The degumming, neutralization and dewaxing processes were performed to remove all the gums (phosphorous-based compounds), free fatty acids, and waxes from the fresh crude oil before the biodiesel conversion process carried out, respectively. The results indicated that up to 73% and 81% of mass conversion efficiency of the refined oil in the screw press and n-hexane refining processes were obtained, respectively. It was also found that up to 88% and 90% of biodiesel were yielded in terms of mass conversion efficiency in the transesterification process for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. While the entire processes (refining and transesterification) were considered, the conversion of beauty leaf tree (BLT) refined oil into biodiesel was yielded up to 65% and 73% of mass conversion efficiency for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. Physico-chemical properties of crude and refined oil, and biodiesel were characterized according to the ASTM standards. Overall, BLT has the potential to contribute as an alternative energy source because of high mass conversion efficiency.

  4. Agglomeration defects on irradiated carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Steini Moura, Cassio; Balzaretti, Naira Maria; Amaral, Livio; Gribel Lacerda, Rodrigo; Pimenta, Marcos A.

    2012-03-15

    Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) were irradiated in the longitudinal and perpendicular directions, with low energy carbon and helium ions in order to observe the formation of defects in the atomic structure. Analysis through Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated bundle rupture and ion track formation on nanotube bundles. Aligned CNT presented a kind of defect comprising ravine formation and tube agglomeration on top of the substrate. The latter structure is possibly caused by static charge accumulation induced by the incoming ions. Fluence plays a role on the short range order. Higher fluence irradiation transforms CNT into amorphous carbon nanowires.

  5. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1993-10-01

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 1 {mu}m) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. It is generally recognized that surface-based separation processes such as froth flotation or selective agglomeration offer considerable potential for such applications but there remain many problems in obtaining the required selectivity with acceptable recovery of combustible matter. In froth flotation, selectivity is substantially reduced at fine sizes due, primarily, to overloading of the froth phase which leads to excessive carryover of water and entrained mineral matter. Oil agglomeration, on the other hand, can provide good selectivity at low levels of oil addition but the agglomerates tend to be too fragile for separation by the screening methods normally used. The addition of larger amounts of oil can yield large, strong agglomerates which are easily separated but the selectivity is reduced and reagent costs can become excessive.

  6. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Cosponsored by EPRI; DOE; Praxis Engineers, Inc.; and Southern Company Services, Inc., this project was an effort to scale up a selective agglomeration concept that EPRI and the Alberta Research Council jointly developed. So that as-mined high-sulfur coals can meet environmental regulations, investigators defined, tested, scaled up the selective agglomeration physical coal cleaning technology for rejecting pyritic sulfur while maintaining high Btu recoveries. Among the project`s goals was 85% recovery or greater of Btu recoveries. Among the project`s goals was 85% recovery or greater of Btu values with 85% pyritic sulfur rejection based on run-of-mine coal, creating a product with ash content of 6% or less that is usable in conventional coal handling systems. To achieve these goals, researchers divided the project into two phases. In Phase 1, they performed more than 1000 bench-scale continuous and batch tests and product forming component development. Proof-of-concept testing in Phase II used the most promising configurations from Phase I with diesel oil as the agglomerate and pelletization product forming. Research estimates for cleaning the entire product from conventional cleaning circuits with selective agglomeration was approximately $25/ton product or $490/ton SO{sub 2} removed. These figures suggest that precombustion sulfur removal is competitive with postcombustion strategies. The project also demonstrated that the degree of trace element reduction is coal specific and that significant reductions are possible using conventional coal cleaning and selective agglomeration. Since many of the trace elements in coal are hazardous air pollutants, removal of the elements before burning will eliminate their release into the atmosphere.

  7. Analysis and synthesis of solutions for the agglomeration process modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuk, V. A.; Dolotkazin, I. N.; Nizyaev, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The present work is devoted development of model of agglomerating process for propellants based on ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium dinitramide (ADN), HMX, inactive binder, and nanoaluminum. Generalization of experimental data, development of physical picture of agglomeration for listed propellants, development and analysis of mathematical models are carried out. Synthesis of models of various phenomena taking place at agglomeration implementation allows predicting of size and quantity, chemical composition, structure of forming agglomerates and its fraction in set of condensed combustion products. It became possible in many respects due to development of new model of agglomerating particle evolution on the surface of burning propellant. Obtained results correspond to available experimental data. It is supposed that analogical method based on analysis of mathematical models of particular phenomena and their synthesis will allow implementing of the agglomerating process modeling for other types of metalized solid propellants.

  8. Apparatus and method for compacting, degassing and carbonizing carbonaceous agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, F.W.

    1980-08-19

    An apparatus for compacting, degassing and carbonizing carbonaceous agglomerates is described. The apparatus comprises a rotary kiln having an agglomerate inlet means for introducing green agglomerates into the kiln near the inlet of the kiln and a heating medium inlet for introducing a heating medium comprising a finely divided solid into the kiln at a preselected location intermediate the inlet end of the kiln and the outlet end of the kiln to produce a mixture at a temperature above the carbonizing temperature of the agglomerates and a sieve positioned to receive the products from the rotary kiln and separate the heating medium and the compacted, degassed, carbonized agglomerate product. A method for producing compacted, degassed, carbonized carbonaceous agglomerates by the use of the apparatus is also disclosed.

  9. General concepts of hydrargillite Al(OH) 3, agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veesler, S.; Roure, S.; Boistelle, R.

    1994-02-01

    Agglomeration is an important stage of the Bayer process aiming at increasing the initial size of Al(OH) 3 particles. In the present work, we investigate the effects of supersaturation, seed charge and stirring rate on the agglomeration of hydrargillite crystallites, the size of which ranges from about 2 to 10 μm. The experiments are carried out in a batch crystallizer at constant temperature and caustic concentration. It is shown that the agglomeration rate increases with increasing seed charge, but rapidly reaches a plateau before decreasing when the seed charge is too high. On the other hand, agglomeration continuously decreases with increasing stirring rate, while it is favoured by increasing supersaturation. In the latter case, growth of the crystallites contributes to coarsening the agglomerates. We propose the general outlines of an agglomeration model taking collision and disagglomeration probabilities into account.

  10. Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and gas chromatography (one- and two-dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils has been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents that are particularly important for public health. PMID:25403494

  11. Process and formulation variables in the preparation of wax microparticles by a melt dispersion technique. I. Oil-in-water technique for water-insoluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Bodmeier, R; Wang, J; Bhagwatwar, H

    1992-01-01

    Ibuprofen-wax (carnauba, paraffin, beeswax, and the semisynthetic glyceryl esters--Gelucire 64/02 and Precirol ATO5) microparticles were prepared without organic solvents as an alternative to polymeric microparticles. In the melt dispersion technique, the drug-wax melt was emulsified into a heated aqueous phase followed by cooling to form the microparticles. The microparticles were characterized with respect to their drug loading, and morphological and release properties. They were spherical and non-agglomerated and drug loading close to 60 per cent were achieved. The more hydrophilic waxes (Gelucire 64/02 or Precirol ATO5) could be prepared without the use of surfactants. With the other waxes, increasing amounts of sodium lauryl sulphate in the external aqueous phase decreased the drug loading because of drug solubilization when compared to the polymeric stabilizer, poly(vinyl alcohol). The type of wax, the rate of cooling, and the temperature of the aqueous phase had no significant effect on the drug loading because of the low solubility of the drug in the external aqueous phase. The drug release was controlled by the hydrophobicity of the wax. Besides ibuprofen, other water-soluble drugs (ketoprofen, indomethacin, hydrocortisone) were also encapsulated by this method. The wax microparticles could be formulated into an aqueous sustained-release oral suspension dosage form. PMID:1613647

  12. [Artificial neural network forecasting method in monitoring technique by spectrometric oil analysis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-wei; Chen, Guo; Yang, Yu-wei; Chen, Guo

    2005-08-01

    The spectrometric oil analysis (SOA) is an important technique for machine state monitoring and fault diagnosis, and forecasting machine state through SOA results has an advantage of finding out machine system wear fault early. Because Artificial Neural Network (ANN) possesses obvious advantages over traditional forecasting models for identifyingnon-linear model and forecasting non-even signal, the ANN forecasting approach was applied to monitoring technique by SOA, and the monitoringtechnique by SOA based on ANN forecasting was put forward. In the forecasting model, a 3-layer BP network structure was adopted.Aiming at the problem that ANN structure has a great effect on forecasting precision, the authors utilized the Genetic Algorithm (GA) to optimize the node number of input layer, the node number of hidden layer, and MSE (Mean of Squared Error) target value which was required for ANN training, and obtained the optimum forecasting model of ANN. Finally, the practical SOA data of some engine was analyzed and forecasted by ANN, and the forecasting result was compared with that of traditional ARMA model. The result fully showsthe superiority and effectivity of the new method. PMID:16329517

  13. Skin friction measurement in complex flows using thin oil film techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Grant NAG2-261 was initiated to support a program of research to study complex flows that occur in flight and laboratory experiments by building, testing and optimizing an on-board technique for direct measurement of surface shear stress using thin oil film techniques. The program of research has proceeded under the supervision of the NASA Ames Research Center and with further cooperation from the NASA Ames-Dryden and NASA Langley Research Centers. In accordance with the original statement of work, the following research milestones were accomplished: (1) design and testing of an internally mounted one-directional skin friction meter to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept; (2) design and construction of a compact instrument capable of measuring skin friction in two directions; (3) study of transitional and fully turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with and without longitudinal pressure gradients utilizing the compact two-directional skin friction meter; (4) study of the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer and a shock wave generated by a compression corner using the two-directional meter; and (5) flight qualification of the compact meter and accompanying electronic and pneumatic systems, preliminary installation into flight test fixture.

  14. Method for producing ceramic particles and agglomerates

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Gleiman, Seth S.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2001-01-01

    A method for generating spherical and irregularly shaped dense particles of ceramic oxides having a controlled particle size and particle size distribution. An aerosol containing precursor particles of oxide ceramics is directed into a plasma. As the particles flow through the hot zone of the plasma, they melt, collide, and join to form larger particles. If these larger particles remain in the hot zone, they continue melting and acquire a spherical shape that is retained after they exit the hot zone, cool down, and solidify. If they exit the hot zone before melting completely, their irregular shape persists and agglomerates are produced. The size and size distribution of the dense product particles can be controlled by adjusting several parameters, the most important in the case of powder precursors appears to be the density of powder in the aerosol stream that enters the plasma hot zone. This suggests that particle collision rate is responsible for determining ultimate size of the resulting sphere or agglomerate. Other parameters, particularly the gas flow rates and the microwave power, are also adjusted to control the particle size distribution.

  15. Agglomeration in a fluidized bed using multiple jet streams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J. ); Kothari, M.; Hariri, H.; Arastoopour, H. )

    1992-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the overall temperature distribution, temperature in the vicinity of the jets, and the rate of agglomeration in a fluidized bed containing multiple jet streams. Agglomeration of ash during coal gasification increases carbon utilization efficiency considerably. The agglomeration requires a fluidized-bed reactor with a specially designed distributor equipped with a jet to yield a hot zone confined within the bed. The rate of agglomeration depends upon the size and the intensity of the zone. This rate, and hence the unit capacity, could be increased by adding multiple jets to the distributor. The purpose of this study was to verify this phenomenon. The temperature distribution inside the agglomerating fluidized-bed reactor with a single jet was studied by Hariri et al. Various parameters were involved in agglomeration phenomena -- bed material, fluidization velocity, bed temperature, jet velocity, jet temperature, bed geometry, and distributor geometry. Controlled agglomerates were produced in the fluidized bed when a sloped gas distributor consisting of a central jet and a porous plate was used. Gas at temperatures above the melting temperature of a bed material was introduced into the jet and gas at temperatures below the softening temperature was introduced into the distributor. The rate of agglomerate formation was significantly influenced by an increase in either jet air or auxiliary (grid) air temperature. The extent of agglomeration also depended strongly upon the volume of the hot zone confined within the isotherms with temperatures higher than the melting point of the bed material.

  16. Agglomeration in a fluidized bed using multiple jet streams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J.; Kothari, M.; Hariri, H.; Arastoopour, H.

    1992-12-31

    Tests were conducted to determine the overall temperature distribution, temperature in the vicinity of the jets, and the rate of agglomeration in a fluidized bed containing multiple jet streams. Agglomeration of ash during coal gasification increases carbon utilization efficiency considerably. The agglomeration requires a fluidized-bed reactor with a specially designed distributor equipped with a jet to yield a hot zone confined within the bed. The rate of agglomeration depends upon the size and the intensity of the zone. This rate, and hence the unit capacity, could be increased by adding multiple jets to the distributor. The purpose of this study was to verify this phenomenon. The temperature distribution inside the agglomerating fluidized-bed reactor with a single jet was studied by Hariri et al. Various parameters were involved in agglomeration phenomena -- bed material, fluidization velocity, bed temperature, jet velocity, jet temperature, bed geometry, and distributor geometry. Controlled agglomerates were produced in the fluidized bed when a sloped gas distributor consisting of a central jet and a porous plate was used. Gas at temperatures above the melting temperature of a bed material was introduced into the jet and gas at temperatures below the softening temperature was introduced into the distributor. The rate of agglomerate formation was significantly influenced by an increase in either jet air or auxiliary (grid) air temperature. The extent of agglomeration also depended strongly upon the volume of the hot zone confined within the isotherms with temperatures higher than the melting point of the bed material.

  17. Rapid determination of plasmonic nanoparticle agglomeration status in blood.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Samir V; Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak; Ingle, Taylor M; Wang, Rongrong; Wang, Feng; Howard, Paul C; Chen, Jingyi; Zhang, Yongbin

    2015-05-01

    Plasmonic nanomaterials as drug delivery or bio-imaging agents are typically introduced to biological systems through intravenous administration. However, the potential for agglomeration of nanoparticles in biological systems could dramatically affect their pharmacokinetic profile and toxic potential. Development of rapid screening methods to evaluate agglomeration is urgently needed to monitor the physical nature of nanoparticles as they are introduced into blood. Here, we establish novel methods using darkfield microscopy with hyperspectral detection (hsDFM), single particle inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS), and confocal Raman microscopy (cRM) to discriminate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and their agglomerates in blood. Rich information about nanoparticle agglomeration in situ is provided by hsDFM monitoring of the plasmon resonance of primary nanoparticles and their agglomerates in whole blood; cRM is an effective complement to hsDFM to detect AuNP agglomerates in minimally manipulated samples. The AuNPs and the particle agglomerates were further distinguished in blood for the first time by quantification of particle mass using spICP-MS with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the agglomeration status of synthesized and commercial NPs incubated in blood was successfully assessed using the developed methods. Together, these complementary methods enable rapid determination of the agglomeration status of plasmonic nanomaterials in biological systems, specifically blood. PMID:25771013

  18. Rapid Determination of Plasmonic Nanoparticle Agglomeration Status in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Samir V.; Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak; Ingle, Taylor; Wang, RongRong; Wang, Feng; Howard, Paul C.; Chen, Jingyi; Zhang, Yongbin

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanomaterials as drug delivery or bio-imaging agents are typically introduced to biological systems through intravenous administration. However, the potential for agglomeration of nanoparticles in biological systems could dramatically affect their pharmacokinetic profile and toxic potential. Development of rapid screening methods to evaluate agglomeration is urgently needed to monitor the physical nature of nanoparticles as they are introduced into blood. Here, we establish novel methods using darkfield microscopy with hyperspectral detection (hsDFM), single particle inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS), and confocal Raman microscopy (cRM) to discriminate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and their agglomerates in blood. Rich information about nanoparticle agglomeration in situ is provided by hsDFM monitoring of the plasmon resonance of primary nanoparticles and their agglomerates in whole blood; cRM is an effective complement to hsDFM to detect AuNP agglomerates in minimally manipulated samples. The AuNPs and the particle agglomerates were further distinguished in blood for the first time by quantification of particle mass using spICP-MS with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the agglomeration status of synthesized and commercial NPs incubated in blood was successfully assessed using the developed methods. Together, these complementary methods enable rapid determination of the agglomeration status of plasmonic nanomaterials in biological systems, specifically blood. PMID:25771013

  19. Method for recovering light hydrocarbons from coal agglomerates

    DOEpatents

    Huettenhain, Horst; Benz, August D.; Getsoian, John

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing light hydrocarbons, such as heptane, from coal agglomerates includes an enclosed chamber having a substantially horizontal perforate surface therein. The coal agglomerates are introduced into a water bath within the chamber. The agglomerates are advanced over the surface while steam is substantially continuously introduced through the surface into the water bath. Steam heats the water and causes volatilization of the light hydrocarbons, which may be collected from the overhead of the chamber. The resulting agglomerates may be collected at the opposite end from the surface and subjected to final draining processes prior to transportation or use.

  20. Application of Lipschitz Regularity and Multiscale Techniques for the Automatic Detection of Oil Spills in Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajadi, O. A.; Meyer, F. J.; Tello, M.

    2015-12-01

    This research presents a promising new method for the detection and tracking of oil spills from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The method presented here combines a number of advanced image processing techniques in order to overcome some common performance limitations of SAR-based oil spill detection. Principal among these limitations are: (1) the radar cross section of the ocean surface strongly depends on wind and wave activities and is therefore highly variable; (2) the radar cross section of oil covered waters is often indistinguishable from other dark ocean features such as low wind areas or oil lookalikes, leading to ambiguities in oil spill detection. In this paper, we introduce two novel image analysis techniques to largely mitigate the aforementioned performance limitations, namely Lipschitz regularity (LR) and Wavelet transforms. We used LR, an image texture parameter akin to the slope of the local power spectrum, in our approach to mitigate these limitations. We show that the LR parameter is much less sensitive to variations of wind and waves than the original image amplitude, lending itself well for normalizing image content. Beyond its benefit for image normalization, we also show that the LR transform enhances the contrast between oil-covered and oil-free ocean surfaces and therefore improves overall spill detection performance. To calculate LR, the SAR images are decomposed using two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (2D-CWT), which are furthermore transformed into Holder space to measure LR. Finally, we demonstrate that the implementation of wavelet transforms provide additional benefits related to the adaptive reduction of speckle noise. We show how LR and CWT are integrated into our image analysis workflow for application to oil spill detection. To describe the performance of this approach under controlled conditions, we applied our method to simulated SAR data of wind driven oceans containing oil spills of various properties. We also

  1. Recent improvements in optimizing use of dispersants as a cost-effective oil spill countermeasure technique

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.S.; Indrebo, G.

    1996-12-31

    Several oil spill incidents during recent years have demonstrated that the physico-chemical properties of spilled oil and the effectiveness of available combat methods are, in addition to the prevailing environmental and weather conditions, key factors that determine the consequences of an oil spill. Pre-spill analyses of the feasibility and effectiveness of different response strategies, such as mechanical recovery and dispersants, for actual oils under various environmental conditions should therefore be an essential part of any oil spill contingency planning to optimize the overall {open_quotes}Net Environmental Benefit{close_quotes} of a combat operation. During the four-year research program ESCOST ({open_quotes}ESSO-SINTEF Coastal Oil Spill Treatment Program{close_quotes}), significant improvements have been made in oil spill combat methods and in tools for use in contingency planning and decision-making during oil spill operations. This paper will present an overview of the main findings obtained with respect to oil weathering and oil spill dispersant treatment.

  2. Bioremediation techniques on crude oil contaminated soils in Ohio. First quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, D.

    1996-03-27

    The objective of this project is to develop environmentally-sound and cost-effective remediation techniques for crude oil contaminated soils. By providing a guidance manual to oil and gas operators, the Ohio Division of Oil and Gas regulatory authority hopes to reduce remediation costs while improving voluntary compliance with soil clean-up requirements. This shall be accomplished by conducting a series of field tests to define the optimum range for nutrient, oxygen and organic enhancement to biologically remediate soils contaminated with brines and crude oil having a wide range of viscosity. Task one of the bioremediation project began on July 3, 1995 with the selection and preparation of a site in Smith township. Mahoning County. The plots were arranged and parameters were varied. Plots, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal. ) of Corning grade crude oil and plots 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal.) of Pennsylvania grade crude oil. Plots 13 through 21 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal.) of Pennsylvania grade crude oil and 477 liters (126 gal.) of Clinton sandstone brine with a 160,000 mg/liter concentration of chloride. Treatment and administration of variables were conducted from August 17, 1995 to October 26, 1995. During this period samples were collected twice from each plot and analyzed for the parameters specified in the contract. Results from both sampling events of total petroleum hydrocarbons suggest that crude oil spread on surface is not easily mixed into soils as tillage depth, resulting in considerably variable composite samples from plot to plot.

  3. Interaction between magnetic agglomerates and an extended free radicals network studied by magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guskos, Niko; Zolnierkiewicz, Grzegorz; Typek, Janusz; Guskos, Aleksander; Berczynski, Pawel; Petridis, Dimitri

    2012-02-01

    Solids containing an extended network of free radicals have been prepared and studied by magnetic resonance techniques in the 4-290 K temperature range. One solid contained additionally a small amount of magnetic γ-Fe2O3 in the form of nanoparticle agglomerates. The solid without agglomerates displayed only a narrow, single resonance line centered at g eff = 2.0043. The magnetic resonance measurements of the solid with γ-Fe2O3 agglomerates gave a spectrum composed of two lines attributed to two different magnetic centers: a narrow line due to free radicals and a broad line arising from magnetic iron oxide agglomerates. In the high temperature range the integrated intensities of both lines decreased with decreasing temperature. The resonance field of the broad line shifted to lower magnetic fields upon lowering the temperature with the gradient ΔH r/ΔT = 2.3 G/K, while the narrow line shifted towards higher magnetic fields. The linewidth of the broader line increased with decreasing temperature while for the narrow lines in both samples this change was small. The magnetic iron oxide clusters produce a magnetic field which acts on the free radicals network and its strength depends essentially on the concentration of clusters. The reorientation process in the free radicals network is more intense in the sample without magnetic clusters.

  4. Interaction between magnetic agglomerates and an extended free radicals network studied by magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guskos, Niko; Zolnierkiewicz, Grzegorz; Typek, Janusz; Guskos, Aleksander; Berczynski, Pawel; Petridis, Dimitri

    2012-02-01

    Solids containing an extended network of free radicals have been prepared and studied by magnetic resonance techniques in the 4-290 K temperature range. One solid contained additionally a small amount of magnetic γ-Fe2O3 in the form of nanoparticle agglomerates. The solid without agglomerates displayed only a narrow, single resonance line centered at g eff = 2.0043. The magnetic resonance measurements of the solid with γ-Fe2O3 agglomerates gave a spectrum composed of two lines attributed to two different magnetic centers: a narrow line due to free radicals and a broad line arising from magnetic iron oxide agglomerates. In the high temperature range the integrated intensities of both lines decreased with decreasing temperature. The resonance field of the broad line shifted to lower magnetic fields upon lowering the temperature with the gradient Δ H r /Δ T = 2.3 G/K, while the narrow line shifted towards higher magnetic fields. The linewidth of the broader line increased with decreasing temperature while for the narrow lines in both samples this change was small. The magnetic iron oxide clusters produce a magnetic field which acts on the free radicals network and its strength depends essentially on the concentration of clusters. The reorientation process in the free radicals network is more intense in the sample without magnetic clusters.

  5. Soot agglomeration in isolated, free droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, M. Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Green, G. J.; Sangiovanni, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Under the conditions of an isolated, free droplet experiment, hollow, carbonaceous structures, called soot spheres, were observed to form during the atmospheric pressure, low Reynolds number combustion of 1-methylnaphthalene. These structures which are agglomerates composed of smaller spheroidal units result from both thermophoretic effects induced by the envelope flame surrounding each drop and aerodynamic effects caused by changes in the relative gas/drop velocities. A chemically reacting flow model was used to analyze the process of sootshell formation during microgravity droplet combustion. The time-dependent temperature and gas property field surrounding the droplet was determined, and the soot cloud location for microgravity combustion of n-heptane droplets was predicted. Experiments showed that the sooting propensity of n-alkane fuel droplets can be varied through diluent substitution, oxygen-index variations, and ambient pressure reductions.

  6. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Mansour, Momtaz N.; Chandran, Ravi

    1994-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, added particulates may include a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  7. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Mansour, Momtaz N.

    1993-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance bimodal agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. A particulate having a size different from the size of the particulate in the gas stream to be cleaned is introduced into the system to effectuate the bimodal process. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, the added particulate may be a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  8. Simple techniques to increase the production yield and enhance the quality of organic rice bran oils.

    PubMed

    Srikaeo, Khongsak; Pradit, Maythawinee

    2011-01-01

    This study develops simple techniques for increasing production yield and refining of crude RBO (CRBO). It was found that pre-heating of rice bran by hot air oven to reach 60°C before being extracted by screw press machine increased the yield from 4.8 to 8.3%w/w. This paper suggested three simple steps for refining of organic CRBO: (1) filtering using filter papers (2) sedimentation by adding 4%w/v fuller's earth and (3) bleaching by running through a packed column of activated carbon. These steps significantly enhanced the qualities of RBO when compared to CRBO before treatment. It was found that the lightness of oil as indicated by color value (L*) increased from 22.8 to 28.7, gum and wax decreased from 3.6 to 1.3%w/w. However, the simple refining method had no effect on peroxide value and free fatty acid content. Moreover, it slightly induced the loss of oryzanol content from 2.8 to 2.2%w/w. PMID:21178310

  9. Biological effects of agglomerated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Song, Zheng-Mei; Wang, Lin; Chen, Ni; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2016-06-01

    The physicochemical properties of nanomaterials play crucial roles in determining their biological effects. Agglomeration of nanomaterials in various systems is a common phenomenon, however, how agglomeration affects the biological consequence of nanomaterials has not been well investigated because of its complexity. Herein, we prepared variable sized agglomerates of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) by using Ca(2+) and studied their cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. We found the altered property of O-MWCNTs agglomerates could be controlled and adjusted by the amount of Ca(2+). Agglomeration remarkably facilitated the cellular uptake of O-MWCNTs at the initial contact stage, due to the easy contact of agglomerates with cells. But agglomeration did not induce evident cytotoxicity when the concentration of O-MWCNTs was less than 150μg/mL. That was assayed by cell proliferation, membrane integrity, apoptosis and ROS generation. This study suggests us that the biological behaviors of nanomaterials could be altered by their states of agglomeration. PMID:26930035

  10. Measuring agglomerate size distribution and dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance absorbance on gold nanoparticle agglomerate size using analytical ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Zook, Justin M; Rastogi, Vinayak; Maccuspie, Robert I; Keene, Athena M; Fagan, Jeffrey

    2011-10-25

    Agglomeration of nanoparticles during measurements in relevant biological and environmental media is a frequent problem in nanomaterial property characterization. The primary problem is typically that any changes to the size distribution can dramatically affect the potential nanotoxicity or other size-determined properties, such as the absorbance signal in a biosensor measurement. Herein we demonstrate analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) as a powerful method for measuring two critical characteristics of nanoparticle (NP) agglomerates in situ in biological media: the NP agglomerate size distribution, and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorbance spectrum of precise sizes of gold NP agglomerates. To characterize the size distribution, we present a theoretical framework for calculating the hydrodynamic diameter distribution of NP agglomerates from their sedimentation coefficient distribution. We measure sedimentation rates for monomers, dimers, and trimers, as well as for larger agglomerates with up to 600 NPs. The AUC size distributions were found generally to be broader than the size distributions estimated from dynamic light scattering and diffusion-limited colloidal aggregation theory, an alternative bulk measurement method that relies on several assumptions. In addition, the measured sedimentation coefficients can be used in nanotoxicity studies to predict how quickly the agglomerates sediment out of solution under normal gravitational forces, such as in the environment. We also calculate the absorbance spectra for monomer, dimer, trimer, and larger gold NP agglomerates up to 600 NPs, to enable a better understanding of LSPR biosensors. Finally, we validate a new method that uses these spectra to deconvolute the net absorbance spectrum of an unknown bulk sample and approximate the proportions of monomers, dimers, and trimers in a polydisperse sample of small agglomerates, so that every sample does not need to be measured by AUC. These results

  11. Development and trial of microwave techniques for measurement of multiphase flow of oil, water and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, S.L.; Cutmore, N.G.; Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W.; McEwan, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    A prototype microwave and gamma-ray MFM has been developed for measurement of oil, water and gas flowrates on production pipelines and has been successfully trialed at the Thevenard island oil production facility. The microwave and gamma-ray MFM determined the oil and water flow rates with errors of 5.4 and 5.9% relative respectively for the wide range of wells and flow conditions during the trial period. A prototype non-intrusive microwave MFM is being developed for measurement of oil, water and gas flow rates on production pipelines. The microwave MFM will be trialed on the West Kingfish platform in Bass Strait in late 1994.

  12. Comparison Between Different Flavored Olive Oil Production Techniques: Healthy Value and Process Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Crupi, Pasquale; Durante, Viviana; Pesce, Vito; Maiellaro, Isabella; Lovece, Angelo; Mercurio, Annalisa; Laghezza, Antonio; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Three different flavoring methods of olive oil were tested employing two different herbs, thyme and oregano. The traditional method consist in the infusion of herbs into the oil. A second scarcely diffused method is based on the addition of herbs to the crushed olives before the malaxation step during the extraction process. The third innovative method is the implementation of the ultrasound before the olive paste malaxation. The objective of the study is to verify the effect of the treatments on the quality of the product, assessed by means of the chemical characteristics, the phenol composition and the radical scavenging activity of the resulting oils. The less favorable method was the addition of herbs directly to the oil. A positive effect was achieved by the addition of herbs to the olive paste and other advantages were attained by the employment of ultrasound. These last two methods allow to produce oils "ready to sell", instead the infused oils need to be filtered. Moreover, the flavoring methods applied during the extraction process determine a significant increment of phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of olive oils. The increments were higher when oregano is used instead of thyme. Ultrasound inhibited the olive polyphenoloxidase, the endogenous enzyme responsible for olive oil phenol oxidation. This treatment of olive paste mixed with herbs before malaxation was revealed as the most favorable method due to the best efficiency, reduced time consumption and minor labor, enhancing the product quality of flavored olive oil. PMID:26852311

  13. Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah, Class I

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Craig D.; Gwynn, Wallace; Deo, Milind D.; Jarrard, Richard; Curtice, Richard; Morris, Thomas H.; Smouse, DeForrest; Tripp, Carol N.

    2000-01-20

    The objective of this project was to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Unita Basin Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that staged-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance.

  14. AMG by element agglomeration and constrained energy minimization interpolation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, T V; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-02-17

    This paper studies AMG (algebraic multigrid) methods that utilize energy minimization construction of the interpolation matrices locally, in the setting of element agglomeration AMG. The coarsening in element agglomeration AMG is done by agglomerating fine-grid elements, with coarse element matrices defined by a local Galerkin procedure applied to the matrix assembled from the individual fine-grid element matrices. This local Galerkin procedure involves only the coarse basis restricted to the agglomerated element. To construct the coarse basis, one exploits previously proposed constraint energy minimization procedures now applied to the local matrix. The constraints are that a given set of vectors should be interpolated exactly, not only globally, but also locally on every agglomerated element. The paper provides algorithmic details, as well as a convergence result based on a ''local-to-global'' energy bound of the resulting multiple-vector fitting AMG interpolation mappings. A particular implementation of the method is illustrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  15. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (<10 years old), as young oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  16. New techniques on oil spill modelling applied in the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Kokinou, Eleni; Alves, Tiago; Lardner, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Small or large oil spills resulting from accidents on oil and gas platforms or due to the maritime traffic comprise a major environmental threat for all marine and coastal systems, and they are responsible for huge economic losses concerning the human infrastructures and the tourism. This work aims at presenting the integration of oil-spill model, bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, geomorphological and geological data to assess the impact of oil spills in maritime regions such as bays, as well as in the open sea, carried out in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea within the frame of NEREIDs, MEDESS-4MS and RAOP-Med EU projects. The MEDSLIK oil spill predictions are successfully combined with bathymetric analyses, the shoreline susceptibility and hazard mapping to predict the oil slick trajectories and the extend of the coastal areas affected. Based on MEDSLIK results, oil spill spreading and dispersion scenarios are produced both for non-mitigated and mitigated oil spills. MEDSLIK model considers three response combating methods of floating oil spills: a) mechanical recovery using skimmers or similar mechanisms; b) destruction by fire, c) use of dispersants or other bio-chemical means and deployment of booms. Shoreline susceptibility map can be compiled for the study areas based on the Environmental Susceptibility Index. The ESI classification considers a range of values between 1 and 9, with level 1 (ESI 1) representing areas of low susceptibility, impermeable to oil spilt during accidents, such as linear shorelines with rocky cliffs. In contrast, ESI 9 shores are highly vulnerable, and often coincide with natural reserves and special protected areas. Additionally, hazard maps of the maritime and coastal areas, possibly exposed to the danger on an oil spill, evaluate and categorize the hazard in levels from low to very high. This is important because a) Prior to an oil spill accident, hazard and shoreline susceptibility maps are made available to design

  17. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  18. Effects of process variables on the encapsulation of oil in ca-alginate capsules using an inverse gelation technique.

    PubMed

    Abang, Sariah; Chan, Eng-Seng; Poncelet, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of process variables on the encapsulation of oil in a calcium alginate membrane using an inverse gelation technique. A dispersion of calcium chloride solution in sunflower oil (water-in-oil emulsion) was added dropwise to the alginate solution. The migration of calcium ions to the alginate solution initiates the formation of a ca-alginate membrane around the emulsion droplets. The membrane thickness of wet capsules and the elastic modulus of dry capsules increased following first-order kinetics with an increasing curing time. An increase in the calcium chloride concentration increased the membrane thickness of wet capsules and the elastic modulus of dry capsules. An increase in the alginate concentration decreased the mean diameter of wet capsules but increased the elastic modulus of dry capsules. PMID:22292966

  19. Effect of drug content and agglomerate size on tabletability and drug release characteristics of bromhexine hydrochloridetalc agglomerates prepared by crystallo-co-agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Namdeo; Pawar, Atmaram; Paradkar, Anant

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the investigation was to study the effect of bromhexine hydrochloride (BXH) content and agglomerate size on mechanical, compressional and drug release properties of agglomerates prepared by crystallo-co-agglomeration (CCA). Studies on optimized batches of agglomerates (BXT1 and BXT2) prepared by CCA have showed adequate sphericity and strength required for efficient tabletting. Trend of strength reduction with a decrease in the size of agglomerates was noted for both batches, irrespective of drug loading. However, an increase in mean yield pressure (14.189 to 19.481) with an increase in size was observed for BXT2 having BXH-talc (1:15.7). Surprisingly, improvement in tensile strength was demonstrated by compacts prepared from BXT2, due to high BXH load, whereas BXT1, having a low amount of BXH (BXH-talc, 1:24), showed low tensile strength. Consequently, increased tensile strength was reflected in extended drug release from BXT2 compacts (Higuchi model, R(2) = 0.9506 to 0.9981). Thus, it can be concluded that interparticulate bridges formed by BXH and agglomerate size affect their mechanical, compressional and drug release properties. PMID:20228039

  20. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment used for the containment and removal of oil as a result of oil spill mishaps. Dispersants, separators, skimmers and absorbants are discussed. Related studies regarding film spreading and dispersion are presented. Studies pertaining to shipboard ballast and bilgewater cleaning are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Determination and structural elucidation of triacylglycerols in krill oil by chromatographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Pedro; Zhu, Han; Breivik, Joar Fjørtoft; Hjelle, Jan Idar; Zeng, Yingxu

    2014-02-01

    The content of triacylglycerols (TAG) in krill oil is generally omitted from the labels of commercial supplements and unacknowledged in studies aimed at proving its health benefits. The present study demonstrates that TAG compounds, in addition to phospholipids and lysophospholipids, are an important lipid class in pure krill oil. The fatty acid composition of TAG molecules from krill oil and their distribution on the backbone of TAG structures were determined by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric, respectively. The content of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was similar to those reported in the literature for fish oil. It was estimated that 21 % of n-3 PUFA were at the sn-2 position of TAG structures. To our knowledge, this is the first determination and structural characterization of TAG in pure krill oil supplements. PMID:24190513

  2. Authentication and traceability of Italian extra-virgin olive oils by means of stable isotopes techniques.

    PubMed

    Portarena, S; Gavrichkova, O; Lauteri, M; Brugnoli, E

    2014-12-01

    Authentication of food origin is relevant to avoid food fraud. This work aimed to explore the variation of isotopic compositions (δ(13)C, δ(18)O) of extra-virgin olive oils from Italy growing in different environmental conditions. A total of 387 oil samples from nine different regions (from North to South), produced on 2009, 2010 and 2011, were analysed. Statistical analysis showed correlations among oil isotope compositions and latitude, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation and xerothermic index. No correlation was found comparing isotope compositions with elevation and longitude. An observed shift of the oil δ(18)O per centigrade degree of the mean annual temperature is congruent with literature. The year effect was significant for both δ(18)O and δ(13)C. Samples from Sicilia and Sardegna were higher in (13)C and (18)O than oils from northern regions. PMID:24996298

  3. Impact of agglomeration state of nano- and submicron sized gold particles on pulmonary inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nanoparticle (NP) toxicity testing comes with many challenges. Characterization of the test substance is of crucial importance and in the case of NPs, agglomeration/aggregation state in physiological media needs to be considered. In this study, we have addressed the effect of agglomerated versus single particle suspensions of nano- and submicron sized gold on the inflammatory response in the lung. Rats were exposed to a single dose of 1.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) of spherical gold particles with geometric diameters of 50 nm or 250 nm diluted either by ultrapure water or by adding phosphate buffered saline (PBS). A single dose of 1.6 mg/kg bw DQ12 quartz was used as a positive control for pulmonary inflammation. Extensive characterization of the particle suspensions has been performed by determining the zetapotential, pH, gold concentration and particle size distribution. Primary particle size and particle purity has been verified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Pulmonary inflammation (total cell number, differential cell count and pro-inflammatory cytokines), cell damage (total protein and albumin) and cytotoxicity (alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase) were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and acute systemic effects in blood (total cell number, differential cell counts, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein) 3 and 24 hours post exposure. Uptake of gold particles in alveolar macrophages has been determined by TEM. Results Particles diluted in ultrapure water are well dispersed, while agglomerates are formed when diluting in PBS. The particle size of the 50 nm particles was confirmed, while the 250 nm particles appear to be 200 nm using tracking analysis and 210 nm using TEM. No major differences in pulmonary and systemic toxicity markers were observed after instillation of agglomerated versus single gold particles of different sizes. Both agglomerated as well as single nanoparticles were taken up by

  4. Differentiation of lemon essential oil based on volatile and non-volatile fractions with various analytical techniques: a metabolomic approach.

    PubMed

    Mehl, Florence; Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Debrus, Benjamin; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Raymo, Vilfredo; Velazco, Maria Inés; Sommer, Horst; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Rudaz, Serge

    2014-01-15

    Due to the importance of citrus lemon oil for the industry, fast and reliable analytical methods that allow the authentication and/or classification of such oil, using the origin of production or extraction process, are necessary. To evaluate the potential of volatile and non-volatile fractions for classification purposes, volatile compounds of cold-pressed lemon oils were analyzed, using GC-FID/MS and FT-MIR, while the non-volatile residues were studied, using FT-MIR, (1)H-NMR and UHPLC-TOF-MS. 64 Lemon oil samples from Argentina, Spain and Italy were considered. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses were sequentially performed on various data blocks obtained by the above techniques. Successful data treatments led to statistically significant models that discriminated and classified cold-pressed lemon oils according to their geographic origin, as well as their production processes. Studying the loadings allowed highlighting of important classes of discriminant variables that corresponded to putative or identified chemical functions and compounds. PMID:24054247

  5. Operational source receptor calculations for large agglomerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauss, Michael; Shamsudheen, Semeena V.; Valdebenito, Alvaro; Pommier, Matthieu; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    For Air quality policy an important question is how much of the air pollution within an urbanized region can be attributed to local sources and how much of it is imported through long-range transport. This is critical information for a correct assessment of the effectiveness of potential emission measures. The ratio between indigenous and long-range transported air pollution for a given region depends on its geographic location, the size of its area, the strength and spatial distribution of emission sources, the time of the year, but also - very strongly - on the current meteorological conditions, which change from day to day and thus make it important to provide such calculations in near-real-time to support short-term legislation. Similarly, long-term analysis over longer periods (e.g. one year), or of specific air quality episodes in the past, can help to scientifically underpin multi-regional agreements and long-term legislation. Within the European MACC projects (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and the transition to the operational CAMS service (Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service) the computationally efficient EMEP MSC-W air quality model has been applied with detailed emission data, comprehensive calculations of chemistry and microphysics, driven by high quality meteorological forecast data (up to 96-hour forecasts), to provide source-receptor calculations on a regular basis in forecast mode. In its current state, the product allows the user to choose among different regions and regulatory pollutants (e.g. ozone and PM) to assess the effectiveness of fictive emission reductions in air pollutant emissions that are implemented immediately, either within the agglomeration or outside. The effects are visualized as bar charts, showing resulting changes in air pollution levels within the agglomeration as a function of time (hourly resolution, 0 to 4 days into the future). The bar charts not only allow assessing the effects of emission

  6. Analysis of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion agglomerates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, D. III; Brekke, D.W.; Karner, F.R.

    1984-04-01

    Chemical and textural studies of AFBC agglomerates have revealed detailed information regarding the mechanisms of agglomeration. The formation of agglomerates in a silica sand bed can be described by a four step process: initial ash coatings of quartz grains; thickening of ash coatings and the formation of nodules; cementation of nodules to each other by a sulfated aluminosilicate matrix; and partial or complete melting of eutectic compositions to produce a sticky glass phase between grains and along fractures. Once agglomeration has begun, large scale solidification and restricted flow within the bed will lead to hot spots, wholesale melting and further agglomeration which ultimately forces a shutdown. Standard operating temperatures during normal AFBC runs come quite close to, or may actually exceed, the minimum temperatures for eutectic melting of the silicate phases in the coal and standard bed materials. The partially melted material may be expected to lead to the formation of dense, sticky areas within the bed, and the formation of hot spots which further exacerbate the problem. Ultimately, large scale bed agglomeration will result. Attempts to eliminate agglomeration by removal of sodium via an ion exchange process have yielded encouraging results. A second approach, used to raise melting temperatures within the bed, has been to use bed materials that may react with low-temperature minerals to produce high-temperature refractory phases such as mullite or other alkali and alkali-earth alumino-silicates.

  7. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

    2005-09-30

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  8. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  9. Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Executive summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Project performance targets for the selective agglomeration process were to achieve 85% or greater Btu recovery at 85% or greater pyritic sulfur rejection (PSR) on a run-of-mine (ROM) coal basis, while producing a final clean-coal product with an ash content of 6% or less which is handleable by conventional coal handling systems. Engineering development of selective agglomeration included: (1) Batch and continuous bench-scale precess development testing; (2) Continuous pilot-scale (3-t/h) component development testing to evaluate the adaptation and/or modification of existing unit operations for selective agglomeration; (3) Continuous pilot-scale (2-t/h) POC testing to optimize the selective agglomeration process and demonstrate precess reliability; (4) Vendor testing to evaluate pelletization and thermal drying precesses as applied to selective agglomeration; (5) Conceptual design of a commercial-scale (200-V/h) selective agglomeration facility; (6) Economic analysis of the selective agglomeration precess at a commercial (200-t/h) scale. The information obtained from the various modes of testing and analysis, particularly POC operations, resulted in a technical and economic design base sufficient to support construction and operation of a commercial plant.

  10. A technique to measure fuel oil viscosity in a fuel power plant.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Miguel Angel; Ibargüengoytia, Pablo H; García, Uriel A

    2016-01-01

    The viscosity measurement and control of fuel oil in power plants is very important for a proper combustion. However, the conventional viscometers are only reliable for a short period of time. This paper proposes an on-line analytic viscosity evaluation based on energy balance applied to a piece of tube entering the fuel oil main heater and a new control strategy for temperature control. This analytic evaluation utilizes a set of temperature versus viscosity graphs were defined during years of analysis of fuel oil in Mexican power plants. Also the temperature set-point for the fuel oil main heater output is obtained by interpolating in the corresponding graph. Validation tests of the proposed analytic equations were carried out in the Tuxpan power plant in Veracruz, Mexico. PMID:26652127

  11. Giant retinal tears. Surgical techniques and results using perfluorodecalin and silicone oil tamponade.

    PubMed

    Mathis, A; Pagot, V; Gazagne, C; Malecaze, F

    1992-01-01

    Intraoperative use of perfluorocarbon liquids in the management of giant retinal tears was introduced about 4 years ago. Twenty-four patients were operated on for giant retinal tears using perfluorodecalin and silicone oil tamponade. All patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy, unfolding of the giant retinal tears by perfluorodecalin, perfluorodecalin-silicone oil exchange, and endophotocoagulation. The lens was removed in 10 of 14 phakic patients, and encircling scleral buckle was placed in 18 cases. Twenty-three of 24 retinas remained successfully attached with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up. Short-term results of intraoperative use of perfluorodecalin and silicone oil tamponade in the management of giant retinal tears are encouraging. Perfluorodecalin offers the advantage of low cost compared with other perfluoro-carbon liquids like perfluoro-n-octane. The exchange with silicone oil offers the advantages of easy removal of perfluorodecalin and absence of posterior slippage of the retinal tear. PMID:1455087

  12. An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to

  13. Review of ash agglomeration in fluidized bed gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Matulevicius, E.S.; Golan, L.P.

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the data and mathematical models which describe the phenomena involved in the agglomeration of ash in fluidized bed coal gasifiers (FBG). Besides highlighting the data and theoretical models, this review lists areas where there is a lack of information regarding the actual mechanisms of agglomeration. Also, potential areas for further work are outlined. The work is directed at developing models of agglomeration which could be included in computer codes describing fluidized bed gasifier phenomena, e.g., FLAG and CHEMFLUB which have been developed for the US Department of Energy. 134 references, 24 figures, 13 tables.

  14. Agglomeration of proteins in acoustically levitated droplets.

    PubMed

    Delissen, Friedmar; Leiterer, Jork; Bienert, Ralf; Emmerling, Franziska; Thünemann, Andreas F

    2008-09-01

    An ultrasonic trap (acoustic levitator) was used as an analytical tool to allow container-free handling of proteins in small sample volumes. This trap was combined for the first time with synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for structure analysis of biological macromolecules in a solution. The microfocus beamline at BESSY was used as a source of intense X-ray radiation. Apoferritin (APO) was used as a model protein, and its aggregation behavior in a levitator was followed from a diluted solution to the solid state. Different stages of APO agglomeration were observed without solid container walls, which may influence aggregation behavior and produce a parasitic scattering background. Starting with a volume of 5 microL we analyzed the concentration dependence of APO structure factors in the range from 5 to 1,200 mg/mL (solid protein). The solution was stirred automatically due to convection inside the droplet caused by the ultrasonic field. SAXS data recording of APO was performed in time intervals of 60 s during an aggregation experiment of 30 to 60 min. PMID:18607573

  15. Oil species identification technique developed by Gabor wavelet analysis and support vector machine based on concentration-synchronous-matrix-fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyan; Shi, Xiaofeng; Li, Wendong; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Jinliang; Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi

    2016-03-15

    Concentration-synchronous-matrix-fluorescence (CSMF) spectroscopy was applied to discriminate the oil species by characterizing the concentration dependent fluorescence properties of petroleum related samples. Seven days weathering experiment of 3 crude oil samples from the Bohai Sea platforms of China was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions and showed that weathering had no significant effect on the CSMF spectra. While different feature extraction methods, such as PCA, PLS and Gabor wavelet analysis, were applied to extract discriminative patterns from CSMF spectra, classifications were made via SVM to compare their respective performance of oil species recognition. Ideal correct rates of oil species recognition of 100% for the different types of oil spill samples and 92% for the closely-related source oil samples were achieved by combining Gabor wavelet with SVM, which indicated its advantages to be developed to a rapid, cost-effective, and accurate forensic oil spill identification technique. PMID:26795119

  16. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised. PMID:25731716

  17. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-03-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised.

  18. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised. PMID:25731716

  19. Determination of peroxide value of edible oils by FTIR spectroscopy with the use of the spectral reconstitution technique.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuzhu; van de Voort, F R; Sedman, J

    2007-11-30

    Spectral reconstitution (SR), a technique that has been developed to facilitate mid-FTIR transmission analysis of inherently viscous samples, was applied to simplify and automate a previously reported FTIR method for the determination of peroxide value (PV) of edible oils. The basis of the PV determination is the rapid reaction of triphenylphosphine (TPP) with the hydroperoxides present in an oil to produce triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), which exhibits a readily measurable absorption band at 542 cm(-1). In the SR procedure, the viscosity of oil samples is reduced by mixing them with a diluent, which allows them to be readily loaded into a flow-through transmission cell. The spectra of the neat oil samples are then reconstituted from those of the diluted samples by using the absorption of a spectral marker present in the diluent to determine the dilution ratio. For the SR-based PV method, the TPP reagent was added to the diluent, which consisted of odorless mineral spirits (OMS) containing methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as the spectral marker. Sample preparation for PV analysis involved mixing approximately 10 ml of oil with approximately 25 ml of the TPP-containing diluent; accurate weighing or delivery of precise volumes was not required because the dilution ratio was determined spectroscopically from the intensity of the nu(CO) absorption of MMT at 1942 cm(-1) in the spectrum of the diluted sample relative to that in the spectrum of the diluent. Calibration standards, prepared by gravimetric addition of TPPO to a peroxide-free oil, were handled in the same manner, and a linear calibration equation relating the concentration of TPPO (expressed as the equivalent PV) to the absorbance of TPPO at 542 cm(-1) relative to a baseline at 530 cm(-1) in the reconstituted spectra was obtained, with a regression S.D. of +/-0.15 meq/kg oil. PV determinations on two sets of validation samples, spanning PV ranges of 0-20 and 0-2 meq/kg oil, were carried out

  20. Dispersion of TiO₂ nanoparticle agglomerates by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Horst, Allison M; Neal, Andrea C; Mielke, Randall E; Sislian, Patrick R; Suh, Won Hyuk; Mädler, Lutz; Stucky, Galen D; Holden, Patricia A

    2010-11-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly incorporated into consumer products and are emerging as potential environmental contaminants. Upon environmental release, nanoparticles could inhibit bacterial processes, as evidenced by laboratory studies. Less is known regarding bacterial alteration of nanoparticles, including whether bacteria affect physical agglomeration states controlling nanoparticle settling and bioavailability. Here, the effects of an environmental strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on TiO₂ nanoparticle agglomerates formed in aqueous media are described. Environmental scanning electron microscopy and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy visually demonstrated bacterial dispersion of large agglomerates formed in cell culture medium and in marsh water. For experiments in cell culture medium, quantitative image analysis verified that the degrees of conversion of large agglomerates into small nanoparticle-cell combinations were similar for 12-h-growth and short-term cell contact experiments. Dispersion in cell growth medium was further characterized by size fractionation: for agglomerated TiO₂ suspensions in the absence of cells, 81% by mass was retained on a 5-μm-pore-size filter, compared to only 24% retained for biotic treatments. Filtrate cell and agglomerate sizes were characterized by dynamic light scattering, revealing that the average bacterial cell size increased from 1.4 μm to 1.9 μm because of nano-TiO₂ biosorption. High-magnification scanning electron micrographs showed that P. aeruginosa dispersed TiO₂ agglomerates by preferential biosorption of nanoparticles onto cell surfaces. These results suggest a novel role for bacteria in the environmental transport of engineered nanoparticles, i.e., growth-independent, bacterially mediated size and mass alterations of TiO₂ nanoparticle agglomerates. PMID:20851981

  1. Acoustic agglomeration of power plant fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reethof, G.; McDaniel, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    The work has shown that acoustic agglomeration at practical acoustic intensities and frequencies is technically and most likely economically viable. The following studies were performed with the listed results: The physics of acoustic agglomeration is complex particularly at the needed high acoustic intensities in the range of 150 to 160 dB and frequencies in the 2500 Hz range. The analytical model which we developed, although not including nonlinear acoustic efforts, agreed with the trends observed. We concentrated our efforts on clarifying the impact of high acoustic intensities on the generation of turbulence. Results from a special set of tests show that although some acoustically generated turbulence of sorts exists in the 150 to 170 dB range with acoustic streaming present, such turbulence will not be a significant factor in acoustic agglomeration compared to the dominant effect of the acoustic velocities at the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. Studies of the robustness of the agglomerated particles using the Anderson Mark III impactor as the source of the shear stresses on the particles show that the agglomerates should be able to withstand the rigors of flow through commercial cyclones without significant break-up. We designed and developed a 700/sup 0/F tubular agglomerator of 8'' internal diameter. The electrically heated system functioned well and provided very encouraging agglomeration results at acoustic levels in the 150 to 160 dB and 2000 to 3000 Hz ranges. We confirmed earlier results that an optimum frequency exists at about 2500 Hz and that larger dust loadings will give better results. Studies of the absorption of acoustic energy by various common gases as a function of temperature and humidity showed the need to pursue such an investigation for flue gas constituents in order to provide necessary data for the design of agglomerators. 65 references, 56 figures, 4 tables.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUE FOR THE UPSTREAM OIL INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Samuel Ameri

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the research and development work reported in this document was to develop a Virtual Intelligence Technique for optimization of the Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) for the upstream oil industry. The work included the development of a software tool for identification and optimization of the most influential parameters in upstream common practices as well as geological, geophysical and reservoir engineering studies. The work was performed in cooperation with three independent producing companies--Newfield Exploration, Chesapeake Energy, and Triad Energy--operating in the Golden Trend, Oklahoma. In order to protect data confidentiality, these companies are referred to as Company One, Two, Three in a randomly selected order. These producing companies provided geological, completion, and production data on 320 wells and participated in frequent technical discussions throughout the project. Research and development work was performed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI), West Virginia University (WVU), and Intelligent Solutions Inc. (ISI). Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association (OIPA) participated in technology transfer and data acquisition efforts. Deliverables from the project are the present final report and a user-friendly software package (Appendix D) with two distinct functions: a characterization tool that identifies the most influential parameters in the upstream operations, and an optimization tool that seeks optimization by varying a number of influential parameters and investigating the coupled effects of these variations. The electronic version of this report is also included in Appendix D. The Golden Trend data were used for the first cut optimization of completion procedures. In the subsequent step, results from soft computing runs were used as the guide for detailed geophysical and reservoir engineering studies that characterize the cause-and-effect relationships between various parameters. The general workflow and the main

  3. Potential of spectroscopic techniques and chemometric analysis for rapid measurement of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in algal oil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; He, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Developing rapid methods for measuring long-chain ω-3 (n-3) poly-unsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) contents has been a crucial request from the algal oil industry. In this study, four spectroscopy techniques, namely visible and short-wave near infra-red (Vis-SNIR), long-wave near infra-red (LNIR), mid-infra-red (MIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, were exploited for determining the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) contents in algal oil. The best prediction for both DHA and EPA were achieved by NMR spectroscopy, in which the determination coefficients of cross-validation (rCV(2)) values were 0.963 and 0.967 for two LCPUFAs. The performances of Vis-SNIR and LNIR spectroscopy were also accepted. The variable selection was proved as an efficient and necessary step for the spectral analysis in this study. The results were promising and implied that spectroscopy techniques have a great potential for assessment of DHA and EPA in algal oil. PMID:24731319

  4. Variation in the volatile oil composition of Eucalyptus citriodora produced by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Mann, Tavleen S; Babu, G D Kiran; Guleria, Shailja; Singh, Bikram

    2013-04-01

    This work reports variations in the yields and quality of volatiles produced from Eucalyptus citriodora leaves by different hydrodistillation (HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) techniques. HD techniques (1.5%) produced higher yields compared to SCE (0.7%). Citronellal, the major component, was maximum in the extract produced by SCE (79%) followed by oil produced by water-steam distillation (WSD) (72.6%) and water distillation (WD) (62.4%) techniques. Chemical composition of glycoside-bound volatiles produced by acid hydrolysis during HD was found to be very different from free volatiles, although in a minor quantity. The extent of artefact formation and release of aglycones was more profound in the bound volatile oil produced by WD than WSD. Highest oxygenated monoterpenes were found in SCE and WSD (93% each) followed by WD (91.4%). Although the SCE produced lower yields than the HD techniques, its extract is superior in quality in terms of higher concentration of citronellal. PMID:22559719

  5. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler

    2004-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of acidic heap-leach facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of other agglomeration applications, particularly advanced primary ironmaking.

  6. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  7. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

    2005-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not breakdown during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of many facilities see large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching.

  8. Microbatch crystallization under oil — a new technique allowing many small-volume crystallization trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayen, Naomi E.; Shaw Stewart, Patrick D.; Blow, David M.

    1992-08-01

    An approach to rapid protein crystallization using very small samples is described. A computer controlled microdispenser is used to make crystallization samples as microbatch droplets under oil. Samples of 1-2 μl are dispensed ready-mixed and with good precision. The samples are protected from evaporation, contamination and physical shock by the oil. When favourable conditions for crystallization have been found using one mode of the system, the size and quantity of crystals are optimized by a second program which generates a set of conditions throughout the area of interest. Crystals of diffraction size and quality have been grown in 1 μl drops.

  9. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  10. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Terriary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    1998-04-08

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO -) 2 flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. Two activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of productive carbonate buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) diagenetic characterization of project field reservoirs, and (2) technology transfer.